WorldWideScience

Sample records for conserved surface exposed

  1. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  3. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S.S.; Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A.; Hendricks, M.R.; Nieto-Perez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  4. Identification of Surface Exposed Elementary Body Antigens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to identify the surface exposed antigenic components of Cowdria ruminantium elementary body (EB) by biotin labeling, determine effect of reducing and non-reducing conditions and heat on the mobility of these antigens and their reactivity to antibodies from immunized animals by Western blotting.

  5. Erosion of graphite surface exposed to hot supersonic hydrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, O. P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical model based on laminar boundary layer flow equations was developed to predict the erosion rate of a graphite (AGCarb-101) surface exposed to a hot supersonic stream of hydrogen gas. The supersonic flow in the nozzle outside the boundary layer formed over the surface of the specimen was determined by assuming one-dimensional isentropic conditions. An overall surface reaction rate expression based on experimental studies was used to describe the interaction of hydrogen with graphite. A satisfactory agreement was found between the results of the computation, and the available experimental data. Some shortcomings of the model and further possible improvements are discussed.

  6. Ultrastructural changes of photodegradation of wood surfaces exposed to UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, M.L.; Hu, N.

    1991-01-01

    Red pine sapwood transverse and radial surfaces were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light for 3 to 40 days. Effect of UV irradiation on ultrastructural changes of cell walls were studied by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. SEM study of transverse sections showed that during initial stages of UV irradiation, lignin in cell corners and in the compound middle lamellae was preferentially degraded and that the radial middle lamellae substained a greater rate of UV degradation than did the tangential middle lamellae. Massive cell wall degradation, as indicated by cell wall thinning, did not occur until surfaces were exposed to UV light for more than 10 days. TEM study of radial cell wall surfaces indicated that lignin lining the warty layer was removed by UV irradiation in 3 days and that warts were destroyed by a UV irradiation in 7 days. UV irradiation of cell wall surfaces produced a substantial amount of water-soluble degradation products. After 30 days of UV irradiation, the S3 layer was totally removed and revealed the very fragile S2 layer. (author)

  7. A Kinematic Conservation Law in Free Surface Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilyuk , Sergey; Kalisch , Henrik; Khorsand , Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The Green-Naghdi system is used to model highly nonlinear weakly dispersive waves propagating at the surface of a shallow layer of a perfect fluid. The system has three associated conservation laws which describe the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy due to the surface wave motion. In addition, the system features a fourth conservation law which is the main focus of this note. It will be shown how this fourth conservation law can be interpreted in terms of a concrete kinematic quanti...

  8. Conservation of myeloid surface antigens on primate granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letvin, N L; Todd, R F; Palley, L S; Schlossman, S F; Griffin, J D

    1983-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with myeloid cell surface antigens were used to study evolutionary changes in granulocyte surface antigens from primate species. Certain of these granulocyte membrane antigens are conserved in phylogenetically distant species, indicating the potential functional importance of these structures. The degree of conservation of these antigens reflects the phylogenetic relationship between primate species. Furthermore, species of the same genus show similar patterns of binding to this panel of anti-human myeloid antibodies. This finding of conserved granulocyte surface antigens suggests that non-human primates may provide a model system for exploring uses of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of human myeloid disorders.

  9. Droplet impaction on solid surfaces exposed to impinging jet fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Zia

    2005-12-15

    The thermal response of hot surfaces exposed to impinging jet fire and subsequent impacting water droplets is investigated. The research was done mainly experimentally by utilizing three different concepts. This included experiments on a laboratory scale steel plate and large outdoor fire tests with a quadratic steel channel and steel plates. Besides the horizontal jet flame itself was characterized in a comprehensive study. As a comparative study, the last three types of the experiment were additionally modeled by the CFD-code Kameleon FireEx for validation of results. The purpose of the experiments done on bench scale steel plate (L x W x T : 300 x 200 x 8 mm) was mainly to map data on wetting temperature, water droplet size, droplet impingement angle, and droplet velocity prior to large scale jet fire tests. The droplet release angle normal to hot surface gives best cooling effect, when the surface is oriented in upright position. The partial wetting begins at about 165 degrees C. When the surface is positioned in horizontal plane, the droplet of about 5 mm in diameter wets the hot surface partially at around 240-250 degrees C within an impaction distance of 20 cm. At about 150 degrees C, the droplet is entirely attached to the surface with almost zero contact angle, and cools down the solid at a critical heat flux equivalent to 1750 kW/m{sup 2}. The cooling effectiveness is about 8 % with a Weber number of 68. Although in the event of horizontal channel (L x W x T : 1000 x 200 x 8 mm) water droplets were not applied, however, the knowledge gained with jet fire tests gave valuable information about temperature progress in solids (steels and insulation) and their response to impinging jet fire during long duration experiments. The temperature of the insulated area of the channel keeps 200 degrees C below that of the exposed surface, as long as the insulation material remained intact. Upon long test fire durations, the insulation either burns or degrades despite

  10. Effectiveness of hearing conservation program at a large surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study conducted to determine the effectiveness of a Hearing Conservation Programme (HcP) was conducted in a surface gold mining Company in Ghana. The procedure adopted included a retrospective review and comparison of individual Audiograms from 1999-2003. The analysis of data was based on 200 workers at ...

  11. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  12. Determining eyeball surface area directly exposed to the effects of external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliszewski, Tadeusz; Kadłuczka, Filip; Kiełbasa, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses determining the surface area of eyeballs of men and women exposed to the direct effects of external factors in the working environment. For one eye, the mean surface is 172-182 mm(2). The determined surface area can be used in formulas for calculating the exposure of eyeballs to harmful chemical substances in workplace air.

  13. Chemical surface alteration of biodegradable magnesium exposed to corrosion media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumeit, Regine; Fischer, Janine; Feyerabend, Frank; Hort, Norbert; Bismayer, Ulrich; Heidrich, Stefanie; Mihailova, Boriana

    2011-06-01

    The understanding of corrosion processes of metal implants in the human body is a key problem in modern biomaterial science. Because of the complicated and adjustable in vivo environment, in vitro experiments require the analysis of various physiological corrosion media to elucidate the underlying mechanism of "biological" metal surface modification. In this paper magnesium samples were incubated under cell culture conditions (i.e. including CO(2)) in electrolyte solutions and cell growth media, with and without proteins. Chemical mapping by high-resolution electron-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and infrared reflection microspectroscopy revealed a complex structure of the formed corrosion layer. The presence of CO(2) in concentrations close to that in blood is significant for the chemistry of the oxidised layer. The presence of proteins leads to a less dense but thicker passivation layer which is still ion and water permeable, as osmolality and weight measurements indicate. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Temperature thresholds for surface blistering of platinum and stainless steel exposed to curium-242 alpha radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.; Dillich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Implantation of helium in materials exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 242 Cm causes surface blistering at elevated temperatures. The temperature thresholds for such blistering are of practical importance to the selection of suitable container materials for radionuclides, and are of fundamental interest with regard to the mechanisms of helium blistering of materials in radiation environments. The purpose of this investigation was to establish temperature thresholds for surface blistering of platinum and stainless-steel container materials by post-irradiation heating of specimens exposed at room temperature to alpha particles from an external 242 Cm source. These thresholds were compared with (1) the analogous temperature thresholds for surface blistering of materials exposed to external beams of accelerator helium ions, and (2) thresholds for swelling and grain-boundary cracking of materials in which helium is generated internally by (n,α) reactions during reactor exposures

  15. Organic surfaces exposed by self-assembled organothiol monolayers: Preparation, characterization, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Martin; Wöll, Christof

    2009-07-01

    Organic surfaces play a major role in materials science. Most surfaces that we touch in our daily lives are made from organic materials, e.g., vegetables, fruit, skin, wood, and textiles made from natural fibers. In the context of biology, organic surfaces play a prominent role too, proteins docking onto cell surfaces are a good example. To better understand the characteristics of organic surfaces, including physico-chemical properties like wettability or chemical reactivities and physical properties like friction and lubrication, a structurally well-defined model system that can be investigated with numerous analytical techniques is desirable. In the last two decades, one particular system, self-assembled monolayers or SAMs, have demonstrated their suitability for this purpose. In particular, organothiols consisting of an organic molecule with an attached SH-group are well suited to fabricating structurally well-defined adlayers of monolayer thickness on gold substrates using a simple preparation procedure. These ultrathin monolayers expose an organic surface with properties that can be tailored by varying the type of organothiol employed. After a short introduction into the preparation of SAMs, this article provides an overview of the possibilities and limitations of organic surfaces exposed by Au-thiolate SAMs. Applications are as diverse as the metallization of organic surfaces, a fundamental problem in materials science, and the fabrication of surfaces that resist the adsorption of proteins. In addition to a number of different case studies, we will also discuss the most powerful analytical techniques needed to characterize these important model systems.

  16. Surface-Exposed Lipoproteins: An Emerging Secretion Phenomenon in Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marlena M; Bernstein, Harris D

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are hydrophilic proteins that are anchored to a cell membrane by N-terminally linked fatty acids. It is widely believed that nearly all lipoproteins produced by Gram-negative bacteria are either retained in the inner membrane (IM) or transferred to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane (OM). Lipoproteins that are exposed on the cell surface have also been reported but are generally considered to be rare. Results from a variety of recent studies, however, now suggest that the prevalence of surface-exposed lipoproteins has been underestimated. In this review we describe the evidence that the surface exposure of lipoproteins in Gram-negative bacteria is a widespread phenomenon and discuss possible mechanisms by which these proteins might be transported across the OM. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Molecular-dynamics analysis of mobile helium cluster reactions near surfaces of plasma-exposed tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Lin; Maroudas, Dimitrios, E-mail: maroudas@ecs.umass.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-9303 (United States); Hammond, Karl D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    We report the results of a systematic atomic-scale analysis of the reactions of small mobile helium clusters (He{sub n}, 4 ≤ n ≤ 7) near low-Miller-index tungsten (W) surfaces, aiming at a fundamental understanding of the near-surface dynamics of helium-carrying species in plasma-exposed tungsten. These small mobile helium clusters are attracted to the surface and migrate to the surface by Fickian diffusion and drift due to the thermodynamic driving force for surface segregation. As the clusters migrate toward the surface, trap mutation (TM) and cluster dissociation reactions are activated at rates higher than in the bulk. TM produces W adatoms and immobile complexes of helium clusters surrounding W vacancies located within the lattice planes at a short distance from the surface. These reactions are identified and characterized in detail based on the analysis of a large number of molecular-dynamics trajectories for each such mobile cluster near W(100), W(110), and W(111) surfaces. TM is found to be the dominant cluster reaction for all cluster and surface combinations, except for the He{sub 4} and He{sub 5} clusters near W(100) where cluster partial dissociation following TM dominates. We find that there exists a critical cluster size, n = 4 near W(100) and W(111) and n = 5 near W(110), beyond which the formation of multiple W adatoms and vacancies in the TM reactions is observed. The identified cluster reactions are responsible for important structural, morphological, and compositional features in the plasma-exposed tungsten, including surface adatom populations, near-surface immobile helium-vacancy complexes, and retained helium content, which are expected to influence the amount of hydrogen re-cycling and tritium retention in fusion tokamaks.

  18. Metabolism of tritium uptake due to handling of metal surfaces exposed to tritiated hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Peterman, B.F.

    1987-08-01

    Hairless rats were exposed to tritium by rubbing HT contaminated stainless steel planchets on them. The pattern of tritium excretion in the urine (n=4), shows the OBT (organically bound tritium) retention curve to be approximated by the sum of 2 exponential curves, one with a half-life of 0.4 days and another with a half-life of 1.4 days. The retention of HTO fit a single exponential curve with a half-life of 3.1 days. Exposed skin, unexposed skin, liver, muscle and blood (n=6) were assayed for HBO, and free HTO. Highest activity was found in the exposed skin, other organs with high activity are the unexposed skin and liver. Examination of the exposed skin showed HTO to be concentrated in the uppermost layers. The distribution of OBT was similar but was incorporated at a faster rate. The basal layer is exposed to a tritium concentration between 70-90% of that of the surface. The two macromolecule fractions with the highest amount of radioactivity were lipid and insoluble protein (mainly collagen)

  19. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  20. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  1. Surface and microstructural characterization of commercial breeder reactor candidate alloys exposed to 7000C sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Brehm, W.F.

    1979-03-01

    Sodium compatibility screening tests were performed on several commercial austenitic alloys at 700 0 C for 2000 hours for applications as breeder reactor fuel cladding. The sodium-exposed surfaces were characterized by Optical Metallography, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). Sodium exposure generally resulted in the depletion of Ni, Cr, Ti, Si, Mn and Nb, and enrichment of Fe and Mo at the surface. The average thickness of the depleted zone was 5 μm. The alloys can be divided into three groups based on corrosion rate, and each group has its own characteristic surface structure. Grain-orientation dependent striations were seen in alloys with low corrosion rates, while alloys with intermediate corrosion rates displayed micron-size nodes enriched with Fe and Mo. The high corrosion rate alloys exhibited scale-like formations on the surface with irregularly shaped holes. In addition, the data importantly point out that a ferrite layer will form at the sodium-exposed surface of these austenitic alloys after prolonged exposure

  2. Deuterium retention and surface modification of tungsten macrobrush samples exposed in FTU Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddaluno, G.; Giacomi, G.; Rufoloni, A.; Verdini, L.

    2007-06-01

    The effect of discrete structures such as macrobrush or castellated surfaces on power handling and deuterium retention of plasma facing components is to be assessed since such geometrical configurations are needed for increasing the lifetime of the armour to heat-sink joint. Four small macrobrush W and W + 1%La2O3 samples have been exposed in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) scrape-off layer up to the last closed flux surface by means of the Sample Introduction System. FTU is an all metal machine with no carbon source inside vacuum vessel; it exhibits ITER relevant energy and particle fluxes on the plasma facing components. Here, results on morphological surface changes (SEM), chemical composition (EDX) and deuterium retention (TDS) are reported.

  3. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K DeSalvo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCentral nervous system (CNS function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; thus model systems that can parse the functions of the BBB are highly desirable. In this study, we sought to define the transcriptome of the adult Drosophila melanogaster BBB by isolating the BBB surface glia with FACS and profiling their gene expression with microarrays. By comparing the transcriptome of these surface glia to that of all brain glia, brain neurons, and whole brains, we present a catalog of transcripts that are selectively enriched at the Drosophila BBB. We found that the fly surface glia show high expression of many ABC and SLC transporters, cell adhesion molecules, metabolic enzymes, signaling molecules, and components of xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Using gene sequence-based alignments, we compare the Drosophila and Murine BBB transcriptomes and discover many shared chemoprotective and small molecule control pathways, thus affirming the relevance of invertebrate models for studying evolutionary conserved BBB properties. The Drosophila BBB transcriptome is valuable to vertebrate and insect biologists alike as a resource for studying proteins underlying diffusion barrier development and maintenance, glial biology, and regulation of drug transport at tissue barriers.

  4. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Michael K; Hindle, Samantha J; Rusan, Zeid M; Orng, Souvinh; Eddison, Mark; Halliwill, Kyle; Bainton, Roland J

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB) structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; thus model systems that can parse the functions of the BBB are highly desirable. In this study, we sought to define the transcriptome of the adult Drosophila melanogaster BBB by isolating the BBB surface glia with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and profiling their gene expression with microarrays. By comparing the transcriptome of these surface glia to that of all brain glia, brain neurons, and whole brains, we present a catalog of transcripts that are selectively enriched at the Drosophila BBB. We found that the fly surface glia show high expression of many ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) transporters, cell adhesion molecules, metabolic enzymes, signaling molecules, and components of xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Using gene sequence-based alignments, we compare the Drosophila and Murine BBB transcriptomes and discover many shared chemoprotective and small molecule control pathways, thus affirming the relevance of invertebrate models for studying evolutionary conserved BBB properties. The Drosophila BBB transcriptome is valuable to vertebrate and insect biologists alike as a resource for studying proteins underlying diffusion barrier development and maintenance, glial biology, and regulation of drug transport at tissue barriers.

  5. Hydrogen isotope transport across tungsten surfaces exposed to a fusion relevant He ion fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.

    2017-07-01

    Tungsten targets are exposed to controlled sequences of D2 and He, and He and D2 plasma in the Pisces-A linear plasma device, with a view to studying the outward and inward transport of D across a He implanted surface, using thermal desorption mass spectrometry. Differences in transport are interpreted from changes in peak desorption temperature and amplitude for D2 release, compared against that of control targets exposed to just D2 plasma. Desorption data are modeled with Tmap-7 to infer the nature by which He leads to the ‘reduced inventory’ effect for H isotope uptake. A dual segment (surface-30 nm, bulk) W Tmap-7 model is developed, that simulates both plasma exposure and thermal desorption. Good agreement between desorption data and model is found for D2 release from control targets provided that the implanted flux is reduced, similar to that reported by others. For He affected release, the H isotope transport properties of the surface segment are adjusted away from control target bulk values during the computation. Modeling that examines outward D transport through the He implanted layer suggests that a permeation barrier is active, but bubble induced porosity is insufficient to fully explain the barrier strength. Moderately increased diffusional migration energy in the model over the He affected region, however, gives a barrier strength consistent with experiment. The same model, applied to inward transport, predicts the reduced inventory effect, but a further reduction in the implanted D flux is necessary for precise agreement.

  6. conserving surface-nesting seabirds at the prince edward islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's subantarctic Prince Edward Islands support substantial proportions of the global populations of a number of surface-nesting seabirds. Populations of most of these have decreased at the islands since the 1980s and 12 of 16 species are regarded as Threatened or Near Threatened regionally or internationally.

  7. Effectiveness of hearing conservation program at a large surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    African Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 14, Numbers 1-2, January-June 2007. 49. Effectiveness ... Programme (HcP) was conducted in a surface gold mining Company in Ghana. The ... The analysis of data was based on 200 workers at ..... Industry. New York Raven Press 1982. 9. Franks JR, Davis RR and Kreig EF jr.

  8. Surface Plasmon Scattering in Exposed Core Optical Fiber for Enhanced Resolution Refractive Index Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klantsataya, Elizaveta; François, Alexandre; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Hoffmann, Peter; Monro, Tanya M

    2015-09-29

    Refractometric sensors based on optical excitation of surface plasmons on the side of an optical fiber is an established sensing architecture that has enabled laboratory demonstrations of cost effective portable devices for biological and chemical applications. Here we report a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) configuration realized in an Exposed Core Microstructured Optical Fiber (ECF) capable of optimizing both sensitivity and resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of fabrication of a rough metal coating suitable for spectral interrogation of scattered plasmonic wave using chemical electroless plating technique on a 10 μm diameter exposed core of the ECF. Performance of the sensor in terms of its refractive index sensitivity and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of SPR response is compared to that achieved with an unstructured bare core fiber with 140 μm core diameter. The experimental improvement in FWHM, and therefore the detection limit, is found to be a factor of two (75 nm for ECF in comparison to 150 nm for the large core fiber). Refractive index sensitivity of 1800 nm/RIU was achieved for both fibers in the sensing range of aqueous environment (1.33-1.37) suitable for biosensing applications.

  9. Helicity conservation and twisted Seifert surfaces for superfluid vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Hayder

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the continuum definition of helicity, we derive from first principles its different contributions for superfluid vortices. Our analysis shows that an internal twist contribution emerges naturally from the mathematical derivation. This reveals that the spanwise vector that is used to characterize the twist contribution must point in the direction of a surface of constant velocity potential. An immediate consequence of the Seifert framing is that the continuum definition of helicity for a superfluid is trivially zero at all times. It follows that the Gauss-linking number is a more appropriate definition of helicity for superfluids. Despite this, we explain how a quasi-classical limit can arise in a superfluid in which the continuum definition for helicity can be used. This provides a clear connection between a microscopic and a macroscopic description of a superfluid as provided by the Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov equations. This leads to consistency with the definition of helicity used for classical vortices.

  10. An Exposed-Core Grapefruit Fibers Based Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianchao Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of air hole coating and analyte filling in microstructured optical fiber-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensors, we designed an exposed-core grapefruit fiber (EC-GFs-based SPR sensor. The exposed section of the EC-GF is coated with a SPR, supporting thin silver film, which can sense the analyte in the external environment. The asymmetrically coated fiber can support two separate resonance peaks (x- and y-polarized peaks with orthogonal polarizations and x-polarized peak, providing a much higher peak loss than y-polarized, also the x-polarized peak has higher wavelength and amplitude sensitivities. A large analyte refractive index (RI range from 1.33 to 1.42 is calculated to investigate the sensing performance of the sensor, and an extremely high wavelength sensitivity of 13,500 nm/refractive index unit (RIU is obtained. The silver layer thickness, which may affect the sensing performance, is also discussed. This work can provide a reference for developing a high sensitivity, real-time, fast-response, and distributed SPR RI sensor.

  11. Effect of four dental varnishes on the colonization of cariogenic bacteria on exposed sound root surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenbäck, S B; Linder, L E; Lönnies, H

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four different dental varnishes on the colonization of mutans streptococci, total streptococci and lactobacilli on exposed sound root surfaces. Sixty-five individuals were randomly allotted to one of four groups for treatment with Cervitec((R) ) varnish containing 1% chlorhexidine and 1% thymol, a thymol varnish or one of two different fluoride varnishes, Fluor Protector and Duraphat. The varnish was applied to three buccal root surfaces in each patient at baseline and after 1 week. Dental plaque from the root surfaces was collected and analysed on four different occasions: at baseline, after 1 week, 1 month and 6 months. The Cervitec varnish caused a statistically significant reduction in the number of mutans streptococci over time. The reduction was significant at 1 week and 1 month relative to baseline. The numbers of total streptococci and lactobacilli were not significantly affected by treatment with Cervitec. No statistically significant difference over time was found for mutans streptococci, lactobacilli or total streptococci after treatment with the fluoride varnishes or the thymol varnish.

  12. Surface treatment influences electrochemical stability of cpTi exposed to mouthwashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beline, Thamara; Garcia, Camila S.; Ogawa, Erika S.; Marques, Isabella S.V.; Matos, Adaias O.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.

    2016-01-01

    The role of surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) exposed to mouthwashes was tested. Seventy-five disks were divided into 15 groups according to surface treatment (machined, sandblasted with Al 2 O 3 , and acid etched) and electrolyte solution (artificial saliva — control, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.2% sodium fluoride, and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide) (n = 5). Open-circuit-potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in each solution. Potentiodynamic test and total weight loss of disks were performed after 14 days of immersion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, white light interferometry and profilometry were conducted for surface characterization before and after the electrochemical tests. Sandblasting promoted the lowest polarization resistance (R p ) (P < .0001) and the highest capacitance (CPE) (P < .006), corrosion current density (I corr ) and corrosion rate (P < .0001). In contrast, acid etching increased R p and reduced CPE, independent to the mouthwash; while hydrogen peroxide reduced R p (P < .008) and increased I corr and corrosion rate (P < .0001). The highest CPE values were found for hydrogen peroxide and 0.2% sodium fluoride. Immersion for longer period improved the electrochemical stability of cpTi (P < .05). In conclusion, acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the resistance to corrosion of cpTi, independent to the surface treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride did not alter the corrosive behavior of cpTi. - Highlights: • Acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. • Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi. • Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride can be safely used.

  13. Structural features and activity of Brazzein and its mutants upon substitution of a surfaced exposed alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanavatian, Parisa; Khalifeh, Khosrow; Jafarian, Vahab

    2016-12-01

    Brazzein (Brz) is a member of sweet-tasting protein containing four disulfide bonds. It was reported as a compact and heat-resistant protein. Here, we have used site-directed mutagenesis and replaced a surface-exposed alanine with aspartic acid (A19D mutant), lysine (A19K mutant) and glycine (A19G mutant). Activity comparisons of wild-type (WT) and mutants using taste panel test procedure showed that A19G variant has the same activity as WT protein. However, introduction of a positive charge in A19K mutant led to significant increase in Brz's sweetness, while A19D has reduced sweetness compared to WT protein. Docking studies showed that mutation at position 19 results in slight chain mobility of protein at the binding surface and changing the patterns of interactions toward more effective binding of E9K variant in the concave surface of sweet taste receptor. Far-UV CD data spectra have a characteristic shape of beta structure for all variants, however different magnitudes of spectra suggest that beta-sheet structure in WT and A19G is more stable than that of A19D and A19K. Equilibrium unfolding studies with fluorescence spectroscopy and using urea and dithiothritol (DTT) as chemical denaturants indicates that A19G mutant gains more stability against urea denaturation; while conformational stability of A19D and A19K decreases when compared with WT and A19G variants. We concluded that the positive charge at the surface of protein is important factor responsible for the interaction of protein with the human sweet receptor and Ala 19 can be considered as a key region for investigating the mechanism of the interaction of Brz with corresponding receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  14. Surface treatment influences electrochemical stability of cpTi exposed to mouthwashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beline, Thamara [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Garcia, Camila S. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Ogawa, Erika S. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Marques, Isabella S.V. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Matos, Adaias O. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); IBTN — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, 1611 W Harrison, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); and others

    2016-02-01

    The role of surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) exposed to mouthwashes was tested. Seventy-five disks were divided into 15 groups according to surface treatment (machined, sandblasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and acid etched) and electrolyte solution (artificial saliva — control, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.2% sodium fluoride, and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide) (n = 5). Open-circuit-potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in each solution. Potentiodynamic test and total weight loss of disks were performed after 14 days of immersion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, white light interferometry and profilometry were conducted for surface characterization before and after the electrochemical tests. Sandblasting promoted the lowest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) (P < .0001) and the highest capacitance (CPE) (P < .006), corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) and corrosion rate (P < .0001). In contrast, acid etching increased R{sub p} and reduced CPE, independent to the mouthwash; while hydrogen peroxide reduced R{sub p} (P < .008) and increased I{sub corr} and corrosion rate (P < .0001). The highest CPE values were found for hydrogen peroxide and 0.2% sodium fluoride. Immersion for longer period improved the electrochemical stability of cpTi (P < .05). In conclusion, acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the resistance to corrosion of cpTi, independent to the surface treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride did not alter the corrosive behavior of cpTi. - Highlights: • Acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. • Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi. • Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride can be safely used.

  15. Surface analyses of TiC coated molybdenum limiter material exposed to high heat flux electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Uchikawa, T.; Yamao, H.; Kawai, H.; Kousaku, A.; Nakamura, H.; Niikura, S.

    1987-01-01

    Observation and surface analyses of TiC coated molybdenum exposed to high heat flux have been performed to study thermal damage resistance of TiC coated molybdenum limiter material. High heat loads were provided by a 120 kW electron beam facility. SEM, AES and EPMA have been applied to the surface analyses

  16. Surface analysis, by SNMS, of 316L steel exposed to simulated BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, D.; Schenker, E.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of 316L steel have been exposed to Boiling Light Water Reactor chemistry for between forty and seven thousand hours. These samples, with three different surface finishes, 'as-delivered', mechanically polished and electro-polished, have been analysed by Sputtered Neutral Mass Spectrometry and profiles of the constituent alloying elements have been obtained. Differences in the oxide that has built-up are compared and discussed in terms of current ideas of corrosion mechanisms. The structure of the oxide changes with exposure time for the experimental conditions. The effect of surface finish and water velocity have a clear marked effect on the oxide structure and growth rate, respectively: samples in a low water velocity stream form the protective oxide, chromia, and some mixed spinels; electro-polished samples have no chromium layer but show possible secondary passivation through the build-up of nickel; and samples in high velocity water form a simple structured oxide that does not reach a saturation thickness after 291 days but steadily increases. (author) 9 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs

  17. Proteome analysis and serological characterization of surface-exposed proteins of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, the agent of Far-Eastern spotted fever (FESF, is an obligate intracellular bacterium. The surface-exposed proteins (SEPs of rickettsiae are involved in rickettsial adherence to and invasion of host cells, intracellular bacterial growth, and/or interaction with immune cells. They are also potential molecular candidates for the development of diagnostic reagents and vaccines against rickettsiosis. METHODS: R. heilongjiangensis SEPs were identified by biotin-streptavidin affinity purification and 2D electrophoreses coupled with ESI-MS/MS. Recombinant SEPs were probed with various sera to analyze their serological characteristics using a protein microarray and an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: Twenty-five SEPs were identified, most of which were predicted to reside on the surface of R. heilongjiangensis cells. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that these proteins could be involved in bacterial pathogenesis. Eleven of the 25 SEPs were recognized as major seroreactive antigens by sera from R. heilongjiangensis-infected mice and FESF patients. Among the major seroreactive SEPs, microarray assays and/or ELISAs revealed that GroEL, OmpA-2, OmpB-3, PrsA, RplY, RpsB, SurA and YbgF had modest sensitivity and specificity for recognizing R. heilongjiangensis infection and/or spotted fever. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the SEPs identified herein have potentially important roles in R. heilongjiangensis pathogenicity. Some of them have potential as serodiagnostic antigens or as subunit vaccine antigens against the disease.

  18. Standard practice for exposing and evaluating metals and alloys in surface seawater

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers conditions for the exposure of metals, alloys, and other materials in natural surface seawater such as those typically found in bays, harbors, channels, and so forth, as contrasted with deep ocean testing. This practice covers full immersion, tidal zone and related splash, and spray zone exposures. 1.2 This practice sets forth general procedures that should be followed in conducting seawater exposure tests so that meaningful comparisons may be made from one location to another. 1.3 This practice identifies recommended procedures for evaluating the effects of natural surface seawater on the materials exposed. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regula...

  19. Dispersion and energy conservation relations of surface waves in semi-infinite plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanassov, V.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrodynamic theory of surface wave propagation in semi-infinite homogeneous isotropic plasma is considered. Explicit linear surface wave solutions are given for the electric and magnetic fields, charge and current densities. These solutions are used to obtain the well-known dispersion relations and, together with the general energy conservation equation, to find appropriate definitions for the energy and the energy flow densities of surface waves. These densities are associated with the dispersion relation and the group velocity by formulae similar to those for bulk waves in infinite plasmas. Both cases of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) surface waves are considered. (author)

  20. Identification of novel surface-exposed proteins of Rickettsia rickettsii by affinity purification and proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Gong

    Full Text Available Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, is the most pathogenic member among Rickettsia spp. Surface-exposed proteins (SEPs of R. rickettsii may play important roles in its pathogenesis or immunity. In this study, R. rickettsii organisms were surface-labeled with sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and the labeled proteins were affinity-purified with streptavidin. The isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 10 proteins were identified among 23 protein spots by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Five (OmpA, OmpB, GroEL, GroES, and a DNA-binding protein of the 10 proteins were previously characterized as surface proteins of R. rickettsii. Another 5 proteins (Adr1, Adr2, OmpW, Porin_4, and TolC were first recognized as SEPs of R. rickettsii herein. The genes encoding the 5 novel SEPs were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 5 recombinant SEPs (rSEPs, which were used to immunize mice. After challenge with viable R. rickettsii cells, the rickettsial load in the spleen, liver, or lung of mice immunized with rAdr2 and in the lungs of mice immunized with other rSEPs excluding rTolC was significantly lower than in mice that were mock-immunized with PBS. The in vitro neutralization test revealed that sera from mice immunized with rAdr1, rAdr2, or rOmpW reduced R. rickettsii adherence to and invasion of vascular endothelial cells. The immuno-electron microscopic assay clearly showed that the novel SEPs were located in the outer and/or inner membrane of R. rickettsii. Altogether, the 5 novel SEPs identified herein might be involved in the interaction of R. rickettsii with vascular endothelial cells, and all of them except TolC were protective antigens.

  1. Identification of Novel Surface-Exposed Proteins of Rickettsia rickettsii by Affinity Purification and Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Xiong, Xiaolu; Qi, Yong; Jiao, Jun; Duan, Changsong; Wen, Bohai

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, is the most pathogenic member among Rickettsia spp. Surface-exposed proteins (SEPs) of R. rickettsii may play important roles in its pathogenesis or immunity. In this study, R. rickettsii organisms were surface-labeled with sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and the labeled proteins were affinity-purified with streptavidin. The isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 10 proteins were identified among 23 protein spots by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Five (OmpA, OmpB, GroEL, GroES, and a DNA-binding protein) of the 10 proteins were previously characterized as surface proteins of R. rickettsii. Another 5 proteins (Adr1, Adr2, OmpW, Porin_4, and TolC) were first recognized as SEPs of R. rickettsii herein. The genes encoding the 5 novel SEPs were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 5 recombinant SEPs (rSEPs), which were used to immunize mice. After challenge with viable R. rickettsii cells, the rickettsial load in the spleen, liver, or lung of mice immunized with rAdr2 and in the lungs of mice immunized with other rSEPs excluding rTolC was significantly lower than in mice that were mock-immunized with PBS. The in vitro neutralization test revealed that sera from mice immunized with rAdr1, rAdr2, or rOmpW reduced R. rickettsii adherence to and invasion of vascular endothelial cells. The immuno-electron microscopic assay clearly showed that the novel SEPs were located in the outer and/or inner membrane of R. rickettsii. Altogether, the 5 novel SEPs identified herein might be involved in the interaction of R. rickettsii with vascular endothelial cells, and all of them except TolC were protective antigens. PMID:24950252

  2. Effect of steel surface conditions on reinforcing steel corrosion in concrete exposed to marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzola, E.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory methods and experimental tests were deployed in the present study to evaluate corrosion in reinforced concrete exposed to marine environments. Reinforcing steel exhibiting two different surface conditions prior to embedment in concrete were studied, one the one hand to assess the electrochemical behaviour of the bars during exposure of the concrete specimens to a simulated marine environment, and on the other to determine the strength of the steel/concrete bond. The reinforced concrete specimens prepared were adapted as required for electrochemical potential and corrosion rate testing. A total of 56 7x15-cm cylindrical specimens containing 3/8" steel rods anchored at a depth of 11.5 cm were made to evaluate the steel / concrete bond and exposed to a natural marine environment for 28 or 190 days prior to testing. All the specimens were made with ready-mixed concrete. It may be concluded from the results of the corrosion tests on reinforcing steel with different surface conditions that the oxide initially covering the bars was dissolved and the steel passivated by the alkalinity in the concrete. The chief finding of the bonding study was that the layer of oxide formed in pre-embedment steel deterioration contributed to establishing a better bond.

    En el contexto de esta investigación, se tomaron en consideración métodos y ensayos experimentales de laboratorio, que permiten hacer una evaluación de la corrosión del hormigón armado expuesto en ambientes marinos. Por una parte se evaluó el comportamiento electroquímico de dos condiciones de estados superficiales del acero embebido en el hormigón, exponiéndolo en un ambiente marino simulado y, por otra parte, se estudió la adherencia entre el acero y el hormigón, con los mismos estados superficiales usados para la evaluación electroquímica. Las probetas se fabricaron de hormigón con acero de refuerzo en su interior, adecuándolas para realizar los ensayos de potenciales

  3. Conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff using riparian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prabodh; Singh, Shipra

    2012-01-01

    Three riparian plant species viz. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Saccharum bengalensis Retz. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. were selected from the riparian zone of Kali river at Aligarh to conduct the surface runoff experiment to compare their conservation efficiencies for soil, water and nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen). Experimental plots were prepared on artificial slopes in botanical garden and on natural slopes on study site. Selected riparian plant species showed the range of conservation values for soil and water from 47.11 to 95.22% and 44.06 to 72.50%, respectively on artificial slope and from 44.53 to 95.33% and 48.36 to 73.15%, respectively on natural slope. Conservation values for phosphorus and nitrogen ranged from 40.83 to 88.89% and 59.78 to 82.22%, respectively on artificial slope and from 50.01 to 90.16% and 68.07 to 85.62%, respectively on natural slope. It was observed that Cynodon dactylon was the most efficient riparian species in conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff.

  4. Relationship of CD86 surface marker expression and cytotoxicity on dendritic cells exposed to chemical allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulette, Ben C.; Ryan, Cindy A.; Gildea, Lucy A.; Gerberick, G. Frank

    2005-01-01

    Human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells (DC) respond to a variety of chemical allergens by up-regulating expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86. It has been postulated that this measure might provide the basis for an in vitro alternative approach for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals. We recently reported that DC, exposed in culture to the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of various chemical allergens, displayed marginal up-regulation of membrane CD86 expression; the interpretation being that such changes were insufficiently sensitive for the purposes of hazard identification. For the work presented here, immature DC were derived from human monocytes and treated with the chemical allergens 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), nickel sulfate (NiSO 4 ), p-phenylenediamine (PPD), Bandrowski's base (BB), hydroquinone (HQ) and propyl gallate (PG) for 48 h at concentrations which induced both no to slight to moderate cytotoxicity. For comparison, DC were treated with the irritants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), benzoic acid (BA), and benzalkonium chloride (BZC) at concentrations resulting in comparable levels of cytotoxicity. CD86 expression, as measured by flow cytometry, was consistently up-regulated (ranging from 162 to 386% control) on DC treated with concentrations of chemical allergens that induced approximately 10-15% cytotoxicity. The irritants BA and BZC did not induce up-regulation of CD86 expression when tested at concentrations that induced similar levels of cytotoxicity. SDS, however, up-regulated CD86 expression to 125-138% of control in 2/4 preparations when tested at concentrations which induced similar toxicity. Our results confirm that chemical allergens up-regulate CD86 expression on blood-derived DC and illustrate further that up-regulation of CD86 surface marker expression is more robust when DC are treated with concentrations of chemical allergen that induce slight to moderate cytotoxicity

  5. Surface water ponding on clayey soils managed by conventional and conservation tillage in boreal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. ALAKUKKU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface water ponding and crop hampering due to soil wetness was monitored in order to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage practices and perennial grass cover on soil infiltrability for five years in situ in gently sloping clayey fields. Thirteen experimental areas, each having three experimental fields, were established in southern Finland. The fields belonged to: autumn mouldboard ploughing (AP, conservation tillage (CT and perennial grass in the crop rotation (PG. In the third year, direct drilled (DD fields were established in five areas. Excluding PG, mainly spring cereals were grown in the fields. Location and surface area of ponded water (in the spring and autumn as well as hampered crop growth (during June-July were determined in each field by using GPS devices and GIS programs. Surface water ponding or crop hampering occurred when the amount of rainfall was clearly greater than the long-term average. The mean of the relative area of the ponded surface water, indicating the risk of surface runoff, and hampered crop growth was larger in the CT fields than in the AP fields. The differences between means were, however, not statistically significant. Complementary soil physical measurements are required to investigate the reasons for the repeated surface water ponding.;

  6. Surface analyses of TiC coated molybdenum limiter material exposed to high heat flux electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Uchikawa, T.; Yamao, H.; Kawai, H.; Kousaku, A.; Nakamura, H.; Niikura, S.

    1986-01-01

    Observation and surface analyses of TiC coated molybdenum exposed to high heat flux have been performed to study thermal damage resistance of TiC coated molybdenum limiter material. High heat loads were provided by a 120 kW electron beam facility. (author)

  7. LIGSITEcsc: predicting ligand binding sites using the Connolly surface and degree of conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder Michael

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying pockets on protein surfaces is of great importance for many structure-based drug design applications and protein-ligand docking algorithms. Over the last ten years, many geometric methods for the prediction of ligand-binding sites have been developed. Results We present LIGSITEcsc, an extension and implementation of the LIGSITE algorithm. LIGSITEcsc is based on the notion of surface-solvent-surface events and the degree of conservation of the involved surface residues. We compare our algorithm to four other approaches, LIGSITE, CAST, PASS, and SURFNET, and evaluate all on a dataset of 48 unbound/bound structures and 210 bound-structures. LIGSITEcsc performs slightly better than the other tools and achieves a success rate of 71% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion The use of the Connolly surface leads to slight improvements, the prediction re-ranking by conservation to significant improvements of the binding site predictions. A web server for LIGSITEcsc and its source code is available at scoppi.biotec.tu-dresden.de/pocket.

  8. Identification of Surface-Exposed Protein Radicals and A Substrate Oxidation Site in A-Class Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase from Thermomonospora curvata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Ruben; Chen, Xuejie; Ramyar, Kasra X.; Hayati, Zahra; Carlson, Eric A.; Bossmann, Stefan H.; Song, Likai; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Li, Ping (FSU); (KSU)

    2016-12-12

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) are a family of heme peroxidases in which a catalytic distal aspartate is involved in H2O2 activation to catalyze oxidations under acidic conditions. They have received much attention due to their potential applications in lignin compound degradation and biofuel production from biomass. However, the mode of oxidation in bacterial DyPs remains unknown. We have recently reported that the bacterial TcDyP from Thermomonospora curvata is among the most active DyPs and shows activity toward phenolic lignin model compounds. On the basis of the X-ray crystal structure solved at 1.75 Å, sigmoidal steady-state kinetics with Reactive Blue 19 (RB19), and formation of compound II like product in the absence of reducing substrates observed with stopped-flow spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we hypothesized that the TcDyP catalyzes oxidation of large-size substrates via multiple surface-exposed protein radicals. Among 7 tryptophans and 3 tyrosines in TcDyP consisting of 376 residues for the matured protein, W263, W376, and Y332 were identified as surface-exposed protein radicals. Only the W263 was also characterized as one of the surface-exposed oxidation sites. SDS-PAGE and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that W376 represents an off-pathway destination for electron transfer, resulting in the cross-linking of proteins in the absence of substrates. Mutation of W376 improved compound I stability and overall catalytic efficiency toward RB19. While Y332 is highly conserved across all four classes of DyPs, its catalytic function in A-class TcDyP is minimal, possibly due to its extremely small solvent-accessible areas. Identification of surface-exposed protein radicals and substrate oxidation sites is important for understanding the DyP mechanism and modulating its catalytic functions for improved activity on phenolic lignin.

  9. Surface damage of W exposed to combined stationary D plasma and ELMs-like pulsed plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Y.Z., E-mail: jaja880816@aliyun.com [Science and Technology on Reactor Fuel and Materials Laboratory, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610213 (China); Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, W., E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, B.; Qu, S.L. [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 5612AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    The surface damage of W under D plasma and ELMs-like transient heat loads was studied by combined stationary and pulsed D plasma. Low-flux transient heat loads will promote blister formation due to the gas expansion inside the blisters. On the contrary, high-flux transient heat loads will mitigate blistering due to the high surface temperature. Therefore, blistering on W surface first increased and then decreased with the increasing transient heat loads. The promotion effect of pulsed plasma on blistering is more obvious on [001] and [110] surfaces than on [111] surface, and the orientation dependence of blisters was mitigated by the transient heat loads. Surface modification induced by transient heat loads only formed on [001] and [110] surfaces, but did not form on [111] surface. The orientation dependence of surface modification was mainly due to the slipping system of dislocations.

  10. Methylation and in vivo expression of the surface-exposed Leptospira interrogans outer-membrane protein OmpL32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Azad; Pinne, Marija; Haake, David A; Zuerner, Richard L; Frank, Ami; Cameron, Caroline E

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed that bacterial protein methylation is a widespread post-translational modification that is required for virulence in selected pathogenic bacteria. In particular, altered methylation of outer-membrane proteins has been shown to modulate the effectiveness of the host immune response. In this study, 2D gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF MS identified a Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 protein, corresponding to ORF LIC11848, which undergoes extensive and differential methylation of glutamic acid residues. Immunofluorescence microscopy implicated LIC11848 as a surface-exposed outer-membrane protein, prompting the designation OmpL32. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of golden Syrian hamster liver and kidney sections revealed expression of OmpL32 during colonization of these organs. Identification of methylated surface-exposed outer-membrane proteins, such as OmpL32, provides a foundation for delineating the role of this post-translational modification in leptospiral virulence.

  11. Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cell Envelope Proteome by Capture of Surface-Exposed Proteins on Activated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Vecchietti, Davide; Di Silvestre, Dario; Miriani, Matteo; Bonomi, Francesco; Marengo, Mauro; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Cova, Lara; Franceschi, Eleonora; Mauri, Pierluigi; Bertoni, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    We report on specific magneto-capturing followed by Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) for the analysis of surface-exposed proteins of intact cells of the bacterial opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The magneto-separation of cell envelope fragments from the soluble cytoplasmic fraction allowed the MudPIT identification of the captured and neighboring proteins. Remarkably, we identified 63 proteins captured directly by nanoparticles and 67 proteins embedde...

  12. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Improved Surface Quality of Exposed Automotive Sheet Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Speer; David K. Matlock; Noel Meyers; Young-Min Choi

    2002-10-10

    Surface quality of sheet steels is an important economic and technical issue for applications such as critical automotive surfaces. This project was therefore initiated to develop a more quantitative methodology for measuring surface imperfections, and to assess their response to forming and painting, particularly with respect to their visibility or invisibility after painting. The objectives were met, and included evaluation of a variety of imperfections present on commercial sheet surfaces or simulated using methods developed in the laboratory. The results are expected to have significant implications with respect to the methodology for assessing surface imperfections, development of quantitative criteria for surface inspection, and understanding and improving key painting process characteristics that influence the perceived quality of sheet steel surfaces.

  13. Plasma surface treatment to improve surface charge accumulation and dissipation of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Haofan; Zhang, Shuai; Xie, Qin; Ren, Chengyan; Shao, Tao

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, deposition by non-thermal plasma is used as a surface modification technique to change the surface characteristics of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages. The corresponding surface characteristics in both cases of DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages before and after the modification are compared and investigated. The measurement of the surface potential provides the surface charge distribution, which is used to show the accumulation and dissipation process of the surface charges. Morphology observations, chemical composition and electrical parameters measurements are used to evaluate the treatment effects. The experimental results show that, before the plasma treatment, the accumulated surface charges in the case of the DC voltage are more than that in the case of the nanosecond-pulse voltage. Moreover, the decay rate of the surface charges for the DC voltage is higher than that for the nanosecond-pulse voltage. However, the decay rate is no more than 41% after 1800 s for both types of voltages. After the plasma treatment, the maximum surface potentials decrease to 57.33% and 32.57% of their values before treatment for the DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages, respectively, indicating a decrease in the accumulated surface charges. The decay rate exceeds 90% for both types of voltages. These changes are mainly attributed to a change in the surface nanostructure, an increase in conductivity, and a decrease in the depth of energy level.

  14. Plasma surface treatment to improve surface charge accumulation and dissipation of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Haofan; Zhang, Shuai; Ren, Chengyan; Shao, Tao; Xie, Qin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, deposition by non-thermal plasma is used as a surface modification technique to change the surface characteristics of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages. The corresponding surface characteristics in both cases of DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages before and after the modification are compared and investigated. The measurement of the surface potential provides the surface charge distribution, which is used to show the accumulation and dissipation process of the surface charges. Morphology observations, chemical composition and electrical parameters measurements are used to evaluate the treatment effects. The experimental results show that, before the plasma treatment, the accumulated surface charges in the case of the DC voltage are more than that in the case of the nanosecond-pulse voltage. Moreover, the decay rate of the surface charges for the DC voltage is higher than that for the nanosecond-pulse voltage. However, the decay rate is no more than 41% after 1800 s for both types of voltages. After the plasma treatment, the maximum surface potentials decrease to 57.33% and 32.57% of their values before treatment for the DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages, respectively, indicating a decrease in the accumulated surface charges. The decay rate exceeds 90% for both types of voltages. These changes are mainly attributed to a change in the surface nanostructure, an increase in conductivity, and a decrease in the depth of energy level. (paper)

  15. A method for visualizing surface-exposed and internal PfEMP1 adhesion antigens in Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnot David E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insertion of parasite antigens into the host erythrocyte membrane and the structure and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum adhesion receptors on that membrane are poorly understood. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM and a novel labelling and fixation method have been used to obtain high resolution immuno-fluorescent images of erythrocyte surface PfEMP1 and internal antigens which allow analysis of the accumulation of PfEMP1 on the erythrocyte membrane during asexual development. Methods A novel staining technique has been developed which permits distinction between erythrocyte surface PfEMP1 and intracellular PfEMP1, in parasites whose nuclear material is exceptionally well resolved. Primary antibody detection by fluorescence is carried out on the live parasitized erythrocyte. The surface labelled cells are then fixed using paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with a non-ionic detergent to permit access of antibodies to internal parasite antigens. Differentiation between surface and internal antigens is achieved using antibodies labelled with different fluorochromes and confocal microscopy Results Surface exposed PfEMP1 is first detectable by antibodies at the trophozoite stage of intracellular parasite development although the improved detection method indicates that there are differences between different laboratory isolates in the kinetics of accumulation of surface-exposed PfEMP1. Conclusion A sensitive method for labelling surface and internal PfEMP1 with up to three different fluorochromes has been developed for laser scanning confocal optical microscopy and the analysis of the developmental expression of malaria adhesion antigens.

  16. Surface Chemical Characterisation of Pyrite Exposed to Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Associated Extracellular Polymeric Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian M. La Vars

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A. ferrooxidans and their metabolic products have previously been explored as a viable alternative depressant of pyrite for froth flotation; however, the mechanism by which separation is achieved is not completely understood. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS and captive bubble contact angle measurements have been used to examine the surface physicochemical properties of pyrite upon exposure to A. ferrooxidans grown in HH medium at pH 1.8. C K-edge near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectra collected from PEEM images indicate hydrophilic lipids, fatty acids and biopolymers are formed at the mineral surface during early exposure. After 168 h, the spectra indicate a shift towards protein and DNA, corresponding to an increase in cell population and biofilm formation on the surface, as observed by SEM. The Fe L-edge NEXAFS show gradual oxidation of the mineral surface from Fe(II sulfide to Fe(III oxyhydroxides. The oxidation of the iron species at the pyrite surface is accelerated in the presence of A. ferrooxidans and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS as compared to HH medium controls. The surface chemical changes induced by the interaction with A. ferrooxidans show a significant decrease in surface hydrophobicity within the first 2 h of exposure. The implications of these findings are the potential use of EPS produced during early attachment of A. ferrooxidans, as a depressant for bioflotation.

  17. Surface temperature and distortion of optical elements exposed to high power synchrotron radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourikis, S.; Jark, W.; Koch, E.E.; Saile, V.

    1989-01-01

    Mirrors made of various materials have been investigated under surface power densities of approximately 1--2 W/mm 2 emitted by a powerful hybrid wiggler installed in the 5.3-GeV DORIS storage ring. Thermal inhomogeneities and deformations at surfaces with a height resolution of 50 nm have been determined quantitatively. The only material withstanding these power levels without a significant deformation is SiC. Conventional cooling geometries are found to be useless for a reduction of the surface distortion

  18. Whole-Genome Expression Analysis of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Exposed to Ultrasmooth Tantalum vs. Titanium Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiehler, C.; Bunger, C.; Overall, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    to titanium (Ti) surface. The aim of this study was to extend the previous investigation of biocompatibility by monitoring temporal gene expression of MSCs on topographically comparable smooth Ta and Ti surfaces using whole-genome gene expression analysis. Total RNA samples from telomerase-immortalized human...... MSCs cultivated on plain sputter-coated surfaces of Ta or Ti for 1, 2, 4, and 8 days were hybridized to n = 16 U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix(A (R))). Functional annotation, cluster and pathway analyses were performed. The vast majority of genes were differentially regulated after 4 days...... of cultivation and genes upregulated by MSCs exposed to Ta and Ti were predominantly related to the processes of differentiation and transcription, respectively. Functional annotation analysis of the 1,000 temporally most significantly regulated genes suggests earlier cellular differentiation on Ta compared...

  19. Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell envelope proteome by capture of surface-exposed proteins on activated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Vecchietti

    Full Text Available We report on specific magneto-capturing followed by Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT for the analysis of surface-exposed proteins of intact cells of the bacterial opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The magneto-separation of cell envelope fragments from the soluble cytoplasmic fraction allowed the MudPIT identification of the captured and neighboring proteins. Remarkably, we identified 63 proteins captured directly by nanoparticles and 67 proteins embedded in the cell envelope fragments. For a high number of proteins, our analysis strongly indicates either surface exposure or localization in an envelope district. The localization of most identified proteins was only predicted or totally unknown. This novel approach greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity of the previous methods, such as surface shaving with proteases that was also tested on P. aeruginosa. The magneto-capture procedure is simple, safe, and rapid, and appears to be well-suited for envelope studies in highly pathogenic bacteria.

  20. Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cell Envelope Proteome by Capture of Surface-Exposed Proteins on Activated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchietti, Davide; Di Silvestre, Dario; Miriani, Matteo; Bonomi, Francesco; Marengo, Mauro; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Cova, Lara; Franceschi, Eleonora; Mauri, Pierluigi; Bertoni, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    We report on specific magneto-capturing followed by Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) for the analysis of surface-exposed proteins of intact cells of the bacterial opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The magneto-separation of cell envelope fragments from the soluble cytoplasmic fraction allowed the MudPIT identification of the captured and neighboring proteins. Remarkably, we identified 63 proteins captured directly by nanoparticles and 67 proteins embedded in the cell envelope fragments. For a high number of proteins, our analysis strongly indicates either surface exposure or localization in an envelope district. The localization of most identified proteins was only predicted or totally unknown. This novel approach greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity of the previous methods, such as surface shaving with proteases that was also tested on P. aeruginosa. The magneto-capture procedure is simple, safe, and rapid, and appears to be well-suited for envelope studies in highly pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23226459

  1. Radiation processing of organics and biological materials exposed to ocean world surface conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, K. P.; Carlson, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Assessing the habitability of ocean worlds, such as Europa and Enceladus, motivates a search for endogenous carbon compounds that could be indicative of a habitable, or even inhabited, subsurface liquid water environment. We have examined the role of destruction and synthesis of organic compounds via 10 keV electron bombardment of ices generated under temperature and pressure conditions comparable to Europa and Enceladus. Short-chain organics and ammonia, in combination with water, were exposed to Mrad to Grad doses and observed to evolve to a `lost' carbon fraction (CO and CO2) and a `retained' carbon fraction (consisting of a highly refractory `ocean world tholin' populated by highly radiation resistant carbonyl, aldehyde, and nitrile components). The retained fraction is of key importance as this likely represents the observable fraction for future spacecraft investigations. We also irradiated microbial spores (B. pumilis) to approximately 2 Grad and have found persistence of biomolecule fractions derived from proteins and nucleic acids.

  2. Chemical and Microstructural Changes in Metallic and Ceramic Materials Exposed to Venusian Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo C. C.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Hunter, Gary W.; Nakley, Leah; Radoman-Shaw, Brandon G.; Harvey, Ralph P.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical and microstructural behavior of steels (304, 310, 316, and 1018), nickel-based alloys (beta-NiAl, G30, and 625), gold, coatings (4YSZ, SilcoNert(TradeMark) 1040 (SilcoTek Co.), Dursan(TradeMark)? (SilcoTek Co.), and porcelain), and bulk ceramics (alpha-Al2O3, fused quartz, beta-SiC, and alpha-Si3N4) were probed after exposure to supercritical fluid with temperature, pressure, and composition mimicking the Venus lower atmosphere. Exposures were carried out in the Glenn Extreme Environments Rig (GEER) chamber with the Venusian gas mixture (96.5% CO2, 3.5% N2, 30 ppm H2O, 150 ppm SO2, 28 ppm CO, 15 ppm OCS, 3 ppm H2S, 0.5 ppm HCl, and 5 ppb HF) at 92 bar (1330 psi) and 467 C (873 F) for durations of 10 and 42 days. An additional 21-day exposure was done to stainless steel uncoated and coated with SilcoNert(TradeMark) and Dursan(TradeMark). Samples were characterized before and after the experiment by gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies, and cross section electron microscopy analysis. All steels exposed for 10 and 42 days formed double-layered scales consisting mainly of metal (Cr, Fe, Ni) oxides and sulfides showing different chemistry, microstructure, and crystalline phases. The alloys G30 and 625 formed double-layered scales consisting mainly of nickel sulfides. After 10 days, the beta-NiAl exhibited no detectable scale, suggesting only a very thin film was formed. The 304 and 316 stainless steels coated with 4YSZ that were exposed for 10 and 42 days exhibited no significant oxidation. Steel 1018 coated with 4YSZ exhibited a corrosion scale of iron and/or chromium oxide formed at the base of the alloy. The 304 steel coated with porcelain did not exhibit corrosion, although the coating exhibited recession. SilcoNert(TradeMark) exposed for 10 and 42 days exhibited recession, although no oxidation was found to occur at the base of the alloy. Stainless steel 316 coated with Dursan

  3. Field desorption and field ion surface studies of samples exposed to the plasmas of PLT and ISX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, G.L.; Panitz, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications to the surface of field-ion specimens exposed to plasma discharges in PLT and ISX determined by Imaging Probe, Field Ion Microscope, and Transmission Electron Microscope analysis have in the past shown several consistent features. Surface films consisting primarily of limiter material with trapped plasma and impurity species have been found to reside on samples with direct line of sight exposure to the plasma during the discharges. Control specimens placed in the tokamak, but shielded from the plasma, on the other hand, remained free of deposits. When exposed to only high power plasma discharges, samples placed at the wall position in PLT and ISX have survived the exposures with no evidence of damage or implantation. In this paper we describe the results of a recent exposure in PLT in which for the first time samples of stainless steel were included for High-Field Surface Analysis. Tokamak operating conditions, including stainless-steel limiters, titanium gettering between discharges, and the occurrence of a disruption, also distinguished this exposure from those carried out previously. Surprisingly, even with stainless-steel limiters, carbon films were found to be deposited on the samples at a rate

  4. Response of concrete exposed to a high heat flux on one surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, J.F.

    1977-11-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the response of concrete to severe thermal environments such as might be encountered during the interaction of molten reactor core materials with the containment substructure following a hypothetical fuel melt accident. The dominant mechanism for erosion of both limestone and basaltic concrete appears to be melting of the cementitious material in the matrix. The erosion proceeded in a quiescent manner with negligible spallation. The erosion rate increased with heat flux, becoming as large as approximately 70 cm/hr for a net surface heat flux of roughly 190 W/cm 2 . Analyses reveal the surface temperature to be the single most significant parameter affecting the net surface heat flux, through its importance to emitted radiation; and that the greatest fraction of the net energy transmitted to the concrete goes into sensible heat

  5. Effects of temperature on surface modification of W exposed to He particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Greuner, H.; Yuan, Y.; Luo, G.N.; Böswirth, B.; Fu, B.Q.; Xu, H.Y.; Jia, Y.Z.; Liu, W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Blisters were observed on W surface under He beam heating at ∼950 °C. • He-induced blistering shows a clear grain orientation dependence. • An evolution to a coral-like structure was observed under loading at ∼2700 °C. • A texture with 〈0 0 1〉 parallel to the surface normal direction will be beneficial. - Abstract: The effect of combined heating and helium particle flux on annealed tungsten samples has been studied in the neutral beam facility GLADIS. He beams with power densities of 2.4 MW/m 2 and 9.5 MW/m 2 were used to adiabatically load the samples to peak surface temperatures from ∼950 °C (1223 K) to ∼2700 °C (2973 K). Changes in the surface morphology resulting from combined heat and the flux exposure were studied for He fluences up to 3 × 10 22 /m 2 . Typical structures for the sample loaded at ∼950 °C (1223 K) were blisters with a clear grain orientation dependence and the largest blisters formed on grains with 〈0 0 1〉 surface normal. However at higher temperatures, blistering was more easily suppressed for grains near this orientation because the growth of larger blister takes place more slowly. An evolution from a “porous structure” to a “coral-like structure” with increasing fluence was observed on the samples loaded at the highest temperature. Based on these results mechanisms for surface modification at different temperatures are discussed and a texture with 〈0 0 1〉 parallel to the normal direction of the grains is suggested to optimize the plasma facing material due to their stronger resistance to early stage blistering

  6. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; DeAngelo, Michael V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Ermolaeva, Elena [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Remington, Randy [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Sava, Diana [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wagner, Donald [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wei, Shuijion [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology

    2013-02-01

    The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal

  7. Assessment of broiler surface temperature variation when exposed to different air temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of the air temperature variation on the mean surface temperature (MST of 7- to 35-day-old broiler chickens using infrared thermometry to estimate MST, and to study surface temperature variation of the wings, head, legs, back and comb as affected by air temperature and broiler age. One hundred Cobb® broilers were used in the experiment. Starting on day 7, 10 birds were weekly selected at random, housed in an environmental chamber and reared under three distinct temperatures (18, 25 and 32 ºC to record their thermal profile using an infrared thermal camera. The recorded images were processed to estimate MST by selecting the whole area of the bird within the picture and comparing it with the values obtained using selected equations in literature, and to record the surface temperatures of the body parts. The MST estimated by infrared images were not statistically different (p > 0.05 from the values obtained by the equations. MST values significantly increased (p < 0.05 when the air temperature increased, but were not affected by bird age. However, age influenced the difference between MST and air temperature, which was highest on day 14. The technique of infrared thermal image analysis was useful to estimate the mean surface temperature of broiler chickens.

  8. Comparison of the Rate and Extent of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair and Semi-Conservative Synthesis in Bacteria Exposed to Ultra-Violet Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billen, D. [Radiation Biology Laboratory and Departments of Microbiology and Radiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1968-08-15

    Many bacterial strains possess the ability to repair genetic damage resulting from ultra-violet light (u.v. ) exposure. Of major importance is the occurrence of a 'repair' type of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication during 'dark repair', which presumably results in the replacement of the damaged portion of the genome. With deuterium, {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C as a density label, and buoyant density centrifugation in CsCl as a means of separating pre and post-irradiation synthesized DNA strands, the rate and extent of DNA repair synthesis in exponential - phase Escherichia coli strain B/r were determined. After u.v. exposure, {sup 3}H-thymine incorporation into the 'heavy' parental DNA strands was used to measure repair synthesis, while {sup 3}H-thymine incorporation into 'light' and newly synthesized DNA strands measured semi-conservative replication. The rate of bases incorporated by repair synthesis in the initial 15 minures of post-irradiation incubation at 37 Degree-Sign C appears to be saturated at a dose of approximately 100 ergs/mm{sup 2}. At higher doses (up to 600 ergs/mm{sup 2}) the increase observed was not proportional to dose. During this initial 15 minutes, less than 1% of the chromosomal DNA was replaced. The amount of DNA synthesized by semi-conservative replication during the initial 15 minutes was reduced with increasing u.v. dose. After exposure to 600 ergs/mm{sup 2}, repair and semiconservative DNA synthesis were nearly equivalent in the irradiated cells after 15 minutes of incubation. Repair synthesis was observed to be terminated by 45 minutes in bacteria exposed to 160 or 500 ergs/mm{sup 2} (64% and 10% survivors, respectively). The amount of genome replaced by repair synthesis at several doses was determined. Starvation for a required amino acid (resulting in an inhibition of protein and ribonucleic acid synthesis) did not prevent the repair synthesis nor grossly alter its extent. The restoration of the semi-conservative mo d e of DNA

  9. Potential fields on the ventricular surface of the exposed dog heart during normal excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisi, G; Macchi, E; Baruffi, S; Spaggiari, S; Taccardi, B

    1983-06-01

    We studied the normal spread of excitation on the anterior and posterior ventricular surface of open-chest dogs by recording unipolar electrograms from an array of 1124 electrodes spaced 2 mm apart. The array had the shape of the ventricular surface of the heart. The electrograms were processed by a computer and displayed as epicardial equipotential maps at 1-msec intervals. Isochrone maps also were drawn. Several new features of epicardial potential fields were identified: (1) a high number of breakthrough points; (2) the topography, apparent widths, velocities of the wavefronts and the related potential drop; (3) the topography of positive potential peaks in relation to the wavefronts. Fifteen to 24 breakthrough points were located on the anterior, and 10 to 13 on the posterior ventricular surface. Some were in previously described locations and many others in new locations. Specifically, 3 to 5 breakthrough points appeared close to the atrioventricular groove on the anterior right ventricle and 2 to 4 on the posterior heart aspect; these basal breakthrough points appeared when a large portion of ventricular surface was still unexcited. Due to the presence of numerous breakthrough points on the anterior and posterior aspect of the heart which had not previously been described, the spread of excitation on the ventricular surface was "mosaic-like," with activation wavefronts spreading in all directions, rather than radially from the two breakthrough points, as traditionally described. The positive potential peaks which lay ahead of the expanding wavefronts moved along preferential directions which were probably related to the myocardial fiber direction.

  10. Sub-nanoscale surface ruggedness provides a water-tight seal for exposed regions in soluble protein structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Schulz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soluble proteins must maintain backbone hydrogen bonds (BHBs water-tight to ensure structural integrity. This protection is often achieved by burying the BHBs or wrapping them through intermolecular associations. On the other hand, water has low coordination resilience, with loss of hydrogen-bonding partnerships carrying significant thermodynamic cost. Thus, a core problem in structural biology is whether natural design actually exploits the water coordination stiffness to seal the backbone in regions that are exposed to the solvent. This work explores the molecular design features that make this type of seal operative, focusing on the side-chain arrangements that shield the protein backbone. We show that an efficient sealing is achieved by adapting the sub-nanoscale surface topography to the stringency of water coordination: an exposed BHB may be kept dry if the local concave curvature is small enough to impede formation of the coordination shell of a penetrating water molecule. Examination of an exhaustive database of uncomplexed proteins reveals that exposed BHBs invariably occur within such sub-nanoscale cavities in native folds, while this level of local ruggedness is absent in other regions. By contrast, BHB exposure in misfolded proteins occurs with larger local curvature promoting backbone hydration and consequently, structure disruption. These findings unravel physical constraints fitting a spatially dependent least-action for water coordination, introduce a molecular design concept, and herald the advent of water-tight peptide-based materials with sufficient backbone exposure to remain flexible.

  11. U. K. surface passenger transport sector. Energy consumption and policy options for conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, D; Monteath, I G; Lawler, K A

    1978-12-01

    Forecasts of U.K. energy consumption in this sector for four future scenarios based on different economic growth rates, energy prices, and energy conservation policies, show that by the year 2000, private transport will probably account for 76-94% of total energy consumption in surface passenger transport. A 33% increase in the average miles-per-gallon fuel consumption through technological improvements in private vehicles, conversion of private vehicles to diesel oil, additional fuel taxation equivalent to 25 or 50% fuel price increase, a 10% reduction in average car engine size (encouraged by taxation), and changes in public transport technology offer energy savings of about 20, 5-10, 6.3 or 12.5, 2-4, and 2%, respectively. There is considerable uncertainty about the outcome of these options.

  12. Station-keeping control of an unmanned surface vehicle exposed to current and wind disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda, Edoardo I.; Qu, Huajin; Bertaska, Ivan R.; von Ellenrieder, Karl D.

    2017-01-01

    Field trials of a 4 meter long, 180 kilogram, unmanned surface vehicle (USV) have been conducted to evaluate the performance of station-keeping heading and position controllers in an outdoor marine environment disturbed by wind and current. The USV has a twin hull configuration and a custom-designed propulsion system, which consists of two azimuthing thrusters, one for each hull. Nonlinear proportional derivative, backstepping and sliding mode feedback controllers were tested in winds of abou...

  13. Structural and molecular insights into novel surface-exposed mucus adhesins from Lactobacillus reuteri human strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzold, Sabrina; MacKenzie, Donald A; Jeffers, Faye; Walshaw, John; Roos, Stefan; Hemmings, Andrew M; Juge, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    The mucus layer covering the gastrointestinal tract is the first point of contact of the intestinal microbiota with the host. Cell surface macromolecules are critical for adherence of commensal bacteria to mucus but structural information is scarce. Here we report the first molecular and structural characterization of a novel cell-surface protein, Lar_0958 from Lactobacillus reuteri JCM 1112(T) , mediating adhesion of L. reuteri human strains to mucus. Lar_0958 is a modular protein of 133 kDa containing six repeat domains, an N-terminal signal sequence and a C-terminal anchoring motif (LPXTG). Lar_0958 homologues are expressed on the cell-surface of L. reuteri human strains, as shown by flow-cytometry and immunogold microscopy. Adhesion of human L. reuteri strains to mucus in vitro was significantly reduced in the presence of an anti-Lar_0958 antibody and Lar_0958 contribution to adhesion was further confirmed using a L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 lar_0958 KO mutant (6475-KO). The X-ray crystal structure of a single Lar_0958 repeat, determined at 1.5 Å resolution, revealed a divergent immunoglobulin (Ig)-like β-sandwich fold, sharing structural homology with the Ig-like inter-repeat domain of internalins of the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. These findings provide unique structural insights into cell-surface protein repeats involved in adhesion of Gram-positive bacteria to the intestine. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Surface morphology changes of tungsten exposed to high heat loading with mixed hydrogen/helium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Maier, H.; Balden, M.; Böswirth, B.; Elgeti, S.; Schmid, K.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the surface morphology modification of W samples observed after simultaneous heat and particle loading using a mixed H/He particle beam with a He concentration of 1 at.%. The applied heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 is representative for the normal operation of the divertor of DEMO or a power plant. The long pulse high heat flux experiments on actively water-cooled W samples were performed in the GLADIS facility at surface temperatures between 600 °C and 2000 °C. This allows together with the applied total fluences between 1 × 10 24 m −2 and 1 × 10 26 m −2 the temperature- and fluence dependent study of the growing nano-structures. We analyse in detail the surface modifications up to a depth of several μm by scanning electron microscopy combined with focussed ion beam preparation. The hydrogen and helium release of the samples is analysed by long term thermal desorption spectroscopy and compared with the prediction of a diffusion trapping model

  15. Biofilm Composition and Threshold Concentration for Growth of Legionella pneumophila on Surfaces Exposed to Flowing Warm Tap Water without Disinfectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Dick; Bakker, Geo L; Italiaander, Ronald; Veenendaal, Harm R; Wullings, Bart A

    2017-03-01

    Legionella pneumophila in potable water installations poses a potential health risk, but quantitative information about its replication in biofilms in relation to water quality is scarce. Therefore, biofilm formation on the surfaces of glass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) in contact with tap water at 34 to 39°C was investigated under controlled hydraulic conditions in a model system inoculated with biofilm-grown L. pneumophila The biofilm on glass (average steady-state concentration, 23 ± 9 pg ATP cm -2 ) exposed to treated aerobic groundwater (0.3 mg C liter -1 ; 1 μg assimilable organic carbon [AOC] liter -1 ) did not support growth of the organism, which also disappeared from the biofilm on CPVC (49 ± 9 pg ATP cm -2 ) after initial growth. L. pneumophila attained a level of 4.3 log CFU cm -2 in the biofilms on glass (1,055 ± 225 pg ATP cm -2 ) and CPVC (2,755 ± 460 pg ATP cm -2 ) exposed to treated anaerobic groundwater (7.9 mg C liter -1 ; 10 μg AOC liter -1 ). An elevated biofilm concentration and growth of L. pneumophila were also observed with tap water from the laboratory. The Betaproteobacteria Piscinibacter and Methyloversatilis and amoeba-resisting Alphaproteobacteria predominated in the clones and isolates retrieved from the biofilms. In the biofilms, the Legionella colony count correlated significantly with the total cell count (TCC), heterotrophic plate count, ATP concentration, and presence of Vermamoeba vermiformis This amoeba was rarely detected at biofilm concentrations of water-associated disease outbreaks reported in the United States. The organism proliferates in biofilms on surfaces exposed to warm water in engineered freshwater installations. An investigation with a test system supplied with different types of warm drinking water without disinfectant under controlled hydraulic conditions showed that treated aerobic groundwater (0.3 mg liter -1 of organic carbon) induced a low biofilm concentration that supported no or very

  16. Interrogating the Plasmodium Sporozoite Surface: Identification of Surface-Exposed Proteins and Demonstration of Glycosylation on CSP and TRAP by Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian E Swearingen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasite infection is initiated by the mosquito-transmitted sporozoite stage, a highly motile invasive cell that targets hepatocytes in the liver for infection. A promising approach to developing a malaria vaccine is the use of proteins located on the sporozoite surface as antigens to elicit humoral immune responses that prevent the establishment of infection. Very little of the P. falciparum genome has been considered as potential vaccine targets, and candidate vaccines have been almost exclusively based on single antigens, generating the need for novel target identification. The most advanced malaria vaccine to date, RTS,S, a subunit vaccine consisting of a portion of the major surface protein circumsporozoite protein (CSP, conferred limited protection in Phase III trials, falling short of community-established vaccine efficacy goals. In striking contrast to the limited protection seen in current vaccine trials, sterilizing immunity can be achieved by immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites, suggesting that more potent protection may be achievable with a multivalent protein vaccine. Here, we provide the most comprehensive analysis to date of proteins located on the surface of or secreted by Plasmodium falciparum salivary gland sporozoites. We used chemical labeling to isolate surface-exposed proteins on sporozoites and identified these proteins by mass spectrometry. We validated several of these targets and also provide evidence that components of the inner membrane complex are in fact surface-exposed and accessible to antibodies in live sporozoites. Finally, our mass spectrometry data provide the first direct evidence that the Plasmodium surface proteins CSP and TRAP are glycosylated in sporozoites, a finding that could impact the selection of vaccine antigens.

  17. Changes in silver nanoparticles exposed to human synthetic stomach fluid: Effects of particle size and surface chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwilu, Samuel K.; El Badawy, Amro M.; Bradham, Karen; Nelson, Clay; Thomas, David; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Tolaymat, Thabet; Ma, Longzhou; Rogers, Kim R.

    2013-01-01

    The significant rise in consumer products and applications utilizing the antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has increased the possibility of human exposure. The mobility and bioavailability of AgNPs through the ingestion pathway will depend, in part, on properties such as particle size and the surface chemistries that will influence their physical and chemical reactivities during transit through the gastrointestinal tract. This study investigates the interactions between synthetic stomach fluid and AgNPs of different sizes and with different capping agents. Changes in morphology, size and chemical composition were determined during a 30 min exposure to synthetic human stomach fluid (SSF) using Absorbance Spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM/SEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA). AgNPs exposed to SSF were found to aggregate significantly and also released ionic silver which physically associated with the particle aggregates as silver chloride. Generally, the smaller sized AgNPs (< 10 nm) showed higher rates of aggregation and physical transformation than larger particles (75 nm). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp)-stabilized AgNPs prepared in house behaved differently in SSF than particles obtained from a commercial source despite having similar surface coating and size distribution characteristics. - Highlights: ► Interactions between synthetic stomach fluid (SSF) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are described. ► AgNPs exposed to SSF aggregate and silver chloride are associated with the particle aggregates. ► Smaller AgNPs (< 10 nm) showed higher rates of aggregation and transformation than larger particles (75 nm). ► Polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized AgNPs obtained from different sources aggregated at different rates when exposed to SSF

  18. Pathogenic Leptospira species express surface-exposed proteins belonging to the bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, James; Barocchi, Michele A.; Croda, Julio; Young, Tracy A.; Sanchez, Yolanda; Siqueira, Isadora; Bolin, Carole A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Riley, Lee W.; Haake, David A.; Ko, Albert I.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, such as the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin and Escherichia coli intimin, are surface-expressed proteins that mediate host mammalian cell invasion or attachment. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new family of Big domain proteins, referred to as Lig (leptospiral Ig-like) proteins, in pathogenic Leptospira. Screening of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri expression libraries with sera from leptospirosis patients identified 13 lambda phage clones that encode tandem repeats of the 90 amino acid Big domain. Two lig genes, designated ligA and ligB, and one pseudo-gene, ligC, were identified. The ligA and ligB genes encode amino-terminal lipoprotein signal peptides followed by 10 or 11 Big domain repeats and, in the case of ligB, a unique carboxy-terminal non-repeat domain. The organization of ligC is similar to that of ligB but contains mutations that disrupt the reading frame. The lig sequences are present in pathogenic but not saprophytic Leptospira species. LigA and LigB are expressed by a variety of virulent leptospiral strains. Loss of Lig protein and RNA transcript expression is correlated with the observed loss of virulence during culture attenuation of pathogenic strains. High-pressure freeze substitution followed by immunocytochemical electron microscopy confirmed that the Lig proteins were localized to the bacterial surface. Immunoblot studies with patient sera found that the Lig proteins are a major antigen recognized during the acute host infection. These observations demonstrate that the Lig proteins are a newly identified surface protein of pathogenic Leptospira, which by analogy to other bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily virulence factors, may play a role in host cell attachment and invasion during leptospiral pathogenesis. PMID:12890019

  19. Bonding two surfaces by exposing to actinic radiation an epoxide liquid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for preparing a film adhesive from an epoxide resin is described. A liquid containing an epoxide resin and a photopolymerizable compound is polymerized to form a solid continuous film by exposure to actinide radiation. A catalyst can be used but no thermal crosslinking should be allowed to occur. The film so obtained is used to bond surfaces together by the application of heat and pressure. The period of heating can be very short, as there need be no solvent to evaporate and the films need not be thick, typically 20 to 250 μm. (O.T.)

  20. Tales from the tomb: the microbial ecology of exposed rock surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Tess E; Fierer, Noah

    2018-03-01

    Although a broad diversity of eukaryotic and bacterial taxa reside on rock surfaces where they can influence the weathering of rocks and minerals, these communities and their contributions to mineral weathering remain poorly resolved. To build a more comprehensive understanding of the diversity, ecology and potential functional attributes of microbial communities living on rock, we sampled 149 tombstones across three continents and analysed their bacterial and eukaryotic communities via marker gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We found that geographic location and climate were important factors structuring the composition of these communities. Moreover, the tombstone-associated microbial communities varied as a function of rock type, with granite and limestone tombstones from the same cemeteries harbouring taxonomically distinct microbial communities. The granite and limestone-associated communities also had distinct functional attributes, with granite-associated bacteria having more genes linked to acid tolerance and chemotaxis, while bacteria on limestone were more likely to be lichen associated and have genes involved in photosynthesis and radiation resistance. Together these results indicate that rock-dwelling microbes exhibit adaptations to survive the stresses of the rock surface, differ based on location, climate and rock type, and seem pre-disposed to different ecological strategies (symbiotic versus free-living lifestyles) depending on the rock type. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The secondary electron yield of air exposed metal surfaces at the example of niobium

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Taborelli, M

    2002-01-01

    The secondary electron yield (SEY) variation of atomically clean metal surfaces due to air exposures and during subsequent heat treatments is described with the example of a sputter-deposited Nb thin film. Corresponding variations of the surface chemical composition have been monitored using AES and SSIMS. On the basis of these results and of previously obtained SEY results on metals and metal oxides the origin of the SEY variations is discussed. The SEY increase, which is generally observed during long lasting air exposures of clean metals, is mainly caused by the adsorption of an airborne carbonaceous contamination layer. The estimated value of about 3 for the maximum SEY of this layer is higher than that of all pure metals. Only in some cases the air-formed oxide can contribute to the air exposure induced SEY increase while many oxides have a lower SEY than their parent metals. From the experimental data it can also be excluded that the SEY increase during air exposures is mainly due to an increased second...

  2. Initiation of arcing on tungsten surface exposed to steady state He plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Shin; Noiri, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2015-09-01

    Arcing was initiated in steady state helium plasmas by negatively biasing a tungsten electrode to around -500 V. On the tungsten electrode, nanostructures were grown by the plasma irradiation. In this study, we characterized the property of the initiated arcing by measuring the temporal evolutions of the electrode potential and the arc current. The ignition frequency and duration of arcing were presented from the potential measurements; the arc duration was in the range of changing the biasing voltage. The behavior of arc spots was observed with a fast framing camera. It was shown that the spots split frequently, and sometimes, they run on the surface independently. From the fluctuation of the arc current, the fractal feature of arcing was revealed.

  3. Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1: use of relatively conserved synthetic peptide pools to determine CD4 T cell responses in malaria-exposed individuals in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Ambaliou

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1, a variant antigen of the malaria parasite, is potentially a target for the immune response. It would be important to determine whether there are CD4 T cells that recognise conserved regions. However, within the relatively conserved region, there is variation. It is not possible to test T cell responses from small field samples with all possible peptides. Methods We have aligned sequences that are relatively conserved between several PfEMP1 molecules, and chosen a representative sequence similar to most of the PfEMP1 variants. Using these peptides as pools representing CIDRα, CIDRβ and DBLβ-δ domains, DBLα domain, and EXON 2 domain of PfEMP1, we measured the CD4 T cell responses of malaria-exposed donors from Benin, West Africa by a FACS based assay. Results All the three peptide pools elicited a CD4 T cell response in a proportion of malaria-exposed and non-exposed donors. CD4 T cell proliferation occurs at a relatively higher magnitude to peptide pools from the DBLα and EXON 2 in the malaria-exposed donors living in Benin than in the UK malaria-unexposed donors. Conclusions These findings suggest that an immunological recall response to conserved peptides of a variant antigen can be measured. Further testing of individual peptides in a positive pool will allow us to determine those conserved sequences recognised by many individuals. These types of assays may provide information on conserved peptides of PfEMP1 which could be useful for stimulating T cells to provide help to P. falciparum specific B cells.

  4. Surface photo-discoloration and degradation of dyed wood veneer exposed to different wavelengths of artificial light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); MOE Engineering Research Center of Forestry Biomass Materials and Bioenergy, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Forest Products Development Center, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36830 (United States); Shao, Lingmin [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Gao, Jianmin, E-mail: jmgao@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); MOE Engineering Research Center of Forestry Biomass Materials and Bioenergy, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Guo, Hongwu, E-mail: hwg5052@163.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); MOE Engineering Research Center of Forestry Biomass Materials and Bioenergy, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen, Yao [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); MOE Engineering Research Center of Forestry Biomass Materials and Bioenergy, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Cheng, Qingzheng; Via, Brian K. [Forest Products Development Center, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36830 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Investigate the selective absorption of different wavelengths of UV–vis light by dyed wood chromophores. • Identify connection between light wavelengths and surface color changes and chemical structure degradation. • Study hypochromic effect based on surface reflectance and K/S absorption changes during UV–vis irradiation. - Abstract: The surface of dyed wood is prone to discoloration when exposed to light irradiation which significantly decreases its decorative effect and shortens its service life. The influence of light wavelength exposure to the surface of dyed wood was investigated to study the effect on discoloration and degradation. Acid Blue V and Acid Red GR dyed wood veneers were subjected to light exposure with different wavelengths from the UV to visible region (254–420 nm). Results showed that the surface discoloration of dyed wood was linearly related to lignin concentration and dyes degradation and the consequent transformation of chromophoric groups such as aromatic (C=C) and carbonyl (C=O) through methoxy reaction. The dyes, lignin and some active constituents were degraded severely, even at short exposures. Acid Blue V dyed wood exhibited greater discoloration than the Acid Red GR treatment. The reflectance and K/S absorption curve showed a hypochromic effect on the dyed wood surface. The dyes and wood chemical structure played a complex and combined role on the selective absorption of different wavelengths of light. The color change rate was apparent with 254 nm exposure in the initial stages, but a greater discoloration rate occurred on the samples irradiated at 313 and 340 nm than at 254 and 420 nm with the time prolonged. The degradation rate and degree of discoloration correlated well with the light energy and wavelength.

  5. Spatiotemporal dynamics of surface water networks across a global biodiversity hotspot—implications for conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulbure, Mirela G; Broich, Mark; Kininmonth, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The concept of habitat networks represents an important tool for landscape conservation and management at regional scales. Previous studies simulated degradation of temporally fixed networks but few quantified the change in network connectivity from disintegration of key features that undergo naturally occurring spatiotemporal dynamics. This is particularly of concern for aquatic systems, which typically show high natural spatiotemporal variability. Here we focused on the Swan Coastal Plain, a bioregion that encompasses a global biodiversity hotspot in Australia with over 1500 water bodies of high biodiversity. Using graph theory, we conducted a temporal analysis of water body connectivity over 13 years of variable climate. We derived large networks of surface water bodies using Landsat data (1999–2011). We generated an ensemble of 278 potential networks at three dispersal distances approximating the maximum dispersal distance of different water dependent organisms. We assessed network connectivity through several network topology metrics and quantified the resilience of the network topology during wet and dry phases. We identified ‘stepping stone’ water bodies across time and compared our networks with theoretical network models with known properties. Results showed a highly dynamic seasonal pattern of variability in network topology metrics. A decline in connectivity over the 13 years was noted with potential negative consequences for species with limited dispersal capacity. The networks described here resemble theoretical scale-free models, also known as ‘rich get richer’ algorithm. The ‘stepping stone’ water bodies are located in the area around the Peel-Harvey Estuary, a Ramsar listed site, and some are located in a national park. Our results describe a powerful approach that can be implemented when assessing the connectivity for a particular organism with known dispersal distance. The approach of identifying the surface water bodies that act as

  6. Spatiotemporal dynamics of surface water networks across a global biodiversity hotspot—implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Mirela G.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Broich, Mark

    2014-11-01

    The concept of habitat networks represents an important tool for landscape conservation and management at regional scales. Previous studies simulated degradation of temporally fixed networks but few quantified the change in network connectivity from disintegration of key features that undergo naturally occurring spatiotemporal dynamics. This is particularly of concern for aquatic systems, which typically show high natural spatiotemporal variability. Here we focused on the Swan Coastal Plain, a bioregion that encompasses a global biodiversity hotspot in Australia with over 1500 water bodies of high biodiversity. Using graph theory, we conducted a temporal analysis of water body connectivity over 13 years of variable climate. We derived large networks of surface water bodies using Landsat data (1999-2011). We generated an ensemble of 278 potential networks at three dispersal distances approximating the maximum dispersal distance of different water dependent organisms. We assessed network connectivity through several network topology metrics and quantified the resilience of the network topology during wet and dry phases. We identified ‘stepping stone’ water bodies across time and compared our networks with theoretical network models with known properties. Results showed a highly dynamic seasonal pattern of variability in network topology metrics. A decline in connectivity over the 13 years was noted with potential negative consequences for species with limited dispersal capacity. The networks described here resemble theoretical scale-free models, also known as ‘rich get richer’ algorithm. The ‘stepping stone’ water bodies are located in the area around the Peel-Harvey Estuary, a Ramsar listed site, and some are located in a national park. Our results describe a powerful approach that can be implemented when assessing the connectivity for a particular organism with known dispersal distance. The approach of identifying the surface water bodies that act as

  7. The Surface-Exposed Protein SntA Contributes to Complement Evasion in Zoonotic Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Simin; Xu, Tong; Fang, Qiong; Yu, Lei; Zhu, Jiaqi; Chen, Long; Liu, Jiahui; Zhou, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing streptococcal toxic shock like syndrome (STSLS), meningitis, septicemia, and even sudden death in human and pigs. Serious septicemia indicates this bacterium can evade the host complement surveillance. In our previous study, a functionally unknown protein SntA of S. suis has been identified as a heme-binding protein, and contributes to virulence in pigs. SntA can interact with the host antioxidant protein AOP2 and consequently inhibit its antioxidant activity. In the present study, SntA is identified as a cell wall anchored protein that functions as an important player in S. suis complement evasion. The C3 deposition and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation on the surface of sntA -deleted mutant strain Δ sntA are demonstrated to be significantly higher than the parental strain SC-19 and the complementary strain CΔ sntA . The abilities of anti-phagocytosis, survival in blood, and in vivo colonization of Δ sntA are obviously reduced. SntA can interact with C1q and inhibit hemolytic activity via the classical pathway. Complement activation assays reveal that SntA can also directly activate classical and lectin pathways, resulting in complement consumption. These two complement evasion strategies may be crucial for the pathogenesis of this zoonotic pathogen. Concerning that SntA is a bifunctional 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase/3'-nucleotidase in many species of Gram-positive bacteria, these complement evasion strategies may have common biological significance.

  8. An Energy Conservation Approach to Adsorbate-Induced Surface Stress and the Extraction of Binding Energy Using Nanomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A [ORNL; Boiadjiev, Vassil I [ORNL; Fernando, G. W. [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Hawk, J. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wijewardhana, L.C. R. [University of Cincinnati; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Microcantilevers are ideally-suited for the study of surface phenomena due to their large surface-to-volume ratios, which amplify surface effects. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. When the excess energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such experiments were conducted for three binding processes in vapor phase experiments: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. To our knowledge, such an energy conservation approach has not been taken into account in adsorbate-induced surface effect investigations. Furthermore, these experiments illustrate that detailed molecular-level information on binding energies can be extracted from this simple micromechanical sensor.

  9. Standard practice for measurement of time-of-wetness on surfaces exposed to wetting conditions as in atmospheric corrosion testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1989-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a technique for monitoring time-of-wetness (TOW) on surfaces exposed to cyclic atmospheric conditions which produce depositions of moisture. 1.2 The practice is also applicable for detecting and monitoring condensation within a wall or roof assembly and in test apparatus. 1.3 Exposure site calibration or characterization can be significantly enhanced if TOW is measured for comparison with other sites, particularly if this data is used in conjunction with other site-specific instrumentation techniques. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Using surface markers for MRI guided breast conserving surgery: a feasibility survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehran; Siegler, Peter; Modhafar, Amen; Holloway, Claire M. B.; Plewes, Donald B.; Martel, Anne L.

    2014-04-01

    Breast MRI is frequently performed prior to breast conserving surgery in order to assess the location and extent of the lesion. Ideally, the surgeon should also be able to use the image information during surgery to guide the excision and this requires that the MR image is co-registered to conform to the patient’s position on the operating table. Recent progress in MR imaging techniques has made it possible to obtain high quality images of the patient in the supine position which significantly reduces the complexity of the registration task. Surface markers placed on the breast during imaging can be located during surgery using an external tracking device and this information can be used to co-register the images to the patient. There remains the problem that in most clinical MR scanners the arm of the patient has to be placed parallel to the body whereas the arm is placed perpendicular to the patient during surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of co-registration based on a surface marker approach and, in particular, to determine what effect the difference in a patient’s arm position makes on the accuracy of tumour localization. Obtaining a second MRI of the patient where the patient’s arm is perpendicular to body axes (operating room position) is not possible. Instead we obtain a secondary MRI scan where the patient’s arm is above the patient’s head to validate the registration. Five patients with enhancing lesions ranging from 1.5 to 80 cm3 in size were imaged using contrast enhanced MRI with their arms in two positions. A thin-plate spline registration scheme was used to match these two configurations. The registration algorithm uses the surface markers only and does not employ the image intensities. Tumour outlines were segmented and centre of mass (COM) displacement and Dice measures of lesion overlap were calculated. The relationship between the number of markers used and the COM-displacement was also studied. The lesion COM

  11. Using surface markers for MRI guided breast conserving surgery: a feasibility survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Mehran; Siegler, Peter; Modhafar, Amen; Martel, Anne L; Holloway, Claire M B; Plewes, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Breast MRI is frequently performed prior to breast conserving surgery in order to assess the location and extent of the lesion. Ideally, the surgeon should also be able to use the image information during surgery to guide the excision and this requires that the MR image is co-registered to conform to the patient’s position on the operating table. Recent progress in MR imaging techniques has made it possible to obtain high quality images of the patient in the supine position which significantly reduces the complexity of the registration task. Surface markers placed on the breast during imaging can be located during surgery using an external tracking device and this information can be used to co-register the images to the patient. There remains the problem that in most clinical MR scanners the arm of the patient has to be placed parallel to the body whereas the arm is placed perpendicular to the patient during surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of co-registration based on a surface marker approach and, in particular, to determine what effect the difference in a patient’s arm position makes on the accuracy of tumour localization. Obtaining a second MRI of the patient where the patient’s arm is perpendicular to body axes (operating room position) is not possible. Instead we obtain a secondary MRI scan where the patient’s arm is above the patient’s head to validate the registration. Five patients with enhancing lesions ranging from 1.5 to 80 cm 3 in size were imaged using contrast enhanced MRI with their arms in two positions. A thin-plate spline registration scheme was used to match these two configurations. The registration algorithm uses the surface markers only and does not employ the image intensities. Tumour outlines were segmented and centre of mass (COM) displacement and Dice measures of lesion overlap were calculated. The relationship between the number of markers used and the COM-displacement was also studied. The lesion

  12. Comparative analysis of the surface exposed proteome of two canine osteosarcoma cell lines and normal canine osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovancev, Milan; Hilgart-Martiszus, Ian; McNamara, Michael J; Goodall, Cheri P; Seguin, Bernard; Bracha, Shay; Wickramasekara, Samanthi I

    2013-06-13

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common primary bone tumor of dogs and carries a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment. An improved understanding of the biology of OSA is critically needed to allow for development of novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tools. The surface-exposed proteome (SEP) of a cancerous cell includes a multifarious array of proteins critical to cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, adhesion, and inter-cellular communication. The specific aim of this study was to define a SEP profile of two validated canine OSA cell lines and a normal canine osteoblast cell line utilizing a biotinylation/streptavidin system to selectively label, purify, and identify surface-exposed proteins by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Additionally, we sought to validate a subset of our MS-based observations via quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot and semi-quantitative immunocytochemistry. Our hypothesis was that MS would detect differences in the SEP composition between the OSA and the normal osteoblast cells. Shotgun MS identified 133 putative surface proteins when output from all samples were combined, with good consistency between biological replicates. Eleven of the MS-detected proteins underwent analysis of gene expression by PCR, all of which were actively transcribed, but varied in expression level. Western blot of whole cell lysates from all three cell lines was effective for Thrombospondin-1, CYR61 and CD44, and indicated that all three proteins were present in each cell line. Semi-quantitative immunofluorescence indicated that CD44 was expressed at much higher levels on the surface of the OSA than the normal osteoblast cell lines. The results of the present study identified numerous differences, and similarities, in the SEP of canine OSA cell lines and normal canine osteoblasts. The PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry results, for the subset of proteins evaluated, were generally supportive of the mass spectrometry data

  13. Examining the temperature behavior of stainless steel surfaces exposed to hydrogen plasmas in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Felipe; Allain, Jean Paul; Kaita, Robert; Lucia, Matthew; St-Onge, Denis; Ellis, Robert; Majeski, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The Materials Analysis Particle Probe (MAPP) is an in-situ diagnostic designed to characterize plasma-facing components (PFCs) in tokamak devices. MAPP is installed in LTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. MAPP's capabilities include remotely operated XPS acquisition and temperature control of four samples. The recent addition of a focused ion beam allows XPS depth profiling analysis. Recent published results show an apparent correlation between hydrogen retention and temperature of Li coated stainless steel (SS) PFCs exposed to plasmas like those of LTX. According to XPS data, the retention of hydrogen by the coated surfaces decreases at above 180 °C. In the present study MAPP will be used to study the oxidation of Li coatings as a function of time and temperature of the walls when Li coatings are applied. Experiments in the ion-surface interaction experiment (IIAX) varying the hydrogen fluence on the SS samples will be also performed. Conclusions resulting from this study will be key to explain the PFC temperature-dependent variation of plasma performance observed in LTX. This work was supported by U.S. DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-SC0010717.

  14. Microleakage in conservative cavities varying the preparation method and surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Abdallah Atoui

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess microleakage in conservative class V cavities prepared with aluminum-oxide air abrasion or turbine and restored with self-etching or etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Forty premolars were randomly assigned to 4 groups (I and II: air abrasion; III and IV: turbine and class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces. Conditioning approaches were: groups I/III - 37% phosphoric acid; groups II/IV - self-priming etchant (Tyrian-SPE. Cavities were restored with One Step Plus/Filtek Z250. After finishing, specimens were thermocycled, immersed in 50% silver nitrate, and serially sectioned. Microleakage at the occlusal and cervical interfaces was measured in mm and calculated by a software. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. RESULTS: Marginal seal provided by air abrasion was similar to high-speed handpiece, except for group I. There was SIGNIFICANT difference between enamel and dentin/cementum margins for to group I and II: air abrasion. The etch-and-rinse adhesive system promoted a better marginal seal. At enamel and dentin/cementum margins, the highest microleakage values were found in cavities treated with the self-etching adhesive system. At dentin/cementum margins, high-speed handpiece preparations associated with etch-and-rinse system provided the least dye penetration. CONCLUSION: Marginal seal of cavities prepared with aluminum-oxide air abrasion was different from that of conventionally prepared cavities, and the etch-and-rinse system promoted higher marginal seal at both enamel and dentin margins.

  15. Dynamics of Soil Deflation Features in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland Revealed by Variations in Lichen Diameters on Exposed Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, R. C.; Kelly, M. A.; Virginia, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the pervasive soil deflation features in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, an area deglaciated between ~6,800 and 150 years ago. While the majority of the landscape is vegetated with low-lying shrubs and graminoids, wind erosion has removed loess and vegetation from distinct patches ranging in size from a few to tens of meters across, leaving the underlying glacial till or bedrock exposed. Although previous work has considered aeolian landforms and regional loess deposition along the Watson River Valley, these deflation features have not been investigated in detail. We aim to determine both the timing and mechanisms of formation of the deflation features and will examine whether these mechanisms were related to regional climatic conditions, such as increased aridity, to fluctuations in the Greenland Ice Sheet, or to other factors. Our ongoing research investigating these features includes geomorphic mapping using field observations and satellite imagery, lichenometry of the exposed surfaces, and cosmogenic nuclide dating of boulders and bedrock within and near the deflation features. Here we present initial results from our lichenometry studies. During the summer of 2013, we measured maximum lichen (Rhizocarpon sp.) diameters on boulder and bedrock surfaces in 15 soil deflation features located between Kangerlussuaq and the ice sheet margin. Lichen diameters vary from only a few millimeters at the outer margins of deflation features to multiple centimeters (maximum ~50 mm) in the centers of the unvegetated patches. This distinct pattern suggests that the outer margins of the soil deflation features are currently active. Based on a previously established lichen growth curve for Rhizocarpon sp. in West Greenland, our results indicate that the features are expanding at a rate of ~1.5 m per 100 yrs. In addition, the large lichen diameters (~40-50 mm) that occur in the centers of deflation features suggest that the formation mechanism has

  16. The putative proteinase maturation protein A of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a conserved surface protein with potential to elicit protective immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Overweg (Karin); A. Kerr; M. Sluijter (Marcel); M.H. Jackson; T.J. Mitchell; A.P. de Jong; R. de Groot (Ronald); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractSurface-exposed proteins often play an important role in the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and their host. We isolated a pool of hydrophobic, surface-associated proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The opsonophagocytic activity of hyperimmune

  17. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jian-en; Zhang, Shao-long; Zhang, Meng-jie; Li, Xing-hua

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2) area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 0.12×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min), the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 4.91×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  18. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2 area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h and 0.12×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min, the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h and 4.91×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  19. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Boiadjiev, Vassil I.; Hawk, John E.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Fernando, Gayanath W.; Rohana Wijewardhana, L. C.

    2008-03-01

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  20. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A; Boiadjiev, Vassil I; Hawk, John E; Gehl, Anthony C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6122 (United States); Fernando, Gayanath W [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Wijewardhana, L C Rohana [Physics Department, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2008-03-12

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  1. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic study on surface products of thin iron plates exposed to ambient atmosphere as a means of environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Motoyuki; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    1993-01-01

    Conversion electron and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy were applied to the analysis of thin iron plates exposed to the ambient atmosphere. The degree of corrosion of the iron plates was classified into three categories according to the kind and thickness of rust evaluated by Moessbauer spectra. The severe corrosion took place in seaside and roadside areas. The medium corrosion was observed in urban areas, and the weak corrosion occurred in suburban and mountainous areas. This fact implies that the surface products of iron plates can successfully reflect the ambient atmosphere to which the plates were exposed. (orig.)

  2. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes

    OpenAIRE

    DeSalvo, Michael K.; Hindle, Samantha J.; Rusan, Zeid M.; Orng, Souvinh; Eddison, Mark; Halliwill, Kyle; Bainton, Roland J.

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB) structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; ...

  3. Interaction of solutions containing phenothiazines exposed to laser radiation with materials surfaces, in view of biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, A.; Alexandru, T.; Boni, M.; Damian, V.; Stoicu, A.; Dutschk, Victoria; Pascu, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Phenothiazine drugs - chlorpromazine (CPZ), promazine (PZ) and promethazine (PMZ) - were exposed to 266 nm (fourth harmonic of the Nd:YAG pulsed laser radiation) in order to be modified at molecular level and to produce an enhancement of their antibacterial activity. The irradiated samples were

  4. Electron microscope observations of impact crater debris amongst contaminating particulates on materials surfaces exposed in space in low-Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L. E.; Rivas, J. M.; Quinones, S.; Niou, C.-S.; Advani, A. H.; Marquez, B.

    1993-01-01

    Debris particles extracted from a small sampling region on the leading edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft have been examined by analytical transmission electron microscopy and the elemental frequency observed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and compared with upper atmosphere (Earth) particle elemental frequency and the average elemental compositions of interplanetary dust particles. A much broader elemental distribution was observed for the exposed spacecraft surface debris milieu. Numerous metal microfragment analyses, particularly aluminum and stainless steel, were compared with scanning electron microscope observations-of impact crater features, and the corresponding elemental spectra on selected LDEF aluminium tray clamps and stainless steel bolts. The compositions and melt features for these impact craters and ejecta have been shown to be consistent with microcrystalline debris fragments in the case of aluminum, and these observations suggest an ever changing debris milieu on exposed surfaces for space craft and space system materials.

  5. A conserved fungal glycosyltransferase facilitates pathogenesis of plants by enabling hyphal growth on solid surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert King

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast "yeast-like" growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected. The inability to extend surface hyphae resulted in a complete loss of virulence on plants. The affected gene encoded a predicted type 2 glycosyltransferase (ZtGT2. Analysis of >800 genomes from taxonomically diverse fungi highlighted a generally widespread, but discontinuous, distribution of ZtGT2 orthologues, and a complete absence of any similar proteins in non-filamentous ascomycete yeasts. Deletion mutants of the ZtGT2 orthologue in the taxonomically un-related fungus Fusarium graminearum were also severely impaired in hyphal growth and non-pathogenic on wheat ears. ZtGT2 expression increased during filamentous growth and electron microscopy on deletion mutants (ΔZtGT2 suggested the protein functions to maintain the outermost surface of the fungal cell wall. Despite this, adhesion to leaf surfaces was unaffected in ΔZtGT2 mutants and global RNAseq-based gene expression profiling highlighted that surface-sensing and protein secretion was also largely unaffected. However, ΔZtGT2 mutants constitutively overexpressed several transmembrane and secreted proteins, including an important LysM-domain chitin-binding virulence effector, Zt3LysM. ZtGT2 likely functions in the synthesis of a currently unknown, potentially minor but widespread, extracellular or outer cell wall polysaccharide which plays a key role in facilitating many interactions between plants and fungi by enabling hyphal growth on solid matrices.

  6. A conserved fungal glycosyltransferase facilitates pathogenesis of plants by enabling hyphal growth on solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Amy; Halsey, Kirstie; Lovegrove, Alison; Hammond-Kosack, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast “yeast-like” growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected. The inability to extend surface hyphae resulted in a complete loss of virulence on plants. The affected gene encoded a predicted type 2 glycosyltransferase (ZtGT2). Analysis of >800 genomes from taxonomically diverse fungi highlighted a generally widespread, but discontinuous, distribution of ZtGT2 orthologues, and a complete absence of any similar proteins in non-filamentous ascomycete yeasts. Deletion mutants of the ZtGT2 orthologue in the taxonomically un-related fungus Fusarium graminearum were also severely impaired in hyphal growth and non-pathogenic on wheat ears. ZtGT2 expression increased during filamentous growth and electron microscopy on deletion mutants (ΔZtGT2) suggested the protein functions to maintain the outermost surface of the fungal cell wall. Despite this, adhesion to leaf surfaces was unaffected in ΔZtGT2 mutants and global RNAseq-based gene expression profiling highlighted that surface-sensing and protein secretion was also largely unaffected. However, ΔZtGT2 mutants constitutively overexpressed several transmembrane and secreted proteins, including an important LysM-domain chitin-binding virulence effector, Zt3LysM. ZtGT2 likely functions in the synthesis of a currently unknown, potentially minor but widespread, extracellular or outer cell wall polysaccharide which plays a key role in facilitating many interactions between plants and fungi by enabling hyphal growth on solid matrices. PMID:29020037

  7. Surface potential distribution and airflow performance of different air-exposed electrode plasma actuators at different alternating current/direct current voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang; Yan, Hui-Jie; Qi, Xiao-Hua; Hua, Yue; Ren, Chun-Sheng, E-mail: rchsh@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Key laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators have been intensely studied for a number of years due to their potential applications for aerodynamic control. In this paper, four types of actuators with different configurations of exposed electrode are proposed. The SDBD actuators investigated are driven by dual-power supply, referred to as a fixed AC high voltage and an adjustable DC bias. The effects of the electrode structures on the dielectric surface potential distribution, the electric wind velocity, and the mean thrust production are studied, and the dominative factors of airflow acceleration behavior are revealed. The results have shown that the actions of the SDBD actuator are mainly dependent on the geometry of the exposed electrode. Besides, the surface potential distribution can effectively affect the airflow acceleration behavior. With the application of an appropriate additional DC bias, the surface potential will be modified. As a result, the performance of the electric wind produced by a single SDBD can be significantly improved. In addition, the work also illustrates that the actuators with more negative surface potential present better mechanical performance.

  8. Surface potential distribution and airflow performance of different air-exposed electrode plasma actuators at different alternating current/direct current voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liang; Yan, Hui-Jie; Qi, Xiao-Hua; Hua, Yue; Ren, Chun-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators have been intensely studied for a number of years due to their potential applications for aerodynamic control. In this paper, four types of actuators with different configurations of exposed electrode are proposed. The SDBD actuators investigated are driven by dual-power supply, referred to as a fixed AC high voltage and an adjustable DC bias. The effects of the electrode structures on the dielectric surface potential distribution, the electric wind velocity, and the mean thrust production are studied, and the dominative factors of airflow acceleration behavior are revealed. The results have shown that the actions of the SDBD actuator are mainly dependent on the geometry of the exposed electrode. Besides, the surface potential distribution can effectively affect the airflow acceleration behavior. With the application of an appropriate additional DC bias, the surface potential will be modified. As a result, the performance of the electric wind produced by a single SDBD can be significantly improved. In addition, the work also illustrates that the actuators with more negative surface potential present better mechanical performance

  9. Energy conservation potentials in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe - an expose of theses; Die Energiespeicherpotentiale in den Laendern Mittel- und Osteuropas - eine Darstellung der Thesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesner, W. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz FH, Zittau (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    The report compares western and eastern Europe in terms of their supply with fossil energy, the development of their primary and end-use energy consumption, and the development of their gross power generation. The technical state of energy conversion plants and electrothermal power plants, Russia`s energy conservation potential, and the efficacy of measures for enhancing electric energy efficiency in the Ukraine are described. Finally, a comparison of energy input coefficients and energy costs between the old and new federal states of Germany is made. (DG) [Deutsch] Bezueglich der Versorgung mit fossiler Energie, der Entwicklung des Primaer- und Endenergieverbrauchs und der Entwicklung der Brutto-Stromerzeugung werden West- und Osteuropa miteinander verglichen. Der technische Stand der Energieumwandlungsanlagen und der Elektrowaermeanlagen sowie das Energieeinsparungspotential in Russland und die Effektivitaet von Massnahmen zur Elektroenergieeffizienzsteigerung in der Ukraine werden dargestellt. Schliesslich erfolgt ein Vergleich der Energieintensitaets- und Energiekosten zwischen den alten und neuen Bundeslaendern der BRD. (DG)

  10. Structural adaptation of extreme halophilic proteins through decrease of conserved hydrophobic contact surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Halophiles are extremophilic microorganisms growing optimally at high salt concentrations. There are two strategies used by halophiles to maintain proper osmotic pressure in their cytoplasm: accumulation of molar concentrations of potassium and chloride with extensive adaptation of the intracellular macromolecules ("salt-in" strategy) or biosynthesis and/or accumulation of organic osmotic solutes ("osmolyte" strategy). Our work was aimed at contributing to the understanding of the shared molecular mechanisms of protein haloadaptation through a detailed and systematic comparison of a sample of several three-dimensional structures of halophilic and non-halophilic proteins. Structural differences observed between the "salt-in" and the mesophilic homologous proteins were contrasted to those observed between the "osmolyte" and mesophilic pairs. Results The results suggest that haloadaptation strategy in the presence of molar salt concentration, but not of osmolytes, necessitates a weakening of the hydrophobic interactions, in particular at the level of conserved hydrophobic contacts. Weakening of these interactions counterbalances their strengthening by the presence of salts in solution and may help the structure preventing aggregation and/or loss of function in hypersaline environments. Conclusions Considering the significant increase of biotechnology applications of halophiles, the understanding of halophilicity can provide the theoretical basis for the engineering of proteins of great interest because stable at concentrations of salts that cause the denaturation or aggregation of the majority of macromolecules. PMID:22192175

  11. Structural adaptation of extreme halophilic proteins through decrease of conserved hydrophobic contact surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siglioccolo Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Halophiles are extremophilic microorganisms growing optimally at high salt concentrations. There are two strategies used by halophiles to maintain proper osmotic pressure in their cytoplasm: accumulation of molar concentrations of potassium and chloride with extensive adaptation of the intracellular macromolecules ("salt-in" strategy or biosynthesis and/or accumulation of organic osmotic solutes ("osmolyte" strategy. Our work was aimed at contributing to the understanding of the shared molecular mechanisms of protein haloadaptation through a detailed and systematic comparison of a sample of several three-dimensional structures of halophilic and non-halophilic proteins. Structural differences observed between the "salt-in" and the mesophilic homologous proteins were contrasted to those observed between the "osmolyte" and mesophilic pairs. Results The results suggest that haloadaptation strategy in the presence of molar salt concentration, but not of osmolytes, necessitates a weakening of the hydrophobic interactions, in particular at the level of conserved hydrophobic contacts. Weakening of these interactions counterbalances their strengthening by the presence of salts in solution and may help the structure preventing aggregation and/or loss of function in hypersaline environments. Conclusions Considering the significant increase of biotechnology applications of halophiles, the understanding of halophilicity can provide the theoretical basis for the engineering of proteins of great interest because stable at concentrations of salts that cause the denaturation or aggregation of the majority of macromolecules.

  12. Evolution of rotating stars. III. Predicted surface rotation velocities for stars which conserve total angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endal, A.S.; Sofia, S.

    1979-01-01

    Predicted surface rotation velocities are presented for Population I stars at 10, 7, 5, 3, and 1.5M/sub sun/. The surface velocities have been computed for three different cases of angular momentum redistribution: no radial redistribution (rotation on decoupled shells), complete redistribution (rigid-body rotation), and partial redistribution as predicted by detailed consideration of circulation currents in rotation stars. The velocities for these cases are compared to each other and to observed stellar rotation rates (upsilon sin i).Near the main sequence, rotational effects can substantially reduce the moment of inertia of a star, so nonrotating models consistently underestimate the expected velocities for evolving stars. The magnitude of these effects is sufficient to explain the large numbers of Be stars and, perhaps, to explain the bimodal distribution of velocities observed for the O stars.On the red giant branch, angular momentum redistribution reduces the surface velocity by a factor of 2 or more, relative to the velocity expected for no radial redistribution. This removes the discrepancy between predicted and observed rotation rates for the K giants and makes it unlikely that these stars lose significant amounts of angular momentum by stellar winds. Our calculations indicate that improved observations (by the Fourier-transform technique) of the red giants in the Hyades cluster can be used to determine how angular momentum is redistributed by convection

  13. Growth and decay of surface voltage on silver diffused polyimide exposed to 3-15 keV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, S K; Dhole, S D; Bhoraskar, V N [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India)

    2007-02-21

    During electron irradiation, the growth in the surface voltage on virgin and silver diffused polyimide sample was studied by varying electron energy from 3 to 15 keV and beam diameter from 3 to 15 mm. At a constant beam current, the surface voltage increased nonlinearly with electron energy but decreased slowly with beam diameter at fixed electron energy. At a surface voltage around saturation or beyond 3 kV, the electron beam was switched off and the decay in the surface voltage was studied for a period of 9 x 10{sup 4} s. The surface analysis revealed that the relative concentrations of carbon increased and that of the oxygen and the nitrogen decreased in the electron irradiated virgin and silver diffused polyimide sample, however in different proportions. Under the identical conditions of electron irradiation, the growth rate of the surface voltage, the post irradiated surface resistivity and the voltage decay constant of the silver diffused polyimide were lower than that of the virgin polyimide. The results of the present study reveal that the resistance of the silver diffused polyimide to keV electrons is higher than that of the virgin polyimide.

  14. A new approach of the surface temperature measurement for a preventive conservation of the work of arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tuccio, Maria Concetta; De Grandi, Sandro; Vivarelli, Arianna; Becherini, Francesca; Pockelé, Luc; Bernardi, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    To conserve the work of arts (paintings, sculptures, etc..) in a preventive mode, a careful monitoring of the environment around these artifacts, as well as of their surface temperature, is necessary. The latter is the only physical variable which can be measured in a non-invasive way, following directly the thermal conditions and variations of the work of arts due to the dynamics of the microclimate. Considering that the works of art are often untouchable, an automated and accurate remote sensing could be very useful to prevent dangerous processes of deterioration. For these reasons a new sensor has been developed by a spin-off of the ISAC - CNR. This sensor allows to check in real-time the surface temperature changes of the artifacts both over time and at different predefined points. This automated sensor is a radiometer sensible to wavelengths ranging from 7,5 µm to 13,4 µm. A system rotating over three dimension "pan and tilt" allows to make multiple measures on a grid of points previously defined on the surface of the work of arts. The accuracy, obtained by means of a carefull calibration process, is  0,5 °C, more precise than the usual remote sensing (thermal camera and commercial radiometers), characterized by an accuracy value of  2°C. In order to obtain accurate measures of the surface temperature for a real body, the correct emissivity values need to be integrated in the calculation. Hence, an easy to use management software has been developed allowing to set the emissivity value in each point of the grid. For rejoinable points of the surface, the exact emissivity value could be determined comparing the measurements recorded by the new infrared sensor with the ones obtained by a very sensitive sensor (0,02 - 0,03)°C manually placed on the surface for a short time. In case of work of arts placed at great distance from the sersor, the emissivity values must be determined previously. The emissivity depends on a lot of variables and one of them is

  15. Geographical and temporal conservation of antibody recognition of Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Lusingu, John

    2004-01-01

    The slow acquisition of protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria probably reflects the extensive diversity of important antigens. The variant surface antigens (VSA) that mediate parasite adhesion to a range of host molecules are regarded as important targets of acquired protective immunity......, but their diversity makes them questionable vaccine candidates. We determined levels of VSA-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in human plasma collected at four geographically distant and epidemiologically distinct localities with specificity for VSA expressed by P. falciparum isolates from three African countries...

  16. Structural evolution of derived species on FeAl surface exposed to a N2 + SO2 atmosphere: Experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa-Medina, M.A.; Liu, H.B.; Canizal, G.; Ascencio, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Characterizations were performed by scanning electron microscopy analysis with energy dispersive spectrometry and scanning probe microscope for structural evolution of derived species on FeAl surface exposed to a N 2 + SO 2 atmosphere at high temperature. First principle calculations were also employed in order to clarify the formation of new product on the surface and its mechanism. The results demonstrate that the tendency of the structure with oxygen atoms involve a stronger interaction and lower energy to be formed with the surface and consequently the possible production of oxide-species is more probable and multiple aggregates with different shapes can be generated for the temperatures of 625 and 700 deg. C, with no preferential crystal habit. Sample treated at 775 deg. C denotes the production of hexagonal crystals, which is externally characterized by polyhedrons growing in axial direction as fibbers with flat faces that match with the alumina

  17. Antibodies from malaria-exposed pregnant women recognize trypsin resistant epitopes on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes selected for adhesion to chondroitin sulphate A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharling, Lisa; Enevold, Anders; Sowa, Kordai M P

    2004-01-01

    of CSA binding and surface recognition of CSA selected parasites by serum IgG from malaria exposed pregnant women. Thus, the complete molecular definition of an antigenic P. falciparum erythrocyte surface protein that can be used as a malaria in pregnancy vaccine has not yet been achieved.......-specific antibodies induced as a result of pregnancy associated malaria (PAM). METHODS: Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to measure the levels of adult Scottish and Ghanaian male, and Ghanaian pregnant female plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) that bind to the surface of infected erythrocytes. P....... falciparum infected erythrocytes selected for adhesion to CSA were found to express trypsin-resistant VSA that are the target of naturally acquired antibodies from pregnant women living in a malaria endemic region of Ghana. However in vitro adhesion to CSA and HA was relatively trypsin sensitive. An improved...

  18. "PROCESS and UVolution: photochemistry experiments in Low Earth Orbit": investigation of the photostability of organic and mineral material exposed to Mars surface UV radiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Macari, Frederique; Person, Alain; Chaput, Didier; Raulin, Francois; Cottin, Hervé

    The harsh martian environment could explain the lack of organics and minerals such as car-bonates by destroying them: i) no organic molecule has been found at the two different landing sites of the Viking landers within the detection limits of the instruments onboard, ii) to date, no large deposits of carbonates have been detected and their detection is specific of local ar-eas and in very low amounts. In this context several experimental and numerical modelling studies were led to evaluate the possibility for the destruction or evolution of the organics and carbonates under the martian surface environmental conditions. The presence of UV radiation has been proposed to explain the photodecomposition of such material. This is the reason why, to investigate the nature, abundance, and stability of organic and mineral material that could survive under such environmental conditions, we exposed in low Earth orbit organic molecules and carbonates (also biominerals) with martian relevance to solar UV radiation ¿ 200 nm, in the frame of the experiment UVolution, onboard the BIOPAN ESA module which was set outside a Russian Foton automated capsule and exposed to space condition during 12 days in September 2007, and the experiment PROCESS (hervé peux tu rajouter quelques infos sur le temps exact d'exposition stp) which was set outside the International Space Station (ISS). Here, we present results with regard to the impact of solar UV radiation on the targeted molecules. Preliminary results indicate that that no organic sample seems to resist to the solar UV radiation if directly exposed to it. Conversely our results show that the exposed carbonates seem to be stable to the solar UV radiation if directly exposed to it. Moreover, the stability of the biominerals strengthens the interest to explore deeper their potential as life records at Mars. Hence they should be considered as primary targets for in situ analyses during future missions.

  19. Reduction mechanisms of ethylene carbonate on si anodes of lithium-ion batteries: effects of degree of lithiation and nature of exposed surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de la Hoz, Julibeth M; Leung, Kevin; Balbuena, Perla B

    2013-12-26

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to identify mechanisms of reduction of ethylene carbonate on Si surfaces at various degrees of lithiation, where the low-coordinated surface Si atoms are saturated with O, OH, or H functional groups. The lowest Si content surfaces are represented by quasi-amorphous LiSi4 and LiSi2; intermediate lithiation is given by LiSi crystalline facets, and the highest Li content is studied through Li13Si4 surfaces. It is found that ethylene carbonate (EC) reduction mechanisms depend significantly on the degree of lithiation of the surface. On LiSi surfaces EC is reduced according to two different two-electron mechanisms (one simultaneous and one sequential), which are independent of specific surface functionalization or nature of exposed facets. On the less lithiated surfaces, the simultaneous two-electron reduction is found more frequently. In that mechanism, the EC reduction is initiated by the formation of a C-Si bond that allows adsorption of the intact molecule to the surface and is followed by electron transfer and ring-opening. Strongly lithiated Li13Si4 surfaces are found to be highly reactive. Reduction of adsorbed EC molecules occurs via a four-electron mechanism yielding as reduction products CO(2-) and O(C2H4)O(2-). Direct transfer of two electrons to EC molecules in liquid phase is also possible, resulting in the presence of O(C2H4)OCO(2-) anions in the liquid phase.

  20. Iodo-gen-catalysed iodination for identification of surface-exposed outer membrane proteins of Escherichia coli K12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.C.S.; Almeida, D.F. de

    1987-01-01

    Surface proteins of Escherichia coli K12 were identified by radiolabelling using 1,3,4,6 - tatrachloro, 3-alpha, 6-alpha - diphenylgycoluryl (Iodo-Gen) and 131 I. Labelled proteins were localized in the outer membrane of the cells. Using this technique it has been possible to observe technique it has been possible to observe that the eletrophoretic pattern of surface proteins changes according to the growth phases in culture. Radiolabelling of E.coli cells inculbated at 42 0 C showed that the syntheses of two surface proteins were temperature-inducible. At least one such protein may be involved in the process of cell division in E.coli K12. (author) [pt

  1. Dual fluorescence labeling of surface-exposed and internal proteins in erythrocytes infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Dominique C; Sowa, Kordai M P; Arnot, David E

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for improved methods for in situ localization of surface proteins on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to help understand how these antigens are trafficked to, and positioned within, the host cell membrane. This protocol for confocal immunofluorescence microscopy combines...... and permeabilization; indirect labeling of the internal antigen using a secondary antibody tagged with a spectrally distinct fluorescent dye; and detection of the differentially labeled antigens using a laser scanning confocal microscope. The protocol can be completed in approximately 7 h. Although the protocol...... surface antigen labeling on live cells with subsequent fixation and permeabilization, which enables antibodies to penetrate the cell and label internal antigens. The key steps of the protocol are as follows: indirect labeling of the surface antigen using a fluorescently tagged secondary antibody; fixation...

  2. Iodo-gen-catalysed iodination for identification of surface-exposed outer membrane proteins of Escherichia coli K12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, L C.S.; Almeida, D.F. de

    1987-12-01

    Surface proteins of Escherichia coli K12 were identified by radiolabelling using 1,3,4,6 - tatrachloro, 3-alpha, 6-alpha - diphenylgycoluryl (Iodo-Gen) and /sup 131/I. Labelled proteins were localized in the outer membrane of the cells. Using this technique it has been possible to observe technique it has been possible to observe that the eletrophoretic pattern of surface proteins changes according to the growth phases in culture. Radiolabelling of E.coli cells inculbated at 42/sup 0/C showed that the syntheses of two surface proteins were temperature-inducible. At least one such protein may be involved in the process of cell division in E.coli K12.

  3. Morphological study of polymer surfaces exposed to non-thermal plasma based on contact angle and the use of scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, T., E-mail: tsfelix81@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Cassini, F.A.; Benetoli, L.O.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dotto, M.E.R. [Physics Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, N.A. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric surfaces were etched using non-thermal plasma at different intensities. • Polymers of low mechanical hardness reached the saturation level faster. • A mathematical model based on scaling laws was proposed. - Abstract: The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, R{sub RMS} (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91{sub (PET)} and 0.88{sub (PEEK)}, β = 0.25{sub (PET)} and z = 3,64{sub (PET)}.

  4. The maintenance of inserted titanium implants: in-vitro evaluation of exposed surfaces cleaned with three different instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Carlo; Lusuardi, Donatella; Battarra, Francesca; Sassatelli, Paolo; Spinato, Sergio; Zaffe, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Changes to titanium implants smooth-surfaces after instrumentation were comparatively analyzed using low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) and white-light confocal (WLC) profilometry, to accurately evaluate curved surfaces. Sixty titanium implants screwed to their abutments were randomly split into three groups for cleaning treatment with (S) stainless-steel Gracey-curettes, (T) titanium Langer-curettes, and (P) an ultrasonic-device with the probe covered with a plastic-tip. One sector of each implant was left unprocessed (U). The other sectors were cleaned for either 60 s, to simulate a single cleaning session, or 180 s to simulate a series of sessions. Surface morphology was analyzed by LV-SEM, without metal sputtering. Quantitative evaluations of the roughness of surfaces were performed using a WLC-profilometer. The Wilcoxon and the Mann-Whitney tests were used in statistical comparisons. U-surfaces showed that thin transverse ridges and grooves, i.e. a polarized surface roughness was substantially compromised after S-instrumentation. Small surface alterations, increasing with time, were also recorded after T-·and·P-instrumentation, although to a lesser degree. The gap of the fixture-abutment connection appeared almost completely clean after T-, clotted with titanium debris after S-, and clotted with plastic debris after P-treatment. The mean roughness (Ra) was unchanged after P-, significantly increased after S- and decreased after T-treatment, when compared with U. The Rz roughness-parameter, calculated along the fixture Y-axis, of S, T, and P resulted similar and significantly lower than that of U. Rz (X-axis) resulted unchanged after P-, slightly increased (+40%) after T-, and greatly increased (+260%) after S-treatment, this latter being statistically significant when compared with U. The careful use of titanium-curettes could produce only minimal smooth surface alteration particularly over prolonged treatments, and avoid debris production

  5. A conserved WW domain-like motif regulates invariant chain-dependent cell-surface transport of the NKG2D ligand ULBP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlenbrock, Franziska Katharina; van Andel, Esther; Andresen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    that the NKG2D ligand ULBP2 traffics over an invariant chain (Ii)-dependent pathway to the cell surface. This study set out to elucidate how Ii regulates ULBP2 cell-surface transport: We discovered conserved tryptophan (Trp) residues in the primary protein sequence of ULBP1-6 but not in the related MICA....../B. Substitution of Trp to alanine resulted in cell-surface inhibition of ULBP2 in different cancer cell lines. Moreover, the mutated ULBP2 constructs were retained and not degraded inside the cell, indicating a crucial role of this conserved Trp-motif in trafficking. Finally, overexpression of Ii increased...... surface expression of wt ULBP2 while Trp-mutants could not be expressed, proposing that this Trp-motif is required for an Ii-dependent cell-surface transport of ULBP2. Aberrant soluble ULBP2 is immunosuppressive. Thus, targeting a distinct protein module on the ULBP2 sequence could counteract...

  6. Bacterial diversity and community structure of a sub-surface aquifer exposed to realistic low herbicide concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipthay, Julia R. de; Johnsen, Kaare; Albrechtsen, H.-J.

    2004-01-01

    contaminants. We examined the effect of in situ exposure to realistic low concentrations of herbicides on the microbial diversity and community structure of sub-surface sediments from a shallow aquifer near Vejen (Denmark). Three different community analyses were performed: colony morphology typing, sole...... community analyses. In contrast, no significant effect was found on the bacterial diversity, except for the culturable fraction where a significantly increased richness and Shannon index was found in the herbicide acclimated sediments. The results of this study show that in situ exposure of sub-surface...... aquifers to realistic low concentrations of herbicides may alter the overall structure of a natural bacterial community, although significant effects on the genetic diversity and carbon substrate usage cannot be detected. The observed impact was probably due to indirect effects. In future investigations...

  7. Temperature Dependent Surface Modification of Tungsten Exposed to High-Flux Low-Energy Helium Ion Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Damico, Antony Q; Tripathi, Jitendra K; Novakowski, Theodore J; Miloshevsky, Gennady; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is a great potential energy source that can provide a relatively safe and clean limitless supply of energy using hydrogen isotopes as fuel material. ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) is the world first fusion reactor currently being built in France. Tungsten (W) is a prime candidate material as plasma facing component (PFC) due to its excellent mechanical properties, high melting point, and low erosion rate. However, W undergoes a severe surface morphology...

  8. Morphological study of polymer surfaces exposed to non-thermal plasma based on contact angle and the use of scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, T.; Cassini, F. A.; Benetoli, L. O. B.; Dotto, M. E. R.; Debacher, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, RRMS (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91(PET) and 0.88(PEEK), β = 0.25(PET) and z = 3,64(PET).

  9. Cytochrome P450IID6 recognized by LKM1 antibody is not exposed on the surface of hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A M; Mura, C; De Lemos-Chiarandini, C; Krishnamoorthy, R; Alvarez, F

    1993-06-01

    LKM1 autoantibody, directed against P450IID6, is accepted as a marker of a particular type of autoimmune hepatitis, but its role in the pathogenesis of the disease is controversial. Localization of P450IID6 on the cell surface of rat hepatocytes was previously reported, suggesting that membrane-bound P450IID6 could be the target of LKM1 antibodies, thus allowing immune lysis of hepatocytes. The objective of the present study was to determine, using various methods, the cell localization of P450IID6 in human and rat hepatocytes. Incubation of rat and human hepatocytes with LKM1-positive serum showed slight, if any, cell membrane staining using immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase and immunoelectron microscopic studies. No staining of the plasma membrane of human hepatocytes was observed when incubations were carried out with immunoaffinity-purified antibody directed against peptide 254-271, the main epitope of P450IID6 recognized by all LKM1 sera tested. Chinese hamster ovary cells, transfected with the complete P450IID6 cDNA and incubated with the supernatant from a B cell lymphoblastoid cell line prepared with the lymphocytes of a LKM1-positive patient, did not show any staining of the cell surface by immunofluorescence. Incubation of rat microsomal fraction vesicles with LKM1-positive serum, followed by protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, displayed a staining of almost all vesicles, confirming that P450IID6 is present on the cytoplasmic side of the microsomal membrane, which makes it unable to be expressed on the cell surface even if it were transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Sulpho NHS Biotin labelling of rat hepatocyte cell membranes did not show the presence of a 50-kD molecule that could have reacted with LKM1 antibody. DNA sequencing of exon 1 of the CYP2D6 gene of a patient positive for LKM1 antibody did not show any difference from that of the normal published sequence of the gene. This does not favour an alteration of the NH2 terminal

  10. Photoluminescence of anti-modulation doped near-surface GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well structures exposed to hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Bumaj, Y A; Goldkhan, R; Shtajn, N; Golombek, A; Nakov, V; Cheng, T S

    2002-01-01

    The anti-modulation Si-doped GaAs/AlGaAs structures with near-surface single quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy were exposed to hydrogen plasma at 260 deg C and investigated by low-temperature photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation and photoreflectance spectroscopy. After hydrogenation, the quenching of the exciton luminescence for the below AlGaAs band gap excitation due to the increase of electric field in the structure has been observed. The effect is consistent with unpinning of Fermi level from mid gap of nominally undoped (p-type) GaAs cap layer due to passivation of surface states by hydrogen without neutralization of shallow impurities in the epilayers

  11. XPS Study of Chemical Changes on the La/Ce Treated Surface of A361 Aluminium Alloy Exposed to Air at Temperatures up to 500∘C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical changes that take place on the rare earth treated surface of the A361 aluminium alloy exposed to air at temperatures between 100 and 500∘C have been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The most notable features discussed in this work are the disappearance of Mg and Si signals at the tested temperatures and disappearance of the Ce signal at temperatures of 400–500∘C. The biphasic microstructure of the A361 alloy, constituted by close to 12 wt% Si and the Al matrix, plays an important role in many of the results obtained. The notable growth of aluminium oxide across the conversion coating in the case of the Ce-treated surface is related to the structural transformation experienced by the cerium oxide coating at 400–500∘C.

  12. Fabrication and photovoltaic performance of niobium doped TiO{sub 2} hierarchical microspheres with exposed {001} facets and high specific surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Ran, Huili [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Materials, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Fan, Jiajie, E-mail: fanjiajie@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Materials, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Xiaoli; Mao, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Materials, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Shao, Guosheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Materials, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Institute for Renewable Energy and Environmental Technologies, University of Bolton, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nb-doped hierarchical TiO{sub 2} microsphere DSSCs show enhanced performance. • Nb{sup 5+} dopant replaces Ti{sup 4+} cation in TiO{sub 2} lattice. • Electrons transport was enhanced due to the down-shifted conduction band minimum. • Exposed (001) facets and high specific surface area allows high dye-loading. - Abstract: The niobium doped hierarchical anatase TiO{sub 2} microspheres, which are consist of a serried nano-thorns and plicate nano-ribbons with exposed {001} facets, were synthesized using hydrothermal method followed by heat treatment. The effects of niobium on the microstructures and photovoltaic performances of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were studied. The results revealed that Nb{sup 5+} doping replaces Ti{sup 4+} cations in TiO{sub 2} lattice, and the bandgap of the films varies with increasing Nb doping concentration because of the downshift of the conduction band minimum (CBM). The niobium-doped TiO{sub 2} DSSCs with moderate loadings show enhanced performance comparing with their pure TiO{sub 2} counterparts. Optimally, the conversion efficiency of the Nb-3.5 (Nb 3.5 mol%) DSSC is 4.99%. This is higher than that (4.39%) of pure TiO{sub 2} cells by 13.7%. This is due to the fact that the Nb-doped solar cells have increased the number of the photo-induced electrons because of their exposed (001) facets and higher specific surface area; and enhanced electrons collection and transport because of the downshifted CBM of the Nb-doped TiO{sub 2}. However, heavy Nb doping results in the decrease of the performance of the niobium-doped cells due to the excessive defects within the Nb-TiO{sub 2} samples resulting in enhanced charge recombination at defects.

  13. Characterisation of rust surfaces formed on mild steel exposed to marine atmospheres using XRD and SEM/Micro-Raman techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, D. de la; Alcántara, J.; Chico, B.; Díaz, I.; Jiménez, J.A.; Morcillo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SEM/Micro-Raman is very useful for characterizing rust phases morphologies. • SEM/Micro-Raman enables unequivocal rust phases identification. • γ-FeOOH basically presents two types of morphologies: globular and laminar. • Fe 3 O 4 presents two morphologies: flat patches and black doughnut-type formations. • β-FeOOH presents highly porous morphologies comprised by fine prismatic crystals. - Abstract: The exposure of mild steel to marine atmospheres gives rise to the formation of various corrosion products, mainly lepidocrocite, goethite, magnetite and akaganeite. In this study, Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction, Micro-X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Micro-Raman are used to characterise rust layer surfaces and to identify the principal component rust phases and their morphology. The main conclusion reached is that lepidocrocite is preferentially located on the outermost surface while magnetite and akaganeite form mostly close to base steel. The Scanning Electron Microscopy/Micro-Raman technique has been very useful for characterising (identifying) the wide variety of morphologies presented by the rust phases.

  14. Correlations between the electrochemical behaviour and surface film composition of TZM alloy exposed to divertor water coolant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maday, M.-F.; Giorgi, R.; Dikonimos-Makris, T.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been carried out on TZM alloy surfaces after short and long immersion tests in high temperature (250 C) aqueous environments simulating possible fusion reactor coolant conditions during operation. Phase identification by XPS was used in connection with the open circuit potential trends to suggest plausible hypotheses about TZM corrosion behaviour in the various chemical environments considered in this study. It was proposed that exposure of TZM to oxidizing water conditions produced poorly protective layers, which consist essentially of low (IV) and intermediate (V) valency Mo oxides/hydroxides. Conversely the results obtained in deaerated and reducing water conditions suggested that barrier films could develop in these environments: the phases exhibit a bilayered structure and consisted of an inner tetravalent Mo oxide/hydroxide and an outer hexavalent Mo oxide. The protective properties of such layers were attributed to the hexavalent Mo species. (orig.)

  15. Surface composition of Cd{sub 1–x}Fe(Mn){sub x}Te{sub 1–y}Se{sub y} systems exposed to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundaleski, Nenad [University of Belgrade–Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Universidade Nova de Lisboa–Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Quinta da Torre, 2829–516 Caparica (Portugal); Radisavljević, Ivana, E-mail: iva@vin.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade–Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Trigueiro, João [Universidade Nova de Lisboa–Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Quinta da Torre, 2829–516 Caparica (Portugal); Tolstogouzov, Alexander [Universidade Nova de Lisboa–Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Quinta da Torre, 2829–516 Caparica (Portugal); Ryazan State Radio Engineering University, Gagarin 59/1, 390005 Ryazan (Russian Federation); Rakočević, Zlatko; Medić, Mirjana [University of Belgrade–Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Teodoro, Orlando M.N.D. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa–Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Quinta da Torre, 2829–516 Caparica (Portugal); Romčević, Nebojša [University of Belgrade–Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ivanović, Nenad [University of Belgrade–Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-03-01

    Using X–ray induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Time–of–Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Atomic Force Microscopy we have investigated elemental composition, structure and oxidation process taking place at the surfaces of polycrystalline Cd{sub 0.99}Fe{sub 0.01}Te{sub 0.97}Se{sub 0.03} and Cd{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}Te{sub 0.97}Se{sub 0.03} systems stored in ambient conditions. The surface oxidation destroys the native CdTe matrix and provokes substantial atomic rearrangement in the first few atomic layers. The near–surface region of both systems is enriched in Cd and to some extent Te–deficient, but the surface structure, morphology and the native oxide composition are all found to be considerably different. In Cd{sub 0.99}Fe{sub 0.01}Te{sub 0.97}Se{sub 0.03} system both Fe and Se dopants diffuse into the bulk and oxidation of its surface results in formation of a thin CdTeO{sub 3} layer which covers the CdTe matrix. In Cd{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}Te{sub 0.97}Se{sub 0.03} system oxygen–rich atmosphere triggers Mn and Se out–diffusion and the nonuniform oxide layer predominantly consists of MnO and a small amount of Te–oxide which both lay underneath a thin layer of metallic Cd segregated at the top of the surface. - Highlights: • Nature of the CdFe(Mn)TeSe surfaces exposed to air is substantially different. • Near–surface region is enriched in Cd and to some extent Te–deficient. • Presence of Mn drastically changes the surface oxidation conditions. • The surface oxidation in ambient conditions undergoes different mechanisms. • Oxygen triggers Mn out–diffusion, while Fe diffuses into the bulk.

  16. Morphological study of polymer surfaces exposed to non-thermal plasma based on contact angle and the use of scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, T.; Cassini, F.A.; Benetoli, L.O.B.; Dotto, M.E.R.; Debacher, N.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric surfaces were etched using non-thermal plasma at different intensities. • Polymers of low mechanical hardness reached the saturation level faster. • A mathematical model based on scaling laws was proposed. - Abstract: The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, R_R_M_S (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91_(_P_E_T_) and 0.88_(_P_E_E_K_), β = 0.25_(_P_E_T_) and z = 3,64_(_P_E_T_).

  17. On the effect of standard PFEM remeshing on volume conservation in free-surface fluid flow problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Alessandro; Cremonesi, Massimiliano

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the remeshing procedure used in the particle finite element method (PFEM) and to investigate how this operation may affect the numerical results. The PFEM remeshing algorithm combines the Delaunay triangulation and the Alpha Shape method to guarantee a good quality of the Lagrangian mesh also in large deformation processes. However, this strategy may lead to local variations of the topology that may cause an artificial change of the global volume. The issue of volume conservation is here studied in detail. An accurate description of all the situations that may induce a volume variation during the PFEM regeneration of the mesh is provided. Moreover, the crucial role of the parameter α used in the Alpha Shape method is highlighted and a range of values of α for which the differences between the numerical results are negligible, is found. Furthermore, it is shown that the variation of volume induced by the remeshing reduces by refining the mesh. This check of convergence is of paramount importance for the reliability of the PFEM. The study is carried out for 2D free-surface fluid dynamics problems, however the conclusions can be extended to 3D and to all those problems characterized by significant variations of internal and external boundaries.

  18. The Mechanism Forming the Cell Surface of Tip-Growing Rooting Cells Is Conserved among Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Suvi; Jones, Victor A S; Morieri, Giulia; Champion, Clement; Hetherington, Alexander J; Kelly, Steve; Proust, Hélène; Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Prescott, Helen; Dolan, Liam

    2016-12-05

    To discover mechanisms that controlled the growth of the rooting system in the earliest land plants, we identified genes that control the development of rhizoids in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. 336,000 T-DNA transformed lines were screened for mutants with defects in rhizoid growth, and a de novo genome assembly was generated to identify the mutant genes. We report the identification of 33 genes required for rhizoid growth, of which 6 had not previously been functionally characterized in green plants. We demonstrate that members of the same orthogroup are active in cell wall synthesis, cell wall integrity sensing, and vesicle trafficking during M. polymorpha rhizoid and Arabidopsis thaliana root hair growth. This indicates that the mechanism for constructing the cell surface of tip-growing rooting cells is conserved among land plants and was active in the earliest land plants that existed sometime more than 470 million years ago [1, 2]. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Yohji, E-mail: seki.yohji@jaea.go.jp; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m{sup 2}, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  20. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yohji; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m"2, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  1. Formation of periodic mesoscale structures arranged in a circular symmetry at the silicon surface exposed to radiation of a single femtosecond laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashevskiy, S.A., E-mail: sa.romashevskiy@gmail.com [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya st. 13, Bd. 2, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Ashitkov, S.I.; Ovchinnikov, A.V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya st. 13, Bd. 2, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Kondratenko, P.S. [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Bol' shaya Tul' skaya st. 53, Moscow 115191 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Agranat, M.B. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya st. 13, Bd. 2, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Single pulse irradiation of silicon gave rise to the periodic mesoscale structures. • The number of the periodic structures depends on the incident laser fluence. • The theory of periodically modulated absorption of laser energy is proposed. - Abstract: The periodic mesoscale structures arranged in a circular symmetry were found at the silicon surface exposed to radiation of the single femtosecond laser pulse with a Gaussian intensity profile in the ambient air conditions. These peculiar structures have the appearance of the protrusions of ∼10 nm height and of ∼600 nm width (at a FWHM) separately located inside the ablated region with a period of the incident laser wavelength. It was found that their position at the surface corresponds to the specified laser intensity slightly above the ablation threshold. The number of the formed periodic structures varies with the fluence of the incident laser pulse and in our experiments it was found to have changed from one to eleven. We suppose that formation of these mesoscale structures is caused by heating of a microscale volume to the strongly defined temperature. The theoretical model was proposed to explain the obtained data. It assumes that the interference of incident laser radiation with laser-induced surface electromagnetic waves results in generation of periodic distribution of electron temperature. Thus formation of the periodic structures at the specified laser intensity is attributed to periodically modulated absorption of laser energy at a focal laser spot.

  2. Human T-cell recognition of synthetic peptides representing conserved and variant sequences from the merozoite surface protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Hviid, L; Dodoo, D

    1997-01-01

    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is a malaria vaccine candidate currently undergoing clinical trials. We analyzed the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) response to synthetic peptides corresponding to conserved and variant regions of the FCQ-27 allelic form of MSP2 in Ghanaian individuals....... The findings are encouraging for the development of a vaccine based on these T-epitope containing regions of MSP2, as the peptides were broadly recognized suggesting that they can bind to diverse HLA alleles and also because they include conserved MSP2 sequences. Immunisation with a vaccine construct...

  3. High-Level Systemic Expression of Conserved Influenza Epitope in Plants on the Surface of Rod-Shaped Chimeric Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Petukhova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant viruses based on the cDNA copy of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV genome carrying different versions of the conserved M2e epitope from influenza virus A cloned into the coat protein (CP gene were obtained and partially characterized by our group previously; cysteines in the human consensus M2e sequence were changed to serine residues. This work intends to show some biological properties of these viruses following plant infections. Agroinfiltration experiments on Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed the efficient systemic expression of M2e peptides, and two point amino acid substitutions in recombinant CPs significantly influenced the symptoms and development of viral infections. Joint expression of RNA interference suppressor protein p19 from tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV did not affect the accumulation of CP-M2e-ser recombinant protein in non-inoculated leaves. RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from either infected leaves or purified TMV-M2e particles proved the genetic stability of TMV‑based viral vectors. Immunoelectron microscopy of crude plant extracts demonstrated that foreign epitopes are located on the surface of chimeric virions. The rod‑shaped geometry of plant-produced M2e epitopes is different from the icosahedral or helical filamentous arrangement of M2e antigens on the carrier virus-like particles (VLP described earlier. Thereby, we created a simple and efficient system that employs agrobacteria and plant viral vectors in order to produce a candidate broad-spectrum flu vaccine.

  4. Conservative treatment for late-onset bleb leaks after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in patients with ocular surface disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagara H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hideto Sagara,1,2 Tomohiro Iida,2,3 Kimimori Saito,4 Hiroki Noji,2 Masashi Ogasawara,2 Hiroshi Oyamada21The Marui Eye Clinic, Fukushima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 3Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, 4Matuki Eye Clinic, Fukushima, JapanBackground: Sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drops are used to treat ocular surface disease (OSD and are reported to prevent and treat late-onset bleb leaks following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a combination of sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drops and treatment for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction as a therapy for late-onset bleb leaks after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C.Methods: This was a retrospective, interventional, nonsimultaneous study of 12 subjects (12 eyes of mean age of 64.3 ± 18.3 years with OSD and apparent late-onset bleb leaks following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C between 1998 and 2008. We compared patients diagnosed with leakages before July 2005, who had been treated with separate eye drop solutions containing 0.1% sodium hyaluronate, 50% autologous serum, and 0.3% ofloxacin (sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum group, n = 7, with patients diagnosed from August 2005 to December 2008, who were treated with a combination of eye drops (0.1% sodium hyaluronate, 50% autologous serum, and 0.08% levofloxacin hydrate and eyelid massage and warm compresses for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (combination eye drop group, n = 5.Results: Leakage was resolved in one patient (14.3% in the separately treated sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drop group and in five patients (100% in the combination eye drop group (P = 0.015. The period after resolution of leakage with conservative treatment was 23 months in the one eye in the sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum group and 36–61 (mean 52.4 ± 10.1 months in the five eyes in the

  5. A conserved WW domain-like motif regulates invariant chain-dependent cell-surface transport of the NKG2D ligand ULBP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Franziska; van Andel, Esther; Andresen, Lars; Skov, Søren

    2015-08-01

    Malignant cells expressing NKG2D ligands on their cell surface can be directly sensed and killed by NKG2D-bearing lymphocytes. To ensure this immune recognition, accumulating evidence suggests that NKG2D ligands are trafficed via alternative pathways to the cell surface. We have previously shown that the NKG2D ligand ULBP2 traffics over an invariant chain (Ii)-dependent pathway to the cell surface. This study set out to elucidate how Ii regulates ULBP2 cell-surface transport: We discovered conserved tryptophan (Trp) residues in the primary protein sequence of ULBP1-6 but not in the related MICA/B. Substitution of Trp to alanine resulted in cell-surface inhibition of ULBP2 in different cancer cell lines. Moreover, the mutated ULBP2 constructs were retained and not degraded inside the cell, indicating a crucial role of this conserved Trp-motif in trafficking. Finally, overexpression of Ii increased surface expression of wt ULBP2 while Trp-mutants could not be expressed, proposing that this Trp-motif is required for an Ii-dependent cell-surface transport of ULBP2. Aberrant soluble ULBP2 is immunosuppressive. Thus, targeting a distinct protein module on the ULBP2 sequence could counteract this abnormal expression of ULBP2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The investigation of structure, chemical composition, hydrogen isotope trapping and release processes in deposition layers on surfaces exposed to DIII-D divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzhinskij, O.I.; Opimach, I.V.; Barsuk, V.A.; Arkhipov, I.I.; Whyte, D.; Wampler, W.R.

    1998-05-01

    The exposure of ATG graphite sample to DIII-D divertor plasma was provided by the DiMES (Divertor Material Evaluation System) mechanism. The graphite sample arranged to receive the parallel heat flux on a small region of the surface was exposed to 600ms of outer strike point plasma. The sample was constructed to collect the eroded material directed downward into a trapping zone onto s Si disk collector. The average heat flux onto the graphite sample during the exposure was about 200W/cm 2 , and the parallel heat flux was about 10 KW/cm 2 . After the exposure the graphite sample and Si collector disk were analyzed using SEM, NRA, RBS, Auger spectroscopy. IR and Raman spectroscopy. The thermal desorption was studied also. The deposited coating on graphite sample is amorphous carbon layer. Just upstream of the high heat flux zone the redeposition layer has a globular structure. The deposition layer on Si disk is composed also from carbon but has a diamond-like structure. The areal density of C and D in the deposited layer on Si disk varied in poloidal and toroidal directions. The maximum D/C areal density ratio is about 0.23, maximum carbon density is about 3.8 x 10 18 cm -2 , maximum D area density is about 3 x 10 17 cm 2 . The thermal desorption spectrum had a peak at 1,250K

  7. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  8. On the theory and computation of surface tension: The elimination of parasitic currents through energy conservation in the second-gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Didier; Torres, David; Brackbill, J.U.

    2002-01-01

    Errors in the computation of fluid flows with surface tension are examined. These errors cause large parasitic flows when the capillary number is large and have often been attributed to truncation error in underresolved interfacial regions. A study using the second-gradient method reveals that when truncation error is eliminated in the computation of energy exchanges between surface and kinetic energies so that energy is strictly conserved, the parasitic currents are reduced to round-off. The results are based on general thermodynamic arguments and can be used to guide improvements in other methods, such as the continuum-surface-force (CSF) method, which is commonly used with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method

  9. On the theory and computation of surface tension: The elimination of parasitic currents through energy conservation in the second-gradient method

    CERN Document Server

    Jamet, D; Brackbill, J U

    2002-01-01

    Errors in the computation of fluid flows with surface tension are examined. These errors cause large parasitic flows when the capillary number is large and have often been attributed to truncation error in underresolved interfacial regions. A study using the second-gradient method reveals that when truncation error is eliminated in the computation of energy exchanges between surface and kinetic energies so that energy is strictly conserved, the parasitic currents are reduced to round-off. The results are based on general thermodynamic arguments and can be used to guide improvements in other methods, such as the continuum-surface-force (CSF) method, which is commonly used with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method.

  10. Variation in a surface-exposed region of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae P40 protein as a consequence of homologous DNA recombination between RepMP5 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuesens, Emiel B M; van de Kreeke, Nick; Estevão, Silvia; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Sluijter, Marcel; Hartwig, Nico G; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; Vink, Cornelis

    2011-02-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human pathogen that causes a range of respiratory tract infections. The first step in infection is adherence of the bacteria to the respiratory epithelium. This step is mediated by a specialized organelle, which contains several proteins (cytadhesins) that have an important function in adherence. Two of these cytadhesins, P40 and P90, represent the proteolytic products from a single 130 kDa protein precursor, which is encoded by the MPN142 gene. Interestingly, MPN142 contains a repetitive DNA element, termed RepMP5, of which homologues are found at seven other loci within the M. pneumoniae genome. It has been hypothesized that these RepMP5 elements, which are similar but not identical in sequence, recombine with their counterpart within MPN142 and thereby provide a source of sequence variation for this gene. As this variation may give rise to amino acid changes within P40 and P90, the recombination between RepMP5 elements may constitute the basis of antigenic variation and, possibly, immune evasion by M. pneumoniae. To investigate the sequence variation of MPN142 in relation to inter-RepMP5 recombination, we determined the sequences of all RepMP5 elements in a collection of 25 strains. The results indicate that: (i) inter-RepMP5 recombination events have occurred in seven of the strains, and (ii) putative RepMP5 recombination events involving MPN142 have induced amino acid changes in a surface-exposed part of the P40 protein in two of the strains. We conclude that recombination between RepMP5 elements is a common phenomenon that may lead to sequence variation of MPN142-encoded proteins.

  11. Levels of antibody to conserved parts of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 in Ghanaian children are not associated with protection from clinical malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodoo, D; Theander, T G; Kurtzhals, J A

    1999-01-01

    malaria season in April and after the season in November. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured antibody responses to recombinant gluthathione S-transferase-PfMSP119 fusion proteins corresponding to the Wellcome and MAD20 allelic variants in these samples. Prevalence of antibodies......The 19-kDa conserved C-terminal part of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP119) is a malaria vaccine candidate antigen, and human antibody responses to PfMSP119 have been associated with protection against clinical malaria. In this longitudinal study carried out in an area...

  12. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  13. Mosaic amino acid conservation in 3D-structures of surface protein and polymerase of hepatitis B virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, Formijn J.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Berkhout, Ben; Lukashov, Vladimir V.

    2008-01-01

    Surface protein and polymerase of hepatitis B virus provide a striking example of gene overlap. Inclusion of more coding constraints in the phylogenetic analysis forces the tree toward accepted topology. Three-dimensional protein modeling demonstrates that participation in local protein function

  14. Lactobacillus plantarum gene clusters encoding putative cell-surface protein complexes for carbohydrate utilization are conserved in specific gram-positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscariello Lidia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomes of gram-positive bacteria encode many putative cell-surface proteins, of which the majority has no known function. From the rapidly increasing number of available genome sequences it has become apparent that many cell-surface proteins are conserved, and frequently encoded in gene clusters or operons, suggesting common functions, and interactions of multiple components. Results A novel gene cluster encoding exclusively cell-surface proteins was identified, which is conserved in a subgroup of gram-positive bacteria. Each gene cluster generally has one copy of four new gene families called cscA, cscB, cscC and cscD. Clusters encoding these cell-surface proteins were found only in complete genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis and Bacillus cereus and in incomplete genomes of L. lactis ssp cremoris, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillius brevis, Oenococcus oeni, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus thuringiensis. These genes are neither present in the genomes of streptococci, staphylococci and clostridia, nor in the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, suggesting a niche-specific distribution, possibly relating to association with plants. All encoded proteins have a signal peptide for secretion by the Sec-dependent pathway, while some have cell-surface anchors, novel WxL domains, and putative domains for sugar binding and degradation. Transcriptome analysis in L. plantarum shows that the cscA-D genes are co-expressed, supporting their operon organization. Many gene clusters are significantly up-regulated in a glucose-grown, ccpA-mutant derivative of L. plantarum, suggesting catabolite control. This is supported by the presence of predicted CRE-sites upstream or inside the up-regulated cscA-D gene clusters. Conclusion We propose that the CscA, CscB, CscC and Csc

  15. The conservative behavior of dissolved organic carbon in surface waters of the southern Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean, during early summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuki; Takesue, Nobuyuki; Nishioka, Jun; Kondo, Yoshiko; Ooki, Atsushi; Kuma, Kenshi; Hirawake, Toru; Yamashita, Youhei

    2016-09-23

    The spatial distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by ultraviolet-visible absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy were measured in surface waters of the southern Chukchi Sea, western Arctic Ocean, during the early summer of 2013. Neither the DOC concentration nor the optical parameters of the DOM correlated with salinity. Principal component analysis using the DOM optical parameters clearly separated the DOM sources. A significant linear relationship was evident between the DOC and the principal component score for specific water masses, indicating that a high DOC level was related to a terrigenous source, whereas a low DOC level was related to a marine source. Relationships between the DOC and the principal component scores of the surface waters of the southern Chukchi Sea implied that the major factor controlling the distribution of DOC concentrations was the mixing of plural water masses rather than local production and degradation.

  16. Structural motif screening reveals a novel, conserved carbohydrate-binding surface in the pathogenesis-related protein PR-5d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffatt Barbara A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatic amino acids play a critical role in protein-glycan interactions. Clusters of surface aromatic residues and their features may therefore be useful in distinguishing glycan-binding sites as well as predicting novel glycan-binding proteins. In this work, a structural bioinformatics approach was used to screen the Protein Data Bank (PDB for coplanar aromatic motifs similar to those found in known glycan-binding proteins. Results The proteins identified in the screen were significantly associated with carbohydrate-related functions according to gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis, and predicted motifs were found frequently within novel folds and glycan-binding sites not included in the training set. In addition to numerous binding sites predicted in structural genomics proteins of unknown function, one novel prediction was a surface motif (W34/W36/W192 in the tobacco pathogenesis-related protein, PR-5d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the surface motif is exclusive to a subfamily of PR-5 proteins from the Solanaceae family of plants, and is absent completely in more distant homologs. To confirm PR-5d's insoluble-polysaccharide binding activity, a cellulose-pulldown assay of tobacco proteins was performed and PR-5d was identified in the cellulose-binding fraction by mass spectrometry. Conclusions Based on the combined results, we propose that the putative binding site in PR-5d may be an evolutionary adaptation of Solanaceae plants including potato, tomato, and tobacco, towards defense against cellulose-containing pathogens such as species of the deadly oomycete genus, Phytophthora. More generally, the results demonstrate that coplanar aromatic clusters on protein surfaces are a structural signature of glycan-binding proteins, and can be used to computationally predict novel glycan-binding proteins from 3 D structure.

  17. Structural motif screening reveals a novel, conserved carbohydrate-binding surface in the pathogenesis-related protein PR-5d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxey, Andrew C; Cheng, Zhenyu; Moffatt, Barbara A; McConkey, Brendan J

    2010-08-03

    Aromatic amino acids play a critical role in protein-glycan interactions. Clusters of surface aromatic residues and their features may therefore be useful in distinguishing glycan-binding sites as well as predicting novel glycan-binding proteins. In this work, a structural bioinformatics approach was used to screen the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for coplanar aromatic motifs similar to those found in known glycan-binding proteins. The proteins identified in the screen were significantly associated with carbohydrate-related functions according to gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and predicted motifs were found frequently within novel folds and glycan-binding sites not included in the training set. In addition to numerous binding sites predicted in structural genomics proteins of unknown function, one novel prediction was a surface motif (W34/W36/W192) in the tobacco pathogenesis-related protein, PR-5d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the surface motif is exclusive to a subfamily of PR-5 proteins from the Solanaceae family of plants, and is absent completely in more distant homologs. To confirm PR-5d's insoluble-polysaccharide binding activity, a cellulose-pulldown assay of tobacco proteins was performed and PR-5d was identified in the cellulose-binding fraction by mass spectrometry. Based on the combined results, we propose that the putative binding site in PR-5d may be an evolutionary adaptation of Solanaceae plants including potato, tomato, and tobacco, towards defense against cellulose-containing pathogens such as species of the deadly oomycete genus, Phytophthora. More generally, the results demonstrate that coplanar aromatic clusters on protein surfaces are a structural signature of glycan-binding proteins, and can be used to computationally predict novel glycan-binding proteins from 3 D structure.

  18. Evaluation of Surface Roughness of Ceramic and Resin Composite Material Used for Conservative Indirect Restorations, after Repolishing by Intraoral Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrochari, Areti D; Petropoulou, Aikaterini; Chronopoulos, Vasilios; Polydorou, Olga; Massey, Ward; Hellwig, Elmar

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate and compare the mean surface roughness (Ra) of one ceramic and one resin composite material used for indirect restorations, after grinding and repolishing by intraoral means. The materials used were the lithium disilicate glass ceramic IPS e.max Press (EMP) and the indirect resin composite restoration system Gradia (GR). Twelve specimen disks were prepared from each material according to the manufacturer of each material. Five initial measurements of the Ra (Ra 1 ) were made on each specimen as a referral basis, and the specimens were ground with a fine (red) diamond bur. The specimens were repolished using (a) Komet Dialite Polishing Kit for EMP and (b) Enhance Finishing and Polishing System and Prisma Gloss Polishing Paste for GR. Five final Ra (Ra 2 ) measurements were performed on each specimen. All measurements were made using a laser profilometer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to visualize the initial surface morphology and the morphological changes on the specimens' surface after repolishing. A highly significant difference was found between Ra 1EMP and Ra 2EMP (p materials exhibited Ra 2 above the critical threshold for increased plaque accumulation and periodontal inflammation. If enamel-to-enamel roughness found in occlusal contact areas is considered as baseline, both materials were clinically acceptable after repolishing. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Radiant heat transfer during the natural evaporation from free surfaces exposed to solar radiation; Transferencia de calor radiante durante a evaporacao natural em superficies livres expostas a radiacao solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, C O.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Hackenberg, C M [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    1985-12-31

    In this work a conductive-convective-radiant model which includes phase change behavior, is developed in order to determine the rate of evaporation from free surface exposed to solar radiation and consequently the most important parameters, and their effects, on the design of salt solutions concentrating natural evaporation reservoirs may be analysed. The numerical solutions of the resulting of system of equations are shown to represent very well the experimental results measured on evaporation chambers specially built for daily operations. The thermal effect of spectrally selective surfaces as coating agents for the reservoir is also analysed. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs

  20. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface

  1. The assessment of the required groundwater quantity for the conservation of ecosystems and the achievement of a good ecological status of surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Janža

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the available quantity of groundwater is of essential importance for its sustainable use. Modern approaches for estimation of groundwater availability take into account all potential impacts of abstractions, including impacts on groundwater dependent ecosystems and impacts on surface waters ecological status. Groundwater body is in good quantitative status if groundwater abstractions do not cause signifiant damages to groundwater dependent ecosystems and signifiant diminution in the ecological status of surface water bodies. The methodology presented in this paper was developed as an integral part of the assessment of the quantitative status of groundwater bodies in Slovenia and is tailored to the characteristics of the groundwater dependent ecosystems as well as hydrological and hydrogeological conditions in the Slovenian territory. Two different approaches were implemented; for forest habitats on alluvial aquifers, and habitats of amphibians and molluscs in karst areas. Estimates of the required quantity of groundwater for groundwater dependent ecosystems conservation were performed at the level of groundwater bodies and annual averages of temporal variables of the water balance, calculated with the regional water balance model GROWA-SI. In the areas of groundwater bodies with groundwater dependent ecosystems estimated quantity present 0.1 % - 12.4 % of the groundwater recharge. The estimated share of annual renewable quantity of groundwater to maintain the ecological status of surface waters for the entire territory of Slovenia is 23.2 %. The largest share, 30 % is in north-eastern Slovenia and the lowest in the north-west part of Slovenia with a 16.6 % average annual renewable quantity.

  2. Study of surface damage on cell envelope assessed by AFM and flow cytometry of Lactobacillus plantarum exposed to ethanol and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Ferrada, B M; Gonçalves, S; Semorile, L; Santos, N C; Tymczyszyn, E E; Hollmann, A

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we evaluated freeze-drying damage at the surface level of oenological strain Lactobacillus plantarum UNQLp155, as well as its ability to grow in a synthetic wine with and without pre-acclimation. Damage on cell surface was studied by flow cytometry, zeta potential and atomic force microscopy, and cell survival was analysed by plate count. Results showed that beside cells acclimated at lower ethanol concentration (6% v/v) became more susceptible to drying than nonacclimated ones, after rehydration they maintain their increased ability to grow in a synthetic wine. Acclimation at a higher ethanol concentration (10% v/v) produces several damages on the cell surface losing its ability to grow in a synthetic wine. In this work, we showed for the first time that sublethal alterations on bacterial surface induced by a pre-acclimation with a low ethanol concentration (6%), upon a freeze-drying process, result in a better bacterial adaptation to the stress conditions of wine-like medium, as well as to the preservation process. Understanding the adaptation to ethanol of oenological strains and their effects on the preservation process has a strong impact on winemaking process and allows to define the most appropriate conditions to obtain malolactic starters cultures. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Modeling Ruthenium-Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Surfaces Exposing the (001) or (101) Faces: A First-Principles Investigation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Angelis, F.; Vitillaro, G.; Kavan, Ladislav; Nazeeruddin, M. K.; Grätzel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 34 (2012), s. 18124-18131 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Dye-sensitized solar cells * density-functional theory * anatase TiO2 surfaces Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.814, year: 2012

  4. Depth dose of critical organs of phantom based on surface dose exposed with Dual X-ray absorptiometry: pencil beam using TLD dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Sharafi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA is one of the most widely used techniques fornon-invasive assessment of bone status. Radiation dosimetry is well established technique for pencilbeam and fan beam DXA system, for the assessment of the surface absorbed dose. No publishedassessment of the absorbed dose for the various depths of the critical organs such as the thyroid anduterus was found. Therefore, in this study, we measured the surface dose and depth dose of criticalorgans to determine the correlation between the depth dose and the surface dose.Materials and Methods: A Lunar DPX-MD (pencil beam system was used in this study. Ananthropomorphic phantom was designed. AP spine and femur scan modes were used to measure thesurface and depth doses of the thyroid left and right lobes and uterus in various deeps and scan centers.TLDs-400 were placed at the surface, near the source and also inserted at different depths in thyroidand uterus of the anthropomorphic phantom. Absorbed doses were measured on the phantom for APspine and femur scans. The correlation between the absorbed dose and the depth was found using thelinear regression analysis.Results: There was no significant correlation between the depth dose and the scan center doseexcept in the femur scan. AP spine effective dose were calculated as 0.064, 0.059, 0.061 and 0.242μSv for thyroid left, right lobes, uterus and ovary, respectively.Conclusion: It is concluded that there is significant correlation between the surface and the doseof various depths of the scanned sections.

  5. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  6. Ground Water is a Chronic Source of Chloride to Surface Water of an Urban Stream Exposed to Road Salt in a Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, P.; Doheny, E.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P.; Striz, E.

    2006-05-01

    Recent evidence from the mid-Atlantic suggests that freshwater supplies are threatened by chronic chloride inputs from road salts applied to improve highway safety. Elevated chloride levels also may limit the ability of aquatic systems to microbially process nitrate nitrogen, a nutrient whose elevated levels pose human and ecological threats. Understanding the behavior of chloride in urban watersheds where road salts are applied is critical to predicting subsequent impacts to ecosystem health and drinking water supplies. Here we report on a long-term study of water chemistry in Minebank Run, a recently restored stream in an urban watershed of Towson, MD that receives chronic chloride inputs from the 695 Beltway highway and connecting arteries. Chloride, sodium, and specific conductance were greatly elevated in the both surface water and ground water of Minebank Run, spiking in correspondence to road salt application in the winter. Chloride levels were consistently higher in ground water of the bank side of a minor roadway and downstream of the 695 Beltway. Surface water chloride levels remained elevated throughout the year apparently because ground water continued to supply surface water with chloride even after road salt application ceased. Thus, ground water may represent a chronic source of chloride to surface water, thereby contributing to the upward trend in freshwater salinity in urbanizing areas. Stream susceptibility to road salt impacts may depend upon ground water hydrology and stream geomorphology. However, geomorphic stream restoration practices widely used in the mid-Atlantic are not designed to address salinity effects. Source control of road salts may be necessary to reduce environmental risk.

  7. Landsat classification of surface-water presence during multiple years to assess response of playa wetlands to climatic variability across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Rover, Jennifer R.

    2018-02-15

    To improve understanding of the distribution of ecologically important, ephemeral wetland habitats across the Great Plains, the occurrence and distribution of surface water in playa wetland complexes were documented for four different years across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) region. This information is important because it informs land and wildlife managers about the timing and location of habitat availability. Data with an accurate timestamp that indicate the presence of water, the percent of the area inundated with water, and the spatial distribution of playa wetlands with water are needed for a host of resource inventory, monitoring, and research applications. For example, the distribution of inundated wetlands forms the spatial pattern of available habitat for resident shorebirds and water birds, stop-over habitats for migratory birds, connectivity and clustering of wetland habitats, and surface waters that recharge the Ogallala aquifer; there is considerable variability in the distribution of playa wetlands holding water through time. Documentation of these spatially and temporally intricate processes, here, provides data required to assess connections between inundation and multiple environmental drivers, such as climate, land use, soil, and topography. Climate drivers are understood to interact with land cover, land use and soil attributes in determining the amount of water that flows overland into playa wetlands. Results indicated significant spatial variability represented by differences in the percent of playas inundated among States within the GPLCC. Further, analysis-of-variance comparison of differences in inundation between years showed significant differences in all cases. Although some connections with seasonal moisture patterns may be observed, the complex spatial-temporal gradients of precipitation, temperature, soils, and land use need to be combined as covariates in multivariate models to effectively account for

  8. Expression of Cellular Isoform of Prion Protein on the Surface of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Among Women Exposed to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klucinski, P.; Martirosian, G.; Mazur, B.; Kaufman, J.; Hrycek, A.; Masluch, E.; Cieslik, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation affect the expression of adhesive and co-stimulation molecules in lymphocytes. The objective of this study was to determinate the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the expression of prion protein PrPc on the surface peripheral blood lymphocytes in the women operating X-ray equipment. In female workers and persons of the control group the PrPc expression on CD3 (T-lymphocytes), Cd4 (T-helper), CD8 (T-cytotoxic) and CD19 (B- lymphocytes), were tested. We conclude that in women operating X-ray equipment the relationship between low doses of ionizing radiation and expression of PrPc on lymphocytes does exist concerning CD3, CD4 and CD lymphocytes. (author)

  9. BB0347, from the lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is surface exposed and interacts with the CS1 heparin-binding domain of human fibronectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Gaultney

    Full Text Available The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, codes for several known fibronectin-binding proteins. Fibronectin a common the target of diverse bacterial pathogens, and has been shown to be essential in allowing for the development of certain disease states. Another borrelial protein, BB0347, has sequence similarity with these other known fibronectin-binding proteins, and may be important in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Herein, we perform an initial characterization of BB0347 via the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. We found that BB0347 is expressed, produced, and presented on the outer surface of intact B. burgdorferi. We also demonstrate that BB0347 has the potential to be important in Lyme disease progression, and have begun to characterize the nature of the interaction between human fibronectin and this bacterial protein. Further work is needed to define the role of this protein in the borrelial infection process.

  10. Identification of an evolutionarily conserved extracellular threonine residue critical for surface expression and its potential coupling of adjacent voltage-sensing and gating domains in voltage-gated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeown, Lynn; Burnham, Matthew P; Hodson, Charlotte; Jones, Owen T

    2008-10-31

    The dynamic expression of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kvs) at the cell surface is a fundamental factor controlling membrane excitability. In exploring possible mechanisms controlling Kv surface expression, we identified a region in the extracellular linker between the first and second of the six (S1-S6) transmembrane-spanning domains of the Kv1.4 channel, which we hypothesized to be critical for its biogenesis. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, patch clamp electrophysiology, and mutagenesis, we identified a single threonine residue at position 330 within the Kv1.4 S1-S2 linker that is absolutely required for cell surface expression. Mutation of Thr-330 to an alanine, aspartate, or lysine prevented surface expression. However, surface expression occurred upon co-expression of mutant and wild type Kv1.4 subunits or mutation of Thr-330 to a serine. Mutation of the corresponding residue (Thr-211) in Kv3.1 to alanine also caused intracellular retention, suggesting that the conserved threonine plays a generalized role in surface expression. In support of this idea, sequence comparisons showed conservation of the critical threonine in all Kv families and in organisms across the evolutionary spectrum. Based upon the Kv1.2 crystal structure, further mutagenesis, and the partial restoration of surface expression in an electrostatic T330K bridging mutant, we suggest that Thr-330 hydrogen bonds to equally conserved outer pore residues, which may include a glutamate at position 502 that is also critical for surface expression. We propose that Thr-330 serves to interlock the voltage-sensing and gating domains of adjacent monomers, thereby yielding a structure competent for the surface expression of functional tetramers.

  11. Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar-Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the chronic toxicity of a mixture of light-stick chemicals and water was tested. The light-stick is used in fishery activities to catch swordfish. The tubes were collected on the beaches of the Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, Brazil, in the period from 14th to 31st July 2007. The method used was a short chronic toxicity test where embryos of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus were exposed to a stock solution consisting of the supernatant formed from a mixture of sea water and the orange-colored light-stick chemical. After a preliminary test, concentrations defined were 0.002, 0.003, 0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 1.0% of stock solution. The final test ran for 36 hours for E. Lucunter and 24 hours for L. variegatus with 4 replicates for each concentration. The value of EC50 - 36h was 0.062% with confidence limits ranging from 0.042 to 0.079% and the EC50 - 24h was 0.011% with confidence limits ranging from 0.009 to 0.014%, i.e., the chemical mix present in the light-stick is potentially toxic. So, as these flags are commonly used for fishing there is potential danger in their disposal in the open ocean.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade crônica da água do mar em contato com o líquido contido no light-stick, sinalizador utilizado em pesca de espinhel de superfície para a captura de espadarte. Os tubos foram coletados nas praias da Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, no período de 14 a 31 de Julho de 2007. O método utilizado para a verificação da toxicidade crônica foi o teste de curta duração com embriões de ouriço-do-mar Echinometra lucunter e Lytechinus variegatus, os ensaios foram realizados com solução estoque que consiste do sobrenadante formado a partir de uma mistura de água do mar com o líquido do sinalizador de coloração laranja. Após um teste preliminar as concentrações definidas foram 0.002; 0.003; 0.01; 0.02; 0.1; 1.0%. O teste definitivo teve duração de 36 horas para E. lucunter e 24

  12. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  13. The OmpL37 surface-exposed protein is expressed by pathogenic Leptospira during infection and binds skin and vascular elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinne, Marija; Choy, Henry A; Haake, David A

    2010-09-07

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. shed in the urine of reservoir hosts into freshwater can be transmitted to a susceptible host through skin abrasions or mucous membranes causing leptospirosis. The infection process involves the ability of leptospires to adhere to cell surface and extracellular matrix components, a crucial step for dissemination and colonization of host tissues. Therefore, the elucidation of novel mediators of host-pathogen interaction is important in the discovery of virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis. In this study, we assess the functional roles of transmembrane outer membrane proteins OmpL36 (LIC13166), OmpL37 (LIC12263), and OmpL47 (LIC13050), which we recently identified on the leptospiral surface. We determine the capacity of these proteins to bind to host tissue components by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. OmpL37 binds elastin preferentially, exhibiting dose-dependent, saturating binding to human skin (K(d), 104±19 nM) and aortic elastin (K(d), 152±27 nM). It also binds fibrinogen (K(d), 244±15 nM), fibrinogen fragment D (K(d), 132±30 nM), plasma fibronectin (K(d), 359±68 nM), and murine laminin (K(d), 410±81 nM). The binding to human skin elastin by both recombinant OmpL37 and live Leptospira interrogans is specifically enhanced by rabbit antiserum for OmpL37, suggesting the involvement of OmpL37 in leptospiral binding to elastin and also the possibility that host-generated antibodies may promote rather than inhibit the adherence of leptospires to elastin-rich tissues. Further, we demonstrate that OmpL37 is recognized by acute and convalescent leptospirosis patient sera and also by Leptospira-infected hamster sera. Finally, OmpL37 protein is detected in pathogenic Leptospira serovars and not in saprophytic Leptospira. Thus, OmpL37 is a novel elastin-binding protein of pathogenic Leptospira that may be promoting attachment of Leptospira to host tissues.

  14. A spectroscopic and surface microhardness study of enamel exposed to beverages supplemented with ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate. A randomized in vitro trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Arun M; Rai, Kavita; Hegde, Amitha M; Shetty, Suchetha

    2016-06-01

    To compare the efficacy between supplementing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate to carbonated beverages by recording the in vitro mineral loss and surface microhardness (SMH) changes in human enamel. 120 enamel blocks each (from primary and permanent teeth) were uniformly prepared and the initial SMH was recorded. These enamel specimens were equally divided (n = 60) for their respective beverage treatment in Group 1 (2 mmol/L ferrous sulfate) and Group 2 (2 mmol/L ferrous fumarate). Each group was further divided into three subgroups as Coca-Cola, Sprite and mineral water (n= 10). The specimens were subjected to three repetitive cycles of respective treatment for a 5-minute incubation period, equally interspaced by 5-minute storage in artificial saliva. The calcium and phosphate released after each cycle were analyzed spectrophotometrically and the final SMH recorded. The results were tested using student's t-test, one-way ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed rank test (P Coca-Cola (P < 0.005).

  15. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  16. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  17. Involvement of three meningococcal surface-exposed proteins, the heparin-binding protein NhbA, the α-peptide of IgA protease and the autotransporter protease NalP, in initiation of biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Arenas, Jesú s; Nijland, Reindert; Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bosma, Tom N. P.; Tommassen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a common and usually harmless inhabitant of the mucosa of the human nasopharynx, which, in rare cases, can cross the epithelial barrier and cause meningitis and sepsis. Biofilm formation favours the colonization of the host and the subsequent carrier state. Two different strategies of biofilm formation, either dependent or independent on extracellular DNA (eDNA), have been described for meningococcal strains. Here, we demonstrate that the autotransporter protease NalP, the expression of which is phase variable, affects eDNA-dependent biofilm formation in N.meningitidis. The effect of NalP was found in biofilm formation under static and flow conditions and was dependent on its protease activity. Cleavage of the heparin-binding antigen NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease, resulting in the release of positively charged polypeptides from the cell surface, was responsible for the reduction in biofilm formation when NalP is expressed. Both NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease were shown to bind DNA. We conclude that NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease are implicated in biofilm formation by binding eDNA and that NalP is an important regulator of this process through the proteolysis of these surface-exposed proteins. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Involvement of three meningococcal surface-exposed proteins, the heparin-binding protein NhbA, the α-peptide of IgA protease and the autotransporter protease NalP, in initiation of biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Arenas, Jesús

    2012-12-04

    Neisseria meningitidis is a common and usually harmless inhabitant of the mucosa of the human nasopharynx, which, in rare cases, can cross the epithelial barrier and cause meningitis and sepsis. Biofilm formation favours the colonization of the host and the subsequent carrier state. Two different strategies of biofilm formation, either dependent or independent on extracellular DNA (eDNA), have been described for meningococcal strains. Here, we demonstrate that the autotransporter protease NalP, the expression of which is phase variable, affects eDNA-dependent biofilm formation in N.meningitidis. The effect of NalP was found in biofilm formation under static and flow conditions and was dependent on its protease activity. Cleavage of the heparin-binding antigen NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease, resulting in the release of positively charged polypeptides from the cell surface, was responsible for the reduction in biofilm formation when NalP is expressed. Both NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease were shown to bind DNA. We conclude that NhbA and the α-peptide of IgA protease are implicated in biofilm formation by binding eDNA and that NalP is an important regulator of this process through the proteolysis of these surface-exposed proteins. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Efficient Photocatalytic Bilirubin Removal over the Biocompatible Core/Shell P25/g-C3N4 Heterojunctions with Metal-free Exposed Surfaces under Moderate Green Light Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shifei; Qin, Hengfei; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yongkui; Bai, Xia; Li, Xi; Sun, Di; Wang, Yangang; Cui, Lifeng

    2017-03-01

    Highly-monodispersed g-C3N4/TiO2 hybrids with a core/shell structure were synthesized from a simple room temperature impregnation method, in which g-C3N4 was coated through self-assembly on the commercially available Degussa P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Structural and surface characterizations showed that the presence of g-C3N4 notably affected the light absorption characteristics of TiO2. The g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunctions with metal-free exposed surfaces were directly used as biocompatible photocatalysts for simulated jaundice phototherapy under low-power green-light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity and stability of g-C3N4/TiO2 were enhanced relative to pure P25 or g-C3N4, which could be ascribed to the effective Z-scheme separation of photo-induced charge carriers in g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction. The photoactivity was maximized in the 4 wt.% g-C3N4-coated P25, as the bilirubin removal rate under green light irradiation was more than 5-fold higher than that under the clinically-used blue light without any photocatalyst. This study approves the future applications of the photocatalyst-assisted bilirubin removal in jaundice treatment under moderate green light which is more tolerable by humans.

  20. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  1. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  2. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  3. Local Treatment for Monochrome Outdoor Painted Metal Sculptures: Assessing the suitability of conservation paints for retouching

    OpenAIRE

    van Basten, Nikki; Defeyt, Catherine; Rivenc, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    When outdoor painted sculptures get chipped, scratched or abraded, conservators might consider local retouching treatments as an option that would protect the exposed metal substrate and restore the aesthetic integrity, thus postponing a very costly and invasive overall repainting. Unfortunately, matching colour gloss and texture on large monochrome surfaces is always challenging. This paper reports on research undertaken to investigate some of the materials and application techniques that co...

  4. Authors's reply to 'Generation of surface degraded layer on austenitic stainless steel piping exposed to flowing sodium in a loop: inter comparison of long term exposure data', by S. Rajendran Pillai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Vaidehi; Ganesan, V.; Borgstedt, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    This is an elaborate author's reply to a comment 'Generation of surface degraded layer on austenitic steel piping exposed to flowing sodium in a loop: inter comparison of long term exposure data' by S. Rajendran Pillai appearing in this proceedings. The basic misunderstanding as seen in the above comment about the mass loss due to sodium exposure, which is reflected throughout the above comment, has been explained in detail in this reply for better understanding of the phenomenon. It is precisely mentioned and understood that Thorley and Tyzack model deals with complete mass loss and not mere degradation. The total mass loss corresponds to mass loss due to wall thinning and that due to degraded layer formation. Though Thorley and Tyzack model is the most pioneering model in the field of sodium corrosion, the inadequacies of this model for materials without molybdenum such as SS 304 with very long exposure in sodium is clearly brought out in this paper. This model has been successfully applied to calculate life of clad tubes, which have relatively short stay in reactor core. Yoshida models are highlighted and compared with our experimental results. Yoshida models are not valid below certain durations owing to the empirical nature of such expressions. Thorley and Tyzack model can be used for SS 316 LN as this alloy contains molybdenum and nitrogen both of which imparts corrosion resistance in sodium. What is required is that one needs to establish the extent to which this model can be applied for materials exposed to high temperatures and very long durations. The details are discussed in this reply

  5. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  6. Interactive surface in the PapD chaperone cleft is conserved in pilus chaperone superfamily and essential in subunit recognition and assembly.

    OpenAIRE

    Slonim, L N; Pinkner, J S; Brändén, C I; Hultgren, S J

    1992-01-01

    The assembly of adhesive pili in Gram-negative bacteria is modulated by specialized periplasmic chaperone systems. PapD is the prototype member of the superfamily of periplasmic pilus chaperones. Previously, the alignment of chaperone sequences superimposed on the three dimensional structure of PapD revealed the presence of invariant, conserved and variable amino acids. Representative residues that protruded into the PapD cleft were targeted for site directed mutagenesis to investigate the pi...

  7. The Impact of UV-dose, Body Surface Area Exposed and Other Factors on Cutaneous Vitamin D Synthesis Measured as Serum 25(OH)D Concentration: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Nadine; Schöpe, Jakob; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Bocionek, Peter; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2018-02-01

    To optimize public health campaigns concerning UV exposure, it is important to characterize factors that influence UV-induced cutaneous vitamin D production. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the impact of different individual and environmental factors including exposed body surface area (BSA), UVB dose and vitamin D status, on serum 25(OH)D concentration. In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, and Meta-analysis of Observational studies in Epidemiology guidelines, a systematic literature search was conducted (MEDLINE; 01/1960-07/2016) investigating the impact of these factors on vitamin D status after artificial UV exposure as main outcome measure. Summary mean differences [and 95% confidence interval (CI)] were derived from random-effects meta-analysis to account for possible heterogeneity across studies. Meta-regression was conducted to account for impact of UVB dose, baseline 25(OH)D level and BSA. We identified 15 studies, with an estimated mean 25(OH)D rise per standard erythema dose (SED) of 0.19 nmol/l (95% CI 0.11-0.26 nmol/l). Results from meta-regression suggest a significant impact of UV dose and baseline 25(OH)D concentration on serum 25(OH)D level (p<0.01). Single UVB doses between 0.75 and 3 SED resulted in the highest rise of serum 25(OH)D per dose unit. BSA exposed had a smaller, non-proportional, not significant impact. Partial BSA exposure resulted in relatively higher rise compared to whole-body exposure (e.g. exposure of face and hands caused an 8-fold higher rise of serum 25(OH)D concentration/SED/1% BSA compared to whole-body exposure). Our findings support previous reports, estimating that the half-life of serum 25(OH)D varies depending on different factors. Our results indicate that partial BSA exposure (e.g. 10%) with moderate UV doses (e.g. 1 SED) is effective in generating or maintaining a healthy vitamin D status. However, due to limitations that include possible

  8. The properties degradation of exposed GFRP roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohammad; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Kaavessina, Mujtahid; Setyanto, Djoko

    2018-02-01

    There is much consideration of roof selection as a protector of a building against the outside weather, such as lightweight, strong stiff, corrosion resistant and guarantee for the availability of products. Based on these considerations, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) roof is a roof which can fulfill the requirement. The objective of this research is to investigate the degradation of physical and mechanical properties of GFRP roof exposed in outside weather. This GFRP roof composite was produced using a sheet molding compound (SMC) supplied by PT Intec Persada, Tangerang, Indonesia. There are two kinds GFRP roofs evaluated in this research that are GFRP roof exposed within 7 years and new GFRP roof that has not been exposed. The GFRP roofs were cut manually for preparing the specimens for hardness test, tensile test, SEM and FTIR test. The results show that the GFRP roof exposed within 7 years had the degradation of properties compared to the new GFRP roof. The exposed GFRP roof had lower strength and hardness compared to the new GFRP roof. The SEM observation indicates that exposed GFRP roof had the debonding of fiber on the surface, and in contrast, there are no debonding of fiber in the new GFRP roof surface. It can be recommended that the exposed GFRP roof may be repaired to enhance its performance and can re-increase its properties using the coating.

  9. Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 CD4+-T-cell epitopes are evenly distributed in conserved and hypervariable regions (HVR), whereas linear B-cell epitopes are predominantly located in the HVR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Guy H; Howard, Chris J; Hope, Jayne C; Brown, Wendy C

    2004-12-01

    Organisms in the genus Anaplasma express an immunodominant major surface protein 2 (MSP2), composed of a central hypervariable region (HVR) flanked by highly conserved regions. Throughout Anaplasma marginale infection, recombination results in the sequential appearance of novel MSP2 variants and subsequent control of rickettsemia by the immune response, leading to persistent infection. To determine whether immune evasion and selection for variant organisms is associated with a predominant response against HVR epitopes, T-cell and linear B-cell epitopes were localized by measuring peripheral blood gamma interferon-secreting cells, proliferation, and antibody binding to 27 overlapping peptides spanning MSP2 in 16 cattle. Similar numbers of MSP2-specific CD4(+) T-cell epitopes eliciting responses of similar magnitude were found in conserved and hypervariable regions. T-cell epitope clusters recognized by the majority of animals were identified in the HVR (amino acids [aa] 171 to 229) and conserved regions (aa 101 to 170 and 272 to 361). In contrast, linear B-cell epitopes were concentrated in the HVR, residing within hydrophilic sequences. The pattern of recognition of epitope clusters by T cells and of HVR epitopes by B cells is consistent with the influence of protein structure on epitope recognition.

  10. Temperature impact on the micro structure of tungsten exposed to He irradiation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Elodie; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tokitani, Masayuki; Masuzaki, Suguru; Hayashi, Hiromi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Naoaki

    2017-01-01

    A new temperature controlled material probe was designed for the exposure of tungsten samples to helium plasma in the LHD. Samples were exposed to estimated fluences of ∼10 23  m −2 and temperatures ranging from 65 to 600 °C. Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis allowed the study of the impact of He irradiation under high temperatures on tungsten micro structure for the first time in real-plasma exposure conditions. Both dislocation loops and bubbles appeared from low to medium temperatures and saw an impressive increase of size (factor 4 to 6) most probably by coalescence as the temperature reaches 600 °C, with 500 °C appearing as a threshold for bubble growth. Annealing of the samples up to 800 C highlighted the stability of the dislocation damages formed by helium irradiation at high surface temperature, as bubbles and dislocation loops seem to conserve their characteristics. Additional studies on cross-sections showed that bubbles were formed much deeper (70–100 nm) than the heavily damaged surface layer (10–20 nm), raising concern about the impact on the material mechanical properties conservation and potential additional trapping of hydrogen isotopes. - Highlights: • Design and test of a temperature-controlled sample holder to expose samples in LHD. • Dislocation loops and bubbles created in W even at low fluences and temperatures. • Heavily damaged layer (10–20 nm thick) very rich in damages formed at the surface. • He bubbles observed much deeper than implantation range (until 100 nm). • He effects not only at the surface, raising concerns for properties conservation.

  11. Coupling Modified Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis and Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN Models to Simulate Surface Runoff: Application to the Main Urban Area of Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land surface characteristics, including soil type, terrain slope, and antecedent soil moisture, have significant impacts on surface runoff during heavy precipitation in highly urbanized areas. In this study, a Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA method is modified to extract high-precision impervious surface, vegetation, and soil fractions. In the modified LSMA method, the representative endmembers are first selected by combining a high-resolution image from Google Earth; the unmixing results of the LSMA are then post-processed to reduce errors of misclassification with Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. The modified LSMA is applied to the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI image from 18 October 2015 of the main urban area of Guangzhou city. The experimental result indicates that the modified LSMA shows improved extraction performance compared with the conventional LSMA, as it can significantly reduce the bias and root-mean-square error (RMSE. The improved impervious surface, vegetation, and soil fractions are used to calculate the composite curve number (CN for each pixel according to the Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN model. The composite CN is then adjusted with regional data of the terrain slope and total 5-day antecedent precipitation. Finally, the surface runoff is simulated with the SCS-CN model by combining the adjusted CN and real precipitation data at 1 p.m., 4 May 2015.

  12. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  13. Development of a non-conservative radionuclides dispersion model in the ocean and its application to surface cesium-137 dispersion in the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Togawa, Orihiko; Hayashi, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    A numerical simulation model system that consists of an ocean current model, Princeton Ocean Model (POM), and a particle random-walk model, SEA-GEARN, has been developed to describe the migration behavior of non-conservative radionuclides in a shallow water region. Radionuclides in the ocean are modeled in three phases, i.e., the dissolved phase in seawater, the adsorbed with large particulate matter (LPM) and the adsorbed with active bottom sediment. The adsorption and desorption processes between the dissolved and solid phases are solved by the stochastic method with the kinetic transfer coefficients. Deposition of the LPM and re-suspension from bottom sediment are also considered. The system was applied to simulate the long-term (24-year) dispersion of 137 Cs actually released from the BNFL spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in United Kingdom. The calculation well reproduced the main characteristics of migration of dissolved 137 Cs concentration in the Irish Sea. (author)

  14. Preliminary results with a torsion microbalance indicate that carbon dioxide and exposed carbonic anhydrase in the organic matrix are the basis of calcification on the skeleton surface of living corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Sandeman

    2012-03-01

    , p<0.05 indicating a dependence on carbonate. At a pH of 6.5 the skeleton lost weight at a rate of 1.8 mg.h-1.cm-2. The relationship between net calcification and pH (n=2 indicates that wt gain turns to loss at pH 7.4. These experiments confirm that calcification is a two-step process, involving secretion of a layer of organic matrix incorporating carbonic anhydrase to produce an active calcifying surface which uses carbon dioxide rather than carbonate. It is also unlikely that the calcifying surface is in direct contact with seawater. Inorganic deposition or dissolution of the skeleton in exposed dead areas of coral is a different phenomenon and is carbonate related. The wide range in results from this and other studies of calcification rate and carbon dioxide may be explainable in terms of the ratio of “live” to “dead” areas of coral.

  15. The assessment of the required groundwater quantity for the conservation of ecosystems and the achievement of a good ecological status of surface waters

    OpenAIRE

    Mitja Janža; Dejan Šram; Kim Mezga; Mišo Andjelov; Jože Uhan

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the available quantity of groundwater is of essential importance for its sustainable use. Modern approaches for estimation of groundwater availability take into account all potential impacts of abstractions, including impacts on groundwater dependent ecosystems and impacts on surface waters ecological status. Groundwater body is in good quantitative status if groundwater abstractions do not cause signifiant damages to groundwater dependent ecosystems and signifiant d...

  16. The need for verification of the Polish lignite deposits owing to development and nature conservation protection on land at the surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naworyta Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland is a country rich in lignite. The area where the lignite occurs occupies approx. 22% of the total surface area of the country. Geological resources of Polish lignite deposits are estimated at 23.5 billion Mg, but in the majority (69% the accuracy of their identification is poor. Nevertheless the amount of coal in Polish deposits allows - at least in theory - for mining and energy production at the current level for hundreds of years to come. It is an important raw material for the energy security of the country both currently and in the future. Because the vast majority of Polish and foreign mines use an open pit method for lignite extraction the actual amount of mineral available for the extraction depends not only on the properties of the deposit but to a large extent on the method of development of the surface land above the deposit, as well as on the sensitivity of the environment in the vicinity of any future mines. After careful analysis it can be stated that only a few of the lignite deposits may be subject to cost-effective mining operations. These deposits should be subjected to special protection as a future resource base which will ensure the energy security of the country. Some examples of domestic deposits have been presented where due to the conflict resulting from the development of the area should be deleted from the Balance Sheet of Mineral Deposits because their exploitation is irrational and uneconomic. Keeping such deposits in the Balance Sheet, and the use of large numbers in the context of their resource base leads to an unwarranted sense of wealth which consequently does not encourage the protection of these deposits which may actually be subject to rational exploitation in the near future. In summary there is a need to find a compromise in order to adequately protect all natural resources including mineral deposits.

  17. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  18. The exposed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  19. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  20. Molecular insight into human platelet antigens: structural and evolutionary conservation analyses offer new perspective to immunogenic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Meytal; Rosenberg, Nurit

    2011-03-01

    Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are polymorphisms in platelet membrane glycoproteins (GPs) that can stimulate production of alloantibodies once exposed to foreign platelets (PLTs) with different HPAs. These antibodies can cause neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, and PLT transfusion refractoriness. Most HPAs are localized on the main PLT receptors: 1) integrin αIIbβ3, known as the fibrinogen receptor; 2) the GPIb-IX-V complex that functions as the receptor for von Willebrand factor; and 3) integrin α2β1, which functions as the collagen receptor. We analyzed the structural location and the evolutionary conservation of the residues associated with the HPAs to characterize the features that induce immunologic responses but do not cause inherited diseases. We found that all HPAs reside in positions located on the protein surface, apart from the ligand-binding site, and are evolutionary variable. Disease-causing mutations often reside in highly conserved and buried positions. In contrast, the HPAs affect residues on the protein surface that were not conserved throughout evolution; this explains their naive effect on the protein function. Nonetheless, the HPAs involve substitutions of solvent-exposed positions that lead to altered interfaces on the surface of the protein and might present epitopes foreign to the immune system. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277

  2. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  3. Geomorphological characterization of conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Cecchin, Marco; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Masin, Roberta

    2017-04-01

    Soil water erosion is one of the major threats to soil resources throughout the world. Conventional agriculture has worsened the situation. Therefore, agriculture is facing multiple challenges: it has to produce more food to feed a growing population, and, on the other hand, safeguard natural resources adopting more sustainable production practices. In this perspective, more conservation-minded soil management practices should be taken to achieve an environmental sustainability of crop production. Indeed, conservation agriculture is considered to produce relevant environmental positive outcomes (e.g. reducing runoff and soil erosion, improving soil organic matter content and soil structure, and promoting biological activity). However, as mechanical weed control is limited or absent, in conservation agriculture, dependence on herbicides increases especially in the first years of transition from the conventional system. Consequently, also the risk of herbicide losses via runoff or adsorbed to eroded soil particles could be increased. To better analyse the complexity of soil water erosion and runoff processes in landscapes characterised by conservation agriculture, first, it is necessary to demonstrate if such different practices can significantly affect the surface morphology. Indeed, surface processes such erosion and runoff strongly depend on the shape of the surface. The questions are: are the lands treated with conservation and conventional agriculture different from each other regarding surface morphology? If so, can these differences provide a better understanding of hydrogeomorphic processes as the basis for a better and sustainable land management? To give an answer to these questions, we considered six study areas (three cultivated with no-tillage techniques, three with tillage techniques) in an experimental farm. High-resolution topography, derived from low-cost and fast photogrammetric techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM), served as the basis to

  4. Co3O4 nanocrystals with exposed low-surface-energy planes anchored on chemically integrated graphitic carbon nitride-modified nitrogen-doped graphene: A high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyao; Fu, Yongsheng; Wang, Xin

    2018-05-01

    A facile strategy to synthesize a composite composed of cubic Co3O4 nanocrystals anchored on chemically integrated g-C3N4-modified N-graphene (CN-NG) as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries is reported. It is found that the morphology of the Co3O4 nanocrystals contains blunt-edge nanocubes with well-demarcated boundaries and numerous exposed low-index (1 1 1) crystallographic facets. These planes can be directly involved in the electrochemical reactions, providing rapid Li-ion transport channels for charging and discharging and thus enhancing the round-trip diffusion efficiency. On the other hand, the CN-NG support displays unusual textural features, such as superior structural stability, accessible active sites, and good electrical conductivity. The experimental results reveal that the chemical and electronic coupling of graphitic carbon nitride and nitrogen-doped graphene synergistically facilitate the anchoring of Co3O4 nanocrystals and prevents their migration. The resulting Co3O4/CN-NG composite exhibits a high specific reversible capacity of up to 1096 mAh g-1 with excellent cycling stability and rate capability. We believe that such a hybrid carbon support could open a new path for applications in electrocatalysis, sensors, supercapacitors, etc., in the near future.

  5. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... concentration facilitated conservation of entire ecosystems. We investigate the benefits that accrued through dynamic linkages of the hydrological cycle and groundwater aquifer system. This provides a clear example of the need to consider integrated watershed effects, industrial structure, and linkages...... in determining conservation policy. We incorporated remote-sensing data, expert opinion on current watershed quality, and a spatial economic and hydrological model of O`ahu’s freshwater use with reports of conservation activities from 1910–1960 to assess these benefits. We find a 2.3% annual increase...

  6. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  7. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  8. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  9. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  10. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  11. Blood-conservation techniques in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, John G; Smith, Ebonie M; Harshbarger, Raymond J; Farlo, Joe N; Matar, Marla M; Levy, Mike L

    2005-05-01

    Attempts at reducing exposure to allogeneic transfusions, using blood conservation techniques such as controlled hypotension and normovolemic hemodilution, have met with mixed results and are not always practical in small infants. Recombinant human erythropoietin (RHE), a hormone that stimulates RBC production, increases the hematocrit when administered to infants. A retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing fronto-orbital advancement for craniosynostosis by the same plastic surgeon between January 2002 and December 2002 was conducted. A subgroup of patients (10/19) received RHE as a blood-conservation strategy. Transfusion requirements were lower in the RHE group (5/10) versus the control group (9/9). Total volume of blood products transfused was statistically lower in the RHE group (154 mL RHE group versus 421 mL control) (P conservation techniques was associated with a decreased need for blood transfusion, thus exposing the patient to fewer risks associated with allogeneic transfusion.

  12. A prototype methodology combining surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization protein chip technology and artificial neural network algorithms to predict the chemoresponsiveness of breast cancer cell lines exposed to Paclitaxel and Doxorubicin under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Shahid; Ball, Graham; Hornbuckle, Jo; Holding, Finn; Carmichael, James; Ellis, Ian; Ali, Selman; Li, Geng; McArdle, Stephanie; Creaser, Colin; Rees, Robert

    2003-09-01

    An ability to predict the likelihood of cellular response towards particular chemotherapeutic agents based upon protein expression patterns could facilitate the identification of biological molecules with previously undefined roles in the process of chemoresistance/chemosensitivity, and if robust enough these patterns might also be exploited towards the development of novel predictive assays. To ascertain whether proteomic based molecular profiling in conjunction with artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms could be applied towards the specific recognition of phenotypic patterns between either control or drug treated and chemosensitive or chemoresistant cellular populations, a combined approach involving MALDI-TOF matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, Ciphergen protein chip technology and ANN algorithms have been applied to specifically identify proteomic 'fingerprints' indicative of treatment regimen for chemosensitive (MCF-7, T47D) and chemoresistant (MCF-7/ADR) breast cancer cell lines following exposure to Doxorubicin or Paclitaxel. The results indicate that proteomic patterns can be identified by ANN algorithms to correctly assign 'class' for treatment regimen (e.g. control/drug treated or chemosensitive/chemoresistant) with a high degree of accuracy using boot-strap statistical validation techniques and that biomarker ion patterns indicative of response/non-response phenotypes are associated with MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells exposed to Doxorubicin. We have also examined the predictive capability of this approach towards MCF-7 and T47D cells to ascertain whether prediction could be made based upon treatment regimen irrespective of cell lineage. Models were identified that could correctly assign class (control or Paclitaxel treatment) for 35/38 samples of an independent dataset. A similar level of predictive capability was also found (> 92%; n = 28) when proteomic patterns derived from the drug resistant cell line MCF-7

  13. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  14. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  15. Cultivating creativity in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare E; Pinsky, Malin L; Ryan, Maureen E; Souther, Sara; Terrell, Kimberly A

    2014-04-01

    Conservation practitioners and scientists are often faced with seemingly intractable problems in which traditional approaches fail. While other sectors (e.g., business) frequently emphasize creative thinking to overcome complex challenges, creativity is rarely identified as an essential skill for conservationists. Yet more creative approaches are urgently needed in the effort to sustain Earth's biodiversity. We identified 4 strategies to develop skills in creative thinking and discuss underlying research and examples supporting each strategy. First, by breaking down barriers between disciplines and surrounding oneself with unfamiliar people, concepts, and perspectives, one can expand base knowledge and experiences and increase the potential for new combinations of ideas. Second, by meeting people where they are (both literally and figuratively), one exposes oneself to new environments and perspectives, which again broadens experiences and increases ability to communicate effectively with stakeholders. Third, by embracing risk responsibly, one is more likely to develop new, nontraditional solutions and be open to high-impact outcomes. Finally, by following a cycle of learning, struggle, and reflection, one can trigger neurophysiological changes that allow the brain to become more creative. Creativity is a learned trait, rather than an innate skill. It can be actively developed at both the individual and institutional levels, and learning to navigate the relevant social and practical barriers is key to the process. To maximize the success of conservation in the face of escalating challenges, one must take advantage of what has been learned from other disciplines and foster creativity as both a professional skill and an essential component of career training and individual development. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  17. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  18. Controllability of conservative behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we first define the class of J-conservative behaviours with observable storage functions, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. We then provide two main results. The first result states that if J(-xi,xi) is nonsingular, the input cardinality of a J-conservative

  19. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  20. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Setting conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  2. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  3. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  4. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  5. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  7. Layer-Mean Quantities, Local Conservation Laws, and Vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camassa, R.; Levermore, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    We derive local conservation laws for layer-mean quantities in two general settings. When applied to Euler flows, the first of these settings yields well-known local conservation laws for quantities averaged between material surfaces. The second, however, leads to new local conservation laws for quantities involving the vorticity that are averaged between arbitrary surfaces. These produce the crucial vorticity conservation laws in shallow water models that admit nonhydrostatic and noncolumnar motion. Moreover, they seem to lie outside the Hamiltonian paradigm of fluid dynamics. The formalism generalizes to skew-symmetric matrix fields; applications to electromagnetism are suggested. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Reconciling biodiversity and carbon conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chris D; Anderson, Barbara J; Moilanen, Atte; Eigenbrod, Felix; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Quaife, Tristan; Roy, David B; Gillings, Simon; Armsworth, Paul R; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-05-01

    Climate change is leading to the development of land-based mitigation and adaptation strategies that are likely to have substantial impacts on global biodiversity. Of these, approaches to maintain carbon within existing natural ecosystems could have particularly large benefits for biodiversity. However, the geographical distributions of terrestrial carbon stocks and biodiversity differ. Using conservation planning analyses for the New World and Britain, we conclude that a carbon-only strategy would not be effective at conserving biodiversity, as have previous studies. Nonetheless, we find that a combined carbon-biodiversity strategy could simultaneously protect 90% of carbon stocks (relative to a carbon-only conservation strategy) and > 90% of the biodiversity (relative to a biodiversity-only strategy) in both regions. This combined approach encapsulates the principle of complementarity, whereby locations that contain different sets of species are prioritised, and hence disproportionately safeguard localised species that are not protected effectively by carbon-only strategies. It is efficient because localised species are concentrated into small parts of the terrestrial land surface, whereas carbon is somewhat more evenly distributed; and carbon stocks protected in one location are equivalent to those protected elsewhere. Efficient compromises can only be achieved when biodiversity and carbon are incorporated together within a spatial planning process. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  10. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  11. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  12. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  14. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    2012-02-19

    Feb 19, 2012 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 7 ... die within a short period of time (e.g., infanticide) (Erhart and. Overdorff 1998 .... been as deep or may have healed by the time of examination. Falls during ...

  15. Birds of Conservation Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of...

  16. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  17. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  18. Reprocessing of nonoptimally exposed holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, G.S.; Robertson, C.E.; Tamashiro, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two reprocessing techniques have been investigated that are capable of correcting the effects of nonoptimum optical density of photographic amplitude holograms recorded on Agfa-Gevaert type 10E75 plates. In some cases a reprocessed hologram will exhibit a diffraction efficiency even higher than that obtainable from a hologram exposed and processed to the optimum density. The SNR of the reprocessed holograms is much higher than that of the same holograms belached with cupric bromide. In some cases the SNR approaches the optimum value for a properly exposed amplitude hologram. Subjective image quality and resolution of reprocessed hologram reconstructins appear to be no different than for normal single-development holograms. Repeated reprocessing is feasible and in some cases desirable as a means of increasing diffraction efficiency

  19. Personality traits and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Meng; Cui, Qingbin; Fu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    As a cost-effective solution to energy conservation, behavior based method focuses on changing people's behavior through normative feedback for energy efficiency. While the application of behavior-based method is promising, the challenge exists to achieve efficiently sustainable behavioral change. Based on multi-period observation of energy behavior at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, this paper presents a model-based approach aimed to improve the nationally popular and deep-seated benchmark setting strategy for normative feedback used in home energy reports. The improved approach has its merits of countering the undesirable boomerang effect and enhancing the effectiveness of normative feedback targeting different personalities. By introducing a modified opinion dynamics model, this paper simulates the process of energy behavior change and therefore identifies the driver and elementary rules of behavioral change. In particular, the paper defines various behavioral zones in accordance with people's personality and proposes a new customized energy reporting mechanism that maps normative benchmark to personality trait. The new energy reporting policy has strong industrial implication for promoting behavior-based method towards a sustained energy conservation movement. -- Highlights: •We explore the personality driving resident behavior change under peer pressure. •We map the distribution of behavior clusters driven by personality and benchmarks. •The model is tested using data from an experiment conducted in Maryland, U.S. •The population exposed to normative feedback can be divided into six categories. •A personality trait-based home energy reporting mechanism is proposed

  20. Humidity distribution affected by freely exposed water surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    evolution of relative humidity based on statistical rate theory and computational fluid dynamics is developed. In our approach we use short-term steady-state steps to simulate the slowly evolving evaporation in the system. Experiments demonstrate considerably good agreement with the computer modeling...

  1. Effect of Surface Coatings on Cylinders Exposed to Underwater Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.W. Kwon

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of a coated cylinder (metallic cylinder coated with a rubber material subjected to an underwater explosion is analyzed numerically. The dynamic response of the coated cylinder appears to be adversely affected when impacted by an underwater shock wave under certain conditions of geometry and material properties of the coating. When adversely affected, significant deviations in values of axial stress, hoop stress, and strain are observed. The coated cylinder exhibits a larger deformation and higher internal energy in the metallic material. Rubber coatings appeared to inhibit energy dissipation from the metallic material to the surrounding water medium. A parametric study of various coatings was performed on both aluminum and steel cylinders. The adverse effect of the coating decreased when the stiffness of the rubber layer increased, indicating the existence of a threshold value. The results of this study indicate that the stiffness of the coating is a critical factor to the shock hardening of the coated cylinder.

  2. Ethnobotanical study and conservation status of local medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plants are important sources of medicines. Herbal medicines in Lesotho are exposed to excessive exploitation and habitat destruction. Comprehensive information to promote proper use and conservation of these herbal medicines is lacking. This study described the uses of medicinal plants in Lesotho with ...

  3. Biodiversity Conservation and the Sacred Forests of Emohua, Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These sacred sites are regarded as the temples of god by the local people due to their beliefs, but technically the forests are centres of biodiversity. In recent times, anthropogenic interference activities expose the forest to threat and challenges which make the development and adoption of conservation strategies inevitable.

  4. Methane formation in tritium gas exposed to stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were performed to determine the effect cleanliness of a surface exposed to tritium gas had on methane formation. These tests performed on 304 stainless steel vessels, cleaned in various ways, showed that the methane formation was reduced by the use of various cleaning procedures

  5. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  6. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is promoted by policy makers and international organizations as a tool for advancing conservation agendas, while contributing to poverty alleviation and human development, under the banner of ecotourism or sustainable tourism. However, the indiscriminating use of complex and ambiguous...... concepts such as “poverty” and “sustainability” hide important nuances with regards to the variety of processes and subsequent effects that are triggered when tourism and conservation are being adjoined. Experiences with tourism developments show that destinations that are weak economically find it harder...... to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...

  7. Conservation of Mangifera sylvatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, Sayma

    and conservation of these valuable species. The present study considers an underutilised and threatened species of Bangladesh, namely wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.). Although this wild mango is one of the genetically closest species to the common mango (Mangifera indica L.) research is very limited...... and mostly focused on wood quality and phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated the conservation potential of wild mango considering its contribution for food, nutrition and livelihoods. To do so, an assessment was made of the current and future distribution of the species, which...... explored. The study conveyed five key messages: 1. Wild mango may become extinct under future climate change scenarios so it is high time to start thinking about conservation initiatives. 2. Wild mango is a small sized mango with a large kernel in relation to other Mangifera species which provides...

  8. Resource conservation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.

    1999-01-01

    Resource conservation management is a management program similar to financial management in that its success requires commitment by all levels of the organization to the process as well as an accounting procedure and auditing of critical components. Resource conservation management provides a framework for all elements of efficient building operations and maintenance. The savings connected with the program are principally connected with changes in the way buildings are operated and maintained. Given the reduction in rebates for the installation of energy-efficient equipment, this approach has considerable promise. This paper discusses the evolution of the resource conservation management service and the savings associated with a two-year pilot effort with seven school districts, as well as the critical components of a successful program

  9. Hearing Conservation Self-Study #12350

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  10. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  11. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  12. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  13. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  14. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  15. Shifting liberal and conservative attitudes using moral foundations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Fiske, Susan T; Downing, Emily L; Trail, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    People's social and political opinions are grounded in their moral concerns about right and wrong. We examine whether five moral foundations--harm, fairness, ingroup, authority, and purity--can influence political attitudes of liberals and conservatives across a variety of issues. Framing issues using moral foundations may change political attitudes in at least two possible ways: (a) Entrenching: Relevant moral foundations will strengthen existing political attitudes when framing pro-attitudinal issues (e.g., conservatives exposed to a free-market economic stance) and (b) Persuasion: Mere presence of relevant moral foundations may also alter political attitudes in counter-attitudinal directions (e.g., conservatives exposed to an economic regulation stance). Studies 1 and 2 support the entrenching hypothesis. Relevant moral foundation-based frames bolstered political attitudes for conservatives (Study 1) and liberals (Study 2). Only Study 2 partially supports the persuasion hypothesis. Conservative-relevant moral frames of liberal issues increased conservatives' liberal attitudes. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  17. (ICTs) And Environmental Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICTs have a potential for improving the accessibility of environmental information, and if appropriately applied, they can empower local people to make informed decisions regarding environmental issues, thus enhancing environmental conservation. However, the challenge is on how to define particular roles that ...

  18. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  19. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  20. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  1. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Sims

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Speyeria (Nymphalidae are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants. Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts.

  2. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  3. The BID Domain of Type IV Secretion Substrates Forms a Conserved Four-Helix Bundle Topped with a Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Frédéric V; de Beer, Tjaart A P; Dranow, David M; Schirmer, Tilman; Phan, Isabelle; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-01-03

    The BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain functions as secretion signal in a subfamily of protein substrates of bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems. It mediates transfer of (1) relaxases and the attached DNA during bacterial conjugation, and (2) numerous Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) during protein transfer into host cells infected by pathogenic Bartonella species. Furthermore, BID domains of Beps have often evolved secondary effector functions within host cells. Here, we provide crystal structures for three representative BID domains and describe a novel conserved fold characterized by a compact, antiparallel four-helix bundle topped with a hook. The conserved hydrophobic core provides a rigid scaffold to a surface that, despite a few conserved exposed residues and similarities in charge distribution, displays significant variability. We propose that the genuine function of BID domains as T4S signal may primarily depend on their rigid structure, while the plasticity of their surface may facilitate adaptation to secondary effector functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Crowdfunding biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Cajiao, E; Archibald, C; Friedman, R; Steven, R; Fuller, R A; Game, E T; Morrison, T H; Ritchie, E G

    2018-05-26

    Raising funds is critical for conserving biodiversity and hence so too is scrutinizing emerging financial mechanisms that might help achieve this goal. In this context, anecdotal evidence indicates crowdfunding is being used to support a variety of activities needed for biodiversity conservation, yet its magnitude and allocation remain largely unknown. We conducted a global analysis to help address this knowledge gap, based on empirical data from conservation-focused projects extracted from crowdfunding platforms. For each project, we determined the funds raised, date, country of implementation, proponent characteristics, activity type, biodiversity realm, and target taxa. We identified 72 relevant platforms and 577 conservation-focused projects that have raised US$4 790 634 since 2009. Whilst proponents were based in 38 countries, projects were delivered across 80 countries, indicating a potential mechanism of resource mobilization. Proponents were from non-governmental organizations (35%), universities (30%), or were freelancers (26%). Most projects were for research (40%), persuasion (31%), and on-ground actions (21%). Projects have focused primarily on species (57.7%) and terrestrial ecosystems (20.3%), and less on marine (8.8%) and freshwater ecosystems (3.6%). Projects have focused on 208 species, including a disproportionate number of threatened bird and mammal species. Crowdfunding for biodiversity conservation has now become a global phenomenon and presents signals for potential expansion, despite possible pitfalls. Opportunities arise from its spatial amplifying effect, steady increase over time, inclusion of Cinderella species, adoption by multiple actors, and funding of a range of activities beyond research. Our study paves the way for further research on key questions, such as campaign success rates, effectiveness, and drivers of adoption. Even though the capital input of crowdfunding so far has been modest compared to other conservation finance

  5. Interaction of Al with O2 exposed Mo2BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Al adheres to many surfaces. • Solid–solid interactions challenging for real (oxidized) surfaces. • Dissociative O 2 adsorption on Mo 2 BC(0 4 0). • Al nonamer is disrupted on oxidized Mo 2 BC(0 4 0). • Adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide. - Abstract: A Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface was exposed to O 2 . The gas interaction was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air exposed surfaces. The calculations suggest that the most dominating physical mechanism is dissociative O 2 adsorption whereby Mo−O, O−Mo−O and Mo 2 −C−O bond formation is observed. To validate these results, Mo 2 BC thin films were synthesized utilizing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and air exposed surfaces were probed by XPS. MoO 2 and MoO 3 bond formation is observed and is consistent with here obtained ab initio data. Additionally, the interfacial interactions of O 2 exposed Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface with an Al nonamer is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics to describe on the atomic scale the interaction between this surface and Al to mimic the interface present during cold forming processes of Al based alloys. The Al nonamer was disrupted and Al forms chemical bonds with oxygen contained in the O 2 exposed Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface. Based on the comparison of here calculated adsorption energy with literature data, Al−Al bonds are shown to be significantly weaker than the Al−O bonds formed across the interface. Hence, Al−Al bond rupture is expected for a mechanically loaded interface. Therefore the adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide layer is predicted. This is consistent with experimental observations. The data presented here may also be relevant for other oxygen containing surfaces in a contact with Al or Al based alloys for example during forming operations

  6. Linkage disequilibrium of evolutionarily conserved regions in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Todd A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong linkage disequilibrium (LD recently found in genic or exonic regions of the human genome demonstrated that LD can be increased by evolutionary mechanisms that select for functionally important loci. This suggests that LD might be stronger in regions conserved among species than in non-conserved regions, since regions exposed to natural selection tend to be conserved. To assess this hypothesis, we used genome-wide polymorphism data from the HapMap project and investigated LD within DNA sequences conserved between the human and mouse genomes. Results Unexpectedly, we observed that LD was significantly weaker in conserved regions than in non-conserved regions. To investigate why, we examined sequence features that may distort the relationship between LD and conserved regions. We found that interspersed repeats, and not other sequence features, were associated with the weak LD tendency in conserved regions. To appropriately understand the relationship between LD and conserved regions, we removed the effect of repetitive elements and found that the high degree of sequence conservation was strongly associated with strong LD in coding regions but not with that in non-coding regions. Conclusion Our work demonstrates that the degree of sequence conservation does not simply increase LD as predicted by the hypothesis. Rather, it implies that purifying selection changes the polymorphic patterns of coding sequences but has little influence on the patterns of functional units such as regulatory elements present in non-coding regions, since the former are generally restricted by the constraint of maintaining a functional protein product across multiple exons while the latter may exist more as individually isolated units.

  7. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Advances in treating exposed fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; Dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose.

  9. Methods of equipment conservation of a carboelectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado Higuera, Julio Cesar

    2001-01-01

    Several conservation methods are mentioned like they are those of conservation in dry, in humid, conservation of bombs of water conservation, of turbines, of generators, of transformers, of electric motors and conservation of coal piles

  10. Conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Teresa; Di Salvo, Martino Luigi; Angelaccio, Sebastiana; Pascarella, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Water molecules occurring in the interior of protein structures often are endowed with key structural and functional roles. We report the results of a systematic analysis of conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases (SHMTs). SHMTs are an important group of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of l-serine and tetrahydropteroylglutamate to glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydropteroylglutamate. The approach utilized in this study relies on two programs, ProACT2 and WatCH. The first software is able to categorize water molecules in a protein crystallographic structure as buried, positioned in clefts or at the surface. The other program finds, in a set of superposed homologous proteins, water molecules that occur approximately in equivalent position in each of the considered structures. These groups of molecules are referred to as 'clusters' and represent structurally conserved water molecules. Several conserved clusters of buried or cleft water molecules were found in the set of 11 bacterial SHMTs we took into account for this work. The majority of these clusters were not described previously. Possible structural and functional roles for the conserved water molecules are envisaged. This work provides a map of the conserved water molecules helpful for deciphering SHMT mechanism and for rational design of molecular engineering experiments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. On momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    The relativistic law of momentum transformation shows that the sum of momenta of even isolated particles is not invariable in all inertial reference systems. This is connected with the relativistic change of kinetic energy and mass of a system of particles in result of internal interactions. The paper proposes a short and simple proof on the necessity of potential momentum. The momentum conservation law (for all interactions in the Minkowski world) is expressed in a generalized form. The constancy of the sum of kinetic and potential momentum of closed system of particles is shown. The energy conservation is a necessary condition. The potential momentum is defined as usual (e.g. as in the Berkeley Physics Course). (author). 13 refs

  12. Conservation laws shape dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-02-01

    Starting from the most general formulation of stochastic thermodynamics—i.e. a thermodynamically consistent nonautonomous stochastic dynamics describing systems in contact with several reservoirs—we define a procedure to identify the conservative and the minimal set of nonconservative contributions in the entropy production. The former is expressed as the difference between changes caused by time-dependent drivings and a generalized potential difference. The latter is a sum over the minimal set of flux-force contributions controlling the dissipative flows across the system. When the system is initially prepared at equilibrium (e.g. by turning off drivings and forces), a finite-time detailed fluctuation theorem holds for the different contributions. Our approach relies on identifying the complete set of conserved quantities and can be viewed as the extension of the theory of generalized Gibbs ensembles to nonequilibrium situations.

  13. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  14. Redox Activation of the Universally Conserved ATPase YchF by Thioredoxin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Liya; Suppanz, Ida; Ba, Qiaorui; MacInnes, Katherine; Drepper, Friedel; Warscheid, Bettina; Koch, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-20

    YchF/Ola1 are unconventional members of the universally conserved GTPase family because they preferentially hydrolyze ATP rather than GTP. These ATPases have been associated with various cellular processes and pathologies, including DNA repair, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. In particular, a possible role in regulating the oxidative stress response has been suggested for both bacterial and human YchF/Ola1. In this study, we analyzed how YchF responds to oxidative stress and how it potentially regulates the antioxidant response. Our data identify a redox-regulated monomer-dimer equilibrium of YchF as a key event in the functional cycle of YchF. Upon oxidative stress, the oxidation of a conserved and surface-exposed cysteine residue promotes YchF dimerization, which is accompanied by inhibition of the ATPase activity. No dimers were observed in a YchF mutant lacking this cysteine. In vitro, the YchF dimer is dissociated by thioredoxin 1 (TrxA) and this stimulates the ATPase activity. The physiological significance of the YchF-thioredoxin 1 interaction was demonstrated by in vivo cross-linking, which validated this interaction in living cells. This approach also revealed that both the ATPase domain and the helical domain of YchF are in contact with TrxA. YchF/Ola1 are the first redox-regulated members of the universally conserved GTPase family and are inactivated by oxidation of a conserved cysteine residue within the nucleotide-binding motif. Our data provide novel insights into the regulation of the so far ill-defined YchF/Ola1 family of proteins and stipulate their role as negative regulators of the oxidative stress response.

  15. Micro-layers of polystyrene film preventing metal oxidation: implications in cultural heritage conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambi, Francesca; Carretti, Emiliano; Dei, Luigi; Baglioni, Piero

    2014-12-01

    Protection of surfaces directly exposed to the detrimental action of degradative agents (i.e. oxygen, air pollutants and bacteria) is one of the most important challenges in the field of conservation of works of art. Metallic objects are subjected to specific surface corrosion phenomena that, over the years, make mandatory the research of innovative materials that should avoid the direct contact between the metal surface and the weathering agents. In this paper, the set-up, characterisation and application of a new reversible material for preserving metal artefacts are reported. Micro-layers constituted of low-adhesive polystyrene (PS) films obtained from recycling waste packaging materials made of expanded PS were studied. The morphology and thickness of PS films were characterised by optical, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A further check on thickness was carried out by means of visible spectrophotometry doping the films with a hydrophobic dye. Thermal properties of the PS micro-layers were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry coupled with optical microscopy. Permeability of the PS films to water vapour was also determined. The potential of the low-adhesive PS films, that enabled an easy removal in case of film deterioration, for preventing metal oxidation was investigated on brass specimens by simulating standard artificial corrosion programmes. Morphological and chemical (coupling the energy-dispersive X-rays spectrometry to SEM measurements) analyses carried out on these metal samples showed promising results in terms of surface protection against corrosion.

  16. Conservation by irradiation of the cooled strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaabi, Olfa

    2004-01-01

    During this work, the microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic effects of the irradiation were studied throughout the strawberries conservation at 4 0 C in camarosa variety. Thus, the optimal dose was measured. The experimental results showed that the ionizing treatment causes a notable reduction of the microbial flora (total yeasts and moulds, psychrotrophes germs) of the strawberry. This reduction can exceed the 90% of the total flora in the strawberries treated with 2.5 and 3 KGy. The microbial load remained no significant for the strawberries treated with 2, 2.5 and 3 KGy until the 21 2nd day of the conservation. On the organoleptic level, the gustatory quality of the strawberries irradiated by 2 and 2.5 KGy is acceptable, whereas the control strawberries exposed at 3 KGy are acceptable. Moreover, the effect of the irradiation on the physico-chemical parameters is significant only in the case of the ascorbic acid which notes a considerable reduction in the vitamin during the first days of conservation, but which will be moderated after 8 2nd days of the storage cutters irradiated. This degradation remained more accelerated in the case of control strawberries. Lastly, we can affirm that the irradiation increases the shelf life without making modifications sensitive to the original characteristics of the cutter, which constitutes a reliable process and inexpensive in energy. (author). 13 refs

  17. Atmospheric Weathering of Historic Monuments and Their Related Conservation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner-Saltık Emine N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric environment affects the materials of historic monuments and their structure starting from the time of their construction. Daily and seasonal changes in temperature and humidity, wind, snow and rainfall, soluble salts carried by water, biological agents, pollutant gases and particulate matter are some of the agents in atmospheric environment that introduce weathering by physical, chemical and biological processes in the materials of the monuments such as natural building stones, bricks, mortars and plasters, mud brick etc. The weathering processes need to be well diagnosed by identification of main mechanisms of decay and major responsible agents, degree and depth of deterioration expressed with measurable parameters of physical, physicomechanical properties, and micro structural changes together with their distribution on the monument. Success of conservation treatments strongly depend on those diagnostic studies and compatibility of the treatments with the deteriorated and relatively sound parts of the historic materials. Current approach to materials conservation is to be able to make minimum intervention to historic material by targeting the conservation treatment to the deteriorated area for the purpose of controlling the deterioration factors and achieving compatible and durable conservation of historical material. In this presentation, two examples of diagnostic research and conservation treatments based on and guided by the diagnostic results are summarized concerning historic stone monuments exposed to atmospheric environment since more than two thousand years. The first example is on the marble walls of Temple of Augustus in Ankara exposed to polluted urban atmosphere. The second example is on the limestone statues of Nemrut Mount Monument in Adıyaman-Turkey, exposed to rural atmosphere with harsh climatic conditions. Finally, a brief discussion on current research issues related to historic materials conservation in

  18. Conservation Education: A Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

  19. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Madagascar Conservation & Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation & Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy.

  20. Angular momentum conservation for uniformly expanding flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Sean A

    2007-01-01

    Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around the spacetime due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation expresses the rate of the change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation

  1. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  2. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Carsten [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: cnowak@senckenberg.de; Vogt, Christian [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: vogt@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Pfenninger, Markus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: pfenninger@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Schwenk, Klaus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: k.schwenk@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oehlmann, Joerg [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oehlmann@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Streit, Bruno [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: streit@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oetken, Matthias [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oetken@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-03-15

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius.

  3. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Carsten; Vogt, Christian; Pfenninger, Markus; Schwenk, Klaus; Oehlmann, Joerg; Streit, Bruno; Oetken, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius

  4. Energy conservation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtright, H.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  5. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  6. Comparative Laser Spectroscopy Diagnostics for Ancient Metallic Artefacts Exposed to Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Ciupiński

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal artworks are subjected to corrosion and oxidation processes due to reactive agents present in the air, water and in the ground that these objects have been in contact with for hundreds of years. This is the case for archaeological metals that are recovered from excavation sites, as well as artefacts exposed to polluted air. Stabilization of the conservation state of these objects needs precise diagnostics of the accrued surface layers and identification of original, historical materials before further protective treatments, including safe laser cleaning of unwanted layers. This paper presents analyses of the chemical composition and stratigraphy of corrosion products with the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS and Raman spectroscopy. The discussion of the results is supported by material studies (SEM-EDS, XRF, ion-analyses. The tests were performed on several samples taken from original objects, including copper roofing from Wilanów Palace in Warsaw and Karol Poznański Palace in Łódź, bronze decorative figures from the Wilanów Palace gardens, and four archaeological examples of old jewellery (different copper alloys. Work has been performed as a part of the MATLAS project in the frames of EEA and Norway Grants (www.matlas.eu and the results enable the comparison of the methodology and to elaborate the joint diagnostic procedures of the three project partner independent laboratories.

  7. Comparative Laser Spectroscopy Diagnostics for Ancient Metallic Artefacts Exposed to Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupiński, Łukasz; Fortuna-Zaleśna, Elżbieta; Garbacz, Halina; Koss, Andrzej; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.; Marczak, Jan; Mróz, Janusz; Onyszczuk, Tomasz; Rycyk, Antoni; Sarzyński, Antoni; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Strzelec, Marek; Zatorska, Anna; Żukowska, Grażyna Z.

    2010-01-01

    Metal artworks are subjected to corrosion and oxidation processes due to reactive agents present in the air, water and in the ground that these objects have been in contact with for hundreds of years. This is the case for archaeological metals that are recovered from excavation sites, as well as artefacts exposed to polluted air. Stabilization of the conservation state of these objects needs precise diagnostics of the accrued surface layers and identification of original, historical materials before further protective treatments, including safe laser cleaning of unwanted layers. This paper presents analyses of the chemical composition and stratigraphy of corrosion products with the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy. The discussion of the results is supported by material studies (SEM-EDS, XRF, ion-analyses). The tests were performed on several samples taken from original objects, including copper roofing from Wilanów Palace in Warsaw and Karol Poznański Palace in ŁódŸ, bronze decorative figures from the Wilanów Palace gardens, and four archaeological examples of old jewellery (different copper alloys). Work has been performed as a part of the MATLAS project in the frames of EEA and Norway Grants (www.matlas.eu) and the results enable the comparison of the methodology and to elaborate the joint diagnostic procedures of the three project partner independent laboratories. PMID:22399915

  8. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  9. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  10. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  11. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  12. Selling energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  13. Lyme disease and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  14. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  15. A model of the ground surface temperature for micrometeorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Julian S.; Erell, Evyatar

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorological models at various scales require ground surface temperature, which may not always be measured in sufficient spatial or temporal detail. There is thus a need for a model that can calculate the surface temperature using only widely available weather data, thermal properties of the ground, and surface properties. The vegetated/permeable surface energy balance (VP-SEB) model introduced here requires no a priori knowledge of soil temperature or moisture at any depth. It combines a two-layer characterization of the soil column following the heat conservation law with a sinusoidal function to estimate deep soil temperature, and a simplified procedure for calculating moisture content. A physically based solution is used for each of the energy balance components allowing VP-SEB to be highly portable. VP-SEB was tested using field data measuring bare loess desert soil in dry weather and following rain events. Modeled hourly surface temperature correlated well with the measured data (r 2 = 0.95 for a whole year), with a root-mean-square error of 2.77 K. The model was used to generate input for a pedestrian thermal comfort study using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS). The simulation shows that the thermal stress on a pedestrian standing in the sun on a fully paved surface, which may be over 500 W on a warm summer day, may be as much as 100 W lower on a grass surface exposed to the same meteorological conditions.

  16. Infiltration and Soil Loss Changes during the Growing Season under Ploughing and Conservation Tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Jakab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Decreased water retention and increased runoff and soil loss are of special importance concerning soil degradation of hilly crop fields. In this study, plots under ploughing (conventional tillage (PT and conservation tillage (CT; 15 years were compared. Rainfall simulation on 6 m2 plots was applied to determine infiltration and soil loss during the growing season. Results were compared with those measured from 1200 m2 plots exposed to natural rainfalls in 2016. Infiltration was always higher under CT than PT, whereas the highest infiltration was measured under the cover crop condition. Infiltration under seedbed and stubble resulted in uncertainties, which suggests that natural pore formation can be more effective at improving soil drainage potential than can temporary improvements created by soil tillage operations. Soil erodibility was higher under PT for each soil status; however, the seedbed condition triggered the highest values. For CT, soil loss volume was only a function of runoff volume at both scales. Contrarily, on PT plots, some extreme precipitation events triggered extremely high soil loss owing to linear erosion, which meant no direct connection existed between the scales. Improved soil conditions due to conservation practice are more important for decreasing soil loss than the better surface conditions.

  17. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  18. Host-Primed Ebola Virus GP Exposes a Hydrophobic NPC1 Receptor-Binding Pocket, Revealing a Target for Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholdt, Zachary A; Ndungo, Esther; Fusco, Marnie L; Bale, Shridhar; Flyak, Andrew I; Crowe, James E; Chandran, Kartik; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2016-02-23

    The filovirus surface glycoprotein (GP) mediates viral entry into host cells. Following viral internalization into endosomes, GP is cleaved by host cysteine proteases to expose a receptor-binding site (RBS) that is otherwise hidden from immune surveillance. Here, we present the crystal structure of proteolytically cleaved Ebola virus GP to a resolution of 3.3 Å. We use this structure in conjunction with functional analysis of a large panel of pseudotyped viruses bearing mutant GP proteins to map the Ebola virus GP endosomal RBS at molecular resolution. Our studies indicate that binding of GP to its endosomal receptor Niemann-Pick C1 occurs in two distinct stages: the initial electrostatic interactions are followed by specific interactions with a hydrophobic trough that is exposed on the endosomally cleaved GP1 subunit. Finally, we demonstrate that monoclonal antibodies targeting the filovirus RBS neutralize all known filovirus GPs, making this conserved pocket a promising target for the development of panfilovirus therapeutics. Ebola virus uses its glycoprotein (GP) to enter new host cells. During entry, GP must be cleaved by human enzymes in order for receptor binding to occur. Here, we provide the crystal structure of the cleaved form of Ebola virus GP. We demonstrate that cleavage exposes a site at the top of GP and that this site binds the critical domain C of the receptor, termed Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). We perform mutagenesis to find parts of the site essential for binding NPC1 and map distinct roles for an upper, charged crest and lower, hydrophobic trough in cleaved GP. We find that this 3-dimensional site is conserved across the filovirus family and that antibody directed against this site is able to bind cleaved GP from every filovirus tested and neutralize viruses bearing those GPs. Copyright © 2016 Bornholdt et al.

  19. Biological conservation of aquatic inland habitats: these are better days

    OpenAIRE

    Ian J. Winfield

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity of aquatic inland habitats currently faces unprecedented threats from human activities. At the same time, although much is known about the functioning of freshwater ecosystems the successful transfer of such knowledge to practical conservation has not been universal. Global awareness of aquatic conservation issues is also hampered by the fact that conditions under the water surface are largely hidden from the direct experience of most members of society. Connectivity, or lack...

  20. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  1. Why not energy conservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation is a deep principle that is obeyed by all of the fundamental forces of nature. It puts stringent constraints on all systems, particularly systems that are ‘isolated,’ meaning that no energy can enter or escape. Notwithstanding the success of the principle of stationary action, it is fair to wonder to what extent physics can be formulated from the principle of stationary energy. We show that if one interprets mechanical energy as a state function, then its stationarity leads to a novel formulation of classical mechanics. However, unlike Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which deliver their state functions via algebraic proscriptions (i.e., the Lagrangian is always the difference between a system’s kinetic and potential energies), this new formalism identifies its state functions as the solutions to a differential equation. This is an important difference because differential equations can generate more general solutions than algebraic recipes. When applied to Newtonian systems for which the energy function is separable, these state functions are always the mechanical energy. However, while the stationary state function for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field proves not to be energy, the function nevertheless correctly encodes the dynamics of the system. Moreover, the stationary state function for a free relativistic particle proves not to be the energy either. Rather, our differential equation yields the relativistic free-particle Lagrangian (plus a non-dynamical constant) in its correct dynamical context. To explain how this new formalism can consistently deliver stationary state functions that give the correct dynamics but that are not always the mechanical energy, we propose that energy conservation is a specific realization of a deeper principle of stationarity that governs both relativistic and non-relativistic mechanics. (paper)

  2. Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

    2013-10-01

    Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

  3. Green Tribology Biomimetics, Energy Conservation and Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of “green tribology” as “the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts” was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.

  4. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  5. Leukemias in the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.; Gudkova, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of leukemias among the progeny of exposed parents. The parents were exposed as a result of discharge of radioactive waste from the Mayak atomic plant into the Techa river in the Southern Urals. The doses per parents gonads, ranging from 0.035 to 1.27 Sv, were due to external exposure in 1950-1956 and to incorporation of Cs-137. Nine cases with leukemia and four with lympohoma were recorded in 13.500 antenatally exposed subjects and descendants of exposed parents over the period of 1950 to 1988. The leukemia morbidity index for the progeny of exposed parents was 2.51, which virtually not statistically differ from that in control group. Refs. 7, figs. 3, tabs. 3

  6. Chemical stabilization of graphite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistrika, Alexander A.; Lerner, Michael M.

    2018-04-03

    Embodiments of a device, or a component of a device, including a stabilized graphite surface, methods of stabilizing graphite surfaces, and uses for the devices or components are disclosed. The device or component includes a surface comprising graphite, and a plurality of haloaryl ions and/or haloalkyl ions bound to at least a portion of the graphite. The ions may be perhaloaryl ions and/or perhaloalkyl ions. In certain embodiments, the ions are perfluorobenzenesulfonate anions. Embodiments of the device or component including stabilized graphite surfaces may maintain a steady-state oxidation or reduction surface current density after being exposed to continuous oxidation conditions for a period of at least 1-100 hours. The device or component is prepared by exposing a graphite-containing surface to an acidic aqueous solution of the ions under oxidizing conditions. The device or component can be exposed in situ to the solution.

  7. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prairie Conservation in Canada: The Prairie Conservation Action Plan Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Nernberg; David Ingstrup

    2005-01-01

    In Canada, grassland conservation has been mobilized and directed through the development of Prairie Conservation Action Plans and Action Plan Committees in the three prairie provinces of Alberta (45 partner agencies and organizations), Saskatchewan (26 partners), and Manitoba (26 partners). In Alberta, 43 percent of the native prairie remains; in Saskatchewan and...

  9. Community markets for conservation: Markets to advance conservation mission

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the function and economics of COMACO (Community Markets for Conservation), discusses the current reality of climate change, and then explores how possible market mechanism approaches to ameliorating climate change may fit into COMACO's work and research. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  10. Exploded view diagrams of mathematical surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Karpenko, Olga A.; Li, Wilmot; Mitra, Niloy J.; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2010-01-01

    We present a technique for visualizing complicated mathematical surfaces that is inspired by hand-designed topological illustrations. Our approach generates exploded views that expose the internal structure of such a surface by partitioning

  11. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  12. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  13. The National Landscape Conservation System: A model for long term conservation of significant landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Harmon; Jeff Jarvis

    2011-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management administers over 256 million surface acres, more than any other U.S. public agency, the vast majority of which is in the western half of the United States. A land protection system was initiated in 1970 with the creation of the King Range National Conservation Area. In 1976, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (http://www.blm.gov/...

  14. Self Conservation Trajectory in Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Simões

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This article intends to present some of the results obtained during the research on the Promotion and Preservation of Dignity in the context of care in nursing homes, carried out in the context of the PhD in Nursing of the University of Lisbon. Methodology: Within the interpretative paradigm, Grounded Theory (GT was adopted as methodology. Data were collected through participant observation and interviews at an Nursing Home (IPSS with about 350 residents distributed through three residential structures in the county of Castelo Branco for 21 months, with residents, nurses and direct acting helpers as participants. The constant comparative analysis of the data occurred simultaneously, using the software NVivo 10® and NVivo 11®. From the data analysis it was possible to construct a middle-range theory - Promotion and Preservation of Dignity in Nursing Homes: Self Conservation. Results: A complex, unforeseen phenomenon, exposed to variability and multiple, constructed, deconstructed and reconstructed in the daily rhythms, in a continuous, systematic and dynamic manner. It follows a two-dimensional route that was called the Self Conservation Trajectory. On the one hand a personal, individual, although accompanied and promoted. On the other hand a profoundly social path. Is the first dimension of this route that will be presented in this article.

  15. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  16. Energy conservation in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.A.; Knowles, J.B.

    1983-11-01

    The SIMMER code contains models of the many interacting thermo-hydraulic processes that occur during a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), to provide an overall picture from accident initiation to containment loading. In calculations of roof loadings following the HCDA, errors in computing the overall energy balance were found to be up to ten times the kinetic energy of the sodium slug which creates the loading. On this account, the results were considered to be seriously compromised. This report describes a systematic investigation into the effect, nature and origin of the energy discrepancies. Its main conclusion are that, the errors stem from a systematic rather than a random source, energy errors for individual cells can be two decades larger than the mean value provided by the code, and cellular mass and energy errors are strongly correlated and they can actually increase when the mesh is refined. A likely cause of the conservation errors is identified as the solution of the liquid phase mass and energy equations at effectively different time instants during each timestep. (author)

  17. Concrete: Too young for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineman, H.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Nijland, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    The 20th century built heritage is one of the new conservation challenges, due to its architectural differences from the traditional heritage and new materials. One major new material is concrete; its quantity and importance for the new heritage requires a tailored conservation approach. Until now,

  18. Habitat modeling for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2006-01-01

    Habitat models address only 1 component of biodiversity but can be useful in addressing and managing single or multiple species and ecosystem functions, for projecting disturbance regimes, and in supporting decisions. I review categories and examples of habitat models, their utility for biodiversity conservation, and their roles in making conservation decisions. I...

  19. Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.

  20. Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

  1. Mass conservative fluid flow visualization for CFD velocity fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhenquan; Mallinson, Gordon D.

    2001-01-01

    Mass conservation is a key issue for accurate streamline and stream surface visualization of flow fields. This paper complements an existing method (Feng et al., 1997) for CFD velocity fields defined at discrete locations in space that uses dual stream functions to generate streamlines and stream surfaces. Conditions for using the method have been examined and its limitations defined. A complete set of dual stream functions for all possible cases of the linear fields on which the method relies are presented. The results in this paper are important for developing new methods for mass conservative streamline visualization from CFD data and using the existing method

  2. Atmospheric deposition exposes Qinling pandas to toxic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Zheng, Ying-Juan; Liu, Qiang; Song, Yi; An, Zhi-Sheng; Ma, Qing-Yi; Ellison, Aaron M

    2017-03-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world, and it is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. A previous study showed that wild and captive pandas, especially those of the Qinling subspecies, were exposed to toxicants in their diet of bamboo; the ultimate origin of these toxicants is unknown. Here we show that atmospheric deposition is the most likely origin of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the diets of captive and wild Qinling pandas. Average atmospheric deposition was 199, 115, and 49 g·m -2 ·yr -1 in the center of Xi'an City, at China's Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center (SWARC), and at Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), respectively. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ni) and POPs was highest at Xi'an City, intermediate at SWARC, and lowest at FNNR. Soil concentrations of the aforementioned heavy metals other than As and Zn also were significantly higher at SWARC than at FNNR. Efforts to conserve Qinling pandas may be compromised by air pollution attendant to China's economic development. Improvement of air quality and reductions of toxic emissions are urgently required to protect China's iconic species. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Is international conservation aid enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  4. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  5. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R ampersand D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed

  6. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  7. Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    1.73 $.") http://www.w3.org/2006/07/SWD/ SKOS /reference/20081001/ Spiteri, L.F. (2007) "The structure and form of folksonomy tags: The road to the...Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning January 14, 2010 Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD...DATES COVERED (From - To! 4/14/2009-12/23/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning Sa. CONTRACT

  8. Conservation through the economics lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  9. Making conservation work for everyone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation discussed the economic value of conservation, the optimal deployment of energy conservation. A sample load profile was presented to demonstrate how much electricity the average residential customer uses on a summer day. The average customer does not have the tools to understand the financial consequences of conservation for different types of equipment at different times of the day. Smart metering technology could help in this regard. Accurate unsubsidized prices are also considered to be the best incentive to conserve because customers will reduce electricity use when the prices are high. It was also suggested that standards for new appliances should be increased effectively to their economic value. The enablers to energy conservation include solid consumer education programs, real time metering in places where it is cost effective, real time pricing in places where it is practical, and power rates that reflect real costs. Barriers to energy conservation include the residual economic advantage that may be insufficient to justify investment; support from local distribution companies and transmission companies if the lost revenue adjustment mechanism (LRAM) is not sufficient to recover lost revenue and if LDCs are not sufficiently involved in the design of the electricity conservation program. 7 figs.

  10. Space, time and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, R.A.; Ugarov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Neter theorem establishing correspondence between conservation laws and symmetry properties (space and time in particular) is considered. The theorem is based on one of the possible ways of finding equations of motion for a physical system. From a certain expression (action functional) equations of motion for a system can be obtained which do not contain new physical assertions in principal in comparison with the Newtonian laws. Neter suggested a way of deriving conservation laws by transforming space and time coordinates. Neter theorem consequences raise a number of problems: 1). Are conservation laws (energy, momentum) consequences of space and time symmetry properties. 2). Is it possible to obtain conservation laws in theory neglecting equations of motion. 3). What is of the primary importance: equations of motion, conservation laws or properties of space and time symmetry. It is shown that direct Neter theorem does not testify to stipulation of conservation laws by properties of space and time symmetry and symmetry properties of other non-space -time properties of material systems in objective reality. It says nothing of whether there is any subordination between symmetry properties and conservation laws

  11. Research on Evaluation of Conservation Planning Implementation of Nanshe Historic Village in Dongguan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubin, Luo

    2017-10-01

    Conservation planning plays an important role in the protection and development of historic villages. The evaluation of conservation planning is helpful to find out the problems existing in the village protection work which helps to improve the conservation planning system. The paper briefly summarizes the conservation planning background of Nanshe historic village in Dongguan city, Guangdong province, China. The conservation planning guided the protection work of Nanshe village since 2002. It evaluates four aspects of the conservation planning implementation and effect such as protection and utilization of the ancient buildings, roadway repair, landscape and basic sanitation facilities improvement by ways of field research and questionnaire survey. There are only nineteen ancient buildings repaired and the rest of them are part of repaired or not repaired. Most of the roadways are well preserved. Only four of them are partly repaired or not repaired. Most of the villagers like to chat under the ancient banyan trees. Conservation Planning pays not much attention to the needs of the residents. Although conservation planning of Nanshe village developed the near, middle and long term target it actually took 14 years to carry out the near target. It enhances the social awareness of Nanshe village and the sense of belongings of the villagers. Most of the villagers are satisfied with the implementation of the conservation planning. Meanwhile, the paper exposes the conservation planning is too idealistic. It lacks of implementation details and the three phases of the investment funds and pays not much attention to the needs of residents.

  12. Mistaken identity: activating conservative political identities induces "conservative" financial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Carranza, Erica; Fox, Craig R

    2008-11-01

    Four studies investigated whether activating a social identity can lead group members to choose options that are labeled in words associated with that identity. When political identities were made salient, Republicans (but not Democrats) became more likely to choose the gamble or investment option labeled "conservative." This shift did not occur in a condition in which the same options were unlabeled. Thus, the mechanism underlying the effect appears to be not activated identity-related values prioritizing low risk, but rather activated identity-related language (the group label "conservative"). Indeed, when political identities were salient, Republicans favored options labeled "conservative" regardless of whether the options were low or high risk. Finally, requiring participants to explain the label "conservative" before making their choice did not diminish the effect, which suggests that it does not merely reflect inattention to content or construct accessibility. We discuss the implications of these results for the literatures on identity, priming, choice, politics, and marketing.

  13. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  14. Geographies of Conservation I: De-extinction and Precision Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, William Mark

    2016-01-01

    Extinction has long been a central concern in biodiversity conservation. Today, de-extinction offers interesting possibilities of restoring charismatic species and ecosystem function, but also risks and costs. Most de-extinction depends on genetic engineering and synthetic biology. These technologies are also proposed for use in ‘gene tweaking’ in wild species to enhance their chance of survival. Within conservation, the resulting debates pit an optimistic world of high-tech ‘precision con...

  15. Test Method for Spalling of Fire Exposed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2005-01-01

    A new material test method is presented for determining whether or not an actual concrete may suffer from explosive spalling at a specified moisture level. The method takes into account the effect of stresses from hindered thermal expansion at the fire-exposed surface. Cylinders are used, which...... in many countries serve as standard specimens for testing the compressive strength. Consequently, the method is quick, cheap and easy to use in comparison to the alternative of testing full-scale or semi full-scale structures with correct humidity, load and boundary conditions. A number of concretes have...

  16. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  17. Climate, Carbon, Conservation and Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaugn, Kit; Brickell, Emily [WWF-UK (United Kingdom); Roe, Dilys; Reid, Hannah; Elliot, Jo

    2007-07-01

    The growing market for carbon offers great opportunities for linking greenhouse gas mitigation with conservation of forests and biodiversity, and the generation of local livelihoods. For these combined objectives to be achieved, strong governance is needed along with institutions that ensure poor people win, rather than lose out, from the new challenges posed by climate change. This briefing paper explores the opportunities from and limitations to carbon-based funds for conservation and development. It highlights mechanisms that may help secure benefits for climate, conservation and communities.

  18. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  19. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  20. Fracture behaviour of the 14Cr ODS steel exposed to helium and liquid lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojna, Anna, E-mail: Anna.Hojna@cvrez.cz [Centrum Vyzkumu Rez s.r.o., UJV Group, Rez 130, 250 68 Husinec (Czech Republic); Di Gabriele, Fosca [Centrum Vyzkumu Rez s.r.o., UJV Group, Rez 130, 250 68 Husinec (Czech Republic); Hadraba, Hynek; Husak, Roman; Kubena, Ivo [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Rozumova, Lucia; Bublikova, Petra; Kalivodova, Jana [Centrum Vyzkumu Rez s.r.o., UJV Group, Rez 130, 250 68 Husinec (Czech Republic); Matejicek, Jiri [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 182 00 Praha (Czech Republic)

    2017-07-15

    This work describes the fracture behaviour of the 14Cr ODS steel produced by mechanical alloying process, after high temperature exposures. Small specimens were exposed to helium gas in a furnace at 720 °C for 500 h. Another set of specimens was exposed to flowing liquid lead in the COLONRI II loop at 650 °C for 1000 h. All specimens were tested for the impact and tensile behaviour. The impact test results are compared to other sets of specimens in the as received state and after isothermal annealing at 650 °C for 1000 h. The impact curves of the exposed materials showed positive shifts on the transition temperature. While the upper shelf value did not change in the Pb exposed ODS steel, it significantly increased in the He exposed one. The differences are discussed in terms of surface and subsurface microscopy observation. The embrittlement can be explained as the effect of a slight change in the grain boundary and size distribution combined with the depletion of sub-surface region from alloying elements forming oxide scale on the surface. - Highlights: •We compared the impact energy curves of as received, isothermally aged and He/Pb exposed ODS steel samples. •The highest transition temperature showed the ODS steel exposed to liquid Pb at 650 °C for 1000 h. •We observed the higher tendency of the He exposed samples to crack arrester delamination than the Pb exposed ones. •The crack arrested delamination induced apparent increase of impact energies.

  1. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage and exposed silage particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.

  2. 118 CONSERVATION NARRATIVES AND CONTESTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... conservation narratives and resource conflicts and degradation in Zambia‟s .... protection without being subject to human competition and exploitation. ..... guard was retrenched as part of the SAP process leaving the reserve ...

  3. Electric power conservation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, J.B. de

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electric Power Conservation Program (PROCEL) is discussed. The main objective of this program is the optimization of electric power use, including consideration about prices, technology development and legislation. (M.V.M.)

  4. To what extent do potential conservation donors value community-aspects of conservation projects in low income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard P.; Gibbons, James M.; Jones, Julia P. G.

    2018-01-01

    There is a major gap in funding required for conservation, especially in low income countries. Given the significant contribution of taxpayers in industrialized countries to funding conservation overseas, and donations from membership organisation, understanding the preferences of ordinary people in a high income country for different attributes of conservation projects is valuable for future marketing of conservation. We conducted a discrete choice experiment with visitors to a UK zoo, while simultaneously conducting a revealed preference study through a real donation campaign on the same sample. Respondents showed the highest willingness to pay for projects that have local community involvement in management (95% confidence interval £9.82 to £15.83), and for improvement in threatened species populations (£2.97 - £13.87). Both of these were significantly larger than the willingness to pay for projects involving provision of alternative livelihoods, or improving the condition of conservation sites. Results of the simultaneous donation campaign showed that respondents were very willing to donate the suggested £1 or above donation (88% made a donation, n = 1798); there was no effect of which of the two campaigns they were exposed to (threatened species management or community involvement in management). The small number of people who did not make a donation had a higher stated willingness to pay within the choice experiment, which may suggest hypothetical bias. Conservationists increasingly argue that conservation should include local communities in management (for both pragmatic and moral reasons). It is heartening that potential conservation donors seem to agree. PMID:29451923

  5. Dictionary of applied energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kut, D

    1982-01-01

    The escalating cost of energy is drawing an ever increasing number of people into the planning and execution of energy conservation measures and programs and confronts them with the specialist terminology of the conservationist. The object of this illustrated dictionary is to list the generality of terms employed in energy conservation practice and to explain, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the basic definitions and underlying techniques.

  6. Energy conservation. Ambitions and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    From results of monitoring it is shown that energy conservation in the Netherlands is behind the ambitions of the Dutch government. The Dutch Court of Audit examined the reasons why energy conservation targets are not met and what the consequences are for the national and European energy and climate goals for 2020. Also the Dutch Court of Audit looked at the possibilities to make energy saving policies more effective. [nl

  7. Energy conservation, efficiency and energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the conservation, efficiency, audit, fundamentals, differences and methods, the objectives of energy conservation, definitions of energy audit, scope, short term, medium term and long term measures to be taken for conservation are discussed

  8. Conservation genetics of Iberian raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez–Cruz, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I provide an overview of conservation genetics and describe the management actions in the wild that can benefit from conservation genetic studies. I describe the genetic factors of risk for the survival of wild species, the consequences of loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and outbreeding depression, and the use of genetic tools to delimitate units of conservation. Then I introduce the most common applications of conservation genetics in the management of wild populations. In a second part of the paper I review the conservation genetic studies carried on the Iberian raptors. I introduce several studies on the Spanish imperial eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture and the red kite that were carried out using autosomal microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing. I describe studies on the lesser kestrel and Egyptian vulture that additionally applied major histocompatibility complex (MHC markers, with the purpose of incorporating the study of non–neutral variation. For every species I explain how these studies can be and/or are applied in the strategy of conservation in the wild.

  9. Three-Fingered RAVERs: Rapid Accumulation of Variations in Exposed Residues of Snake Venom Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Ali, Syed. A.; Antunes, Agostinho; Fry, Bryan G.

    2013-01-01

    Three-finger toxins (3FTx) represent one of the most abundantly secreted and potently toxic components of colubrid (Colubridae), elapid (Elapidae) and psammophid (Psammophiinae subfamily of the Lamprophidae) snake venom arsenal. Despite their conserved structural similarity, they perform a diversity of biological functions. Although they are theorised to undergo adaptive evolution, the underlying diversification mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report the molecular evolution of different 3FTx functional forms and show that positively selected point mutations have driven the rapid evolution and diversification of 3FTx. These diversification events not only correlate with the evolution of advanced venom delivery systems (VDS) in Caenophidia, but in particular the explosive diversification of the clade subsequent to the evolution of a high pressure, hollow-fanged VDS in elapids, highlighting the significant role of these toxins in the evolution of advanced snakes. We show that Type I, II and III α-neurotoxins have evolved with extreme rapidity under the influence of positive selection. We also show that novel Oxyuranus/Pseudonaja Type II forms lacking the apotypic loop-2 stabilising cysteine doublet characteristic of Type II forms are not phylogenetically basal in relation to other Type IIs as previously thought, but are the result of secondary loss of these apotypic cysteines on at least three separate occasions. Not all 3FTxs have evolved rapidly: κ-neurotoxins, which form non-covalently associated heterodimers, have experienced a relatively weaker influence of diversifying selection; while cytotoxic 3FTx, with their functional sites, dispersed over 40% of the molecular surface, have been extremely constrained by negative selection. We show that the a previous theory of 3FTx molecular evolution (termed ASSET) is evolutionarily implausible and cannot account for the considerable variation observed in very short segments of 3FTx. Instead, we propose a theory of

  10. 9 CFR 430.4 - Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products. 430.4 Section 430.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products. (a) Listeria... comes into direct contact with a food contact surface which is contaminated with L. monocytogenes. (b...

  11. Method and means of reducing erosion of components of plasma devices exposed to helium and hydrogen isotope radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.S.; Das, S.K.; Rossing, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    Surfaces of components of plasma devices exposed to radiation by atoms or ions of helium or isotopes of hydrogen can be protected from damage due to blistering by shielding the surfaces with a structure formed by sintering a powder of aluminum or beryllium and its oxide or by coating the surfaces with such a sintered metal powder. 7 claims

  12. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    : Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17-76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected...... and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal......, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education...

  13. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

  14. Constructing Conservation Impact: Understanding Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benson Wahlén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholars critically examine large conservation organisations to explore organisational intentions, practices, and outcomes. In parallel, other scholars have problematised audit cultures, suggesting that these seemingly good practices of evaluation and measurement are not neutral and instead have consequences for governance and power. This article combines literature on conservation NGOs, organisational theory, and audit culture to study the inner workings of conservation and to understand the construction of effectiveness and impact. I draw on semi-structured interviews to examine how a large, international conservation organisation, which I term the World Conservation Organisation (WCO; a pseudonym, coordinates monitoring and evaluation (M&E processes among its international, national, and local offices. I find individual staff within WCO make varying assumptions about the M&E policies and place different values on M&E, which results in different institutional logics towards M&E and a broader organisational failure to measure progress and reflect upon outcomes. The findings also show difficulties in translating broad organisational goals into specific project activities, underscoring tensions in implementation and limitations in M&E practice. I also find that organisational and managerial pressure to report success is greater than donor pressure, a finding that expands understandings of NGO-donor dynamics.

  15. Proximally exposed A-bomb survivors. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    Methods for observing chromosomes can be chronologically divided into the era of non-differential staining technique (1962-1975) and the era of differential staining method (since 1976). This paper reviews the literature of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells found in the two eras. Findings during the era of 1962-1975 include the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, comparison of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and T lymphocytes, and annual variation of chromosomal aberrations. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was high in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (90.5% and 52.6% in A-bomb survivors exposed within 500 m and at 501-1,000 m, respectively); on the contrary, it was low in those exposed far from 1,000 m (6.2% or less). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells was lower than that in T lymphocytes (21.5% vs 27.1% in those exposed within 500 m and 14.1% vs 23% in those exposed at 501-1,000 m). Annual analysis for chromosomal aberrations has shown the somewhat dependence upon medullary hematopoiesis and virus infection. The advent of differential staining technique since 1976 has made it possible to clarify the type of chromosomal aberrations and site of breakage. Of 710 bone marrow cells taken from 13 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m, 121 cells (from 11 A-bomb survivors) exhibited chromosomal aberrations. In differential staining analysis, all 121 cells but one were found to be of stable type, such as translocation and inversion. Furthermore, the site of breakage was found to be non-randomly distributed. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells has advantages of reflecting dynamic condition of these cells and determining gradual progression into leukemia. (N.K.)

  16. The exposed proteomes of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Casas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli are well-known intestinal pathogens in pigs. B. hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a disease with an important impact on pig production while B. pilosicoli is responsible of a milder diarrheal disease in these animals, porcine intestinal spirochetosis. Recent sequencing projects have provided information for the genome of these species facilitating the search of vaccine candidates using reverse vaccinology approaches. However, practically no experimental evidence exists of the actual gene products being expressed and of those proteins exposed on the cell surface or released to the cell media. Using a cell-shaving strategy and a shotgun proteomic approach we carried out a large-scale characterization of the exposed proteins on the bacterial surface in these species as well as of peptides and proteins in the extracellular medium. The study included 3 strains of B. hyodysenteriae and 2 strains of B. pilosicoli and involved 148 LC-MS/MS runs on a high resolution Orbitrap instrument. Overall, we provided evidence for more than 29000 different peptides pointing to 1625 and 1338 different proteins in B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli, respectively. Many of the most abundant proteins detected corresponded to described virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The level of expression of these proteins, however, was different among species and strains, stressing the value of determining actual gene product levels as a complement of genomic-based approaches for vaccine design.

  17. Host-Primed Ebola Virus GP Exposes a Hydrophobic NPC1 Receptor-Binding Pocket, Revealing a Target for Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A. Bornholdt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The filovirus surface glycoprotein (GP mediates viral entry into host cells. Following viral internalization into endosomes, GP is cleaved by host cysteine proteases to expose a receptor-binding site (RBS that is otherwise hidden from immune surveillance. Here, we present the crystal structure of proteolytically cleaved Ebola virus GP to a resolution of 3.3 Å. We use this structure in conjunction with functional analysis of a large panel of pseudotyped viruses bearing mutant GP proteins to map the Ebola virus GP endosomal RBS at molecular resolution. Our studies indicate that binding of GP to its endosomal receptor Niemann-Pick C1 occurs in two distinct stages: the initial electrostatic interactions are followed by specific interactions with a hydrophobic trough that is exposed on the endosomally cleaved GP1 subunit. Finally, we demonstrate that monoclonal antibodies targeting the filovirus RBS neutralize all known filovirus GPs, making this conserved pocket a promising target for the development of panfilovirus therapeutics.

  18. Evaluation of presenting conserved foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asl Soleimani H

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.

  19. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  20. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological conservation of aquatic inland habitats: these are better days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Winfield

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of aquatic inland habitats currently faces unprecedented threats from human activities. At the same time, although much is known about the functioning of freshwater ecosystems the successful transfer of such knowledge to practical conservation has not been universal. Global awareness of aquatic conservation issues is also hampered by the fact that conditions under the water surface are largely hidden from the direct experience of most members of society. Connectivity, or lack of it, is another challenge to the conservation of freshwater habitats, while urban areas can play a perhaps unexpectedly important positive role. Freshwater habitats frequently enjoy benefits accruing from a sense of ownership or stewardship by local inhabitants, which has led to the development of conservation movements which commonly started life centred on the aquatic inland habitat itself but of which many have now matured into wider catchment-based conservation programmes. A demonstrable need for evidence-based conservation management in turn requires scientific assessments to be increasingly robust and standardised, while at the same time remaining open to the adoption of technological advances and welcoming the rapidly developing citizen science movement. There is evidence of real progress in this context and conservation scientists are now communicating their findings to environmental managers in a way and on a scale that was rarely seen a couple of decades ago. It is only in this way that scientific knowledge can be efficiently transferred to conservation planning, prioritisation and ultimately management in an increasingly scaled-up, joined-up and resource-limited world. The principle of ‘prevention is better than cure’ is particularly appropriate to most biological conservation issues in aquatic inland habitats and is inextricably linked to educating and/or nudging appropriate human behaviours. When prevention fails, some form of emergency

  2. Conservation and non-conservation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1990-01-01

    The difficulties of conservation laws in general relativity are discussed, with special reference to the non-tangible nature of gravitational energy and its transformation into tangible forms of energy. Inductive transfer of energy is marked out as wholly distinct from wave transfer. Slow (adiabatic) changes are utilized to make clear, in the axi-symmetric case, that the mass of an isolated body is conserved irrespective of any local changes (e.g. of shape) and that in inductive transfer the movement of energy between two bodies can readily be traced by the changes in their masses. (author)

  3. Conservation properties and potential systems of vorticity-type equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.

    2014-01-01

    Partial differential equations of the form divN=0, N t +curl M=0 involving two vector functions in R 3 depending on t, x, y, z appear in different physical contexts, including the vorticity formulation of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, and Maxwell's equations. It is shown that these equations possess an infinite family of local divergence-type conservation laws involving arbitrary functions of space and time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the equations of interest have a rather special structure of a lower-degree (degree two) conservation law in R 4 (t,x,y,z). The corresponding potential system has a clear physical meaning. For the Maxwell's equations, it gives rise to the scalar electric and the vector magnetic potentials; for the vorticity equations of fluid dynamics, the potentialization inverts the curl operator to yield the fluid dynamics equations in primitive variables; for MHD equations, the potential equations yield a generalization of the Galas-Bogoyavlenskij potential that describes magnetic surfaces of ideal MHD equilibria. The lower-degree conservation law is further shown to yield curl-type conservation laws and determined potential equations in certain lower-dimensional settings. Examples of new nonlocal conservation laws, including an infinite family of nonlocal material conservation laws of ideal time-dependent MHD equations in 2+1 dimensions, are presented

  4. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Abolanle Busari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to match food production with increasing world population through identification of sustainable land management strategies. However, the struggle to achieve food security should be carried out keeping in mind the soil where the crops are grown and the environment in which the living things survive. Conservation agriculture (CA, practising agriculture in such a way so as to cause minimum damage to the environment, is being advocated at a large scale world-wide. Conservation tillage, the most important aspect of CA, is thought to take care of the soil health, plant growth and the environment. This paper aims to review the work done on conservation tillage in different agro-ecological regions so as to understand its impact from the perspectives of the soil, the crop and the environment. Research reports have identified several benefits of conservation tillage over conventional tillage (CT with respect to soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as crop yields. Not less than 25% of the greenhouse gas effluxes to the atmosphere are attributed to agriculture. Processes of climate change mitigation and adaptation found zero tillage (ZT to be the most environmental friendly among different tillage techniques. Therefore, conservation tillage involving ZT and minimum tillage which has potential to break the surface compact zone in soil with reduced soil disturbance offers to lead to a better soil environment and crop yield with minimal impact on the environment. Keywords: Atmosphere, Greenhouse gases, Conservation tillage, Sustainable crop yield

  5. Conserving and managing the subnivium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Pauli, Jonathan N

    2018-02-08

    In regions where snowfall historically has been a defining seasonal characteristic of the landscape, warming winters have reduced the depth, duration, and extent of snowpack. However, most management and conservation has focused on how aboveground wildlife will be affected by altered snow conditions, even though the majority of species that persist through the winter do so under the snowpack in a thermally stable refugium: the subnivium. Shortened winters, forest management practices, and winter recreation can alter subnivium conditions by increasing snow compaction and compromising thermal stability at the soil-snow interface. To help slow the loss of the subnivium in the face of rapidly changing winter conditions, we suggest managers adopt regional conservation plans for identifying threatened snow-covered environments; measure and predict the effects land cover and habitat management has on local subnivium conditions; and control the timing and distribution of activities that disturb and compact snow cover (e.g., silvicultural practices, snow recreation, and road and trail maintenance). As a case study, we developed a spatially explicit model of subnivium presence in a working landscape of the Chequamegon National Forest, Wisconsin. We identified landscapes where winter recreation and management practices could threaten potentially important areas for subnivium persistence. Similar modeling approaches could inform management decisions related to subnivium conservation. Current climate projections predict that snow seasons will change rapidly in many regions, and as result, we advocate for the immediate recognition, conservation, and management of the subnivium and its dependent species. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Conclusion: From describing to prescribing--transitioning to place-based conservation [Chapter 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    William P. Stewart; Daniel R. Williams; Linda E. Kruger

    2013-01-01

    The chapters of this book describe various perspectives from the social sciences of place-based conservation. The prescriptive implications are often close to the surface and become entangled with them. This chapter highlights four overlapping approaches to the practice of place-based conservation and acknowledges the difficulty of separating descriptions from...

  7. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  8. Exposing Library Services with AngularJS

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Voß; Moritz Horn

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the JavaScript framework AngularJS and specific AngularJS modules for accessing library services. It shows how information such as search suggestions, additional links, and availability can be embedded in any website. The ease of reuse may encourage more libraries to expose their services via standard APIs to allow usage in different contexts.

  9. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  10. Stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, M.; Kuhr, H.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes in reactor buildings. The trolley and the crane bridge are fitted with the stabilizer consisting of a bipartite safety catch which is connected with a joint and able to take up the vertical loads during an earthquake. This stabilizer is suitable for all kinds of bridge cranes operated in seismically active regions

  11. Dose coefficients for individual occupationally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', aiming its application to the dose calculation, with purposes of conformity verification with limits and restrictions of doses and level of reference for individual occupationally exposed, according to the express in its section 5

  12. The contribution of community wisdom to conservation ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predavec, Martin; Lunney, Daniel; Hope, Ben; Stalenberg, Eleanor; Shannon, Ian; Crowther, Mathew S; Miller, Indrie

    2016-06-01

    Scientists have traditionally collected data on whether a population is increasing, decreasing, or staying the same, but such studies are often limited by geographic scale and time frame. This means that for many species, understanding of trends comes from only part of their ranges at particular periods. Working with citizen scientists has the potential to overcome these limits. Citizen science has the added benefit of exposing citizens to the scientific process and engaging them in management outcomes. We examined a different way of using citizen scientists (instead of data collection). We asked community members to answer a question directly and thus examined whether community wisdom can inform conservation. We reviewed the results of 3 mail-in surveys that asked community members to say whether they thought koala populations were increasing, decreasing, or staying the same. We then compared the survey results with population trends derived from more traditional research. Population trends identified through community wisdom were similar to the trends identified by traditional research. The community wisdom surveys, however, allowed the question to be addressed at much broader geographical scales and time frames. Studies that apply community wisdom have the benefit of engaging a broad section of the community in conservation research and education and therefore in the political process of conserving species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M.; Khaliullin, Timur O.; Vasil'yeva, Olga L.; Zalyalov, Ramil R.; Mustafin, Ilshat G.; Kisin, Elena R.; Birch, M. Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  14. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M., E-mail: liliya.fatkhutdinova@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Khaliullin, Timur O., E-mail: Khaliullin.40k@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States); Vasil' yeva, Olga L., E-mail: volgaleon@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Zalyalov, Ramil R., E-mail: zalyalov.ramil@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Mustafin, Ilshat G., E-mail: ilshat64@mail.ru [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Kisin, Elena R., E-mail: edk8@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Birch, M. Eileen, E-mail: mib2@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yanamala, Naveena, E-mail: wqu1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  15. Additive versus multiplicative muon conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemethy, P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental elucidation of the question of muon conservation is reviewed. It is shown that neutral-current experiments have not yet yielded information about muonium-antimuonium conversion at the weak-interaction level and that all the charged-current experiments agree that there is no evidence for a multiplicative law. The best limits, from the muon-decay neutrino experiment at LAMPF and from the inverse muon-decay experiment in the CERN neutrino beam, definitely exclude multiplicative law schemes with a branching ratio R approximately 1/2. It is concluded that unless the dynamics conspire to make a multiplicative law with very small R it would appear that muon conservation obeys conserved additive lepton flavor law. (U.K.)

  16. Quality control in breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, breast conservation has become an accepted option for treatment of Stages I and II carcinoma of the breast; in this practice in 1991, more than 80% of these patients were treated in this manner. A surgical procedure to excise the primary lesion and to dissect the axilla is generally required to prepare patients for breast conservation, concurrently maximizing esthetic appearance of the breast, minimizing the risk of local recurrence and providing appropriate information for recommendations concerning adjuvant therapy. The volume of breast tissue to be removed, significance of findings at surgical margins, and extent of the axillary dissection are all somewhat controversial subjects. Based upon a personal series of almost 800 patients undergoing breast conservation, observations that reflect the findings from this experience may be shared. (author)

  17. The Conservation Ideological State Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared D Margulies

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Louis Althusser's theory of the ideological state apparatuses (ISAs for advancing political ecology scholarship on the functioning of the state in violent environments. I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis.

  18. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Third Wave. . . America's New Conservation, Conservation Yearbook No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    Concerned first with the definition of conservation and its problems, and then with specific actions by the Department of the Interior in response to these problems, this 1966 yearbook provides highlights of work done by the 26 bureaus, offices, and/or administrations within the Department. Coverage is broad, relating to many aspects of…

  20. 43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1... INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general. The Secretary shall encourage the full consideration and incorporation of prudent and responsible water conservation...

  1. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program participant... conservation plan for the acreage designated under an agreement. (b) The conservation plan is the basis for the...

  2. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  3. Conserving energy by eliminating waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N. H.

    1979-07-01

    Some ways in which energy is wasted in industry are discussed and the losses involved are quantified. Reference is made to a particular loss in annealing furnaces; wasted energy in factory and lighting systems; heat generated by motors and lighting and by such processes as welding; unlagged hot pipework and most hot processes; and poor building envelope features. It is concluded that an industry should declare its intention of conservation at the highest possible level, identify conservation as a manufacturing target, and invest the responsibility in people for whom it is a full-time activity. (MCW)

  4. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs there is a g......This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...

  5. Fuel conservation: the airline - ATC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundy, P.M.

    1982-05-01

    The air traffic control system has a greater impact on fuel conservation than any other factor in aviation, the most energy intensive industry in the world. The article discusses various measures that could be adopted by airlines and air traffic controllers to increase fuel conservation. These include: reducing operating empty weights, flying at optimum altitude, direct routing, linear holding, speed control, flight planning, loading for favorable center of gravity to reduce trim drag, minimizing route mileage, and clearance priorities for more fuel demanding aircraft during landing.

  6. Energy conservation. A goal for Albertans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, L

    1988-01-01

    In late 1985, the Public Advisory Committees to the Environmental Council of Alberta began working toward a draft conservation strategy for Alberta. A prospectus was published and meetings and workshops held, the goal being a conservation strategy in place by 1992. This report is one of a series of discussion papers on relevant sectors such as agriculture, fish and wildlife, tourism, and various specific energy sources. This report focuses on energy use in general in the province, including the role of energy conservation in a conservation strategy, the potential for energy conservation, barriers, actions to encourage conservation, the impacts of conserving energy, and the next steps to take. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Fracture behaviour of the 14Cr ODS steel exposed to helium and liquid lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojna, Anna; Di Gabriele, Fosca; Hadraba, Hynek; Husak, Roman; Kubena, Ivo; Rozumova, Lucia; Bublikova, Petra; Kalivodova, Jana; Matejicek, Jiri

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the fracture behaviour of the 14Cr ODS steel produced by mechanical alloying process, after high temperature exposures. Small specimens were exposed to helium gas in a furnace at 720 °C for 500 h. Another set of specimens was exposed to flowing liquid lead in the COLONRI II loop at 650 °C for 1000 h. All specimens were tested for the impact and tensile behaviour. The impact test results are compared to other sets of specimens in the as received state and after isothermal annealing at 650 °C for 1000 h. The impact curves of the exposed materials showed positive shifts on the transition temperature. While the upper shelf value did not change in the Pb exposed ODS steel, it significantly increased in the He exposed one. The differences are discussed in terms of surface and subsurface microscopy observation. The embrittlement can be explained as the effect of a slight change in the grain boundary and size distribution combined with the depletion of sub-surface region from alloying elements forming oxide scale on the surface.

  8. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  9. Dynamical speckles in watery surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llovera-Gonzalez, J.J.; Moreno-Yeras, A.; Garcia-Diaz, M.; Alvarez-Salgado, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of watery surfaces with monolayer of surfactant substances is of interest in diverse technological applications. The format ion and study of molecular monolayer deposited in these surfaces require the application of measurements techniques that allow evaluating the recovery grade locally without modifying practically the studied surface. In this paper the preliminary results obtained by the authors it plows exposed applying the technique of dynamic speckle interferometry in watery surfaces and their consideration like to possible resource to measure the grade of local recovery of these surfaces on the it bases that the speckles pattern dog reveal the dynamics of evaporation that takes place in the same ones. (Author)

  10. Global sea turtle conservation successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaris, Antonios D; Schofield, Gail; Gkazinou, Chrysoula; Almpanidou, Vasiliki; Hays, Graeme C

    2017-09-01

    We document a tendency for published estimates of population size in sea turtles to be increasing rather than decreasing across the globe. To examine the population status of the seven species of sea turtle globally, we obtained 299 time series of annual nesting abundance with a total of 4417 annual estimates. The time series ranged in length from 6 to 47 years (mean, 16.2 years). When levels of abundance were summed within regional management units (RMUs) for each species, there were upward trends in 12 RMUs versus downward trends in 5 RMUs. This prevalence of more upward than downward trends was also evident in the individual time series, where we found 95 significant increases in abundance and 35 significant decreases. Adding to this encouraging news for sea turtle conservation, we show that even small sea turtle populations have the capacity to recover, that is, Allee effects appear unimportant. Positive trends in abundance are likely linked to the effective protection of eggs and nesting females, as well as reduced bycatch. However, conservation concerns remain, such as the decline in leatherback turtles in the Eastern and Western Pacific. Furthermore, we also show that, often, time series are too short to identify trends in abundance. Our findings highlight the importance of continued conservation and monitoring efforts that underpin this global conservation success story.

  11. Energy & Conservation Glossary. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, John; And Others

    Defined in this glossary are nearly 800 terms related to energy and conservation. Space provided at the end of each alphabetic section allows users to add new words and definitions. This publication is part of a set of resources prepared for teachers by "Energy and Man's Environment." (Author/WB)

  12. Molecular Tools For Biodiversity Conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conservation in India. They are ... cuss these with case studies on some cat species in India. Introduction ... fallout since vital resources such as clean air, water, and food ... tion, climate change has become a much-dreaded catchword, and .... (Eastern. Mangroves Total and West- ern). /Inland wetlands. DNA extraction. 66.

  13. Molecular Tools For Biodiversity Conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... habits that make them difficultstudy subjects when using conventional field techniques.Molecular tools can be used to decipher distributions andpopulation connectedness in fragmented habitats and identifypopulations of immediate conservation concern. We discussthese with case studies on some cat species in India.

  14. Conservation of South African Rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Keeffe, JH

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the proceedings of a three-day workshop at Midmar Dam designed to establish a consensus view of river conservation and to provide professional conservationists, managers and planners with a set of guidelines. These indicate what...

  15. Conservation tax rebates under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes federal legislative response to an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) ruling that rebates offered as incentives by utilities are taxable as gross income. A bill is being introduced that will reverse the situation. Statements from various conservation and industry organizations are offered in support of the bill. The IRS is also reviewing its ruling

  16. Understanding Conservation: A Playful Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefaloukos, Mary-Anne; Bobis, Janette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some aspects of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. It highlights the importance of giving young children specific access to explore conservation in measurement, which will give students invaluable experiences in measurement that in years to come will be regarded as their prior knowledge of the concept. This is…

  17. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  18. Conservation of threatened natural habitats

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this book is to give a holistic setting to the conservation of plants and animals. Instead of concentrating on species alone, the aim is to spread the concern to the physical and biological features; including humanity that make up...

  19. Energy conservation applications of microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, James Y.

    1979-07-01

    A survey of the application of microprocessors for industrial and commercial energy conservation has been made. Microprocessor applications for HVAC, chiller control, and automotive equipment are discussed. A case study of successful replacement of a conventional cooling plant control is recounted. The rapid advancement of microelectronic technology will affect efficient energy control, more sophisticated control methodology, and more investment in controls.

  20. Food production and nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Iain J.; Squire, Geoff R.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding the world's growing human population is increasingly challenging, especially as more people adopt a western diet and lifestyle. Doing so without causing damage to nature poses an even greater challenge. This book argues that in order to create a sustainable food supply whilst conserving

  1. Ecology for conserving our sirenians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Review of: Ecology and conservation of the sirenia: dugongs and manatees. Helene Marsh, Thomas J. O'Shea and John E. Reynolds III. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012, 521 pp, ISBN 978-0-521-88828-8, US$135 and 978-0-521-71643-7, US$65.

  2. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, genuine nonlinearity is always present in an ideal gas. The conservation form of the equation (25) brings in shocks which cut off the growing part of the amplitUde as shown in. Figure 15. Acknowledgements. The author sincerely thanks the two referees whose valuable comments led to an improvement of the ...

  3. Conservative approach to rectosigmoid endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Anne G; Marinovskij, Edvard; Forman, Axel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the risk of surgery after initial conservative treatment of rectosigmoid endometriosis in relation to demographic data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on the tertiary endometriosis referral unit, Aarhus University Hospital. Medical...

  4. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Wildlife Conservation/JGI Switzerland. ISSN: 1662-2510. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals ...

  5. Conservative Ideology and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…

  6. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  7. The Conservative Challenge to Liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reconstructs the political–theoretical triangle between liberalism, communitarianism and conservatism. It shows how these three positions are related to each other and to what extent they are actually incompatible. The substantive outcome is the following thesis: the conservative position

  8. New issues in orchid conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 5 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : orchid conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.ejes.cz/index.php/ejes/article/view/46

  9. Tapir health and conservation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Medici, Emilia Patrícia; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2012-12-01

    Tapirs have unique nutritional needs, as well as anatomical, physiological, behavioral and ecological adaptations that must be considered when managing their health, both in the wild and in captivity. Information about how tapirs live in their natural habitats can provide crucial knowledge to prevent many of the health problems found in captivity such as infectious and parasitic diseases, reproductive issues and nutritional and behavioral disorders. Likewise, proper management in captivity can significantly contribute to in situ conservation programs. Conservation medicine is a science created to address the global health crisis that jeopardizes biodiversity causing imbalances among ecosystem, human, animal and vegetal health. In this context, common threats to tapir health and conservation, such as isolated and small populations surrounded by human activity, chemical pollution, domestic animals and their pathogenic agents, need to be better understood. This manuscript provides information about the health of tapirs both in captivity and in the wild and aims to encourage tapir conservationists worldwide to gather information about pathogen and disease dynamics and manifestation, as well as implications for tapir conservation. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  10. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1991. Information on documents published prior to 1986 can be obtained from ORNL. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  11. Energy conservation and petroleum substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebbekus, J; Kraft-Woelfel, G

    1982-04-01

    Shortage and price increases for energy have caused large population groups to give new thought to the subject. For the knowledge on energy necessary to make a decision, ultimate consumers mostly rely on their social environment, personal contacts and the media. Important information on energy conservation should be provided by regional electric utilities. A concept for this purpose is discussed.

  12. Energy conservation in rented buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Broechner, J.; Forsman, J.; Gaunt, L.; Holgersson, M.

    1984-08-01

    The bulletin is an anthology of nine essays by different authors addressing the issue of energy conservation in buildings, where there exists a landlord/tenant relationship. After an overview of the rental market and the stock of rental buildings different types of rental contracts and energy charges are described.

  13. Stability of people exposed to water flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez-Gomariz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our cities are formed by several elements which are exposed to floods of a magnitude according to the importance of the rainfall event and the design of the urban drainage system. The most important components in the cities are the pedestrians who develop various activities during rain events. Focusing on pedestrians, the research on their stability when they are exposed to water flows provides the necessary knowledge to understand and manage the associated hazard for them. In this research, several experiments with humans were carried out in order to determine the stability limits to pedestrians crossing through a water flow in a real scale platform. The results obtained and by comparing those with human stability criteria proposed by other authors and guidelines provide a more restrictive criterion.

  14. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  15. Studies on persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Haxton, L.K.; York, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of four studies of persons exposed, or potentially exposed, to plutonium are summarized. The studies are: a five-year update on clinical examinations and health experience of 26 Manhattan District workers heavily exposed at Los Alamos in 1944 to 1945; a 30-year mortality follow-up of 224 white male workers with plutonium body burdens of 10 nCi or more; a review of cancer mortality rates between 1950 and 1969 among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities; and a review of cancer incidence rates between 1969 and 1974 in male residents of Los Alamos County. No excess of mortality due to any cause was observed in the 224 male subjects with the highest plutonium exposures at Los Alamos. Clinical examinations of the Manhattan District workers, whose average age in 1976 was 56 years, show them to be active persons with diseases that are not unusual for their ages. The two deaths in this group over the past 30 years have not been due to cancer. Mortality and incidence data indicate no excess of lung cancer in Los Alamos County males

  16. Atomic friction at exposed and buried graphite step edges: Experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhijiang; Martini, Ashlie, E-mail: amartini@ucmerced.edu [School of Engineering, University of California Merced, 5200 N. Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The surfaces of layered materials such as graphite exhibit step edges that affect friction. Step edges can be exposed, where the step occurs at the outmost layer, or buried, where the step is underneath another layer of material. Here, we study friction at exposed and buried step edges on graphite using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and complementary molecular dynamics simulations of the AFM tip apex. Exposed and buried steps exhibit distinct friction behavior, and the friction on either step is affected by the direction of sliding, i.e., moving up or down the step, and the bluntness of the tip. These trends are analyzing in terms of the trajectory of the AFM tip as it moves over the step, which is a convolution of the topography of the surface and the tip shape.

  17. Atomic friction at exposed and buried graphite step edges: Experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhijiang; Martini, Ashlie

    2015-01-01

    The surfaces of layered materials such as graphite exhibit step edges that affect friction. Step edges can be exposed, where the step occurs at the outmost layer, or buried, where the step is underneath another layer of material. Here, we study friction at exposed and buried step edges on graphite using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and complementary molecular dynamics simulations of the AFM tip apex. Exposed and buried steps exhibit distinct friction behavior, and the friction on either step is affected by the direction of sliding, i.e., moving up or down the step, and the bluntness of the tip. These trends are analyzing in terms of the trajectory of the AFM tip as it moves over the step, which is a convolution of the topography of the surface and the tip shape

  18. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY... proposes energy conservation standards for a number of different groups of electric motors that DOE has not...

  20. A conservative approach for restoring anterior guidance: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontons-Melo, Juan Carlos; Pizzatto, Eduardo; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Mondelli, José

    2012-06-01

    One of the most common dental problems in today's clinics is tooth wear, specifically when related to bruxism. In such cases, the esthetics of anterior teeth may be compromised when excessive wear to the incisal surfaces occurs. Anterior tooth wear resulting from parafunctional bruxism can be conservatively treated with the use of direct resin composite restorations. This restorative approach has the advantages of presenting good predictability, load resistance, acceptable longevity, preservation of healthy dental tissues, and lower cost when compared with indirect restorations. The use of resin composites to solve esthetic problems, however, requires skill and practice. Thus, the present article demonstrates a conservative approach for restoring the esthetics and function of worn anterior teeth with the aid of direct resin composite restorations and selective occlusal adjustment. A conservative approach to restore anterior teeth with excessive wear is possible with direct resin composites. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Conservation laws with coinciding smooth solutions but different conserved variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Rinaldo M.; Guerra, Graziano

    2018-04-01

    Consider two hyperbolic systems of conservation laws in one space dimension with the same eigenvalues and (right) eigenvectors. We prove that solutions to Cauchy problems with the same initial data differ at third order in the total variation of the initial datum. As a first application, relying on the classical Glimm-Lax result (Glimm and Lax in Decay of solutions of systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws. Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society, No. 101. American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1970), we obtain estimates improving those in Saint-Raymond (Arch Ration Mech Anal 155(3):171-199, 2000) on the distance between solutions to the isentropic and non-isentropic inviscid compressible Euler equations, under general equations of state. Further applications are to the general scalar case, where rather precise estimates are obtained, to an approximation by Di Perna of the p-system and to a traffic model.

  2. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508 Lightning... conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are adequately...

  3. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1988-01-01

    The Pahang and Johore State Governments have agreed to declare the 92,000 hectare Endau-Rompin Forest as a State Park. It had been proposed as a National Park in 1975, but, as usual, this did not prevent logging in the core area in 1977. This was halted after considerable national protest, but

  4. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    CITES: In February 1987 Singapore finally ratified the Washington Treaty on the international trade in threatened species, exceptions have been made for the trade in crocodile products. A serious breach has now been closed that was of some impediment to the trade between Singapore and many of its

  5. Leadership: a new frontier in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Jim C; Chan, Kai M; Finkelstein, Myra E; Stephens, Scott; Nelson, Cara R; Grant, Jacqualine B; Dombeck, Michael P

    2009-08-01

    Leadership is a critical tool for expanding the influence of conservation science, but recent advances in leadership concepts and practice remain underutilized by conservation scientists. Furthermore, an explicit conceptual foundation and definition of leadership in conservation science are not available in the literature. Here we drew on our diverse leadership experiences, our reading of leadership literature, and discussions with selected conservation science leaders to define conservation-science leadership, summarize an exploratory set of leadership principles that are applicable to conservation science, and recommend actions to expand leadership capacity among conservation scientists and practitioners. We define 2 types of conservation-science leadership: shaping conservation science through path-breaking research, and advancing the integration of conservation science into policy, management, and society at large. We focused on the second, integrative type of leadership because we believe it presents the greatest opportunity for improving conservation effectiveness. We identified 8 leadership principles derived mainly from the "adaptive leadership" literature: recognize the social dimension of the problem; cycle frequently through action and reflection; get and maintain attention; combine strengths of multiple leaders; extend your reach through networks of relationships; strategically time your effort; nurture productive conflict; and cultivate diversity. Conservation scientists and practitioners should strive to develop themselves as leaders, and the Society for Conservation Biology, conservation organizations, and academia should support this effort through professional development, mentoring, teaching, and research.

  6. Ion irradiated graphite exposed to fusion-relevant deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslandes, Alec; Guenette, Mathew C.; Corr, Cormac S.; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Thomsen, Lars; Ionescu, Mihail; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Riley, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphite samples were irradiated with 5 MeV carbon ions to simulate the damage caused by collision cascades from neutron irradiation in a fusion environment. The ion irradiated graphite samples were then exposed to a deuterium plasma in the linear plasma device, MAGPIE, for a total ion fluence of ∼1 × 10 24 ions m −2 . Raman and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were used to characterize modifications to the graphitic structure. Ion irradiation was observed to decrease the graphitic content and induce disorder in the graphite. Subsequent plasma exposure decreased the graphitic content further. Structural and surface chemistry changes were observed to be greatest for the sample irradiated with the greatest fluence of MeV ions. D retention was measured using elastic recoil detection analysis and showed that ion irradiation increased the amount of retained deuterium in graphite by a factor of four

  7. Switching between pitch surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Vincenzo; Silva, João R; Brito, João

    2018-01-01

    Soccer training and completion is conventionally practiced on natural grass (NG) or artificial turf (AT). Recently, AT pitches for training / competition, and of unstable surfaces for injury prevention training has increased. Therefore, soccer players are frequently exposed to variations in pitch...... surface during either training or competition. These ground changes may impact physical and physiological responses, adaptations as well as the injury. The aim of this review was to summarize the acute physical and physiological responses, chronic adaptations, and injury risk associated with exercising...... on different pitch surfaces in soccer. Eligible studies were published in English, had pitch surface as an independent variable, and had physical, physiological or epidemiological information as outcome variables. Specific data extracted from the articles included the training response, training adaptations...

  8. High Temperature Surface Parameters for Solar Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, C. F; Jenkins, R. J; Rudkin, R. L; Laughridge, F. I

    1960-01-01

    ... at a given distance from the sun. Thermal conversion efficiencies with a concentration ratio of 50 have been computed for each surface when exposed to solar radiation at the Earth's mean orbital radius...

  9. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R V

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  10. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    CERN Document Server

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  11. Current conservation status of Ratites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Living Ratites, which include several species or subspecies of ostriches, cassowaries, emus, rheas and kiwis, all with an important function in the ecosystem dynamics, endure the danger of extinction similarly to the extinct moas and elephant-birds. Whereas ostriches and emus, except for specific populations, are not seen as being endangered, cassowaries and kiwis are on the brink of extinction. Hunting by humans contributed most to the declining numbers in all families of Ratites. Some conservation management strategies have been developed for conservation of kiwis, one subspecies of cassowary, and some populations of ostriches, emus and rheas. These include captive breeding and release, habitat restoration, and public awareness. However, consideration of the limitations of the above techniques is often ignored.

  12. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  13. Cubication of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A, while in a Taylor expansion of the restoring force these coefficients are independent of A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain an approximate frequency-amplitude relation as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of this scheme.

  14. Towards harmonized qualifications for radiation exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso, Hugo A.

    2008-01-01

    The accelerated process of globalization affecting mankind doesn't exclude safety matters. Indeed, some trans national corporations are increasingly offering specialized engineering services such as industrial radiography or well lodging. As well, a growing scientific exchange involves the mobility of nuclear researchers in different areas, for instance radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Such a breakdown in the technological frontiers must necessarily be reflected by the regulatory solutions. Particularly, diverse levels of theoretical-practical training for radiation exposed personnel coexist in the Latin-American Region, being an especially sensitive problem for radiation protection matters. The spectrum goes from post-graduate courses required for radiation protection officers in some countries, while in others only basic recommendations are required for the operating personnel. Another scheme consists of medium level course for the operating personnel, while radiation protection officers don't have special requirements. Many educational private institutions teach non standardized courses which only give broad concepts of radiation protection. On the other hand, usually nothing is said about the operational training, or else its certification is entrusted to the employer itself. In some countries multiple Regulatory Authorities apply dissimilar criteria to assess safety matters, including the evaluation of workers applications. The necessary regional integration makes indispensable to establish common standards for granting authorizations. Having similar or homogeneous requirements for the universe of radiation exposed personnel, i.e. source operators, radiation protection officers, qualified experts and technical support people would be easier for the Regulatory Authorities to have common methodologies of evaluation for the applicants. An IAEA supported technical cooperation project related to this paper seeks to establish standardized

  15. China's brick history and conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, C. X.; Cantisani, E.; Fratini, F.

    2017-01-01

    . This study focuses on Shanghai as a representative city in that transitional period, aims at addressing the true condition of the modern changes in China's brick history and the heritage today. The paper presents the first results of an interdisciplinary investigation. Fourteen brick samples and one sample...... critical issues: the provenance of the bricks, the hitherto undocumented changes in the manufacturing technology, and the condition of the brick material in terms of conservation....

  16. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  17. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 666-678 ISSN 1755-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conservative translation * deductive system * nonclassical logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8757256

  18. Consequences of Not Conserving Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.; Crawford, L.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of fresh water is not only local, but also global. In certain parts of the world, much needed rain is becoming less frequent, possibly due to the effects of global warming. The resources of clean fresh water on earth are very limited and are reducing every year due to pollution like industrial waste, oil spills, untreated sewage, inefficient irrigation systems, waste and leakage, etc. This is destroying the ecosystem of the entire planet. Of course, in some parts of world there is rain almost throughout the year. Regardless, major problems are still prevalent because of a variety of reasons such as drainage, storage, evaporation, cleanliness, etc. It is all too well known that evapotranspiration contributes to a significant water loss from drainage basins. Most of the citizens of this world are still careless about water usage and are unappreciative of the need for water conservation. This is a very unpleasant fact and needs to change. Cost expenditures for the development of infrastructure to supply water to households and industries are becoming prohibitively expensive. Many parts in this world have extremely dry terrain and rainfall is not as frequent as it should be. As a result, the underground water tables are not replenished properly, thereby turning regions to arid land and deserts. Unless effective irrigation methods are used, potential evapotranspiration may be actually greater than precipitation provided by nature. The soil therefore dries out creating an arid landmass. The earth and its inhabitants can sustain only if creative methods of clean water conservation ideas are effectively implemented. (Co-author: Dr. Mysore Narayanan) References: http://www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/water/http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=conservationhttp://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sandiego.gov/water/conservation/http://www.swcs.org/http://www.awwa.org/resources-tools/water-knowledge/water-conservation.aspxhttp://www.benefits-of-recycling.com/waterconservationmethods/

  19. A Conservative Formulation for Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    concepts that apply to a broad class of macroscopic models: plastic deformation and plastic flow rule. CONSERVATIVE PLASTICITY 469 3a. Plastic Defrrnation...temperature. We illustrate these concepts with a model that has been used to describe high strain-rate plastic flow in metals [11, 31, 32]. In the case...JOURDREN, AND P. VEYSSEYRE. Un Modele ttyperelastique- Plastique Euldrien Applicable aux Grandes Dtformations: Que/ques R~sultats 1-D. preprint, 1991. 2. P

  20. Lymphocytic subsets in occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Wottawa, A.

    1989-04-01

    The percentage of CD2, CD4, CD8 and NK cells of peripheral blood was investigated in persons occupationally exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiation. Investigations were carried out by monoclonal antibodies and flow-cytometry. While significant effects of age and smoking habits on the relative number of CD8 cells and CD4/CD8 ratios could be established, no influence of the very low radiation exposure on the profile of lymphocytic cells in blood was found, except a very slight effect on the relative number of total T cells (= CD2 cells). 7tabs., 2figs., 16refs. (Author)

  1. Renographic curve of persons exposed to mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Petrovicova, J.; Bilicky, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the group of 72 workers which were exposed to fumes of metallic mercury we evaluated possible nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 . We also used nuclear renography for evaluation of kidney. Nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 was proved by increased proteinuria and relatively frequent findings of pathological renogram. In the group with pathological renogram, elimination of Hg 0 in urine (1822.8 nmol.dm -3 ) was increased. In the group with normal finding the value was 883.7 nmol.dm -3 . These findings pointed at toxic effect of Hg 0 on kidney and suitability of radionuclide examination for disclosing of subclinical pathological changes. (authors)

  2. Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Philipp; Lindskog, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred Tor exit relays together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. However, it is easy for exit relays to snoop and tamper with anonymised network traffic and as all relays are run by independent volunteers, not all of them are innocuous. In this paper, we seek to expose malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, we monitored the Tor network after developing a fast and modular exit relay scanner. We implemented several scanning modules for detecting common attac...

  3. Uniform Protection for Multi-exposed Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    the Quality Calculus that computes the combinations of data required to reach a program point and relates them to a notion of cost. In this way, we can compare the security deployed on different paths that expose the same resource. The analysis is formalised in terms of flow logic, and is implemented......Ensuring that information is protected proportionately to its value is a major challenge in the development of robust distributed systems, where code complexity and technological constraints might allow reaching a key functionality along various paths. We propose a protection analysis over...

  4. Backfilling of trenches exposed to waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper treats the numerical prediction of initial and long-term morphology of small pipeline trenches. For this purpose a refined flow and sediment transport description is applied such that the entire mathematical problem is formulated and solved on a curvilinear grid using a k - ε turbulence......-closure. The backfilling process of trenches exposed to either waves or a steady current is of importance in relation to the implementation of pipelines in the marine environment. With respect to the sedimentation of trenches, the non-dimensional Trench-Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC = a/L, where a is the excursion length...

  5. Analyses of Concrete Structures Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    The text book contains the data and methods necessary for fire safety design of concrete constructions. The methods relate to standard fire as well as to any time of any other fire course.Material data are presented for concretes exposed to fire, and calculation methods are given for the ultimate...... bending capacity of beams and slabs, the ultimate shear capacity of beams, for the instability of columns and walls and for the deflection of prestressed and non-prestressed beams, slabs, walls and columns.All methods have been derived and compared to tests by Kristian Hertz....

  6. Modelling of a free-surface ferrofluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habera, M., E-mail: habera@karlin.mff.cuni.cz; Hron, J., E-mail: hron@karlin.mff.cuni.cz

    2017-06-01

    The Cauchy's stress tensor of a ferrofluid exposed to an external magnetic field is subject to additional magnetic terms. For a linearly magnetizable medium, the terms result in interfacial magnetic force acting on the ferrofluid boundaries. This force changes the characteristics of many free-surface ferrofluid phenomena. The aim of this work is to implement this force into the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and propose a numerical method to solve them. The interface of ferrofluid is tracked with the use of the characteristic level-set method and additional reinitialization step assures conservation of its volume. Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are formulated for a divergence-free velocity fields while discrete interfacial forces are treated with continuous surface force model. Velocity-pressure coupling is implemented via the projection method. To predict the magnetic force effect quantitatively, Maxwell's equations for magnetostatics are solved in each time step. Finite element method is utilized for the spatial discretization. At the end of the work, equilibrium droplet shape are compared to known experimental results. - Highlights: • Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are formulated for the problem of free-surface ferrofluid flow. • Computed equilibrium ferrofluid droplet shape is compared to known experimental result. • Magnetic field substantially changes the dynamics of ferrofluid dripping process.

  7. Eleven cases of breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Toshio; Sekine, Kenshi; Miyagawa, Akira; Sugimoto, Toichi

    1991-01-01

    Eleven patients with T1 and small T2 breast cancer were treated by a combination of quadrantectomy, axillary dissection and radiotherapy. The mean age of the patients was 44.6 years. Mean follow-up period was 7.1 months. Six patients had clinical stage I, and five patients had clinical stage II. Four patients had involvement of axillary content (36.3%) on histological examination. There were eight scirrhous carcinomas and three papillotubular carcinomas. The incidence of local and distant recurrence was none in our group. The multifocality of breast cancer based on pathologic studies had been shown. On the basis of these findings we concluded that the patients undergoing breast conservation should be subjected to postoperative radiotherapy. Psychological morbidity was compared in 10 patients treated by breast conservation and 23 patients treated by mastectomy. There were no statistically significant differences between two groups in the estimation of adjustment disorder, depression, anxiety and stress. The patients in breast conservation group had a significant excess or nervousness and the patients of the mastectomy group had an anger. (author)

  8. Nonprice incentives and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Omar I; Delmas, Magali A

    2015-02-10

    In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt-hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers.

  9. Genetic conservation and paddlefish propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloss, Brian L.; Klumb, Robert A.; Heist, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    The conservation of genetic diversity of our natural resources is overwhelmingly one of the central foci of 21st century management practices. Three recommendations related to the conservation of paddlefish Polyodon spathula genetic diversity are to (1) identify genetic diversity at both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA loci using a suggested list of 20 sampling locations, (2) use genetic diversity estimates to develop genetic management units, and (3) identify broodstock sources to minimize effects of supplemental stocking on the genetic integrity of native paddlefish populations. We review previous genetic work on paddlefish and described key principles and concepts associated with maintaining genetic diversity within and among paddlefish populations and also present a genetic case study of current paddlefish propagation at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Gavins Point National Fish Hatchery. This study confirmed that three potential sources of broodfish were genetically indistinguishable at the loci examined, allowing the management agencies cooperating on this program flexibility in sampling gametes. This study also showed significant bias in the hatchery occurred in terms of male reproductive contribution, which resulted in a shift in the genetic diversity of progeny compared to the broodfish. This shift was shown to result from differential male contributions, partially attributed to the mode of egg fertilization. Genetic insights enable implementation of a paddlefish propagation program within an adaptive management strategy that conserves inherent genetic diversity while achieving demographic goals.

  10. Water and the conservation movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1958-01-01

    Every age has its unique touchstone, its hallmark. The Nineties were thought gay. The Twenties had jazz and John Held, Jr. The Thirties had breadlines, dust bowls, the forgotten man. And each recent period has been studded with so many flashy gems, both paste and genuine, that no hallmark would alone be enough to label it.Of the present age, one of the nameplates will carry the word "Conservation." The first time a museum visitor walks by that label he will probably stop, push back the plexiglas globe of his space helmet and say to himself, "I never thought that conservation was a keynote of the Fifties." But I imagine he might agree as the pathetic truth of that label dawned on his tired body, accustomed to canned entertainment, synthetic flavors, and fighting the afternoon traffic of the jet lanes. I can imagine him musing: "Conservation, the hallmark of the Fifties. Somebody about that time said about something or other, 'too little and too late.'"

  11. Energy conservation using face detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.

    2011-10-01

    Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.

  12. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  13. Energy Accommodation from Surface Catalyzed Reactions in Air Plasmas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding energy transport at the gas-surface interface between catalytic/reacting surfaces exposed to highly dissociated plasmas remains a significant research...

  14. Schools of Excellence and Equity? Using Equity Audits as a Tool to Expose a Flawed System of Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how equity audits can be used as a tool to expose disparate achievement in schools that, on the surface and to the public, appear quite similar. To that end, the researcher probed beyond surface-level performance composite scores into deeper, more hidden data associated with state-recognized…

  15. Dental health of young children prenatally exposed to buprenorphine. A concern of child neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivistö, K; Alapulli, H; Tupola, S; Alaluusua, S; Kivitie-Kallio, S

    2014-06-01

    To study the oral health and dental neglect of prenatally buprenorphine-exposed 3-year-old children. The study consisted of 51 children who as newborns tested positive for buprenorphine in a urine screen. The control group comprised 68 children previously unexposed to narcotics. The dentist examined the children and interviewed their guardians. Buprenorphine-exposed children exhibited significantly more early childhood caries than did the control group. Caries indices, the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth or tooth surfaces and decayed teeth were greater in the buprenorphine-exposed children than the control children (p = 0.004, p = 0.004, p = 0.001, respectively). In the buprenorphine group, more children showed visible plaque (p = 0.003) and fewer children were caries-free (p = 0.009) than in the control group. The control children's teeth were also brushed more often than the buprenorphine-exposed children's teeth (p = 0.001) and the parents were more involved in their children's tooth brushing than were those in the buprenorphine-exposed group (p = 0.035). More caries and dental neglect were found in buprenorphine-exposed children than in controls. These findings highlight the importance of routine dental appointments, caries screening and preventive care for children in substance-abusing families.

  16. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  17. Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa: Milestones to ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... Since the 1970s, at approximately 10-year intervals, 4 national-scale freshwater conservation ...

  18. State Conservation Lands; StaCons11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Approximate edges of Conservation Lands protected by the State of Rhode Island through Fee Title Ownership, Conservation Easement, or Deed Restriction. Includes:...

  19. Landscape Conservative Cooperatives for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Landscape conservation cooperatives (LCCs) are conservation-science partnerships between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and other...

  20. Energy conservation in nationalised transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R C

    1980-01-01

    About 60% of high speed diesel is consumed by the road transport industry. The hike in fuel prices calls for urgent measures to conserve diesel. The paper discusses the various measures undertaken to conserve diesel in the nationalized transport sector.

  1. Biodiversity conservation in a telecoupled world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roman Carrasco

    2017-09-01

    Conservation practitioners need to adopt a global perspective on telecoupling and focus on the new conservation opportunities represented by shaping the social norms of affluent consumers in emerging and high-income economies.

  2. Soil conservation: Market failure and program performance

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Gary Wyckoff

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the economic rationale behind soil conservation programs, an assessment of the magnitude of the soil erosion problem, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of U.S. soil conservation policies.

  3. communities` attitudes towards conservation in gashakagumti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENT VOLUME 7, No.2 SEPTEMBER, 2015. ... and the impact of conservation interventions, as well as to inform the ... The conservation attitudes of local people residing ...

  4. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    socio-cultural, economic system constraints for the implementation and maintenance of conservation .... Purpose of natural resource conservation is therefore ... the soil and water resources through traditional and ..... “Integrated Natural.

  5. Conservation and Sustainable Development: Linking Practice and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Jan 1, 2012 ... Book cover Conservation and Sustainable Development: Linking ... to have an influence on conservation and natural resource management. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  6. Occupational health care of radiation exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Rahman Hamzah

    1995-01-01

    The medical problems encountered by the earlier pioneer workers in radiation at the turn of the century are well known. In the 1928, the ICRP (International Committee for Radiological Protection) was instituted and the ALARA principle of radiation protection was evolved. Occupational health care is about maintaining the health and safety of workers in their workplaces. This involves using medical, nursing and engineering practices to achieve its objectives. In certain occupations, including those where workers are exposed to ionising radiation, some of these principles are enshrined in the legislation and would require statutory compliance. Occupational health care of radiation workers seek to prevent ill health arising from exposure to radiation by consolidating the benefits of exposures control and dosimetry. This is via health surveillance for spillages, contamination and exposures to unsealed sources of radiation. It is unlikely that can plan and hope to cater for a Chernobyl type of disaster. However, for the multitude of workers in industry exposed to radiation, control models are available. These are from the more in industrialize countries with a nuclear based energy industry, and where radioactive gadgetry are used in places ranging from factories and farms to construction sites. These models involve statutory requirements on the standard of work practices, assessment of fitness to work and the monitoring of both the worker and the workplace. A similar framework of activity is present in Malaysia. This will be further enhanced with the development of her general health and safety at work legislation. (author)

  7. Protection of man: the exposed individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, A.; Knebel, J.U. [Programme Nuclear Safety Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Breustedt, B. [Institute for Radiation Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Present methods for quantifying radiation exposure rely on a standardized reference man (75 kg) with defined average anatomical and physiological data. But individual person actually exposed differs from this idealized standard man. Therefore the focus of investigations at the Institute for Radiation Research (Institut fuer Strahlenforschung, ISF) which was founded at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, KIT) in 2009 is based on the vision to place the exposed individual with its anatomical and physiological particularities, under consideration of age, gender, body height, body shape and environment, in the centre of an individual-related quantification of the external and internal radiation exposure. Research work at the ISF is aiming at quantifying radiation exposure by improved determination of doses essentially caused by external radiation fields and the intake of radionuclides into the body. The three main topics of the institute are - external dosimetry (e.g. using a (voxel) model of the hand to simulate skin dose distribution); - internal dosimetry (e.g. body size related efficiency calibration of in-vivo counting equipment); - numerical methods/modeling (e.g. development of a mathematical/voxel-hybrid model of the human body). (authors)

  8. Zirconium ignition in exposed fuel channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, E., E-mail: merezra@technion.ac.il; Hasan, D.; Nekhamkin, Y.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the idea of runaway zirconium–steam reactions in severe accidents in today's LWRs. • We predict the thermal-hydraulics conditions relevant to cladding oxidation in an exposed fuel channel of a partially uncovered core. • The Semenov theory of metal combustion is extended to define a criterion for runaway oxidation reaction in fuel cladding. - Abstract: A theoretical model based on simultaneous solution of the heat and mass transfer equations is developed for predicting the rate of thermo-chemical reaction between zirconium cladding and a hot steam environment. Ignition conditions relevant to cladding oxidation in an exposed fuel channel of a partially uncovered core are predicted based on the theory of metal combustion. A range of decay power, convective heat transfer coefficients, and initial temperatures leading to uncontrolled runaway cladding oxidation is identified. The model could be readily integrated as part of a fuel channel analysis code for predicting possible outcomes of different accident mitigation procedures in light water nuclear reactors under LOCA conditions.

  9. Integrated conservation planning for coral reefs: Designing conservation zones for multiple conservation objectives in spatial prioritisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Magris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers focus on representing biodiversity pattern, maintaining connectivity, and strengthening resilience to global warming when designing marine protected area (MPA systems, especially in coral reef ecosystems. The achievement of these broad conservation objectives will likely require large areas, and stretch limited funds for MPA implementation. We undertook a spatial prioritisation of Brazilian coral reefs that considered two types of conservation zones (i.e. no-take and multiple use areas and integrated multiple conservation objectives into MPA planning, while assessing the potential impact of different sets of objectives on implementation costs. We devised objectives for biodiversity, connectivity, and resilience to global warming, determined the extent to which existing MPAs achieved them, and designed complementary zoning to achieve all objectives combined in expanded MPA systems. In doing so, we explored interactions between different sets of objectives, determined whether refinements to the existing spatial arrangement of MPAs were necessary, and tested the utility of existing MPAs by comparing their cost effectiveness with an MPA system designed from scratch. We found that MPAs in Brazil protect some aspects of coral reef biodiversity pattern (e.g. threatened fauna and ecosystem types more effectively than connectivity or resilience to global warming. Expanding the existing MPA system was as cost-effective as designing one from scratch only when multiple objectives were considered and management costs were accounted for. Our approach provides a comprehensive assessment of the benefits of integrating multiple objectives in the initial stages of conservation planning, and yields insights for planners of MPAs tackling multiple objectives in other regions.

  10. Conservative treatment of sciatica : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, PCAJ; de Krom, MCTFM; Slofstra, PD; Knottnerus, JA

    2000-01-01

    Most patients with sciatica (often caused by disc herniations) are managed conservatively at first. The natural course seems to be favorable. The additional value of many conservative therapies remains controversial. Because a systematic review of the conservative treatment of sciatica is lacking,

  11. Wildlife Conservation Society: Myanmar Program Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) is one of the world's leading NGOS involved in conserving wildlife and ecosystems throughout the world through research, training and education. WCS Myamar Program is trying its best to carry out wide-ranging activities in order to achieve the goal of effective conservation of the flora and fauna of the country

  12. Water Conservation Education with a Rainfall Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Hans; Kessen, Shelly

    1997-01-01

    Describes a program in which a rainfall simulator was used to promote water conservation by showing water infiltration, water runoff, and soil erosion. The demonstrations provided a good background for the discussion of issues such as water conservation, crop rotation, and conservation tillage practices. The program raised awareness of…

  13. Robust network design for multispecies conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan Le Bras; Bistra Dilkina; Yexiang Xue; Carla P. Gomes; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Schwartz; Claire A. Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Our work is motivated by an important network design application in computational sustainability concerning wildlife conservation. In the face of human development and climate change, it is important that conservation plans for protecting landscape connectivity exhibit certain level of robustness. While previous work has focused on conservation strategies that result...

  14. 7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 Section 631.9 Agriculture... plan. (a) An applicant is responsible for developing a conservation plan, in cooperation with the conservation district, that protects the resource base in a manner acceptable to NRCS. This plan will be used...

  15. Valuation of nature in conservation and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA; van der Windt, HJ; Keulartz, J

    Valuation of nature is an important aspect of nature conservation and restoration. Understanding valuation in a broad sense may contribute to conservation strategies since it may lead to better support from society. In this article we propose a model of valuation with respect to conservation and

  16. Valuation of Nature in Conservation and Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, F.W.J.; Swart, S.; Windt, v.d. H.

    2001-01-01

    Valuation of nature is an important aspect of nature conservation and restoration. Understanding valuation in a broad sense may contribute to conservation strategies since it may lead to better support from society. In this article we propose a model of valuation with respect to conservation and

  17. 75 FR 18472 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Initiative AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Natural Resources Conservation Service, Department of... Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Act) establishes the Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative (CCPI) by... of Agriculture (USDA). The CCPI is a voluntary conservation initiative that enables the use of...

  18. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Keiji; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy

  19. To be a worker (exposed?) or not to be a worker (exposed?) that is the question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of personnel is detailed in this article in order to know exactly what personnel is considered as exposed and what radiation doses are under this term. The regulatory texts are studied in different articles of the French law and show that different kind of exposed personnel are considered. The definitions are varying with the notion of risk, of radiation doses and the work itself. This article asks for a better and more precise definition that will help the actors of radiation protection. (N.C.)

  20. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  1. Fermion production despite fermion number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, W.; Hetrick, J.E.; Smit, J.

    1995-01-01

    Lattice proposals for a nonperturbative formulation of the Standard Model easily lead to a global U(1) symmetry corresponding to exactly conserved fermion number. The absence of an anomaly in the fermion current would then appear to inhibit anomalous processes, such as electroweak baryogenesis in the early universe. One way to circumvent this problem is to formulate the theory such that this U(1) symmetry is explicitly broken. However we argue that in the framework of spectral flow, fermion creation and annihilation still in fact occurs, despite the exact fermion number conservation. The crucial observation is that fermions are excitations relative to the vacuum, at the surface of the Dirac sea. The exact global U(1) symmetry prohibits a state from changing its fermion number during time evolution, however nothing prevents the fermionic ground state from doing so. We illustrate our reasoning with a model in two dimensions which has axial-vector couplings, first using a sharp momentum cutoff, then using the lattice regulator with staggered fermions. The difference in fermion number between the time evolved state and the ground state is indeed in agreement with the anomaly. Both the sharp momentum cutoff and the lattice regulator break gauge invariance. In the case of the lattice model a mass counterterm for the gauge field is sufficient to restore gauge invariance in the perturbative regime. A study of the vacuum energy shows however that the perturbative counterterm is insufficient in a nonperturbative setting and that further quartic counterterms are needed. For reference we also study a closely related model with vector couplings, the Schwinger model, and we examine the emergence of the θ-vacuum structure of both theories. ((orig.))

  2. Brain damage among the prenatally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    Significant effects on the developing brain of exposure to ionizing radiation are seen among those individuals exposed in the 8th through the 25th week after fertilization. These effects, particularly in the most sensitive period, 8-15 weeks after fertilization, manifest themselves as an increased frequency of severe mental retardation (SMR), a diminution in IQ score and in school performance, and an increase in the occurrence of seizures. Of 30 SMR cases, 18 (60%) had small heads. About 10% of the individuals with small head sizes observed among the in utero clinical sample were mentally retarded. When all of the cases of mental retardation are included in the analysis, a linear dose-response model fits the data adequately and no evidence of a threshold emerges; however, if the two probable nonradiation-related cases of Down's syndrome are excluded from the 19 SMR cases exposed 8-15 weeks after fertilization, the evidence of a threshold is stronger. The 95% lower bound of the threshold based on the new dosimetry system appears to be in the range of 0.12-0.23 Gy. In the 16-25 week period, the 95% lower bound of the threshold is 0.21 Gy both with and without inclusion of two probable nonradiation-related retarded cases. In a regression analysis of IQ scores and school performance data, a greater linearity is suggested with the new dosimetry (DS86) than with the old (T65DR), but the mean IQ score and the mean school performance of those exposed in utero to doses under 0.10 Gy are similar, and not statistically different from the means in the control group. The risk ratios for unprovoked seizures, following exposure during the 8th through the 15th week after fertilization, are 4.4 (90% confidence interval: 0.5-40.9) after 0.10-0.49 Gy and 24.9 (4.1-191.6) after 0.50 Gy or more when the mentally retarded are included and 4.4 (0.5-40.9) and 14.5 (0.4-199.6), respectively, when they are excluded. (author)

  3. Interaction of Al with O{sub 2} exposed Mo{sub 2}BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis, E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Al adheres to many surfaces. • Solid–solid interactions challenging for real (oxidized) surfaces. • Dissociative O{sub 2} adsorption on Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0). • Al nonamer is disrupted on oxidized Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0). • Adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide. - Abstract: A Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0) surface was exposed to O{sub 2}. The gas interaction was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air exposed surfaces. The calculations suggest that the most dominating physical mechanism is dissociative O{sub 2} adsorption whereby Mo−O, O−Mo−O and Mo{sub 2}−C−O bond formation is observed. To validate these results, Mo{sub 2}BC thin films were synthesized utilizing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and air exposed surfaces were probed by XPS. MoO{sub 2} and MoO{sub 3} bond formation is observed and is consistent with here obtained ab initio data. Additionally, the interfacial interactions of O{sub 2} exposed Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0) surface with an Al nonamer is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics to describe on the atomic scale the interaction between this surface and Al to mimic the interface present during cold forming processes of Al based alloys. The Al nonamer was disrupted and Al forms chemical bonds with oxygen contained in the O{sub 2} exposed Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0) surface. Based on the comparison of here calculated adsorption energy with literature data, Al−Al bonds are shown to be significantly weaker than the Al−O bonds formed across the interface. Hence, Al−Al bond rupture is expected for a mechanically loaded interface. Therefore the adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide layer is predicted. This is consistent with experimental observations. The data presented here may also be relevant for other oxygen containing surfaces in a contact with Al or Al based alloys for example during forming operations.

  4. Conservative and innovative dialect areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwarz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on conservative and innovative (transitional dialect areas and the questions of 1 how such areas can be methodologically visualized and 2 how the outcomes can be interpreted. In the first part of this paper a geostatistical method of representing phonological features in space will be introduced: interpolation. This method is not entirely new to dialectology; it has been quite neglected, though, in comparison to other methods of mapping, such as the isogloss or dot symbol method that was mainly used in traditional dialect atlases. The interpolation method will be applied to a large corpus of spontaneous speech data from rural dialects spoken in southwest Germany. Methodological steps in data processing will be described, resulting in a data set that can be used as input for statistical analysis and the visual depiction of variation in space as interpolated grid plots. In the second part results will be discussed. The major outcome consists of an aggregate interpolation plot that includes variables from fifteen different etymological sound classes. These sound classes can be used for demonstrating the distribution of receding phonological variables in space. The interpolation shows two conservative areas where receding forms are still widespread. They lie within the centers of the two major dialect groups of southwest Germany: Alemannic and Swabian. The conservative areas are separated by a broad transitional zone characterized by intense variation between receding and innovative variants. It will be argued that this transitional zone is not due to the horizontal spread of the dialects into each other’s areas alone. Rather, variation is triggered by vertical standard influence that supports any dialect form to spread out horizontally as long as it is phonologically identical or similar to the standard form.

  5. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  6. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  7. Conservation and the botanist effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrends, Antje; Rahbek, Carsten; Bulling, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    and reliability of inventories. We tested this hypothesis with tropical tree records (n = 24,024) collected from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, between 1980 and 2007 by 13 botanists, whose collections represent 80% of the total plant records for this region. Our results show that botanists with practical...... training in tropical plant identification record both more species and more species of conservation concern (20 more species, two more endemic and one more threatened species per 250 specimens) than untrained botanists. Training and the number of person-days in the field explained 96% of the variation...

  8. Foreign energy conservation integrated programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, Maria Luiza Viana; Bajay, Sergio Valdir

    1999-01-01

    The promotion of energy economy and efficiency is recognized as the single most cost-effective and least controversial component of any strategy of matching energy demand and supply with resource and environmental constraints. Historically such efficiency gains are not out of reach for the industrialized market economy countries, but are unlikely to be reached under present conditions by developing countries and economics in transition. The aim of the work was to analyze the main characteristics of United Kingdom, France, Japan, Canada, Australia and Denmark energy conservation integrated programs

  9. The question of baryon conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1983-01-01

    A modern version of the law of baryon conservation might read: the net number of baryons (ΣB-ΣB-bar) does not change spontaneously or in any known interactions. For a long time it was believed that protons are absolutely stable, and neutrons sufficiently strongly bound by nuclei were also considered absolutely stable. Then a few years ago the grand unified theories were proposed in which strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are combined, leading to the possibility that protons decay. Their lifetime is predictable in some of these theories. An experiment by the Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven Collaboration to detect proton decays is described. (UK)

  10. Breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Carstensen, Stina Lyck; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have pointed at a better survival after breast conserving surgery (BCS) compared with mastectomy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether this remains true when more extensive tumor characteristics and treatment data were included. Methods: The cohort...... included patients registered after primary surgery for early invasive breast cancer in the database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, in the period 1995–2012. The cohort was divided into three groups: (i) patients who primarily had a mastectomy, (ii) patients treated by BCS, and (iii) patients...

  11. Introduction: Affective Ecologies and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera M Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Engaging the affective and materialist turn in the social sciences, this special section elaborates on how analytical attention on affect and affective relations is central to understanding human-nature relations and to conservation interventions. The contributors to this section use conceptual resources from affect theory, new materialism, and indigenous ontologies to illustrate the practical significance of paying attention to affect in understanding nature-society relations. This introduction reviews these conceptual resources to make a case for affective political ecology.

  12. Energy audit for energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanetkar, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Energy audit is a very effective management tool for betterment of plant performance. The energy audit has a problem solving approach rather than a fault finding technique. The energy conservation is a rational use of energy. It has been the experience of the developed countries that energy is one issue which results into cost savings with relatively much less efforts/cost in comparison with other resources used in production, development and adoption of energy efficiency equipment and practices in most of production process has been the result of same technique. (author). 1 tab

  13. A Cultural Conscience for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Caroline; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary This opinion piece explores how implementing a species royalty for the use of animal symbolism in affluent cultural economies could revolutionise conservation funding. A revenue revolution of this scale is urgently necessary to confront the sixth mass extinction that the planet is now facing. But such a revolution can only occur if the approach to conservation now evolves quickly across disciplines, continents, cultures and economies. This piece is a call to action for research-, culture-, and business-communities to implement a new ethical phase in economic policy that recognises the global cultural debt to the world’s most charismatic wildlife species. Abstract On 2 July 2015, the killing of a lion nicknamed “Cecil” prompted the largest global reaction in the history of wildlife conservation. In response to this, it is propitious to consider the ways in which this moment can be developed into a financial movement to transform the conservation of species such as the lion that hold cultural significance and sentiment but whose numbers in the wild are dwindling dangerously. This provocative piece explores how a species royalty could be used effectively by drawing revenue from the heavy symbolic use of charismatic animals in affluent economies. This would, in turn, reduce strain on limited government funds in threatened animals’ native homelands. Three potential areas of lucrative animal symbolism—fashion, sports mascots, and national animals—provide examples of the kind of revenue that could be created from a species royalty. These examples also demonstrate how this royalty could prove to be a desirable means by which both corporations and consumers could positively develop their desired selves while simultaneously contributing to a relevant and urgent cause. These examples intend to ignite a multi-disciplinary conversation on the global cultural economy’s use of endangered species symbols. An overhaul in perspective and practice is

  14. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  15. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  16. Axelrod Model with Extended Conservativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej

    2012-11-01

    Similarity of opinions and memory about recent interactions are two main factors determining likelihood of social contacts. Here, we explore the Axelrod model with an extended conservativeness which incorporates not only similarity between individuals but also a preference to the last source of accepted information. The additional preference given to the last source of information increases the initial decay of the number of ideas in the system, changes the character of the phase transition between homogeneous and heterogeneous final states and could increase the number of stable regions (clusters) in the final state.

  17. The Legal Structure of Taiwan’s Wetland Conservation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yuan Su

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In July of 2013, Taiwan passed its Wetland Conservation Act and will begin the implementation of the Act on 2 February 2015. With this Act, Taiwan has become the second Asian country to have specific legislation on wetland conservation and protection. This new law enables the society to achieve sustainable utilization on wetland ecological services. The core concepts of the Wetland Conversation Act include biological diversity conservation and wise use of wetland resources. Special political circumstances prevent Taiwan from registering its wetlands as a conservation priority under the Ramsar Convention. This new law allows the government to evaluate and assign a specific area as a “Wetland of Importance.” Under this status, any development activities within the designated area shall be prohibited unless the developer prepares a usage plan for review. The usage plan and the original usage of the natural resources within the wetland area shall also follow the “wise use” principle to protect the wetland and biological service system. However, this new law does not provide clear separation between the two different “wise use” standards. If the development is deemed necessary, new law provides compensation mitigation measures to extend the surface of the wetland and provides additional habitats for various species. Wetland conservation and management rely heavily on systematic research and fundamental data regarding Taiwan’s wetlands. Determining how to adopt these scientific methodologies and transfer them into enforceable mechanisms is a sizeable challenge for both biologists and lawyers as the Wetland Conservation Act creates many legal norms without clarifying definitions. This article will review the current wetland regulations from the legal perspective and provide suggestions for enforcement in the future.

  18. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan N. Fink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

  19. Lifetime assessment of service-exposed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalwa, G.; Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    A longtime prognosis on the operation of creep-exposed components requires a lifetime analysis. The basis for such an analysis can be improved by an analysis of microstructure and material properties. Actually the grade of material exhaustion has to be regarded as proper assessment quantity. However, stress and time safety also are valuable assessment quantities which should be taken into consideration, especially when the grade of exhaustion is uncertain because of inaccurate input parameters. A correct assessment of the damage state cannot be made without taking into consideration the failure mechanism which has to be assumed for a specific component. With respect to creep the most critical component of a steamline system is the pipe bend because of the risk of large damage events. For this case component metallography by replicas is suggested as preventive test method. The continuation of service of a creep damage pipe bend cannot be recommended. (orig./MM) [de

  20. Hydrophobic patches on protein surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrophobicity is a prime determinant of the structure and function of proteins. It is the driving force behind the folding of soluble proteins, and when exposed on the surface, it is frequently involved in recognition and binding of ligands and other proteins. The energetic cost of