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Sample records for construct induces strong

  1. Novel engineered HIV-1 East African Clade-A gp160 plasmid construct induces strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthumani, Karuppiah; Zhang Donghui; Dayes, Nathanael S.; Hwang, Daniel S.; Calarota, Sandra A.; Choo, Andrew Y.; Boyer, Jean D.; Weiner, David B.

    2003-01-01

    HIV-1 sequences are highly diverse due to the inaccuracy of the viral reverse transcriptase. This diversity has been studied and used to categorize HIV isolates into subtypes or clades, which are geographically distinct. To develop effective vaccines against HIV-1, immunogens representing different subtypes may be important for induction of cross-protective immunity, but little data exist describing and comparing the immunogenicity induced by different subtype-based vaccines. This issue is further complicated by poor expression of HIV structural antigens due to rev dependence. One costly approach is to codon optimize each subtype construct to be examined. Interestingly, cis-acting transcriptional elements (CTE) can also by pass rev restriction by a rev independent export pathway. We reasoned that rev+CTE constructs might have advantages for such expression studies. A subtype A envelope sequence from a viral isolate from east Africa was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the CMV-IE promoter. The utility of inclusion of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPV)-CTE with/without rev for driving envelope expression and immunogenicity was examined. Expression of envelope (gp120) was confirmed by immunoblot analysis and by pseudotype virus infectivity assays. The presence of rev and the CTE together increased envelope expression and viral infection. Furthermore the CTE+rev construct was significantly more immunogenic then CTE alone vector. Isotype analysis and cytokine profiles showed strong Th1 response in plasmid-immunized mice, which also demonstrated the superior nature of the rev+CTE construct. These responses were of similar or greater magnitude to a codon-optimized construct. The resulting cellular immune responses were highly cross-reactive with a HIV-1 envelope subtype B antigen. This study suggests a simple strategy for improving the expression and immunogenicity of HIV subtype-specific envelope antigens as plasmid or vector

  2. A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.

  3. Study of Strongly Coupled Systems via Probe Brane Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Han-Chih

    In this thesis, we present our study towards better understanding of the strongly coupled systems with extra matter content in the fundamental representation of some prescribed global symmetry group in the quenched approximation, with the toolkit of holography via a probe brane construction. Specically, for the defect conformal systems, we unearth and quantify the phase trasition diagram, and novel supersymmetric vacua in the top-down model of the D3/D5 probe brane system. For further quantify various non-Fermi quantum liquid phases realized through the holographical probe brane construction, we then propose and verify the method to include the backreaction of entanglement entropy due to the probe branes at the leading order, which can potentially be used to detect topological phase transitions. We will recapitulate the main results of our works, in collaboration with Prof. Andreas Karch, published in the following journals: "Minimal Submanifolds asymptotic to AdS4 xS2 in AdS5xS5', JHEP, vol.1404, p.037, 2014; "The Novel Solutions of Finite-Density D3/D5 Probe Brane System and Their Implications for Stability'', JHEP, vol.1210, p.060, 2014; "Entanglement Entropy for Probe Branes'', JHEP, vol.1401, p.180, 2014.

  4. Cell and protein compatible 3D bioprinting of mechanically strong constructs for bone repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawkins, M J; Mistry, P; Shakesheff, K M; Yang, J; Brown, B N; Bonassar, L J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid prototyping of bone tissue engineering constructs often utilizes elevated temperatures, organic solvents and/or UV light for materials processing. These harsh conditions may prevent the incorporation of cells and therapeutic proteins in the fabrication processes. Here we developed a method for using bioprinting to produce constructs from a thermoresponsive microparticulate material based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) at ambient conditions. These constructs could be engineered with yield stresses of up to 1.22 MPa and Young’s moduli of up to 57.3 MPa which are within the range of properties of human cancellous bone. Further study showed that protein-releasing microspheres could be incorporated into the bioprinted constructs. The release of the model protein lysozyme from bioprinted constructs was sustainted for a period of 15 days and a high degree of protein activity could be measured up to day 9. This work suggests that bioprinting is a viable route to the production of mechanically strong constructs for bone repair under mild conditions which allow the inclusion of viable cells and active proteins. (paper)

  5. The construction of a library of synthetic promoters revealed some specific features of strong Streptomyces promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghezzi, Nicolas; Amar, Patrick; Købmann, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces are bacteria of industrial interest whose genome contains more than 73% of bases GC. In order to define, in these GC-rich bacteria, specific sequence features of strong promoters, a library of synthetic promoters of various sequence composition was constructed in Streptomyces. To do so...... cloned into the promoter-probe plasmid pIJ487 just upstream of the promoter-less aphII gene that confers resistance to neomycin. This synthetic promoter library was transformed into Streptomyces lividans, and the resulting transformants were screened for their ability to grow in the presence of different...... projects. Thirty-eight promoters were sequenced, and the sequences of the 14 weakest and 14 strongest promoters were compared using the WebLogo software with small sample correction. This comparison revealed that the −10 box, the −10 extended motif as well as the spacer of the strong Streptomyces promoters...

  6. Induced photoassociation in the field of a strong electomagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaretskij, D.F.; Lomonosov, V.V.; Lyul'ka, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The quantum-mechanical problem of the stimulated transition of a system in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave from the continuous spectrum to a bound state possessing a finite lifetime is considered. The expressions obtained are employed to calculate stimulated production of mesic atoms and mesic molecules (ddμ). It is demonstrated that in an external electromagnetic field the probability for production of this type may considerably increase

  7. Experiments on plasma turbulence induced by strong, steady electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamberger, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The author discusses the effect of applying a strong electric field to collisionless plasma. In particular are compared what some ideas and prejudices lead one to expect to happen, what computer simulation experiments tell one ought to happen, and what actually does happen in two laboratory experiments which have been designed to allow the relevant instability and turbulent processes to occur unobstructed and which have been studied in sufficient detail. (Auth.)

  8. Irradiation strongly reduces tumorigenesis of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Shoki; Minami, Kazumasa; Ito, Emiko; Imaizumi, Hiromasa; Mori, Seiji; Koizumi, Masahiko; Fukushima, Satsuki; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Sawa, Yoshiki; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2017-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have demonstrated they can undergo self-renewal, attain pluripotency, and differentiate into various types of functional cells. In clinical transplantation of iPS cells, however, a major problem is the prevention of tumorigenesis. We speculated that tumor formation could be inhibited by means of irradiation. Since the main purpose of this study was to explore the prevention of tumor formation in human iPS (hiPS) cells, we tested the effects of irradiation on tumor-associated factors such as radiosensitivity, pluripotency and cell death in hiPS cells. The irradiated hiPS cells showed much higher radiosensitivity, because the survival fraction of hiPS cells irradiated with 2 Gy was < 10%, and there was no change of pluripotency. Irradiation with 2 and 4 Gy caused substantial cell death, which was mostly the result of apoptosis. Irradiation with 2 Gy was detrimental enough to cause loss of proliferation capability and trigger substantial cell death in vitro. The hiPS cells irradiated with 2 Gy were injected into NOG mice (NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2 Rγnull) for the analysis of tumor formation. The group of mice into which hiPS cells irradiated with 2 Gy was transplanted showed significant suppression of tumor formation in comparison with that of the group into which non-irradiated hiPS cells were transplanted. It can be presumed that this diminished rate of tumor formation was due to loss of proliferation and cell death caused by irradiation. Our findings suggest that tumor formation following cell therapy or organ transplantation induced by hiPS cells may be prevented by irradiation.

  9. Polygon construction to investigate melting in two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhunusiri, W. D. Suranga; Goree, J.; Feng Yan; Liu Bin

    2011-01-01

    The polygon construction method of Glaser and Clark is used to characterize melting and crystallization in a two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled dusty plasma. Using particle positions measured by video microscopy, bonds are identified by triangulation, and unusually long bonds are deleted. The resulting polygons have three or more sides. Geometrical defects, which are polygons with more than three sides, are found to proliferate during melting. Pentagons are found in liquids, where they tend to cluster with other pentagons. Quadrilaterals are a less severe defect, so that disorder can be characterized by the ratio of quadrilaterals to pentagons. This ratio is found to be less in a liquid than in a solid or a superheated solid. Another measure of disorder is the abundance of different kinds of vertices, according to the type of polygons that adjoin there. Unexpectedly, spikes are observed in the abundance of certain vertex types during rapid temperature changes. Hysteresis, revealed by a plot of a disorder parameter vs temperature, is examined to study sudden heating. The hysteresis diagram also reveals features suggesting a possibility of latent heat in the melting and rapid cooling processes.

  10. Theory of strong hybridization-induced relaxation in uranium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, G.; Cooper, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Commonly, for metallic uranium systems, sharp magnetic excitations are not observed in neutron inelastic scattering experiments, but rather there is a continuous spectrum of magnetic response. By extending our earlier theory for partially delocalized cerium systems, we can understand this behavior. The band-f hybridization is transformed to resonant scattering in our theory, where the exchange part of the scattering gives both a two-ion interaction (physically corresponding to cooperative hybridization, giving anisotropic magnetic ordering with unusual excitation dispersion for cerium systems) and a hybridization coupling of each ion to the band sea (giving relaxation and strong energy renormalization of the excitations for cerium systems). For uranium the f delocalization (and hence the hybridization) is much stronger than for cerium. The two-ion interaction (giving quasi-ionic energy level splitting) grows by an order of magnitude or more, as evidenced by greatly increased magnetic ordering temperatures. On the other hand, the single-site hybridization strength parameter J-script characterizing the f-to-band-bath coupling grows more moderately as the f levels move toward the Fermi energy, because of the renormalizing effect of the direct scattering which broadens the f levels. The increased energy scale of the quasi-ionic level splitting for uranium as compared to cerium or plutonium is the major contributor to the greatly increased width of magnetic scattering distributions, while the moderate increase in coupling of each uranium quasi-ion to the band sea gives a lesser contribution. We apply this theory to UP and UAs and compare our results with experiment

  11. Vortex trapping in Pb-alloy Josephson junctions induced by strong sputtering of the base electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Nakano, J.; Yanagawa, F.

    1985-01-01

    It is observed that strong rf sputtering of the Pb-alloy base electrodes causes the junctions to trap magnetic vortices and thus induces Josephson current (I/sub J/) suppression. Trapping begins to occur when the rf sputtering that removes the native thermal oxide on the base electrode is carried out prior to rf plasma oxidation. Observed large I/sub J/ suppression is presumably induced by the concentration of vortices into the sputtered area upon cooling the sample below the transition temperature. This suggests a new method of the circumvention of the vortex trapping by strongly rf sputtering the areas of the electrode other than the junction areas

  12. Construction of exchange-correlation functionals through interpolation between the non-interacting and the strong-correlation limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yongxi; Ernzerhof, Matthias; Bahmann, Hilke

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the adiabatic connection of density functional theory, exchange-correlation functionals of Kohn-Sham density functional theory are constructed which interpolate between the extreme limits of the electron-electron interaction strength. The first limit is the non-interacting one, where there is only exchange. The second limit is the strong correlated one, characterized as the minimum of the electron-electron repulsion energy. The exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit is approximated through a model for the exchange-correlation hole that is referred to as nonlocal-radius model [L. O. Wagner and P. Gori-Giorgi, Phys. Rev. A 90, 052512 (2014)]. Using the non-interacting and strong-correlated extremes, various interpolation schemes are presented that yield new approximations to the adiabatic connection and thus to the exchange-correlation energy. Some of them rely on empiricism while others do not. Several of the proposed approximations yield the exact exchange-correlation energy for one-electron systems where local and semi-local approximations often fail badly. Other proposed approximations generalize existing global hybrids by using a fraction of the exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit to replace an equal fraction of the semi-local approximation to the exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit. The performance of the proposed approximations is evaluated for molecular atomization energies, total atomic energies, and ionization potentials

  13. Working memory capacity and fluid intelligence are strongly related constructs: comment on Ackerman, Beier, and Boyle (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael J; Hambrick, David Z; Conway, Andrew R A

    2005-01-01

    The authors agree with P. L. Ackerman, M. E. Beier, and M. O. Boyle (2005; see record 2004-22408-002) that working memory capacity (WMC) is not isomorphic with general fluid intelligence (Gf) or reasoning ability. However, the WMC and Gf/reasoning constructs are more strongly associated than Ackerman et al. (2005) indicate, particularly when considering the outcomes of latent-variable studies. The authors' reanalysis of 14 such data sets from 10 published studies, representing more than 3,100 young-adult subjects, suggests a strong correlation between WMC and Gf/reasoning factors (median r=.72), indicating that the WMC and Gf constructs share approximately 50% of their variance. This comment also clarifies the authors' "executive attention" view of WMC, it demonstrates that WMC has greater discriminant validity than Ackerman et al. (2005) implied, and it suggests some future directions and challenges for the scientific study of the convergence of WMC, attention control, and intelligence. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Generation of stable mixed-compact-toroid rings by inducing plasma currents in strong E rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Taggart, D.P.; Parker, M.R.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the RECE-Christa device, hybrid-type compact toroid rings are generated by inducing large toroidal plasma currents I rho in strong electron rings using a thin induction coil positioned along the ring axis. Starting from field-reversal values δ ο = 50 - 120 percent of the original pure fast-electron ring, the induced plasma current I rho raises δ to a maximum value of up to 240 percent with I rho contributing more than 50 percent of the total ring current. Quite interestingly, the generated hybrid compact toroid configurations appear gross-stable during the full I rho pulse length (half-amplitude width about 100 μs)

  15. Selected results on strong and coulomb-induced correlations from the STAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumbera, M.

    2007-01-01

    Using recent high-statistics STAR data from Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at full RHIC energy I discuss strong and Coulomb-induced final state interaction effects on identical (pi-pi) and non-identical (pi-XI) particle correlations. Analysis of pi-XI correlations reveals the strong and Coulomb-induced FSI effects, allowing for the first time to estimate spatial extension of pi and XI sources and the average shift between them. Source imaging techniques provide clean separation of details of the source function and are applied to the one-dimensional relative momentum correlation function of identical pions. For low momentum pions, and/or non-central collisions, a large departure from a single-Gaussian shape is observed. (author)

  16. <strong>Low dose transdermal estradiol induces breast density and heterogeneity changes comparable to those of raloxifenestrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Raundahl, Jakob; Pettersen, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether transdermal low dose estradiol treatment induces changes in mammographic density or heterogeneity compared to raloxifene. Secondarily, if these changes relate to changes in bone formation/resorption markers, and if these findings indicate elevation of breast canc...

  17. Strong Antibody Responses Induced by Protein Antigens Conjugated onto the Surface of Lecithin-Based Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Brian R.; Sandoval, Michael A.; Hau, Andrew M.; He, Yongqun; Cui, Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    An accumulation of research over the years has demonstrated the utility of nanoparticles as antigen carriers with adjuvant activity. Herein we defined the adjuvanticity of a novel lecithin-based nanoparticle engineered from emulsions. The nanoparticles were spheres of around 200 nm. Model protein antigens, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) protein, were covalently conjugated onto the nanoparticles. Mice immunized with the BSA-conjugated nanoparticles developed strong anti-BSA antibody responses comparable to that induced by BSA adjuvanted with incomplete Freund's adjuvant and 6.5-fold stronger than that induced by BSA adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. Immunization of mice with the PA-conjugated nanoparticles elicited a quick, strong, and durable anti-PA antibody response that afforded protection of the mice against a lethal dose of anthrax lethal toxin challenge. The potent adjuvanticity of the nanoparticles was likely due to their ability to move the antigens into local draining lymph nodes, to enhance the uptake of the antigens by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and to activate APCs. This novel nanoparticle system has the potential to serve as a universal protein-based vaccine carrier capable of inducing strong immune responses. PMID:19729045

  18. Noise-induced extinction for a ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Partha Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study a stochastically forced ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey population. In the deterministic case, we show that the model exhibits the stable interior equilibrium point or limit cycle corresponding to the co-existence of both species. We investigate a probabilistic mechanism of the noise-induced extinction in a zone of stable interior equilibrium point. Computational methods based on the stochastic sensitivity function technique are applied for the analysis of the dispersion of random states near stable interior equilibrium point. This method allows to construct a confidence domain and estimate the threshold value of the noise intensity for a transition from the coexistence to the extinction.

  19. Strong Depletion in Hybrid Perovskite p-n Junctions Induced by Local Electronic Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Qingdong; Zhang, Yupeng; Wang, Ziyu; Yuwono, Jodie A; Wang, Rongbin; Dai, Zhigao; Li, Wei; Zheng, Changxi; Xu, Zai-Quan; Qi, Xiang; Duhm, Steffen; Medhekar, Nikhil V; Zhang, Han; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2018-04-01

    A semiconductor p-n junction typically has a doping-induced carrier depletion region, where the doping level positively correlates with the built-in potential and negatively correlates with the depletion layer width. In conventional bulk and atomically thin junctions, this correlation challenges the synergy of the internal field and its spatial extent in carrier generation/transport. Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, a class of crystalline ionic semiconductors, are promising alternatives because of their direct badgap, long diffusion length, and large dielectric constant. Here, strong depletion in a lateral p-n junction induced by local electronic doping at the surface of individual CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite nanosheets is reported. Unlike conventional surface doping with a weak van der Waals adsorption, covalent bonding and hydrogen bonding between a MoO 3 dopant and the perovskite are theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. The strong hybridization-induced electronic coupling leads to an enhanced built-in electric field. The large electric permittivity arising from the ionic polarizability further contributes to the formation of an unusually broad depletion region up to 10 µm in the junction. Under visible optical excitation without electrical bias, the lateral diode demonstrates unprecedented photovoltaic conversion with an external quantum efficiency of 3.93% and a photodetection responsivity of 1.42 A W -1 . © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effects of copper ions on the characteristics of egg white gel induced by strong alkali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yaoyao; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Mingsheng; Chen, Zhangyi; Wang, Shuzhen; Tu, Yonggang

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of copper ions on egg white (EW) gel induced by strong alkali. Changes in gel characteristics were examined through texture profile analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical methods. The value of gel strength reached its maximum when 0.1% copper ions was added. However, the lowest cohesiveness values were observed at 0.1%. The springiness of gel without copper ions was significantly greater than the gel with copper ions added. SEM results illustrated that the low concentration of copper ions contributes to a dense and uniform gel network, and an open matrix was formed at 0.4%. The free and total sulphhydryl group content in the egg white protein gel significantly decreased with the increased copper. The increase of copper ions left the contents of ionic and hydrogen bonds basically unchanged, hydrophobic interaction presented an increasing trend, and the disulfide bond exhibited a completely opposite change. The change of surface hydrophobicity proved that the main binding force of copper induced gel was hydrophobic interaction. However, copper ions had no effect on the protein component of the gels. Generally, a low level of copper ions facilitates protein-protein association, which is involved in the characteristics of gels. Instead, high ionic strength had a negative effect on gels induced by strong alkali. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Spin-orbit-induced strong coupling of a single spin to a nanomechanical resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pályi, András; Struck, P R; Rudner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    as a realization of the Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum electrodynamics in the strong-coupling regime. A quantized flexural mode of the suspended tube plays the role of the optical mode and we identify two distinct two-level subspaces, at small and large magnetic field, which can be used as qubits in this setup......We theoretically investigate the deflection-induced coupling of an electron spin to vibrational motion due to spin-orbit coupling in suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. Our estimates indicate that, with current capabilities, a quantum dot with an odd number of electrons can serve...

  2. Self-induced steps in a small Josephson junction strongly coupled to a multimode resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.; Jensen, H. Dalsgaard; Mygind, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    An equally spaced series of very large and nearly constant-voltage self-induced singularities has been observed in the dc I-V characteristics of a small Josephson tunnel junction strongly coupled to a resonant section of a superconducting transmission line. The system allows extremely high values...... of the coupling parameter. The current steps are due to subharmonic parametric excitation of the fundamental mode of the resonator loaded by the junction admittance. Using an applied magnetic field to vary the coupling parameter, we traced out half-integer steps as well as the mode steps known from more weakly...

  3. Construction of radiation - induced metastasis model in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kuk; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Sung Wook; Kim, Jae Sung; Hwang, Sang Gu; Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    In treatment of cancer, distant metastases are important limiting factor because an estimated 50% of all cancer patients will develop metastases, and the metastases are major causing of cancer treatment failure. Recently a few reports indicated {gamma}-radiation induced an increase of invasiveness of several cancer cells. In this study, we had tried to show the possibility that radiation could also induce metastasis in vivo system. To prove our hypothesis, we constructed primary tumor by using C6-TL transfectant cell line expressing HSV1-tk and firefly luciferase (fLuc), and then {gamma}-radiation was treated to xenografts locally. Treatment of {gamma}-radiation to primary C6-TL xenografts of mice reduced size of xenografts and elongated survival of mice than those of mock control mice. But we also show that {gamma}-radiation treatment was followed by the growth of dormant metastases in various organs including lung and intestine after 2-4 weeks of {gamma}-radiation treatment. When bioluminescence imaging indicated growth of tumor in organs in mice, we sacrificed the mice and repeat acquired bioluminescence imaging after repeatedly. These images presented tumor growth locations exactly in organs. Because metastatic tumor candidates have morphology of foci, biopsies were performed for histological analysis or PCR analysis to confirm metastases. In most foci, histological analysis indicated several features of typical cancer tissue and PCR analysis showed present of fLuc gene in metastases. Detection of fLuc gene in metastases indicated these foci were originated from primary C6-TL xenografts, and the results suggest that {gamma}-radiation could promote metastasis in vivo as well as in vitro system. Although we need to understand changes of intracellular signaling or physiological phenomena of the radiation-induced metastasis yet, these results also imply that {gamma}-radiation treatment only to cancer patients need to pay attention carefully, and development of new

  4. Construction of compact FEM using solenoid-induced helical wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohigashi, N.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Fujita, M.; Imasaki, K.; Mima, K.; Nakai, S.

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of compact Free-Electron Maser (FEM) has been designed for the operation in a usual small laboratory which does not have electric source capacity available enough. The electron energy is 60-120 keV. As it is lower, stronger guiding magnetic field is necessary in addition to wiggler field. To fulfil this condition a solenoid-induced helical wiggler is applied from the viewpoint of saving the electric power of restricted source capacity. The wiggler, for example, with the period of 12 mm creates the field of 92 G in the guiding field of 3.2 kG. The whole system of FEM has been just constructed in a small-scale laboratory. It is so small to occupy the area of 0.7x2.9 m 2

  5. Autler-Townes effect in a strongly driven electromagnetically induced transparency resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lijun; Zhang Lianshui; Li Xiaoli; Han Li; Fu Guangsheng; Manson, Neil B.; Suter, Dieter; Wei Changjiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the nonlinear behavior of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance subject to a coherent driving field. The EIT is associated with a Λ three-level system where two hyperfine levels within an electronic ground state are coupled to a common excited state level by a coupling field and a probe field. In addition there is an radio-frequency (rf) field driving a hyperfine transition within the ground state. The paper contrasts two different situations. In one case the rf-driven transition shares a common level with the probed transition and in the second case it shares a common level with the coupled transition. In both cases the EIT resonance is split into a doublet and the characteristics of the EIT doublet are determined by the strength and frequency of the rf-driving field. The doublet splitting originates from the rf-field induced dynamic Stark effect and has close analogy with the Autler-Townes effect observed in three-level pump-probe spectroscopy study. The situation changes when the rf field is strong and the two cases are very different. One is analogous to two Λ three-level systems with EIT resonance associated with each. The other corresponds to a doubly driven three-level system with rf-field-induced electromagnetically induced absorption resonance. The two situations are modeled using numerical solutions of the relevant equation of motion of density matrix. In addition a physical account of their behaviors is given in terms of a dressed state picture

  6. Wolbachia symbiont infections induce strong cytoplasmic incompatibility in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Alam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are vectors of the protozoan parasite African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness disease in humans and nagana in livestock. Although there are no effective vaccines and efficacious drugs against this parasite, vector reduction methods have been successful in curbing the disease, especially for nagana. Potential vector control methods that do not involve use of chemicals is a genetic modification approach where flies engineered to be parasite resistant are allowed to replace their susceptible natural counterparts, and Sterile Insect technique (SIT where males sterilized by chemical means are released to suppress female fecundity. The success of genetic modification approaches requires identification of strong drive systems to spread the desirable traits and the efficacy of SIT can be enhanced by identification of natural mating incompatibility. One such drive mechanism results from the cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI phenomenon induced by the symbiont Wolbachia. CI can also be used to induce natural mating incompatibility between release males and natural populations. Although Wolbachia infections have been reported in tsetse, it has been a challenge to understand their functional biology as attempts to cure tsetse of Wolbachia infections by antibiotic treatment damages the obligate mutualistic symbiont (Wigglesworthia, without which the flies are sterile. Here, we developed aposymbiotic (symbiont-free and fertile tsetse lines by dietary provisioning of tetracycline supplemented blood meals with yeast extract, which rescues Wigglesworthia-induced sterility. Our results reveal that Wolbachia infections confer strong CI during embryogenesis in Wolbachia-free (Gmm(Apo females when mated with Wolbachia-infected (Gmm(Wt males. These results are the first demonstration of the biological significance of Wolbachia infections in tsetse. Furthermore, when incorporated into a mathematical model, our results confirm that Wolbachia can

  7. Interferon-β gene transfer induces a strong cytotoxic bystander effect on melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Úrsula A; Gil-Cardeza, María L; Villaverde, Marcela S; Finocchiaro, Liliana M E; Glikin, Gerardo C

    2015-05-01

    A local gene therapy scheme for the delivery of type I interferons could be an alternative for the treatment of melanoma. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of interferon-β (IFNβ) gene lipofection on tumor cell lines derived from three human cutaneous and four canine mucosal melanomas. The cytotoxicity of human IFNβ gene lipofection resulted higher or equivalent to that of the corresponding addition of the recombinant protein (rhIFNβ) to human cells. IFNβ gene lipofection was not cytotoxic for only one canine melanoma cell line. When cultured as monolayers, three human and three canine IFNβ-lipofected melanoma cell lines displayed a remarkable bystander effect. As spheroids, the same six cell lines were sensitive to IFNβ gene transfer, two displaying a significant multicell resistance phenotype. The effects of conditioned IFNβ-lipofected canine melanoma cell culture media suggested the release of at least one soluble thermolabile cytotoxic factor that could not be detected in human melanoma cells. By using a secretion signal-free truncated human IFNβ, we showed that its intracellular expression was enough to induce cytotoxicity in two human melanoma cell lines. The lower cytoplasmatic levels of reactive oxygen species detected after intracellular IFNβ expression could be related to the resistance displayed by one human melanoma cell line. As IFNβ gene transfer was effective against most of the assayed melanomas in a way not limited by relatively low lipofection efficiencies, the clinical potential of this approach is strongly supported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of initial perturbation amplitude on Richtmyer-Meshkov flows induced by strong shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell, Z.; Abarzhi, S. I., E-mail: snezhana.abarzhi@gmail.com, E-mail: sabarji@andrew.cmu.edu [Mellon College of Science and Carnegie Mellon University – Qatar, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15231 (United States); Stellingwerf, R. F. [Stellingwerf Consulting, Huntsville, Alabama 35803 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We systematically study the effect of the initial perturbation on Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) flows induced by strong shocks in fluids with contrasting densities. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations are employed. A broad range of shock strengths and density ratios is considered. The amplitude of the initial single mode sinusoidal perturbation of the interface varies from 0% to 100% of its wavelength. The simulations results are compared, wherever possible, with four rigorous theories, and with other experiments and simulations, achieving good quantitative and qualitative agreement. Our study is focused on early time dynamics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). We analyze the initial growth-rate of RMI immediately after the shock passage, when the perturbation amplitude increases linearly with time. For the first time, to the authors' knowledge, we find that the initial growth-rate of RMI is a non-monotone function of the initial perturbation amplitude, thus restraining the amount of energy that can be deposited by the shock at the interface. The maximum value of the initial growth-rate depends on the shock strength and the density ratio, whereas the corresponding value of the initial perturbation amplitude depends only slightly on the shock strength and density ratio.

  9. Strong homeostatic TCR signals induce formation of self-tolerant virtual memory CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobek, Ales; Moudra, Alena; Mueller, Daniel; Huranova, Martina; Horkova, Veronika; Pribikova, Michaela; Ivanek, Robert; Oberle, Susanne; Zehn, Dietmar; McCoy, Kathy D; Draber, Peter; Stepanek, Ondrej

    2018-05-11

    Virtual memory T cells are foreign antigen-inexperienced T cells that have acquired memory-like phenotype and constitute 10-20% of all peripheral CD8 + T cells in mice. Their origin, biological roles, and relationship to naïve and foreign antigen-experienced memory T cells are incompletely understood. By analyzing T-cell receptor repertoires and using retrogenic monoclonal T-cell populations, we demonstrate that the virtual memory T-cell formation is a so far unappreciated cell fate decision checkpoint. We describe two molecular mechanisms driving the formation of virtual memory T cells. First, virtual memory T cells originate exclusively from strongly self-reactive T cells. Second, the stoichiometry of the CD8 interaction with Lck regulates the size of the virtual memory T-cell compartment via modulating the self-reactivity of individual T cells. Although virtual memory T cells descend from the highly self-reactive clones and acquire a partial memory program, they are not more potent in inducing experimental autoimmune diabetes than naïve T cells. These data underline the importance of the variable level of self-reactivity in polyclonal T cells for the generation of functional T-cell diversity. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  10. Strong mechanically induced effects in DC current-biased suspended Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Thomas; Deng, Hai-Yao; Isacsson, Andreas; Mariani, Eros

    2018-01-01

    Superconductivity is a result of quantum coherence at macroscopic scales. Two superconductors separated by a metallic or insulating weak link exhibit the AC Josephson effect: the conversion of a DC voltage bias into an AC supercurrent. This current may be used to activate mechanical oscillations in a suspended weak link. As the DC-voltage bias condition is remarkably difficult to achieve in experiments, here we analyze theoretically how the Josephson effect can be exploited to activate and detect mechanical oscillations in the experimentally relevant condition with purely DC current bias. We unveil how changing the strength of the electromechanical coupling results in two qualitatively different regimes showing dramatic effects of the oscillations on the DC-voltage characteristic of the device. These include the appearance of Shapiro-type plateaus for weak coupling and a sudden mechanically induced retrapping for strong coupling. Our predictions, measurable in state-of-the-art experimental setups, allow the determination of the frequency and quality factor of the resonator using DC only techniques.

  11. Radiation-induced structural transitions in composite materials with strong interaction of polymer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu.A.; Koztaeva, U.P.

    2002-01-01

    In earlier papers the internal friction (IF) method was applied to studies of structural relaxation in different types of polymer-based composite materials (glass-cloth, paper-based and foiled laminates impregnated by epoxy and phenolic resins) irradiated by 2 MeV electrons in the dose range of 0.1-50.0 MGy. Selectivity and high sensibility of the internal friction method allowed to distinguish glassy transitions in different structural components of the composites. The relaxation processes observed were identified and attributed to structural alterations in the polymer filler, the binder and the boundary layers. It was shown that changes in the parameters of relaxation maximums during irradiation can be considered as quantitative characteristics for the degree of radiation-induced degradation or cross-linking of polymer molecules. This paper deals with specific features of IF spectra in paper-based laminates where both the filler fibers and the binder are strongly interacting polymers. Anisotropy of viscous and elastic properties is very weak for this kind of materials, so that IF measurements give nearly the same result independently on the filler fiber orientation in the sample. The main reasons for it are the rigid chain structure of fillers (polyethylene-terephthalate and cellulose) and the good adhesion strengthened by diffusion of the epoxy or phenolic binder to defect regions of the filler.The IF temperature dependence observed in paper-based laminates is represented by superposition of two very broad relaxation maximums associated with transitions from glassy to high-elastic state in structural components, each based on one of the polymers. The inflection points characteristic for IF temperature dependence in paper-based laminates give a reason to treat them as a superposition of α-peaks associated with transitions from glassy to high-elastic state in structural components of a composite based on the binder and the filler, respectively. Another

  12. The I kappa B kinase inhibitor ACHP strongly attenuates TGF beta 1-induced myofibroblast formation and collagen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mia, Masum M.; Bank, Ruud A.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) by myofibroblasts is a characteristic feature of fibrosis, a pathological state leading to serious organ dysfunction. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF beta 1) is a strong inducer of myofibroblast formation and subsequent

  13. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems with positive dust grains: thermal and UV-induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarian, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: A plasma containing macroscopic dust particles or grains (often referred to as a dusty or colloidal or complex plasma) has the feature that grains may be charged by electron or ion flux or by photo- or thermoelectron emission. Electron emission from a grain surface produces a positive charge; capture of electrons produces the reverse effect making the dust grains negatively charged. Most dusty plasma research is concerned with the ordered dust structures (so-called 'plasma crystal') in glow discharges. The dust grains in these experiments were found to carry a negative charge due to the higher mobility of electrons as compared to ions in the discharge plasma. In recent years, in parallel with the study of the properties of plasma crystals under discharge conditions, attempts to obtain a structure from positively charged dust grains have been made, and structure formation processes for various charging mechanisms, particularly thermoelectron emission and photoemission, have been investigated. In this paper we review the essential features of strongly coupled plasmas with positive dust grains. An ordered structure of CeO 2 grains has been experimentally observed in a combustion products jet. The grains were charged positively and suspended in the plasma flow. Their charge is about 10 3 a and the calculated value of a Coulomb coupling parameter Γ is >10, corresponding to a plasma liquid. The ordered structures of Al 2 O 3 dust grains in propellant combustion products plasma have been observed for the first time. These structures were found in the sheath boundary of condensation region. The obtained data let us estimate the value of parameter Γ =3-40, corresponding to the plasma liquid state. The possibility is studied of the formation of ordered dust grain structures in thermal plasma. The range of the required values of the coupling parameter Γ is calculated using the results of diagnostic measurements carried out in thermal plasma with grains of

  14. Construction method and application of 3D velocity model for evaluation of strong seismic motion and its cost performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Hisanori; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Based on experiences of making subsurface structure models for seismic strong motion evaluation, the advantages and disadvantages in terms of convenience and cost for several methods used to make such models were reported. As for the details, gravity and micro-tremor surveys were considered to be highly valid in terms of convenience and cost. However, stratigraphy and seismic velocity structure are required to make accurate 3-D subsurface structures. To realize these, methods for directly examining subsurface ground or using controlled tremor sources (at high cost) are needed. As a result, it was summarized that in modeling subsurface structures, some sort of plan including both types of methods is desirable and that several methods must be combined to match one's intended purposes and budget. (authors)

  15. Coupled field induced conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiangqian, E-mail: xqjiang@hit.edu.cn; Sun, Xiudong

    2016-12-15

    We study the control of quantum interference in a four-level atom driven by three coherent fields forming a closed loop. The spontaneous emission spectrum shows two sets of peaks which are dramatically influenced by the fields. Due to destructive quantum interference, a dark line can be observed in the emission spectrum, and the condition of the dark line is given. We found that the conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference can be achieved through controlling the Rabi frequency of the external fields.

  16. Eight supramolecular assemblies constructed from bis(benzimidazole) and organic acids through strong classical hydrogen bonding and weak noncovalent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2014-05-01

    Eight crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from alkane bridged bis(N-benzimidazole) and organic acids (2,4,6-trinitrophenol, p-nitrobenzoic acid, m-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid and oxalic acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the eight compounds five are organic salts (1, 4, 6, 7 and 8) and the other three (2, 3, and 5) are cocrystals. In all of the adducts except 1 and 8, the ratio of the acid and the base is 2:1. All eight supramolecular assemblies involve extensive intermolecular classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical N+-H⋯O-, O-H⋯O, and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) and other nonbonding associations between acids and ditopic benzimidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of cocrystals or organic salts.

  17. An Antibody Blocking Activin Type II Receptors Induces Strong Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Protects from Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Giulia C.; Sheppard, KellyAnn; Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Feige, Jerome N.; Hartmann, Steffen; Brachat, Sophie; Rivet, Helene; Koelbing, Claudia; Morvan, Frederic; Hatakeyama, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin/activin type II receptor (ActRII) pathway has been identified to be critical in regulating skeletal muscle size. Several other ligands, including GDF11 and the activins, signal through this pathway, suggesting that the ActRII receptors are major regulatory nodes in the regulation of muscle mass. We have developed a novel, human anti-ActRII antibody (bimagrumab, or BYM338) to prevent binding of ligands to the receptors and thus inhibit downstream signaling. BYM338 enhances differentiation of primary human skeletal myoblasts and counteracts the inhibition of differentiation induced by myostatin or activin A. BYM338 prevents myostatin- or activin A-induced atrophy through inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, thus sparing the myosin heavy chain from degradation. BYM338 dramatically increases skeletal muscle mass in mice, beyond sole inhibition of myostatin, detected by comparing the antibody with a myostatin inhibitor. A mouse version of the antibody induces enhanced muscle hypertrophy in myostatin mutant mice, further confirming a beneficial effect on muscle growth beyond myostatin inhibition alone through blockade of ActRII ligands. BYM338 protects muscles from glucocorticoid-induced atrophy and weakness via prevention of muscle and tetanic force losses. These data highlight the compelling therapeutic potential of BYM338 for the treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness in multiple settings. PMID:24298022

  18. An approach to the construction of tailor-made amphiphilic peptides that strongly and selectively bind to hairpin RNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Hyun, Soonsil; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Yu, Jaehoon

    2009-02-18

    strategies that can be used to prepare peptides that both strongly and selectively target hairpin RNAs. Specifically, the findings indicate that tailor-made amphiphilic peptide ligands against certain hairpin RNAs can be obtained if the RNA target possesses a deep groove in which both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic spheres of the peptide interact.

  19. Numerical analysis of the thermally induced flow in a strongly rotating gas centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.

    1982-04-01

    The present work is concerned with the numerical analysis of the thermally induced flow in a rapidly gas centrifuge. The primary purpose for this work is to investigate the dependence of the flow field on the thermal boundary conditions, angular speed, aspect ratio of the cylinder, holdup. Some of our results are compared with the predictions of asymptotic theories, particularly those of Sakurai-Mtsuda and Brouwers, and with the numerical results of Dickinson-Jones.

  20. Strong adhesion by regulatory T cells induces dendritic cell cytoskeletal polarization and contact-dependent lethargy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiahuan; Ganguly, Anutosh; Mucsi, Ashley D; Meng, Junchen; Yan, Jiacong; Detampel, Pascal; Munro, Fay; Zhang, Zongde; Wu, Mei; Hari, Aswin; Stenner, Melanie D; Zheng, Wencheng; Kubes, Paul; Xia, Tie; Amrein, Matthias W; Qi, Hai; Shi, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Dendritic cells are targeted by regulatory T (T reg) cells, in a manner that operates as an indirect mode of T cell suppression. In this study, using a combination of single-cell force spectroscopy and structured illumination microscopy, we analyze individual T reg cell-DC interaction events and show that T reg cells exhibit strong intrinsic adhesiveness to DCs. This increased DC adhesion reduces the ability of contacted DCs to engage other antigen-specific cells. We show that this unusually strong LFA-1-dependent adhesiveness of T reg cells is caused in part by their low calpain activities, which normally release integrin-cytoskeleton linkage, and thereby reduce adhesion. Super resolution imaging reveals that such T reg cell adhesion causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein essential for immunological synapse formation, and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in DCs toward the T reg cell adhesion zone. Although it is reversible upon T reg cell disengagement, this sequestration of essential cytoskeletal components causes a lethargic state of DCs, leading to reduced T cell priming. Our results reveal a dynamic cytoskeletal component underlying T reg cell-mediated DC suppression in a contact-dependent manner. © 2017 Chen et al.

  1. The role of fluctuation-induced transport in a toroidal plasma with strong radial electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J. Y.; Kim, Y. C.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work employing digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques is extended to demonstrate that radial fluctuation-induced transport is the dominant ion transport mechanism in an electric field dominated toroidal plasma. Such transport can be made to occur against a density gradient, and hence may have a very beneficial effect on confinement in toroidal plasmas of fusion interest. It is shown that Bohm or classical diffusion down a density gradient, the collisional Pedersen-current mechanism, and the collisionless electric field gradient mechanism described by Cole (1976) all played a minor role, if any, in the radial transport of this plasma.

  2. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Bridgewood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  3. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewood, Charlie; Fearnley, Gareth W; Berekmeri, Anna; Laws, Philip; Macleod, Tom; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Stacey, Martin; Graham, Anne; Wittmann, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  4. Wood Ash Induced pH Changes Strongly Affect Soil Bacterial Numbers and Community Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Nielsen, Jeppe T.; Voriskova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation of wood ash from energy production to forest soil improves the sustainability of this energy production form as recycled wood ash contains nutrients that otherwise would be lost at harvest. In addition, wood-ash is beneficial to many soils due to its inherent acid......-neutralizing capabilities. However, wood ash has several ecosystem-perturbing effects like increased soil pH and pore water electrical conductivity both known to strongly impact soil bacterial numbers and community composition. Studies investigating soil bacterial community responses to wood ash application remain sparse...... and the available results are ambiguous and remain at a general taxonomic level. Here we investigate the response of bacterial communities in a spruce forest soil to wood ash addition corresponding to 0, 5, 22, and 167 t wood ash ha(-1). We used culture-based enumerations of general bacteria, Pseudomonas...

  5. Ionization induced by strong electromagnetic field in low dimensional systems bound by short range forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, P.A., E-mail: peminov@mail.ru [Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Sciences, 20 Stromynka Street, Moscow 2107996 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 3/12 Bolshoy Trekhsvyatskiy pereulok, Moscow 109028 (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-01

    Ionization processes for a two dimensional quantum dot subjected to combined electrostatic and alternating electric fields of the same direction are studied using quantum mechanical methods. We derive analytical equations for the ionization probability in dependence on characteristic parameters of the system for both extreme cases of a constant electric field and of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The ionization probabilities for a superposition of dc and low frequency ac electric fields of the same direction are calculated. The impulse distribution of ionization probability for a system bound by short range forces is found for a superposition of constant and alternating fields. The total probability for this process per unit of time is derived within exponential accuracy. For the first time the influence of alternating electric field on electron tunneling probability induced by an electrostatic field is studied taking into account the pre-exponential term.

  6. Radiation-Induced Chemical Dynamics in Ar Clusters Exposed to Strong X-Ray Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Jurek, Zoltan; Xu, Weiqing; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Motomura, Koji; Iablonskyi, Denys; Nagaya, Kiyonobu; Wada, Shin-ichi; Mondal, Subhendu; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Ito, Yuta; Sakai, Tsukasa; Matsunami, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshiyuki; Umemoto, Takayuki; Nicolas, Christophe; Miron, Catalin; Togashi, Tadashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Owada, Shigeki; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Son, Sang-Kil; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Ueda, Kiyoshi

    2018-06-01

    We show that electron and ion spectroscopy reveals the details of the oligomer formation in Ar clusters exposed to an x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) pulse, i.e., chemical dynamics triggered by x rays. With guidance from a dedicated molecular dynamics simulation tool, we find that van der Waals bonding, the oligomer formation mechanism, and charge transfer among the cluster constituents significantly affect ionization dynamics induced by an XFEL pulse of moderate fluence. Our results clearly demonstrate that XFEL pulses can be used not only to "damage and destroy" molecular assemblies but also to modify and transform their molecular structure. The accuracy of the predictions obtained makes it possible to apply the cluster spectroscopy, in connection with the respective simulations, for estimation of the XFEL pulse fluence in the fluence regime below single-atom multiple-photon absorption, which is hardly accessible with other diagnostic tools.

  7. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  8. Strain-Induced Enhancement of the Electron Energy Relaxation in Strongly Correlated Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gadermaier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We use femtosecond optical spectroscopy to systematically measure the primary energy relaxation rate Γ_{1} of photoexcited carriers in cuprate and pnictide superconductors. We find that Γ_{1} increases monotonically with increased negative strain in the crystallographic a axis. Generally, the Bardeen-Shockley deformation potential theorem and, specifically, pressure-induced Raman shifts reported in the literature suggest that increased negative strain enhances electron-phonon coupling, which implies that the observed direct correspondence between a and Γ_{1} is consistent with the canonical assignment of Γ_{1} to the electron-phonon interaction. The well-known nonmonotonic dependence of the superconducting critical temperature T_{c} on the a-axis strain is also reflected in a systematic dependence T_{c} on Γ_{1}, with a distinct maximum at intermediate values (∼16  ps^{−1} at room temperature. The empirical nonmonotonic systematic variation of T_{c} with the strength of the electron-phonon interaction provides us with unique insight into the role of electron-phonon interaction in relation to the mechanism of high-T_{c} superconductivity as a crossover phenomenon.

  9. Strong constraint on modelled global carbon uptake using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBean, Natasha; Maignan, Fabienne; Bacour, Cédric; Lewis, Philip; Peylin, Philippe; Guanter, Luis; Köhler, Philipp; Gómez-Dans, Jose; Disney, Mathias

    2018-01-31

    Accurate terrestrial biosphere model (TBM) simulations of gross carbon uptake (gross primary productivity - GPP) are essential for reliable future terrestrial carbon sink projections. However, uncertainties in TBM GPP estimates remain. Newly-available satellite-derived sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data offer a promising direction for addressing this issue by constraining regional-to-global scale modelled GPP. Here, we use monthly 0.5° GOME-2 SIF data from 2007 to 2011 to optimise GPP parameters of the ORCHIDEE TBM. The optimisation reduces GPP magnitude across all vegetation types except C4 plants. Global mean annual GPP therefore decreases from 194 ± 57 PgCyr -1 to 166 ± 10 PgCyr -1 , bringing the model more in line with an up-scaled flux tower estimate of 133 PgCyr -1 . Strongest reductions in GPP are seen in boreal forests: the result is a shift in global GPP distribution, with a ~50% increase in the tropical to boreal productivity ratio. The optimisation resulted in a greater reduction in GPP than similar ORCHIDEE parameter optimisation studies using satellite-derived NDVI from MODIS and eddy covariance measurements of net CO 2 fluxes from the FLUXNET network. Our study shows that SIF data will be instrumental in constraining TBM GPP estimates, with a consequent improvement in global carbon cycle projections.

  10. Aerosol-Induced Changes of Convective Cloud Anvils Produce Strong Climate Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, I.; Remer, L. A.; Altaratz, O.; Martins, J. V.; Davidi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of aerosol on clouds poses one of the largest uncertainties in estimating the anthropogenic contribution to climate change. Small human-induced perturbations to cloud characteristics via aerosol pathways can create a change in the top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing of hundreds of Wm(exp-2) . Here we focus on links between aerosol and deep convective clouds of the Atlantic and Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zones, noting that the aerosol environment in each region is entirely different. The tops of these vertically developed clouds consisting of mostly ice can reach high levels of the atmosphere, overshooting the lower stratosphere and reaching altitudes greater than 16 km. We show a link between aerosol, clouds and the free atmosphere wind profile that can change the magnitude and sign of the overall climate radiative forcing. We find that increased aerosol loading is associated with taller cloud towers and anvils. The taller clouds reach levels of enhanced wind speeds that act to spread and thin the anvi1 clouds, increasing areal coverage and decreasing cloud optical depth. The radiative effect of this transition is to create a positive radiative forcing (warming) at top-of-atmosphere. Furthermore we introduce the cloud optical depth (r), cloud height (Z) forcing space and show that underestimation of radiative forcing is likely to occur in cases of non homogenous clouds. Specifically, the mean radiative forcing of towers and anvils in the same scene can be several times greater than simply calculating the forcing from the mean cloud optical depth in the scene. Limitations of the method are discussed, alternative sources of aerosol loading are tested and meteorological variance is restricted, but the trend of taller clouds; increased and thinner anvils associated with increased aerosol loading remains robust through all the different tests and perturbations.

  11. Aerosol-induced changes of convective cloud anvils produce strong climate warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koren

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aerosol on clouds poses one of the largest uncertainties in estimating the anthropogenic contribution to climate change. Small human-induced perturbations to cloud characteristics via aerosol pathways can create a change in the top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing of hundreds of Wm−2. Here we focus on links between aerosol and deep convective clouds of the Atlantic and Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zones, noting that the aerosol environment in each region is entirely different. The tops of these vertically developed clouds consisting of mostly ice can reach high levels of the atmosphere, overshooting the lower stratosphere and reaching altitudes greater than 16 km. We show a link between aerosol, clouds and the free atmosphere wind profile that can change the magnitude and sign of the overall climate radiative forcing.

    We find that increased aerosol loading is associated with taller cloud towers and anvils. The taller clouds reach levels of enhanced wind speeds that act to spread and thin the anvil clouds, increasing areal coverage and decreasing cloud optical depth. The radiative effect of this transition is to create a positive radiative forcing (warming at top-of-atmosphere.

    Furthermore we introduce the cloud optical depth (τ, cloud height (Z forcing space and show that underestimation of radiative forcing is likely to occur in cases of non homogenous clouds. Specifically, the mean radiative forcing of towers and anvils in the same scene can be several times greater than simply calculating the forcing from the mean cloud optical depth in the scene.

    Limitations of the method are discussed, alternative sources of aerosol loading are tested and meteorological variance is restricted, but the trend of taller clouds, increased and thinner anvils associated with increased aerosol loading remains robust through all the different tests and perturbations.

  12. Dynamic high pressure induced strong and weak hydrogen bonds enhanced by pre-resonance stimulated Raman scattering in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenghan; Fang, Wenhui; Li, Fabing; Gong, Nan; Li, Zhanlong; Li, Zuowei; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2017-12-11

    355 nm pulsed laser is employed to excite pre-resonance forward stimulated Raman scattering (FSRS) of liquid water at ambient temperature. Due to the shockwave induced dynamic high pressure, the obtained Raman spectra begin to exhibit double peaks distribution at 3318 and 3373 cm -1 with the input energy of 17 mJ,which correspond with OH stretching vibration with strong and weak hydrogen (H) bonds. With laser energy rising from 17 to 27 mJ, the Stokes line at 3318 cm -1 shifts to 3255 and 3230 cm -1 because of the high pressure being enlarged. When the energy is up to 32 mJ, only 3373 cm -1 peak exists. The strong and weak H bond exhibit quite different energy dependent behaviors.

  13. Noise-induced hearing loss in construction workers being assessed for hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Ronald A; Sauvé, John T; Jiang, Depeng

    2010-01-01

    Construction workers are at risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) but often have no periodic audiometric testing. The participants were construction workers assessed for Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) at the Occupational Health Clinic, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. Audiometry was offered and 169 of the 191 workers assessed for HAVS agreed to have the audiometric test. The objective was to examine the prevalence of hearing loss in these 169 workers and to determine the effect on hearing of duration of work in construction (as a proxy for noise exposure) and the severity of vibration white finger (VWF) which previous studies have suggested is a marker for increased individual susceptibility for NIHL. VWF was measured by the Stockholm vascular scale. All participants were men, median age of 57 (range: 28-75), median number of years worked in construction of 35 (range: 4-52). All of the Spearman rank correlations between years worked in construction and the hearing levels at each audiometric frequency were statistically significant (p hearing loss at or above the level at which a workers' compensation pension would be granted in Ontario and the prevalence of this auditory outcome had a statistically significant increase as years worked in construction increased. Multivariate linear regression indicated that VWF also had a statistically significant effect on hearing loss for all audiometric frequencies combined after controlling for years worked in construction. Improved prevention of hearing loss in construction workers is needed.

  14. Complex dynamics induced by strong confinement - From tracer diffusion in strongly heterogeneous media to glassy relaxation of dense fluids in narrow slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Suvendu; Spanner-Denzer, Markus; Leitmann, Sebastian; Franosch, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    We provide an overview of recent advances of the complex dynamics of particles in strong confinements. The first paradigm is the Lorentz model where tracers explore a quenched disordered host structure. Such systems naturally occur as limiting cases of binary glass-forming systems if the dynamics of one component is much faster than the other. For a certain critical density of the host structure the tracers undergo a localization transition which constitutes a critical phenomenon. A series of predictions in the vicinity of the transition have been elaborated and tested versus computer simulations. Analytical progress is achieved for small obstacle densities. The second paradigm is a dense strongly interacting liquid confined to a narrow slab. Then the glass transition depends nonmonotonically on the separation of the plates due to an interplay of local packing and layering. Very small slab widths allow to address certain features of the statics and dynamics analytically.

  15. Dengue E Protein Domain III-Based DNA Immunisation Induces Strong Antibody Responses to All Four Viral Serotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Poggianella

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV infection is a major emerging disease widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world affecting several millions of people. Despite constants efforts, no specific treatment or effective vaccine is yet available. Here we show a novel design of a DNA immunisation strategy that resulted in the induction of strong antibody responses with high neutralisation titres in mice against all four viral serotypes. The immunogenic molecule is an engineered version of the domain III (DIII of the virus E protein fused to the dimerising CH3 domain of the IgG immunoglobulin H chain. The DIII sequences were also codon-optimised for expression in mammalian cells. While DIII alone is very poorly secreted, the codon-optimised fusion protein is rightly expressed, folded and secreted at high levels, thus inducing strong antibody responses. Mice were immunised using gene-gun technology, an efficient way of intradermal delivery of the plasmid DNA, and the vaccine was able to induce neutralising titres against all serotypes. Additionally, all sera showed reactivity to a recombinant DIII version and the recombinant E protein produced and secreted from mammalian cells in a mono-biotinylated form when tested in a conformational ELISA. Sera were also highly reactive to infective viral particles in a virus-capture ELISA and specific for each serotype as revealed by the low cross-reactive and cross-neutralising activities. The serotype specific sera did not induce antibody dependent enhancement of infection (ADE in non-homologous virus serotypes. A tetravalent immunisation protocol in mice showed induction of neutralising antibodies against all four dengue serotypes as well.

  16. <strong>Akt is transferred to the nucleus of cells treated with apoptin, and it participates in apoptin-induced cell deathstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddika, S; Bay, GH; Kroczak, TJ

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway is well known for the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, and some metabolic routes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we document a novel role for the PI3-K/Akt pathway during cell death induced by apoptin, a tumour-selective....... Downstream of PI3-K, Akt is activated and translocated to the nucleus together with apoptin. Direct interaction between apoptin and Akt is documented. Co-expression of nuclear Akt significantly potentiates cell death induced by apoptin. Thus, apoptin-facilitated nuclear Akt, in contrast to when in its......, as it likely gains access to a new set of substrates in the nucleus. The implicated link between survival and cell death pathways during apoptosis opens new pharmacological opportunities to modulate apoptosis in cancer, for example through the manipulation of Akt's cellular localization....

  17. Strong resilience of soil respiration components to drought-induced die-off resulting in forest secondary succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Josep; Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Poyatos, Rafael; Janssens, Ivan A; Lloret, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    How forests cope with drought-induced perturbations and how the dependence of soil respiration on environmental and biological drivers is affected in a warming and drying context are becoming key questions. The aims of this study were to determine whether drought-induced die-off and forest succession were reflected in soil respiration and its components and to determine the influence of climate on the soil respiration components. We used the mesh exclusion method to study seasonal variations in soil respiration (R S) and its components: heterotrophic (R H) and autotrophic (R A) [further split into fine root (R R) and mycorrhizal respiration (R M)] in a mixed Mediterranean forest where Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is undergoing a drought-induced die-off and is being replaced by holm oak (Quercus ilex L.). Drought-induced pine die-off was not reflected in R S nor in its components, which denotes a high functional resilience of the plant and soil system to pine die-off. However, the succession from Scots pine to holm oak resulted in a reduction of R H and thus in an important decrease of total respiration (R S was 36 % lower in holm oaks than in non-defoliated pines). Furthermore, R S and all its components were strongly regulated by soil water content-and-temperature interaction. Since Scots pine die-off and Quercus species colonization seems to be widely occurring at the driest limit of the Scots pine distribution, the functional resilience of the soil system over die-off and the decrease of R S from Scots pine to holm oak could have direct consequences for the C balance of these ecosystems.

  18. Current-horn suppression for reduced coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced emittance growth in strong bunch compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Charles

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Control of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR-induced emittance growth is essential in linear accelerators designed to deliver very high brightness electron beams. Extreme current values at the head and tail of the electron bunch, resulting from strong bunch compression, are responsible for large CSR production leading to significant transverse projected emittance growth. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS truncates the head and tail current spikes which greatly improves free electron laser (FEL performance. Here we consider the underlying dynamics that lead to formation of current spikes (also referred to as current horns, which has been identified as caustics forming in electron trajectories. We present a method to analytically determine conditions required to avoid the caustic formation and therefore prevent the current spikes from forming. These required conditions can be easily met, without increasing the transverse slice emittance, through inclusion of an octupole magnet in the middle of a bunch compressor.

  19. Strong braking of m = 1 impurity-induced ‘snake’ in EAST sawtoothing plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tianpeng; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun

    2014-01-01

    Strong braking of the m = 1 impurity-induced (e.g. molybdenum emission) density perturbation ‘snake’ was observed in EAST sawtoothing plasma. The shift of the peak positions of soft x-ray emissions due to the snake can be as high as 7 cm. Notable electron density fluctuations (δn e /n e0 can be as high as 8%) originating from this m = 1 snake are measured by a hydrogen cyanide laser interferometer. Due to mode coupling, synchronous locking of the m = 2 tearing mode and m = 1 snakes is expected to happen when the width of the m = 2 island exceeds a critical value. A critical width value of m = 2 for mode locking is calculated. The forced reconnection in the q = 2 surface is induced by a toroidal sideband of the m = 1 mode. (paper)

  20. Rare sugar D-allose strongly induces thioredoxin-interacting protein and inhibits osteoclast differentiation in Raw264 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kana; Noguchi, Chisato; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Dong, Youyi; Hirata, Yuko; Hossain, Mohammad A; Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Tokuda, Masaaki; Yamaguchi, Fuminori

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress modulates the osteoclast differentiation via redox systems, and thioredoxin 1 (Trx) promotes the osteoclast formation by regulating the activity of transcription factors. The function of Trx is known to be regulated by its binding partner, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). We previously reported that the expression of TXNIP gene is strongly induced by a rare sugar D-allose. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that D-allose could inhibit the osteoclast differentiation by regulating the Trx function. We used a murine Raw264 cell line that differentiates to the osteoclast by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) treatment. The effect of sugars was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. The expression and localization of TXNIP and Trx protein were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemisty. The activity of the nuclear factor-κB, nuclear factor of activated T cells, and activator protein 1 transcription factors was measured by the luciferase reporter assay. The addition of D-allose (25 mmol/L) inhibited the osteoclast differentiation down to 9.53% ± 1.27% of a receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-only treatment. During the osteoclast differentiation, a significant increase of TNXIP was observed by D-allose treatment. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that both Trx and TXNIP existed in the nucleus in preosteoclasts and osteoclasts. Overexpression of TXNIP by plasmid transfection also inhibited the osteoclast formation, indicating the functional importance of TXNIP for the osteoclast differentiation. Transcriptional activity of the activator protein 1, nuclear factor-κB, and nuclear factor of activated T cells, known to be modulated by Trx, were inhibited by D-allose. In conclusion, our data indicate that D-allose is a strong inhibitor of the osteoclast differentiation, and this effect could be caused by TXNIP induction and a resulting inhibition of the Trx function

  1. Mycobacterium vaccae induces a strong Th1 response that subsequently declines in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijiao; Jiang, Yanlong; Cui, Ziyin; Yang, Wentao; Yue, Limin; Ma, Yingcong; Shi, Shaohua; Wang, Chunfang; Wang, Chunfeng; Qian, Aidong

    2016-12-30

    Mycobacterium (M.) vaccae is a fast-growing species of saprophytic bacteria that is widely distributed. To understand the host immune responses induced by M. vaccae isolated from bovine submaxillary lymph nodes, C57BL/6 mice were infected with reference strain M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and isolated M. vaccae using intraperitoneal injections. Comparison of the bacterial replication and organ pathology between M. vaccae and M. bovis BCG revealed that M. vaccae was more malignant than M. bovis in mice. We also demonstrated that serum from the M. vaccae -infected mice contained a higher expression level of gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta than did the other groups, especially after week 4. Furthermore, when the numbers of CD3⁺CD4⁺IFN-γ⁺ and CD3⁺CD4⁺IL4⁺cells in the infected mice were observed by flow cytometry, we found that a powerful T helper 1 (Th1) response was induced by M. vaccae infection, which was associated with the emergence of CD3⁺CD4⁺IFN-γ⁺cells. However, the Th1 response declined over time, which was associated with appearance of the CD4⁺CD25⁺FoxP3⁺ and CD4⁺CD25⁺CD152⁺Treg cell reaction. In addition, a strong Th2 response was found. Finally, we found that M. vaccae infection increased the production of type I IFNs, which was associated with a reduced Th1 response.

  2. LUR models for particulate matters in the Taipei metropolis with high densities of roads and strong activities of industry, commerce and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jui-Huna; Wu, Chang-Fu; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2015-05-01

    Traffic intensity, length of road, and proximity to roads are the most common traffic indicators in the land use regression (LUR) models for particulate matter in ESCAPE study areas in Europe. This study explored what local variables can improve the performance of LUR models in an Asian metropolis with high densities of roads and strong activities of industry, commerce and construction. By following the ESCAPE procedure, we derived LUR models of PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse (PM₂.₅-₁₀) in Taipei. The overall annual average concentrations of PM₂.₅, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse were 26.0 ± 5.6, 48.6 ± 5.9, and 23.3 ± 3.1 μg/m(3), respectively, and the absorption coefficient of PM₂.₅ was 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(-5)m(-1). Our LUR models yielded R(2) values of 95%, 96%, 87%, and 65% for PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse, respectively. PM₂.₅ levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, construction, and residential land-use variables and decreased by rivers; while PM₂.₅ absorbance levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, and commercial land-use variables in the models. PMcoarse levels were increased by elevated highways. Road area explained more variance than road length by increasing the incremental value of 27% and 6% adjusted R(2) for PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ models, respectively. In the PM₂.₅ absorbance model, road area and transportation facility explain 29% more variance than road length. In the PMcoarse model, industrial and new local variables instead of road length improved the incremental value of adjusted R(2) from 39% to 60%. We concluded that road area can better explain the spatial distribution of PM₂.₅ and PM₂.₅ absorbance concentrations than road length. By incorporating road area and other new local variables, the performance of each PM LUR model was improved. The results suggest that road area is a better indicator of traffic intensity rather

  3. Construction of permanently inducible miRNA-based expression vectors using site-specific recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garwick-Coppens Sara E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a conserved gene silencing mechanism mediated by small inhibitory microRNAs (miRNAs. Promoter-driven miRNA expression vectors have emerged as important tools for delivering natural or artificially designed miRNAs to eukaryotic cells and organisms. Such systems can be used to query the normal or pathogenic functions of natural miRNAs or messenger RNAs, or to therapeutically silence disease genes. Results As with any molecular cloning procedure, building miRNA-based expression constructs requires a time investment and some molecular biology skills. To improve efficiency and accelerate the construction process, we developed a method to rapidly generate miRNA expression vectors using recombinases instead of more traditional cut-and-paste molecular cloning techniques. In addition to streamlining the construction process, our cloning strategy provides vectors with added versatility. In our system, miRNAs can be constitutively expressed from the U6 promoter, or inducibly expressed by Cre recombinase. We also engineered a built-in mechanism to destroy the vector with Flp recombinase, if desired. Finally, to further simplify the construction process, we developed a software package that automates the prediction and design of optimal miRNA sequences using our system. Conclusions We designed and tested a modular system to rapidly clone miRNA expression cassettes. Our strategy reduces the hands-on time required to successfully generate effective constructs, and can be implemented in labs with minimal molecular cloning expertise. This versatile system provides options that permit constitutive or inducible miRNA expression, depending upon the needs of the end user. As such, it has utility for basic or translational applications.

  4. An unsaturated metal site-promoted approach to construct strongly coupled noble metal/HNb3O8 nanosheets for efficient thermo/photo-catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijuan; Xia, Yuzhou; Lin, Sen; Liang, Shijing; Wu, Ling

    2017-10-05

    Creating two-dimensional (2D) crystal-metal heterostructures with an ultrathin thickness has spurred increasing research endeavors in catalysis because of its fascinating opportunities in tuning the electronic state at the surface and enhancing the chemical reactivity. Here we report a novel and facile Nb 4+ -assisted strategy for the in situ growth of highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on monolayer HNb 3 O 8 nanosheets (HNb 3 O 8 NS) constituting a 2D Pd/HNb 3 O 8 NS heterostructure composite without using extra reducing agents and stabilizing agents. The Pd NP formation is directed via a redox reaction between an oxidative Pd salt precursor (H 2 PdCl 4 ) and reductive unsaturated surface metal (Nb 4+ ) sites induced by light irradiation on monolayer HNb 3 O 8 NS. The periodic arrangement of metal Nb nodes on HNb 3 O 8 NS leads to a homogeneous distribution of Pd NPs. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the direct redox reaction between the Nb 4+ and Pd 2+ ions leads to a strong chemical interaction between the formed Pd metal NPs and the monolayer HNb 3 O 8 support. Consequently, the as-obtained Pd/HNb 3 O 8 composite serves as a highly efficient bifunctional catalyst in both heterogeneous thermocatalytic and photocatalytic selective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds in water under ambient conditions. The achieved high activity originates from the unique 2D nanosheet configuration and in situ Pd incorporation, which leads to a large active surface area, strong metal-support interaction and enhanced charge transport capability. Moreover, this facile Nb 4+ -assisted synthetic route has demonstrated to be general, which can be applied to load other metals such as Au and Pt on monolayer HNb 3 O 8 NS. It is anticipated that this work can extend the facile preparation of noble metal/nanosheet 2D heterostructures, as well as promote the simultaneous capture of duple renewable thermal and photon energy sources to drive an energy efficient

  5. Effects of intravenous hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid acid-base status and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Joachim F; Constable, Peter D; Smith, Geoffrey W; Mathur, Sheerin M; Morin, Dawn E; Tranquilli, William J

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate (HSB) administration on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acid-base balance and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion (metabolic) acidosis. Ten healthy male Holstein calves (30-47 kg body weight) were instrumented under halothane anesthesia to permit cardiovascular monitoring and collection of blood samples and CSE Respiratory acidosis was induced by allowing the calves to spontaneously ventilate, and strong ion acidosis was subsequently induced by i.v. administration of L-lactic acid. Calves were then randomly assigned to receive either HSB (8.4% NaHCO3; 5 ml/kg over 5 minutes, i.v.; n=5) or no treatment (controls, n=5) and monitored for 1 hour. Mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis was accompanied by increased heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, cardiac contractility (maximal rate of change of left ventricular pressure), and mean pulmonary artery pressure. Rapid administration of HSB immediately corrected the strong ion acidosis, transiently increased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)), and expanded the plasma volume. The transient increase in arterial P(CO2) did not alter CSF P(CO2) or induce paradoxical CSF acidosis. Compared to untreated control calves, HSB-treated calves had higher cardiac index and contractility and a faster rate of left ventricular relaxation for 1 hour after treatment, indicating that HSB administration improved myocardial systolic function. We conclude that rapid i.v. administration of HSB provided an effective and safe method for treating strong ion acidosis in normovolemic halothane-anesthetized calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis. Fear of inducing paradoxical CSF acidosis is not a valid reason for withholding HSB administration in calves with mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

  6. THE CONSTRUCTION OF A QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE SELF-INDUCED CONCATENATED DEMOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josko Sindik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of self-induced concatenated demotivation describes the “chain“ of demotivational processes and interactions of employees, in the contexts of postsocialism, job characteristics, dominant forms of motivation and group cohesion in work organizations. The aim of the preliminary research was to construct a questionnaire to measure the concept of self-induced concatenated demotivation and the relations between its latent dimensions. The study included a “snowball“ sample of 196 participants aged 20 to 65, of both genders, with heterogeneous professions and degrees in education. Based on the results of factor analysis three latent dimensions have been obtained, that account for only 36% of the total variance of the manifest area of self-induced concatenated demotivation, which we have named: pessimism/rationalization, social orientation, the ability to evaluate other people. The questionnaire to measure self-induced concatenated demotivation of employees has proved to be a low but satisfactory reliable measuring instrument for all three dimensions of the concept.

  7. Characteristic of Noise-induced Hearing Loss among Workers in Construction Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naadia Mazlan, Ain; Yahya, Khairulzan; Haron, Zaiton; Amsharija Mohamed, Nik; Rasib, Edrin Nazri Abdul; Jamaludin, Nizam; Darus, Nadirah

    2018-03-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is among the most common occupational disease in industries. This paper investigates NIHL in construction related industries in Malaysia with particular emphasis on its relation with risk factors. The objectives of this research were to (1) quantify the prevalence of NIHL in construction related industries, and (2) assess the relationship between hearing loss and risk factors and it's characteristic. The study was conducted using 110 NIHL compensation record collected from Social Security Organisation (SOCSO), Malaysia. Risk factors namely area noise, age, temperature, smoking habit, hobby, diabetic and cardiovascular disease were identified and analysed. Results showed that there was no direct relationship between area noise with hearing impairment while there was only low relationship between age and hearing impairment. The range for area noise and age were between 70 to 140 dB(A) and 20 to 70 years, respectively. The other risk factors classified as categorical data and analysed using frequency method. Grade of impairment does not depend solely on area noise but also in combination with age and other risk factors. Characteristic of NIHL prevailed in construction related industries were presented using scatterplots and can serve as a references for future hazard control on site.

  8. Rh-Catalyzed annulations of N-methoxybenzamides with ketenimines: synthesis of 3-aminoisoindolinones and 3-diarylmethyleneisoindolinones with strong aggregation induced emission properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Peng, Zhixing; Zhao, Hongyang; Zhang, Zhiyin; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2016-08-23

    Rhodium-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation reactions of ketenimines with N-methoxybenzamides furnished 3-aminoisoindolin-1-ones and 3-(diarylmethylene)isoindolin-1-ones. The synthesized 3-(diarylmethylene)isoindolin-1-ones exhibited aggregation induced emissions in aqueous tetrahydrofuran solution and strong green-yellow emissions in solids.

  9. Strong synergistic induction of CYP1A1 expression by andrographolide plus typical CYP1A inducers in mouse hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika [Department of Toxicology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Sirisangtrakul, Wanna [Department of Toxicology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Sakuma, Tsutomu; Kawasaki, Yuki [Department of Toxicology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nemoto, Nobuo [Department of Toxicology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    The effects of andrographolide, the major diterpenoid constituent of Andrographis paniculata, on the expression of cytochrome P450 superfamily 1 members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, as well as on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were investigated in comparison with the effects of typical CYP1A inducers, including benz[a]anthracene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Andrographolide significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner, as did the typical CYP1A inducers, but did not induce that of CYP1B1 or AhR. Interestingly, andrographolide plus the typical CYP1A inducers synergistically induced CYP1A1 expression, and the synergism was blocked by an AhR antagonist, resveratrol. The CYP1A1 enzyme activity showed a similar pattern of induction. This is the first report that shows that andrographolide has a potency to induce CYP1A1 enzyme and indicates that andrographolide could be a very useful compound for investigating the regulatory mechanism of the CYP1A1 induction pathway. In addition, our findings suggest preparing advice for rational administration of A. paniculata, according to its ability to induce CYP1A1 expression.

  10. Strong synergistic induction of CYP1A1 expression by andrographolide plus typical CYP1A inducers in mouse hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Sirisangtrakul, Wanna; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Kawasaki, Yuki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2007-01-01

    The effects of andrographolide, the major diterpenoid constituent of Andrographis paniculata, on the expression of cytochrome P450 superfamily 1 members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, as well as on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were investigated in comparison with the effects of typical CYP1A inducers, including benz[a]anthracene, β-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Andrographolide significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner, as did the typical CYP1A inducers, but did not induce that of CYP1B1 or AhR. Interestingly, andrographolide plus the typical CYP1A inducers synergistically induced CYP1A1 expression, and the synergism was blocked by an AhR antagonist, resveratrol. The CYP1A1 enzyme activity showed a similar pattern of induction. This is the first report that shows that andrographolide has a potency to induce CYP1A1 enzyme and indicates that andrographolide could be a very useful compound for investigating the regulatory mechanism of the CYP1A1 induction pathway. In addition, our findings suggest preparing advice for rational administration of A. paniculata, according to its ability to induce CYP1A1 expression

  11. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  12. Construction of a fluorescent nanostructured chitosan-hydroxyapatite scaffold by nanocrystallon induced biomimetic mineralization and its cell biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guancong; Zheng, Lin; Zhao, Hongshi; Miao, Junying; Sun, Chunhui; Liu, Hong; Huang, Zhen; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jiyang; Tao, Xutang

    2011-05-01

    Biomaterial surfaces and their nanostructures can significantly influence cell growth and viability. Thus, manipulating surface characteristics of scaffolds can be a potential strategy to control cell functions for stem cell tissue engineering. In this study, in order to construct a hydroxyapatite (HAp) coated genipin-chitosan conjugation scaffold (HGCCS) with a well-defined HAp nanostructured surface, we have developed a simple and controllable approach that allows construction of a two-level, three-dimensional (3D) networked structure to provide sufficient calcium source and achieve desired mechanical function and mass transport (permeability and diffusion) properties. Using a nontoxic cross-linker (genipin) and a nanocrystallon induced biomimetic mineralization method, we first assembled a layer of HAp network-like nanostructure on a 3D porous chitosan-based framework. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis confirm that the continuous network-like nanostructure on the channel surface of the HGCCS is composed of crystalline HAp. Compressive testing demonstrated that the strength of the HGCCS is apparently enhanced because of the strong cross-linking of genipin and the resulting reinforcement of the HAp nanonetwork. The fluorescence properties of genipin-chitosan conjugation for convenient monitoring of the 3D porous scaffold biodegradability and cell localization in the scaffold was specifically explored using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Furthermore, through scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and immunofluorescence measurements of F-actin, we found that the HAp network-like nanostructure on the surface of the HGCCS can influence the morphology and integrin-mediated cytoskeleton organization of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Based on cell proliferation assays, rat BMSCs tend to have higher viability on HGCCS in vitro. The results of this study suggest that

  13. Construction of PAH-degrading mixed microbial consortia by induced selection in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Absalón, Ángel E; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Ángel; Fernandez, Francisco J; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2017-04-01

    Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils through the biostimulation and bioaugmentation processes can be a strategy for the clean-up of oil spills and environmental accidents. In this work, an induced microbial selection method using PAH-polluted soils was successfully used to construct two microbial consortia exhibiting high degradation levels of low and high molecular weight PAHs. Six fungal and seven bacterial native strains were used to construct mixed consortia with the ability to tolerate high amounts of phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and utilize these compounds as a sole carbon source. In addition, we used two engineered PAH-degrading fungal strains producing heterologous ligninolytic enzymes. After a previous selection using microbial antagonism tests, the selection was performed in microcosm systems and monitored using PCR-DGGE, CO 2 evolution and PAH quantitation. The resulting consortia (i.e., C1 and C2) were able to degrade up to 92% of Phe, 64% of Pyr and 65% of BaP out of 1000 mg kg -1 of a mixture of Phe, Pyr and BaP (1:1:1) after a two-week incubation. The results indicate that constructed microbial consortia have high potential for soil bioremediation by bioaugmentation and biostimulation and may be effective for the treatment of sites polluted with PAHs due to their elevated tolerance to aromatic compounds, their capacity to utilize them as energy source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Posintro™-HBsAg, a modified ISCOM including HBsAg, induces strong cellular and humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiött, Asa; Larsson, Kristina; Manniche, Søren

    2011-01-01

    HBsAg vaccine formulation, Posintro™-HBsAg, was compared to two commercial hepatitis B vaccines including aluminium or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the two adjuvant systems MF59 and QS21 in their efficiency to prime both cellular and humoral immune responses. The Posintro™-HBsAg induced...

  15. Light-induced changes of cubic and uniaxial magnetic aniosotropy in a magnet doped by strongly anisotropic ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zaytseva, I.; Stupakiewicz, A.; Maziewski, A.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.

    254-255, - (2003), s. 118-120 ISSN 0304-8853. [Soft Magnetic Material Conference ( SMM 15). Bilbao, 05.09.2001-07.09.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : photomagnetic effects * light-induced anisotropy * garnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.910, year: 2003

  16. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1...

  17. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity...

  18. Dynamic Test Method Based on Strong Electromagnetic Pulse for Electromagnetic Shielding Materials with Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    In order to measure the pulse shielding performance of materials with the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition when materials are used for electromagnetic shielding, a dynamic test method was proposed based on a coaxial fixture. Experiment system was built by square pulse source, coaxial cable, coaxial fixture, attenuator, and oscilloscope and insulating components. S11 parameter of the test system was obtained, which suggested that the working frequency ranges from 300 KHz to 7.36 GHz. Insulating performance is good enough to avoid discharge between conductors when material samples is exposed in the strong electromagnetic pulse field up to 831 kV/m. This method is suitable for materials with annular shape, certain thickness and the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition to get their shielding performances of strong electromagnetic pulse.

  19. Why are there failures of systematicity? The empirical costs and benefits of inducing universal constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematicity is a property of cognition where capacity for certain cognitive abilities implies capacity for certain other (structurally related cognitive abilities. This property is thought to derive from a capacity to represent/process common structural relations between constituents of cognizable entities, however, systematicity may not always materialize in such admissible contexts. A theoretical challenge is to explain why systematicity fails to materialize in contexts that allow the realization (e.g., by induction of common structure (universal construction. We hypothesize that one cause of failure arises when the potential gain afforded by induction of common structure is overshadowed by the immediate benefit of learning the task as independent stimulus-response associations. This hypothesis was tested in an experiment that required learning two series of pair maps that involved products (universal construction, or non-products (control of varied size: the number of unique cue/target elements (three to six constituting pairs. Each series was learned in either ascending or descending order of size. Only performance on the product series was affected by order: systematicity was obtained universally in the descend group, but only on large sets in the ascend group, as revealed by the significant order x size interaction for errors in the product condition, F(3, 87 = 3.38, p < .05. Smaller maps are more easily learned without inducing the common product structure, which is more readily observable with larger maps: larger maps provide more evidence for relationships between stimulus dimensions that facilitate the discovery of the common structure. The new challenge, then, is to explain the systematic learnability of stimulus-response maps, i.e. second-order systematicity.

  20. Expanding the molecular toolbox for Lactococcus lactis: construction of an inducible thioredoxin gene fusion expression system

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P

    2011-08-09

    Abstract Background The development of the Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE) system in the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris represents a cornerstone in the use of Gram-positive bacterial expression systems for biotechnological purposes. However, proteins that are subjected to such over-expression in L. lactis may suffer from improper folding, inclusion body formation and\\/or protein degradation, thereby significantly reducing the yield of soluble target protein. Although such drawbacks are not specific to L. lactis, no molecular tools have been developed to prevent or circumvent these recurrent problems of protein expression in L. lactis. Results Mimicking thioredoxin gene fusion systems available for E. coli, two nisin-inducible expression vectors were constructed to over-produce various proteins in L. lactis as thioredoxin fusion proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that our novel L. lactis fusion partner expression vectors allow high-level expression of soluble heterologous proteins Tuc2009 ORF40, Bbr_0140 and Tuc2009 BppU\\/BppL that were previously insoluble or not expressed using existing L. lactis expression vectors. Over-expressed proteins were subsequently purified by Ni-TED affinity chromatography. Intact heterologous proteins were detected by immunoblotting analyses. We also show that the thioredoxin moiety of the purified fusion protein was specifically and efficiently cleaved off by enterokinase treatment. Conclusions This study is the first description of a thioredoxin gene fusion expression system, purposely developed to circumvent problems associated with protein over-expression in L. lactis. It was shown to prevent protein insolubility and degradation, allowing sufficient production of soluble proteins for further structural and functional characterization.

  1. Propranolol–induced Impairment of Contextual Fear Memory Reconsolidation in Rats: A similar Effect on Weak and Strong Recent and Remote Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherian, Fatemeh; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Vaezi, Gholam Hassan; Eskandarian, Sharaf; Kashef, Adel; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol impairs fear memory reconsolidation in experimental animals. There are experimental parameters such as the age and the strength of memory that can interact with pharmacological manipulations of memory reconsolidation. In this study, we investigated the ability of the age and the strength of memory to influence the disrupting effects of propranolol on fear memory reconsolidation in rats. Methods The rats were trained in a contextual fear conditioning using two (weak training) or five (strong training) footshocks (1mA). Propranolol (10mg/kg) injection was immediately followed retrieval of either a one-day recent (weak or strong) or 36-day remote (weak or strong) contextual fear memories. Results We found that propranolol induced a long-lasting impairment of subsequent expression of recent and remote memories with either weak or strong strength. We also found no memory recovery after a weak reminder shock. Furthermore, no significant differences were found on the amount of memory deficit induced by propranolol among memories with different age and strength. Discussion Our data suggest that the efficacy of propranolol in impairing fear memory reconsolidation is not limited to the age or strength of the memory. PMID:25337385

  2. SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds induce RISC-mediated antisense strand selection and strong gene-silencing activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takanori, E-mail: kubo-t@yasuda-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Takei, Yoshifumi [Department of Biochemistry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumi-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mihara, Keichiro [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Sato, Yuichiro; Seyama, Toshio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds (Ar-siRNAs) at 5 Prime -sense strand were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs increased resistance against nuclease degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs were thermodynamically stable compared with the unmodified siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High levels of cellular uptake and cytoplasmic localization were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong gene-silencing efficacy was exhibited in the Ar-siRNAs. -- Abstract: Short interference RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. In this study, we focused on the development of siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds in order to improve the potency of RNAi and thus to overcome several problems with siRNAs, such as cellular delivery and nuclease stability. The siRNAs conjugated with phenyl, hydroxyphenyl, naphthyl, and pyrenyl derivatives showed strong resistance to nuclease degradation, and were thermodynamically stable compared with unmodified siRNA. A high level of membrane permeability in HeLa cells was also observed. Moreover, these siRNAs exhibited enhanced RNAi efficacy, which exceeded that of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified siRNAs, against exogenous Renilla luciferase in HeLa cells. In particular, abundant cytoplasmic localization and strong gene-silencing efficacy were found in the siRNAs conjugated with phenyl and hydroxyphenyl derivatives. The novel siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds are promising candidates for a new generation of modified siRNAs that can solve many of the problems associated with RNAi technology.

  3. Chimeric Hemagglutinin Constructs Induce Broad Protection against Influenza B Virus Challenge in the Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermler, Megan E; Kirkpatrick, Ericka; Sun, Weina; Hai, Rong; Amanat, Fatima; Chromikova, Veronika; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2017-06-15

    Seasonal influenza virus epidemics represent a significant public health burden. Approximately 25% of all influenza virus infections are caused by type B viruses, and these infections can be severe, especially in children. Current influenza virus vaccines are an effective prophylaxis against infection but are impacted by rapid antigenic drift, which can lead to mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Here, we describe a broadly protective vaccine candidate based on chimeric hemagglutinins, consisting of globular head domains from exotic influenza A viruses and stalk domains from influenza B viruses. Sequential vaccination with these constructs in mice leads to the induction of broadly reactive antibodies that bind to the conserved stalk domain of influenza B virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated mice are protected from lethal challenge with diverse influenza B viruses. Results from serum transfer experiments and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays indicate that this protection is antibody mediated and based on Fc effector functions. The present data suggest that chimeric hemagglutinin-based vaccination is a viable strategy to broadly protect against influenza B virus infection. IMPORTANCE While current influenza virus vaccines are effective, they are affected by mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Furthermore, the antiviral drug oseltamivir is less effective for treating influenza B virus infections than for treating influenza A virus infections. A vaccine that induces broad and long-lasting protection against influenza B viruses is therefore urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high......-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital Ig...

  5. Construction and identification of double-gene co-expression vector with radiation-inducible human TRAIL and endostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanbo; Guo Caixia; Gong Pingsheng; Liu Yang; Liangshuo; Wang Hongfang; Wang Jianfeng; Gong Shouliang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To construct a recombinant plasmid pshuttle-Egr1-shTRAIL-shES containing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and endostatin double genes. Methods: The secretary endostatin gene (shES) fragment was amplified from the pMD19T-endostatin vector by PCR. The shES gene was ligated to pMD19Tand sequenced. Finally, using the gene recombinant technique, the recombinant plasmid pshuttle-Egr1- shTRAIL-shES with radiation-inducible Egr1 promoter, secretary TRAIL and endostatin double-gene was constructed. Results: The sequence of the shES gene was in concordance with that anticipated indicating shES gene was acquired successfully.Moreover, the results acquired by PCR and restrictive digestion identification of the recombinant plasmid pshuttle-Egr1-shTRAIL-shES and all the vectors refered to its construction confirmed that pshuttle-Egr1-shTRAIL-shES was constructed correctly. Conclusion: The radiation-inducible double-gene co-expression vector pshuttle-Egr1-shTRAIL-shES is constructed successfully, which would set the experimental foundation for further study on the anti-tumor effect of TRAIL and endostatin double-gene-radiotherapy and its related mechanisms. (authors)

  6. Strong Rashba-Edelstein Effect-Induced Spin–Orbit Torques in Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenide/Ferromagnet Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Qiming

    2016-11-18

    The electronic and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials have been extensively explored in graphene and layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Spintronics in these two-dimensional materials could provide novel opportunities for future electronics, for example, efficient generation of spin current, which should enable the efficient manipulation of magnetic elements. So far, the quantitative determination of charge current-induced spin current and spin-orbit torques (SOTs) on the magnetic layer adjacent to two-dimensional materials is still lacking. Here, we report a large SOT generated by current-induced spin accumulation through the Rashba-Edelstein effect in the composites of monolayer TMD (MoS or WSe)/CoFeB bilayer. The effective spin conductivity corresponding to the SOT turns out to be almost temperature-independent. Our results suggest that the charge-spin conversion in the chemical vapor deposition-grown large-scale monolayer TMDs could potentially lead to high energy efficiency for magnetization reversal and convenient device integration for future spintronics based on two-dimensional materials.

  7. Synthesis of PLGA nanoparticles of tea polyphenols and their strong in vivo protective effect against chemically induced DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava AK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amit Kumar Srivastava,1 Priyanka Bhatnagar,2 Madhulika Singh,1 Sanjay Mishra,1 Pradeep Kumar,2 Yogeshwer Shukla,1 Kailash Chand Gupta1,2 1Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR, Lucknow, India; 2Nucleic Acid Research Laboratory, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR, Delhi University Campus, India Abstract: In spite of proficient results of several phytochemicals in preclinical settings, the conversion rate from bench to bedside is not very encouraging. Many reasons are attributed to this limited success, including inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. To achieve improved efficacy, polyphenolic constituents of black (theaflavin [TF] and green (epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG] tea in poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs were entrapped with entrapment efficacy of ~18% and 26%, respectively. Further, their preventive potential against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA-induced DNA damage in mouse skin using DNA alkaline unwinding assay was evaluated. Pretreatment (topically of mouse skin with either TF or EGCG (100 µg/mouse doses exhibits protection of 45.34% and 28.32%, respectively, against DMBA-induced DNA damage. However, pretreatment with TF-loaded PLGA-NPs protects against DNA damage 64.41% by 1/20th dose of bulk, 71.79% by 1/10th dose of bulk, and 72.46% by 1/5th dose of bulk. Similarly, 51.28% (1/20th of bulk, 57.63% (1/10th of bulk, and 63.14% (1/5th of bulk prevention was noted using EGCG-loaded PLGA-NP doses. These results showed that tea polyphenol-loaded PLGA-NPs have ~30-fold dose-advantage than bulk TF or EGCG doses. Additionally, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed significant potential for induction of DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, and ERCC3 and suppression of DNA damage responsive genes (p53, p21, MDM2, GADD45α, and COX-2 as compared with respective bulk TF or EGCG doses. Taken together, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed a superior

  8. Inducing Strong Density Modulation with Small Energy Dispersion in Particle Beams and the Harmonic Amplifier Free Electron Laser

    CERN Document Server

    McNeil, Brian W J; Robb, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    We present a possible method of inducing a periodic density modulation in a particle beam with little increase in the energy dispersion of the particles. The flow of particles in phase space does not obey Liouville's Theorem. The method relies upon the Kuramoto-like model of collective synchronism found in free electron generators of radiation, such as Cyclotron Resonance Masers and the Free Electron Laser. For the case of an FEL interaction, electrons initially begin to bunch and emit radiation energy with a correlated energy dispersion which is periodic with the FEL ponderomotive potential. The relative phase between potential and particles is then changed by approximately 180 degrees. The particles continue to bunch, however, there is now a correlated re-absorption of energy from the field. We show that, by repeating this relative phase change many times, a significant density modulation of the particles may be achieved with only relatively small energy dispersion. A similar method of repeated relative ele...

  9. Interstitial atoms enable joint twinning and transformation induced plasticity in strong and ductile high-entropy alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiming; Tasan, Cemal Cem; Springer, Hauke; Gault, Baptiste; Raabe, Dierk

    2017-01-12

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) consisting of multiple principle elements provide an avenue for realizing exceptional mechanical, physical and chemical properties. We report a novel strategy for designing a new class of HEAs incorporating the additional interstitial element carbon. This results in joint activation of twinning- and transformation-induced plasticity (TWIP and TRIP) by tuning the matrix phase's instability in a metastable TRIP-assisted dual-phase HEA. Besides TWIP and TRIP, such alloys benefit from massive substitutional and interstitial solid solution strengthening as well as from the composite effect associated with its dual-phase structure. Nanosize particle formation and grain size reduction are also utilized. The new interstitial TWIP-TRIP-HEA thus unifies all metallic strengthening mechanisms in one material, leading to twice the tensile strength compared to a single-phase HEA with similar composition, yet, at identical ductility.

  10. Atmospheric CO2 Observations Reveal Strong Correlation Between Regional Net Biospheric Carbon Uptake and Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Yoichi P.; Tadić, Jovan M.; Qiu, Xuemei; Yadav, Vineet; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Berry, Joseph A.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the promise of remotely sensed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in informing terrestrial carbon exchange, but analyses have been limited to either plot level ( 1 km2) or hemispheric/global ( 108 km2) scales due to the lack of a direct measure of carbon exchange at intermediate scales. Here we use a network of atmospheric CO2 observations over North America to explore the value of SIF for informing net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at regional scales. We find that SIF explains space-time NEE patterns at regional ( 100 km2) scales better than a variety of other vegetation and climate indicators. We further show that incorporating SIF into an atmospheric inversion leads to a spatial redistribution of NEE estimates over North America, with more uptake attributed to agricultural regions and less to needleleaf forests. Our results highlight the synergy of ground-based and spaceborne carbon cycle observations.

  11. Control of dynamical self-assembly of strongly Brownian nanoparticles through convective forces induced by ultrafast laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilday, Serim; Akguc, Gursoy B.; Tokel, Onur; Makey, Ghaith; Yavuz, Ozgun; Yavuz, Koray; Pavlov, Ihor; Ilday, F. Omer; Gulseren, Oguz

    We report a new dynamical self-assembly mechanism, where judicious use of convective and strong Brownian forces enables effective patterning of colloidal nanoparticles that are almost two orders of magnitude smaller than the laser beam. Optical trapping or tweezing effects are not involved, but the laser is used to create steep thermal gradients through multi-photon absorption, and thereby guide the colloids through convective forces. Convective forces can be thought as a positive feedback mechanism that helps to form and reinforce pattern, while Brownian motion act as a competing negative feedback mechanism to limit the growth of the pattern, as well as to increase the possibilities of bifurcation into different patterns, analogous to the competition observed in reaction-diffusion systems. By steering stochastic processes through these forces, we are able to gain control over the emergent pattern such as to form-deform-reform of a pattern, to change its shape and transport it spatially within seconds. This enables us to dynamically initiate and control large patterns comprised of hundreds of colloids. Further, by not relying on any specific chemical, optical or magnetic interaction, this new method is, in principle, completely independent of the material type being assembled.

  12. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  13. Regulatory T cells are strong promoters of acute ischemic stroke in mice by inducing dysfunction of the cerebral microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Kraft, Peter; Dreykluft, Angela; Hagedorn, Ina; Göbel, Kerstin; Schuhmann, Michael K; Langhauser, Friederike; Helluy, Xavier; Schwarz, Tobias; Bittner, Stefan; Mayer, Christian T; Brede, Marc; Varallyay, Csanad; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Jakob, Peter; Magnus, Tim; Meuth, Sven G; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Zernecke, Alma; Sparwasser, Tim; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Stoll, Guido; Wiendl, Heinz

    2013-01-24

    We have recently identified T cells as important mediators of ischemic brain damage, but the contribution of the different T-cell subsets is unclear. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) are generally regarded as prototypic anti-inflammatory cells that maintain immune tolerance and counteract tissue damage in a variety of immune-mediated disorders. In the present study, we examined the role of Tregs after experimental brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. Selective depletion of Tregs in the DEREG mouse model dramatically reduced infarct size and improved neurologic function 24 hours after stroke and this protective effect was preserved at later stages of infarct development. The specificity of this detrimental Treg effect was confirmed by adoptive transfer experiments in wild-type mice and in Rag1(-/-) mice lacking lymphocytes. Mechanistically, Tregs induced microvascular dysfunction in vivo by increased interaction with the ischemic brain endothelium via the LFA-1/ICAM-1 pathway and platelets and these findings were confirmed in vitro. Ablation of Tregs reduced microvascular thrombus formation and improved cerebral reperfusion on stroke, as revealed by ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging at 17.6 Tesla. In contrast, established immunoregulatory characteristics of Tregs had no functional relevance. We define herein a novel and unexpected role of Tregs in a primary nonimmunologic disease state.

  14. Nanosolvation by acetonitrile and 18-crown-6 ether induce strongly different effects on the electron-capture induced dissociation of aromatic tripeptide cations in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacLot, S.; Rangama, J.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2013-01-01

    for acetonitrile. One or two acetonitrile molecules have also been found to induce little effect on the fragmentation patterns of the charge-reduced peptide ions. By contrast, one or two CE decreases the NH3-loss probability, which is accounted for by the inhibition of this channel upon CE binding to the N...

  15. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  16. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  17. A retrospective analysis of noise-induced hearing loss in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, M. C. J.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.; Dreschler, W. A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Noise exposure is an important and highly prevalent occupational hazard in the construction industry. This study examines hearing threshold levels of a large population of Dutch construction workers and compares their hearing thresholds to those predicted by ISO-1999. Methods In this

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitors strongly sensitise neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by a caspases-dependent increase of the pro- to anti-apoptotic proteins ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mühlethaler-Mottet, Annick; Flahaut, Marjorie; Bourloud, Katia Balmas; Auderset, Katya; Meier, Roland; Joseph, Jean-Marc; Gross, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the second most common solid childhood tumour, an aggressive disease for which new therapeutic strategies are strongly needed. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in most tumour cells, but not in normal tissues and therefore represents a valuable candidate in apoptosis-inducing therapies. Caspase-8 is silenced in a subset of highly malignant NB cells, which results in full TRAIL resistance. In addition, despite constitutive caspase-8 expression, or its possible restoration by different strategies, NB cells remain weakly sensitive to TRAIL indicating a need to develop strategies to sensitise NB cells to TRAIL. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are a new class of anti-cancer agent inducing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in tumour cells with very low toxicity toward normal cells. Although HDACIs were recently shown to increase death induced by TRAIL in weakly TRAIL-sensitive tumour cells, the precise involved sensitisation mechanisms have not been fully identified. NB cell lines were treated with various doses of HDACIs and TRAIL, then cytotoxicity was analysed by MTS/PMS proliferation assays, apoptosis was measured by the Propidium staining method, caspases activity by colorimetric protease assays, and (in)activation of apoptotic proteins by immunoblotting. Sub-toxic doses of HDACIs strongly sensitised caspase-8 positive NB cell lines to TRAIL induced apoptosis in a caspases dependent manner. Combined treatments increased the activation of caspases and Bid, and the inactivation of the anti-apoptotic proteins XIAP, Bcl-x, RIP, and survivin, thereby increasing the pro- to anti-apoptotic protein ratio. It also enhanced the activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, the kinetics of caspases activation and inactivation of anti-apoptotic proteins is accelerated by combined treatment with TRAIL and HDACIs compared to TRAIL alone. In contrast, cell surface expression of TRAIL

  19. Combined treatment with cotylenin A and phenethyl isothiocyanate induces strong antitumor activity mainly through the induction of ferroptotic cell death in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukabe, Takashi; Honma, Yoshio; Okabe-Kado, Junko; Higuchi, Yusuke; Kato, Nobuo; Kumakura, Shunichi

    2016-08-01

    The treatment of pancreatic cancer, one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal tract malignancies, with current chemotherapeutic drugs has had limited success due to its chemoresistance and poor prognosis. Therefore, the development of new drugs or effective combination therapies is urgently needed. Cotylenin A (CN-A) (a plant growth regulator) is a potent inducer of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells and exhibits potent antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. In the present study, we demonstrated that CN-A and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), an inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a dietary anticarcinogenic compound, synergistically inhibited the proliferation of MIAPaCa-2, PANC-1 and gemcitabine-resistant PANC-1 cells. A combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC also effectively inhibited the anchorage-independent growth of these cancer cells. The combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC strongly induced cell death within 1 day at concentrations at which CN-A or PEITC alone did not affect cell viability. A combined treatment with synthetic CN-A derivatives (ISIR-005 and ISIR-042) or fusicoccin J (CN-A-related natural product) and PEITC did not have synergistic effects on cell death. The combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC synergistically induced the generation of ROS. Antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and trolox), ferroptosis inhibitors (ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin), and the lysosomal iron chelator deferoxamine canceled the synergistic cell death. Apoptosis inhibitors (Z-VAD-FMK and Q-VD-OPH) and the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1s did not inhibit synergistic cell death. Autophagy inhibitors (3-metyladenine and chloroquine) partially prevented cell death. These results show that synergistic cell death induced by the combined treatment with CN-A and PEITC is mainly due to the induction of ferroptosis. Therefore, the combination of CN-A and PEITC has potential as a novel therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer.

  20. Construction of recombinant plasmid pIRESEgr-IFN γ and its expression in Lewis lung carcinoma induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wei; Li Xiuyi; Gong Shouliang; Sun Ting; Gong Pingsheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To construct the recombinant plasmid pIRESEgr-IFN γ and detect its expression in Lewis lung carcinoma induced by irradiation in vitro. Methods: The recombinant plasmid pIRESEgr-IFN γ containing Egr-1 promoter and IFN γ gene was constructed with gene recombinant technique. The plasmid was transferred into Lewis lung carcinoma by liposome in vitro. The correlations of dose- and time-effects in the expression of IFN γ gene induced by X-ray were detected by ELISA. Results: The identification with enzymes proved that Egr-1 promoter and IFN γ gene were inserted into vector pIRESlneo correctly. After X-ray irradiation with different doses, the expression of IFN γ in the supernatant of Lewis lung carcinoma transfected by pIRESEgr-IFN γ was significantly higher than that in 0 Gy group (P<0.001). After 5 Gy X-ray irradiation, the expression of IFN γ was the highest, being 4.39 times as much as that in 0 Gy group. The expression of IFN γ in the supernatant increased after 5 Gy X-ray irradiation, being 6.27 times as much as that in 0 h group 36 h after irradiation. Conclusion: The recombinant plasmid pIRESEgr-IFN γ is constructed successfully, and it has the property of enhancing the expression of IFN γ gene induced by irradiation. (authors)

  1. Multiple pathways for SOS-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli: An overexpression of dinB/dinP results in strongly enhancing mutagenesis in the absence of any exogenous treatment to damage DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Ryang; Maenhaut-Michel, Geneviéve; Yamada, Masami; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Matsui, Keiko; Sofuni, Toshio; Nohmi, Takehiko; Ohmori, Haruo

    1997-01-01

    dinP is an Escherichia coli gene recently identified at 5.5 min of the genetic map, whose product shows a similarity in amino acid sequence to the E. coli UmuC protein involved in DNA damage-induced mutagenesis. In this paper we show that the gene is identical to dinB, an SOS gene previously localized near the lac locus at 8 min, the function of which was shown to be required for mutagenesis of nonirradiated λ phage infecting UV-preirradiated bacterial cells (termed λUTM for λ untargeted mutagenesis). A newly constructed dinP null mutant exhibited the same defect for λUTM as observed previously with a dinB::Mu mutant, and the defect was complemented by plasmids carrying dinP as the only intact bacterial gene. Furthermore, merely increasing the dinP gene expression, without UV irradiation or any other DNA-damaging treatment, resulted in a strong enhancement of mutagenesis in F′lac plasmids; at most, 800-fold increase in the G6-to-G5 change. The enhanced mutagenesis did not depend on recA, uvrA, or umuDC. Thus, our results establish that E. coli has at least two distinct pathways for SOS-induced mutagenesis: one dependent on umuDC and the other on dinB/P. PMID:9391106

  2. strong>PRAYER INDUCED ANALGESIAstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt

    , 40 healthy subjects (20 highly religious protestants and 20 non-religious men and women) received painful electrical stimulation during prayer to God, ‘secular prayer’ and a ‘pain only’ condition. Subjects were continuously monitored with a Task Force Monitor (heart rate variability, blood pressure...

  3. Novel influenza virus vectors expressing Brucella L7/L12 or Omp16 proteins in cattle induced a strong T-cell immune response, as well as high protectiveness against B. abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Kydyrbayev, Zhailaubay; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Yespembetov, Bolat; Zinina, Nadezhda; Assanzhanova, Nurika; Kozhamkulov, Yerken; Inkarbekov, Dulat; Gotskina, Tatyana; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2014-04-11

    This paper presents the results of a study of the immunogenicity and protectiveness of new candidate vector vaccine against Brucella abortus - a bivalent vaccine formulation consisting of a mixture of recombinant influenza A subtype H5N1 or H1N1 (viral constructs vaccine formulation) viruses expressing Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 and Omp16, in cattle. To increase the effectiveness of the candidate vaccine, adjuvants such as Montanide Gel01 or chitosan were included in its composition. Immunization of cattle (heifers aged 1-1.5 years, 5 animals per group) with the viral constructs vaccine formulation only, or its combination with adjuvants Montanide Gel01 or chitosan, was conducted via the conjunctival method using cross prime (influenza virus subtype H5N1) and booster (influenza virus subtype H1N1) vaccination schedules at an interval of 28 days. Vaccine candidates were evaluated in comparison with the positive (B. abortus S19) and negative (PBS) controls. The viral constructs vaccine formulations, particularly in combination with Montanide Gel01 adjuvant promoted formation of IgG antibodies (with a predominance of antibodies of isotype IgG2a) against Brucella L7/L12 and Omp16 proteins in ELISA. Moreover, these vaccines in cattle induced a strong antigen-specific T-cell immune response, as indicated by a high number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, as well as the concentration of IFN-γ, and most importantly provided a high level of protectiveness comparable to the commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine and superior to the B. abortus S19 vaccine in combination with Montanide Gel01 adjuvant. Based on these findings, we recommended the bivalent vaccine formulation containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01 for practical use in cattle. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The combination of BH3-mimetic ABT-737 with the alkylating agent temozolomide induces strong synergistic killing of melanoma cells independent of p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven N Reuland

    Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and is refractory to most conventional chemotherapies. The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ is commonly used in treating melanoma but has a disappointing response rate. Agents that can act cooperatively with TMZ and improve its efficacy are thus highly sought after. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737, which can induce apoptosis by targeting pro-survival Bcl-2 family members, has been found to enhance the efficacy of many conventional chemotherapeutic agents in multiple cancers. We found that combining TMZ and ABT-737 induced strong synergistic apoptosis in multiple human melanoma cell lines. When the drugs were used in combination in a mouse xenograft model, they drastically reduced tumor growth at concentrations where each individual drug had no significant effect. We found that TMZ treatment elevated p53 levels, and that the pro-apoptotic protein Noxa was elevated in TMZ/ABT-737 treated cells. Experiments with shRNA demonstrated that the synergistic effect of TMZ and ABT-737 was largely dependent on Noxa. Experiments with nutlin-3, a p53 inducer, demonstrated that p53 induction was sufficient for synergistic cell death with ABT-737 in a Noxa-dependent fashion. However, p53 was not necessary for TMZ/ABT-737 synergy as demonstrated by a p53-null line, indicating that TMZ and ABT-737 together induce Noxa in a p53-independent fashion. These results demonstrate that targeting anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members is a promising method for treating metastatic melanoma, and that clinical trials with TMZ and Bcl-2 inhibitors are warranted.

  5. Resveratrol strongly enhances the retinoic acid-induced superoxide generating activity via up-regulation of gp91-phox gene expression in U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hidehiko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Kuribayashi, Futoshi

    2018-01-01

    The membrane bound cytochrome b 558 composed of gp91-phox and p22-phox proteins, and cytosolic proteins p40-, p47-and p67-phox are important components of superoxide (O 2 - )-generating system in phagocytes. Here, we describe that resveratrol, a pleiotropic phytochemical belonging to the stilbenoids, dramatically activates the O 2 - -generating system during retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of human monoblastic leukemia U937 cells to macrophage-like cells. When U937 cells were cultured in the presence of RA and resveratrol, the O 2 - -generating activity increased more than 5-fold compared with that in the absence of the latter. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that co-treatment with RA and resveratrol strongly enhanced transcription of the gp91-phox compared with those of the RA-treatment only. On the other hand, immunoblot analysis revealed that co-treatment with RA and resveratrol caused remarkable accumulation of protein levels of gp91-phox (to 4-fold), p22-phox (to 5-fold) and p47-phox (to 4-fold) compared with those of the RA-treatment alone. In addition, ChIP assay suggested that resveratrol participates in enhancing the gene expression of gp91-phox via promoting acetylation of Lys-9 residues and Lys-14 residues of histone H3 within chromatin around the promoter regions of the gene. These results suggested that resveratrol strongly enhances the RA-induced O 2 - -generating activity via up-regulation of gp91-phox gene expression in U937 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanically induced strong red emission in samarium ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS for dynamic pressure sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hanlu; Yang, Xiaohong; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductor with optical, electrical and mechanical multifunctions has great potential applications in future optoelectronic devices. The rich properties and applications mainly encompass the intrinsic structures and their coupling effects. Here, we report that lanthanide ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS:Sm3+ showing strong red emission induced by dynamic mechanical stress. Under moderate mechanical load, the doped piezoelectric semiconductor exhibits strong visible red emission to the naked eyes even under the day light. A flexible dynamic pressure sensor device is fabricated based on the prepared CaZnOS:Sm3+ powders. The mechanical-induced emission properties of the device are investigated by the optical fiber spectrometer. The linear characteristic emissions are attributed to the 4G5/2→6H5/2 (566 nm), 4G5/2→6H7/2 (580-632 nm), 4G5/2→6H9/2 (653-673 nm) and 4G5/2→6H11/2 (712-735 nm) f-f transitions of Sm3+ ions. The integral emission intensity is proportional to the value of applied pressure. By using the linear relationship between integrated emission intensity and the dynamic pressure, the real-time pressure distribution is visualized and recorded. Our results highlight that the incorporation of lanthanide luminescent ions into piezoelectric semiconductors as smart materials could be applied into the flexible mechanical-optical sensor device without additional auxiliary power, which has great potential for promising applications such as mapping of personalized handwriting, smart display, and human machine interface.

  7. Modeling of Aircraft Deicing Fluid Induced Biochemical Oxygen Demand in Subsurface-Flow Constructed Treatment Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Jukka A. Rintala, Christof Holliger, and Alla N. Nozhevnikova. “Evaluation of Kinetic Coefficients Using Intergrated Monod and Haldane Models for...Rousseau, Diederik P. L., Peter A Vanrolleghem, and Niels De Pauw. “Model-Based Design of Horizontal Subsurface Flow constructed Treatment

  8. Current induced multi-mode propagating spin waves in a spin transfer torque nano-contact with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, S. Morteza; Yazdi, H. F.; Hamdi, M.; Brächer, T.; Mohseni, S. Majid

    2018-03-01

    Current induced spin wave excitations in spin transfer torque nano-contacts are known as a promising way to generate exchange-dominated spin waves at the nano-scale. It has been shown that when these systems are magnetized in the film plane, broken spatial symmetry of the field around the nano-contact induced by the Oersted field opens the possibility for spin wave mode co-existence including a non-linear self-localized spin-wave bullet and a propagating mode. By means of micromagnetic simulations, here we show that in systems with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the free layer, two propagating spin wave modes with different frequency and spatial distribution can be excited simultaneously. Our results indicate that in-plane magnetized spin transfer nano-contacts in PMA materials do not host a solitonic self-localized spin-wave bullet, which is different from previous studies for systems with in plane magnetic anisotropy. This feature renders them interesting for nano-scale magnonic waveguides and crystals since magnon transport can be configured by tuning the applied current.

  9. Time-resolved pulse-counting lock-in detection of laser induced fluorescence in the presence of a strong background emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelissier, B.; Sadeghi, N.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a time-resolved pulse-counting system well adapted for the detection of continuous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signals in repetitive phenomena, when a strong background emission is present. It consists of 256 channels coupled to a first in first out memory and interfaced to a 486 DX 33 PC, for data storage. It accepts time-averaged count rates up to 450 kcount/s. Time between channels can be set from 12.5 ns to several μs and the dead time between two consecutive cycles of the physical phenomena is less than 20 ns. In phase with a chopper, which modulates the laser beam, it adds the observed photon signal to the channel memories when the beam is on and substracts it when the beam is stopped, acting like a lock-in amplifier which detect only the modulated part of the signal. The minimum detectivity on the LIF signal is only limited by the shot noise of the plasma induced emission signal. As an application, we studied the time variation of the Ar + *( 2 G 9/2 ) metastable ions, detected by LIF, in two types of plasmas. Their radiative lifetime and collisional quenching frequencies were deduced from their decay rate in the afterglow of a pulsed Helicon reactor. We also observed the evolution of their density in a 455 kHz capacitively coupled argon discharge. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Time-resolved pulse-counting lock-in detection of laser induced fluorescence in the presence of a strong background emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissier, B.; Sadeghi, N.

    1996-10-01

    We describe a time-resolved pulse-counting system well adapted for the detection of continuous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signals in repetitive phenomena, when a strong background emission is present. It consists of 256 channels coupled to a first in first out memory and interfaced to a 486 DX 33 PC, for data storage. It accepts time-averaged count rates up to 450 kcount/s. Time between channels can be set from 12.5 ns to several μs and the dead time between two consecutive cycles of the physical phenomena is less than 20 ns. In phase with a chopper, which modulates the laser beam, it adds the observed photon signal to the channel memories when the beam is on and substracts it when the beam is stopped, acting like a lock-in amplifier which detect only the modulated part of the signal. The minimum detectivity on the LIF signal is only limited by the shot noise of the plasma induced emission signal. As an application, we studied the time variation of the Ar+*(2G9/2) metastable ions, detected by LIF, in two types of plasmas. Their radiative lifetime and collisional quenching frequencies were deduced from their decay rate in the afterglow of a pulsed Helicon reactor. We also observed the evolution of their density in a 455 kHz capacitively coupled argon discharge.

  11. Construction of pECFP-C1- CIRP and its effect on cold- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... in cold-induced growth suppression of mouse fibroblasts. (Nishiyama et al. ... it can protect cells at lower temperature, what is the exact mechanism of this ..... RBM3 overexpression reduced apoptosis of muscle cells and the ...

  12. Evidence for the Task-Induced Involvement Construct in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition through Digital Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the suitability of mobile vocabulary games for inducing a state of incidental vocabulary acquisition. Draw Something, a social digital drawing game in which players draw and guess words, was selected as a focus for this investigation. Results from an exploratory factor analysis of the questionnaire data…

  13. The characterization of six auxin-induced tomato GH3 genes uncovers a member, SlGH3.4, strongly responsive to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dehua; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Aiqun; Wang, Huimin; Liu, Jianjian; Liu, Junli; Gu, Mian; Sun, Shubin; Xu, Guohua

    2015-04-01

    In plants, the GH3 gene family is widely considered to be involved in a broad range of plant physiological processes, through modulation of hormonal homeostasis. Multiple GH3 genes have been functionally characterized in several plant species; however, to date, limited works to study the GH3 genes in tomato have been reported. Here, we characterize the expression and regulatory profiles of six tomato GH3 genes, SlGH3.2, SlGH3.3, SlGH3.4, SlGH3.7, SlGH3.9 and SlGH3.15, in response to different phytohormone applications and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization. All six GH3 genes showed inducible responses to external IAA, and three members were significantly up-regulated in response to AM symbiosis. In particular, SlGH3.4, the transcripts of which were barely detectable under normal growth conditions, was strongly activated in the IAA-treated and AM fungal-colonized roots. A comparison of the SlGH3.4 expression in wild-type plants and M161, a mutant with a defect in AM symbiosis, confirmed that SlGH3.4 expression is highly correlated to mycorrhizal colonization. Histochemical staining demonstrated that a 2,258 bp SlGH3.4 promoter fragment could drive β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression strongly in root tips, steles and cortical cells of IAA-treated roots, but predominantly in the fungal-colonized cells of mycorrhizal roots. A truncated 654 bp promoter failed to direct GUS expression in IAA-treated roots, but maintained the symbiosis-induced activity in mycorrhizal roots. In summary, our results suggest that a mycorrhizal signaling pathway that is at least partially independent of the auxin signaling pathway has evolved for the co-regulation of the auxin- and mycorrhiza-activated GH3 genes in plants. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Construction and expression of pEgr-sHemopexin recombinant plasmid induced by ionizing radiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guiquan; Jilin Univ., Changchun; Xu Chuanjie; Yang Wen; Piao Chunji; Dong Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To clone mouse secretable Hemopexin (sPEX) cDNA, construct pEgr-sPEX recombinant plasmid and detect the expression of recombinant plasmid in B16F10 cells. Methods: Hemopexin cDNA was amplified from the NIH3T3 cells by RT-PCR. After the cDNA identified by sequencing, the pEgr-sPEX recombinant plasmid was constructed and the plasmid was transfected into B16F10 cells with liposome and the expression of PEX induced by ionizing radiation in B16F10 cells was detected by Western blotting. Results: The sequencing results proved the cloned sPEX cDNA to be completely identical with that reported in the GenBank. The mouse sPEX cDNA was inserted correctly into expression vector and expressed successfully. Conclusion: The mouse sPEX cDNA is cloned successfully and it is confirmed that pEgr-sPEX possesses the radiation inducing expression characteristics in vitro. (authors)

  15. Construction and Development of a Cardiac Tissue-Specific and Hypoxia-Inducible Expression Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Ghaderi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cardiovascular gene therapy is a sophisticated approach, thanks to the safety of vectors, stable transgene expression, delivery method, and different layers of the heart. To date, numerous expression vectors have been introduced in biotechnology and biopharmacy industries in relation to genetic manipulation. Despite the rapid growth of these modalities, they must be intelligently designed, addressing the cardiac-specific transgene expression and less side effects. Herein, we conducted a pilot project aiming to design a cardiac-specific hypoxia-inducible expression cassette. Methods: We explored a new approach to design an expression cassette containing cardiac specific enhancer, hypoxia response elements (HRE, cardiac specific promoter, internal ribosome entry site (IRES, and beta globin poly A sequence to elicit specific and inducible expression of the gene of interest. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP was sub-cloned by BglII and NotI into the cassette. The specificity and inducible expression of the cassette was determined in both mouse myoblast C2C12 and mammary glandular tumor 4T1 as ‘twin’ cells. eGFP expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence microscope and flow cytometry at 520 nm emission peak. Results: Our data revealed that the designed expression cassette provided tissue specific and hypoxia inducible (O2<1% transgene expression. Conclusion: It is suggested that cardiac-specific enhancer combined with cardiac-specific promoter are efficient for myoblast specific gene expression. As well, this is for the first time that HRE are derived from three well known hypoxia-regulated promoters. Therefore, there is no longer need to overlap PCR process for one repeated sequence just in one promoter.

  16. Repletion of zinc in zinc-deficient cells strongly up-regulates IL-1β-induced IL-2 production in T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaboul, Doha; Rosenkranz, Eva; Uciechowski, Peter; Rink, Lothar

    2012-10-01

    Mild zinc deficiency in humans negatively affects IL-2 production resulting in declined percentages of cytolytic T cells and decreased NK cell lytic activity, which enhances the susceptibility to infections and malignancies. T-cell activation is critically regulated by zinc and the normal physiological zinc level in T-cells slightly lies below the optimal concentration for T-cell functions. A further reduction in zinc level leads to T-cell dysfunction and autoreactivity, whereas high zinc concentrations (100 μM) were shown to inhibit interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced IL-1 receptor kinase (IRAK) activation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which zinc regulates the IL-1β-induced IL-2 expression in T-cells. Zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells increased intracellular zinc levels by altering the expression of zinc transporters, particularly Zip10 and Zip12. A zinc signal was observed in the murine T-cell line EL-4 6.1 after 1 h of stimulation with IL-1β, measured by specific zinc sensors FluoZin-3 and ZinPyr-1. This signal is required for the phosphorylation of MAPK p38 and NF-κB subunit p65, which triggers the transcription of IL-2 and strongly increases its production. These results indicate that short-term zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells leads to a fast rise in zinc levels which subsequently enhance cytokine production. In conclusion, low and excessive zinc levels might be equally problematic for zinc-deficient subjects, and stabilized zinc levels seem to be essential to avoid negative concentration-dependent zinc effects on T-cell activation.

  17. Elongation Factor Tu and Heat Shock Protein 70 Are Membrane-Associated Proteins from Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Capable of Inducing Strong Immune Response in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Jiang

    Full Text Available Chronic non-progressive pneumonia, a disease that has become a worldwide epidemic has caused considerable loss to sheep industry. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae is the causative agent of interstitial pneumonia in sheep, goat and bighorn. We here have identified by immunogold and immunoblotting that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70 are membrane-associated proteins on M. ovipneumonaiea. We have evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo by immunizing BALB/c mice with both purified recombinant proteins rEF-Tu and rHSP70. The sera of both rEF-Tu and rHSP70 treated BALB/c mice demonstrated increased levels of IgG, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12(p70, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. In addition, ELISPOT assay showed significant increase in IFN-γ+ secreting lymphocytes in the rHSP70 group when compared to other groups. Collectively our study reveals that rHSP70 induces a significantly better cellular immune response in mice, and may act as a Th1 cytokine-like adjuvant in immune response induction. Finally, growth inhibition test (GIT of M. ovipneumoniae strain Y98 showed that sera from rHSP70 or rEF-Tu-immunized mice inhibited in vitro growth of M. ovipneumoniae. Our data strongly suggest that EF-Tu and HSP70 of M. ovipneumoniae are membrane-associated proteins capable of inducing antibody production, and cytokine secretion. Therefore, these two proteins may be potential candidates for vaccine development against M. ovipneumoniae infection in sheep.

  18. Human leukemia antigen-A*0201-restricted epitopes of human endogenous retrovirus W family envelope (HERV-W env) induce strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaoning; Li, Shan; Zhao, Lijuan; Xiao, Ran; Wang, Xiuling; Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) has been reported to be related to several human diseases, including autoimmune disorders, and it could activate innate immunity. However, there are no reports investigating whether human leukemia antigen (HLA)-A*0201 + restriction is involved in the immune response caused by HERV-W env in neuropsychiatric diseases. In the present study, HERV-W env-derived epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201 are described with the potential for use in adoptive immunotherapy. Five peptides displaying HLA-A*0201-binding motifs were predicted using SYFEPITHI and BIMAS, and synthesized. A CCK-8 assay showed peptides W, Q and T promoted lymphocyte proliferation. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HLA-A*0201 + donors with each of these peptides induced peptide-specific CD8 + T cells. High numbers of IFN-γ-secreting T cells were also detectable after several weekly stimulations with W, Q and T. Besides lysis of HERV-W env-loaded target cells, specific apoptosis was also observed. These data demonstrate that human T cells can be sensitized toward HERV-W env peptides (W, Q and T) and, moreover, pose a high killing potential toward HERV-W env-expressing U251 cells. In conclusion, peptides W Q and T, which are HERV-W env antigenic epitopes, have both antigenicity and immunogenicity, and can cause strong T cell immune responses. Our data strengthen the view that HERV-W env should be considered as an autoantigen that can induce autoimmunity in neuropsychiatric diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. These data might provide an experimental foundation for a HERV-W env peptide vaccine and new insight into the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases.

  19. Stress-induced deficits in working memory and visuo-constructive abilities in Special Operations soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Doran, Anthony; Steffian, George; Hazlett, Gary; Southwick, Steven M

    2006-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.

  20. Commercial bacterins did not induce detectable levels of antibodies in mice against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens strongly recognized by swine immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Fisch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae results in major economic losses to the swine industry. Hence, the identification of factors that provide protection against EP could help to develop effective vaccines. One such factor that provides partial protection are bacterins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the induction of antibodies against fifteen M. hyopneumoniae antigens, strongly recognized by the swine immune system during natural infection, in mice vaccinated with six commercial bacterins. Each group of mice was inoculated with one bacterin, and seroconversion was assessed by indirect ELISA using recombinant antigens and M. hyopneumoniae 7448 whole cell extract. Sera from one inoculated group recognized antigen MHP_0067, and sera from four inoculated groups recognized antigens MHP_0513 and MHP_0580. None of the bacterins was able to induce seroconversion against the twelve remaining antigens. This absence of a serological response could be attributed to the lack of antigen expression in M. hyopneumoniae strains used in bacterin production. Additionally the partial protection provided by these vaccines could be due to low expression or misfolding of antigens during vaccine preparation. Therefore, the supplementation of bacterins with these recombinant antigens could be a potential alternative in the development of more effective vaccines.

  1. Guest Induced Strong Cooperative One- and Two-Step Spin Transitions in Highly Porous Iron(II) Hofmann-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-López, Lucı A; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Seredyuk, Maksym; Muñoz, M Carmen; Haukka, Matti; Real, José Antonio

    2017-06-19

    The synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic, calorimetric, and Mössbauer studies of a series of new Hofmann-type spin crossover (SCO) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is reported. The new SCO-MOFs arise from self-assembly of Fe II , bis(4-pyridyl)butadiyne (bpb), and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - or [M II (CN) 4 ] 2- (M II = Ni, Pd). Interpenetration of four identical 3D networks with α-Po topology are obtained for {Fe(bpb)[Ag I (CN) 2 ] 2 } due to the length of the rod-like bismonodentate bpb and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - ligands. The four networks are tightly packed and organized in two subsets orthogonally interpenetrated, while the networks in each subset display parallel interpenetration. This nonporous material undergoes a very incomplete SCO, which is rationalized from its intricate structure. In contrast, the single network Hofmann-type MOFs {Fe(bpb)[M II (CN) 4 ]}·nGuest (M II = Ni, Pd) feature enhanced porosity and display complete one-step or two-step cooperative SCO behaviors when the pores are filled with two molecules of nitrobenzene or naphthalene that interact strongly with the pyridyl and cyano moieties of the bpb ligands via π-π stacking. The lack of these guest molecules favors stabilization of the high-spin state in the whole range of temperatures. However, application of hydrostatic pressure induces one- and two-step SCO.

  2. Field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of large-span spatial cable-truss system under strong wind or typhoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhihong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure wind-resistance safety of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in southeast coast area of China,and to prepare something for revising of current codes of practice or technical standards,the present paper conducts field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of a practical and typical large-span spatial cable-truss system-lunar stadium in Yueqing city.Wind loading and wind effects on full-scale structure under strong wind or typhoon in real architectural environment can be obtained directly and effectively.Field measurement is the best way to investigate the wind loading property,wind effects,and wind-structure interactions of large-span flexible system.Measured data will be highly valuable for scientific research and practical design.On the other hand,it also provides the basis of wind-resistance safety design of this kind of tension structures.If any creative development,it would dramatically improve the research level of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in our country.

  3. Construction of a Risk Assessment Model for Rainfall-Induced Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chen, Jing-Wen; Lin, Wei-Chung

    2013-04-01

    The unstable geology and steep terrain in the mountainous regions of Taiwan make these areas vulnerable to landslides and debris flow during typhoons and heavy rains. According to the Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs of Taiwan, there were 500 typhoons and over one thousand storms in Taiwan between 1897 and 2011. Natural disasters caused 3.5 billion USD of damage between 1983 and 2011. Thus, the construction of risk assessment model for landslides is essential to disaster prevention. This study employed genetic adaptive neural networks (GANN) with texture analysis in the classification of high-resolution satellite images from which data related to surface conditions in mountainous areas of Taiwan were derived. Ten landslide hazard potential factors are included: slope, geology, elevation, distance from the fault, distance from water, terrain roughness, slope roughness, effective accumulated rainfall and developing situation. By using correlation test, GANN, weight analysis and dangerous value method, levels and probabilities of landslide of the research areas are presented. Then, through geographic information system the landslide potential map is plotted to distinguish high potential regions from low potential regions. Through field surveys, interviews with district officials and a review of relevant literature, the probability of a sediment disaster was estimated as well as the vulnerability of the villages concerned and the degree to which these villages were prepared, to construct a risk evaluation model. The regional risk map was plotted with the help of GIS and the landslide assessment model. The risk assessment model can be used by authorities to make provisions for high-risk areas, to reduce the number of casualties and social costs of sediment disasters.

  4. The Construction and Identification of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Fang Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to establish an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML cells in vitro and identify their biological characteristics. Methods: Cells from the AML-infiltrated skin from an M6 patient were infected with a lentivirus carrying OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and C-MYC to induce iPSCs. The characteristics of the iPSCs were confirmed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP staining. The proliferation ability of iPSCs was detected with a CCK-8 assay. The expression of pluripotency markers was measured by immunostaining, and the expression of stem cell-related genes was detected by qRT-PCR; distortion during the induction process was detected by karyotype analysis; the differentiation potential of iPSCs was determined by embryoid body-formation and teratoma-formation assays. ALP staining confirmed that these cells exhibited positive staining and had the characteristics of iPSCs. Results: The CCK-8 assay showed that the iPSCs had the ability to proliferate. Immunostaining demonstrated that iPSC clones showed positive expression of NANOG, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. qRT-PCR results revealed that the mRNA expression of Nanog, Lin28, Cripto, FOX3, DNMT3b, DPPA2, and DPPA4 significantly increased in iPSCs. Karyotype analysis found no chromosome aberration in the iPSCs. The results of the embryoid body-formation and teratoma-formation assays indicated that the iPSCs had the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers. Conclusion: Our study provided evidence that an iPSC line derived from AML cells was successfully established.

  5. Addition of αGal HyperAcute™ technology to recombinant avian influenza vaccines induces strong low-dose antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Alex Chen

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza represents a severe public health threat. Over the last decade, the demand for highly efficacious vaccines against avian influenza viruses has grown, especially after the 2013 H7N9 outbreak in China that resulted in over 600 human cases with over 200 deaths. Currently, there are several H5N1 and H7N9 influenza vaccines in clinical trials, all of which employ traditional oil-in-water adjuvants due to the poor immunogenicity of avian influenza virus antigens. In this study, we developed potent recombinant avian influenza vaccine candidates using HyperAcute™ Technology, which takes advantage of naturally-acquired anti-αGal immunity in humans. We successfully generated αGal-positive recombinant protein and virus-like particle vaccine candidates of H5N1 and H7N9 influenza strains using either biological or our novel CarboLink chemical αGal modification techniques. Strikingly, two doses of 100 ng αGal-modified vaccine, with no traditional adjuvant, was able to induce a much stronger humoral response in αGT BALB/c knockout mice (the only experimental system readily available for testing αGal in vivo than unmodified vaccines even at 10-fold higher dose (1000 ng/dose. Our data strongly suggest that αGal modification significantly enhances the humoral immunogenicity of the recombinant influenza vaccine candidates. Use of αGal HyperAcute™ technology allows significant dose-sparing while retaining desired immunogenicity. Our success in the development of highly potent H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine candidates demonstrated the potential of αGal HyperAcute™ technology for the development of vaccines against other infectious diseases.

  6. Construction of pEgr.p-TNFα and its expression in NIH3T3 cells induced by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Congmei; Li Xiuyi; Liu Shuzheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and amplify Egr-1 promoter, construct pEgr.p-TNFα and study its response to different doses of ionizing radiation. Methods: Egr-1 promote was isolated from genomic DNA by PCR to construct pEgr.p-TNFα expression plasmid. Plasmids were transfected into NIH3T3 cells with liposome and the expression level of TNFα was detected by ELISA after irradiation with different doses of X-ray. Results: The sequence of Egr-1 promoter obtained was essentially same as reported. Egr-1 promoter and TNF α cDNA were inserted into expression vector correctly. Eight hours after irradiation with different doses of X-rays, the expression level of TNFα was higher than that of nonirradiated group (P< 0.05-0.001). Conclusion: Egr-1 promoter obtained can be activated by ionizing irradiation and regulate the expression of downstream gene. Low dose irradiation is for the first time found to be able to induce the expression of the downstream gene. the observation may be of potential significance in tumor therapy

  7. 3D Bioprinting Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Constructs for In Situ Cell Proliferation and Successive Multilineage Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2017-09-01

    The ability to create 3D tissues from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is poised to revolutionize stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including individualized, patient-specific stem cell-based treatments. There are, however, few examples of tissue engineering using iPSCs. Their culture and differentiation is predominantly planar for monolayer cell support or induction of self-organizing embryoids (EBs) and organoids. Bioprinting iPSCs with advanced biomaterials promises to augment efforts to develop 3D tissues, ideally comprising direct-write printing of cells for encapsulation, proliferation, and differentiation. Here, such a method, employing a clinically amenable polysaccharide-based bioink, is described as the first example of bioprinting human iPSCs for in situ expansion and sequential differentiation. Specifically, we have extrusion printed the bioink including iPSCs, alginate (Al; 5% weight/volume [w/v]), carboxymethyl-chitosan (5% w/v), and agarose (Ag; 1.5% w/v), crosslinked the bioink in calcium chloride for a stable and porous construct, proliferated the iPSCs within the construct and differentiated the same iPSCs into either EBs comprising cells of three germ lineages-endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm, or more homogeneous neural tissues containing functional migrating neurons and neuroglia. This defined, scalable, and versatile platform is envisaged being useful in iPSC research and translation for pharmaceuticals development and regenerative medicine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Construction and confirmation of the plasmid of human mitochondrial DNA 4977 bp deletion induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaosui; Zhou Lijun; Wang Yuxiao; Qu Jia; Feng Jiangbing; Lu Xue; Chen Deqing; Liu Qingjie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To construct a stable plasmid that spanning deleted human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 4977 bp induced by ionizing radiation and another one for control DNA fragment, in order to use in the human mitochondrial genome study in the future. Methods: The peripheral blood, which had no mtDNA 4977 bp deletion found in previous study, was exposed to 10 Gy 60 Co γ-rays in vitro. The total cell DNA was extracted and PCR was carried out: a nest-PCR of three-round PCR was used for the mtDNA 4977 bp deletion and one- round regular PCR was used for the control ND1 gene. The PCR products were used for transfection by electroporation and the positive clones were obtained after screening. The plasmid DNA was isolated and sequenced after enzymatic digestion and purification. The sequence result was BLASTed with the human mitochondrial genome. Results: The sizes of PCR products for the flanked 4977 bp deletion and the ND1 gene were similar with those predicted according to GeneBank. The sequences for the positive clones were above 99 per cent homologous with the human mitochondrial genome after BLASTed. Conclusion: The plasmids for deleted human mtDNA 4977 bp and control DNA fragment have been constructed successfully, and they could be used in the quality and quantity studies on human mtDNA 4977 bp deletion. (authors)

  9. Matching asteroid population characteristics with a model constructed from the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Marzari, Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-10-01

    From the results of a comprehensive asteroid population evolution model, we conclude that the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis is consistent with the observed population statistics of small asteroids in the main belt including binaries and contact binaries. These conclusions rest on the asteroid rotation model of Marzari et al. ([2011]Icarus, 214, 622-631), which incorporates both the YORP effect and collisional evolution. This work adds to that model the rotational fission hypothesis, described in detail within, and the binary evolution model of Jacobson et al. ([2011a] Icarus, 214, 161-178) and Jacobson et al. ([2011b] The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 736, L19). Our complete asteroid population evolution model is highly constrained by these and other previous works, and therefore it has only two significant free parameters: the ratio of low to high mass ratio binaries formed after rotational fission events and the mean strength of the binary YORP (BYORP) effect. We successfully reproduce characteristic statistics of the small asteroid population: the binary fraction, the fast binary fraction, steady-state mass ratio fraction and the contact binary fraction. We find that in order for the model to best match observations, rotational fission produces high mass ratio (> 0.2) binary components with four to eight times the frequency as low mass ratio (<0.2) components, where the mass ratio is the mass of the secondary component divided by the mass of the primary component. This is consistent with post-rotational fission binary system mass ratio being drawn from either a flat or a positive and shallow distribution, since the high mass ratio bin is four times the size of the low mass ratio bin; this is in contrast to the observed steady-state binary mass ratio, which has a negative and steep distribution. This can be understood in the context of the BYORP-tidal equilibrium hypothesis, which predicts that low mass ratio binaries survive for a significantly

  10. Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keranen, Katie M.; Weingarten, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    The ability of fluid-generated subsurface stress changes to trigger earthquakes has long been recognized. However, the dramatic rise in the rate of human-induced earthquakes in the past decade has created abundant opportunities to study induced earthquakes and triggering processes. This review briefly summarizes early studies but focuses on results from induced earthquakes during the past 10 years related to fluid injection in petroleum fields. Study of these earthquakes has resulted in insights into physical processes and has identified knowledge gaps and future research directions. Induced earthquakes are challenging to identify using seismological methods, and faults and reefs strongly modulate spatial and temporal patterns of induced seismicity. However, the similarity of induced and natural seismicity provides an effective tool for studying earthquake processes. With continuing development of energy resources, increased interest in carbon sequestration, and construction of large dams, induced seismicity will continue to pose a hazard in coming years.

  11. Ketamine alleviates bradykinin-induced disruption of the mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cell-constructed tight junction barrier via a calcium-mediated redistribution of occludin polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jui-Tai; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Ta-Liang; Tai, Yu-Ting; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ketamine could suppress bradykinin-induced intracellular calcium mobilization. • Ketamine induced B1R protein and mRNA expressions but did not change B2R protein levels. • Ketamine attenuated bradykinin-induced redistribution of occludin tight junctions. • Ketamine prevented bradykinin-induced breakage of the MCEC-constructed tight junction barrier. - Abstract: Following brain injury, a sequence of mechanisms leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent cerebral edema, which is thought to begin with activation of bradykinin. Our previous studies showed that ketamine, a widely used intravenous anesthetic agent, can suppress bradykinin-induced cell dysfunction. This study further aimed to evaluate the protective effects of ketamine against bradykinin-induced disruption of the mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cell (MCEC)-constructed tight junction barrier and the possible mechanisms. Exposure of MCECs to bradykinin increased intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentrations in a time-dependent manner. However, pretreatment of MCECs with ketamine time- and concentration-dependently lowered the bradykinin-induced calcium influx. As to the mechanisms, although exposure of MCECs to ketamine induced bradykinin R1 receptor protein and mRNA expression, this anesthetic did not change levels of the bradykinin R2 receptor, a major receptor that responds to bradykinin stimulation. Bradykinin increased amounts of soluble occludin in MCECs, but pretreatment with ketamine alleviated this disturbance in occludin polymerization. Consequently, exposure to bradykinin decreased the transendothelial electronic resistance in the MCEC-constructed tight junction barrier. However, pretreatment with ketamine attenuated the bradykinin-induced disruption of the tight junction barrier. Taken together, this study shows that ketamine at a therapeutic concentration can protect against bradykinin-induced breakage of the BBB via suppressing calcium

  12. Strong association between failure of T cell homeostasis and the syncytium-inducing phenotype among HIV-1-infected men in the Amsterdam Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J. J.; Gange, S. J.; Schuitemaker, H.; Coutinho, R. A.; van Leeuwen, R.; Margolick, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between T cell homeostasis and its failure and 1.) the occurrence of AIDS and 2.) the switch from the non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) to the syncytium-inducing (SI) HIV virus phenotype. METHODS: For each of 325 homosexual men in the Amsterdam Cohort Study, the slope

  13. Baculovirus-expressed constructs induce immunoglobulin G that recognizes VAR2CSA on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Nielsen, Morten A; Turner, Louise

    2006-01-01

    We raised specific antisera against recombinant VAR2CSA domains produced in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. All were reactive in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but only insect cell-derived constructs induced immunoglobulin G (IgG) that was reactive with native VAR2CSA on the surface...

  14. Construction of Egr1-mediated human truncated apoptosis inducing factor expression vector and its expression regularity induced by radiation in breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianfeng; Gong Shouliang; Wang Zhicheng; Fang Fang; Liu Yang; Wu Jiahui

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To clone human truncated apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) cDNA sequence, and to construct early growth response 1 (Egr1)-mediated recombinant expression vector pcDNA 3.1-Egr1-AIF Δ1-480 (pEgr1-AIFΔ 1-480 ), and to observe its regularity induced by radiation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Methods: The total mRNA extracted from human leukemia Jurkat cells used as template, and the human AIFΔ 1-480 was acquired by RT-PCR, and it was linked to pMD18T vector for sequencing. Egr1 fragment was digested from pMD19T-Egr1 by restrictive enzyme, and the Egr1-mediated expression plasmid pEgr1-AIFΔ 1-480 was constructed by gene recombination. There were control group, pcDNA3.1 group, pAIFΔ 1-480 group and pEgr1-AIFΔ 1-480 group in the experiment. After the plasmids in various groups were transfected into human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, the AIF and AIFΔ 1-480 protein expression time-effect (0, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h after 2.0 Gy irradiation) and dose-effect (24 h after 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 Gy irradiation) regularity were measured by Western blotting method. Results: The sequencing results showed that the AIFΔ 1-480 acquired by RT-PCR was consistent with the sequence expected, the pEgr-AIFΔ 1-480 was confirmed by PCR and restrictive enzyme digestion. After 0-48 h the MCF-7 cells were irradiated by 2.0 Gy, and the AIF protein expressed in the cells in each group, and it increased significantly from 4 h and the AIF expressions in 4, 12, 24 and 48 h groups were higher than that in 0 h group (P<0.05), and it reached to maximum value at 48 h. But the AIFΔ 1-480 protein expressed in the cells in pAIFΔ 1-480 and pEgr1-AIFΔ 1-480 groups from 2 h (P<0.05), and it reached to peak value at 24 h. The AIFΔ 1-480 expressions in pEgr1-AIFΔ 1-480 group were higher than those in pAIFΔ 1-480 group at and 48 h (P<0.05). After the MCF-7 cells were irradiated by 0-5 Gy for 24 h, the AIF protein expressed in the cells in each group, but the AIFΔ 1-480 protein

  15. IL-15 induces strong but short-lived tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cell responses through the regulation of Tim-3 in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heon, Elise K. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Wulan, Hasi [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Macdonald, Loch P.; Malek, Adel O.; Braunstein, Glenn H.; Eaves, Connie G.; Schattner, Mark D. [Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Allen, Peter M.; Alexander, Michael O.; Hawkins, Cynthia A.; McGovern, Dermot W.; Freeman, Richard L. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Amir, Eitan P.; Huse, Jason D. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Zaltzman, Jeffrey S.; Kauff, Noah P.; Meyers, Paul G. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gleason, Michelle H., E-mail: GleasonM@cblabs.org [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Overholtzer, Michael G., E-mail: OverholtzerM@cblabs.org [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wiseman, Sam S. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2015-08-14

    IL-15 has pivotal roles in the control of CD8{sup +} memory T cells and has been investigated as a therapeutic option in cancer therapy. Although IL-15 and IL-2 share many functions together, including the stimulation of CD8 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, the different in vivo roles of IL-15 and IL-2 have been increasingly recognized. Here, we explored the different effects of IL-15 and IL-2 on tumor-infiltrating (TI) T cells from resected breast tumors. We found that neither IL-2 nor IL-15 induced intratumoral CD8 T cell proliferation by itself, but after CD3/CD28-stimulation, IL-15 induced significantly higher proliferation than IL-2 during early time points, at day 2, day 3 and day 6. However, the IL-15-induced proliferation leveled off at day 9 and day 12, whereas IL-2 induced lower but progressive proliferation at each time point. Furthermore, IL-15 caused an early and robust increase of IFN-γ in the supernatant of TI cell cultures, which diminished at later time points, while the IL-2-induced IFN-γ production remained constant over time. In addition, the IL-15-costimulated CD8 T cells presented higher frequencies of apoptotic cells. The diminishing IL-15-induced response was possibly due to regulatory and/or exhaustion mechanisms. We did not observe increased IL-10 or PD-1 upregulation, but we have found an increase of Tim-3 upregulation on IL-15-, but not IL-2-stimulated cells. Blocking Tim-3 function using anti-Tim-3 antibodies resulted in increased IL-15-induced proliferation and IFN-γ production for a prolonged period of time, whereas adding Tim-3 ligand galectin 9 led to reduced proliferation and IFN-γ production. Our results suggest that IL-15 in combination of Tim-3 blocking antibodies could potentially act as an IL-2 alternative in tumor CD8 T cell expansion in vitro, a crucial step in adoptive T cell therapy. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of IL-15 and IL-2 on tumor-infiltrating (TI) T cells of breast cancer. • IL-15

  16. Insights into the Mechanisms Involved in Strong Hemorrhage and Dermonecrosis Induced by Atroxlysin-Ia, a PI-Class Snake Venom Metalloproteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana Aparecida; Colombini, Mônica; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Serrano, Solange M T; Moura-da-Silva, Ana Maria

    2017-08-02

    Hemorrhage is the most prominent effect of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) in human envenomation. The capillary injury is a multifactorial effect caused by hydrolysis of the components of the basement membrane (BM). The PI and PIII classes of SVMPs are abundant in viperid venoms and hydrolyze BM components. However, hemorrhage is associated mostly with PIII-class SVMPs that contain non-catalytic domains responsible for the binding of SVMPs to BM proteins, facilitating enzyme accumulation in the tissue and enhancing its catalytic efficiency. Here we report on Atroxlysin-Ia, a PI-class SVMP that induces hemorrhagic lesions in levels comparable to those induced by Batroxrhagin (PIII-class), and a unique SVMP effect characterized by the rapid onset of dermonecrotic lesions. Atroxlysin-Ia was purified from B. atrox venom, and sequence analyses indicated that it is devoid of non-catalytic domains and unable to bind to BM proteins as collagen IV and laminin in vitro or in vivo. The presence of Atroxlysin-Ia was diffuse in mice skin, and localized mainly in the epidermis with no co-localization with BM components. Nevertheless, the skin lesions induced by Atroxlysin-Ia were comparable to those induced by Batroxrhagin, with induction of leukocyte infiltrates and hemorrhagic areas soon after toxin injection. Detachment of the epidermis was more intense in skin injected with Atroxlysin-Ia. Comparing the catalytic activity of both toxins, Batroxrhagin was more active in the hydrolysis of a peptide substrate while Atroxlysin-Ia hydrolyzed more efficiently fibrin, laminin, collagen IV and nidogen. Thus, the results suggest that Atroxlysin-Ia bypasses the binding step to BM proteins, essential for hemorrhagic lesions induced by PII- and P-III class SVMPs, causing a significantly fast onset of hemorrhage and dermonecrosis, due to its higher proteolytic capacity on BM components.

  17. Inducing Strong Non-Linearities in a Phonon Trapping Quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator Coupled to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Goryachev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave resonator is designed to coherently trap phonons in such a way that they are well confined and immune to suspension losses so they exhibit extremely high acoustic Q-factors at low temperature, with Q × f products of order 10 18 Hz. In this work we couple such a resonator to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID amplifier and investigate effects in the strong signal regime. Both parallel and series connection topologies of the system are investigated. The study reveals significant non-Duffing response that is associated with the nonlinear characteristics of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity provides quasi-periodic structure of the spectrum in both incident power and frequency. The result gives an insight into the open loop behaviour of a future Cryogenic Quartz Oscillator in the strong signal regime.

  18. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  19. ZmGns, a maize class I b-1,3-glucanase, is induced by biotic stresses and possesses strong antimicrobial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Rong Xie; Yenjit Raruang; Zhi-Yuan Chen; Robert L Brown; Thomas E Cleveland

    2015-01-01

    Plant b‐1,3‐glucanases are members of the patho-genesis‐related protein 2 (PR‐2) family, which is one of the 17 PR protein families and plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. One of the differential y expressed proteins (spot 842) identified in a recent proteomic comparison between five pairs of closely related maize (Zea mays L.) lines differing in aflatoxin resistance was further investigated in the present study. Here, the corresponding cDNA was cloned from maize and designated as ZmGns. ZmGns encodes a protein of 338 amino acids containing a potential signal peptide. The expression of ZmGns was detectible in al tissues studied with the highest level in silks. ZmGns was significantly induced by biotic stresses including three bacteria and the fungus Aspergillus flavus. ZmGns was also induced by most abiotic stresses tested and growth hormones including salicylic acid. In vivo, ZmGns showed a significant inhibitory activity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea when it overexpressed in Arabidopsis. Its high level of expression in the silk tissue and its induced expression by phytohormone treatment, as wel as by bacterial and fungal infections, suggest it plays a complex role in maize growth, development, and defense.

  20. Growth-induced strong pinning sites in laser ablated YBa2Cu3O7-δ films with a non-random distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijbregtse, J.M.; Klaassen, F.C.; Geest, R.C.F. van der; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, the authors showed that natural linear defects are the origin of the high critical currents in laser ablated YGBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ films. Combining wet-chemical etching and Atomic Force Microscopy, they find that these dislocations are created by island coalescence during growth. Consequently, the defect density can be reproducibly varied by manipulating the density of growth islands, which in turn depends on the substrate temperature. Interestingly, the radial defect distribution function approaches zero at small distances, indicating short range order. Therefore, they are now able to study vortex matter in films with a tailored non-random distribution of natural strong pinning sites

  1. An Unusual Strong Visible-Light Absorption Band in Red Anatase TiO2 Photocatalyst Induced by Atomic Hydrogen-Occupied Oxygen Vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongqiang; Yin, Li-Chang; Gong, Yue; Niu, Ping; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Gu, Lin; Chen, Xingqiu; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    Increasing visible light absorption of classic wide-bandgap photocatalysts like TiO 2 has long been pursued in order to promote solar energy conversion. Modulating the composition and/or stoichiometry of these photocatalysts is essential to narrow their bandgap for a strong visible-light absorption band. However, the bands obtained so far normally suffer from a low absorbance and/or narrow range. Herein, in contrast to the common tail-like absorption band in hydrogen-free oxygen-deficient TiO 2 , an unusual strong absorption band spanning the full spectrum of visible light is achieved in anatase TiO 2 by intentionally introducing atomic hydrogen-mediated oxygen vacancies. Combining experimental characterizations with theoretical calculations reveals the excitation of a new subvalence band associated with atomic hydrogen filled oxygen vacancies as the origin of such band, which subsequently leads to active photo-electrochemical water oxidation under visible light. These findings could provide a powerful way of tailoring wide-bandgap semiconductors to fully capture solar light. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Strong work-hardening behavior induced by the solid solution strengthening of dendrites in TiZr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, D.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Jiao, W.T. [College of Education, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Y.F. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Vocational and Technical College of Building Materials, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, B.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma, M.Z., E-mail: mz550509@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Hardness of dendrite of TiZr-based BMGMCs increases. • Strong work-hardening behavior is obtained after solid solution strengthening. • Lattice distortions of dendrite suffering from rapid cooling are detected. - Abstract: A series of TiZr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) with distinguished mechanical properties are successfully fabricated by adding different volume fractions of Ta (Ti{sub 38.8}Zr{sub 28.8}Cu{sub 6.2}Be{sub 16.2}Nb{sub 10} as the basic composition, denoted as Ta{sub 0.0}–Ta{sub 8.0}). Along with the growth of precipitated phase, typical dendritic morphology is fully developed in the TiZr-based BMGMCs of Ta{sub 8.0}. Energy-dispersive spectrometry analysis of the dendrites and glass matrix indicates that the metallic elements of Nb and Ta should preferentially form solid solution into dendrites. The chaotic structure of high-temperature precipitate phase is trapped down by the rapid cooling of the copper-mould. The detected lattice distortions in the dendrites are attributed to the strong solid solution strengthening of the metallic elements of Ti, Zr, Nb, and Ta. These lattice distortions increase the resistance of the dislocation motion and pin the dislocations, thus the strength and hardness of dendrite increase. Dendrites create a strong barrier for the shear band propagation and generate multiple shear bands after solid solution strengthening, thereby providing the TiZr-based BMGMCs with greatly improved capacity to sustain plastic deformation and resistance to brittle fracture. Thus, the TiZr-based BMGMCs possess distinguished work-hardening capability. Among these TiZr-based BMGMCs, the sample Ta{sub 0.5} possesses the largest plastic strain (ε{sub p}) at 20.3% and ultimate strength (σ{sub max}) of 2613 MPa during compressive loading. In addition, the sample of Ta{sub 0.5} exhibits work-hardening up to an ultrahigh tensile strength of 1680 MPa during the tensile process, and then progressively

  3. Recombinant in vitro assembled hepatitis C virus core particles induce strong specific immunity enhanced by formulation with an oil-based adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON ACOSTA-RIVERO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, immunogenicity of recombinant in vitro assembled hepatitis C virus core particles, HCcAg.120-VLPs, either alone or in combination with different adjuvants was evaluated in BALB/c mice. HCcAg.120-VLPs induced high titers of anti-HCcAg.120 antibodies and virus-specific cellular immune responses. Particularly, HCcAg.120-VLPs induced specific delayed type hypersensitivity, and generated a predominant T helper 1 cytokine pro file in immunized mice. In addition, HCcAg.120-VLPs prime splenocytes proliferate in vitro against different HCcAg.120-specific peptides, depending on either the immunization route or the adjuvant used. Remarkably, immunization with HCcAg.120-VLPs/Montanide ISA888 formulation resulted in a significant control of vaccinia virus titer in mice after challenge with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HCV core protein, vvCore. Animals immunized with this formulation had a marked increase in the number of IFN-γ producing spleen cells, after stimulation with P815 cells infected with vvCore. These results suggest the use of recombinant HCV core particles as components of therapeutic or preventive vaccine candidates against HCV.

  4. The iSelect 9 K SNP analysis revealed polyploidization induced revolutionary changes and intense human selection causing strong haplotype blocks in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chao, Shiaoman; Li, Tian; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Lanfen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2017-01-30

    A Chinese wheat mini core collection was genotyped using the wheat 9 K iSelect SNP array. Total 2420 and 2396 polymorphic SNPs were detected on the A and the B genome chromosomes, which formed 878 haplotype blocks. There were more blocks in the B genome, but the average block size was significantly (P polyploidization of wheat (both tetraploidization and hexaploidization) induced revolutionary changes in both the A and the B genomes, with a greater increase of gene diversity compared to their diploid ancestors. Modern breeding has dramatically increased diversity in the gene coding regions, though obvious blocks were formed on most of the chromosomes in both tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Tag-SNP markers identified in this study can be used for marker assisted selection using haplotype blocks as a wheat breeding strategy. This strategy can also be employed to facilitate genome selection in other self-pollinating crop species.

  5. Prevalence and impact of constipation and bowel dysfunction induced by strong opioids: a cross-sectional survey of 520 patients with cancer pain: DYONISOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, L; Béziaud, N; Labreze, L; Giardina, V; Caussé, C; Chuberre, B; Allaert, F A; Perrot, S

    2013-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients with cancer pain according to the Knowles-Eccersley-Scott symptom score (KESS), the different symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD), and to assess the impact of OIBD on patient's quality-of-life. A cross-sectional observational study, using the KESS questionnaire and the physician's subjective assessment of constipation, and other questionnaires and questions on constipation, OIBD, and quality-of-life, carried out on 1 day at oncology day centres and hospitals. Five hundred and twenty patients were enrolled at 77 centres in France; 61.7% of patients (n = 321) showed a degree of constipation that is problematic for the patient according to KESS (between 9-39). Even more patients, 85.7% (n = 438), were considered constipated according to the physician's subjective assessment-despite laxative use (84.7% of patients). Quality-of-life was significantly reduced in constipated vs non-constipated patients for both PAC-QoL (p hospitalization (16% of patients), pain (75% of patients), and frequent changes in opioid and laxative treatment. This cross-sectional study, in a selected population of cancer patients, has measured prevalence and impact of OIBD. Further confirmation could be sought through the use of longitudinal studies, and larger populations, such as non-cancer pain patients treated with opioids. Cancer patients taking opioids for pain are very frequently constipated, even if they are prescribed laxatives. This leads to relevant impairments of quality-of-life.

  6. Gene conversion is strongly induced in human cells by double-strand breaks and is modulated by the expression of BCL-XL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, Claudia; Pierce, Andrew J.; Gauny, Stacey S.; Jasin, Maria; Kronenberg, Amy

    2001-01-01

    Homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is a well-established mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability in rodent cells, and it has been assumed that HDR is of similar importance in the repair of DSBs in human cells. However, in addition to promoting genomic stability, some outcomes of homologous recombination can be deleterious, suggesting that factors exist to regulate HDR. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of BCL-2 or BCL-xL enhanced the frequency of x-ray-induced mutations involving the TK1 locus, including loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events presumed to arise by mitotic recombination. The present study was designed to test whether HDR is a prominent DSB repair pathway in human cells, and to directly determine whether ectopic expression of BCL-xL affects HDR. We used the B-lymphoblastoid cell line TK6, which expresses wild-type TP53 and resembles normal lymphocytes in undergoing apoptosis following genotoxic stress. U sing isogenic derivatives of TK6 cells (TK6-neo, TK6-bcl-xL), we find that a DSB in an integrated HDR reporter stimulates gene conversion 40-50-fold in TK6-neo cells, demonstrating that a DSB can be efficiently repaired by gene conversion in human cells. Significantly, DSB-induced gene conversion events are 3- to 4-fold more frequent in BCL-xL overexpressing cells. The results demonstrate that HDR plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity in human cells and that ectopic expression of BCL-xL enhances HDR of DSBs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight a function for BCL-xL in modulating DSB repair in human cells

  7. Functional characterisation of an Arabidopsis gene strongly induced by ionising radiation: the gene coding the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (AthPARP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet-Chabeaud, G.

    2000-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana, the model-system in plant genetics, has been used to study the responses to DNA damage, experimentally introduced by γ-irradiation. We have characterised a radiation-induced gene coding a 111 kDa protein, AthPARP-1, homologous to the human poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (hPARP-1). As hPARP-1 is composed by three functional domain with characteristic motifs, AthPARP-1 binds to DNA bearing single-strand breaks and shows DNA damage-dependent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The preferential expression of AthPARP-1 in mitotically active tissues is in agreement with a potential role in the maintenance of genome integrity during DNA replication, as proposed for its human counterpart. Transcriptional gene activation by ionising radiation of AthPARP-1 and AthPARP-2 genes is to date plant specific activation. Our expression analyses after exposure to various stress indicate that 1) AthPARP-1 and AthPARP-2 play an important role in the response to DNA lesions, particularly they are activated by genotoxic agents implicating the BER DNA repair pathway 2) AthPARP-2 gene seems to play an additional role in the signal transduction induced by oxidative stress 3) the observed expression profile of AthPARP-1 is in favour of the regulation of AthPARP-1 gene expression at the level of transcription and translation. This mode of regulation of AthPARP-1 protein biosynthesis, clearly distinct from that observed in animals, needs the implication of a so far unidentified transcription factor that is activated by the presence of DNA lesions. The major outcome of this work resides in the isolation and characterisation of such new transcription factor, which will provide new insight on the regulation of plant gene expression by genotoxic stress. (author) [fr

  8. A bistriphenylamine-substituted spirobifluorene derivative exhibiting excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off and strong two-photon induced blue fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hongyao [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Xiao, Haibo, E-mail: xiaohb@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Ding, Lei [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Zhang, Chun; Ren, Aiming [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Li, Bo [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2015-02-01

    A spirobifluorene-bridged donor/donor chromophore, 2,7-bis-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phen-1-yl)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (SPF-TP), was found to combine excellent transparency in the near UV–visible region (λ{sub cut-off} ≤ 420 nm), large two-photon absorption cross-section (4.5 × 10{sup 3}GM) and high thermal stability (T{sub d} = 501 °C). In comparison to the reported two-photon absorption molecules, SPF-TP represents the best thermal stability so far described in the literature. The main electronic factors explaining the high two-photon absorption activities of SPF-TP were analyzed by theoretical calculations. Cyclic voltammograms were employed to explore the causes of the excellent transparency of SPF-TP. It was found that the spiroconjugation effect is responsible for the excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off in SPF-TP. In addition, SPF-TP is also a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material with high fluorescence quantum yield (Φ = 0.90, in THF). - Highlights: • We report a molecule exhibiting excellent transparency. • The two-photon absorption cross-section is as large as 4.5 × 10{sup 3}GM. • The molecule exhibits excellent thermal stability. • The molecule is a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material. • The spiroconjugation effect explains the excellent properties.

  9. A bistriphenylamine-substituted spirobifluorene derivative exhibiting excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off and strong two-photon induced blue fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Hongyao; Xiao, Haibo; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Chun; Ren, Aiming; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A spirobifluorene-bridged donor/donor chromophore, 2,7-bis-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phen-1-yl)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (SPF-TP), was found to combine excellent transparency in the near UV–visible region (λ cut-off  ≤ 420 nm), large two-photon absorption cross-section (4.5 × 10 3 GM) and high thermal stability (T d  = 501 °C). In comparison to the reported two-photon absorption molecules, SPF-TP represents the best thermal stability so far described in the literature. The main electronic factors explaining the high two-photon absorption activities of SPF-TP were analyzed by theoretical calculations. Cyclic voltammograms were employed to explore the causes of the excellent transparency of SPF-TP. It was found that the spiroconjugation effect is responsible for the excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off in SPF-TP. In addition, SPF-TP is also a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material with high fluorescence quantum yield (Φ = 0.90, in THF). - Highlights: • We report a molecule exhibiting excellent transparency. • The two-photon absorption cross-section is as large as 4.5 × 10 3 GM. • The molecule exhibits excellent thermal stability. • The molecule is a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material. • The spiroconjugation effect explains the excellent properties

  10. Low iron availability in continuous in vitro colonic fermentations induces strong dysbiosis of the child gut microbial consortium and a decrease of main metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Alexandra; Fehlbaum, Sophie; Chassard, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Lacroix, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency affects an estimated 2 billion people worldwide and Fe supplements are a common corrective strategy. The impact of Fe deficiency and Fe supplementation on the complex microbial community of the child gut was studied using in vitro colonic fermentation models inoculated with immobilized fecal microbiota. Chyme media (all Fe chelated by 2,2’-dipyridyl to 26.5 mg Fe L-1) mimicking Fe deficiency and supplementation were continuously fermented. Fermentation effluent samples were analyzed daily on the microbial composition and metabolites by qPCR, 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing and HPLC. Low Fe conditions (1.56 mg Fe L-1) significantly decreased acetate concentrations and subsequent Fe supplementation (26.5 mg Fe L-1) restored acetate production. High Fe following normal Fe conditions had no impact on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity. During very low Fe conditions (0 . 9 m g F e L-1 or Fe chelated b y 2,2’-dipyridyl), a decrease of Roseburia spp./Eubacterium rectale, Clostridium Cluster IV members and Bacteroides spp. was observed while Lactobacillus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae increased consistent with a decrease of butyrate (-84%) and propionate (-55%). The strong dysbiosis of the gut microbiota together with decrease of main gut microbiota metabolites observed with very low iron conditions could weaken the barrier effect of the microbiota and negatively impact gut health. PMID:22845175

  11. Low iron availability in continuous in vitro colonic fermentations induces strong dysbiosis of the child gut microbial consortium and a decrease in main metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Alexandra; Fehlbaum, Sophie; Chassard, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael B; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency affects an estimated 2 billion people worldwide, and Fe supplements are a common corrective strategy. The impact of Fe deficiency and Fe supplementation on the complex microbial community of the child gut was studied using in vitro colonic fermentation models inoculated with immobilized fecal microbiota. Chyme media (all Fe chelated by 2,2'-dipyridyl to 26.5 mg Fe L(-1) ) mimicking Fe deficiency and supplementation were continuously fermented. Fermentation effluent samples were analyzed daily on the microbial composition and metabolites by quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing, and HPLC. Low Fe conditions (1.56 mg Fe L(-1) ) significantly decreased acetate concentrations, and subsequent Fe supplementation (26.5 mg Fe L(-1) ) restored acetate production. High Fe following normal Fe conditions had no impact on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity. During very low Fe conditions (0.9 mg Fe L(-1) or Fe chelated by 2,2'-dipyridyl), a decrease in Roseburia spp./Eubacterium rectale, Clostridium Cluster IV members and Bacteroides spp. was observed, while Lactobacillus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae increased consistent with a decrease in butyrate (-84%) and propionate (-55%). The strong dysbiosis of the gut microbiota together with decrease in main gut microbiota metabolites observed with very low iron conditions could weaken the barrier effect of the microbiota and negatively impact gut health. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Amorphization-induced strong localization of electronic states in CsPbBr3 and CsPbCl3 studied by optical absorption measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, S.; Sakai, T.; Tanaka, H.; Saito, T.

    1998-11-01

    Optical absorption spectra of amorphous CsPbX3 films (X=Br,Cl) are characterized by two Gaussian bands near the fundamental edge, with the optical energy gap largely blueshifted and the absorption intensity strongly reduced as compared with the crystalline films. The peak energies of the bands are close to those of the A and C bands of Pb-doped alkali halides. The spectral features are discussed in terms of a molecular orbital theory based on a quasicomplex Pb2+(X-)6 model similar to the complex model for the doped alkali halides. It is shown that not only Pb2+ 6s and 6p extended states near the band edges but also X- p states contributing to upper valence bands are localized by amorphization. The transitions from the localized Pb2+ 6s to 6p states produce the spin-orbit allowed 3P1 and dipole allowed 1P1 states responsible for the two Gaussians. The localized X- p states lie deeper in energy than the localized Pb2+ 6s state and only contribute to higher-energy absorption above the Gaussian bands, giving the reason for the reduced absorption near the fundamental edge. The blueshift of the optical energy gap is attributed to the disappearance of k dispersions for these one-electron states.

  13. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II production is a strong predictive marker for extrahepatic metastases in early hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Yoon Jun; Heo, Dae Seog; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians often experience extrahepatic metastases associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), even if no evidence of intrahepatic recurrence after treatment is observed. We investigated the pretreatment predictors of extrahepatic metastases in HCC patients. Patients diagnosed with HCC without evidence of extrahepatic metastases were prospectively enrolled. We evaluated the correlation between extrahepatic metastases and pretreatment clinical variables, including serum tumor markers. A total of 354 patients were included. Seventy-six patients (21%) had extrahepatic metastases during the observation period (median, 25.3 months; range, 0.6-51.3 months). Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) production levels, the intrahepatic tumor stage, platelet count, and portal vein thrombosis were independent risk factors for extrahepatic metastases. Patients with a PIVKA-II production ≥ 300 mAU/mL had a 2.7-fold (95% confidence interval; 1.5-4.8; P < 0.001) and 3.7-fold (95% confidence interval; 2.0-6.6; P < 0.001) increased risk for extrahepatic metastases after adjustment for stage, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein ≥ 400 ng/mL, and portal vein thrombosis according to the AJCC and BCLC staging systems, respectively. PIVKA-II production levels might be a good candidate predictive marker for extrahepatic HCC metastases, especially in patients with smaller and/or fewer tumors in the liver with in stages regardless of serum alpha-fetoprotein

  14. An amino-terminal segment of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein presented on hepatitis B virus core particles induces a strong and highly cross-reactive antibody response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldmacher, Astrid; Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Borisova, Galina; Berriman, John A.; Roseman, Alan M.; Crowther, R. Anthony; Fischer, Jan; Musema, Shamil; Gelderblom, Hans R.; Lundkvist, Aake; Renhofa, Regina; Ose, Velta; Krueger, Detlev H.; Pumpens, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core particles tolerate the insertion of the amino-terminal 120 amino acids (aa) of the Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein. Here, we demonstrate that the insertion of 120 amino-terminal aa of N proteins from highly virulent Dobrava and Hantaan hantaviruses allows the formation of chimeric core particles. These particles expose the inserted foreign protein segments, at least in part, on their surface. Analysis by electron cryomicroscopy of chimeric particles harbouring the Puumala virus (PUUV) N segment revealed 90% T = 3 and 10% T = 4 shells. A map computed from T = 3 shells shows additional density splaying out from the tips of the spikes producing the effect of an extra shell of density at an outer radius compared with wild-type shells. The inserted Puumala virus N protein segment is flexibly linked to the core spikes and only partially icosahedrally ordered. Immunisation of mice of two different haplotypes (BALB/c and C57BL/6) with chimeric core particles induces a high-titered and highly cross-reactive N-specific antibody response in both mice strains

  15. Strain-induced collagen organization at the micro-level in fibrin-based engineered tissue constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de N.; Kanters, F.M.W.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Bouten, C.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    Full understanding of strain-induced collagen organization in complex tissue geometries to create tissues with predefined collagen architecture has not been achieved. This is mainly due to our limited knowledge of collagen remodeling in developing tissues. Here we investigate strain-induced collagen

  16. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  17. Therapy-Induced Neuroplasticity of Language in Chronic Post Stroke Aphasia: A Mismatch Negativity Study of (A)Grammatical and Meaningful/less Mini-Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchese, Guglielmo; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Stahl, Benjamin; Dreyer, Felix R.; Mohr, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Clinical language performance and neurophysiological correlates of language processing were measured before and after intensive language therapy in patients with chronic (time post stroke >1 year) post stroke aphasia (PSA). As event-related potential (ERP) measure, the mismatch negativity (MMN) was recorded in a distracted oddball paradigm to short spoken sentences. Critical ‘deviant’ sentence stimuli where either well-formed and meaningful, or syntactically, or lexico-semantically incorrect. After 4 weeks of speech-language therapy (SLT) delivered with high intensity (10.5 h per week), clinical language assessment with the Aachen Aphasia Test battery demonstrated significant linguistic improvements, which were accompanied by enhanced MMN responses. More specifically, MMN amplitudes to grammatically correct and meaningful mini-constructions and to ‘jabberwocky’ sentences containing a pseudoword significantly increased after therapy. However, no therapy-related changes in MMN responses to syntactically incorrect strings including agreement violations were observed. While MMN increases to well-formed meaningful strings can be explained both at the word and construction levels, the neuroplastic change seen for ‘jabberwocky’ sentences suggests an explanation in terms of constructions. The results confirm previous reports that intensive SLT leads to improvements of linguistic skills in chronic aphasia patients and now demonstrate that this clinical improvement is associated with enhanced automatic brain indexes of construction processing, although no comparable change is present for ungrammatical strings. Furthermore, the data confirm that the language-induced MMN is a useful tool to map functional language recovery in PSA. PMID:28111545

  18. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  19. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  20. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  1. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  2. Expanding the molecular toolbox for Lactococcus lactis: construction of an inducible thioredoxin gene fusion expression system

    OpenAIRE

    Cambillau Christian; O'Connell-Motherway Mary; Douillard François P; van Sinderen Douwe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The development of the Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE) system in the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris represents a cornerstone in the use of Gram-positive bacterial expression systems for biotechnological purposes. However, proteins that are subjected to such over-expression in L. lactis may suffer from improper folding, inclusion body formation and/or protein degradation, thereby significantly reducing the yield of soluble target protei...

  3. Strong interaction effects in hadronic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The WKB method is applied to the calculation of strong interaction-induced level widths and shifts of hadronic atoms. The calculation, while elementary enough for undergraduate quantum mechanics students, gives a good account of kaonic and antiprotonic atom data

  4. Study on construction of pEgr-hPTEN expression vector induced by irradiation and its anti-tumor effect in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Mei; Jin Guanghui; Piao Chunji; Li Xiuyi; Liu Linlin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To clone the cDNA of human tumor suppressor gene-PTEN, construct pEgr-hPTEN expression vector induced by irradiation and study its inhibitory effect on proliferation of malignant glioma cell line SHG-44 transfected steadily with pEgr-hPTEN after different doses of X-ray irradiation. Methods: A DNA fragment about 1200 bp, PTEN, was amplified from human placenta tissues by using RT-nested PCR and was cloned into pUCm-T vector after automatic sequencing, then the fragment was inserted into a vector pcD-NA3.1-Egr to construct an expression vector pEgr-hPTEN. pEgr-hPTEN was transfected into SHG-44 cells in vitro. Stably transfected cell line SHG-44-sPTEN was selected through G418. The inhibitor effect on SHG-44-sPTEN was observed after different doses of X-ray irradiation in vitro. Results: The PTEN cDNA has been cloned correctly and its expression vector pEgr-hPTEN was also constructed. Growth of SHG-44 cells was inhibited significantly by stable pEgr-hPTEN transfection combined with X-ray irradiation. With the increase of dose, the inhibitory effect was enhanced within 5 Gy. Conclusion: Human tumor suppressor gene-PTEN cDNA has been cloned and its expression vector has been constructed. The tumor was inhibited significantly by gene-radiotherapy in vitro. The result provides the theoretical and experimental basis for improvement of clinical radiotherapeutic effect on tumors

  5. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  6. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  7. Differential RNAi responses of Nicotiana benthamiana individuals transformed with a hairpin-inducing construct during Plum pox virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Christian; Castro, Álvaro; Barba, Paola; Rubio, Julia; Sánchez, Evelyn; Carvajal, Denisse; Aguirre, Carlos; Tapia, Eduardo; DelÍ Orto, Paola; Decroocq, Veronique; Prieto, Humberto

    2014-10-01

    Gene silencing and large-scale small RNA analysis can be used to develop RNA interference (RNAi)-based resistance strategies for Plum pox virus (PPV), a high impact disease of Prunus spp. In this study, a pPPViRNA hairpin-inducing vector harboring two silencing motif-rich regions of the PPV coat protein (CP) gene was evaluated in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) plants. Wild-type NB plants infected with a chimeric PPV virus (PPV::GFP) exhibited affected leaves with mosaic chlorosis congruent to GFP fluorescence at 21 day post-inoculation; transgenic lines depicted a range of phenotypes from fully resistant to susceptible. ELISA values and GFP fluorescence intensities were used to select transgenic-resistant (TG-R) and transgenic-susceptible (TG-S) lines for further characterization of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by large-scale small RNA sequencing. In infected TG-S and untransformed (WT) plants, the observed siRNAs were nearly exclusively 21- and 22-nt siRNAs that targeted the whole PPV::GFP genome; 24-nt siRNAs were absent in these individuals. Challenged TG-R plants accumulated a full set of 21- to 24-nt siRNAs that were primarily associated with the selected motif-rich regions, indicating that a trans-acting siRNAs process prevented viral multiplication. BLAST analysis identified 13 common siRNA clusters targeting the CP gene. 21-nt siRNA sequences were associated with the 22-nt siRNAs and the scarce 23- and 24-nt molecules in TG-S plants and with most of the observed 22-, 23-, and 24-nt siRNAs in TG-R individuals. These results validate the use of a multi-hot spot silencing vector against PPV and elucidate the molecules by which hairpin-inducing vectors initiate RNAi in vivo.

  8. Impaired photosynthesis and increased leaf construction costs may induce floral stress during episodes of global warming over macroevolutionary timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Matthew; Belcher, Claire M; Killi, Dilek; Dewhirst, Rebecca A; Materassi, Alessandro; Raschi, Antonio; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-04-18

    Global warming events have coincided with turnover of plant species at intervals in Earth history. As mean global temperatures rise, the number, frequency and duration of heat-waves will increase. Ginkgo biloba was grown under controlled climatic conditions at two different day/night temperature regimes (25/20 °C and 35/30 °C) to investigate the impact of heat stress. Photosynthetic CO 2 -uptake and electron transport were reduced at the higher temperature, while rates of respiration were greater; suggesting that the carbon balance of the leaves was adversely affected. Stomatal conductance and the potential for evaporative cooling of the leaves was reduced at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the capacity of the leaves to dissipate excess energy was also reduced at 35/30 °C, indicating that photo-protective mechanisms were no longer functioning effectively. Leaf economics were adversely affected by heat stress, exhibiting an increase in leaf mass per area and leaf construction costs. This may be consistent with the selective pressures experienced by fossil Ginkgoales during intervals of global warming such as the Triassic - Jurassic boundary or Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. The physiological and morphological responses of the G. biloba leaves were closely interrelated; these relationships may be used to infer the leaf economics and photosynthetic/stress physiology of fossil plants.

  9. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced exhaustion disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Ake; Asberg, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Construction and modelling of an inducible positive feedback loop stably integrated in a mammalian cell-line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velia Siciliano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between topology and dynamics of transcriptional regulatory networks in mammalian cells is essential to elucidate the biology of complex regulatory and signaling pathways. Here, we characterised, via a synthetic biology approach, a transcriptional positive feedback loop (PFL by generating a clonal population of mammalian cells (CHO carrying a stable integration of the construct. The PFL network consists of the Tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA, whose expression is regulated by a tTA responsive promoter (CMV-TET, thus giving rise to a positive feedback. The same CMV-TET promoter drives also the expression of a destabilised yellow fluorescent protein (d2EYFP, thus the dynamic behaviour can be followed by time-lapse microscopy. The PFL network was compared to an engineered version of the network lacking the positive feedback loop (NOPFL, by expressing the tTA mRNA from a constitutive promoter. Doxycycline was used to repress tTA activation (switch off, and the resulting changes in fluorescence intensity for both the PFL and NOPFL networks were followed for up to 43 h. We observed a striking difference in the dynamics of the PFL and NOPFL networks. Using non-linear dynamical models, able to recapitulate experimental observations, we demonstrated a link between network topology and network dynamics. Namely, transcriptional positive autoregulation can significantly slow down the "switch off" times, as compared to the non-autoregulated system. Doxycycline concentration can modulate the response times of the PFL, whereas the NOPFL always switches off with the same dynamics. Moreover, the PFL can exhibit bistability for a range of Doxycycline concentrations. Since the PFL motif is often found in naturally occurring transcriptional and signaling pathways, we believe our work can be instrumental to characterise their behaviour.

  11. Construction and modelling of an inducible positive feedback loop stably integrated in a mammalian cell-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Velia; Menolascina, Filippo; Marucci, Lucia; Fracassi, Chiara; Garzilli, Immacolata; Moretti, Maria Nicoletta; di Bernardo, Diego

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the relationship between topology and dynamics of transcriptional regulatory networks in mammalian cells is essential to elucidate the biology of complex regulatory and signaling pathways. Here, we characterised, via a synthetic biology approach, a transcriptional positive feedback loop (PFL) by generating a clonal population of mammalian cells (CHO) carrying a stable integration of the construct. The PFL network consists of the Tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA), whose expression is regulated by a tTA responsive promoter (CMV-TET), thus giving rise to a positive feedback. The same CMV-TET promoter drives also the expression of a destabilised yellow fluorescent protein (d2EYFP), thus the dynamic behaviour can be followed by time-lapse microscopy. The PFL network was compared to an engineered version of the network lacking the positive feedback loop (NOPFL), by expressing the tTA mRNA from a constitutive promoter. Doxycycline was used to repress tTA activation (switch off), and the resulting changes in fluorescence intensity for both the PFL and NOPFL networks were followed for up to 43 h. We observed a striking difference in the dynamics of the PFL and NOPFL networks. Using non-linear dynamical models, able to recapitulate experimental observations, we demonstrated a link between network topology and network dynamics. Namely, transcriptional positive autoregulation can significantly slow down the "switch off" times, as compared to the non-autoregulated system. Doxycycline concentration can modulate the response times of the PFL, whereas the NOPFL always switches off with the same dynamics. Moreover, the PFL can exhibit bistability for a range of Doxycycline concentrations. Since the PFL motif is often found in naturally occurring transcriptional and signaling pathways, we believe our work can be instrumental to characterise their behaviour.

  12. Affine Equivalence and Constructions of Cryptographically Strong Boolean Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Math. Dissertation Supervisor Jon T. Butler Distinguished Professor Department of Elec. and Comp. Eng. David R. Canright Associate Professor...Linear structures in blockciphers,” in Advances in Cryptology, EU- ROCRYPT’87, ser. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, D. Chaum and W. L. Price, Eds

  13. Were volatile organic compounds the inducing factors for subjective symptoms of employees working in newly constructed hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Tomoko; Horike, Tokushi; Ohashi, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Wang, Da-Hong; Kira, Shohei

    2004-08-01

    This study demonstrated possible relationships between environmental, personal, and occupational factors and changes in the subjective health symptoms of 214 employees after the relocation of a hospital in a region of Japan. Eight indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in at least one of the 19 rooms investigated, and total VOC (TVOC) concentrations in 8 rooms exceeded the advisable value (400 microg/m(3)) established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Formaldehyde was detected in all the investigated rooms, but none of the results exceeded the guideline value (100 microg/m(3)). Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to select variables significantly associated with the subjective symptoms that can be induced by sick building syndrome. The results showed that subjective symptoms of deterioration in the skin, eye, ear, throat, chest, central nervous system, autonomic system, musculoskeletal system, and digestive system among employees were associated mainly with gender difference and high TVOC concentrations (>1200 microg/m(3)). Long work hours (>50 h per week) in females and smoking in males were to be blamed for the deterioration of their symptoms. The present findings suggest that to protect employees from indoor environment-related adverse health effects, it is necessary to reduce the concentration of indoor chemicals in new buildings, to decrease work hours, and to forbid smoking. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  15. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  16. Pellet feed adsorbed with the recombinant Lactococcus lactis BFE920 expressing SiMA antigen induced strong recall vaccine effects against Streptococcus iniae infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Beck, Bo Ram; Lee, Sun Min; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae Il; Song, Seong Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a fish feed vaccine that provides effective disease prevention and convenient application. A lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Lactococcus lactis BFE920, was modified to express the SiMA antigen, a membrane protein of Streptococcus iniae. The antigen was engineered to be expressed under the nisin promoter, which is induced by nisin produced naturally by the host LAB. Various sizes (40 ± 3.5 g, 80 ± 2.1 g, and 221 ± 2.4 g) of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were vaccinated by feeding the extruded pellet feed, onto which the SiMA-expressing L. lactis BFE920 (1.0 × 10(7) CFU/g) was adsorbed. Vaccine-treated feed was administered twice a day for 1 week, and priming and boosting were performed with a 1-week interval in between. The vaccinated fish had significantly elevated levels of antigen-specific serum antibodies and T cell marker mRNAs: CD4-1, CD4-2, and CD8a. In addition, the feed vaccine significantly induced T cell effector functions, such as the production of IFN-γ and activation of the transcription factor that induces its expression, T-bet. When the flounder were challenged by intraperitoneal infection and bath immersion with S. iniae, the vaccinated fish showed 84% and 82% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively. Furthermore, similar protective effects were confirmed even 3 months after vaccination in a field study (n = 4800), indicating that this feed vaccine elicited prolonged duration of immunopotency. In addition, the vaccinated flounder gained 21% more weight and required 16% less feed to gain a unit of body weight compared to the control group. The data clearly demonstrate that the L. lactis BFE920-SiMA feed vaccine has strong protective effects, induces prolonged vaccine efficacy, and has probiotic effects. In addition, this LAB-based fish feed vaccine can be easily used to target many different pathogens of diverse fish species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Construction of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived oriented bone matrix microstructure by using in vitro engineered anisotropic culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Ryosuke; Matsugaki, Aira; Isobe, Yoshihiro; Saku, Taro; Yun, Hui-Suk; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2018-02-01

    Bone tissue has anisotropic microstructure based on collagen/biological apatite orientation, which plays essential roles in the mechanical and biological functions of bone. However, obtaining an appropriate anisotropic microstructure during the bone regeneration process remains a great challenging. A powerful strategy for the control of both differentiation and structural development of newly-formed bone is required in bone tissue engineering, in order to realize functional bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we developed a novel anisotropic culture model by combining human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and artificially-controlled oriented collagen scaffold. The oriented collagen scaffold allowed hiPSCs-derived osteoblast alignment and further construction of anisotropic bone matrix which mimics the bone tissue microstructure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the construction of bone mimetic anisotropic bone matrix microstructure from hiPSCs. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that the hiPSCs-derived osteoblasts possess a high level of intact functionality to regulate cell alignment. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 360-369, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  19. Facile construction of fused benzimidazole-isoquinolinones that induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liu-Jun; Yang, Dong-Lin; Li, Shi-Qiang; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Tang, Yan; Lei, Jie; Frett, Brendan; Lin, Hui-Kuan; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Zhong-Zhu; Xu, Zhi-Gang

    2018-06-12

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent, malignant gastrointestinal tumors, and strategies and effectiveness of current therapy are limited. A series of benzimidazole-isoquinolinone derivatives (BIDs) was synthesized and screened to identify novel scaffolds for CRC. Of the compounds evaluated, 7g exhibited the most promising anti-cancer properties. Employing two CRC cell lines, SW620 and HT29, 7g was found to suppress growth and proliferation of the cell lines at a concentration of ∼20 µM. Treatment followed an increase in G 2 /M cell cycle arrest, which was attributed to cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) signaling deficiencies with simultaneous enhancement in p21 and p53 activity. In addition, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis was induced in CRC cells. Interestingly, 7g decreased phosphorylated AKT, mTOR and 4E-BP1 levels, while promoting the expression/stability of PTEN. Since PTEN controls input into the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, antiproliferative effects can be attributed to PTEN-mediated tumor suppression. Collectively, these results suggest that BIDs exert antitumor activity in CRC by impairing PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Against a small kinase panel, 7g exhibited low affinity at 5 µM suggesting anticancer properties likely stem through a non-kinase mechanism. Because of the novelty of BIDs, the structure can serve as a lead scaffold to design new CRC therapies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. <strong>Dense 3D Map Construction for Indoor Search and Rescuestrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Huang, Shoudong; Miró, Jaime Valls

    2007-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is a new simultaneous localization and mapping  SLAM algorithm for building dense three-dimensional maps using information ac- quired from a range imager and a conventional camera, for robotic search and rescue in unstructured indoor environments. A key challen...... invariant feature transformation SIFT feature detection and matching, random sampling consensus RANSAC , and least square 3D point sets ?tting. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques developed....

  1. Construction of nanometer cisplatin core-ferritin (NCC-F) and proteomic analysis of gastric cancer cell apoptosis induced with cisplatin released from the NCC-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xue-Tao; Huang, Lin; Huang, He-Qing

    2012-06-18

    Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence spectrometry were used to reveal the characteristics of both subunit disassociation and recombination in apo-pig pancreas ferritin (apoPPF) in an alkaline medium ranging reversibly from pH 7.0 to 13.0. The experimental results indicated that apoPPF could be completely disassociated into 24 free subunits at pH 13.0, and then these subunits could be quickly reassembled into the original apoPPF once the pH of the reactive medium was returned to pH7.0. This novel and simple method could be used to effectively construct a novel nanometer cisplatin core-PPF (NCC-PPF). The major characteristics of NCC-PPF were investigated using various analytical methods such as ultraviolet-spectrometry, circular dichroism spectrometry and TEM, which indicated that its molecular structure was still similar to that of the original apoPPF. Results from the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) method showed that 11.26 cisplatin (CDDP) molecules were successfully packaged within the NCC-PPF shell, indicating that each molecule of apoPPF had the ability to enwrap 11.26 CDDP molecules for constructing the NCC-PPF. Flow cytometry showed that NCC-PPF also had the ability to release CDDP for inducing the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells BGC823 (GCC), but this phenomenon could scarcely be observed using apoPPF. A differential proteomic technique using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels selected and identified the differential proteins from cell apoptosis in order to reveal the molecular pathway of GCC apoptosis by both NCC-PPF and free CDDP, giving 13 differential expression proteins. These differential proteins could be further classified into six groups, which were described as being involved in the regulation of apoptosis, RNA transcription, oxidative stress response, signal transduction, cell metabolism, and cytoskeleton changes. In addition, a real-time PCR method was used to prove the expression level of

  2. Bioconductive 3D nano-composite constructs with tunable elasticity to initiate stem cell growth and induce bone mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, Nitin [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Khanna, Kunal [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Sardesai, Varda S. [National Institute of Research in Reproductive Health, Mumbai 400012 (India); Singh, Atul K. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Temgire, Mayur; Kalita, Mridula Phukan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Kadam, Sachin S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Malkapur, Karad 415539, Dist. Satara, Maharashtra (India); Soni, Vivek P. [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bhartiya, Deepa [National Institute of Research in Reproductive Health, Mumbai 400012 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Wadhwani Research Center for Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Bioactive 3D composites play an important role in advanced biomaterial design to provide molecular coupling and improve integrity with the cellular environment of the native bone. In the present study, a hybrid lyophilized polymer composite blend of anionic charged sodium salt of carboxymethyl chitin and gelatin (CMCh{sub Na}-GEL) reinforced with nano-rod agglomerated hydroxyapatite (nHA) has been developed with enhanced biocompatibility and tunable elasticity. The scaffolds have an open, uniform and interconnected porous structure with an average pore diameter of 157 ± 30 μm and 89.47 + 0.03% with four dimensional X-ray. The aspect ratio of ellipsoidal pores decrease from 4.4 to 1.2 with increase in gelatin concentration; and from 2.14 to 1.93 with decrease in gelling temperature. The samples were resilient with elastic stain at 1.2 MPa of stress also decreased from 0.33 to 0.23 with increase in gelatin concentration. The crosslinker HMDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate) yielded more resilient samples at 1.2 MPa in comparison to glutaraldehyde. Increased crosslinking time from 2 to 4 h in continuous compression cycle show no improvement in maximum elastic stain of 1.2 MPa stress. This surface elasticity of the scaffold enables the capacity of these materials for adherent self renewal and cultivation of the NTERA-2 cL.D1 (NT2/D1), pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cell with biomechanical surface, as is shown here. Proliferation with MG-63, ALP activity and Alizarin red mineralization assay on optimized scaffold demonstrated ***p < 0.001 between different time points thus showing its potential for bone healing. In pre-clinical study histological bone response of the scaffold construct displayed improved activity of bone regeneration in comparison to self healing of control groups (sham) up to week 07 after implantation in rabbit tibia critical-size defect. Therefore, this nHA-CMCh{sub Na}-GEL scaffold composite exhibits inherent and efficient physicochemical, mechanical

  3. Bioconductive 3D nano-composite constructs with tunable elasticity to initiate stem cell growth and induce bone mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Nitin; Khanna, Kunal; Sardesai, Varda S.; Singh, Atul K.; Temgire, Mayur; Kalita, Mridula Phukan; Kadam, Sachin S.; Soni, Vivek P.; Bhartiya, Deepa; Bellare, Jayesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive 3D composites play an important role in advanced biomaterial design to provide molecular coupling and improve integrity with the cellular environment of the native bone. In the present study, a hybrid lyophilized polymer composite blend of anionic charged sodium salt of carboxymethyl chitin and gelatin (CMCh Na -GEL) reinforced with nano-rod agglomerated hydroxyapatite (nHA) has been developed with enhanced biocompatibility and tunable elasticity. The scaffolds have an open, uniform and interconnected porous structure with an average pore diameter of 157 ± 30 μm and 89.47 + 0.03% with four dimensional X-ray. The aspect ratio of ellipsoidal pores decrease from 4.4 to 1.2 with increase in gelatin concentration; and from 2.14 to 1.93 with decrease in gelling temperature. The samples were resilient with elastic stain at 1.2 MPa of stress also decreased from 0.33 to 0.23 with increase in gelatin concentration. The crosslinker HMDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate) yielded more resilient samples at 1.2 MPa in comparison to glutaraldehyde. Increased crosslinking time from 2 to 4 h in continuous compression cycle show no improvement in maximum elastic stain of 1.2 MPa stress. This surface elasticity of the scaffold enables the capacity of these materials for adherent self renewal and cultivation of the NTERA-2 cL.D1 (NT2/D1), pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cell with biomechanical surface, as is shown here. Proliferation with MG-63, ALP activity and Alizarin red mineralization assay on optimized scaffold demonstrated ***p < 0.001 between different time points thus showing its potential for bone healing. In pre-clinical study histological bone response of the scaffold construct displayed improved activity of bone regeneration in comparison to self healing of control groups (sham) up to week 07 after implantation in rabbit tibia critical-size defect. Therefore, this nHA-CMCh Na -GEL scaffold composite exhibits inherent and efficient physicochemical, mechanical and

  4. A preliminary study for constructing a bioartificial liver device with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamuro Masaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioartificial liver systems, designed to support patients with liver failure, are composed of bioreactors and functional hepatocytes. Immunological rejection of the embedded hepatocytes by the host immune system is a serious concern that crucially degrades the performance of the device. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are considered a desirable source for bioartificial liver systems, because patient-derived iPS cells are free from immunological rejection. The purpose of this paper was to test the feasibility of a bioartificial liver system with iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells. Methods Mouse iPS cells were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells by a multi-step differentiation protocol via embryoid bodies and definitive endoderm. Differentiation of iPS cells was evaluated by morphology, PCR assay, and functional assays. iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells were cultured in a bioreactor module with a pore size of 0.2 μm for 7 days. The amount of albumin secreted into the circulating medium was analyzed by ELISA. Additionally, after a 7-day culture in a bioreactor module, cells were observed by a scanning electron microscope. Results At the final stage of the differentiation program, iPS cells changed their morphology to a polygonal shape with two nucleoli and enriched cytoplasmic granules. Transmission electron microscope analysis revealed their polygonal shape, glycogen deposition in the cytoplasm, microvilli on their surfaces, and a duct-like arrangement. PCR analysis showed increased expression of albumin mRNA over the course of the differentiation program. Albumin and urea production was also observed. iPS-Heps culture in bioreactor modules showed the accumulation of albumin in the medium for up to 7 days. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the attachment of cell clusters to the hollow fibers of the module. These results indicated that iPS cells were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells after culture

  5. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  6. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  7. Towards precision measurements of parity violation in cesium: construction of a new experiment using an active detection method by induced emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, Ph.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments that show the breaking of parity invariance in atoms can be considered as valid tests of the electroweak theory complementary to those made at high energies. The accurate measurement of the weak charge of a cesium nucleus would bring useful information on radiative corrections. The experiment, that is proposed in this work concerns the strongly forbidden 6S-7S transition of cesium at 540 nm, aims at reaching an accuracy of 1% for this measurement. Cesium atoms are first excited from 6S level to 7S level by a pulsed laser (10 ns) in the presence of a longitudinal electrical field. Then they are detected through induced emission by a probe laser set on 7S-6P(3/2) transition at 1.470 μm. The transitory amplification of the probe beam can be over 100%.The vapour presents a strong plane dichroism due to the alignment of 7S level through the linear polarization of the pumping beam. The weak interaction in the atom makes this alignment tilt by a small angle (1 to 10 micro-radians) that the measurement of the polarization of the amplified probe enables us to determine. In this work we have described the 3 steps we have passed through: the test with a transverse field and a continuous laser beam, the use of a pulsed laser, and the setting of a longitudinal configuration. Preliminary results show that the experiment will be useful and feasible

  8. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  9. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  10. A truncated receptor-binding domain of MERS-CoV spike protein potently inhibits MERS-CoV infection and induces strong neutralizing antibody responses: implication for developing therapeutics and vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanying Du

    Full Text Available An emerging respiratory infectious disease with high mortality, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, is caused by a novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV. It was first reported in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and has now spread to eight countries. Development of effective therapeutics and vaccines is crucial to save lives and halt the spread of MERS-CoV. Here, we show that a recombinant protein containing a 212-amino acid fragment (residues 377-588 in the truncated receptor-binding domain (RBD: residues 367-606 of MERS-CoV spike (S protein fused with human IgG Fc fragment (S377-588-Fc is highly expressed in the culture supernatant of transfected 293T cells. The purified S377-588-Fc protein efficiently binds to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4, the receptor of MERS-CoV, and potently inhibited MERS-CoV infection, suggesting its potential to be further developed as a therapeutic modality for treating MERS-CoV infection and saving the patients' lives. The recombinant S377-588-Fc is able to induce in the vaccinated mice strong MERS-CoV S-specific antibodies, which blocks the binding of RBD to DPP4 receptor and effectively neutralizes MERS-CoV infection. These findings indicate that this truncated RBD protein shows promise for further development as an effective and safe vaccine for the prevention of MERS-CoV infection.

  11. [Construction of autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by amplified human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and its enhanced efficacy of inducing apoptosis in human ovarian carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yue; Shen, Keng; He, Chun-Xia

    2007-09-01

    To construct recombinant adenoviral vector expressing autocatalysis caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter amplified by two-step transcription amplification (hTERTp-TSTA), and investigate its antitumor effect in ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant adenoviruses expressing autocatalytic caspase-3 (rev-caspase-3) driven by hTERTp-TSTA were prepared, which were named as AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3. AdHT-rev-casp3, Ad-rev-casp3 and AdHTVP2G5-EGEP, which express rev-caspase-3 driven by hTERTp, cytomegalovirus promoter (CMVp) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), respectively, were used as controls. Western blot, cell counting kit (CCK-8), flow cytometry (FCM) and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) were used to detect the expression of p17, active subunit of caspase-3, and p85, and to measure cell survival rates, apoptotic rates and cell cycle distribution in ovarian cell line AO and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cell line HUVEC, following treatments of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3. subcutaneous tumor models and abdominally spread tumor models of human ovarian carcinoma using AO cells in BALB/c nude mice were established. Following treatments of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3, western blot was used to detect the expression of active caspase-3 in abdominally spread tumors and liver tissues, respectively, and the mouse survival rates and the volume of tumor nodules were measured, and the serum level of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were analyzed to monitor liver damages and HE staining was used to detect the histopathological changes of various organs. The levels of p17 expression in AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3-treated AO cells were significantly higher than that in Ad-rev-casp3 or AdHT-rev-casp3 treated AO cells, while no expression was observed in AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3-treated HUVEC. There was strong cell killing of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 of hTERT positive AO cells, but not of the hTERT-negative HUVEC cells

  12. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  13. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  14. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  15. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  16. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  17. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  18. Marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible cells embedded within a biologically-inspired construct promote recovery in a mouse model of peripheral vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Monge, Cristina; Delcroix, Gaëtan J-R; Bonnin-Marquez, Andrea; Valdes, Mike; Awadallah, Ead Lewis Mazen; Quevedo, Daniel F; Armour, Maxime R; Montero, Ramon B; Schiller, Paul C; Andreopoulos, Fotios M; D'Ippolito, Gianluca

    2017-02-17

    Peripheral vascular disease is one of the major vascular complications in individuals suffering from diabetes and in the elderly that is associated with significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. Stem cell therapy is being tested as an attractive alternative to traditional surgery to prevent and treat this disorder. The goal of this study was to enhance the protective and reparative potential of marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells by incorporating them within a bio-inspired construct (BIC) made of two layers of gelatin B electrospun nanofibers. We hypothesized that the BIC would enhance MIAMI cell survival and engraftment, ultimately leading to a better functional recovery of the injured limb in our mouse model of critical limb ischemia compared to MIAMI cells used alone. Our study demonstrated that MIAMI cell-seeded BIC resulted in a wide range of positive outcomes with an almost full recovery of blood flow in the injured limb, thereby limiting the extent of ischemia and necrosis. Functional recovery was also the greatest when MIAMI cells were combined with BICs, compared to MIAMI cells alone or BICs in the absence of cells. Histology was performed 28 days after grafting the animals to explore the mechanisms at the source of these positive outcomes. We observed that our critical limb ischemia model induces an extensive loss of muscular fibers that are replaced by intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), together with a highly disorganized vascular structure. The use of MIAMI cells-seeded BIC prevented IMAT infiltration with some clear evidence of muscular fibers regeneration.

  19. Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of Strong Hydrogen-Bonded Cluster Ions Y-(HF) n (Y=F, O2) Using Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with a HF Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kenya; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) was produced by a homemade HF generator in order to investigate the properties of strong hydrogen-bonded clusters such as (HF) n . The HF molecules were ionized in the form of complex ions associated with the negative core ions Y - produced by atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI). The use of APCDI in combination with the homemade HF generator led to the formation of negative-ion HF clusters Y - (HF) n (Y=F, O 2 ), where larger clusters with n ≥4 were not detected. The mechanisms for the formation of the HF, F - (HF) n , and O 2 - (HF) n species were discussed from the standpoints of the HF generator and APCDI MS. By performing energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on the cluster ions F - (HF) n ( n =1-3), the energies for the loss of HF from F - (HF) 3 , F - (HF) 2 , and F - (HF) were evaluated to be 1 eV or lower, 1 eV or higher, and 2 eV, respectively, on the basis of their center-of-mass energy ( E CM ). These E CM values were consistent with the values of 0.995, 1.308, and 2.048 eV, respectively, obtained by ab initio calculations. The stability of [O 2 (HF) n ] - ( n =1-4) was discussed on the basis of the bond lengths of O 2 H-F - (HF) n and O 2 - H-F(HF) n obtained by ab initio calculations. The calculations indicated that [O 2 (HF) 4 ] - separated into O 2 H and F - (HF) 3 .

  20. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  1. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected...... use of constructs traditionally associated with usability (e.g., easy-to-use, intuitive, and liked). Further analysis of the data is ongoing...

  2. Flower bud transcriptome analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and primary investigation of drought induced flowering: pathway construction and G-quadruplex prediction based on transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minglei; Wu, Ying; Jin, Shan; Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRXⅡ39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants.

  3. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  4. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  5. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  6. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  7. ITER towards the construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The ITER Project has been significantly developed in the last few years in preparation for its construction. The ITER Participant's Negotiators have developed the Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA), ready for finalisation following selection of the construction site and nomination of the project's Director General. The ITER International Team and Participant Teams have continued technical and organisational preparations. Construction will be able to start immediately after the international ITER organisation is established, following signature of the JIA. The Project is strongly supported by the governments of the Participants as well as by the scientific community. The real negotiations, including siting and the final details of cost sharing, started in December 2003. The EU, with Cadarache, and Japan, with Rokkasho, have both promised large contributions to the project to strongly support their construction site proposals. Their wish to host ITER construction is too strong to allow convergence to a single site considering the ITER device in isolation. A broader collaboration among the Parties is therefore being contemplated, covering complementary activities to help accelerate fusion development towards a viable power source, and allow the Participants to reach a conclusion on ITER siting. This report reviews these preparations, and the status of negotiations

  8. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  9. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. Construction mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Virdi, Surinder; Virdi, Narinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Construction Mathematics is an introductory level mathematics text, written specifically for students of construction and related disciplines. Learn by tackling exercises based on real-life construction maths. Examples include: costing calculations, labour costs, cost of materials and setting out of building components. Suitable for beginners and easy to follow throughout. Learn the essential basic theory along with the practical necessities. The second edition of this popular textbook is fully updated to match new curricula, and expanded to include even more learning exercises. End of chapter exercises cover a range of theoretical as well as practical problems commonly found in construction practice, and three detailed assignments based on practical tasks give students the opportunity to apply all the knowledge they have gained. Construction Mathematics addresses all the mathematical requirements of Level 2 construction NVQs from City & Guilds/CITB and Edexcel courses, including the BTEC First Diploma in...

  11. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.A.; Hulbert, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  12. Flower bud transcriptome analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn. Roxb. and primary investigation of drought induced flowering: pathway construction and G-quadruplex prediction based on transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglei Yang

    Full Text Available Sapium sebiferum (Linn. Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA and triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRXⅡ39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants.

  13. Growth of transplantable melanoma and leukaemia and prevention of virus-induced leukaemia in long lived radiation chimeras constructed with unmanipulated bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierpaoli, W.

    1985-01-01

    Haemopoietic radiation chimeras across the H-2 barrier (BALB/c → C57B1/6; H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b) chimeras and vice versa) have been studied for their capacity to suppress the growth, or to reject, transplantable B16 melanotic melanoma and radiation leukaemia virus-induced, transplantable leukaemia. Also, radiation leukaemia virus (RadLV) obtained from the thymus of leukaemic C57B1/6 mice was injected i.p. into established chimeras (H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b)). As expected, long lived, graft versus host disease free allogeneic chimeras constructed with intact bone marrow were unable to reject the tumours both when recipients were BALB/c → C57B1/6 or C57B1/6 → BALB/c chimeras. However, inoculation of a large number of immunocompetent cells from normal BALB/c mice into BALB/c → C57B1/6 chimeras failed to promote a rejection of the tumours. On the contrary, the same amount of syngeneic (BALB/c) immunocompetent cells prevented growth of melanoma when transferred into athymic nude BALB/c mice, while the tumour grew unimpaired in untreated athymic nude BALB/c mice. The same type of H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b) chimeras displayed complete resistance to inoculation of leukaemogenic H-2sup(b) restricted RadLV while all H-2sup(b) → H-2sup(b), syngeneically reconstituted mice developed disseminated leukaemia. (author)

  14. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  15. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  16. Construction Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  17. Construction fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This

  18. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  19. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  20. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  1. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agh, S.

    1999-01-01

    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  2. Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl; Schmitt, Andreas; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2013-01-01

    The physics of strongly interacting matter in an external magnetic field is presently emerging as a topic of great cross-disciplinary interest for particle, nuclear, astro- and condensed matter physicists. It is known that strong magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions, an insight that has made it possible to study a variety of surprising and intriguing phenomena that emerge from the interplay of quantum anomalies, the topology of non-Abelian gauge fields, and the magnetic field. In particular, the non-trivial topological configurations of the gluon field induce a non-dissipative electric current in the presence of a magnetic field. These phenomena have led to an extended formulation of relativistic hydrodynamics, called chiral magnetohydrodynamics. Hitherto unexpected applications in condensed matter physics include graphene and topological insulators. Other fields of application include astrophysics, where strong magnetic fields exist in magnetars and pulsars. Last but not least, an important ne...

  3. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  4. Constructing sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    2016-01-01

    such an effect. This paper explores sanctions conflicts as social constructs. It purports that rally-around-the-flag is all but one part of the discursive dimension of sanctions conflicts. Sanctions are intricately connected with the conflict setting they occur in. The study suggests a dialectical relation...... between how opponents perceive conflicts and the meaning of sanctions therein. This nexus of different constructions of sanctions moreover extends to “targeted” sanctions as well: As restrictive measures against Zimbabwe demonstrate, they are not the kind of minimally-invasive operations with clinical...

  5. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  6. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  7. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  8. Dam Construction in Lancang-Mekong River Basin Could Mitigate Future Flood Risk From Warming-Induced Intensified Rainfall: Dam Mitigate Flood Risk in Mekong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Changjiang Institute of Survey, Planning, Design and Research, Wuhan China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Lu, Hui [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing China; Ruby Leung, L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Li, Hong-Yi [Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences and Institute on Ecosystems, Montana State University, Bozeman MT USA; Zhao, Jianshi [State Key Laboratory of Hydro-science and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Tian, Fuqiang [State Key Laboratory of Hydro-science and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Yang, Kun [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing China; Sothea, Khem [Mekong Institute of Cambodia, Phnom Penh Cambodia

    2017-10-25

    Water resources management, in particular flood control, in the Mekong River Basin (MRB) faces two key challenges in the 21st century: climate change and dam construction. A large scale distributed Geomorphology-Based Hydrological Model coupled with a simple reservoir regulation model (GBHM-MK-SOP) is used to investigate the relative effects of climate change and dam construction on the flood characteristics in the MRB. Results suggest an increase in both flood magnitude and frequency under climate change, which is more severe in the upstream basin and increases over time. However, dam construction and stream regulation reduce flood risk consistently throughout this century, with more obvious effects in the upstream basin where larger reservoirs will be located. The flood mitigation effect of dam regulation dominates over the flood intensification effect of climate change before 2060, but the latter emerges more prominently after 2060 and dominates the flood risk especially in the lower basin.

  9. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  10. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  11. Patterns of strong coupling for LHC searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Da [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of (China); Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pomarol, Alex [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dept. de Física and IFAE-BIST,Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Riva, Francesco [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-11-23

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. We believe our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several LHC searches in Higgs physics, diboson production, or WW scattering. Perhaps surprisingly, the interplay between weak coupling, strong coupling and derivatives, which is controlled by symmetries, can override the naive expansion in operator dimension, providing instances where dimension-8 dominates dimension-6, well within the domain of validity of the low energy effective theory. This result reveals the limitations of an analysis that is both ambitiously general and restricted to dimension-6 operators.

  12. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  13. Numerical modeling of time-dependent deformation and induced stresses in concrete pipes constructed in Queenston shale using micro-tunneling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Mohammed Salim Al-Maamori

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of time-dependent deformation (TDD on a tunnel constructed using the micro-tunneling technique in Queenston shale (QS are investigated employing the finite element method. The TDD and strength parameters of the QS were measured from tests conducted on QS specimens soaked in water and lubricant fluids (LFs used in micro-tunneling such as bentonite and polymer solutions. The numerical model was verified using the results of TDD tests performed on QS samples, field measurements of some documented projects, and the closed-form solutions to circular tunnels in swelling rock. The verified model was then employed to conduct a parametric study considering important micro-tunneling design parameters, such as depth and diameter of the tunnel, in situ stress ratio (Ko, and the time lapse prior to replacing LFs with permanent cement grout around the tunnel. It was revealed that the time lapse plays a vital role in controlling deformations and associated stresses developed in the tunnel lining. The critical case of a pipe or tunnel in which the maximum tensile stress develops at its springline occurs when it is constructed at shallow depths in the QS layer. The results of the parametric study were used to suggest recommendations for the construction of tunnels in QS employing micro-tunneling. Keywords: Numerical model, Micro-tunneling, Queenston shale (QS, Lubricant fluids (LFs

  14. Toward construction of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    The ITER Project has been significantly developed in the past years in preparation for its construction. The ITER Negotiators have developed a draft Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA), ready for completion following the nomination of the Project's Director General (DG). The ITER International Team and Participant Teams have continued technical and organizational preparations. The actual construction will be able to start immediately after the international ITER organization will be established, following signature of the JIA. The Project is now strongly supported by all the participants as well as by the scientific community with the final high-level negotiations, focused on siting and the concluding details of cost sharing, started in December 2003. The EU, with Cadarache, and Japan, with Rokkasho, have both promised large contributions to the project to strongly support their construction site proposals. The extent to which they both wish to host the ITER facility is such that large contributions to a broader collaboration among the Parties are also proposed by them. This covers complementary activities to help accelerate fusion development towards a viable power source, as well as may allow the Participants to reach a conclusion on ITER siting. (author)

  15. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  16. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  17. Recombinant rubistatin (r-Rub), an MVD disintegrin, inhibits cell migration and proliferation, and is a strong apoptotic inducer of the human melanoma cell line SK-Mel-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clayton M; Bueno, Raymund; Gutierrez, Daniel A; Petro, Christopher; Lucena, Sara E; Sanchez, Elda E; Soto, Julio G

    2012-02-01

    Disintegrins are low molecular weight peptides isolated from viper venom. These peptides bind to integrin receptors using a conserved binding motif sequence containing an RGD or similar motif. As a consequence, disintegrins can inhibit platelet aggregation and inhibit cell migration, proliferation, and initiate apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Rubistatin is a MVD disintegrin cloned from a Crotalus ruber ruber venom gland. The biological activity of MVD disintegrins is poorly understood. Recombinant rubistatin (r-Rub) was cloned into a pET32b plasmid and expressed in reductase-deficient Escherichia coli. Expression was induced with IPTG and the resulting fusion peptide was affinity purified, followed by thrombin cleavage, and removal of vector coded sequences. r-Rub peptide inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 54% ± 6.38 in whole blood. We assessed the ability of r-Rub to initiate apoptosis in three human cancer cell lines. Cultures of SK-Mel-28, HeLA, and T24 cells were grown for 24 h with 2.5 μM r-Rub followed by Hoechst staining. Chromatin fragmentation was observed in treated SK-Mel-28, but not in T24 or HeLA cells. A TUNEL assay revealed that 51.55% ± 5.28 of SK-Mel-28 cells were apoptotic after 18 h of treatment with 3.5 μM of r-Rub. Cell migration and proliferation assays were performed in order to further characterize the biological effects of r-Rub on SK-Mel-28 cells. At 3 μM, r-Rub inhibited cell migration by 44.4% ± 0.5, while at 3.5 μM it was able to inhibit cell proliferation by 83% ± 6.0. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dermal Delivery of Constructs Encoding Cre Recombinase to Induce Skin Tumors in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel A. Deken

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current genetically-engineered mouse melanoma models are often based on Tyr::CreERT2-controlled MAPK pathway activation by the BRAFV600E mutation and PI3K pathway activation by loss of PTEN. The major drawback of these models is the occurrence of spontaneous tumors caused by leakiness of the Tyr::CreERT2 system, hampering long-term experiments. To address this problem, we investigated several approaches to optimally provide local delivery of Cre recombinase, including injection of lentiviral particles, DNA tattoo administration and particle-mediated gene transfer, to induce melanomas in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice lacking the Tyr::CreERT2 allele. We found that dermal delivery of the Cre recombinase gene under the control of a non-specific CAG promoter induced the formation of melanomas, but also keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinomas. Delivery of Cre recombinase DNA under the control of melanocyte-specific promoters in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice resulted in sole melanoma induction. The growth rate and histological features of the induced tumors were similar to 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced tumors in Tyr::CreERT2;PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice, while the onset of spontaneous tumors was prevented completely. These novel induction methods will allow long-term experiments in mouse models of skin malignancies.

  19. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  20. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-12

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  1. Determination of brace forces caused by construction loads and wind loads during bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The first objective of this study was to develop procedures for determining bracing forces during bridge construction. : Numerical finite element models and analysis techniques were developed for evaluating brace forces induced by construction loads ...

  2. Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1994-07-01

    Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs

  3. Modern optimization in earthwork construction

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, Manuel; Correia, A. Gomes; Cortez, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Earthworks tasks are often regarded in transportation projects as some of the most demanding processes. In fact, sequential tasks such as excavation, transportation, spreading and compaction are strongly based on heavy mechanical equipment and repetitive processes, thus becoming as economically demanding as they are time-consuming. Moreover, actual construction requirements originate higher demands for productivity and safety in earthwork constructions. Given the percentual weight of costs an...

  4. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  5. Strong orientational coordinates and orientational order parameters for symmetric objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in the synthesis of anisotropic macromolecules and nanoparticles have spurred an immense interest in theoretical and computational studies of self-assembly. The cornerstone of such studies is the role of shape in self-assembly and in inducing complex order. The problem of identifying different types of order that can emerge in such systems can, however, be challenging. Here, we revisit the problem of quantifying orientational order in systems of building blocks with non-trivial rotational symmetries. We first propose a systematic way of constructing orientational coordinates for such symmetric building blocks. We call the arising tensorial coordinates strong orientational coordinates (SOCs) as they fully and exclusively specify the orientation of a symmetric object. We then use SOCs to describe and quantify local and global orientational order, and spatiotemporal orientational correlations in systems of symmetric building blocks. The SOCs and the orientational order parameters developed in this work are not only useful in performing and analyzing computer simulations of symmetric molecules or particles, but can also be utilized for the efficient storage of rotational information in long trajectories of evolving many-body systems. (paper)

  6. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  8. Application of InSAR and gravimetric surveys for developing construction codes in zones of land subsidence induced by groundwater extraction: case study of Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pacheco-Martínez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR has become a valuable tool for surface deformation monitoring, including land subsidence associated with groundwater extraction. Another useful tools for studying Earth's surface processes are geophysical methods such as Gravimetry. In this work we present the application of InSAR analysis and gravimetric surveying to generate valuable information for risk management related to land subsidence and surface faulting. Subsidence of the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico is presented as study case. Aguascalientes local governments have addressed land subsidence issues by including new requirements for new constructions projects in the State Urban Construction Code. Nevertheless, the resulting zoning proposed in the code is still subjective and not clearly defined. Our work based on gravimetric and InSAR surveys is aimed for improving the subsidence hazard zoning proposed in the State Urban Code in a more comprehensive way. The study includes a 2007–2011 ALOS InSAR time-series analysis of the Aguascalientes valley, an interpretation of the compete Bouguer gravimetric anomaly of the Aguascalientes urban area, and the application of time series and gravimetric anomaly maps for improve the subsidence hazard zoning of Aguascalientes City.

  9. Environmental factors and human health: fibrous and particulate substance-induced immunological disorders and construction of a health-promoting living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Takemi; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Hatayama, Tamayo; Yoshitome, Kei; Nishimura, Yasumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Among the various scientific fields covered in the area of hygiene such as environmental medicine, epidemiology, public health and preventive medicine, we are investigating the immunological effects of fibrous and particulate substances in the environment and work surroundings, such as asbestos fibers and silica particles. In addition to these studies, we have attempted to construct health-promoting living conditions. Thus, in this review we will summarize our investigations regarding the (1) immunological effects of asbestos fibers, (2) immunological effects of silica particles, and (3) construction of a health-promoting living environment. This review article summarizes the 2014 Japanese Society for Hygiene (JSH) Award Lecture of the 85th Annual Meeting of the JSH entitled "Environmental health effects: immunological effects of fibrous and particulate matter and establishment of health-promoting environments" presented by the first author of this manuscript, Prof. Otsuki, Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan, the recipient of the 2014 JSH award. The results of our experiments can be summarized as follows: (1) asbestos fibers reduce anti-tumor immunity, (2) silica particles chronically activate responder and regulatory T cells causing an unbalance of these two populations of T helper cells, which may contribute to the development of autoimmune disorders frequently complicating silicosis, and (3) living conditions to enhance natural killer cell activity were developed, which may promote the prevention of cancers and diminish symptoms of virus infections.

  10. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  11. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  12. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  13. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  14. A theory of construction management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard de Valence

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The links between theory and construction management (CM, and for that matter construction economics (CE, are not strong (see de Valence 2011. This may be one of the reasons why they have not gained complete acceptance as academic disciplines and are not seen as distinct branches of economics and management respectively. Another reason may be that products and production (the focus of management and economic theories respectively are not the same as projects and project management in general, and construction projects and CM in particular.

  15. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  16. Perturbation Solutions of the Quintic Duffing Equation with Strong Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pakdemirli

    Full Text Available The quintic Duffing equation with strong nonlinearities is considered. Perturbation solutions are constructed using two different techniques: The classical multiple scales method (MS and the newly developed multiple scales Lindstedt Poincare method (MSLP. The validity criteria for admissible solutions are derived. Both approximate solutions are contrasted with the numerical solutions. It is found that MSLP provides compatible solution with the numerical solution for strong nonlinearities whereas MS solution fail to produce physically acceptable solution for large perturbation parameters.

  17. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.

  18. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  19. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  20. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  1. Laser-induced construction of multi-branched CuS nanodendrites with excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy in repeated applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Linlin; Chen, Ming

    2017-07-10

    We report on the successful fabrication of multi-branched CuS nanodendrites with average branch length of about 20 nm by laser ablation of bulk Cu target in thioacetamide (TAA) solution. During the nucleation of Cu and S species, the accurate anisotropic growth should be attributed to an ultra-rapid acid etching process by laser-induced TAA hydrolyzing reaction. Interestingly, the semiconductor CuS nanodendrites provide pronounced surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties with noble-metal comparable activity and a detection limit as low as ~10 -10 M, approaching the requirement (~nM) for single molecule detection. More importantly, after SERS analysis, the crystal violet (CV) probe molecules can be effectively removed from the substrate by 1064nm laser irradiation-induced moderate thermal treatment. Therefore, the unique and distinctive advantage is that the as-prepared CuS nanodendrites exhibit excellent reusability for 60 cycles of repeated SERS analyses. The low-cost CuS semiconductor nanodendrites with enhanced SERS properties should be established as a prominent SERS-based ultrasensitive probe in the repeated applications.

  2. Construction of TSL lector equipment with spectral resolution for the determination of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) properties of NaCl: Tl+ induced by UV-visible radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Romero, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    A revision of physical models of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) in crystals induced by both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation is presented. Particular emphasis is given to the connection of TSL with other thermally stimulated processes and physico-chemical phenomena because basic information on physical mechanics for TSL can be obtained through them. Glow curves of TSL induced by UV-visible radiation in NaCl: Tl + were measured. Additionally, the following spectrums were obtained for the same samples: optical absorption, excitation, fluorescent emission, and TSL emission. An optical absorption peak was correlated with the Thallium ion concentration. With respect to the TSL emission spectrums, some peaks associated to Thallium dimmers were at 298 and at 480 nm; others which were attributed to NaCl intrinsic properties were at 365, 430, 450 and 525 nm. Also TSL glow curves were studied as a function of the Thallium ion concentration (0.8 ppm to 14.8 ppm). They were de convoluted so as to calculate the activation energy, the frequency factor and the kinetic order for each separate TSL peak. Anomalous values were observed for some frequency factors. A method and TSL lector equipment to obtain TSL emission spectra were developed. (Author)

  3. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  4. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  5. Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow

  6. Strong monotonicity in mixed-state entanglement manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    A strong entanglement monotone, which never increases under local operations and classical communications (LOCC), restricts quantum entanglement manipulation more strongly than the usual monotone since the usual one does not increase on average under LOCC. We propose strong monotones in mixed-state entanglement manipulation under LOCC. These are related to the decomposability and one-positivity of an operator constructed from a quantum state, and reveal geometrical characteristics of entangled states. These are lower bounded by the negativity or generalized robustness of entanglement

  7. Excited hexagon Wilson loops for strongly coupled N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J.; Kotanski, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2010-10-15

    This work is devoted to the six-gluon scattering amplitude in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. At weak coupling, an appropriate high energy limit of the so-called remainder function, i.e. of the deviation from the BDS formula, may be understood in terms of the lowest eigenvalue of the BFKL hamiltonian. According to Alday et al., amplitudes in the strongly coupled theory can be constructed through an auxiliary 1-dimensional quantum system. We argue that certain excitations of this quantum system determine the Regge limit of the remainder function at strong coupling and we compute its precise value. (orig.)

  8. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    design of the lunar shelter showed us that joining is a critical technology needed for building a structure from large segments. The problem of joining is important to the design of any structure that is not completely prefabricated. It is especially important when the structure is subjected to tensile loading by an internal pressure. For a lunar shelter constructed from large segments the joints between these large segments must be strong, and they must permit automated construction. With a cast basalt building material which is brittle, there is the additional problem of connecting the joint with the material and avoiding stress concentration that would cause failure. Thus, a well-defined project which we intend to pursue during this coming year is the design of joints for cast basalt structural elements.

  9. Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2010-01-01

    We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.

  10. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc 2 /k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10 11 0 K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light

  11. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc/sup 2//k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10/sup 11/ /sup 0/K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light.

  12. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  13. Strong Correlation in Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malet, F.; Gori Giorgi, P.

    2012-01-01

    We use the exact strong-interaction limit of the Hohenberg-Kohn energy density functional to approximate the exchange-correlation energy of the restricted Kohn-Sham scheme. Our approximation corresponds to a highly nonlocal density functional whose functional derivative can be easily constructed,

  14. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  15. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  16. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  17. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  18. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  19. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  20. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  1. Construction and analysis of an SSH cDNA library of early heat-induced genes of Vigna aconitifolia variety RMO-40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampuria, Sakshi; Joshi, Uma; Palit, Paramita; Deokar, Amit A; Meghwal, Raju R; Mohapatra, T; Srinivasan, R; Bhatt, K V; Sharma, Ramavtar

    2012-11-01

    Moth bean ( Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal) is an important grain legume crop grown in rain fed areas of hot desert regions of Thar, India, under scorching sun rays with very little supplementation of water. An SSH cDNA library was generated from leaf tissues of V. aconitifolia var. RMO-40 exposed to an elevated temperature of 42 °C for 5 min to identify early-induced genes. A total of 488 unigenes (114 contigs and 374 singletons) were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 738 ESTs; out of 206 ESTs (28%) of unknown proteins, 160 ESTs (14%) were found to be novel to moth bean. Only 578 ESTs (78%) showed significant BLASTX similarity (pathways. Four hundred and fifty-two ESTs were further annotated with InterProScan (IPS), and no IPS was assigned to 153 ESTs. In addition, the expression level of 27 ESTs in response to heat stress was evaluated through semiquantitative RT-PCR assay. Approximately 20 different signaling genes and 16 different transcription factors have been shown to be associated with heat stress in moth bean for the first time.

  2. Aggregation-Induced-Emission Materials with Different Electric Charges as an Artificial Tongue: Design, Construction, and Assembly with Various Pathogenic Bacteria for Effective Bacterial Imaging and Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Jian; Tian, Sheng-Nan; Li, Cui-Yun; Xing, Guo-Wen; Zhou, Lei

    2017-08-30

    Imaging-based total bacterial count and type identification of bacteria play crucial roles in clinical diagnostics, public health, biological and medical science, and environmental protection. Herein, we designed and synthesized a series of tetraphenylethenes (TPEs) functionalized with one or two aldehyde, carboxylic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups, which were successfully used as fluorescent materials for rapid and efficient staining of eight kinds of representative bacterial species, including pathogenic bacteria Vibrio cholera, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Listeria monocytogenes and potential bioterrorism agent Yersinia pestis. By comparing the fluorescence intensity changes of the aggregation-induced-emission (AIE) materials before and after bacteria incubation, the sensing mechanisms (electrostatic versus hydrophobic interactions) were simply discussed. Moreover, the designed AIE materials were successfully used as an efficient artificial tongue for bacteria discrimination, and all of the bacteria tested were identified via linear discriminant analysis. Our current work provided a general method for simultaneous broad-spectrum bacterial imaging and species discrimination, which is helpful for bacteria surveillance in many fields.

  3. Circuit electromechanics with single photon strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Zheng-Yuan, E-mail: zyxue@scnu.edu.cn; Yang, Li-Na [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou8627@163.com [Department of Electronic Communication Engineering, Anhui Xinhua University, Hefei 230088 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-07-13

    In circuit electromechanics, the coupling strength is usually very small. Here, replacing the capacitor in circuit electromechanics by a superconducting flux qubit, we show that the coupling among the qubit and the two resonators can induce effective electromechanical coupling which can attain the strong coupling regime at the single photon level with feasible experimental parameters. We use dispersive couplings among two resonators and the qubit while the qubit is also driven by an external classical field. These couplings form a three-wave mixing configuration among the three elements where the qubit degree of freedom can be adiabatically eliminated, and thus results in the enhanced coupling between the two resonators. Therefore, our work constitutes the first step towards studying quantum nonlinear effect in circuit electromechanics.

  4. Pentacene Excitons in Strong Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnke, Klaus; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Kabakchiev, Alexander; Lutz, Theresa; Rahman, Talat S; Kern, Klaus

    2018-02-05

    Electroluminescence spectroscopy of organic semiconductors in the junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) provides access to the polarizability of neutral excited states in a well-characterized molecular geometry. We study the Stark shift of the self-trapped lowest singlet exciton at 1.6 eV in a pentacene nanocrystal. Combination of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) with experiment allows for assignment of the observation to a charge-transfer (CT) exciton. Its charge separation is perpendicular to the applied field, as the measured polarizability is moderate and the electric field in the STM junction is strong enough to dissociate a CT exciton polarized parallel to the applied field. The calculated electric-field-induced anisotropy of the exciton potential energy surface will also be of relevance to photovoltaic applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Analysis of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Simulated Space Radiation Qualities by Use of Recombinant Bacteria Carrying a Dual-Function Dual-Reporter Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine; Zahoor, Ahmed; Testard, Isabelle; Reitz, Guenther

    Along with the long-term space exploration come various potential health risks due to unique physical factors of the space environment. Space radiation is one of the primary environmental hazards associated with space flight. In order to deal with space-related risk radiation exposure must be properly characterised and quantified, and biological effects of charged particles have to be analysed in ground based research, especially as astronauts are subjected to a differing radiation quality in space than they receive on Earth. For risk assessment, the mutagenic potential of the heavy ion component of the galactic cosmic radiation is of major concern for tumour induction as radiation late effects. The recombinant SWITCH test is based on TA1535 Salmonella typhimurium cells transformed with a dual-function dual-reporter vector harbouring (a) the genes for bioluminescence production from Photobacterium leiognathi under the control of a DNA-damage inducible promoter and (b) the gene for green fluorescent protein from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria under the control of a constitutive promoter. Suchlike genetically modified organism report on the presence of genotoxic conditions by dose dependent increase of bioluminescence induction and on the presence of cytotoxic conditions by dose dependent decrease in GFP fluorescence. By this, it is possible to analyse bacterial inactivation and mutation induction by ionizing radiation in parallel in the same cell within short time. Experiments with heavy ions have been performed with the SWITCH test at GANIL with the following accelerated heavy ions: 35 MeV/u (72 keV/µm) and 75 MeV/u (37 keV/µm) carbon, 95 MeV/u argon (377 keV/µm), 95 MeV/u neon (98 keV/µm), 75 MeV/u nickel (967 keV/µm) and 29 MeV/u lead (10238 keV/µm). The results obtained clearly show that the numbers of hits (particles per cm2 ) necessary to inactivate the bacteria (cytotoxicity) depend on LET. The higher the ionisation capacity of the accelerated ion, the

  6. Ammonia-evaporation-induced construction of three-dimensional NiO/g-C3N4 composite with enhanced adsorption and visible light-driven photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkov, George; Tsvetkov, Martin; Spassov, Tony

    2018-07-01

    Novel visible light-driven heterostructured NiO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst has been designed and successfully prepared via ammonia-evaporation-induced method. The synthetic strategy consists of grafting the surface of g-C3N4 with Ni(NH3)62+ complex followed by its hydrolysis at lower pH to form nano-wrinkled thin film of α-Ni(OH)2. The final NiO/g-C3N4 hybrid was obtained after calcination of the Ni(OH)2/g-C3N4 precursor at 350 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, N2 adsorption/desorption, UV-vis diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the resulting material. Our results revealed the formation of meso-/macroporous three-dimensional hierarchical honeycomb-like structure with high BET surface area (141 m2 g-1). The photocatalytic performance of the composite under visible light (λ > 400 nm) irradiation was evaluated through degradation of Malachite Green (MG) from aqueous medium at room temperature (25 °C). For the sake of comparison, the physico-chemical and photocatalytic properties of the pristine g-C3N4 and nanostructured NiO were also examined. Results indicated that NiO/g-C3N4 is much more active than pristine g-C3N4 and NiO in the photodegradation of MG. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of the composite was mainly attributed to the combination of high adsorption capacity which facilitates the direct redox reactions of dye and the efficient inhibition of photo-generated electron-hole pair recombination. Superoxide radicals (•O2-) and photo-generated holes (h+) were found to be the main active species in the process.

  7. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.

  8. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  9. Strongly interacting W's and Z's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data

  10. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  11. Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuki Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it brings a “continent” of chiral spiral in the phase diagram, by which the chiral tricritical point is totally washed out. This is the case no matter how small the intensity of magnetic field is. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However, the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.

  12. A construction process model for implementing constructability in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langkemper, J.; Al-Jibouri, S.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Maas, G.J.; Gassel, van F.

    2003-01-01

    In construction, failure of design professionals to consider how a builder will implement the design can result in scheduling problems, cost escalation, delays and disputes during the construction process. The integration of construction knowledge and experience during planning and design is termed

  13. OBSERVATION OF STRONG - STRONG AND OTHER BEAM - BEAM EFFECTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; MONTAG, C.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; VAN ZEIJTS, J.

    2003-01-01

    RHIC is currently the only hadron collider in which strong-strong beam-beam effects can be seen. For the first time, coherent beam-beam modes were observed in a bunched beam hadron collider. Other beam-beam effects in RHIC were observed in operation and in dedicated experiments with gold ions, deuterons and protons. Observations include measurements of beam-beam induced tune shifts, lifetime and emittance growth measurements with and without beam-beam interaction, and background rates as a function of tunes. During ramps unequal radio frequencies in the two rings cause the crossing points to move longitudinally. Thus bunches experience beam-beam interactions only in intervals and the tunes are modulated. In this article we summarize the most important beam-beam observations made so far

  14. Quantum effects in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to quantum effects for photons in spatially inhomogeneous fields. Since the purely analytical solution of the corresponding equations is an unsolved problem even today, a main aspect of this work is to use the worldline formalism for scalar QED to develop numerical algorithms for correlation functions beyond perturbative constructions. In a first step we take a look at the 2-Point photon correlation function, in order to understand effects like vacuum polarization or quantum reflection. For a benchmark test of the numerical algorithm we reproduce analytical results in a constant magnetic background. For inhomogeneous fields we calculate for the first time local refractive indices of the quantum vacuum. In this way we find a new de-focusing effect of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Furthermore the numerical algorithm confirms analytical results for quantum reflection obtained within the local field approximation. In a second step we take a look at higher N-Point functions, with the help of our numerical algorithm. An interesting effect at the level of the 3-Point function is photon splitting. First investigations show that the Adler theorem remains also approximately valid for inhomogeneous fields.

  15. Towards precision measurements of parity violation in cesium: construction of a new experiment using an active detection method by induced emission; Vers des mesures precises de violation de la parite dans le cesium: construction d'une experience nouvelle utilisant une detection active par emission induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquier, Ph

    1991-04-15

    Experiments that show the breaking of parity invariance in atoms can be considered as valid tests of the electroweak theory complementary to those made at high energies. The accurate measurement of the weak charge of a cesium nucleus would bring useful information on radiative corrections. The experiment, that is proposed in this work concerns the strongly forbidden 6S-7S transition of cesium at 540 nm, aims at reaching an accuracy of 1% for this measurement. Cesium atoms are first excited from 6S level to 7S level by a pulsed laser (10 ns) in the presence of a longitudinal electrical field. Then they are detected through induced emission by a probe laser set on 7S-6P(3/2) transition at 1.470 {mu}m. The transitory amplification of the probe beam can be over 100%.The vapour presents a strong plane dichroism due to the alignment of 7S level through the linear polarization of the pumping beam. The weak interaction in the atom makes this alignment tilt by a small angle (1 to 10 micro-radians) that the measurement of the polarization of the amplified probe enables us to determine. In this work we have described the 3 steps we have passed through: the test with a transverse field and a continuous laser beam, the use of a pulsed laser, and the setting of a longitudinal configuration. Preliminary results show that the experiment will be useful and feasible.

  16. Towards precision measurements of parity violation in cesium: construction of a new experiment using an active detection method by induced emission; Vers des mesures precises de violation de la parite dans le cesium: construction d'une experience nouvelle utilisant une detection active par emission induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquier, Ph

    1991-04-15

    Experiments that show the breaking of parity invariance in atoms can be considered as valid tests of the electroweak theory complementary to those made at high energies. The accurate measurement of the weak charge of a cesium nucleus would bring useful information on radiative corrections. The experiment, that is proposed in this work concerns the strongly forbidden 6S-7S transition of cesium at 540 nm, aims at reaching an accuracy of 1% for this measurement. Cesium atoms are first excited from 6S level to 7S level by a pulsed laser (10 ns) in the presence of a longitudinal electrical field. Then they are detected through induced emission by a probe laser set on 7S-6P(3/2) transition at 1.470 {mu}m. The transitory amplification of the probe beam can be over 100%.The vapour presents a strong plane dichroism due to the alignment of 7S level through the linear polarization of the pumping beam. The weak interaction in the atom makes this alignment tilt by a small angle (1 to 10 micro-radians) that the measurement of the polarization of the amplified probe enables us to determine. In this work we have described the 3 steps we have passed through: the test with a transverse field and a continuous laser beam, the use of a pulsed laser, and the setting of a longitudinal configuration. Preliminary results show that the experiment will be useful and feasible.

  17. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  18. Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.

  19. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  20. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  1. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  2. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  3. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  4. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  5. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  6. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  7. On the role of sound in the strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The main directions in the precision of the theory of strong Langmuir turbulence caused by the necessity of account of sound waves in plasma are preseted. In particular the effect of conversion of short-wave modulations in Langmuir waves induced by sound waves, are briefly described. 8 refs

  8. Confinining properties of QCD in strong magnetic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonati Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong magnetic backgrounds are known to modify QCD properties at a nonperturbative level. We discuss recent lattice results, obtained for Nf = 2 + 1 QCD with physical quark masses, concerning in particular the modifications and the anisotropies induced at the level of the static quark-antiquark potential, both at zero and finite temperature.

  9. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  10. Perspectives of construction robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, M. A.; Gridchin, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This article is an overview of construction robots features, based on formulating the list of requirements for different types of construction robots in relation to different types of construction works.. It describes a variety of construction works and ways to construct new or to adapt existing robot designs for a construction process. Also, it shows the prospects of AI-controlled machines, implementation of automated control systems and networks on construction sites. In the end, different ways to develop and improve, including ecological aspect, the construction process through the wide robotization, creating of data communication networks and, in perspective, establishing of fully AI-controlled construction complex are formulated.

  11. Recovery of CTF beam signals from a strong wakefield background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Y [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Schulte, E [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Ekeloef, T [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    The beam monitor for the CERN Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF) has to work not only with very short pulses (350 ps FWHM) at a spacing of 330 ps, but also in a strong wakefield background. A cone-shaped button pickup electrode has been designed and constructed for use with CTF beams and tests have been made using a real time analogue Gaussian filter to recover the beam signals from the strong wakefield signals. As a comparison to the analogue filter, a study has been made to process the data off-line and extract the beam signals using digital filtering based on the wavelet concept. (author). 3 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  13. Endangerment of cultural heritage sites by strong rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Thomas; Fischer, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Due to climate change extreme weather conditions become more and more frequent in the last years. Especially in Germany nearly every year a large flood event happens. Most of these events are caused by strong rain. There are at most two causes for these floodings: The first is locally strong rain in the area of damage, the second happens at damage sites located near confluxes and strong rain in the upper stream areas of the joining rivers. The amount of damage is often strongly correlated with unreasonable designation of new construction in such endangered regions. Our presented study is based on an earlier project together with a German insurance company. In this project we analyzed correlations of geographical settings with the insurance data of flood damages over ten years. The result of this study was a strong relation of the terrain with the amount and the probability of damages. Further investigations allow us to derive a system for estimating potential endangerment due to strong rain just from suitable digital terrain models (DTMs). In the presented study we apply this method to different types of cultural heritage (CH) sites in Germany and other parts of the world to detect which type of CH sites were build with potential endangerment of strong rain events in mind and which ones are prone to such events.

  14. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  15. Photocatalytic activity of silver oxide capped Ag nanoparticles constructed by air plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yingcui; Wu, Qingmeng; Li, Huanhuan; Zhang, Bing; Yan, Rong; Chen, Junling; Sun, Mengtao

    2018-04-01

    We construct a kind of structure of silver oxide capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by cost-efficient air plasma irradiation, and study its visible-light driven photocatalytic activity (PA). By controlling the oxidization time, the relationship between the intensity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and the PA is well established. The PA reaches the maximum when the LSPR of AgNPs is nearly completely damped (according to absorption spectra); however, under this condition, the LSPR still works, confirmed with the high efficient selective transformation of p-Aminothiophenol (PATP) to p, p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) under visible light. The mechanism of the LSPR damping induced PA improvement is discussed. We not only provide a cost-efficient approach to construct a LSPR strong damping structure but also promote the understanding of LSPR strong damping and its relationship with photocatalysis.

  16. Strong and Electromagnetic Interactions at SPS Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ribicki, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Particle production in peripheral Pb+Pb collisions has been measured at a beam energy of 158 GeV per nucleon, corresponding to psNN 17.3 GeV. The measurements provide full double differential coverage in a wide range of longitudinal and transverse momenta, including the central (“mid-rapidity”) area and extending far into the projectile fragmentation region. The resulting analysis shows the heavy ion reaction as a mixture of different processes. In particular, surprising phenomena, like the presence of large and strongly varying structures in the shape of the double differential cross section d2s /dxFd pT , are induced by the final state electromagnetic interaction between produced particles and the charged spectator system. This effect is largest at low transverse momenta, where it results in a deep valley in the xF -dependence of the produced p+/p− ratio. The basic characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomenon described above agree with the results of a theoretical analysis, performed by means of ...

  17. Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    application program layer mainly concludes: earthquake parameter module, local database managing module, data transmission module, remote monitoring, FTP service and so on. The application layer adopted multi-thread process. The whole strong motion seismograph was encapsulated in a small aluminum box, which size is 80mm×120mm×55mm. The inner battery can work continuesly more than 24 hours. The MEMS accelerograph uses modular design for its software part and hardware part. It has remote software update function and can meet the following needs: a) Auto picking up the earthquake event; saving the data on wave-event files and hours files; It may be used for monitoring strong earthquake, explosion, bridge and house health. b) Auto calculate the earthquake parameters, and transferring those parameters by 3G wireless broadband network. This kind of seismograph has characteristics of low cost, easy installation. They can be concentrated in the urban region or areas need to specially care. We can set up a ground motion parameters quick report sensor network while large earthquake break out. Then high-resolution-fine shake-map can be easily produced for the need of emergency rescue. c) By loading P-wave detection program modules, it can be used for earthquake early warning for large earthquakes; d) Can easily construct a high-density layout seismic monitoring network owning remote control and modern intelligent earthquake sensor.

  18. Second order approximation for optical polaron in the strong coupling case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolubov, N.N. Jr.

    1993-11-01

    Here we propose a method of construction second order approximation for ground state energy for class of model Hamiltonian with linear type interaction on Bose operators in strong coupling case. For the application of the above method we have considered polaron model and propose construction set of nonlinear differential equations for definition ground state energy in strong coupling case. We have considered also radial symmetry case. (author). 10 refs

  19. Mixtures of Strongly Interacting Bosons in Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsante, P.; Penna, V.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Vezzani, A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce the recent experimental observation that the addition of a small fraction of 41 K induces a significant loss of coherence in 87 Rb, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy quantum emulsions recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices

  20. SECRET SHARING SCHEMES WITH STRONG MULTIPLICATION AND A LARGE NUMBER OF PLAYERS FROM TORIC VARIETIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder

    2017-01-01

    This article consider Massey's construction for constructing linear secret sharing schemes from toric varieties over a finite field $\\Fq$ with $q$ elements. The number of players can be as large as $(q-1)^r-1$ for $r\\geq 1$. The schemes have strong multiplication, such schemes can be utilized in ...

  1. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv......) strong regularity of BPA. We also demonstrate NL-hardness of strong regularity problems for the normed subclasses of BPP and BPA. Bisimilarity problems of simple process algebras are introduced in a general framework of process rewrite systems, and a uniform description of the new techniques used...

  2. Subcycle dynamics of Coulomb asymmetry in strong elliptical laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Liu, Hong; Ning, Qicheng; Fu, Libin; Liu, Jie; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; Peng, Liang-You; Peng, Liangyou; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-07-12

    We measure photoelectron angular distributions of noble gases in intense elliptically polarized laser fields, which indicate strong structure-dependent Coulomb asymmetry. Using a dedicated semiclassical model, we have disentangled the contribution of direct ionization and multiple forward scattering on Coulomb asymmetry in elliptical laser fields. Our theory quantifies the roles of the ionic potential and initial transverse momentum on Coulomb asymmetry, proving that the small lobes of asymmetry are induced by direct ionization and the strong asymmetry is induced by multiple forward scattering in the ionic potential. Both processes are distorted by the Coulomb force acting on the electrons after tunneling. Lowering the ionization potential, the relative contribution of direct ionization on Coulomb asymmetry substantially decreases and Coulomb focusing on multiple rescattering is more important. We do not observe evident initial longitudinal momentum spread at the tunnel exit according to our simulation.

  3. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  4. PRIORITISING LEAN CONSTRUCTION BARRIERS IN UGANDA'S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.

  5. Spatial distributions of niche-constructing populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhuo Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Niche construction theory regards organisms not only as the object of natural selection but also an active subject that can change their own selective pressure through eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Through reviewing the existing works on the theoretical models of niche construction, here we present the progress made on how niche construction influences genetic structure of spatially structured populations and the spatial-temporal dynamics of metapopulations, with special focuses on mathematical models and simulation methods. The majority of results confirmed that niche construction can significantly alter the evolutionary trajectories of structured populations. Organism-environmental interactions induced by niche construction can have profound influence on the dynamics, competition and diversity of metapopulations. It can affect fine-scale spatially distribution of species and spatial heterogeneity of the environment. We further propose a few research directions with potentials, such as applying adaptive dynamics or spatial game theory to explore the effect of niche construction on phenotypic evolution and diversification.

  6. A bottom-up approach to the strong CP problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Hollik, W. G.; Saldana-Salazar, U. J.

    2018-05-01

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particle physics that still lacks an explanation. While top-down solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both, we want to present a rather bottom-up perspective. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP violation in the strong interactions despite the large CP violation in weak interactions. In this paper, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices, they do not contribute to the strong CP problem and thus we can provide a pathway to a solution of the strong CP problem within the structures of the Standard Model and no extension at the electroweak scale is needed. However, to address the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored. Though we refrain from an explicit UV completion of the Standard Model, we provide a simple requirement for such models not to show a strong CP problem by construction.

  7. Partnering models in Nordic construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    of local research and industry partners including major building clients. Data were collected by means of national reviews of partnering policies and practices, thematic analyses, and case studies. The concept partnering was introduced in a Nordic context in the 1990s and has since then been implemented...... in a large number of projects. Clients sought to establish a culture of openness and trust within the project and tried promoting this with various kinds of incentives. In some countries the move towards voluntary collaboration was, paradoxically, strongly advocated by public authorities. Generally, however......Traditionally, procurement and contractual policies adopted by building and construction clients produce a system in which clients procure design services separately from construction services, while operation and maintenance have been subject to further, separate procurement actions...

  8. Solid-state dewetting and island morphologies in strongly anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Quan; Srolovitz, David J.; Bao, Weizhu

    2016-01-01

    We propose a sharp-interface continuum model based on a thermodynamic variational approach to investigate the strong anisotropic effect on solid-state dewetting including contact line dynamics. For sufficiently strong surface energy anisotropy, we show that multiple equilibrium shapes may appear that cannot be described by the widely employed Winterbottom construction, i.e., the modified Wulff construction for an island on a substrate. We repair the Winterbottom construction to include multiple equilibrium shapes and employ our evolution model to demonstrate that all such shapes are dynamically accessible.

  9. Construction dust amelioration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  10. Improving concrete overlay construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Several road construction projects involving concrete overlays at the state and county levels in Iowa in 2009 were studied for : construction techniques and methods. The projects that were evaluated consisted of sites in four Iowa counties: Osceola, ...

  11. Construction project management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the FTA Construction Project Management Handbook is to provide guidelines for use by public transit agencies (Agen-cies) undertaking substantial construction projects, either for the first time or with little prior experience with cons...

  12. Visualization of construction engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Hisako; Miura, Jun

    2000-01-01

    It is required for nuclear power plant construction to reduce construction cost and shorten construction period. An early and accurate construction planning including schedule coordination among the companies has recently become more important and it is possible to obtain necessary information for construction planning in early stage. In this situation, we have been developing a visualization system for construction engineering for nuclear power plants. This system has an interface with the existing Plant Layout 3D-CAD system and consists of three sub systems: (1) Scheduling and simulation system, (2) Yard planning system and (3) Scaffolding planning system. This paper describes overview of this system. This visualization system is very helpful for construction engineers to easily understand situation and environment around installation area, to easily plan a work sequence and confirm the planned schedule, and it is also effective for customers and workers to understand the planning. As a result, this visualization system enables safety and high quality construction. (author)

  13. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  14. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  15. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from June...

  16. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  17. Construction of a photoactivatable profluorescent enzyme via propinquity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsien-Ming; Xu, Weichen; Lawrence, David S

    2011-03-02

    A strategy for the construction of a profluorescent caged enzyme is described. An active site-directed peptide-based affinity label was designed, synthesized, and employed to covalently label a nonactive site residue in the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The modified kinase displays minimal catalytic activity and low fluorescence. Photolysis results in partial cleavage of the enzyme-bound affinity label, restoration of enzymatic activity (60-80%) and a strong fluorescent response (10-20 fold). The caged kinase displays analogous behavior in living cells, inducing a light-dependent loss of stress fibers that is characteristic of cAMP action. This strategy furnishes molecularly engineered enzymes that can be remotely controlled in time, space, and total activity.

  18. Heterotic string construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an elementary introduction to the principles of four-dimensional string construction will be given. Although the emphasis is on lattice constructions, almost all results have further, and often quite straightforward generalizations to other constructions. Since heterotic strings look phenomenologically more promising than type-II theories the authors only consider the former, although everything can easily be generalized to type-II theories. Some additional aspects of lattice constructions are discussed, and an extensive review can be found

  19. Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince

    2014-01-01

    We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...

  20. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  1. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  2. Leadership Quality for Malaysia Construction Leader to Steer a Success Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngah Nasaruddin Nur Ain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues that dominate the construction industry for the long time such as time overrun, cost overrun, quality of construction and also safety during the construction process are difficult to resolve because of several factors involved which amongst them are leadership quality in the industry. Solving these issues can make the industry more sustainable in nature. This paper presents the need of leadership quality among construction parties involved to steer a construction project successfully. Literature work found that 11 leadership qualities to ensure construction project success. From the frequency analysis, five most dominant leadership qualities are team building, communication skill, visioning, planning & strategy skill, and decision making. Beside the literature, this study also seeks an opinion from a senior leader of a successful construction company regarding the need of these qualities amongst parties to resolve the construction issues. The results from an interview session indicate that he fully agreed with the need of all the qualities in the construction industry. This shows that there is a strong relationship between solving the issues with the leadership quality in ensuring construction project success. These qualities should be further investigated to acquire a better representation of leadership quality in resolving construction issues for Malaysia construction industry.

  3. Safety in construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Causative factors of accidents in construction industry in the context of experience of construction work of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Project are enumerated. The aspect of accident cost - direct and indirect - is discussed briefly. Setting up of a safety set-up at construction sites is emphasized and principles which should guide the accident prevention programme are spelt out. (M.G.B.)

  4. Airport Performance and Construction Enlargement Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanun, Y.; Setiawan, M. I.; Kurniasih, N.; Hasyim, C.; Ahmar, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation of transportation infrastructure project should consider the contribution towards infrastructure growth. This research aims to analyze the effect of Construction enlargement activities towards airport performance. This research is correlation study. The population includes 148 airports in Indonesia. By using total sampling, there were 148 sample airports. The result shows that the construction enlargement activities variable has relatively strong relationship to Airport Performance variable, while the adjusted R Square score shows the increasing construction enlargement activities that affected by the other factors aside from airport performance.

  5. Death: the ultimate social construction of reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, Sarah

    Using Berger and Luckmann's thesis (1966) on the social construction of reality as rationale, this research analyzes the death drawings of 946 university students enrolled in a Death and Dying course between 1985 and 2004 to investigate the basic constructs elicited by the word "death": dying, moment of death, after death, after life, and bereavement. Consistent with earlier research, gender, race, religion, and religiosity proved to be significant factors. As expected, personal experience with grief was strongly correlated with drawings focused on bereavement. In contrast to earlier studies, fear of death was not significantly related to a particular construct. Implications for research, education, and counseling are discussed.

  6. Construction dispute research conceptualisation, avoidance and resolution

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    There are three specific purposes of Construction Dispute Research. First, this volume aims to summarise studies on construction dispute. Second, apart from the theoretical constructs, where appropriate empirical tests are also included. This approach serves to go beyond the commonly used anecdotal approach for the subject matters. Third, it is the sincere hope of the authors that this book will help shaping research agenda of construction dispute.  The studies are mostly framed from a management perspective drawing on methods and concepts in contract law, economics, psychology and management science.   The book has twenty chapters that are arranged in four parts covering conceptualisation, avoidance, negotiation and mediation. Part 1 is devoted for dispute conceptualisation. A building is only as strong as its foundation. Thus it is no better start to study construction dispute by conceptualisation. The theme of Part 2 is dispute avoidance. The conventional wisdom of ‘prevention is better than cure’ se...

  7. Diffraction analysis of materials under strong plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, A.

    2001-01-01

    The applicability of X-ray diffraction in analyses of the microstructure texture and intrinsic stresses of materials under strong plastic deformation is illustrated by examples and discussed. The experimental methods and findings are supplemented by numeric calculations. It is shown how the microstructure, texture and intrinsic stresses can thus be optimized already in the production process. Analyses of changes in materials during operation of a component provide information on loads and material response to loads which can then be used for optimization of the component, e.g. by constructional modifications or selective heat treatment [de

  8. Wigner functions for fermions in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xin-li; Rischke, Dirk H.; Vasak, David; Wang, Qun

    2018-02-01

    We compute the covariant Wigner function for spin-(1/2) fermions in an arbitrarily strong magnetic field by exactly solving the Dirac equation at non-zero fermion-number and chiral-charge densities. The Landau energy levels as well as a set of orthonormal eigenfunctions are found as solutions of the Dirac equation. With these orthonormal eigenfunctions we construct the fermion field operators and the corresponding Wigner-function operator. The Wigner function is obtained by taking the ensemble average of the Wigner-function operator in global thermodynamical equilibrium, i.e., at constant temperature T and non-zero fermion-number and chiral-charge chemical potentials μ and μ_5, respectively. Extracting the vector and axial-vector components of the Wigner function, we reproduce the currents of the chiral magnetic and separation effect in an arbitrarily strong magnetic field.

  9. Classical and quantum models of strong cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, V.E.

    1983-01-01

    The cosmic censorship conjecture states that naked singularities should not evolve from regular initial conditions in general relativity. In its strong form the conjecture asserts that space-times with Cauchy horizons must always be unstable and thus that the generic solution of Einstein's equations must be inextendible beyond its maximal Cauchy development. In this paper it is shown that one can construct an infinite-dimensional family of extendible cosmological solutions similar to Taub-NUT space-time; however, each of these solutions is unstable in precisely the way demanded by strong cosmic censorship. Finally it is shown that quantum fluctuations in the metric always provide (though in an unexpectedly subtle way) the ''generic perturbations'' which destroy the Cauchy horizons in these models. (author)

  10. Classical and quantum models of strong cosmic censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncrief, V.E. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1983-04-01

    The cosmic censorship conjecture states that naked singularities should not evolve from regular initial conditions in general relativity. In its strong form the conjecture asserts that space-times with Cauchy horizons must always be unstable and thus that the generic solution of Einstein's equations must be inextendible beyond its maximal Cauchy development. In this paper it is shown that one can construct an infinite-dimensional family of extendible cosmological solutions similar to Taub-NUT space-time; however, each of these solutions is unstable in precisely the way demanded by strong cosmic censorship. Finally it is shown that quantum fluctuations in the metric always provide (though in an unexpectedly subtle way) the ''generic perturbations'' which destroy the Cauchy horizons in these models.

  11. Combined incomplete LU and strongly implicit procedure preconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meese, E.A. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    For the solution of large sparse linear systems of equations, the Krylov-subspace methods have gained great merit. Their efficiency are, however, largely dependent upon preconditioning of the equation-system. A family of matrix factorisations often used for preconditioning, is obtained from a truncated Gaussian elimination, ILU(p). Less common, supposedly due to it`s restriction to certain sparsity patterns, is factorisations generated by the strongly implicit procedure (SIP). The ideas from ILU(p) and SIP are used in this paper to construct a generalized strongly implicit procedure, applicable to matrices with any sparsity pattern. The new algorithm has been run on some test equations, and efficiency improvements over ILU(p) was found.

  12. Sustainable construction: construction and demolition waste reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río Merino, Mercedes; Izquierdo Gracia, Pilar; Weis Azevedo, Isabel Salto

    2010-02-01

    Construction activity in Europe has increased substantially in the past decade. Likewise, there has also been a commensurate rise in the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European countries the rate of recycling and reuse of C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and a motivation to develop strategies and management plans to solve it. Due to its composition, there is a significant potential to reuse and/or recycle C&DW, and thereby, contribute to improving the sustainability of construction and development, but practical procedures are not yet widely known or practiced in the construction industry. This article (a) summarizes the different applications that are presently practiced to optimize the recovery and/or application of C&DW for reuse, and (b) proposes various measures and strategies to improve the processing of this waste. The authors suggest that to enhance environmental effectiveness, a conscious and comprehensive C&DW management plan should be implemented in each jurisdiction. More precisely, this study presents a holistic approach towards C&DW management, through which environmental benefits can be achieved through the application of new construction methods that can contribute to sustainable growth.

  13. TPX tokamak construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, D.; Kungl, D.; Seidel, P.; Halfast, C.

    1995-01-01

    A construction management contract normally involves the acquisition of a construction management firm to assist in the design, planning, budget conformance, and coordination of the construction effort. In addition the construction management firm acts as an agent in the awarding of lower tier contracts. The TPX Tokamak Construction Management (TCM) approach differs in that the construction management firm is also directly responsible for the assembly and installation of the tokamak including the design and fabrication of all tooling required for assembly. The Systems Integration Support (SIS) contractor is responsible for the architect-engineering design of ancillary systems, such as heating and cooling, buildings, modifications and site improvements, and a variety of electrical requirements, including switchyards and >4kV power distribution. The TCM will be responsible for the procurement of materials and the installation of the ancillary systems, which can either be performed directly by the TCM or subcontracted to a lower tier subcontractor. Assurance that the TPX tokamak is properly assembled and ready for operation when turned over to the operations team is the primary focus of the construction management effort. To accomplish this a disciplined constructability program will be instituted. The constructability effort will involve the effective and timely integration of construction expertise into the planning, component design, and field operations. Although individual component design groups will provide liaison during the machine assembly operations, the construction management team is responsible for assembly

  14. On the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, our aim is the study the Vanishing of Maps of Tor Conjecture of Hochster and Huneke. We mainly focus on an equivalent characterization called the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture, due to N. Ranganathan. Our results are separated into three chapters. In Chapter 3, we prove special cases of the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture in…

  15. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  16. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  17. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  18. The strong reflecting property and Harrington's Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we characterize the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals for all $\\omega_n$, characterize Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$ and its generalization and discuss the relationship between the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals and Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$.

  19. Strong Nash Equilibria and the Potential Maimizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Megen, F.J.C.; Facchini, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; Tijs, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    A class of non cooperative games characterized by a `congestion e ect' is studied, in which there exists a strong Nash equilibrium, and the set of Nash equilibria, the set of strong Nash equilibria and the set of strategy pro les maximizing the potential function coincide.The structure of the class

  20. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  1. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus, ...

  2. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  3. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science...'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding how CPSC staff would assess whether a substance and/or...

  4. Towards green construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajracharya, Bijaya B.; Shrestha, Prasanna M.

    2000-01-01

    Sustainability is the key to any development works. In the operation phase, hydro power is the most sustainable form of energy. However construction activities for the same power station are usually far from being green. The popular myth is that construction activity converts green into grey. Despite this popular myth, construction of a hydro power project in Nepal has made the project area greener than earlier during the construction phase itself. Choice of construction technology, appropriate level of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of environmental parameters along side the construction progress followed by mitigation at the right time; launching community development programmes side by side, having environmental specification in contractual documents and self-reliance to fulfill environmental obligations by contractors itself are the key factors in the environmental management within the construction activities. The main conclusions in the paper is the need to change the way to think about the project constraints

  5. How engineering facilitates construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.T.

    1976-01-01

    During a recent survey, construction personnel at jobsites were asked, ''what are the ten most unwanted construction problems.'' One reoccurring answer was design/construction incompatibility. In fact, many designs were impractical from a construction point of view. The reasons for this problem can be identified: Once construction begins, engineering is under intense pressure to issue new drawings to allow work to progress according to schedule. Other reasons may be the relative inexperience of the design personnel in construction, changes in design criteria and delays in receipt of supplier or client information. A description is presented of ways to solve this problem by obtaining construction expertise and input into the various phases and products of the engineering work

  6. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  7. Strong dietary restrictions protect Drosophila against anoxia/reoxygenation injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vigne

    Full Text Available Reoxygenation of ischemic tissues is a major factor that determines the severity of cardiovascular diseases. This paper describes the consequences of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R stresses on Drosophila, a useful, anoxia tolerant, model organism.Newly emerged adult male flies were exposed to anoxic conditions (<1% O2 for 1 to 6 hours, reoxygenated and their survival was monitored.A/R stresses induced a transient increase in mortality which peaked at the time of reoxygenation. Then flies recovered low mortality rates similar to those of control flies. A/R induced mortality was strongly dependent on dietary conditions during the 48 h that preceded anoxia. Well fed flies were anoxia sensitive. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protected flies against A/R injuries. The tolerance to anoxia was associated to large decreases in glycogen, protein, and ATP contents. During anoxia, anoxia tolerant flies produced more lactate, less phosphate and they maintained more stable ATP levels than anoxia sensitive flies. Moderate dietary restrictions, which increased the longevity of normoxic flies, did not promote resistance to A/R stresses. Diet dependent A/R injuries were still observed in sigma loss of function mutants and they were insensitive to dietary rapamycin or resveratrol. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribose-furanoside, an activator AMP kinase decreased A/R injuries. Mutants in the insulin signalling pathway were more anoxia tolerant in a fed state.Long A/R stresses induce a transient increase in mortality in Drosophila. This mortality is highly dependent on dietary conditions prior to the stress. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protect flies against A/R injuries, probably by inducing a major remodelling of energy metabolism. The results also indicate that mechanistically different responses develop in response to dietary restrictions of different strengths. AMP kinase and the insulin signalling

  8. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits

  9. The CO/NOx emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Ying-Hao; Hermanson, James C.

    2014-01-01

    recirculation within the swirl-induced recirculation zone. Scaling relations, when taking into account the impact of air dilution over an injection cycle on the flame length, reveal a strong correlation between the CO emissions and the global residence time

  10. Construction time of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, João M.L.; Gallinaro, Bruno; Carajilescov, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The construction time of PWRs is studied considering published data about nuclear power plants in the world. For the 268 PWRs in operation in 2010, the mode of the construction time distribution is around 5–6 years, and 80% of the plants were built in less than 120 months. To circumvent the problem of comparing plants with different size we normalized the construction time to plants with 1 GW. We restricted the analysis to 201 PWRs which suffered less from external factors that were beyond the control of the management from 1965 to 2010. The results showed that the normalized construction time did not increase over the years and nor with the plants’ gross power level. The learning rate of the industry regarding normalized construction times showed a reduction with 95% confidence level of about 0.56±0.07 months for each 10 GW of installed capacity. Over the years the normalized construction time decreased and became more predictable. The data showed that countries with more centralized regulatory, construction and operation environments were able to build PWRs in shorter times. Countries less experienced with the nuclear technology built PWRs in longer times. - Highlights: ► The construction time of PWRs is analyzed based on historical data. ► Different factors affecting construction time are considered in the analyses. ► The normalized construction time of PWRs decreased with time and gross power level. ► Countries with more centralized institutions built PWRs more quickly

  11. Dual field theory of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dual field theory of strong interactions is derived from a Lagrangian of the Yang-Mills and Higgs fields. The existence of a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e is incorporated into the theory. Unification of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces is shown to converge at the mass of the intermediate vector boson W/sup +/-/. The coupling constants of the strong and weak interactions are derived in terms of the fine-structure constant α = 1/137

  12. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  13. Constructing Student Problems in Phylogenetic Tree Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Steven D.

    Evolution is often equated with natural selection and is taught from a primarily functional perspective while comparative and historical approaches, which are critical for developing an appreciation of the power of evolutionary theory, are often neglected. This report describes a study of expert problem-solving in phylogenetic tree construction.…

  14. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  15. Imperfect construction of microclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E.; Zhou, K.; Gilbert, G.; Weinstein, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    Microclusters are the basic building blocks used to construct cluster states capable of supporting fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this paper, we explore the consequences of errors on microcluster construction using two error models. To quantify the effect of the errors we calculate the fidelity of the constructed microclusters and the fidelity with which two such microclusters can be fused together. Such simulations are vital for gauging the capability of an experimental system to achieve fault tolerance.

  16. VE of construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-10-15

    This book gives descriptions of basic of VE of construction industry including doing away with mannerism, necessity of cost reduction, management method of cost reduction, thinking of idea, target of VE, starting VE activity, technical method of VE of construction industry such as thinking of idea with brainstorming, function trade method, new brainstorming, MM method, morphology analysis and lateral thinking, cases of VE of construction industry.

  17. VE of construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic of VE of construction industry including doing away with mannerism, necessity of cost reduction, management method of cost reduction, thinking of idea, target of VE, starting VE activity, technical method of VE of construction industry such as thinking of idea with brainstorming, function trade method, new brainstorming, MM method, morphology analysis and lateral thinking, cases of VE of construction industry.

  18. Development of inducer-free expression plasmids based on IPTG-inducible promoters for Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Thi Minh; Phan, Trang Thi Phuong; Huynh, Thanh Kieu; Dang, Ngan Thi Kim; Huynh, Phuong Thi Kim; Nguyen, Tri Minh; Truong, Tuom Thi Tinh; Tran, Thuoc Linh; Schumann, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Hoang Duc

    2017-07-25

    Besides Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis is an important bacterial species for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant genes are inserted into shuttle expression vectors which replicate in both E. coli and in B. subtilis. The ligation products are first transformed into E. coli cells, analyzed for correct insertions, and the correct recombinant plasmids are then transformed into B. subtilis. A major problem using E. coli cells can be the strong basal level of expression of the recombinant protein which may interfere with the stability of the cells. To minimize this problem, we developed strong expression vectors being repressed in E. coli and inducer-free in B. subtilis. In general, induction of IPTG-inducible expression vectors is determined by the regulatory lacI gene encoding the LacI repressor in combination with the lacO operator on the promoter. To investigate the inducer-free properties of the vectors, we constructed inducer-free expression plasmids by removing the lacI gene and characterized their properties. First, we examined the ability to repress a reporter gene in E. coli, which is a prominent property facilitating the construction of the expression vectors carrying a target gene. The β-galactosidase (bgaB gene) basal levels expressed from Pgrac01-bgaB could be repressed at least twice in the E. coli cloning strain. Second, the inducer-free production of BgaB from four different plasmids with the Pgrac01 promoter in B. subtilis was investigated. As expected, BgaB expression levels of inducer-free constructs are at least 37 times higher than that of the inducible constructs in the absence of IPTG, and comparable to those in the presence of the inducer. Third, using efficient IPTG-inducible expression vectors containing the strong promoter Pgrac100, we could convert them into inducer-free expression plasmids. The BgaB production levels from the inducer-free plasmid in the absence of the inducer were at least 4.5 times higher than that of

  19. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  20. Strong-coupling theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, D.; Sauls, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The electronic properties of correlated metals with a strong electron-phonon coupling may be understood in terms of a combination of Landau''s Fermi liquid theory and the strong-coupling theory of Migdal and Eliashberg. In these lecture notes we discuss the microscopic foundations of this phenomenological Fermi-liquid model of correlated, strong-coupling metals. We formulate the basic equations of the model, which are quasiclassical transport equations that describe both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena for the normal and superconducting states of a metal. Our emphasis is on superconductors close to equilibrium, for which we derive the general linear response theory. As an application we calculate the dynamical conductivity of strong-coupling superconductors. (author)

  1. Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.

  2. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There have been many developments in modeling techniques, and ... damage life and property in a city or region. How- ... quake of 26 January 2001 as a case study. 2. ...... quake derived from a dense strong-motion network; Bull. Seismol.

  3. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  4. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  5. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  6. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  7. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  8. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  9. HITACHI construction CAE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.

    1994-01-01

    Construction and maintenance of nuclear power plants have important problems such as shortening the construction period and reducing the construction cost. Recently, the problem of insufficient construction labor has arisen, and as drastic strategic development has become a necessary counter-measure. The following four principles are included in the measures to be taken for efficient execution of the construction work within the short construction period: (1) reduction of on-site work and expansion of module block making, (2)improvement of the accuracy of the on-site work process, adjustment and expansion of the work in parallel with the construction process, (3)improvement of efficiency of the on-site work and mechanization and automation of the work, (4)improvement of the accuracy of the management of the construction. A three dimensional simulation system plant construction plan CAE, comprising five modules has been developed. A project management system was also developed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of management work in the field

  10. Interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1982-06-01

    Several non-linear processes involvoing the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields are discussed, with particular emphasis on the ionization problem. Non-perturbative methods which have been proposed to tackle this problem are analysed, and shown to correspond to an expansion in the intra-atomic potential. The relation between tunneling and multiphoton absorption as ionization mechanisms, and the generalization of Einstein's photoelectric equation to the strong-field case are discussed. (Author) [pt

  11. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  12. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  13. Industrial Disputes in the Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J Perry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cole Royal Commission enquiry into the building and construction (abbreviated to ‘construction’ sector recommended controversial workplace-relation reforms for that sector. The recommended changes are likely to be enshrined in legislation within the year. The Commission drew on analyses of industrial disputes that focused, in the main, on quite recent experience. This paper attempts to give a broader historical perspective on disputes in that sector by considering the pattern of disputes for the entire post-World War II period. Accordingly, data on disputes and employees during the entire period are gathered from Australian Bureau of Statistics current and archived sources. These data are classified according to sector (construction versus non-construction and analysed. It is found that the strike rate has, on average, been greater in the construction sector than in the non-construction sector. However, there have been periods during which disputes in the construction sector have been relatively low. The most recent period was during the period of the Accord (1983-96, during which the strike rate in the construction sector fell relatively strongly. The analysis of this relatively broad historical period draws attention, among other things, to the possibility that the sort of strategies employed during the Accord years – strategies of cooperation and consensus building – may provide a more effective means of bringing industrial peace to the workplace relations scene of the construction sector than policies that are relatively confrontational.

  14. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  15. Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Definition of Strong Equality of Tautologies and Universal System for Various Propositional Logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahit Chubaryan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Earlier we have introduced a definition of strong equality of classical tautologies, according to which two tautologies are equal iff they have the same hardness. The strong equality implies well known equality, but not vice versa. The strong equality is based on the notion of determinitive conjunct, using of which some new deduction system for classical propositional logic were defined. Here the notions of strong equality of tautologies for various logics are suggested and the idea of construction of universal deduction system for various propositional logics is given.

  17. Strongly first-order electroweak phase transition and classical scale invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzinnia, Arsham; Ren, Jing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we examine the possibility of realizing a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition within the minimal classically scale-invariant extension of the standard model (SM), previously proposed and analyzed as a potential solution to the hierarchy problem. By introducing one complex gauge-singlet scalar and three (weak scale) right-handed Majorana neutrinos, the scenario was successfully rendered capable of achieving a radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry (by means of the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism), inducing nonzero masses for the SM neutrinos (via the seesaw mechanism), presenting a pseudoscalar dark matter candidate (protected by the CP symmetry of the potential), and predicting the existence of a second CP-even boson (with suppressed couplings to the SM content) in addition to the 125 GeV scalar. In the present treatment, we construct the full finite-temperature one-loop effective potential of the model, including the resummed thermal daisy loops, and demonstrate that finite-temperature effects induce a first-order electroweak phase transition. Requiring the thermally driven first-order phase transition to be sufficiently strong at the onset of the bubble nucleation (corresponding to nucleation temperatures TN˜100-200 GeV) further constrains the model's parameter space; in particular, an O(0.01) fraction of the dark matter in the Universe may be simultaneously accommodated with a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition. Moreover, such a phase transition disfavors right-handed Majorana neutrino masses above several hundreds of GeV, confines the pseudoscalar dark matter masses to ˜1-2 TeV, predicts the mass of the second CP-even scalar to be ˜100-300 GeV, and requires the mixing angle between the CP-even components of the SM doublet and the complex singlet to lie within the range 0.2≲sinω ≲0.4. The obtained results are displayed in comprehensive exclusion plots, identifying the viable regions of the parameter space

  18. Interplay of Anderson localization and strong interaction in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henseler, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We study the interplay of disorder localization and strong local interactions within the Anderson-Hubbard model. Taking into account local Mott-Hubbard physics and static screening of the disorder potential, the system is mapped onto an effective single-particle Anderson model, which is studied within the self-consistent theory of electron localization. For fermions, we find rich nonmonotonic behavior of the localization length ξ, particularly in two-dimensional systems, including an interaction-induced exponential enhancement of ξ for small and intermediate disorders and a strong reduction of ξ due to hopping suppression by strong interactions. In three dimensions, we identify for half filling a Mott-Hubbard-assisted Anderson localized phase existing between the metallic and the Mott-Hubbard-gapped phases. For small U there is re-entrant behavior from the Anderson localized phase to the metallic phase. For bosons, the unrestricted particle occupation number per lattice site yields a monotonic enhancement of ξ as a function of decreasing interaction, which we assume to persist until the superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate phase is entered. Besides, we study cold atomic gases expanding, by a diffusion process, in a weak random potential. We show that the density-density correlation function of the expanding gas is strongly affected by disorder and we estimate the typical size of a speckle spot, i.e., a region of enhanced or depleted density. Both a Fermi gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate (in a mean-field approach) are considered. (orig.)

  19. Interplay of Anderson localization and strong interaction in disordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henseler, Peter

    2010-01-15

    We study the interplay of disorder localization and strong local interactions within the Anderson-Hubbard model. Taking into account local Mott-Hubbard physics and static screening of the disorder potential, the system is mapped onto an effective single-particle Anderson model, which is studied within the self-consistent theory of electron localization. For fermions, we find rich nonmonotonic behavior of the localization length {xi}, particularly in two-dimensional systems, including an interaction-induced exponential enhancement of {xi} for small and intermediate disorders and a strong reduction of {xi} due to hopping suppression by strong interactions. In three dimensions, we identify for half filling a Mott-Hubbard-assisted Anderson localized phase existing between the metallic and the Mott-Hubbard-gapped phases. For small U there is re-entrant behavior from the Anderson localized phase to the metallic phase. For bosons, the unrestricted particle occupation number per lattice site yields a monotonic enhancement of {xi} as a function of decreasing interaction, which we assume to persist until the superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate phase is entered. Besides, we study cold atomic gases expanding, by a diffusion process, in a weak random potential. We show that the density-density correlation function of the expanding gas is strongly affected by disorder and we estimate the typical size of a speckle spot, i.e., a region of enhanced or depleted density. Both a Fermi gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate (in a mean-field approach) are considered. (orig.)

  20. Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, Ph.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Schafer, K. J.; Mairesse, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use a train of sub-200 attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with energies just above the ionization threshold in argon to create a train of temporally localized electron wave packets. We study the energy transfer from a strong infrared (IR) laser field to the ionized electrons as a function of the delay between the XUV and IR fields. When the wave packets are born at the zero crossings of the IR field, a significant amount of energy (∼20 eV) is transferred from the field to the electrons. This results in dramatically enhanced above-threshold ionization in conditions where the IR field alone does not induce any significant ionization. Because both the energy and duration of the wave packets can be varied independently of the IR laser, they are valuable tools for studying and controlling strong-field processes

  1. Supper strong nanostructured TWIP steels for automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Yuan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A ductile and super strong nanostructured twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP steels were fabricated by cold rolling and recovery treatment. This strong and ductile nanostructured alloy can be used for the anti-intrusion part of body-in-white. Cold rolling was used to produce intensive nano-twins so that the microstructure was greatly refined. Recovery is employed to anneal dislocations for improving the ductility. A physical model is proposed to describe the relationship between the yield stress and the twin density. Furthermore, the present work also found that the activation energy for recovery is ~160 J/mol, which implies that the recovery mechanism is governed by dislocation core diffusion.

  2. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.R.D.; Gericke, D.O.; Wunsch, K.; Cammarata, M.; Fritz, D.; Glenzer, S.H.; Heimann, P.; Lee, H.J.; Lemke, H.; Nagler, B.; Zhu, D.; Galtier, E.; Moinard, A.; Rosmej, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid. (authors)

  3. Robust mesoscopic superposition of strongly correlated ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallwood, David W.; Ernst, Thomas; Brand, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme to create coherent superpositions of annular flow of strongly interacting bosonic atoms in a one-dimensional ring trap. The nonrotating ground state is coupled to a vortex state with mesoscopic angular momentum by means of a narrow potential barrier and an applied phase that originates from either rotation or a synthetic magnetic field. We show that superposition states in the Tonks-Girardeau regime are robust against single-particle loss due to the effects of strong correlations. The coupling between the mesoscopically distinct states scales much more favorably with particle number than in schemes relying on weak interactions, thus making particle numbers of hundreds or thousands feasible. Coherent oscillations induced by time variation of parameters may serve as a 'smoking gun' signature for detecting superposition states.

  4. Atom-Pair Kinetics with Strong Electric-Dipole Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaicharoen, N; Gonçalves, L F; Raithel, G

    2016-05-27

    Rydberg-atom ensembles are switched from a weakly to a strongly interacting regime via adiabatic transformation of the atoms from an approximately nonpolar into a highly dipolar quantum state. The resultant electric dipole-dipole forces are probed using a device akin to a field ion microscope. Ion imaging and pair-correlation analysis reveal the kinetics of the interacting atoms. Dumbbell-shaped pair-correlation images demonstrate the anisotropy of the binary dipolar force. The dipolar C_{3} coefficient, derived from the time dependence of the images, agrees with the value calculated from the permanent electric-dipole moment of the atoms. The results indicate many-body dynamics akin to disorder-induced heating in strongly coupled particle systems.

  5. Jet quenching parameters in strongly coupled nonconformal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchel, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Recently Liu, Rajagopal, and Wiedemann (LRW) [H. Liu, K. Rajagopal, and U. A. Wiedemann, hep-ph/0605178.] proposed a first principle, nonperturbative quantum field theoretic definition of 'jet quenching parameter' q-circumflex used in models of medium-induced radiative parton energy loss in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC. Relating q-circumflex to a short-distance behavior of a certain lightlike Wilson loop, they used gauge theory-string theory correspondence to evaluate q-circumflex for the strongly coupled N=4 SU(N c ) gauge theory plasma. We generalize analysis of LRW to strongly coupled nonconformal gauge theory plasma. We find that a jet quenching parameter is gauge theory specific (not universal). Furthermore, it appears its value increases as the number of effective adjoint degrees of freedom of a gauge theory plasma increases

  6. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  7. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  8. Wall Construction; Carpentry: 901892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in floor and wall layout, and in the diverse methods and construction of walls. Upon completion of this course the students should have acquired a knowledge of construction plans and structural foundations in addition to a basic knowledge of mathematics. The course consists of…

  9. Safety in construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swuste, P.H.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The available literature on Construction Safety is not very optimistic about the chances of evidence-based safety in the construction industry exerting a positive influence. Many articles indicate that the structures and processes that are designed to ensure safety in the industry are poor. Safety

  10. INDOT Construction Inspection Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In the last decade, the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has experienced an increase in their construction projects (e.g., INDOTs : construction spending was $789 million in 2006 and increased to $1,081.4 million in 2010); while the le...

  11. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  12. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  13. Governmentalities of Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we apply Foucault’s concept of governmentality in a dual analysis of the formation and transformation of the construction sector and the construction worker. The governmentality concept is well-suited for such an analysis as it directs attention to the ways in which control is the ...

  14. Nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baddley, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    A method of constructing a radiation shielding plug for use in the roof of the coolant containment vault of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors is described. The construction allows relative movement of that part of service cables and pipes which are carried by the fixed roof and that part which is carried by the rotatable plug. (U.K.)

  15. Constructional and Conceptual Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Ellen Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's (1995) recognition that, in addition to various word-level constructions, sentences also instantiate meaningful argument structure constructions enables a non-polysemy-based analysis of various verb 'alternations' (Levin 1993). In such an analysis, meaning variations associated with the use of the same verb in different argument…

  16. Personal Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development...

  17. Industrialization for sustainable construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Barrett, P; Amaratunga, D.; Haigh, R; Keraminiyage, K.; Pathirage, C

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable construction (SuCo), which genesis dates in the early 1990’s, advocates the creation and operation of a quality and healthy built environment based on resource efficiency, life cycle economics and ecological principles. (Kibert, 2003). Currently the Construction Industry does not meet

  18. Pairing from strong repulsion in triangular lattice Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shang-Shun; Zhu, Wei; Batista, Cristian D.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a pairing mechanism between holes in the dilute limit of doped frustrated Mott insulators. Hole pairing arises from a hole-hole-magnon three-body bound state. This pairing mechanism has its roots on single-hole kinetic energy frustration, which favors antiferromagnetic (AFM) correlations around the hole. We demonstrate that the AFM polaron (hole-magnon bound state) produced by a single hole propagating on a field-induced polarized background is strong enough to bind a second hole. The effective interaction between these three-body bound states is repulsive, implying that this pairing mechanism is relevant for superconductivity.

  19. Quantum simulation of strongly correlated condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, W.; Qin, T.

    2018-04-01

    We review recent experimental and theoretical progress in realizing and simulating many-body phases of ultracold atoms in optical lattices, which gives access to analog quantum simulations of fundamental model Hamiltonians for strongly correlated condensed matter systems, such as the Hubbard model. After a general introduction to quantum gases in optical lattices, their preparation and cooling, and measurement techniques for relevant observables, we focus on several examples, where quantum simulations of this type have been performed successfully during the past years: Mott-insulator states, itinerant quantum magnetism, disorder-induced localization and its interplay with interactions, and topological quantum states in synthetic gauge fields.

  20. Strategic management: An Eastern Cape construction SME case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    term growth and development of the economy of the country. The development and growth of construction SMEs are important for all countries, as a strong SME base has the capacity to produce a high-quality infrastructure for the country.

  1. Computer support for collaborative work in the construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.P.; Cha, J.

    2003-01-01

    Collaborative work is an essential ingredient for success in the construction industry. With the advancements of capabilities of information technologies and communication infrastructures, the effective utilisation of these technologies has become very important and strongly affects business

  2. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  3. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

  4. A strongly quasiconvex PAC-Bayesian bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiemann, Niklas; Igel, Christian; Wintenberger, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new PAC-Bayesian bound and a way of constructing a hypothesis space, so that the bound is convex in the posterior distribution and also convex in a trade-off parameter between empirical performance of the posterior distribution and its complexity. The complexity is measured by the Ku...

  5. Postcollaptical effects in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The qualitative theory of Langmuir turbulence is constructed, which takes into account the postcollaptical effects. The spectra obtained for Langmuir waves and accelerated electrons differ substantially from those predicted earlier. An interesting feature of new spectra is their dependence on the collapse symmetry. 6 refs

  6. A strong focussing cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yaochang

    1986-01-01

    The construction and performance of small cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole, which is installed in JM-400 pulse electrostatic accelerator, are described. This electrostatic quadrupole is not only used in neutron generator, but also suitable for ion injector as well as for low energy electron accelerator

  7. Spontaneous dressed-state polarization in the strong driving regime of cavity QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armen, Michael A; Miller, Anthony E; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2009-10-23

    We utilize high-bandwidth phase-quadrature homodyne measurement of the light transmitted through a Fabry-Perot cavity, driven strongly and on resonance, to detect excess phase noise induced by a single intracavity atom. We analyze the correlation properties and driving-strength dependence of the atom-induced phase noise to establish that it corresponds to the long-predicted phenomenon of spontaneous dressed-state polarization. Our experiment thus provides a demonstration of cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong-driving regime in which one atom interacts strongly with a many-photon cavity field to produce novel quantum stochastic behavior.

  8. Features of tuned mass damper behavior under strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Olga; Uzdin, Alexander; Fedorova, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Plastic deformations, cracks and destruction of structure members appear in the constructions under strong earthquakes. Therefore constructions are characterized by a nonlinear deformation diagram. Two types of construction non-linearity are considered in the paper. The first type of nonlinearity is elastoplastic one. In this case, plastic deformations occur in the structural elements, and when the element is unloaded, its properties restores. Among such diagrams are the Prandtl diagram, the Prandtl diagram with hardening, the Ramberg-Osgood diagram and others. For systems with such nonlinearity there is an amplitude-frequency characteristic and resonance oscillation frequencies. In this case one can pick up the most dangerous accelerograms for the construction. The second type of nonlinearity is nonlinearity with degrading rigidity and dependence of behavior on the general loading history. The Kirikov-Amankulov model is one of such ones. Its behavior depends on the maximum displacement in the stress history. Such systems do not have gain frequency characteristic and resonance frequency. The period of oscillation of such system is increasing during the system loading, and the system eigen frequency decreases to zero at the time of collapse. In the cases under consideration, when investigating the system with MD behavior, the authors proposed new efficiency criteria. These include the work of plastic deformation forces for the first type of nonlinearity, which determines the possibility of progressive collapse or low cycle fatigue of the structure members. The period of system oscillations and the time to collapse of the structural support members are the criterion for systems with degrading rigidity. In the case of non-linear system behavior, the efficiency of MD application decreases, because the fundamental structure period is reduced because of structure damages and the MD will be rebound from the blanking regime. However, the MD using can significantly reduce

  9. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  10. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using ''first principles'' molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  11. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-04-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using “first principles” molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  12. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  13. Institutionalizing Strong Sustainability: A Rawlsian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Ott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to provide some ethical orientation on how sustainability might be actualized by institutions. Since institutionalization is about rules and organization, it presupposes ideas and concepts by which institutions can be substantiated. After outlining terminology, the article deals with underlying ethical and conceptual problems which are highly relevant for any suggestions concerning institutionalization. These problems are: (a the ethical scope of the sustainability perspective (natural capital, poverty, sentient animals, (b the theory of justice on which ideas about sustainability are built (capability approach, Rawlsianism, and (c the favored concept of sustainability (weak, intermediate, and strong sustainability. These problems are analyzed in turn. As a result, a Rawlsian concept of rule-based strong sustainability is proposed. The specific problems of institutionalization are addressed by applying Rawls’s concept of branches. The article concludes with arguments in favor of three transnational duties which hold for states that have adopted Rawlsian strong sustainability.

  14. A theory of the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)

  15. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  16. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  17. Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are strongly dependent on guard cell potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a strong increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672

  18. Pride and Prejudice – Identity and Collaboration in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Based on an 18 month ethnographic case study of a construction partnering project, the paper adopts practice based theory for understanding the identity formation and practices of collaboration in construction. Drawing upon practice based theory in general and actor network theory and communities...... of practice in particular, the construction project is interpreted as configuration of networked practices characterized by strong professional practices (e.g. architects and contractors) and locally negotiated collaboration practices. During the construction project, actors gain experiences in relation...... practices – enabling and inhibiting collaboration. Pride and prejudice are thus central constitutive elements of present construction practices in the formation of identity and development of collaboration processes....

  19. The Ecology and Evolution of Constructed Ecosystems as Green Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eLundholm

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure consists of ecosystems that provide valuable services to urban areas. Constructed ecosystems, including green roofs, bioretention systems, constructed wetlands and bioreactors are artificial, custom-built components of green infrastructure that are becoming more common in cities. Small size, strong spatial boundaries, ecological novelty and the role of human design characterize all constructed ecosystems, influencing their functions and interactions with other urban ecosystems. Here I outline the relevance of ecology and evolution in understanding the functioning of constructed ecosystems. In turn, a research focus on the distinctive aspects of constructed ecosystems can contribute to fundamental science.

  20. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21...

  1. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...

  2. Strong WW scattering at photon linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of observing strong interactions of longitudinally polarized weak vector bosons in the process γγ → ZZ at a photon linear collider. We make use of polarization of the photon beams and cuts on the decay products of the Z bosons to enhance the signal relative to the background of transversely polarized ZZ pairs. We find that the background overwhelms the signal unless there are strong resonant effects, as for instance from a technicolor analogue of the hadronic f 2 (1270) meson

  3. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....

  4. De Sitter vacua of strongly interacting QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Karapetyan, Aleksandr [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    We use holographic correspondence to argue that Euclidean (Bunch-Davies) vacuum is a late-time attractor of the dynamical evolution of quantum gauge theories at strong coupling. The Bunch-Davies vacuum is not an adiabatic state, if the gauge theory is non-conformal — the comoving entropy production rate is nonzero. Using the N=2{sup ∗} gauge theory holography, we explore prospects of explaining current accelerated expansion of the Universe as due to the vacuum energy of a strongly coupled QFT.

  5. Optical spectral weight anomalies and strong correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschi, A.; Capone, M.; Ortolani, M.; Calvani, P.; Lupi, S.; Castellani, C.

    2007-01-01

    The anomalous behavior observed in the optical spectral weight (W) of the cuprates provides valuable information about the physics of these compounds. Both the doping and the temperature dependences of W are hardly explained through conventional estimates based on the f-sum rule. By computing the optical conductivity of the doped Hubbard model with the Dynamical Mean Field Theory, we point out that the strong correlation plays a key role in determining the basic features of the observed anomalies: the proximity to a Mott insulating phase accounts simultaneously for the strong temperature dependence of W and for its zero temperature value

  6. Strong cosmic censorship in de Sitter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Oscar J. C.; Eperon, Felicity C.; Reall, Harvey S.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2018-05-01

    Recent work indicates that the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis is violated by nearly extremal Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes. It was argued that perturbations of such a black hole decay sufficiently rapidly that the perturbed spacetime can be extended across the Cauchy horizon as a weak solution of the equations of motion. In this paper we consider the case of Kerr-de Sitter black holes. We find that, for any nonextremal value of the black hole parameters, there are quasinormal modes which decay sufficiently slowly to ensure that strong cosmic censorship is respected. Our analysis covers both scalar field and linearized gravitational perturbations.

  7. Construction in Occupied Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Andrew E.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  8. Construction in Occupied Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Andrew E.; Azhar, Salman; Khalfan, Malik

    2017-06-01

    Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  9. Multisensor Distributed Track Fusion AlgorithmBased on Strong Tracking Filter and Feedback Integration1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGGuo-Sheng; WENCheng-Lin; TANMin

    2004-01-01

    A new multisensor distributed track fusion algorithm is put forward based on combiningthe feedback integration with the strong tracking Kalman filter. Firstly, an effective tracking gateis constructed by taking the intersection of the tracking gates formed before and after feedback.Secondly, on the basis of the constructed effective tracking gate, probabilistic data association andstrong tracking Kalman filter are combined to form the new multisensor distributed track fusionalgorithm. At last, simulation is performed on the original algorithm and the algorithm presented.

  10. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...

  11. Construction program management

    CERN Document Server

    Delaney, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, it lags behind other industries in its implementation of modern management techniques such as those contained in the Standard for Program Management (the Standard) by the Project Management Institute (PMI(R)). Construction Program Management details the successful use of the PMI(R) approach for the construction of capital programs. It demonstrates, through case studies, how implementation of PMI's set of tools and techniques can improve the chances of program success. Exploring tactical and strategic management method

  12. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  13. Quantum Thermodynamics at Strong Coupling: Operator Thermodynamic Functions and Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Tsung Hsiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying or constructing a fine-grained microscopic theory that will emerge under specific conditions to a known macroscopic theory is always a formidable challenge. Thermodynamics is perhaps one of the most powerful theories and best understood examples of emergence in physical sciences, which can be used for understanding the characteristics and mechanisms of emergent processes, both in terms of emergent structures and the emergent laws governing the effective or collective variables. Viewing quantum mechanics as an emergent theory requires a better understanding of all this. In this work we aim at a very modest goal, not quantum mechanics as thermodynamics, not yet, but the thermodynamics of quantum systems, or quantum thermodynamics. We will show why even with this minimal demand, there are many new issues which need be addressed and new rules formulated. The thermodynamics of small quantum many-body systems strongly coupled to a heat bath at low temperatures with non-Markovian behavior contains elements, such as quantum coherence, correlations, entanglement and fluctuations, that are not well recognized in traditional thermodynamics, built on large systems vanishingly weakly coupled to a non-dynamical reservoir. For quantum thermodynamics at strong coupling, one needs to reexamine the meaning of the thermodynamic functions, the viability of the thermodynamic relations and the validity of the thermodynamic laws anew. After a brief motivation, this paper starts with a short overview of the quantum formulation based on Gelin & Thoss and Seifert. We then provide a quantum formulation of Jarzynski’s two representations. We show how to construct the operator thermodynamic potentials, the expectation values of which provide the familiar thermodynamic variables. Constructing the operator thermodynamic functions and verifying or modifying their relations is a necessary first step in the establishment of a viable thermodynamics theory for

  14. Effects of multi-photon interferences from internally generated fields in strongly resonant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Lu; Payne, Marvin G.; Garrett, William R.

    2006-01-01

    In studies of various nonlinear optical phenomena, strong resonant features in the atomic or molecular response to multi-photon driven processes have been used to greatly enhance the visibility of otherwise weak higher-order processes. However, there are well defined circumstances where a multi-photon-resonant response of a target system leads to the generation of one or more new electromagnetic fields that can drastically change the overall system response from what would be expected from the imposed laser fields alone. New effects can occur and dominate some aspects of the nonlinear optical response because of the constructive or destructive interference between transition amplitudes along multiple excitation pathways between a given set of optically coupled states, where one of the pathways involve internally generated field(s). Under destructive interference some resonant enhancements can become completely canceled (suppressed). This review focuses on the class of optical interference effects associated with internally generated fields, that have been found to be capable of influencing a very significant number of basic physical phenomena in gas or vapor phase systems. It provides a historical overview of experimental and theoretical developments and a modern understanding of the underlying physics and its various manifestations that include: suppression of multi-photon excitation processes, suppression of stimulated emissions (Raman, hyper-Raman, and optically pumped stimulated emissions), saturation of parametric wave-mixing, pressure and beam-geometry dependent shifting of multi-photon-resonant absorption lines, and the suppression of Autler-Townes splitting and ac-stark shifts. Additionally, optical interference effects in some modern contexts, such as achieving multi-photon induced transparency, establishing single-photon self-interference based induced transparency, and generating entangled single photon states, are reviewed

  15. Natural strong CP conservation in flipped physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, P.H. (Institute of Field Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Kephart, T.W. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1990-08-13

    A natural axion-free solution of the strong {ital CP} problem {ital at} {ital tree} {ital level} is noted within an E(6) grand unified theory. Using this as a springboard, it is shown that several flipped SU(5) theories which occur in superstring phenomenology contain within them a mechanism which enforces {bar {theta}}=0 at high accuracy.

  16. Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Heiko J.

    Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space.

  17. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  18. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...

  19. Discrete symmetries, strong CP problem and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1993-05-01

    Spontaneous breaking of parity or time reversal invariance offers a solution to the strong CP problem, the stability of which under quantum gravitational effects provides an upper limit on the scale of symmetry breaking. Even more important, these Planck scale effects may provide a simple and natural way out of the resulting domain wall problem. (author). 22 refs

  20. Phase transition from strong-coupling expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonyi, J.; Szlachanyi, K.

    1982-01-01

    Starting with quarkless SU(2) lattice gauge theory and using the strong-coupling expansion we calculate the action of the effective field theory which corresponds to the thermal Wilson loop. This effective action makes evident that the quark liberating phase transition traces back to the spontaneous breaking of a global Z(2) symmetry group. It furthermore describes both phases qualitatively. (orig.)

  1. The stability of the strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The perturbation of the classical solution to a strong gravity model given by Salam and Strathdee is investigated. Using the Hamiltonian formalism it is shown that this static and spherically symmetric solution is stable under the odd parity perturbations provided some parameters in the solution are suitably restricted

  2. Chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ye; Liu Weiqing; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhan Meng

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled oscillator systems is studied. We find a new bifurcation from synchronous chaotic state, chaotic short wave bifurcation, i.e. a chaotic desynchronization attractor is new born in the systems due to chaos desynchronization. In comparison with the usual periodic short wave bifurcation, very rich but distinct phenomena are observed

  3. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  4. Strong imploding shock, the representative curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1981-01-01

    The representative curve of the ideal gas behind the front of a spherically, or cylindrically, symmetric strong imploding shock is shown to pass through the point where the reduced pressure is maximum, P(xisub(m)) = Psub(m)sub(a)sub(x). (orig.)

  5. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  6. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  7. Strongly \\'etale difference algebras and Babbitt's decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašić, Ivan; Wibmer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of strongly \\'{e}tale difference algebras, whose role in the study of difference equations is analogous to the role of \\'{e}tale algebras in the study of algebraic equations. We deduce an improved version of Babbitt's decomposition theorem and we present applications to difference algebraic groups and the compatibility problem.

  8. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.

  9. Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.

  10. Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production......-cathode reflex arc, Stellarator, Zeta discharge, ionospheric plasmas, and auroral plasma turbulence....

  11. Strong industrial base vital for economic revival

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the inauguration of a 2-day conference on nuclear technology in Islamabad, the chairman of PAEC said that Pakistan needs to develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment to improve the economic condition of the country. He descibed how Pakistan has already had a breakthrough with the export of equipment to CERN, Geneva (1 page).

  12. Strong field control of predissociation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, María E; Balerdi, Garikoitz; Loriot, Vincent; de Nalda, Rebeca; Bañares, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Strong field control scenarios are investigated in the CH3I predissociation dynamics at the origin of the second absorption B-band, in which state-selective electronic predissociation occurs through the crossing with a valence dissociative state. Dynamic Stark control (DSC) and pump-dump strategies are shown capable of altering both the predissociation lifetime and the product branching ratio.

  13. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  14. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  15. Steering neutral atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilzer, S; Eichmann, U

    2014-01-01

    The seminal strong-field tunnelling theory introduced by L V Keldysh plays a pivotal role. It has shaped our understanding of atomic strong-field processes, where it represents the first step in complex ionisation dynamics and provides reliable tunnelling rates. Tunnelling rates, however, cannot be necessarily equated with ionisation rates. Taking into account the electron dynamics in the Coulomb potential following the tunnelling process, the process of frustrated tunnelling ionisation has been found to lead to excited Rydberg atoms. Here, we excite He atoms in the strong-field tunnelling regime into Rydberg states. A high percentage of these Rydberg atoms survive in high intensity laser fields. We exploit this fact together with their high polarisability to kinematically manipulate the Rydberg atoms with a second elliptically polarised focused strong laser field. By varying the spatial overlap of the two laser foci, we are able to selectively control the deflection of the Rydberg atoms. The results of semi-classical calculations, which are based on the frustrated tunnelling model and on the ponderomotive acceleration, are in accord with our experimental data. (paper)

  16. Rotating compressible fluids under strong stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2014), s. 11-18 ISSN 1468-1218 Keywords : rotating fluid * compressible Navier-Stokes * strong stratification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121814000212#

  17. Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments...

  18. Black holes and the strong cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of black holes developed by Hawking in asymptotically flat space-times is generalized so that black holes in the cosmological situations are included. It is assumed that the strong version of the Penrose cosmic censorship hypothesis holds. (author)

  19. Fine-grain concrete from mining waste for monolithic construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesovik, R. V.; Ageeva, M. S.; Lesovik, G. A.; Sopin, D. M.; Kazlitina, O. V.; Mitrokhin, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The technology of a monolithic construction is a well-established practice among most Russian real estate developers. The strong points of the technology are low cost of materials and lower demand for qualified workers. The monolithic construction uses various types of reinforced slabs and foamed concrete, since they are easy to use and highly durable; they also need practically no additional treatment.

  20. Manipulation of resonant Auger processes with strong optical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picón, Antonio; Buth, Christian; Doumy, Gilles; Krässig, Bertold; Young, Linda; Southworth, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    We recently reported on the optical control of core-excited states of a resonant Auger process in neon. We have focused on the resonant excitation 1 s --> 1s-1 3 p , while a strong optical field may resonantly couple two core-excited states (1s-1 3 p and 1s-1 3 s) in the Rydberg manifold as well as dressing the continuum. There is a clear signature in the Auger electron spectrum of the inner-shell dynamics induced by the strong optical field: i) the Auger electron spectrum is modified by the rapid optical-induced population transfer from the 1s-1 3 p state to the 1s-1 3 s state during their decay. ii) The angular anisotropy parameter, defining the angular distribution of the Auger electron, is manifested in the envelope of the (angle-integrated) sidebands. This work is funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. Strong drifts effects on neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessarotto, M.; Gregoratto, D.; White, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that strong drifts play an important role in plasma equilibrium, stability and confinement A significant example concerns, in particular for tokamak plasmas, the case of strong toroidal differential rotation produced by E x B drift which is currently regarded as potentially important for its influence in equilibrium, stability and transport. In fact, theoretically, it has been found that shear flow can substantially affect the stability of microinstabilities as well modify substantially transport. Recent experimental observations of enhanced confinement and transport regimes in Tokamaks, show, however, evidence of the existence of strong drifts in the plasma core. These are produced not only by the radial electric field [which gives rise to the E x B drift], but also by density [N s ], temperature [T s ] and mass flow [V = ωRe var-phi , with e var-phi the toroidal unit vector, R the distance for the symmetry axis of the torus and ω being the toroidal angular rotation velocity] profiles which are suitably steep. This implies that, in a significant part of the plasma core, the relevant scale lengths of the gradients [of N s , T s , ω], i.e., respectively L N , L T and L ω can be as large as the radial scale length characterizing the banana orbits, L b . Interestingly enough, the transport estimates obtained appear close or even lower than the predictions based on the simplest neoclassical model. However, as is well known, the latter applies, in a strict sense only in the case of weak drifts and also ignoring even the contribution of shear flow related to strong E x B drift. Thus a fundamental problem appears the extension of neoclassical transport theory to include the effect of strong drifts in Tokamak confinement systems. The goal of this investigation is to develop a general formulation of neoclassical transport embodying such important feature

  2. Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshavatharam, U.V.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    2010-01-01

    For strong interaction two new fermion mass units 105.32 MeV and 11450 MeV are assumed. Existence of "Integral charge quark bosons", "Integral charge effective quark fermions", "Integral charge (effective) quark fermi-gluons" and "Integral charge quark boso-gluons" are assumed and their masses are estimated. It is noticed that, characteristic nuclear charged fermion is X s · 105.32 = 938.8 MeV and corresponding charged boson is X s (105.32/x) = 415.0 where X s = 8.914 is the inverse of the strong coupling constant and x = 2.26234 is a new number by using which "super symmetry" can be seen in "strong and weak" interactions. 11450 MeV fermion and its boson of mass = 11450/x = 5060 MeV plays a crucial role in "sub quark physics" and "weak interaction". 938.8 MeV strong fermion seems to be the proton. 415 MeV strong boson seems to be the mother of the presently believed 493,496 and 547 MeV etc, strange mesons. With 11450 MeV fermion "effective quark-fermi-gluons" and with 5060 MeV boson "quark boso-gluon masses" are estimated. "Effective quark fermi-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state charged baryons mass generation. Light quark bosons couple with these charged baryons to form doublets and triplets. "Quark boso-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state neutral and charged mesons mass generation. Fine and super-fine rotational levels can be given by [I or (I/2)] power(1/4) and [I or (I/2)] power(1/12) respectively. Here, I = n(n+1) and n = 1, 2, 3, … (author)

  3. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  4. Construction of anhydrite dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, L; Francois, G

    1977-05-01

    To construct a ventilation dam, the road is closed with a fibreglass sheet onto which 3 or 4 cm of anhydrite paste is sprayed. The equipment necessary is described, and the cost is compared with that of an aggregate dam.

  5. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  6. Caltrans : construction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Caltrans intends this manual as a resource for all personnel engaged in contract administration. The manual establishes policies and procedures for the construction phase of Caltrans projects. However, this manual is not a contract document. It impos...

  7. Lead in Construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Although Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for occupational lead exposure have been in effect since 1971 for the construction and general industries, the agency regulations for general industry in 1978...

  8. On Construction Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kunxue

    2005-01-01

    Constructionist approach with its brand-new perspective has begun to demonstrate its dynamic power. This paper attempts to review the basic ideas, achievements and comparison with generative grammar of Construction Grammar and generalize some problems and future research prospects.

  9. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  10. Skin Problems in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you work with… Wet cement or plaster Abrasive cleaners Paints Adhesives Chemical solvents These materials can contain ... health hazards construction workers face on the job. Production of this card was supported by Grant OH009762 ...

  11. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  12. Photovoltaic roof construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1980-02-26

    In a batten-seam roof construction employing at least one photovoltaic cell module, the electrical conduits employed with the at least one photovoltaic cell module are disposed primarily under the battens of the roof.

  13. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  14. Construction and material specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the : Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, ...

  15. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  16. ATLAS construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is being constructed at the LHC, in view of a data-taking startup in 2007. This report concentrates on the progress and the technical challenges of the detector construction, and summarizes the status of the work as of August 2004. The project is on track to allow the highly motivated ATLAS Collaboration to enter into a new exploratory domain of high-energy physics in 2007. (author)

  17. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  18. Quality during construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.B.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines the quality assurance program used by Bechtel Corp. in constructing Nuclear Power Plants. As a tool for scheduling and visualizing situations during construction, power plant scale models are used. The use of models, preplanning, detail scheduling, and early development of procedures and inspection plans, have all contributed to a lower cost integrated quality program. Quality control and quality assurance are built in, thus satisfying the regulatory requirements

  19. AP1000 construction schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Westinghouse performed this study as part of EPRI interest in advancing the use of computer aided processes to reduce the cost of nuclear power plants. EPRI believed that if one could relate appropriate portions of an advanced light water reactor plant model to activities in its construction sequence, and this relationship could be portrayed visually, then optimization of the construction sequence could be developed as never before. By seeing a 3-D representation of the plant at any point in its construction sequence, more informed decisions can be made on the feasibility or attractiveness of follow on or parallel steps in the sequence. The 3-D representation of construction as a function of time (4-D) could also increase the confidence of potential investors concerning the viability of the schedule and the plant ultimate cost. This study performed by Westinghouse confirmed that it is useful to be able to visualize a plant construction in 3-D as a function of time in order to optimize the sequence of construction activities. (author)

  20. Beta decay and other processes in strong electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.

    2011-01-01

    We consider effects of the fields of strong electromagnetic waves on various characteristics of quantum processes. After a qualitative discussion of the effects of external fields on the energy spectra and angular distributions of the final-state particles as well as on the total probabilities of the processes (such as decay rates and total cross sections), we present a simple method of calculating the total probabilities of processes with production of nonrelativistic charged particles. Using nuclear β decay as an example, we study the weak- and strong-field limits, as well as the field-induced β decay of nuclei stable in the absence of the external fields, both in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes. We also consider the possibility of accelerating forbidden nuclear β decays by lifting the forbiddeness due to the interaction of the parent or daughter nuclei with the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. It is shown that for currently attainable electromagnetic fields all effects on total β-decay rates are unobservably small.