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Sample records for conserve allium roylei

  1. SNP-markers in Allium species to facilitate introgression breeding in onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olga E.; Kaauwen, van Martijn P.W.; Shahin, Arwa; Hendrickx, Patrick M.; Keizer, Paul; Burger-Meijer, Karin; Heusden, van Sjaak; Linden, van der Gerard; Vosman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Within onion, Allium cepa L., the availability of disease resistance is limited. The identification of sources of resistance in related species, such as Allium roylei and Allium fistulosum, was a first step towards the improvement of onion cultivars by breeding. SNP markers linked to

  2. The root systems of onion and Allium fistulosum in the context of organic farming: a breeding approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, de P.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Allium cepa , Allium roylei , Japanese bunching onion, introgression breeding, organic agriculture, linkage map, AFLP, QTL analysis, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, in vitro multiplication

    Conservation of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. ) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5 krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting.

  3. SNP-markers in Allium species to facilitate introgression breeding in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Olga E; van Kaauwen, Martijn P W; Shahin, Arwa; Hendrickx, Patrick M; Keizer, L C Paul; Burger, Karin; van Heusden, Adriaan W; van der Linden, C Gerard; Vosman, Ben

    2016-08-31

    Within onion, Allium cepa L., the availability of disease resistance is limited. The identification of sources of resistance in related species, such as Allium roylei and Allium fistulosum, was a first step towards the improvement of onion cultivars by breeding. SNP markers linked to resistance and polymorphic between these related species and onion cultivars are a valuable tool to efficiently introgress disease resistance genes. In this paper we describe the identification and validation of SNP markers valuable for onion breeding. Transcriptome sequencing resulted in 192 million RNA seq reads from the interspecific F1 hybrid between A. roylei and A. fistulosum (RF) and nine onion cultivars. After assembly, reliable SNPs were discovered in about 36 % of the contigs. For genotyping of the interspecific three-way cross population, derived from a cross between an onion cultivar and the RF (CCxRF), 1100 SNPs that are polymorphic in RF and monomorphic in the onion cultivars (RF SNPs) were selected for the development of KASP assays. A molecular linkage map based on 667 RF-SNP markers was constructed for CCxRF. In addition, KASP assays were developed for 1600 onion-SNPs (SNPs polymorphic among onion cultivars). A second linkage map was constructed for an F2 of onion x A. roylei (F2(CxR)) that consisted of 182 onion-SNPs and 119 RF-SNPs, and 76 previously mapped markers. Markers co-segregating in both the F2(CxR) and the CCxRF population were used to assign the linkage groups of RF to onion chromosomes. To validate usefulness of these SNP markers, QTL mapping was applied in the CCxRF population that segregates for resistance to Botrytis squamosa and resulted in a QTL for resistance on chromosome 6 of A. roylei. Our research has more than doubled the publicly available marker sequences of expressed onion genes and two onion-related species. It resulted in a detailed genetic map for the interspecific CCxRF population. This is the first paper that reports the detection of

  4. Allium sativum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence: Tel.: 08134576173 e-mail Lawrence_aka@yahoo.com. Abstract. This study evaluated the effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) on taste responses and relative organ weights in albino rats. Graded dietary supplementations of garlic viz: 0, 5, ...

  5. Forage selection by Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in the western Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sabuj; Adhikari, Bhupendra S; Rawat, Gopal S

    2013-10-01

    Forage selection decisions of herbivores are often complex and dynamic; they are modulated by multiple cues, such as quality, accessibility and abundance of forage plants. To advance the understanding of plant-herbivore interactions, we explored foraging behavior of the alpine lagomorph Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Pika bite counts on food plants were recorded through focal sampling in three permanently marked plots. Food plant abundance was recorded by traditional quadrat procedures; forage selection was estimated with Jacob's selection index. Multiple food-choice experiments were conducted to determine whether forage selection criteria would change with variation in food plant composition. We also analyzed leaf morphology and nutrient content in both major food plants and abundantly available non-food plants. Linear regression models were used to test competing hypotheses in order to identify factors governing forage selection. Royle's pika fed primarily on 17 plant species and each forage selection decision was positively modulated by leaf area and negatively modulated by contents of avoided substances (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and tannin) in food plants. Furthermore, significance of the interaction term "leaf size × avoided substance" indicates that plants with large leaves were selected only when they had low avoided substance content. The forage selection criteria did not differ between field and laboratory experiments. The parameter estimates of best fit models indicate that the influence of leaf size or amount of avoided substance on pika forage selection was modulated by the magnitude of predation risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Abundance of Royle’s pika (Ochotona roylei along an altitudinal gradient in Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabuj Bhattacharyya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relative abundance of Royle’s pika (Ochotona roylei was studied in a part of the Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttarakhand, West Himalaya along an altitudinal gradient from 2900 to 3650 m a.s.l. Pikas’ detection probability and relative abundance per month and habitat were recorded by monthly surveys consisting of three sampling sessions of four hours each. Food plant species were identified by visual observation and quantified by a standard quadrat method. The highest relative abundance was observed at man-made walls and surroundings in the alpine zone and on broken slopes in the sub-alpine one, whereas alpine meadows showed the lowest abundance. A total of 26 plant species were found to be consumed by pikas. The proportion of forage plants was the highest (77.4% on the rocky slopes of the timberline zone The results of multiple regressions suggest that rock cover is the main factor affecting the relative abundance of Royle’s pika. Rocky areas probably offer both nest-sites and temporary refuges to escape from predators.
    Riassunto Abbondanza relativa del pica di Royle (Ochotona roylei lungo un gradiente altitudinale in Uttarakhand, Himalaya occidentale. In un’area del Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (Uttarakhand, Himalaya occidentale, é stata stimata l’abbondanza relativa del pika di Royle (Ochotona roylei lungo un gradiente altitudinale compreso tra 2900 e 3650 m. Sono stati identificate tre fasce altitudinali e 10 habitat complessivi. La probabilità di osservazione e l’abbondanza relativa dei pika per ciascun mese e habitat sono state stimate tramite censimenti mensili consistenti in tre periodi di 4 ore ciascuno. Le specie vegetali consumate sono state identificate tramite osservazione diretta; la disponibilità è stata quantificata tramite rilievo fitosociologico standard. L’abbondanza relativa maggiore è stata riscontrata nella

  7. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis Ciferri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyabrata Nanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001. All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India.

  8. ALLIUM HOOKERII LIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    interest in the cultivation of only the high yielding few cash crops and vegetables. From the result of .... Figure 2: Photos of a vegetable market selling Allium hookeri in Manipur and showing their edible parts. ...... Talati S and P Shah Nutritional Studies On Fresh and Dehydrated Onion (. Allium Cepa Linn). Shodh, Samiksha ...

  9. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological ...

  10. Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Allium species from restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havey, M J

    1991-06-01

    The genus Allium contains many economically important species, including the bulb onion, chive, garlic, Japanese bunching onion, and leek. Phylogenetic relationships among the cultivated alliums are not well understood, and taxonomic classifications are based on relatively few morphological characters. Chloroplast DNA is highly conserved and useful in determining phylogenetic relationships. The size of the chloroplast genome of Allium cepa was estimated at 140 kb and restriction enzyme sites were mapped for KpnI, PstI, PvuII, SalI, XbaI, and XhoI. Variability at restriction enzyme sites in the chloroplast DNA was studied for at least three accessions of each of six cultivated, old-world Allium species. Of 189 restriction enzyme sites detected with 12 enzymes, 15 mutations were identified and used to estimate phylogenetic relationships. Cladistic analysis based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony resulted in a single, most-parsimonious tree of 16 steps and supported division of the species into sections. Allium species in section Porrum were distinguished from species in sections Cepa and Phyllodolon. Two species in section Rhiziridium, A. schoenoprasum and A. tuberosum, differed by five mutations and were placed in separate lineages. Allium cepa and A. fistulosum shared the loss of a restriction enzyme site and were phylogenetically closer to each other than to A. schoenoprasum. This study demonstrates the usefulness of restriction enzyme site analysis of the chloroplast genome in the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships in Allium.

  11. Aphrodisiac properties of Allium tuberosum seeds extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guohua, Hu; Yanhua, Lu; Rengang, Mao; Dongzhi, Wei; Zhengzhi, Ma; Hua, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of Allium tuberosum seeds extract upon the expression of male rat sexual behavior, in order to know whether Allium tuberosum seeds extract possess aphrodisiac property...

  12. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  13. Origins of Allium ampeloprasum horticultural groups and a molecular phylogeny of the section Allium (Allium: Alliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschegger, Pablo; Jakse, Jernej; Trontelj, Peter; Bohanec, Borut

    2010-02-01

    The subgenus Allium section Allium includes economically important species, such as garlic and leek, as well as other polyploid minor crops. Phylogenetic studies within this section, with a focus on horticultural groups within A. ampeloprasum, were performed on 31 accessions of 17 species using the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the chloroplast trnL-F and trnD-T regions. The results confirmed the monophyly of section Allium. Four main clades were identified on all ITS analyses but the relationships among those and the remaining species studied within section Allium remained unresolved. Trees based on cpDNA recovered two major clades and a topology only partly congruent with that of the ITS tree. Intra-individual polymorphism of the ITS region proved useful in tracking putative parent species of polyploid taxa. The allopolyploid origin of great headed garlic (GHG), A. iranicum and A. polyanthum was confirmed. No signs of hybridization in leek or kurrat were detected but possible introgression events were identified in pearl onion and bulbous leek. Although GHG is often used as a garlic substitute, molecular analysis revealed only a distant relationship with garlic. We also clarified the previous incorrect classification of cultivated forms within A. ampeloprasum, by showing that leek, kurrat, pearl onion, and bulbous leek should be considered separately from GHG. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. (Allium cepa L.) bulbe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dans la station de recherche de l'INERA à. Farako-Bâ. (Bobo-Dioulasso) ont été caractérisées au plan physico-chimique afin d'évaluer leur aptitude à la conservation et leur potentiel nutritionnel. MATERIEL ET METHODES. Matériel. Des échantillons de bulbe de onze (11) variétés d'oignon ont été collectés à la Station de.

  15. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  16. Secado de ajo elefante : allium ampeloprasum

    OpenAIRE

    Vignoni, Lucía; Araniti, Verónica; Winter, Patricia; Bartucciotto, Carmelo; Ventrera, Nancy; Guinle, Viviana; Giménez, Adriana; Bauzá, Marta Mónica

    2002-01-01

    Los estudios realizados en la Argentina sobre poscosecha del género Allium se refieren a A. sativum, no habiéndolos sobre Allium ampeloprasum (ajo elefante), de buenas características organolépticas (sabor más suave) y creciente demanda en los mercados internos y externos. Por tal motivo se decidió investigar la incidencia del método de secado en su pérdida de peso comparando el procedimiento tradicional...

  17. Antiplatelet activity of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyasat, Bahi; Sabha, Dina; Grotzinger, Kristina; Kempfert, Joerg; Rauwald, Johann-Wilhelm; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Dhein, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has a well-established reputation as a protective agent against cardiovascular disease, while nearly nothing is known about its cousin Allium ursinum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiaggregatory mechanism of garlic and to compare the effects of A. ursinum and A. sativum. In a prospective study, extracts were prepared from A. sativum powder made from fresh A. sativum bulbs and fresh A. ursinum leaves by maceration. The extracts were characterized by thin layer chromatography. Their in vitro effects on human platelet aggregation were examined by light transmission aggregometry after induction by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, A23187, epinephrine and arachidonic acid (ARA) in platelets from healthy volunteers. A. ursinum and A. sativum exert similar antiaggregatory effects: they inhibit platelet aggregation induced via the ADP pathway and to a lesser extent aggregation induced by epinephrine, whereas ARA-, collagen- and A23187-induced aggregation was not affected. It became clear that the alcoholic extract of A. ursinum is the potent form, while the aqueous extract exerted an unspecific activity. The effects were strictly dose related. A. ursinum and A. sativum extracts exhibited similar potencies. Both A. ursinum and A. sativum exert antiaggregatory effects. Garlic extracts are acting by inhibition of the ADP pathway; their mechanisms of action are comparable to that of the clinically used drug clopidogrel. The pharmacologically active component of the extracts appears to be lipophilic rather than hydrophilic, but the precise chemical substance is still unknown. This is the first report on the antiplatelet activity of A. ursinum. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Efficacy of onion (Allium cepa l.) and garlic (Allium sativum l.) juice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meat contains high nutrients that make it get spoilt readily and currently used preservatives like soluble nitrites are carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Onion (Allium cepa L.) and Garlic (Allium sativum L.) juice as alternative preservatives. Efficacy of the single preservatives an d their ...

  19. Comparative study on Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, D; Popović, B M; Calić-Dragosavac, D; Malenčić, D; Zdravković-Korać, S

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant and scavenging activity and to make a comparison between Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant activity. This study reports the results on the root, stalk and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase), reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids and soluble protein contents and quantities of malonyldialdehyde and ·OH radical. In Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs the total antioxidant capacity was determined by the FRAP method and scavenger activity by the DPPH method. The present results indicated that the crude extract of Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture exhibited antioxidant and scavenging abilities in all investigated plant parts, especially in the roots. According to our results, the tissue culture plants exhibited the highest activities in the roots in contrast to the cultivated plants where highest activities were observed in the leaves. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Production of volatile Sulphides in Allium Porrum cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Asghari Gh.R; Lockwood GB; Houshfar Gh.A "

    2002-01-01

    Production of volatile sulphides in cell cultures of Allium porrum is described. Allium porrum calluses were initiated from whole seedlings. The high growth rate of Allium porrum callus was achived in Murashige and Skoog media containing only 1 ppm 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. The routine method of solvent extraction of volatile sulphides was used for Allium porrum and the concentrated extract was subjected to capillary GC and GC-MS. Dipropyl disulphide and 4-methyl thiazolethanol were i...

  2. Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Metwally, Nadia S

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: It has been reported that garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) are used all over the world in different diseases, such as infections, injuries, gastrointestinal dysfunctions and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, our aim in this work was to study the ability of garlic and onion oils to offset the infectivity as well as the metabolic disturbances induced by Schistosoma mansoni parasitism. Methods: The two current drugs were given in a dosage of 5ml / kg body weight/ d...

  3. The long and winding road leading to the successful introgression of downy mildew resistance into onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Heusden, van A.W.; Khrustaleva, L.I.; Burger, K.; Mank, R.; Antonise, R.; Harrewijn, J.; Haecke, van W.; Oost, E.H.; Peters, R.J.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    Downy mildew resistance originating from Allium roylei Stearn provides a complete resistance to onions and is based on one, dominant gene. Since A. roylei can successfully be hybridized with onion (A. cepa L.), a breeding scheme aimed at the introgression of this gene was initiated ca. 20 years ago.

  4. Antibacterial activities of Allium vineale, Chaerophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium vineale L., Chaerophyllum macropodum Boiss. and Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. have been used for cheese production in Turkiye for many centuries. In addition, it is traditionally believed by local people that these plants have antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ...

  5. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    cerebral cortex of the frontal lobe involved in the planning of complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behaviour11. The widespread culinary use of Allium sativum and the anticipated effect it would portend to cognitive behaviour, as well as a recent report on its adverse ...

  6. Ethnopharmacological and Phytochemical Review of Allium Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tulbaghia (wild Garlic) is a plant genus most closely related to the genus Allium both in the family Alliaceae and is entirely indigenous to Southern Africa. Indigenous people use several species of the genus as food and medicine, and few species are commonly grown as ornamentals. Biological and pharmacological ...

  7. Providing Some Pharmacopoeial Standards for Nigerian Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essence of standardization of medicinal plants is to produce herbal medicines with acceptable safety, efficacy, quality and reproducibility. Allium cepa var. cepa L. (Amaryllidaceae) bulbs purchased from Sasha Market, Ibadan, Nigeria during the rainy season was subjected to organoleptic, morphological and ...

  8. Efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic) against experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Due to increasing problems of inadequate and unreliable medical treatments for Cryptosporidium enteritis, alternative therapies are being sought. Objective: The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic) against Cryptosporidium infection ...

  9. Production of volatile Sulphides in Allium Porrum cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Asghari Gh.R

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of volatile sulphides in cell cultures of Allium porrum is described. Allium porrum calluses were initiated from whole seedlings. The high growth rate of Allium porrum callus was achived in Murashige and Skoog media containing only 1 ppm 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. The routine method of solvent extraction of volatile sulphides was used for Allium porrum and the concentrated extract was subjected to capillary GC and GC-MS. Dipropyl disulphide and 4-methyl thiazolethanol were identified in A. porrum aggregated suspension cells.

  10. Is Allium ebusitanum (Alliaceae an endemic species from Ibiza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aedo, Carlos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the qualitative and quantitative characters of Allium sphaerocephalon group in Western Mediterranean is presented. Allium durandoi is considered to be conspecific with A. ebusitanum, of which it becomes a synonym. A map of this species and a key to the group is provided.Se sinonimiza Allium durandoi a A. ebusitanum. Se compara esta especie con las restantes del grupo Allium sphaerocephalon en el Mediterráneo occidental, analizando los principales caracteres cuantitativos y cualitativos. Se prepara un mapa de A. ebusitanum y una clave de identificación del grupo.

  11. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  12. Trypanocidal efficacy of Allium sativum bulb extract, diminazene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combination of these two agents appear to act synergistically, while aqueous extract of Allium sativum appears to possibly potentiate the chemotherapeutic activity of diminazene aceturate in the treatment of T. brucei brucei infection in rats. Key words: Allium sativum, diminazene aceturate, trypanosoma brucei brucei, ...

  13. Effect of Allium sativum on growth, feed utilization and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result also shows that fish blood electrolytes such as (Na, K, CL and HCO3) were within their normal range. Allium sativum inclusion in fish diet at (1.5g/kg) concentration is therefore beneficial for use in aquaculture to enhance fish resistance to disease of C. gariepinus. Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, Allium sativum, ...

  14. Investigation of antibacterial effects of garlic ( Allium sativum ), mint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum), mint (Menthe spp.) and onion (Allium cepa) in in vitro conditions against the Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens. E. coli was isolated from the infected tissues of the chickens which were ...

  15. Comparative Studies of White and Red Allium cepa Cultivated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-09-09

    Sep 9, 2015 ... both species would provide flavouring, nutritional and medicinal importance. Thus, the white Allium cepa possessed a more nutritional and medicinal properties than the red but provides less energy and lower resistance to storage. Keywords: Allium cepa, Flavonoids, Proximate, Sokoto, Spices.

  16. Histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum (Alliaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum , (garlic) is a popular medicinal plant and a member of the Alliaceae family used for treatments of various ailments. The study was aimed at investigating the histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulb on the lungs, an organ of the mononuclear phagocyte system using adult Wistar Rats.

  17. Histological effects aqueous extract of Allium sativum (Alliaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum , commonly known as garlic is a member of the Alliaceae family and it is one of the earliest known medicinal plant. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulb on selected organs (bone marrow and spleen) of the mononuclear phagocyte system using ...

  18. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad; Maher Abdel-Aziz; Mortada El-Sayed; Eman El-Wakil; Ezzat Abdel-Lateef

    2014-01-01

    This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion), the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic), Allium porrum L. (leek) and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi). The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. por...

  19. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis--a comparative evaluation.

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    Lata S

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration of petroleum ether extract of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and ethylacetate extract of Commiphora mukul in albino rats significantly prevented rise in serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride level, caused by atherogenic diet. All the three agents were also found to confer significant protection against atherogenic diet induced atherosclerosis.

  20. Pharmacognostic Studies on Two Himalayan Species of Traditional Medicinal Value: Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umeshkumar TIWARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed as a pharmacognostic study of whole plants of Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi, both of which are very important traditional medicinal plants of North-West Himalayas. This study was carried out in terms of macroscopic and microscopic analyses and standard histochemical methods were followed for detecting starch, calcium oxalate, tannins, total lipids and alkaloids. Allium wallichi can be distinguished from A. stracheyi by possessing polyarch roots, mycorrhizal fungi in the outer cortical cells and triangular leaf midrib. The present study is the first to describe the pharmacognosy in terms of anatomical and histochemical features of these two Himalayan Allium species. Although they are listed in Ayurvedic database, the API so far has not given an account on these two species and hence this work is of high importance. Also, the herbal industries, researchers and traditional medicine can now use the distinguishing characters of these species listed in the current paper, while specifically acquiring them from local markets without any confusion.

  1. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2017-08-05

    Garlic, Alliumsativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  2. The flavonoids of leek, Allium porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorusso, E; Lanzotti, V; Taglialatela-Scafati, O; Cicala, C

    2001-06-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the extracts obtained from bulbs of leek. Allium porrum L. has led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides based on the kaempferol aglycone. Two of them are new compounds and have been identified as kaempferol 3-O-[2-O-(trans-3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl]-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and kaempferol 3-O-[2-O-(trans-3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR. The isolated compounds have been evaluated for their human platelet anti-aggregation activity.

  3. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and apoptosis of human leukemic cell lines. ... bromide (MTT) assay at concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ug/mL of Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of cell ...

  4. Production of Fully Homozygous Genotypes from Various Edible Alliums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. ALAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Allium is a very large genus containing over 700 distinct species including the various edible onions, garlics, chives, and leeks. About a dozen of the species are economically important as crops or garden vegetables where as many others are cultivated as ornamental plants. Allium breeding programs generally take very long time with low success due to problems such as long life cycle, sterility, polyploidy, high levels of heterozygosity. Development of inbreed lines is a very difficult process due to severe inbreeding depression. Doubled haploid (DH techniques can be utilized to obtain fully homozygous Allium materials. In Alliums, gynogenesis is the major technique used to produce haploid and DH plants from unfertilized female gamets with reduced chromosome number. We are in the process of developing gynogenesis induction protocols for several edible Allium species. We showed that gynogenic embryos can be obtained from a wide range of Allium materials. About half of the gynogenic embryos continue to grow and become plantlets. In general, gynogenic plantlets are green, but some of them show chlorophyll abnomalities. Results obtained from flow cytometric analysis of nuclei isolated from gynogenic materials indicate that majority of the gynogenic Allium materials are haploid and DH plants. DH onion lines developed in our program are generally vigorous plants with high levels of fecundity. The seeds obtained from DH onions show high germination. Plants of DH onion lines grow uniformly and produce bulbs very uniform in size, shape, color and quality features. These DH lines are excellent inbreds to be used as male parents in the production of F1 hybrid onion lines. Success obtained in DH onion materials indicates that a similar approach can be applied in the breeding programs of other important Alliums.

  5. Sulfur compounds identification and quantification from Allium spp. fresh leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gîtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyruvic acid concentration is a critical factor in determining Allium spp. pungency. This study was initiated to accurately measure the background pyruvic acid levels in Romanian Allium spp. From the pungency point of view, all analyzed plant varieties in this study are considered low pungent cultivars based on the enzymatically produced pyruvate level (between 42 μmol/g and 222 μmol/g fresh wt. Chromatographic analysis was carried out for the different varieties of the most popular fresh leaves (Allium cepa var. “Diamant”, Allium cepa var. “Rubiniu”, and Allium ursinum L. in order to identify the sulfur compounds. The thin layer chromatography analysis led to the identification of allicin, with Rf = 0.377–0.47, as an important sulfur compound. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the leaves' extracts detected disulfides as the major sulfur compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to establish the differences in plant composition. These studies suggest the potential good uses of the fresh leaves of Romanian Allium spp. as condiment, ingredient, or preservative in the food industry.

  6. Protective effect of Allium neapolitanum Cyr. versus Allium sativum L. on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencini, Cristina; Franchi, Gian Gabriele; Cavallo, Federica; Micheli, Lucia

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of Allium neapolitanum Cyr., a spontaneous species of the Italian flora, compared with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on liver injury induced by ethanol in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were orally treated with fresh Allium homogenates (leaves or bulbs, 250 mg/kg) daily for 5 days, whereas controls received vehicle only. At the end of the experimental 5-day period, the animals received an acute ethanol dose (6 mL/kg, i.p.) 2 hours before the last Allium administration and were sacrificed 6 hours after ethanol administration. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AA), and reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione in liver tissue were determined. Administration of both Allium species for 5 days (leaves or bulbs) led to no statistical variation of nonenzymatic parameters versus the control group; otherwise Allium treatment caused an increase of GSH and AA levels compared with the ethanol group and a diminution of MDA levels, showing in addition that A. neapolitanum bulb had the best protective effect. Regarding to enzymatic parameters, GR and CAT activities were enhanced significantly compared with the ethanol group, whereas SOD activity showed a trend different from other parameters estimated. However, the treatment with both Allium species followed by acute ethanol administration reestablished the nonenzymatic parameters similar to control values and enhanced the activities of the enzymes measured. These results suggest that fresh Allium homogenates (leaves or bulbs) possess antioxidant properties and provide protection against ethanol-induced liver injury.

  7. Evaluation of genotoxicity of coal fly ash in Allium cepa root cells by combining comet assay with the Allium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Ashit Kumar; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. Its utilization and disposal is of utmost importance. Using onion (Allium cepa) root tip system, the present study was carried out to evaluate the potential toxic and genotoxic effects of fly ash, collected from a thermal power plant in West Bengal, India. Prior to testing, the collected fly ash sample was mixed with sand in different proportions. Allium bulbs were allowed to germinate directly in fly ash and after five days the germinating roots were processed for the Allium test. Additionally, the Allium test was adapted for detecting DNA damage through comet assay. The results from the Allium test indicate that fly ash at 100% concentration inhibits root growth and mitotic indices; induces binucleated cells as a function of the proportion, but is not toxic at very low concentration. In the comet assay, a statistical increase for DNA strand breaks was found only at higher concentrations. The sample was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer for Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd and As, whose presence could partly be responsible for the toxicity of fly ash. The study concludes that the classical Allium test can give a more comprehensive data when done in combination with the comet assay, which is faster, simpler and independent of mitosis. Also when fly ash is used for other purposes in combination with soils, it should be judiciously used at very low concentrations in order to protect the ecosystem health from any potential adverse effects.

  8. In vitro regeneration in Allium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, M; Grunewaldt, J

    1988-10-01

    An attempt to induce shoot regeneration from leaf disc explants from Allium sativum L., A. porrum L., and A. schoenoprasum L. and the induction of shoot regeneration from single flower-bud receptacles in A. porrum is presented. While the regeneration rate from leaf disc explants was low, an efficient method for propagating A. porrum in vitro was obtained by cultivating single flower-bud receptacles. The shoot regeneration ability was strongly controlled by the genotype. Up to 294 shoots per leek plant could be harvested. Simultaneously the same plant could be used for seed production and bulbil formation in vivo. The efficiency of the in vitro multiplication method described allows the integration of this procedure into breeding programmes of A. porrum.

  9. Spirostanol saponins of Allium porrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, A; Fattorusso, E; Lanzotti, V; Magno, S

    1999-08-01

    An investigation of the extracts from bulbs of Allium porrum L. has led to the isolation of four spirostanol saponins. Two of them are new compounds and have been identified as: (25R)-5 alpha-spirostan-3 beta, 6 beta-diol 3-O-{O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-O- beta -D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (3) and (25R)-5 alpha-spirostan-3 beta,6 beta-diol 3-O-{O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O- [beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D- galactopyranoside} (4). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activity.

  10. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabeau, Tatfeng Y; Samson, Enitan S

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological determinants in rats. CD₄ cells of the rats were estimated using Partec flow cytometric technique, while total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were estimated using the Sysmsex® automated haematology analyzing technique. Our findings revealed that, CD4 and total WBC counts were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in both onion (250mg/Kg/d: 349±11cell/ul and 2.75±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 389±10cells/µl and 3.05±0.05 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 600±11cell/µl and 3.25±0.05X10³cells/l) and garlic (250mg/Kg/d: 410±10cell/ul and 2.85±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 494±32cells/µl and 3.30±0.10 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 684±11cell/µl and 3.55±0.05X10³cells/l) treated rats when compared to the zero control (200±11cells/µl and 1.55±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively). Extract of garlic at 750mg/Kg/d had significantly increased the CD4 cells and total white cell count when compared to other concentrations (P≤0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on these parameters when extracts were combined (250mg/Kg/d: 252±21cell/µl and 1.80±0.10X10³cells/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 315±21cells/ul and 2.10±0.10X10³cells/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 368±10cells/µl and 2.35±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively), the differential WBC count showed a significant increase in the proportion of cell types (lymphocytes, neutophils and monocytes) (P≤0.05). The results from this study revealed the immune boosting capabilities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, but underscored their synergistic activities.

  11. Selenium and Sulfur to Produce Allium Functional Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Morales, Susana; Pérez-Labrada, Fabián; García-Enciso, Ema Laura; Leija-Martínez, Paola; Medrano-Macías, Julia; Dávila-Rangel, Irma Esther; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Rivas-Martínez, Erika Nohemí; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2017-03-30

    Selenium is an element that must be considered in the nutrition of certain crops since its use allows the obtaining of biofortified crops with a positive impact on human health. The objective of this review is to present the information on the use of Se and S in the cultivation of plants of the genus Allium. The main proposal is to use Allium as specialist plants for biofortification with Se and S, considering the natural ability to accumulate both elements in different phytochemicals, which promotes the functional value of Allium. In spite of this, in the agricultural production of these species, the addition of sulfur is not realized to obtain functional foods and plants more resistant; it is only sought to cover the necessary requirements for growth. On the other hand, selenium does not appear in the agronomic management plans of most of the producers. Including S and Se fertilization as part of agronomic management can substantially improve Allium crop production. Allium species may be suitable to carry out biofortification with Se; this practice can be combined with the intensive use of S to obtain crops with higher production and sensory, nutritional, and functional quality.

  12. Influence of Allium ampeloprasum L. and Allium cepa L. essential oils on the growth of some yeasts and moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted from spices, as natural antimicrobial agents, attract particular attention due to their possible role in food protection from microorganisms, and their nontoxicity, in contrast to the synthetic preservatives. In this work, inhibitory effect of Allium ampeloprasum and two onions (Allium cepa, Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar, essential oils in different concentrations (1, 4, 7 and 10% on three yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula sp. and three moulds (Aspergillus tamarii, Penicillium griseofulvum and Eurotium amstelodami was investigated. All three essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. cerevisiae in concentration of only 1%. Among onions, Kupusinski jabučar essential oil had stronger influence to C. tropicalis, while Allium ampeloprasum essential oil did not show any influence on this yeast. Rhodotorula sp. was influenced only by Allium ampeloprasum essential oil. The strongest inhibitory effect on A. tamarii showed Kupusinski jabučar (57% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%, while on P. griseofulvum, the strongest influence showed Allium ampeloprasum essential oil (78.3% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%. Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar essential oils, in concentrations of 7 and 10% respectively, completely inhibited the growth of E. amstelodami.

  13. Antioxidant and schistosomicidal effect of Allium sativum and Allium cepa against Schistosoma mansoni different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantawy, M M; Aly, H F; Zayed, N; Fahmy, Z H

    2012-07-01

    The schistosomicidal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) powder were tested in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni miracidia, schistosomula, cercaria and adult worms. Results indicate their strong biocidal effects against all stages of the parasite and also show scavenging inhibitory effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present work, the in vivo effects of A. sativum and A. cepa on lipid peroxide and some antioxidant enzymes; thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) (as they have a crucial role in host protection against invading parasite) were also studied. The data demonstrate that, there was a significant inhibition in SOD, CAT, GR, TrxR and SDH in infected liver while, significant elevation was detected in lipid peroxide as compared to the normal control. The current resultS clearly revealed that, the used both edible plants enhance the host antioxidant system indicated by lowering in lipid peroxide and stimulation of SOD, CAT, GR, TrxR and SDH enzyme levels. Enhancement of such enzymes using A. sativum and A. cepa could in turn render the parasite vulnerable to damage by the host and may play a role in the antischistosomal potency of the used food ingredients.

  14. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of leek (Allium porrum) and garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eady, Colin; Davis, Sheree; Catanach, Andrew; Kenel, Fernand; Hunger, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    Transgenic leek (Allium porrum) and garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered by the selective culturing of immature leek and garlic embryos via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using a method similar to that described by Eady et al. (Plant Cell Rep 19:376-381, 2000) for onion transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the m-gfp-ER reporter gene and nptII selectable marker, and followed the protocol developed previously for the transformation of onions with only minor modifications pertaining to the post-transformation selection procedure which was simplified to have just a single selection regime. Transgenic cultures were selected for their ability to express the m-gfp-ER reporter gene and grown in the presence of geneticin (20 mg/l). The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using TAIL-PCR and Southern analysis. This is the first report of leek and "true seed" garlic transformation. It now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into these crops.

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Mantawy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  16. Forskolin: genotoxicity assessment in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Khalid Pasha; Aarey, Archana; Tamkeen, Shayesta; Jahan, Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Forskolin, a diterpene, 7β-acetoxy-8,13-epoxy-1α,6β,9α-trihydroxy-labd-14-en-11-one (C22H34O7) isolated from Coleus forskohlii, exerts multiple physiological effects by stimulating the enzyme adenylate cyclase and increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations. Forskolin is used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, and other diseases. A cytogenetic assay was performed in Allium cepa to assess possible genotoxic effects of forskolin. Forskolin was tested at concentrations 5-100 μM for exposure periods of 24 or 48 h. Treated samples showed significant reductions in mitotic index (p < 0.05) and increases in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (p < 0.01) at both exposure times. The treated meristems showed chromosome aberrations including sticky metaphases, sticky anaphases, laggard, anaphase bridges, micronuclei, polyploidy, fragments, breaks, and C-mitosis. Forskolin may cause genotoxic effects and further toxicological evaluations should be conducted to ensure its safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Allium ursinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Elena PÂRVU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate Allium ursinum leaves and flowers extract anti-inflammatory effect. Plant extract 1:1 (w:v was prepared from A. ursinum leaves by a modified Squibb repercolation method. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated on a rat turpentine oil-induced inflammation (i.m. 6 mL/kg BW. The animals were randomly assigned to nine groups (n=8: negative control, inflammation, A. ursinum flower extract (AUF, A. ursinum leaves extract (AUL, indomethacin (INDO (20 mg/kg BW, aminoguanidine (AG (50 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a selective NOS2 inhibitor, NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (NAME (5 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a nonselective NOS inhibitor, L-arginine (ARG (100 mg/kg b.w./d i.p., NO synthesis substrate, and Trolox (20 mg/kg b.w./d i.p as an antioxidant. At 24h from inflammation induction total oxidative status (TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI, nitric oxide (NOx and in vitro phagocytosis test were reduced and the total antioxidative reactivity (TAR was increased by the testes plant extracts. AUF had a better inhibitory effect than AUL. In conclusion, we provided evidence for the hypothesis that A. ursinum leaves and flowers extract exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the phagocytosis through the reduction of the nitro-oxidative stress.

  18. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  19. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7 with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231 with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis and Hd3a (rice, with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day, LD (long-day, and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101 and LM (late maturation, 36122. The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines.

  20. Allium tuberosum: Antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingli; Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Zhou, Yifeng; Hou, Xilin

    2017-12-01

    Allium tuberosum (AT) is traditionally used for treating nocturnal emissions, abdominal pain, diarrhea, sexual dysfunction and asthma. This study aimed at investigating the antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activities of the butyl alcohol fraction from the methanolic extract of A. tuberosum. For the antidiabetic activity, rats were induced with diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 150mg/kg alloxan and treated for 30days with AT extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg). Animals were sacrificed after the study and the fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, malondialdehyde (MDA) catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels were determined. The hepatoprotective assay, mice were pretreated for seven days with AT (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg or). Thereafter 10ml/kg of 2% v/v CCl4 was administered intraperitoneally on the 7th day to induce acute liver injury. Blood and liver samples were obtained and serum enzymes ALT, AST, ALP, SOD, GSH, CAT, MDA and pro-inflammatory mediators were assessed. AT significantly decrease FBG, serum TG, TC, MDA levels and significant increased HDL, SOD, GSH and CAT activities in the diabetic rats. In addition, AT significantly inhibited MDA, IL-1b, IL-6 and TNF-α levels and prevented the depletion of the antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT activities in CCl4 induced liver damage. Furthermore, AT markedly reduced AST, ALT and ALP levels in the CCl4 treated mice groups. In conclusion, the antidiabetic and hepatoprotective effect of AT may be associated with its antioxidant and its ability to inhibit the pro-inflammatory mediators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide ethion in root of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... (Soliman and Lawryk, 2004; Jackson, 1969). In particular,. Allium cepa possess many advantages in the field of environmental mutagenesis for screening and monitoring of genotoxic agents according to the standard protocol for the plant assays established by the International Program on Chemical Safety ...

  2. Effects of Allium hirtifolium (Iranian shallot) and its allicin on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... polymerization; therefore we suggest A. hirtifolium can be an effective ligand for cancer therapy. Key words: Allium hirtifolium, ... Microtubules represent the best target for cancer chemo- therapy and will remain a .... estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7. NCBI C135), and mouse ...

  3. Anti- Helicobacter pylori Effects Of The Methanol Extracts Of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bulb is of considerable importance in African cooking and in salads . Various species have been reported to have anti-diabetic, hypocholesterolaemic, fibrinolytic, anti-ulcer and diuretic potentials. Crude methanol extracts of Allium ascalonicum bulb was screened against three strains of Helicobacter pylori (UCH 97001, ...

  4. Studies on the antimicrobial effects of garlic ( Allium sativum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted ...

  5. Effect of garlic ( Allium sativum ) on Salmonella typhi infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) in treating Salmonella typhi infection and on the gastrointestinal flora and hematological parameters of rats was investigated. Crude garlic extract inhibited the growth of S. typhi on agar plate with a zone of inhibition averaging 23.8 mm in diameter using the agar diffusion ...

  6. Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Evaluation of Garlic Bulb (Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINEDUM

    2013-04-03

    Apr 3, 2013 ... Mbata TI, Saika A (2008). Antimicrobial activity and Phytochemical. Screening of Crude ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on Listeria monocytogenes. Internet J. Microbiol. 4(2):1-13. Milner JA (2005). Garlic (Allium sativum). In: Encyclopedia of Dietary. Supplements. Black, M. and Cragg, ...

  7. Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Allium cepa linn on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    production (Way, 1984). Cyanide poisoning may result from exposure to ... produce the oxidative stress and damage seen after cyanide exposure. Allium cepa linn (onion), is used as .... Table 2: Effects of methanol extract of A. Cepa on Kidney MDA, GSH, antioxidant enzymes and protein. Groups Kidney MDA. (µg/g tissue).

  8. Protective effect of Allium sativa extract against carbon tetrachloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... Protective effect of Allium sativa extract against carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatic oxidative stress and .... The bulbs were chopped and further dried for 5 h in an oven at 60°C and subsequently ground with ..... Auer W, Fiber A, Hertkorn E (1990). Hypertension and hyperlipidaemia garlic helps in mild ...

  9. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Allium Ascalonicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol and aqueous extract of Allium ascalonicom were investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Thermal and chemical models of pain assessment were used while albumin was used to induce inflammation. The extracts were administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. The methanol extract ...

  10. Antibacterial effect of garlic ( Allium sativum ) on Staphyloccus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has had an important dietary and medicinal role for centuries. It is a large annual plant of the Liliaceae family, which grows in most of Africa and in Ethiopia. Ethiopian garlic is used in traditional medicine for infectious disease and some other cases. The present study tested the aqueous extract ...

  11. Histological Effects Aqueous Extract of Allium sativum (Alliaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Histological Effects Aqueous Extract of Allium sativum (Alliaceae) Bulb on Bone and. Spleen of Adult Wistar Rats. *. 1. ODIASE,DE; OSAZEE LO. *Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of. Medical Sciences, University Of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. E-mail: daniel.odiase@uniben.edu.

  12. Genotoxic effects of industrial wastewater on Allium cepa L. | Sik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to study the effects of different concentrations of water on both incoming and outgoing in central biological and chemical wastewater treatment plant in Manisa (Turkey) organized industrial zone (MOIZ) on the Allium cepa L. root meristems, having been rooted in distilled water for 48 h. The union ...

  13. Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide ethion in root of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the genotoxic effects of ethion were investigated in the mitotic cell division of Allium cepa. Primary roots of A. cepa were treated with various concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) of ethion solutions for different duration of time. The result revealed that increase in the concentration and duration of treatment ...

  14. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  15. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulbs on laboratory mice and rats. Donatien Gatsing, Roseline Aliyu, Jules R Kuiate, Ibrahim H Garba, Kiri H Jaryum, Nestor Tedongmo, Félicité M Tchouanguep, Godwin I Adoga ...

  16. Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Evaluation of Garlic Bulb ( Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum L. bulb has been shown to be nutritionally and medicinally useful. Consequently, the phytochemical constituents and ethnobotanical properties of the bulb were investigated in five localities in Nigeria where many people use the bulb for different purposes. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of ...

  17. Genotoxic effects of industrial wastewater on Allium cepa L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... and outgoing in central biological and chemical wastewater treatment plant in Manisa (Turkey) organized industrial ... It was determined that wastewater reduced the rate of the mitotic division of different concentrations and ..... insecticide cypermethrin on the root meristems of Allium cepa L. Turk. J. Biol.

  18. Toxicological effects of garlic ( Allium sativum ) on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicological effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on some haematological and biochemical parameters in albino rats was studied. High doses of garlic infusion were found to cause a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the concentration of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, lymphocyte count, aspartate aminotransferase and ...

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (onion) extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver damage due to paracetamol hepatotoxicity is a major health challenge worldwide. It is against this background that this study was designed to determine the hepatoprotective effects of the increasing dosage of Allium cepa methanolic extracts on paracetamol induced hepatotoxic rats. Fifty-four (54) adult male albino ...

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (onion) extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... Liver damage due to paracetamol hepatotoxicity is a major health challenge worldwide. It is against this background that this study was designed to determine the hepatoprotective effects of the increasing dosage of Allium cepa methanolic extracts on paracetamol induced hepatotoxic rats. Fifty-four (54).

  1. Comparative studies of bioactive organosulphur compounds and antioxidant activities in garlic (Allium sativum L.), elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Dan-Bi; Jin, Wenjie; Park, Junghyuck; Yoon, Wonjin; Lee, Yunyeol; Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Sungsoo; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Shin, Dongbin; Yoo, Miyoung

    2017-05-05

    We evaluated organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables, including garlic, elephant garlic and onion, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among organosulphur compounds, elephant garlic had considerable γ-glutamyl peptides, and garlic had the highest alliin content. Onion had low level of organosulphur compounds than did elephant garlic and garlic. In addition, antioxidant capacities were evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. The results showed that garlic had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by elephant garlic and onion. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activities and organosulphur compounds (R > 0.77). Therefore, our results indicate that there was a close relationship between antioxidant capacity and organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables.

  2. Effect of Allium sativum and Allium cepa oils on different stages of Boophilus annulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelhadid, S M; Kamel, A A; Arafa, W M; Shokier, K A

    2013-05-01

    The study is aimed to investigate the acaricidal effect of Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium cepa (onion) oils on different stages of Boophilus annulatus hard tick. Engorged B. annulatus females were collected from naturally infected cattle. A number of engorged ticks were incubated at 28 °C and 85 % relative humidity to lay eggs, which were incubated to obtain larvae that were used in the study. The used garlic and onion oils were prepared by steam distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography. These oils were dissolved in ethanol, methanol alcohols, and, partially, in water. The oils were tested in different concentrations; 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 %. These concentrations were applied on adult ticks by adult immersion test; on larvae by larval immersion technique and on eggs. The 20, 10, and 5 % of garlic oil dilutions in ethanol and methanol killed all adult ticks and larvae within 24 h. Similar results were obtained for 10 and 20 % garlic oil dissolved in water. The effect of 10 % aqueous solution of garlic oil on embryonated eggs was clear as its addition to these eggs led to their in ability to hatch, deformity in shape, and change in color. The 10 and 20 % onion oil in ethanol and methanol alcohols killed 76-86 % of the adult ticks within 72 h post-application. While, all larvae died within 24 h postsubjected to these two concentrations. These concentrations (10 and 20 %) of onion oil in water killed 56-80 % of the treated ticks. Moreover, 10 % aqueous solution of onion oil prevented hatching of embyonated eggs. We concluded that garlic and onion oils have acaricidal effect on all stages of B. annulatus at concentrations higher than 5 %. Only garlic oil could kill 100 % of adult ticks at concentrations from 5 % in alcohols.

  3. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842 Methanolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željana Fredotović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a comparative study of the phytochemical profile and the biological activity of two onion extracts, namely Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842, members of the family Amaryllidaceae. The identification of flavonoids and anthocyanins, and their individual quantities, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The potency of both extracts to scavenge free radicals was determined by the DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC methods. The DNA protective role was further tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (COMET assay and by Fenton’s reagent causing double-strand breaks on the closed circular high copy pUC19 plasmid isolated from Escherichia coli. In the presence of both extracts, a significant decrease in DNA damage was observed, which indicates a protective role of Allium cepa and Allium × cornutum on DNA strand breaks. Additionally, cytotoxicity was tested on glioblastoma and breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that both extracts had antiproliferative effects, but the most prominent decrease in cellular growth was observed in glioblastoma cells.

  4. Interspecific chromosomal rearrangements in monosomic addition lines of Allium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, L; Ricroch, A

    2001-10-01

    Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) are useful for assigning linkage groups to chromosomes. We examined whether the chromosomal rearrangements following the introduction of a single onion (Allium cepa) chromosome into the Allium fistulosum genome were produced by homeologous crossing over or by a nonreciprocal conversion event. Among the monosomic lines available, 17 were studied by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridisation, using total A. cepa genomic DNA as the probe and total A. fistulosum genomic DNA as the competitor. In this way, rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations between A. cepa and A. fistulosum were identified as terminal regions consisting of tandem DNA repeats. Homeologous crossing over between the two closely related genomes occurred in 4 of the 17 lines, suggesting that such events are not rare. On the basis of a detailed molecular cytogenetic characterisation, we identified true monosomic alien addition lines for A. cepa chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 that can reliably be used in genetic studies.

  5. [AFLP marking of the genotypes of leek (Allium porrum) varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiushin, M A; Kholda, O A; Kochieva, E Z; Ryzhova, N N

    2011-04-01

    The results of the AFLP analysis of 16 leek (Allium porrum) accessions and related species of the sections of the genus Allium are presented. Restriction enzymes and primer combinations for the identification of the genotypes of the A. porrum accessions were chosen. As a result, 265 polymorphic AFLP fragments were amplified for 25 analyzed genotypes, and specific spectra of DNA fragments were obtained for each accession. A total of 24 fragments specific for the A. porrum genome was detected, of which only two characterized the genotypes of individual accessions. A wide range of genetic diversity (0.11-0.32) was revealed for the A. porrum varieties and lines used in the analysis. The highest level of similarity in the analyzed set of accessions was found between A. porrum and sand leek (A. scorodoprasum).

  6. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    OpenAIRE

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez; Sahily Rojas Pérez; Nilvia Norma Agüero Batista

    2016-01-01

    Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los ...

  7. Response of Onion ( Allium cepa L.) to spacing and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were carried out during the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 dry cropping seasons of October–March to investigate the effects of 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha NPK 15:15:15 and crop spacings on the growth and yield of onion plant (Allium cepa L.). The experiment was a factorial combination of three spacings 15 ...

  8. RESPONSE OF ONION (Allium cepa L.) BULB YIELD TO DAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    2012-06-17

    Jun 17, 2012 ... An experiment was carried out between October 2007 and March 2008 at the permanent site of the University of Jos. (08°53'E, 09°57'N; 1,159 m above mean sea level) to investigate the effect of day length extension on the yield of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.). Two varieties of onion ('Violet de Galmi' and ...

  9. Distinct intraspecific variations of garlic (Allium sativum L.) revealed by the exon-intron sequences of the alliinase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Aki; Imai, Yukiko; Nakamura, Mizuho; Yanagisawa, Eri; Taguchi, Takaaki; Torii, Kosuke; Okumura, Hidenobu; Ichinose, Koji

    2014-04-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used worldwide as a food and for medicinal purposes since early times. Garlic cultivars exhibit considerable morphological diversity despite the fact that they are mostly sterile and are grown only by vegetative propagation of cloves. Considerable recombination occurs in garlic genomes, including the genes involved in secondary metabolites. We examined the genomic DNAs (gDNAs) from garlic, encoding alliinase, a key enzyme involved in organosulfur metabolism in Allium plants. The 1.7-kb gDNA fragments, covering three exons (2, 3, and 4) and all four introns, were amplified from total DNAs prepared from garlic samples produced in Asia and Europe, leading to 73 sequences in total: Japan (JPN), China (CHN), India (IND), Spain (ESP), and France (FRA). The exon sequences were highly conserved among all the sequences, probably reflecting the fully functional alliinase associated with the flavor quality. Distinct intraspecific variations were detected for all four intron sequences, leading to the haplotype classifications. A close relationship between JPN and CHN was observed for all four introns, whereas IND showed a more divergent distribution. ESP and FRA afforded clearly different variants compared with those from Asian sequences. The present study provides information that could be useful in the development of an additional molecular marker for garlic authentication and quality control.

  10. Efficiency of the aquatic macrophyte salvinia auriculata in purification of urban effluents, validated by allium test (Allium Cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila S. Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the aquatic macrophytes Salvinia auriculata Aublet in purification of polluted effluents, and evaluate macroscopically the efficiency of macrophytes using the Allium cepa Linnaeus (onion test. Three collections were performed in September 2011, the first analysis was performed with water collected directly from River Santa Catarina, the second was performed seven days after the contact of the effluent with the macrophytes, and the third, fifteen days after the first analyses. The data were analyzed using Student’s t-test (p<0.05. To verify the normality of the data was used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p<0.05, for each sample (treatment. According to the results of the Allium test, the aquatic macrophyte S. auriculata was efficient in the removing of pollutants agents after fifteen days in contact with the effluent.

  11. Growth and Nutrients Content and Uptake of Garlic (Allium sativum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Farmers strive to produce high yield and good quality garlic both for consumption and ... Garlic is one of the main Allium vegetable crops ...... Australia. Pp. 59-90. Islam, M.K., Alam, M.F., Islam, A.K.M.R. (2007). Growth and Yield Response of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Genotypes to Different Levels of Fertilizers.

  12. Resistance to Penicillium allii in accessions from a National Plant Germplasm System Allium collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accessions of Allium sativum (garlic), A. ampeloprasum (elephant garlic) and A. acuminatum, A. aflatunense, A. atroviolaceum, A. canadense, A. longicuspis, A. moly, A. ponticum, A. roseum, A. scorodoprasum, A. senescens, A. stipitatum, and Allium sp. (wild or ornamental species) were screened for re...

  13. Regeneration and transformation by particle bombardment in leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the results are presented of experiments aiming at the genetic modification of leek ( Allium ampeloprasum L.). Leek is a vegetable grown for its edible (false) stem and belongs to the Alliaceae, together with onion ( Allium cepa ) and

  14. Plants of the genus Allium as antibacterial agents: From tradition to pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Tabanelli, G; Stojanović-Radić, Z Z; Sharifi-Rad, M; Yousaf, Z; Vallone, L; Setzer, W N; Iriti, M

    2016-08-29

    Plants belonging to the genus Allium are widely cultivated and used all over the world as food and medicinal plants. Since ancient times, these plants, particularly garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.), have represented important components of typical recipes and traditional healing systems. Not the least of which, their use as food biopreservatives is well documented, due to the relevant antibacterial activity of their extracts and essential oils. In addition to garlic and onion, this review article deals with the main members of the genus Allium, including A. ampeloprasum (Leek), A. schoenoprasum (Chive) and A. ascalonicum (Shallot), focusing both on their ethnonutritional uses and potential as promising food biopreservative agents. Noteworthy, recent research has demonstrated Allium derivatives to be novel components in active edible coatings as well as nanoformulates.

  15. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion, the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic, Allium porrum L. (leek and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi. The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

  16. Evaluation of allium and its seasoning on toxigenic, nutritional, and sensorial profiles of groundnut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kasi; Anandaraj, K; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh A

    2014-04-01

    Mitigation of xerophilic storage fungi-associated aflatoxin threat in culinary oil will be a new technology advantage to food industries. Groundnut oil isolate Aspergillus flavus MTCC 10680 susceptibility to Allium species (A. sativum L., A. cepa L., and A. cepa var. aggregatum) extracts, composition, and in silico confirmation of extract's phytoconstituent aflatoxin synthesis inhibition were determined. The behavior of seasoning carrier medium groundnut oil in the presence of Allium was also determined. All the Allium species extracts exhibited concentration dependent in vitro inhibition on mycelial biomass, radial growth, and toxin elaboration. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 28, 16, and 9 compounds in the extracts of A. sativum, A. cepa, A. cepa var. aggregatum, respectively. The Allium phytocostituents-like hexadecanoic acid, 5-Octanoyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione, Guanosine, and so on, showed higher binding energy with aflatoxin synthesis key enzyme ver1. Allium seasoning increased the typical nutty odor of the groundnut oil with sweet aroma note as well as intensification of pale yellow color. Allium seasoning exhibited the highest aflatoxin detoxification and aroma development without any nutritional loss. Culinary oil Allium seasoning has anti-aflatoxin and food additive potential for use in food industries. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov (Amaryllidaceae, a new species from Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sennikov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of A. sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from A. spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of the very small population size in its only locality.

  18. [Research concerning the characterization of Allium cepa based ointments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafiţanu, Eliza; Tătărîngă, Gabriela; Ghiciuc, Cristina; Lupuşoru, Cătălina Elena; Hăncianu, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Three topical formulae with Allium cepa L. extract 30% (w/w) were studied for the evaluation of their release profiles of flavonoids and for their potency on experimental wounds on mice. The rates of release were performed under occluded conditions using cellulose acetate membrane. Data obtained from the in vitro release show that the gel formula F1 is the most efficient in the membrane diffusion process. The rate of wound healing was assessed by the contracting ability and the period of epithelization. The most important effect in the contracting ability was noticed in the case of F2 formula.

  19. Quality assessment of diced onion ( Allium cepa l.) using an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de la qualité d'oignon (Allium cepa L.) coupé en cube utilisant le nez électronique (nez - E) détecteur polymère à conducteur 32 qui est potentiellement plus efficace était enquêtée. L'oignon brun coupé en cube (ca. 6 mm3) était emballé dans les sachets en polyéthylène de 50 μm épais et mis en stock pour 3, 6, ...

  20. Polyploid induction of Allium ascalonicum L. by colchicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUMINAH

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The low production rate of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L. in Indonesia could be caused by rarely excellent cultivars. Colchicine was one of the mutation agents frequently used in plant breeding in order to get polyploidy of cultivars. The aim of this research was to find out the differentiation of morphometric evidences and ploidy of shallot chromosomes induced by colchicines 1%. Preparation was made by squash method and stained by acetocarmine. The results indicated that the amount, length and shape of chromosomes altered by the application of the agent. The polyploids produced could be grouped into tetraploids, pentaploids, hexaploids, octaploids, and nonaploids.

  1. Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov (Amaryllidaceae), a new species from Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennikov, Alexander N.; Lazkov, Georgy A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of Allium sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from Allium spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of the very small population size in its only locality. PMID:23794934

  2. Mining, characterization and validation of EST derived microsatellites from the transcriptome database of Allium sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with comprehensive transcript information are valuable resources for development of molecular markers as they are derived from conserved genic regions. The present study highlights the mining of EST database to deduce the class I hyper variable SSRs in A. sativum. From 21694 garlic EST sequences, 642 non-redundant SSRs were identified with an average frequency of 1 per 14.9 kb of garlic transcriptome. The most abundant SSR motifs were the mononucleotides (32.86%) followed by trinucleotides (28.50%) and dinucleotides (13.39%). Among the individual SSRs, (A/T)n accounted for the highest number (137; 21.33%) followed by (G/C)n (74; 11.52%) and (AAG)n (63;9.81%). Primers designed from a robust set of 7 AsESTSSRs resulted in the amplification of 63 polymorphic alleles in 14 accessions of garlic. The resolving power of the markers varied from 4.286 (AsSSR7) to 18.143 (AsSSR13) while the average marker index (MI) was 5.087. These EST-SSRs markers for garlic could be useful for the improvement of garlic linkage map and could be used for evaluating genetic variation and comparative genomics studies in Allium species.

  3. Furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang-Jun; Yuan, Ling; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2014-12-01

    Allium cepa L. is one of the most widely cultivated and used plants. In addition to its bulb (onion), which is used as food in many cultures, the seeds of A. cepa L. are used as a traditional herbal medicine by the Uygur nationality in China to treat diarrhea and promote blood flow. In a bioactivity-screening, the ethanol extract of seeds of A. cepa L. showed inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, with 81.1% inhibition. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of red onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds led to the isolation of eight new furostanol saponins, named ceparosides E-L (1-8). Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. Compounds 1-8 were screened for inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme and cytotoxic activity against five human cells, including HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and A2780, but all were found to be inactive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical Constituents of Three Allium Species from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Toiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition of Allium obliquum L., A. senescens L. subsp. montanum (Fries Holub, and A. schoenoprasum L. subsp. schoenoprasum. Sulphur-containing compounds analysis was performed by an LC-MS method, the identification and quantification of polyphenolic compounds through a HPLC-UV-MS method, and the presence of five sterols was simultaneously assessed by HPLC-MS-MS. Alliin was identified only in A. obliquum and A. senescens subsp. montanum extracts, whilst allicin was present in all extracts, with higher amounts in A. schoenoprasum and A. obliquum. The pattern of phenol carboxylic acids shows the presence of p-coumaric and ferulic acids in all species. Isoquercitrin was identified in A. obliquum and A. schoenoprasum, and rutin in A. senescens subsp. montanum and A. schoenoprasum. Luteolin and apigenin were identified only in A. obliquum. All three species contain glycosides of kaempferol and quercetol. β-Sitosterol and campesterol were identified in all species. The results obtained showed significant differences in the composition of the three Allium species.

  5. A comparative profile of methanol extracts of Allium cepa and Allium sativum in diabetic neuropathy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Abhishek; Shri, Richa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is a major microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. This may result from increased oxidative stress that accompanies diabetes. Hence plants with antioxidant action play an important role in management of diabetes and its complications. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to evaluate preventive as well as curative effect of methanol extracts of outer scales and edible portions of two plants with established antioxidant action - Allium cepa and Allium sativum, in induced DN in albino mice. Mice were divided into control, diabetic and test extracts treated groups. Test extracts were administered daily at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days, in the preventive group prior to onset of DN, and in the curative group after the onset of DN. Hyperalgesia and oxidative stress markers were assessed. STZ-diabetic mice showed a significant thermal hyperalgesia (as assessed by the tail-flick test), indicating development of DN. Results: Treatment with test extracts prevented loss in body weight, decreased plasma glucose level, and significantly ameliorated the hyperalgesia, TBARS, serum nitrite and GSH levels in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Methanol extract of outer scales of onion has shown most significant improvement; may be due to higher content of phenolic compounds in outer scales of A. cepa. PMID:21713142

  6. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis, and Allium hirtifolium Boiss Against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Seyed Amir Razavi Satvati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium which can cause life-threatening infections in humans. E. faecalis has been frequently found in root canal-treated teeth and is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents. Nowadays modern medicine recognizes herbalism as a form of alternative medicine. Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis and Allium hirtifolium Boiss are commonly found in Iran and used as antimicrobial agents in folklore medicine. Objectives: In this study, antimicrobial activities of aqueous extracts of some plants were examined in vitro against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts of T. terrestris, A. sativum, S. officinalis and A. hirtifolium Boiss were examined using disc and well diffusion methods, and the19 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of aqueous extracts were determined against E. faecalis using agar and broth dilution methods. Results: The obtained results showed that the extract of A. hirtifolium Boiss inhibited the growth of E. faecalis (MIC of 10 mg/mL. Other plants had no effect on the target bacterium. Conclusion: According to the best effect of A. hirtifolium extract on E. faecalis and stability of this extract in thermal condition, we may purify this extract and use it for treatment of infections.

  7. Ferulic acid esters of glucosylglucose from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Ayaka; Matsuo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Takashi; Ohshima, Kazusato; Fukuda, Shinji; Mine, Takara; Yakashiro, Ichiro; Ishimaru, Kanji

    2017-03-01

    Three new ferulic acid esters of glucosylglucose, 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid A, 1), 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-{β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)]}-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid B, 2), and 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-{β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)]}-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid C, 3) were isolated together with tuberonoid A (4), from the leaves of Allium macrostemon Bunge. The chemical structures were elucidated based on the analyses of the spectroscopic and chemical data.

  8. Cytotoxic saponins from bulbs of Allium porrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorusso, E; Lanzotti, V; Taglialatela-Scafati, O; Di Rosa, M; Ianaro, A

    2000-08-01

    An extensive phytochemical analysis of the saponin content has been undertaken on leek, Allium porrum L., sown and collected at different seasons. As a result of this investigation, eight saponins (1-8) have been isolated, four of them (5-8) being novel compounds. Compounds 5 and 6, possessing the same tetrasaccharide moiety of compounds 1 and 3, display very unusual spirostane aglycones, 12-ketoporrigenin and 2,12-diketoporrigenin (named porrigenin C), respectively, recently isolated for the first time as free sapogenin in the same plant. Compounds 7 and 8 are rare cholestane bidesmosides possessing a di- and trisaccharide residues linked to a polyhydroxycholesterol aglycone, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds have been determined by nondegradative spectroscopic analysis, mainly based on NMR. All the eight saponins isolated from leek were tested for their cytotoxic activity against two different cell lines in vitro, and compounds 1, 2, and 6 resulted particularly active.

  9. Utilization of Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) for inulinase production.

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    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Algur, Omer Faruk

    2015-08-18

    Inulinase production by Rhodotorula glutinis was carried out in this study, using leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) as an alternative carbon source due to its high inulin content and easy availability. Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize fermentation conditions. For this purpose, five influential factors (leek concentration, pH, incubation temperature, agitation speed, and fermentation time) related to inulinase production were selected at four convenient levels. The results showed that maximum inulinase activity was obtained as 30.89 U/mL, which was close to the predicted result (30.24 U/mL). To validate the obtained results, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed. Consequently, leek has a great potential as an effective and economical carbon source for inulinase production, and the use of Taguchi DOE enhanced enzyme activity about 2.87-fold when compared with the unoptimized condition.

  10. Accumulation of apocarotenoids in mycorrhizal roots of leek (Allium porrum).

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    Schliemann, Willibald; Kolbe, Barbara; Schmidt, Jürgen; Nimtz, Manfred; Wray, Victor

    2008-05-01

    Colonization of the roots of leek (Allium porrum L.) by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices induced the formation of apocarotenoids, whose accumulation has been studied over a period of 25 weeks. Whereas the increase in the levels of the dominating cyclohexenone derivatives resembles the enhancement of root length colonization, the content of mycorradicin derivatives remains relatively low throughout. Structural analysis of the cyclohexenone derivatives by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy showed that they are mono- and diglycosides of 13-hydroxyblumenol C and blumenol C acylated with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaric and/or malonic acid. Along with the isolation of three known compounds five others are shown to be hitherto unknown members of the fast-growing family of mycorrhiza-induced cyclohexenone conjugates.

  11. In vitro micropropagation of chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.

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    Marek Lubomski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on micropropagation of Allium schoenoprasum embraced shoot formation from cultured shoot tips, shoot multiplication, root formations, and cold storage of rooted plants. All explants were cultured on modified Murashige-Skoog medium. Surface disinfection of shoots derived from stock plants was not necessary to obtain no infection culture. The highest shoot multiplication was obtained on medium with 20 g l-1 sucrose and 1.0 mg 1-1 6-benzylo-arninopurine (BA. Root formation was observed in both indoleacetic acid (IAA and indolebutyric acid (IBA. Rooted plants were successfully kept in cold storage (5°C ± 1°C darkness. Only 20% of plants died after 6 months of storage.

  12. Estudio microbiológico de ajo(Allium sativum L. y cebolla (Allium cepa L. deshidratados Microbiological study of garlic (Allium sativum L. and onion (Allium cepaL. dehydrated

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    S.R. Fuselli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se efectuó un estudio microbiológico durante la deshidratación y el almacenamiento de ajo (Allium sativum L. y de cebolla (Allium cepa L.. Al ajo se le efectuó un proceso de escaldado y a la cebolla un salmuereado previo a la deshidratación. En las materias primas los recuentos promedio expresados en UFC/g fueron: bacterias aerobias mesófilas entre 1,2 x 102y 1,6 x 103, mohos y levaduras entre 60 y 1,6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. y Leuconostocmesenteroidessubesp. mesenteroides entre 10 y 50.Se identificaron: Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. Lactobacillus brevis,Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides y levaduras en ajo; Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras en dos tipos de cebolla. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides sólo se detectó en un tipo de cebolla. En ajos deshidratados y durante el almacenamiento se hallaron Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras mientras que los mismos con escaldado no presentaron desarrollo. Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. y Lactobacillus brevis se identificaron en los dos tipos de cebolla deshidratadas. Con la incorporación del salmuereado la microflora se redujo significativamente hallándose solamente Penicillium spp. La utilización de barreras adicionales de control microbiano tales como escaldado y salmuereado produce un aporte importante a la estabilidad microbiológica de los productos.A microbiological study during the process and the storage of garlic (Allium sativum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. dehydrated, with the additional barriers of blanching or brine immersion, was made. In all raw materials the average counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria expressed in CFU/g ranged from 1.2 x 102to 1.6 x 103, molds and yeasts from 60 to 1.6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostocmesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides between 10 and 50. Microorganisms identified were Penicillium spp., Monilia spp

  13. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms "Allium sativum," "Garlic," "Allicin," "Ajoene," "Leishmania," "in vitro," "in vivo," and "clinical trial," alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers.

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    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of pesticide effluent on Allium cepa L. (onion plants

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    Kumkum Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made to find out the effect of different doses (25, 50, 75 and 100% of pesticide effluents (Indian Pesticide Ltd on plant growth and certain metabolic parameters (height, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and sugar contents, MDA content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Allium cepa L. plants. Plant growth in terms of its height, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and sugar contents were found to be decreased at increasing doses of pesticide effluents. However, other activities of two antioxidative iron viz. catalase and peroxidase also the MDA (Malondialdehyde content were found to be progressively stimulated at increasing doses of the effluent. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12629 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 95-105

  16. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3.

  17. Increasing Soil Suppressivity to Fusarium Wilt Of Banana Through Banana Intercropping with Allium spp.

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    Arif Wibowo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc, is one of the most destructive diseases of banana and has spread in many plantation areas in Indonesia. Until today, the effective ways to control banana fusarium wilt disease have not yet been found. Some studies indicated thatAllium spp. could be used to suppress plant diseases caused by Fusarium. Allium spp. are important horticultural crops which are generally cultivated in some areas in Indonesia. This research was conducted to determine the effect of several species ofAllium spp. intercropped with banana to improve soil suppressiveness against banana fusarium wilt disease. The results showed that up to 12 months after planting, from 3 species ofAllium spp. (A. tuberosum/ Chinese leek, A. fistulosum/ bunching onion, and A. cepa var. aggregatum/ shallot intercropped with banana Ambon Kuning (AAA cultivar, Chinese leek and shallot were able to suppress the incidence of fusarium wilt disease of banana by 46 and 33% respectively. Soil analysis on the rhizosphere of banana intercropped with Chinese leek and shallot had lower population of total Fusarium compared to the other treatments. Analysis of fluorescein diacetate (3’.6’-diacetylfluoerescein or FDA also showed that total microbial activity in the rhizosphere of banana intercropped withAllium spp. was also lower compared to control treatment (without intercropping. The observation of the effect ofAllium spp. extracts on Foc showed that Allium spp. extracts were able to suppress the development of the colony and spore germination of Foc in vitro.   INTISARI Layu Fusarium, yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc, merupakan salah satu penyakit tanaman pisang yang paling merusak dan telah tersebar di berbagai daerah di Indonesia. Sampai saat ini cara yang efektif untuk mengendalikan penyakit layu fusarium pisang belum ditemukan. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Allium spp. dapat dipergunakan

  18. Establishing an efficient explant superficial sterilization protocol for in vitro micropropagation of bear’s garlic (Allium ursinum L.

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    Tomaszewska-Sowa Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Allium ursinum L. has a commercial value due to its high contents of bio-active compounds and mild, garlic-like taste. In vitro culture played an important role in obtaining Allium species with the desired characteristics and in the production of healthy reproductive material.

  19. Evaluation of the in vitro effects of Allium hookeri on broiler chicken lymphocytes, macrophages and tumor cells

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    Large members of Allium species have been widely used around Asia as food or as traditional medicinal plants that prevent infection. Allium hookeri has also been reported to have antimicrobial activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ethanol extracts of A. hookeri (...

  20. Antifungal effects of Allium ascalonicum, Marticaria chamomilla and Stachys lavandulifolia extracts on Candida albicans

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    Moghim Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to increased risk for opportunistic fungal infections and increasing prevalence of hospital infections caused by pathogenic yeasts and fungus resistance to antifungal drugs, discovery of antifungal compounds with high efficiency is necessary. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the antifungal activities of Allium ascalonicum, Marticaria chamomilla and Stachys lavandulifolia on Candida albians. Methods: In this study the plants extracts were prepared with macerated method using ethanol 70%. Antifungal activities of the extracts were performed according to microbroth dilution method in 96 well microdilution plates. The amount of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC based on counting the number of fungal colonies (CFU were evaluated for each of Allium ascalonicum, Chamomile and Stachys lavandulifolia extracts compared with the control group. Results: MIC of Allium ascalonicum, Marticaria chamomilla and Stachys lavandulifolia were respectively 0.31, 3.75 and 15.13 mg/ml and also MIC50% of Allium ascalonicum, Marticaria chamomilla and Stachys lavandulifolia were respectively 0.93, 10.59 and 41.32 mg/ml and MIC 90% of them were respectively 8.65, 16.88 and 60.55 mg/ml and their MFC were respectively 20, 20 and 65 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results indicate that all three extracts are effective, but Allium ascalonicum possesses the highest antifungal activity on Candida albicans. If clinical trials approve these findings, this plant may represent a new source of antifungal agent for control of Candida albicans.

  1. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin-a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects.

  2. Histological Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Pulp Treatment of Permanent Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the histo pathology effects of two medicaments Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the remaining pulp tissue of the permanent teething children. A total of 18 premolars were included in this study. Two sound premolars were extracted and subjected to histological examination to show the normal pulp tissue. Pulpo tomy procedure was performed in the rest of the remaining 16 premolars; half of them using Allium sativum oil and the rest of the tested premolars were medicated using formocresol and all were sealed with suitable restoration. Then, premolars extracted at variable intervals (48 hours, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months), stained using hemotoxylin and eosin etain (H&E) and prepared for histopathology examination. Histological evaluation seemed far more promising for Allium sativum oil than formocresol. Histological evaluation revealed that teeth treated with Allium sativa oil showed infammatory changes that had been resolved in the end of the study. On the contrary, the severe chronic infammation of pulp tissue accompanied with formocresol eventually produced pulp necrosis with or without fibrosis. In addition, pulp calcification was evidenced in certain cases. Allium sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  3. Therapeutic Role of Functional Components in Alliums for Preventive Chronic Disease in Human Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Yang, Jiazhen; Pu, Xiaoying; Du, Juan; Yang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shuming

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. To obtain a better understanding of alliums for chronic disease prevention, we conducted a systematic review for risk factors and prevention strategies for chronic disease of functional components in alliums, based on a comprehensive English literature search that was conducted using various electronic search databases, especially the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2007–2016. Allium genus especially garlic, onion, and Chinese chive is rich in organosulfur compounds, quercetin, flavonoids, saponins, and others, which have anticancer, preventive cardiovascular and heart diseases, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antioxidants, antimicrobial activity, neuroprotective and immunological effects, and so on. These results support Allium genus; garlic and onion especially may be the promising dietotherapeutic vegetables and organopolysulfides as well as quercetin mechanism in the treatment of chronic diseases. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of functional food, nutraceuticals, and alternative drugs to improve the chronic diseases. PMID:28261311

  4. Therapeutic Role of Functional Components in Alliums for Preventive Chronic Disease in Human Being

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    Yawen Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. To obtain a better understanding of alliums for chronic disease prevention, we conducted a systematic review for risk factors and prevention strategies for chronic disease of functional components in alliums, based on a comprehensive English literature search that was conducted using various electronic search databases, especially the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2007–2016. Allium genus especially garlic, onion, and Chinese chive is rich in organosulfur compounds, quercetin, flavonoids, saponins, and others, which have anticancer, preventive cardiovascular and heart diseases, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antioxidants, antimicrobial activity, neuroprotective and immunological effects, and so on. These results support Allium genus; garlic and onion especially may be the promising dietotherapeutic vegetables and organopolysulfides as well as quercetin mechanism in the treatment of chronic diseases. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of functional food, nutraceuticals, and alternative drugs to improve the chronic diseases.

  5. Testicular toxicity and sperm quality following cadmium exposure in rats: Ameliorative potentials of Allium cepa

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    Serah F Ige

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Allium cepa crude extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6. Group 1 was used as control, group 2 was administered 0.3 mg/kgBW of cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 intraperitoneally for 3 days, group 3 was pretreated with 1 ml/100 g BW of Allium cepa (AcE for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal administration of 0.3 mg/kgBW of CdSO 4 in the last 3 days of experiment, and group 4 was administered 1 ml/100 g BW of AcE throughout the experiment. Testicular weight and semen analysis revealing the sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology was carried out. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation status were also carried out in testes. Results: The study demonstrated that Allium cepa ameliorated CdSO 4 -induced alteration in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. It also showed that Allium cepa attenuated the derangement of lipid peroxidation profile in testicular tissues caused by CdSO 4 exposure. Conclusions: The findings in the study showed that pre-treatment of rat model with Allium cepa extract prevented CdSO 4 -induced reproductive toxicity by improving sperm quality and enhancing testicular lipid peroxidation status.

  6. Flavonol glucoside profile of southern Italian red onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Paola; Caristi, Corrado; Gargiulli, Claudia; Leuzzi, Ugo

    2005-04-06

    High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) coupled with electron spray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS) was used to determine the flavonol profile in southern Italian red onions (Allium cepa L.). This on-line technique allowed the identification of seven flavonols in southern Italian red onion, quercetin 4'-glucoside and quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside being the most abundant components. Five minor flavonols have been recognized, offering a characteristic profile of such compounds in red onions under study. Quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 7,4'-diglucoside, quercetin 3,7,4'-triglucoside, and isorhamnetin 4'-glucoside have been previously reported as minor flavonoid components in Allium cepa, while isorhamnetin 3,4'-diglucoside was previously found in Allium ascalonicum. Traces of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside and free quercetin were also detected.

  7. The relationship between antibrowning, anti-radical and reducing capacity of Brassica and Allium extracts

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    Mariela C Bustos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous vegetable extracts from Allium and Brassica families were assayed for antibrowning capacity and related to their anti-radical and reducing power activities. The treatment  of mushrooms and avocado slices, with white cabbage, cauliflower, garlic and scallion extracts, reduced color changes during storage at 4 °C and -18 °C. Storage temperature and the type of extract employed influenced change of color variables. The contribution of polyphenols on measured antioxidant activity of extracts was also discussed. Allium antibrowning properties were closely related to antioxidant capacity, while the Brassica extracts were less effective. Treatment with Allium extracts extended the storage time of frozen and refrigerated mushrooms and avocado slices, in comparison with untreated samples.

  8. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

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    Kurbonova Parvina A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic.

  9. Antioxidant activity of ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L.

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    Mladenović Jelena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity and efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L. Ethanolic (50%; v/v extracts of edible leek parts (stem and leaf were prepared by ultrasound-assisted extraction, which was followed by evaluation of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Total phenols were determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The results of antioxidant activity were compared with control antioxidants: vitamin C and BHT. The higher content of phenols (69.46 mg GAE/g dry extract and flavonoids (33.53 mg CE/g dry extract was found in the ethanolic extract of leek stem. The measured values of IC50 were 98.90 g/ml and 61.05 g/ml for the ethanolic extract of leek leaf and stem, respectively.

  10. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

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    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, específicamente Ebsco, PubMed, Hinari y SciELO, a través de los cuales se accedieron a las bases de datos: Medline, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y MedicLatina, para revisar el estado actual de las investigaciones del ajo en medicina. Existen evidencias científicas que avalan su uso, comprobando los efectos antes referidos. En los últimos años predominan artículos que se centran en el estudio de diferentes formulaciones del ajo: extracto añejo, extracto acuoso, aceite, ajo crudo. En algunas de las referencias consultadas se reconocen limitaciones metodológicas en estas investigaciones. Es consenso que las diferentes formulaciones elaboradas a partir el ajo deben utilizarse como tratamiento complementario.

  11. Anthocyanins from red onion, Allium cepa, with novel aglycone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossen, Torgils; Andersen, Øyvind M

    2003-04-01

    Four anthocyanins with the same novel 4-substituted aglycone, carboxypyranocyanidin, have been isolated from acidified, methanolic extracts of the edible scales as well as from the dry outer scales of red onion, Allium cepa L. The structures of 1 and 2 were identified as the 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside and 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside) of 5-carboxypyranocyanidin, respectively. This aglycone, 5-carboxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,8-dihydroxy-pyrano[4,3,2-de]-1-benzopyrylium, is with exception of the substitution pattern on the phenyl ring similar to carboxypyranomalvidin (vitisidin A) recently isolated from red wines. In addition to 1 and 2, two analogues of 2 methylated at the terminal carboxyl group of the acyl moiety (3) or at the aglycone carboxyl (4), respectively, were also identified. These latter compounds are most probably formed by esterification of 2 with the solvent (acidified methanol) during the isolation process. The structures were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and LC-MS. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Anthocyanins with 4'-glucosidation from red onion, Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossen, Torgils; Slimestad, Rune; Andersen M, Øyvind M

    2003-12-01

    The anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-(3"-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside)-4'-O-beta-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 7-O-(3"-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside)-4'-O-beta-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3,4'-di-O-beta-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 4'-O-beta-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside)-5-O-beta-glucopyranoside and peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside) have been isolated in minor amounts from pigmented scales of red onion, Allium cepa, in addition to six known anthocyanins. The structures were established mainly by extensive use of 2D NMR spectroscopy and electrospray LC-MS. With exception of cyanidin 4'-glucoside and cyanidin 3,4'-diglucoside reported from Hibiscus esculentus with inadequate documentation, this is the first identification of anthocyanins with 4'-glycosidation. Compared to cyanidin 3-glycosides the cyanidin 4'-glucoside derivatives showed hypsochromic shifts of visible lambda(max) and hyperchromic effects on wavelengths around 440 nm, similar to pelargonidin 3-glycosides.

  13. Stem Rot of Garlic (Allium sativum) Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk

    2010-06-01

    Stem rot disease was found in garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivated from 2008 to 2010 in the vegetable gardens of some farmers in Geumsan-myon, Jinju City, Gyeongnam province in Korea. The initial symptoms of the disease were typical water-soaked spots, which progressed to rotting, wilting, blighting, and eventually death. White mycelial mats had spread over the lesions near the soil line, and sclerotia had formed over the mycelial mats on the stem. The sclerotia were globoid in shape, 1~3 mm in size, and tan to brown in color. The optimum temperature for growth and sclerotia formation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was 30℃. The diameter of the hyphae ranged from approximately 4 to 8 µm. Typical clamp connection structures were observed in the hyphae of the fungus, which was grown on PDA medium for 4 days. On the basis of the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity of the fungus on the host plants, the causal agent was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of stem rot disease in garlic caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.

  14. Chitinase in roots of mycorrhizal Allium porrum: regulation and localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, P; Boller, T; Ludwig, A; Wiemken, A; Faccio, A; Bonfante-Fasolo, P

    1989-04-01

    Chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) activity was measured in roots of Allium prorrum L. (leek) during development of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with Glomus versiforme (Karst.) Berch. During the early stages of infection, between 10 and 20 d after inoculation, the specific activity of chitinase was higher in mycorrhizal roots than in the uninfected controls. However, 60-90 d after inoculation, when the symbiosis was fully established, the mycorrhizal roots contained much less chitinase than control roots. Chitinase was purified from A. porrum roots. An antiserum against beanleaf chitinase was found to cross-react specifically with chitinase in the extracts from non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal A. porrum roots. This antiserum was used for the immunocytochemical localization of the enzyme with fluorescent and gold-labelled probes. Chitinase was localized in the vacuoles and in the extracellular spaces of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal roots. There was no immunolabelling on the fungal cell walls in the intercellular or the intracellular phases. It is concluded that the chitin in the fungal walls is inaccessible to plant chitinase. This casts doubts on the possible involvement of this hydrolase in the development of the mycorrhizal fungus. However, fungal penetration does appear to cause a typical defense response in the first stages that is later depressed.

  15. A new high molecular weight agglutinin from garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Sandhu, R S

    1997-01-01

    Erythrocyte agglutination by lectins from Allium sativum was inhibited only by mannose of the sugars tested. However, asialofetuin was more effective inhibitor of agglutination as compared to mannose. This led to the use of an asialofetuin-silica affinity column to isolate agglutinins of 110 and 25 kDa (ASA110 and ASA25). While ASA25 is a dimeric protein comprising of subunits of 12.5 and 13.0 kDa, ASA110 is a glycoprotein of two identical subunits of 47 kDa. ASA110 revealed to have a high content of aspartic acid, glycine, leucine and serine but low content of cysteine and methionine. It contains 14 residues of neutral sugars in addition to 43 residues of hexosamines per mole of lectin and requires metal ions for its functional conformation. Serological cross-reactions with other species showed some common epitopes of ASA110 and ASA25 present in A. porrum, A. ascalonicum, Narcissus alba, PHA and Con A but not in A. cepa. ASA110 with CHO cells indicated it to be weakly cytotoxic with LD50 of 160 microg/ml.

  16. Structure and cytotoxicity of steroidal glycosides from Allium schoenoprasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timité, Gaoussou; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2013-04-01

    A phytochemical analysis of the whole plant of Allium schoenoprasum, has led to the isolation of four spirostane-type glycosides (1-4), and four known steroidal saponins. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3β,12β,21-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3β,11α,21-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), laxogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,11α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (4). Four of the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity against the HCT 116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scolicidal effect of Allium sativum flowers on hydatid cyst protoscolices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Esboei, B; Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Fathi, H; Rezaei Anzahaei, F

    2016-01-01

    he s Because there is no effective and safe drug therapy for hydatid cyst, finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. In this study, the scolicidal effect of ultrasonic methanol extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) flower is investigated. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst and were exposed to different concentrations of extract for various exposure times. The viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% Eosin staining. The scolicidal activity of extract at a concentration of 50 mg ml-1 was 59, 76, 81 and 86% after 10, 30, 60, and 180 min of exposure respectively. The scolicidal effect at 100 mg ml-1 was 67, 78, 85 and 98% after various exposure times, respectively. The results of this study showed that the ultrasonic extract has high scolicidal activity and might be used as a natural scolicidal agent. Garlic flower extracts is a potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence.

  18. Constituents and the antitumor principle of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K T; Choi, J H; Kim, D H; Son, K H; Kim, W B; Kwon, S H; Park, H J

    2001-02-01

    To search for cytotoxic components from Allium victorialis, MTT assays on each extract and an isolated component, gitogenin 3-O-lycotetroside, were performed against cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicities of most extract were shown to be comparatively weak, though IC50 values of CHCl3 fraction was found to be organosulfuric flavours were predictable by GC-MS performance. The most abundant peak was revealed to be 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin (1) by its mass spectrum. Further, this extract showed significant cytotoxicities toward cancer cell lies. Silica gel column chromatography of the n-butanol fraction led to the isolation of gitogenin 3-O-lycotetroside (3) along with astragalin (4) and kaempferol 3, 4'-di-O-beta-D-glucoside (5). This steroidal saponin exhibited significant cytotoxic activities (IC50, 6.51-36.5 microg/ml) over several cancer cell lines. When compound 3 was incubated for 24 h with human intestinal bacteria, a major metabolite was produced and then isolated by silica gel column chromatography. By examining parent- and prominent ion peak in FAB-MS spectrum of the metabolite, the structure was speculated not to be any of prosapogenins of 3, suggesting that spiroketal ring were labile to the bacterial reaction. These suggest that disulfides produced secondarily are the antitumor principles.

  19. Spice plant Allium cepa: dietary supplement for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Chen, Shuqing

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Although conventional antidiabetic agents are known to ameliorate the symptoms of diabetes, they also may cause adverse effects. The purpose of this review was to organize and discuss various studies that have been previously conducted indicating the efficacy of Allium cepa in DM. A comprehensive English literature search was conducted using various electronic search databases. Different search terms were used and an advanced search was conducted by combining all the search fields in abstracts, keywords, and titles. Allium cepa, a spice plant, is commonly known as onion and belongs to the family liliaceae. Since ancient times, it has been used traditionally for the treatment of different diseases. Among various activities of Allium cepa, regulation of hypoglycemic activity is considered one of its important effects in DM. Sulfur compounds including S-methylcysteine and flavonoids such as quercetin are mainly responsible for the hypoglycemic activity of Allium cepa. S-methylcysteine and flavonoids help to decrease the levels of blood glucose, serum lipids, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation, as well as increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and insulin secretion. Extracts of onion also have been shown to have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects by normalizing the activities of liver hexokinase, glucose 6-phosphatase and HMG coenzyme-A reductase. In preliminarily clinical trials, patients with diabetes safely consumed slices of Allium cepa, exhibiting sufficient hypoglycemic activity. In the future, further studies must be conducted to investigate and confirm the hypoglycemic activities of Allium cepa and its constituents and/or their synthetic analogs. This review will not only elucidate the nutritious facts of Allium cepa but may also help in understanding the molecular basis of its effects in DM. This review will explore in particular

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutikno, E-mail: smadnasri@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Semarang State University D7 Building, 2nd Floor, Unnes, Sekaran Campus, Semarang, Indonesia, 50229 (Indonesia); Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi,; Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma [Faculty of Computer Science, Dian Nuswantoro University Jl. Nakula I No. 5, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10{sup −4}%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  1. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Three Varieties of Allium sativum L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Narendhirakannan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbs possess antioxidant ingredients that provide efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Allium sativum L. is a strong astringent, used for the treatment of liver and spleen diseases, rheumatism and tumors. The antioxidant activities of different concentrations of ethanolic extracts of garlic bulb of three varieties were determined by the four assays i.e. DPPH radical scavenging assay, reducing power ability, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and total antioxidant capacity. Due to its natural origin and potent free-radical scavenging ability, Allium sativum L. could be used as a potential preventive intervention for free radical-mediated diseases.

  2. based conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mcd.v10i2.1. Increasing women's par- ticipation in community- based conservation: key to success? Ensuring that both men and women benefit equitably from conservation and development programs is likely to increase the long-term success of both conservation and development goals. However ...

  3. Optimization of Water Content for the Cryopreservation Of Allium sativum In Vitro Cultures by Encapsulation-Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, P T; Souch, G R; Zamecnik, J; Harding, K

    There is a general requirement to determine and correlate water content to viability for the standardization of conservation protocols to facilitate effective cryostorage of plant germplasm. This study examined water content as a critical factor to optimize the cryostorage of Allium sativum. Stem discs were excised from post-harvest, stored bulbs prior to cryopreservation by encapsulation-dehydration and water content was determined gravimetrically. Survival of cryopreserved stem discs was 42.5 %, with 22.5 % exhibiting shoot regrowth following 6 h desiccation. Gravimetric data demonstrated a correlation between water content corresponding with survival / regrowth from desiccated, cryopreserved stem discs. For encapsulated stem discs a 25 % residual moisture and corresponding water content of 0.36 g H2O g(-1) d.wt correlated with maximal survival following ~6.5 h of desiccation. The data concurs with the literature suggesting the formation of a stable vitrified state and a 'window' for optimal survival and regrowth that is between 6 - 10 h desiccation. Further studies using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are suggested to substantiate these findings.

  4. Genetic analyses of bolting in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Samantha; Revanna, Roopashree; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Shaw, Martin; Wright, Kathryn; Thomson, Susan; Moya, Leire; Lee, Robyn; Macknight, Richard; McCallum, John

    2014-03-01

    We present the first evidence for a QTL conditioning an adaptive trait in bulb onion, and the first linkage and population genetics analyses of candidate genes involved in photoperiod and vernalization physiology. Economic production of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) requires adaptation to photoperiod and temperature such that a bulb is formed in the first year and a flowering umbel in the second. 'Bolting', or premature flowering before bulb maturation, is an undesirable trait strongly selected against by breeders during adaptation of germplasm. To identify genome regions associated with adaptive traits we conducted linkage mapping and population genetic analyses of candidate genes, and QTL analysis of bolting using a low-density linkage map. We performed tagged amplicon sequencing of ten candidate genes, including the FT-like gene family, in eight diverse populations to identify polymorphisms and seek evidence of differentiation. Low nucleotide diversity and negative estimates of Tajima's D were observed for most genes, consistent with purifying selection. Significant population differentiation was observed only in AcFT2 and AcSOC1. Selective genotyping in a large 'Nasik Red × CUDH2150' F2 family revealed genome regions on chromosomes 1, 3 and 6 associated (LOD > 3) with bolting. Validation genotyping of two F2 families grown in two environments confirmed that a QTL on chromosome 1, which we designate AcBlt1, consistently conditions bolting susceptibility in this cross. The chromosome 3 region, which coincides with a functionally characterised acid invertase, was not associated with bolting in other environments, but showed significant association with bulb sucrose content in this and other mapping pedigrees. These putative QTL and candidate genes were placed on the onion map, enabling future comparative studies of adaptive traits.

  5. The role of diallyl sulfides and dipropyl sulfides in the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Sergio; Leonardi, Michele; Melai, Bernardo; Fratini, Filippo; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) obtained from fresh bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L. ( Alliaceae), was studied. A. sativum (garlic) EO showed a good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone 14.8 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 21.1 mm), and Escherichia coli (inhibition zone 11.0 mm), whereas the EO of A. porrum (leek) had no antimicrobial activity. The main constituents of the garlic EO were diallyl monosulfide, diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide, and diallyl tetrasulfide. The EO of A. porrum was characterized by the presence of dipropyl disulfide (DPDS), dipropyl trisulfide, and dipropyl tetrasulfide. The antimicrobial activities of the DADS and DPDS were also studied. The results obtained suggest that the presence of the allyl group is fundamental for the antimicrobial activity of these sulfide derivatives when they are present in Allium or in other species (DADS inhibition zone on S. aureus 15.9 mm, P. aeruginosa 21.9 mm, E. coli 11.4 mm). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. 77 FR 23007 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for Allium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... roots that pull the young plants down through the soil (P tz 1992, p. 1433). Allium munzii plants are... movement of young bulbs (P tz 1992, p. 1433), which is necessary for establishment and persistence of A.... notatior based on estimates from surveys conducted in the spring of 2000 (Glenn Lukos Associates, Inc. 2000...

  7. Observation of the garlic antimicrobial activity (Allium sativum) in compulsory Secondary Education laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-01-01

    El ajo (Allium sativum) ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro) la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  8. Observation of the garlic antimicrobial activity (Allium sativum in compulsory Secondary Education laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El ajo (Allium sativum ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  9. Clinical hypoglycemic effects of allium cepa (Red Onion) in Type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease caused by destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells and characterized by defect in insulin secretion. Objectives: The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of Allium cepa in patients with type 1 diabetic patients. Results: In the ...

  10. Subcellular localization of Cd in the root cells of Allium sativum by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ultrastructural investigation of the root cells of Allium sativum L. exposed to three different concentrations of Cd (100 M, 1 mM and 10 mM) for 9 days was carried out. The results showed that Cd induced several significant ultrastructural changes – high vacuolization in cytoplasm, deposition of electron-dense material in ...

  11. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has

  12. Allium olivieri Boiss. (Alliaceae, a new taxon to Turkey, with contributions to its taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Eker

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium olivieri Boiss. (Alliaceae is reported as a new record for Turkish flora. It was identified using the collected specimens and Flora orientalis, Flora of Iraq and Flora Iranica. The detailed description, illustrations, geographical distribution, habitat, status of IUCN extinction risk and some comments and discussions on the taxonomy of the species are given.

  13. First Genome Sequence of Shallot Latent Carlavirus from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Kazusato; Okamura, Kouta; Yasaka, Ryosuke; Fukuda, Shinji; Ishimaru, Kanji; Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Kazuo

    2017-08-17

    A wild Japanese garlic plant (Allium macrostemon Bunge, wild onion) with leaves showing chlorotic stripes was collected in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Genome sequencing showed that it was infected with shallot latent carlavirus. The genomic sequence of this virus is reported for the first time from wild onion. Copyright © 2017 Ohshima et al.

  14. Evidence for an in vitro Anticoagulant Activity of Red Onion ( Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Haemostasis is the process that retains the blood within the vascular system during periods of injury, localizes the reactions involved to the site of injury, repairs and re-establishes blood flow through the injured vessel. Onion (Allium cepa) is a largely universal staple herb popular throughout history as both food ...

  15. Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Allium Sativum on Tissue lead Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and Allium sativum (garlic) on the lead levels in bone, brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues of female rats (Rattus navigicus) were investigated. Group I was Control, rats in Groups II – IV were injected intraperitoneally with 100µmol/kg body weight of lead acetate for 7 days. In addition ...

  16. In vitro Anti-mycobacteria Sensitivity and Kill-kinetics of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This plant is also known to form part of the diet of many people across the world. In the quest for a more active and body-friendly therapeutic agents, extracts of Allium ascalonicum (whole plant) were screened against four nontuberculous mycobacteria species namely, Mycobacterium fortuitum ATCC 684, Mycobacterium ...

  17. Factors influencing induction, propagation and regeneration of mature zygotic embryo-derived callus from Allium cepa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study on the effects of subspecies, cultivar, basal medium, sucrose concentration and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentration on callus induction, propagation and subsequent plant regeneration in Allium cepa has been carried out. Mature zygotic embryos from two onion (cvs. Sturon

  18. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Allium cepa L.: the production of transgenic onions and shallots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Khrustaleva, L.I.; Henken, G.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Kik, C.; Krens, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation protocol for onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) which can be used year-round. It is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, with three-week old callus, induced from mature zygotic embryos, as target tissue. For the development

  19. Effect of biochar soil-amendments on Allium porrum growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Examine the interaction of biochar addition and arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculation upon growth and Zn and Cu uptake by Allium porrum L. in heavy metal amended soil mix, and relate these responses to physicochemical properties of the biochars. Methods: The experiment was a complete ...

  20. Localized chiasmata and meiotic nodules in the tetraploid onion Allium porrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stack, S M; Roelofs, D

    Allium porrum L. (cultivated leek) (2n = 4x = 32) is a fertile tetraploid that forms bivalents with pericentric chiasmata at metaphase I. To investigate the basis of this unusual behavior for a tetraploid, we describe the karyotype, axial cores, synaptonemal complexes (SCs), and meiotic nodules of

  1. Abnormal mitosis in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was aimed to find mitotic abnormalities as cytological evidence induced by the dye in root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L.) grown in different concentrations: 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% (weight per volume) prepared in distilled water in separate treatment schedules for 24 and 48 h. Mitotic aberrations ...

  2. New cyclic sulfides extracted from Allium sativum: garlicnins P, J2, and Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru; Nishioka, Naho; Masuda, Fuka; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2017-11-20

    Two atypical cyclic-type sulfides, garlicnin P (1) and garlicnin J2 (2), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin Q (3), were isolated from the acetone extracts of garlic, Allium sativum, bulbs cultivated in the Kumamoto city area, and their structures characterized. Their production pathways are also discussed.

  3. De novo assembly and characterization of the garlic (Allium sativum) bud transcriptome by Illumina sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiudong; Zhou, Shumei; Meng, Fanlu; Liu, Shiqi

    2012-10-01

    Garlic is widely used as a spice throughout the world for the culinary value of its flavor and aroma, which are created by the chemical transformation of a series of organic sulfur compounds. To analyze the transcriptome of Allium sativum and discover the genes involved in sulfur metabolism, cDNAs derived from the total RNA of Allium sativum buds were analyzed by Illumina sequencing. Approximately 26.67 million 90 bp paired-end clean reads were achieved in two libraries. A total of 127,933 unigenes were generated by de novo assembly and were compared with the sequences in public databases. Of these, 45,286 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the Nr database, 29,514 showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and, 20,706 and 21,952 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Moreover, genes involved in organic sulfur biosynthesis were identified. These unigenes data will provide the foundation for research on gene expression, genomics and functional genomics in Allium sativum. Key message The obtained unigenes will provide the foundation for research on functional genomics in Allium sativum and its closely related species, and fill the gap of the existing plant EST database.

  4. New cyclic sulfides, garlicnins I2, M, N, and O, from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru; Nishioka, Naho; Masuda, Fuka; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2017-10-30

    One atypical thiolane-type sulfide, garlicnin I2 (1), two 3,4-dimethylthiolane-type sulfides, garlicnins M (2) and N (3), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin O (4), were isolated from the acetone extracts of Chinese garlic bulbs, Allium sativum and their structures were characterized. Hypothetical pathways for the production of the respective sulfides were discussed.

  5. Atypical Cyclic Sulfides, Garlicnins G, I, and J, Extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masateru; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Pan, Cheng; El-Aasr, Mona; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Newly characterized, atypical sulfides, garlicnins G (1), I (2), and J (3), were isolated from the acetone extracts of garlic bulbs, Allium sativum. Their production pathways are regarded as different from those of cyclic sulfoxides, 3,4-dimethyltetrahydrothiophene-S-oxide derivatives such as onionins A1-A3, garlicnins B1-B4 and C1-C3.

  6. Effect of irrigation Interval on the Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during 2010 and 2011 dry seasons under irrigation at the Ajiwa Irrigation Site in Katsina State (Lat. 130 17' N and Long. 70 05' E) to study the effects of irrigation intervals on the yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Treatments consisted of four irrigation intervals (2, 4, 6 and 8 day) laid out in a ...

  7. In vitro activity of Allium sativum and Aloe vera extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid increase of antibiotic resistance needs to be taken as a threat to both animals and human being. In this study the arbitrary concentration of 25%, 50% and 75% of individual and combined Allium sativum and Aloe vera were tested against Salmonella Gallinarum. The antimicrobials were extracted using aqueous ...

  8. Resistance to Fusarium basal rot and response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan Vivero, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivation in low input and organic farming systems is hampered by Fusarium basal rot (FBR) and the limited ability of onion to take up nutrients like phosphorus. The symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contributes to plant acquisition of phosphorus, among other

  9. Response of Onion(Allium cepa L.) to Nutrient Sources and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onion is an important vegetable in Nigeria, but its production and quality are often low due to inappropriate agronomic practices like good nutrient sources and proper weed control. A study was carried out for two years to investigate the response of onion (Allium cepa L.) to nutrient sources and weeding regimes on the bulb ...

  10. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  11. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its wild relatives from Central Asia: evaluation for fertility potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; London Safir, I.; Baizerman, M.; Khassanov, F.; Kik, C.; Rabinowitch, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) a popular condiment, is completely sterile, and thus is propagated only vegetatively. According to modern taxonomy, A. sativum and its closest wild relative A. longicuspis form a species complex. The collection of a large number of accessions of these taxa is the only

  12. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic.Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-month-old Allium sativum was prepared and their antioxidant activities were assessed in linoleic acid and β-carotene linoleate system. The amount of phenolic compounds was measured by Folin-Ciocalteumethod, based on gallic acid; the amount of flavonol and flavonoid compounds by aluminum chloride base on rutin base; and the amount of allicinby spectrophotometry method. SPSS-15 Software and t-statistic tests were used to analyze the mean difference between the results of two groups and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The efficiency of fresh garlic (35.36 in inhibiting the oxidation was higher (p<0.05 comparing to three-month dated Allium sativum (10.2. Phenolic compounds of the fresh garlic (12.61mg/g were more than the three-month dated Allium sativum (2.89mg/g. The amount of allicin was respectively 15 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml in the fresh and three-month dated Allium sativum (p<0.05.Conclusion: The fresh garlic contains more useful substances and it is recommended to be used in its fresh estate.

  13. In vitro effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on scolices of hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Nazer, Ali

    2010-11-01

    Surgery is still the main treatment for hydatid disease. Recurrence of the infection is one of the end points of surgery in treating the hydatid cyst which results from the dissemination of protoscolices-rich fluid. Installation of a scolicidal agent into the cyst is the most commonly employed measure to prevent recurrence. Many scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of the cyst's content, but most of them are not safe due to their undesired side effects. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum is investigated. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg ml(-1)) of garlic extract were used for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 25 mg ml(-1) killed 87.9, 95.6, 96.8, 98.7, 99.6, and 100% of protoscolices following 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min of application, respectively. Moreover, the scolicidal activity of Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 50 mg ml(-1) was 100% after 10 min of application. Methanolic extract of Allium sativum had a high scolicidal activity in vitro and thus might be used as a scolicidal agent in the surgical treatment of the hydatid cyst. However, further investigation on the in vivo efficacy of Allium sativum extract and its possible side effects is proposed.

  14. Relationships Between Bioactive Compound Content and the Antiplatelet and Antioxidant Activities of Six Allium Vegetable Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Vanesa Beretta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sp. vegetables are widely consumed for their characteristic flavour. Additionally, their consumption may provide protection against cardiovascular disease due to their antiplatelet and antioxidant activities. Although antiplatelet and antioxidant activities in Allium sp. are generally recognised, comparative studies of antiplatelet and antioxidant potency among the main Allium vegetable species are lacking. Also, the relationship between organosulfur and phenolic compounds and these biological activities has not been well established. In this study, the in vitro antiplatelet and antioxidant activities of the most widely consumed Allium species are characterised and compared. The species total organosulfur and phenolic content, and the HPLC profiles of 11 phenolic compounds were characterised and used to investigate the relationship between these compounds and antiplatelet and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, antiplatelet activities in chives and shallot have been characterised for the first time. Our results revealed that the strongest antiplatelet agents were garlic and shallot, whereas chives had the highest antioxidant activity. Leek and bunching onion had the weakest both biological activities. Significantly positive correlations were found between the in vitro antiplatelet activity and total organosulfur (R=0.74 and phenolic (TP content (R=0.73, as well as between the antioxidant activity and TP (R=0.91 and total organosulfur content (R=0.67. Six individual phenolic compounds were associated with the antioxidant activity, with catechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechin gallate having the strongest correlation values (R>0.80. Overall, our results suggest that both organosulfur and phenolic compounds contribute similarly to Allium antiplatelet activity, whereas phenolics, as a whole, are largely responsible for antioxidant activity, with broad variation observed among the contributions of individual phenolic compounds.

  15. Tubulin cytoskeleton during microsporogenesis in the male-sterile genotype of Allium sativum and fertile Allium ampeloprasum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchórzewska, Dorota; Deryło, Kamil; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Winiarczyk, Krystyna

    2015-12-01

    Microsporogenesis in garlic. The male-sterile Allium sativum (garlic) reproduces exclusively in the vegetative mode, and anthropogenic factors seem to be the cause of the loss of sexual reproduction capability. There are many different hypotheses concerning the causes of male sterility in A.sativum; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been comprehensively elucidated.Numerous attempts have been undertaken to understand the causes of male sterility, but the tubulin cytoskeleton in meiotically dividing cells during microsporogenesis has never been investigated in this species. Using sterile A.sativum genotype L13 and its fertile close relative A. ampeloprasum (leek), we have analysed the distribution of the tubulin cytoskeleton during microsporogenesis. We observed that during karyokinesis and cytokinesis, in both meiotic divisions I and II, the microtubular cytoskeleton in garlic L13 formed configurations that resembled tubulin arrangement typical of monocots. However, the tubulin cytoskeleton in garlic was distinctly poorer (composed of a few MT filaments) compared with that found in meiotically dividing cells in A. ampeloprasum. These differences did not affect the course of karyogenesis, chondriokinesis, and cytokinesis, which contributed to completion of microsporogenesis, but there was no further development of the male gametophyte. At the very beginning of the successive stage of development of fertile pollen grains, i.e. gametogenesis, there were disorders involving the absence of a normal cortical cytoskeleton and dramatically progressive degeneration of the cytoplasm in garlic. Therefore,we suggest that, due to disturbances in cortical cytoskeleton formation at the very beginning of gametogenesis, the intracellular transport governed by the cytoskeleton might be perturbed, leading to microspore decay in the male-sterile garlic genotype.

  16. Histopathological, oxidative damage, biochemical, and genotoxicity alterations in hepatic rats exposed to deltamethrin: modulatory effects of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncir, Marwa; Ben Salah, Ghada; Kamoun, Hassen; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; Khabir, Abdelmajid; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Saoudi, Mongi

    2016-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a pesticide widely used as a synthetic pyrethroid. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of deltamethrin to induce oxidative stress and changes in biochemical parameters, hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in female rats following a short-term (30 days) oral exposure and attenuation of these effects by Allium sativum extract. Indeed, Allium sativum is known to be a good antioxidant food resource which helps destroy free radical particles. Our results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase in liver enzyme activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. However, it induced a decrease in activities of hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p Allium sativum extract normalized significantly (p Allium sativum diminished the adverse effects induced by this synthetic pyrethroid insecticide.

  17. Applications of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium chemistry. (Z)-butanethial S-oxide and 1-butenyl thiosulfinates and their S-(E)-1-butenylcysteine S-oxide precursor from Allium siculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, Roman; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A; Schraml, Jan; Vattekkatte, Abith; Block, Eric

    2010-01-27

    Lachrymatory (Z)-butanethial S-oxide along with several 1-butenyl thiosulfinates was detected by DART mass spectrometry upon cutting Allium siculum , a popular ornamental Allium species used in some cultures as a spice. (Z)-Butanethial S-oxide isolated from the plant was shown to be identical to a synthetic sample. Its likely precursor, (R(S),R(C),E)-S-(1-butenyl)cysteine S-oxide (homoisoalliin), was isolated from homogenates of A. siculum, and a closely related species Allium tripedale , and fully characterized. Through use of LC-MS, a series of related gamma-glutamyl derivatives were tentatively identified in A. siculum and A. tripedale homogenates, including gamma-glutamyl-(E)-S-(1-butenyl)cysteine and its S-oxide, gamma-glutamyl-S-butylcysteine and its S-oxide, and gamma-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and its S-oxide. Because compounds containing the 1-butenyl group have not been previously identified in genus Allium species, this work extends the range of known Allium sulfur compounds. The general applicability of DART mass spectrometry in identifying naturally occurring, thermally fragile thial S-oxides and thiosulfinates is illustrated with onion, Allium cepa , as well as a plant from a different genus, Petiveria alliacea .

  18. Applications of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium chemistry. 2-propenesulfenic and 2-propenesulfinic acids, diallyl trisulfane S-oxide, and other reactive sulfur compounds from crushed garlic and other Alliums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eric; Dane, A John; Thomas, Siji; Cody, Robert B

    2010-04-28

    Through the use of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS), 2-propenesulfenic acid, an intermediate long postulated as being formed when garlic ( Allium sativum ) is crushed, has been detected for the first time and determined by mass spectrometric methods to have a half-life of garlic, along with allicin and related thiosulfinates, allyl alcohol, sulfur dioxide, propene, and pyruvate as coproducts. A commercial dietary supplement containing garlic powder, which was sampled after crushing, was found to contain alliin, methiin, and S-allylcysteine and produced allicin upon addition of water. DART-MS detection of 1-butenesulfenic acid from the ornamental A. siculum is also reported. (Z)-Propanethial S-oxide (onion lachrymatory factor), absent in garlic, is found to be formed from crushed elephant garlic ( Allium ampeloprasum ), consistent with the classification of this plant as a closer relative of leek than of garlic. Mixtures of thiosulfinates, lachrymatory thial S-oxides, and related compounds are directly observed from crushed leek ( Allium porrum ) and Chinese chive ( Allium tuberosum ). Disulfanes and polysulfanes are detected only when the Allium samples are heated, consistent with earlier conclusions that these are not primary products from cut or crushed alliums.

  19. Evaluation of Analgesic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Allium cepa L. in Animal Model of Neuropathic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Mahdipour; Samaneh Teimouri; Omid Reza Tamtaji; Mojgan Mohammadifar; Mohsen Taghizadeh; Sayyed Alireza Talaei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain that affects on the patient’s quality of life. Use of herbal instead of synthetic drugs recently has been increased due to side effects of synthetic drugs and herbal effective components. Flavonoids are herbal compounds that have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Because Allium cepa L. has a great amount of flavonoids, this study has been designed to evaluate analgesic effects of alcoholic extract of Allium cepa L. on neuropath...

  20. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna LENKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of the genus Allium are very important crops for human health. They contain many health beneficial substances, such as polyphenols (especially flavonoids, sulphur compounds, vitamins, mineral substances and substances with antioxidant activity. This work has focused on the comparison of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium – garlic (Allium sativum L., chives (Allium schoenoprasum L., ramson (Allium ursinum L. and red, yellow and white onion (Allium cepa L.. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. Total polyphenols content was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols were in the range 444.3 - 1591 mg*kg-1. Total polyphenols content in the observed crops declined in the following order: chives > red onion > garlic > yellow onion > ramson > white onion. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Determined the value of antioxidant activity ranged 12.29 – 76.57%. Antioxidant activity observed in crops declined in the following order: chives > ramson > red onion > yellow onion > garlic > white onion. In all the analysed crop plants was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenolic substances.

  1. Lauric acid and myristic acid from Allium sativum inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra: in silico analysis reveals possible binding to protein kinase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyan, Rajiniraja; Gurunathan, Jayaraman

    2016-12-01

    The bulb of Allium sativum Linn (Alliaceae) has numerous medicinal values. Though the petroleum ether extract of the bulb has shown to exhibit antimycobacterial activity, the phytochemical(s) responsible for this inhibitory activity is not known. To characterize the bioactive compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Allium sativum (garlic) that inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Bioactivity-guided fractionation was employed to isolate the bioactive compounds. Antimycobacterial activity was evaluated by well-diffusion method and microplate alamar blue assay (MABA). Infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to characterize the bioactive compounds. Autodock was used to obtain information on molecular recognition, and molecular dynamics simulation was performed using GROMACS. The bioactive compounds that inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis H37Ra were found to be lauric acid (LA) and myristic acid (MA). The minimal inhibitory concentration of LA and MA was found to be 22.2 and 66.7 μg/mL, respectively. In silico analysis revealed that these fatty acids could bind at the cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the cytosolic domain of serine/threonine protein kinase B (PknB). The inhibition activity was dependent on the alkyl chain length of the fatty acid, and the amino acid residues involved in binding to fatty acid was found to be conserved across the Pkn family of proteins. The study indicates the possibility of using fatty acid derivatives, involving Pkn family of proteins, to inhibit the signal transduction processes in M. tuberculosis.

  2. Biologie, diversité et outils pour l'analyse de la diversité génétique de l'oignon, Allium cepa L. (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou, R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biology, diversity and tools for diversity analysis of the onion (Allium cepa L.. A review. Description of the subject. This study explores important information on biology, genetic resources, taxonomy, as well as morphological, biochemical and molecular markers in order to provide a better understanding of the genetic diversity of the onion (Allium cepa L.. The study has a particular focus on the plant as grown in Africa. The onion is a monocotyledonous, allogamous, and entomophilous plant, with a one-year production cycle for bulb production, and a two-year production cycle for seeds. The onion is one of the most significant vegetables in the world because of its use as both a food and a medicine. Literature. Twenty-eight morphological markers, linked to seed, leaf, flower and bulb traits, were identified as the most discriminant phenotypical criteria. Biochemical and molecular markers were also developed to characterize genetic variations between and within onion varieties. Previous studies examining West Africa onion varieties showed that only six enzyme systems are polymorphic. However, only twenty-four isozymes have been used to compare the onion to other Allium species. This low number of polymorphic biochemical markers makes it more difficult to determine the genetic diversity of onions. On the other hand, molecular markers at DNA level, such as RAPD, RFLP, AFLP, SSR, are very useful to analyze diversity at varietal and species level, using cultivated and spontaneous forms, and to analyze the level of introgression between the onion and the other species of the genus. Conclusions. Genetic diversity analysis showed an important variability between and within Africa onion landraces. It would be useful to combine in situ and ex situ conservation, using these genetic resources to improve the production and the appropriate use of African onion cultivars.

  3. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits......, although the monitoring scheme has also to some extent become dominated by local 'conservation elites' who negotiate the terrain between the state and other community members. Our findings suggest that we need to move beyond simplistic assumptions of community strategies and incentives in participatory...... conservation and allow for more adaptive and politically explicit governance spaces in protected area management....

  4. Allium discoloration: the precursor and formation of the red pigment in giant onion (Allium giganteum Regel) and some other subgenus Melanocrommyum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerová, Petra; Kubec, Roman; Simek, Petr; Václavík, Lukás; Schraml, Jan

    2011-03-09

    The precursor of the orange-red pigment formed upon wounding the bulbs of Allium giganteum (Allium subg. Melanocrommyum) was isolated and shown to be S-(2-pyrrolyl)cysteine S-oxide. In addition, two other pyrrolylsulfinyl derivatives were found in an extract from the bulbs, namely, 3-(2-pyrrolylsulfinyl)lactic acid and S-(3-pyrrolyl)cysteine S-oxide. Contrary to a previous report, the latter compound was shown not to serve as the precursor of the pigment, being in fact only an artifact formed during isolation. The formation of pyrrolyl-containing compounds following disruption of A. giganteum bulbs was studied by a combination of LC-MS, LC-NMR and DART-MS. It was found that S-(2-pyrrolyl)cysteine S-oxide is cleaved by a C-S lyase (alliinase) to yield 2-pyrrolesulfenic acid. Two molecules of the latter compound give rise to highly reactive S-(2-pyrrolyl) 2-pyrrolethiosulfinate which in turn converts into red 2,2'-epidithio-3,3'-dipyrrole (dipyrrolo[2,3-d:2',3'-e]-1,2-dithiin). Several other pyrrolyl-containing compounds were detected in A. giganteum for the first time, including S-methyl 2-pyrrolethiosulfinate, S-(2-pyrrolyl) methanethiosulfinate, di(2-pyrrolyl) disulfide, and S-(2-pyrrolyl) 2-pyrrolethiosulfonate. It can be concluded that the formation of the orange-red pigment in Allium subg. Melanocrommyum species, despite sharing several analogous features, is of a different nature than the pink discoloration of onion (A. cepa).

  5. Uji toksisitas ekstrak bawang putih (Allium Sativum terhadap kultur sel fibroblast (Garlic (Allium Sativum extract toxicity test on fibroblast cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulie Emilda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have found antimicrobial effect of garlic (allium sativum. Garlic has potential as sterilization material for root canal treatment. Nevertheless, such material has to be non toxic and has to have adequate biocompatibility. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the toxicity of garlic (allium sativum on fibroblast cell culture. Method: Toxicity test was conducted using 50%, 75%, 100% of garlic extract, and Chlorphenol Kamfer Menthol (ChKM as control. BHK-21 cell-culture was put into microplate 96 wells with 2x105 densities and incubated in a 37oC. The garlic extracts in various concentration and ChKM were then placed into the wells. MTT assay test was then use to analyze toxicity, a 50% percentage of living culture-cell was set as a parameter whether the extract is toxic or not. Results: The results showed that in 50%, 75%, and 100% garlic concentration indicates a non toxic characteristic on fibroblast cell culture. The non toxic property was consistent in 72, 96, and 120 hours of observation point. Conclusion: The study revealed that garlic on consentration of 50,%, 75%, 100% did not show toxic effect on fibroblast culture cell, but it needs further research for preparing it as an alternative medicament of root canal treatment.Latar belakang: Penelitian sebelumnya telah menemukan efek antimikroba bawang putih (allium sativum. Bawang putih memiliki potensi sebagai bahan sterilisasi pada perawatan saluran akar. Namun bahan tersebut harus tidak toksik dan memiliki biokompatibilitas yang memadai. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji toksisitas bawang putih (allium sativum terhadap kultur sel fibroblast. Metode: Uji toksisitas dilakukan dengan menggunakan konsentrasi 50%, 75%, 100% dari ekstrak bawang putih, dan Chlorphenol Kamfer Menthol (ChKM sebagai kontrol. BHK-21 kultur sel dimasukkan ke dalam microplate 96 sumuran dengan kepadatan 2x105 dan diinkubasi di suhu 37°C. Ekstrak bawang putih dalam berbagai

  6. Hearing Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    the federal standard. Footnote** See Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.95 "Occupational Noise Exposure." (Back to text) | USDOL | CONTACT INFORMATION | DISCLAIMER | 15 of 15 OSHA 3074 - Hearing Conservation

  7. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah S. B. S. Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the decoction of Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, were investigated using the root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., Amaryllidaceae. Ten concentrations of the aqueous extract (0.125 to 1.25% of this medicinal plant were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. All concentrations showed root growth inhibition after 96 h treatment. Although there were no significant differences between the mitotic indexes of any concentration and the control, there were changes in the frequencies of cell stages at three different concentrations. Additionally, the presence of five different cells abnormalities was recorded: chromosome bridging, lagging chromosomes, chromosome fragments, disturbed metaphase and disturbed anaphase. These results suggest inhibitory and genotoxic activity of the decoction of E. velutina on Allium cepa.

  8. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and inulin were measured. Results: The K2Cr2O7 caused significant renal dysfunction, but A. sativum extract prevented this condition by improving all measured biomarkers. Conclusions: A single injection of K2Cr2O7 induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but the supply of an Allium sativum aqueous extract prevented the disorders caused by this metal.

  9. Meiotic synapsis of the Allium porrum B chromosome: evidence for a derived isochromosome origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanehdari, K A; Jones, G H

    1996-12-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of B chromosome synapsis in surface-spread (2B) pollen mother cells of the leek, Allium porrum, has clarified their structural organization and shed new light on their origin. In pachytene cells containing two B chromosomes, these chromosomes either formed a pair of univalents showing foldback hairpin loops or synapsed together to form bivalents of several different types. The synaptic configurations of univalents and bivalents indicate that these B chromosomes have a basically isochromosome organization, but this is modified by a slight centric shift giving an arm ratio of 1.1:1. This analysis adds to the growing number of B chromosomes that have been shown to be isochromosomes or isochromosome derivatives. Key words : Allium porrum, B chromosomes, synapsis, synaptonemal complex, isochromosome.

  10. Characterization of new cardioprotective principle isolated from methanolic extract of Allium humile leaves from Himalayan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Dobhal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern era scientists have been trying to validate many properties of Allium species, especially in terms of the identity of the active components, their mechanism of action and exploring the potential benefits as food supplements. Thus, the present study has been designed to characterize the isolated cardioprotective compound from Allium humile leaves. Chromatographic purification of the methanolic extract of A. humile leaves isolated ajoene (enol form (AH-1- a new potent cardioprotective principle, along with three known compounds allicin (AH-2 and alliin (AH-3 and a flavonoid quercetin (AH-4. The structures of all the isolates (AH-1, AH-2 were characterized by using modern spectroscopic analysis UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the new isolated compound pharmacologically conformed for cardioprotective effect. The data of known compounds (AH-2, AH-4 were further compared with the reported data for these compounds.

  11. Wildlife Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.; Aldred, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we consider how conservation has arisen as a key aspect of the reaction to human-initiated degradation and disappearance of ecosystems, wild lands. and wildlife. Concern over species extinction is given an historical perspective which shows the way in which pressure on wild and natural aspects of global ecology have changed in recent centuries. The role of conservation in the struggle to protect the environment is then analysed using underlying ethical arguments behind the econo...

  12. Austere conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Moyo, Francis; Kicheleri, Rose Peter

    2016-01-01

    . Our findings suggest that WMAs foster very limited ownership, participation and collective action at the community level, because WMA governance follows an austere logic of centralized control over key resources. Thus, we suggest that it is difficult to argue that WMAs are community-owned conservation...... initiatives until a genuinely devolved and more flexible conservation model is implemented to give space for popular participation in rule-making....

  13. Influence of methotrexate on respiration and ultrastructure of meristematic cells from Allium cepa L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Podbielkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that methotrexate (an oncostatic preparation inhibits cellular respiration and reduces the permeability of plasmalemma and tonoplast in cells ofAllium cepa roots. Changes were also found in the ultrastructure of meristematic cells, consisting presence of numerous mitochondria with a dense matrix, a highly developed system of cristae arid an increased number of vacuoles frequently derived from the ER.

  14. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, Van, P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has proved to be effective in controlling the nematodes. Due to a high incidence of infected stocks of bulbs a study was conducted to establish if the efficacy of the treatment could be improved by alterin...

  15. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent ligh...

  16. Analisis Citra untuk Mengamati Perubahan Kenampakan Visual Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum, L) Karena Pengeringan )

    OpenAIRE

    Masithoh, Rudiati Evi; Kusuma, Sony Anshory

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed at observing changes of visual appearance of dehydrated sliced red onion (Allium ascalonicum L)and its image parameters, i.e. area and textures (entropy, energy, contrast, and homogeneity) using image processing and analysis. Images analysis was conducted using the image processing system consisted of a webcam, illuminations, computer hardware, and image processing software. Entropy and contrast increased as moisture contents decreased, whereas energy, homogeneity and area...

  17. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIINFLAMASI KUERSETIN KULIT BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepa L.) PADA MENCIT PUTIH JANTAN (Mus musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Yulistia Budianti Soemarie

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a local reaction of infection or tissue injury and involves more mediators. Utilization of traditional medicine should be used to minimize the side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as the use of onion skin (Allium cepa L.). This study aims to determine the activity of quercetin onion skin and the optimal dose of quercetin as a potential anti-inflammatory on male white mice. This study is an experimental research. Red onion skins extracted by macerati...

  18. Effect of Aqueous Allium cepa and Ixora brachiata Root Extract on Leishmania major Promastigotes

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi-Nejad, Batool; Saki, Jasem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is a major worldwide public health problem with about two to three million humans threatened by this disease annually. Allium cepa (onion) is an important dietary vegetable and was used as a herbal medicine for centuries. The root of Ixora brachiata is medicinally important. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-Leishmania effect of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ixora brachiata root and aqueous onion extracts on Leishmania major pro...

  19. Response of onion ( Allium cepa L.) bulb yield to day length extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out between October 2007 and March 2008 at the permanent site of the University of Jos (08°53'E, 09°57'N; 1,159 m above mean sea level) to investigate the effect of day length extension on the yield of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.). Two varieties of onion ('Violet de Galmi' and 'Red Creole') were ...

  20. Allium hookeri , Thw. Enum. A lesser known terrestrial perennial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It acts as a good supplementary food, providing food security at the household level and help at the time of food crisis. The cultivation of this wild plant (now cultivated to a limited extent) not only generates income for the growers but also helps in the conservation of the plants and their germplasm. In spite of the immense use ...

  1. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa.

  2. Meiosis in the leek (Allium porrum L.) revisited. I. Prophase I pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanehdari, K A; Jones, G H; Ford-Lloyd, B V

    1995-11-01

    Meiotic chromosome pairing of the tetraploid species Allium porrum, the cultivated leek, was analysed by electron microscopy of 83 surface-spread nuclei in the late zygotene to early diplotene interval of prophase I, from four different varieties. Prophase I quadrivalent frequency, at 71%, marginally but significantly exceeds the two-thirds expected on a simple random end-pairing model, suggesting that more than two autonomous pairing sites occur, in some tetrasomes at least. This pattern of synaptic behaviour is consistent with an autotetraploid status, but comparison with other tetraploids, including other Allium species, indicates that Allium porrum may be a weak segmental allopolyploid displaying limited preferential homologous pairing. The incidence of pairing partner switches (PPSs) in prophase I quadrivalents is relatively low; 90% of all analysed quadrivalents had only one or two PPSs. The positional distribution of PPSs along quadrivalents was distinctly uneven with peaks in mid-chromosome arms and reduced frequencies around centromeres and near the ends. The four different varieties of leek analysed were remarkably similar in their meiotic behaviour despite their diverse breeding history, but individual plants within varieties displayed substantial variation in quadrivalent and PPS frequencies.

  3. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antifungal Activity Screening of the Allium ursinum L. (Liliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Vasile Bagiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to summarize the methods for isolating and identifying natural sulfur compounds from Allium ursinum (ramson and to discuss the active constituents with regard to antifungal action. Using chromatographic techniques, the active constituents were isolated and subsequently identified. Analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC suggested that these compounds were sulfur constituents, with a characteristic absorbance at 250 nm. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses allowed the chemical structures of the isolated constituents to be postulated. We adopted the same methods to identify the health-giving profiling of ramsons and the effects are thought to be primarily derived from the presence and breakdown of the alk(enylcysteine sulphoxide, alliin and its subsequent breakdown to allicin (sulfur-compounds of ramson in connection with antifungal action. The aim of the study was the characterization of the chemical composition of ramsons and the testing of the action of the in vitro extracts, on different strains of Candida albicans. The main goal was to highlight the most efficient extracts of Allium ursinum that can provide long-term antifungal activity without remissions. The extracts from Allium ursinum plants, inhibited growth of Candida spp. cells at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, while that of adherent cells at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to > 4.0 mg/mL, depending on the yeast and plant species.

  4. Allium cepa as a biomonitor of ochratoxin A toxicity and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerda, D; Biagi Bistoni, M; Pelliccioni, P; Litterio, N

    2010-07-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillum moulds. Since OTA has not yet been evaluated in plant systems, this paper focused on describing the controversial effect OTA in an Allium root test model, which has known sensitivity to genotoxins and could be useful in toxin screening. Analyses of root growth and the root meristematic zone in response to OTA treatment were undertaken. The results show OTA toxicity to root growth at a concentration of 10 ug.ml(-1) associated with inhibition of proliferation activity. Cytological changes observed in the Allium chromosome aberrations assay, at a concentration of 5.0 ug.ml(-1), showed that OTA was able to induce genotoxicity at the chromosome level. These results indicate that plants cells (Allium cepa) are very sensitive to the mycotoxin OTA, as observed at the highest concentration. Under these conditions, OTA produced toxicity and cytogenetic injury. Evidence in vitro and in vivo indicates that OTA can induce damage at the DNA level.

  5. Can Genotoxic Effect be Model Dependent in Allium Test?-An Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Singh Rathore

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity of peracetic acid (PAA has been assessed in two models (protocols of Allium cepa conducting two sets of experiments to know whether the results would be model dependent. One experiment was set as per Fiskesjo's model in which Allium cepa bulbs were grown in five concentrations of peracetic acid (0.039, 0.078, 0.156, 0.312 and 0.625 ppm in tap water. Another experiment was set as per Rank and Nielson's model in which Allium cepa bulbs were first grown in tap water for 24 hours and were then further grown in the same concentrations of peracetic acid as in earlier model. Genotoxic effects of peracetic acid were assessed in both models using usual parameters i.e. shape, colour and length of root tips, mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations and cell death. Magnitude of effect differed significantly in both models. More severe genotoxic effects could be seen in Fiskesjo's model. It is suggested that root primordial cells were in G0 state in Fiskesjo's model, which presumably lacked their defense system, hence were more prone to peracetic acid toxicity. Mitotically dividing root cells in Rank and Nielsen's model were equipped with antioxidant system and were more resistant to peracetic acid

  6. Characterization of a 65 kDa NIF in the nuclear matrix of the monocot Allium cepa that interacts with nuclear spectrin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Munive, Clara; Blumenthal, Sonal S D; de la Espina, Susana Moreno Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells have a well organized nucleus and nuclear matrix, but lack orthologues of the main structural components of the metazoan nuclear matrix. Although data is limited, most plant nuclear structural proteins are coiled-coil proteins, such as the NIFs (nuclear intermediate filaments) in Pisum sativum that cross-react with anti-intermediate filament and anti-lamin antibodies, form filaments 6-12 nm in diameter in vitro, and may play the role of lamins. We have investigated the conservation and features of NIFs in a monocot species, Allium cepa, and compared them with onion lamin-like proteins. Polyclonal antisera against the pea 65 kDa NIF were used in 1D and 2D Western blots, ICM (imunofluorescence confocal microscopy) and IEM (immunoelectron microscopy). Their presence in the nuclear matrix was analysed by differential extraction of nuclei, and their association with structural spectrin-like proteins by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in ICM. NIF is a conserved structural component of the nucleus and its matrix in monocots with Mr and pI values similar to those of pea 65 kDa NIF, which localized to the nuclear envelope, perichromatin domains and foci, and to the nuclear matrix, interacting directly with structural nuclear spectrin-like proteins. Its similarities with some of the proteins described as onion lamin-like proteins suggest that they are highly related or perhaps the same proteins.

  7. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A.

  8. Assessment of constituents in Allium by multivariate data analysis, high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition assay and HPLC-SPE-NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jeppe Secher; Nyberg, Nils; Stærk, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Bulbs and leaves of 35 Allium species and cultivars bought or collected in 2010–2012 were investigated with multivariate data analysis, high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition assays and HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR with the aim of exploring the potential of Allium as a future functional food for management...

  9. Protective effects of Allium sativum against defects of hypercholesterolemia on pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Abou-El-Naga, Amoura M; Gadallah, Abdelalim A; Bakr, Iman H

    2010-06-10

    Sixty fertile female and male albino rats of Wistar strain (I male/ 3 females) were used in the present study. The females were divided into four groups of ten rats each. Group 1 received water and standard feeds for thirty-four days. Group 2 was fed with a cholesterol-containing diet (1%) for two weeks prior to onset of gestation and maintained administration till parturition, produce atherosclerosis (34 days). Group 3 received intragastric administration of 100mg homogenate of garlic (Allium sativum)/kg body weight for three weeks prior to onset of gestation as well as throughout the gestation period. Group 4 intragastrically administered garlic for one week of group B and maintained with combined garlic-treatment for the mentioned period. At parturition, the pregnant were sacrificed and serum total cholesterol (TCL), triglycerides (TG), HDL, LDL and creatine kinase activity (CK) were determined. The total numbers of offspring were recorded and examined morphological for congenital abnormalities. Biopsies of heart and dorsal aorta of both pregnant and their offspring (1 day-age) were processed for investigation at light and transmission electron microscopy. The skeleton of the newborn of different experimental groups were stained with alizarin red s and mor-phometric assessment of mandibular and appendicular bone length. The study revealed that the myocardium of atherosclerotic mother exhibited leuhkocytic inflammatory cell infiltration associated with necrosis, eosinophilia of myocardiai fibers, and edema of blood vessels. Ultrastructural studies revealed swelling of mitochondria, disruption of cristae in the myocardiai muscle fibers. The dorsal aorta possessed accumulation of extra-cellular lipid in intima lining of endothelium. The collagenous fibrils in the tunica adventitia became fragile and loosely separated from each other. Numerous foamy lipid loaden cells were detected within the tunica intima causing deterioration of the elastic fibers, resulting in

  10. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  11. Colorful Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  12. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  13. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  14. Study of phytochemical, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Jaya; Muhammad, BushraTaj; Thapa, Pratiksha; Shrestha, Bhupal Govinda

    2017-02-08

    There is growing interest in the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of cancer. Medicinal plants are currently being evaluated as source of promising anticancer agents. In this paper, we have investigated the anticancer potential of plant Allium wallichii, a plant native to Nepal and growing at elevations of 2300-4800 m. This is the first study of its kind for the plant mentioned. The dried plant was extracted in aqueous ethanol. Phytochemical screening, anti-microbial assay, anti-oxidant assay, cytotoxicity assay and the flow-cytometric analysis were done for analyzing different phytochemicals present, anti-microbial activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii. We observed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, reducing sugars and glycosides in the plant extract and the plant showed moderate anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity. The IC 50 values of Allium wallichii in different cancer cell lines are 69.69 μg/ml for Prostate cancer (PC3) cell line, 55.29 μg/ml for Breast Cancer (MCF-7) cell line and 46.51 μg/ml for cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line as compared to Doxorubicin (0.85 μg/ml). The cell viability assay using FACS showed that the IC 50 value of Allium wallichii for Burkitt's lymphoma (B-Lymphoma) cell line was 3.817 ± 1.99 mg/ml. Allium wallichii can be an important candidate to be used as an anticancer agent. Separation of pure compounds with bioassay guided extraction, spectrometric analysis and subsequent cytotoxicity assay of the pure bioactive compounds from Allium wallichii is highly recommended as the crude extract itself showed promising cytotoxicity.

  15. Actividad antiinflamatoria de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD), purificada de la especie Allium sativum (ajo)

    OpenAIRE

    Soberón, Mercedes; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Suárez, Silvia; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Arnao, Inés; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Guija, Emilio; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Troncoso, Luzmila; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Rojas, Luis; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Saldaña, Ítalo; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Cordero, Adriana; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Demostrar la actividad antiinflamatoria de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD) purificada de Allium sativum (ajo). Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM Material biológico: Ratas y Allium sativum. Principales medidas de resultados: Muestra de ajo triturada con tampón fosfato 50 mM pH 7,4, incubada 40 minutos y filtrada; fue sometida a extracción con cloroformo:etanol 1:1 (v/v). Se descartó la fase acuosa. ...

  16. Evaluación de doce materiales de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. para deshidratación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval A. Héctor L.

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del ensayo fue la introducción de materiales de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. de día corto para la deshidratación. Se realizaron observaciones de campo y análisis de laboratorio para determinar sus cualidades industriales.The objective of this assay was the introduction of materials of bulb's onion (Allium cepa L., for short day, to dehydrate. Observations to determinate their field behavior, and laboratories analysis to determinate their industrial characteristics were realized.

  17. Exporting conservation

    OpenAIRE

    LTRA-12

    2012-01-01

    Metadata only record Soil degradation represents a major threat to food security, particularly in mountainous regions of Southeast Asia, where rainfall can wash away inches of topsoil. This article presents conservation agriculture as a potential solution, focusing on the work that North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University conducts in Southeast Asia in conjunction with regional partners as part of the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (SANREM) collabo...

  18. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  19. The Effects of Medicago Sativa and Allium Porrum on Iron Overload in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Mirzaei, Mahsa; Tolooei, Mohsen

    2015-04-23

    Iron overload may occur due to regular blood transfusions and high intestinal iron absorption. Currently, there is no effective drug without side effects for the treatment of iron excess in thalassemia and other iron storage diseases, except chelation therapy, which is the only safe method for iron excretion. Thus, scientists are more focused on medicinal plants rich in phytochemical compounds for the removal of iron in thalassemia. Therefore this study was managed to discover the therapeutic potential of hydro-alcoholic extract of Allium porrum and Medicago sativa for iron chelating potential. Aerial parts of Allium porrum and Medicago sativa were collected in Yasuj Iran. Rats were divided into seven groups each containing six. Extracts were administrated in four groups (two groups for each extract) by single doses of each plant with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight by (i.p.) route every other day for 28 days. Group 1 as negative control received saline (0.5 ml/kg) by (i.p.) route. Positive control received iron dextran 200 mg/kg body weight. Experimental groups 1 and 2 for each plant extract were fed with 200 and 400 mg/kg, hydro-alcoholic extract respectively via (i.p.) route, 1 h after the injection of iron dextran. Standard group was treated with deferoxamine (DF) 50 mg/kg by (i.p.) route 1 h after the injection of iron dextran. Serum iron (SI) and serum total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were determined .The serum ferritin was then measured using enzyme immunoassay ELISA kit for rat. For Analysis of data ANOVA test was used. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Medicago sativa and Allium porrum at 400 mg/kg showed significant (pMedicago sativapsativa and A. Porrum against iron overload in rat model was reported. Significant decrease in serum ferritin and iron concentration was reported in iron overload rats which induced by iron dextran.

  20. The effect of aqueous preparation of Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) on erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Wistar rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, H A; John, A I; Ekanem, A U

    2012-06-07

    Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) are bulbous herbs used as food item, spice and medicine in different parts of the world. The effects of onion and garlic on the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats were assessed in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo studies, five albino rats weighing between 150 - 200g composed each of three study groups. Group A were administered 150mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion preparation; Group B 75mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion and 75mg/Kg body weight garlic preparations; and Group C served as the control and were administered distilled water. The treatment regimens were orally administered thrice a week, for a period of four weeks by gavages. The in vitro erythrocyte osmotic fragility was also evaluated in 12 Wistar rats that were not pre-treated with either onion alone or onion and garlic. The animals were divided into three groups. Blood samples from group A rats were treated with 150mg onion while blood from group B rats was treated with 75mg onion and 75mg garlic extracts. Group C served as the control and were treated with normal saline and osmotic fragility assays were carried out. The degree of haemolysis was greater in the treatment group compared to control and the percentage haemolysis was greater in blood samples with onion and garlic compared to the onion group. The same observation was made in the in vitro study, but the degree of haemolysis was significantly higher in in vitro than the in vivo experiments. It is concluded that onion and garlic increase the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats.

  1. Allimacrosides A-E, new steroidal glycosides from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Sik; Suh, Won Se; Park, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2017-02-01

    A new pregnane-type steroidal glycoside (1), two new spirostane-type steroidal glycosides (2, 3), and two new furostane-type steroidal glycosides (4, 5), named allimacrosides A-E, together with four known compounds (6-9) were isolated from a 80% MeOH extract of Allium macrostemon Bunge. The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, and HR-FAB-MS data analysis. The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines in vitro using the sulforhodamine B bioassay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Porrigenins A and B, novel cytotoxic and antiproliferative sapogenins isolated from Allium porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, A; Fattorusso, E; Lanzotti, V; Magno, S; De Feo, V; Carnuccio, R; D'Acquisto, F

    1997-10-01

    Four new sapogenins, porrigenins A (2a) and B (3a), identified as (25R)-5 alpha-spirostan-2 beta,3 beta,6 beta-triol and (25R)-2-oxo-5 alpha-spirostan-3 beta,6 beta-diol, respectively, and neoporrigenins A (2b) and B (3b) were also isolated from Allium porrum. In addition, the known agigenin (1a) and its 25S epimer, neoagigenin (1b), were also identified. Their structure elucidation was provided by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1a, 2a, and 3a exhibited cytotoxicity and high antiproliferative activity on four different tumor cell lines in vitro.

  3. A prospective cohort study on Allium vegetable consumption, garlic supplement use, and the risk of lung carcinoma in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorant, E.; Brandt, P. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The association between the consumption of onions and leeks (vegetables belonging to the Allium genus), garlic supplements, and the risk of lung carcinoma was investigated in a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer in the Netherlands. The Netherlands Cohort Study was started in

  4. A new autumn-flowering species of Allium (Liliaceae) from the island of Sifnos (Cyclades, Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, B.; Tan, Kit; Tzanoudakis, D.

    2006-01-01

    Allium apolloniensis is described as a species new to science, illustrated and compared with related species of A. sect. Codonoprasum. It is apparently restricted to the Cyclades in the central Aegean and of particular interest for the phylogeny of the genus because it is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32)....

  5. The role of crop waste and soil in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar porri infection of leek (Allium porrum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Koenraadt, H.; Visser, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causal agent of bacterial blight of leek, is a current threat for leek (Allium porrum) production in the Netherlands. The roles of post-harvest crop waste and plant invasion from soil in leek plant infection was investigated with the purpose to gain better

  6. Effect of Humic Substances on Nutrient Status and Yield of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) in Field Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anita Osvalde; Andis Karlsons; Gunta Čekstere; Solveiga Maļecka

    2012-01-01

    .... The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-plant (bulblet soaking) and foliar application of commercially-produced peat and vermicompost-derived HS preparations on nutrient status and yield of onion (Allium cepa L...

  7. Genetic variation among Fusarium isolates from onion, and resistance to Fusarium basal rot in related Allium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galván, G.A.; Koning-Boucoiran, C.F.S.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Gonzáles, P.H.; Waalwijk, C.; Kik, C.; Scholten, O.E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study levels of resistance to Fusarium basal rot in onion cultivars and related Allium species, by using genetically different Fusarium isolates. In order to select genetically different isolates for disease testing, a collection of 61 Fusarium isolates, 43 of them

  8. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  9. Identification of Narcissus yellow stripe virus and a closely-related potyvirus isolate in plants of Allium carinatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of varieties and species of ornamental Allium revealed the presence of multiple viruses, including potyviruses, carlaviruses, and allexiviruses. Most of these viruses have been previously identified in A. sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), A. porrum (synonym A. ampeloprasum var. porrum; lee...

  10. A mutagenicity and cytotoxicity study of limonium effusum aqueous extracts by Allium, Ames and MTT tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Y; Ozata, A; Konuk, M; Akyil, D; Liman, R

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays plants or plant extracts have become very important for alternative medicine. Plants and their extracts have many therapeutical advantages but some of them are potentially toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic. Root, stem and leafparts of Limonium effusum were used in this study and this species is an endemic species for Turkey. Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of root, stem and leaf aqueous extracts were observed with Allium, Ames and MTT tests. Allium root growth inhibition test and mitotic index studies showed that aqueous extracts have dose-dependent toxic effects. Chromosome aberration studies indicated that especially sticky chromosome, anaphase-telophase disorder and laggard chromosome anomalies were highly observed. Ames test performed with Limonium effusum root aqueous extracts, showed weak mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain with S9. MTT test based on mitochondrial activity indicated that most of the aqueous extracts have cytotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine the possible mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of L. effusum aqueous extracts by using bacterial, plant and mammalian cells. This research showed that some low concentrations of the L. effusum extracts have inhibited cytotoxic effects but high concentrations have induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand only a weak mutagenic activity was identified by Ames test with TA98 S9(+).

  11. In-vitro Sensitivity of Selected Enteric Bacteria to Extracts of Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa O. AREKEMASE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has been used throughout all of recorded history for culinary and medicinal reasons. The portion of the plant most often consumed is an underground storage structure called a head. The antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum (garlic against some bacterial isolates were investigated using the agar diffusion well method. Standard methods were used to carry out the investigation. Photochemical analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of many secondary metabolites such as saponins, tannins, alkaloid steroids and glycosides. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the agent (garlic was determined for both the aqueous and ethanolic extract. The ethanolic extract was more effective than the aqueous extract, inhibiting all the test organisms. While the aqueous extracts was effective against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Garlic extracts are strictly broad-spectrum with immune boosting phytonutrients from Allium ‘family’. Further research will need to be done to carry out the purification of the active ingredients which have potential for combating human disease. Also, toxicological studies need to be evaluated.

  12. UV-B radiation impacts shoot tissue pigment composition in Allium fistulosum L. cultigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Kristin R; Kopsell, Dean A; Sams, Carl E; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Kopsell, David E

    2013-01-01

    Plants from the Allium genus are valued worldwide for culinary flavor and medicinal attributes. In this study, 16 cultigens of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) were grown in a glasshouse under filtered UV radiation (control) or supplemental UV-B radiation [7.0  μ mol·m(-2) · s(-2) (2.68 W · m(-2))] to determine impacts on growth, physiological parameters, and nutritional quality. Supplemental UV-B radiation influenced shoot tissue carotenoid concentrations in some, but not all, of the bunching onions. Xanthophyll carotenoid pigments lutein and β -carotene and chlorophylls a and b in shoot tissues differed between UV-B radiation treatments and among cultigens. Cultigen "Pesoenyj" responded to supplemental UV-B radiation with increases in the ratio of zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin to zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin + violaxanthin, which may indicate a flux in the xanthophyll carotenoids towards deepoxydation, commonly found under high irradiance stress. Increases in carotenoid concentrations would be expected to increase crop nutritional values.

  13. Tulbaghia violacea and Allium ursinum Extracts Exhibit Anti-Parasitic and Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Krstin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has played an important role in culinary arts and remedies in the traditional medicine throughout human history. Parasitic infections represent a burden in the society of especially poor countries, causing more than 1 billion infections every year and leading to around one million deaths. In this study, we investigated the mode of anti-parasitic activity of “wild garlics” Tulbaghia violacea and Allium ursinum dichloromethane extracts against parasites Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania tarentolae with regard to their already known antimicrobial activity. We also evaluated their cytotoxic potential against human cells. Both extracts showed a relevant trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activity, although L. tarentolae was less sensitive. We determined that the probable mode of action of both extracts is the irreversible inhibition of the activity of Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione reductase enzyme. The extracts showed a mild cytotoxic activity against human keratinocytes. They also exhibited weak—in most cases comparable—antibacterial and antifungal activity. HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that both extracts are abundant in sulfur compounds. Thus, for the first time, the ability of Allium ursinum and Tulbaghia violacea to kill Trypanosoma sp. and Leishmania sp. parasites, probably by binding to and inactivating sulfur-containing compounds essential for the survival of the parasite, is shown.

  14. Tulbaghia violacea and Allium ursinum Extracts Exhibit Anti-Parasitic and Antimicrobial Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstin, Sonja; Sobeh, Mansour; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Wink, Michael

    2018-02-02

    Garlic has played an important role in culinary arts and remedies in the traditional medicine throughout human history. Parasitic infections represent a burden in the society of especially poor countries, causing more than 1 billion infections every year and leading to around one million deaths. In this study, we investigated the mode of anti-parasitic activity of "wild garlics" Tulbaghia violacea and Allium ursinum dichloromethane extracts against parasites Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania tarentolae with regard to their already known antimicrobial activity. We also evaluated their cytotoxic potential against human cells. Both extracts showed a relevant trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activity, although L. tarentolae was less sensitive. We determined that the probable mode of action of both extracts is the irreversible inhibition of the activity of Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione reductase enzyme. The extracts showed a mild cytotoxic activity against human keratinocytes. They also exhibited weak-in most cases comparable-antibacterial and antifungal activity. HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that both extracts are abundant in sulfur compounds. Thus, for the first time, the ability of Allium ursinum and Tulbaghia violacea to kill Trypanosoma sp. and Leishmania sp. parasites, probably by binding to and inactivating sulfur-containing compounds essential for the survival of the parasite, is shown.

  15. Fusarium proliferatum isolated from garlic in Spain: identification, toxigenic potential and pathogenicity on related Allium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel PALMERO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium proliferatum has been reported on garlic in the Northwest USA, Spain and Serbia, causing water-soaked tan-colored lesions on cloves. In this work, Fusarium proliferatum was isolated from 300 symptomatic garlic bulbs. Morphological identification of Fusarium was confirmed using species-specific PCR assays and EF-1α sequencing. Confirmation of pathogenicity was conducted with eighteen isolates. Six randomly selected F. proliferatum isolates from garlic were tested for specific pathogenicity and screened for fusaric acid production. Additionally, pathogenicity of each F. proliferatum isolate was tested on healthy seedlings of onion (Allium cepa, leek (A. porrum, scallions (A. fistulosum, chives (A. schoenoprasum and garlic (A. sativum. A disease severity index (DSI was calculated as the mean severity on three plants of each species with four test replicates. Symptoms on onion and garlic plants were observed three weeks after inoculation. All isolates tested produced symptoms on all varieties inoculated. Inoculation of F. proliferatum isolates from diseased garlic onto other Allium species provided new information on host range and pathogenicity. The results demonstrated differences in susceptibility with respect to host species and cultivar. The F. proliferatum isolates tested all produced fusaric acid (FA; correlations between FA production and isolate pathogenicity are discussed. Additionally, all isolates showed the presence of the FUM1 gene suggesting the ability of Spanish isolates to produce fumonisins.

  16. Leaf-shape remodeling: programmed cell death in fistular leaves of Allium fistulosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xi-Lu; Su, Hui; Zhou, Ya-fu; Wang, Feng-Hua; Liu, Wen-Zhe

    2015-03-01

    Some species of Allium in Liliaceae have fistular leaves. The fistular lamina of Allium fistulosum undergoes a process from solid to hollow during development. The aims were to reveal the process of fistular leaf formation involved in programmed cell death (PCD) and to compare the cytological events in the execution of cell death to those in the unusual leaf perforations or plant aerenchyma formation. In this study, light and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the development of fistular leaves and cytological events. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays and gel electrophoresis were used to determine nuclear DNA cleavage during the PCD. The cavity arises in the leaf blade by degradation of specialized cells, the designated pre-cavity cells, in the center of the leaves. Nuclei of cells within the pre-cavity site become TUNEL-positive, indicating that DNA cleavage is an early event. Gel electrophoresis revealed that DNA internucleosomal cleavage occurred resulting in a characteristic DNA ladder. Ultrastructural analysis of cells at the different stages showed disrupted vacuoles, misshapen nuclei with condensed chromatin, degraded cytoplasm and organelles and emergence of secondary vacuoles. The cell walls degraded last, and residue of degraded cell walls aggregated together. These results revealed that PCD plays a critical role in the development of A. fistulosum fistular leaves. The continuous cavity in A. fistulosum leaves resemble the aerenchyma in the pith of some gramineous plants to improve gas exchange. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. UV-B Radiation Impacts Shoot Tissue Pigment Composition in Allium fistulosum L. Cultigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Abney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants from the Allium genus are valued worldwide for culinary flavor and medicinal attributes. In this study, 16 cultigens of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L. were grown in a glasshouse under filtered UV radiation (control or supplemental UV-B radiation [7.0 μmol·m−2·s−2 (2.68 W·m−2] to determine impacts on growth, physiological parameters, and nutritional quality. Supplemental UV-B radiation influenced shoot tissue carotenoid concentrations in some, but not all, of the bunching onions. Xanthophyll carotenoid pigments lutein and β-carotene and chlorophylls a and b in shoot tissues differed between UV-B radiation treatments and among cultigens. Cultigen “Pesoenyj” responded to supplemental UV-B radiation with increases in the ratio of zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin to zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin + violaxanthin, which may indicate a flux in the xanthophyll carotenoids towards deepoxydation, commonly found under high irradiance stress. Increases in carotenoid concentrations would be expected to increase crop nutritional values.

  19. Allium sativum Compared to Cilostazol as an Inhibitor of Myointimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Roberto da Silva; Bandeira, Francisco Chavier Vieira; Rolim, Janio Cipriano; Nogueira, Manuel Ricardo Sena; Pordeus, Mizael Armando Abrantes; de Oliveira, Andressa Feitosa Bezerra; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Objective Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic) lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Methods Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each) according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50 mg.day-1, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as < 0.05. Results Group PS had a mean hyperplasia rate of 35.74% (95% CI, 31.76–39.71%); group C, 16.21% (95% CI, 13.36–19.05%); and group A, 21.12% (95% CI, 17.26–25.01%); P<0.0001. Conclusion We conclude that Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol. PMID:27849301

  20. Localized chiasmata and meiotic nodules in the tetraploid onion Allium porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, S M; Roelofs, D

    1996-08-01

    Allium porrum L. (cultivated leek) (2n = 4x = 32) is a fertile tetraploid that forms bivalents with pericentric chiasmata at metaphase I. To investigate the basis of this unusual behavior for a tetraploid, we describe the karyotype, axial cores, synaptonemal complexes (SCs), and meiotic nodules of A. porrum. The karyotype appears to be autotetraploid. This conclusion is also supported by presynaptic alignment of axial cores in groups of four and partner trades between pairs of SCs. Numerous early nodules are distributed all along axial cores and SCs during zygonema, but they are lost by late zygonema - early pachynema. Late (recombination) nodules (RNs) are present on SCs near kinetochores throughout the remainder of pachynema. This pattern of RNs corresponds to the pattern of pericentric chiasmata. Pachytene quadrivalents usually are resolved into bivalents because partner trades between SC lateral elements rarely occur between RNs on the same segment of SC. Thus, the patterns of crossing-over and partner trades promote balanced disjunction and high fertility in autotetraploid A. porrum. Rare quadrivalents observed at metaphase I must be due to infrequent partner trades between RNs. Polycomplexes, unusual in their number and size, were observed during zygonema. Key words : synaptonemal complex, recombination nodules, localized chiasmata, polycomplex, Allium porrum.

  1. Development of Polymorphic Genic SSR Markers by Transcriptome Sequencing in the Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyi Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analysis is an efficient way to explore molecular markers in plant species, for which genome sequences have not been published. To address the limited number of markers published for the Welsh onion, this study found 6486 loci of genic simple sequence repeats (SSR, which consisted of 1–5 bp repeat motifs, based on next-generation sequencing (NGS technology and the RNA-Seq approach. The most abundant motif was mononucleotide (52.33%, followed by trinucleotide (31.96%, and dinucleotide (14.57%. A total of 2525 primer pairs were successfully designed, and 91 out of 311 tested primers were polymorphisms. Overall, 38 genic SSR markers were randomly selected to further validate the degree of genetic diversity, and 22 genic SSR markers (57.89% showed high levels of polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content (PIC value and the number of alleles (Na were 0.63 and 5.27, respectively, and the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the 22 Allium accessions into three groups with Nei’s similarity coefficients ranging from 0.37 to 0.99. This result suggested that these genic SSR markers could be used to develop a higher resolution genetic map and/or to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Allium plants in the near future.

  2. SELENIUM AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOL COMPOUNDS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onions (Allium cepa L. are important source of bioactive compounds including polyphenols and have potential beneficial properties for human health. Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient that is required in small amounts. The aim of the research was to find out how selenium (Se treatment affects on the quality of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl.The Se treatment increased the content of total polyphenols (TCA and antioxidant activity (AA. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 508.16±27.59 to 607.56±23.15. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 25.90±0.47 to 39.72±2.64.

  3. Allium sativum Compared to Cilostazol as an Inhibitor of Myointimal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Roberto da Silva; Bandeira, Francisco Chavier Vieira; Rolim, Janio Cipriano; Nogueira, Manuel Ricardo Sena; Pordeus, Mizael Armando Abrantes; de Oliveira, Andressa Feitosa Bezerra; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic) lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each) according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50 mg.day-1, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol.

  4. Antifungal saponins from bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L. var. Voghiera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzotti, Virginia; Barile, Elisa; Antignani, Vincenzo; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Scala, Felice

    2012-06-01

    A bioassay-guided phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L., var. Voghiera, typical of Voghiera, Ferrara (Italy), allowed the isolation of ten furostanol saponins; voghieroside A1/A2 and voghieroside B1/B2, based on the rare agapanthagenin aglycone; voghieroside C1/C2, based on agigenin aglycone; and voghieroside D1/D2 and E1/E2, based on gitogenin aglycone. In addition, we found two known spirostanol saponins, agigenin 3-O-trisaccharide and gitogenin 3-O-tetrasaccharide. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of two eugenol diglycosides were also found for the first time in Allium spp. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity towards two fungal species, the air-borne pathogen Botrytis cinerea and the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Allium sativum Compared to Cilostazol as an Inhibitor of Myointimal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto da Silva Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Methods: Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50 mg.day-1, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as < 0.05. Results: Group PS had a mean hyperplasia rate of 35.74% (95% CI, 31.76–39.71%; group C, 16.21% (95% CI, 13.36–19.05%; and group A, 21.12% (95% CI, 17.26–25.01%; P<0.0001. Conclusion: We conclude that Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol.

  6. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme. In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wave length against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 505.6 mg GAE/kg ±25.18 to 621.49 mgGAE/kg ±13.41. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 32.20 %± 0.58 to 44.67 % ±0.68.

  7. Preliminary Study of the Clinical Hypoglycemic Effects of Allium cepa (Red Onion) in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj Eldin, Imad M; Ahmed, Elhadi M; Elwahab H M, Abd

    2010-10-14

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormalities of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease caused by destruction of pancreatic beta cells and characterized by defect in insulin secretion while type 2 diabetes mellitus results from abnormalities in insulin secretion and/or insulin action or both. The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical hypoglycemic effects of Allium cepa in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. In assessment of hypoglycaemic activity of Allium cepa in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, ingestion of crude Allium cepa (100 g) caused a considerable reduction in fasting blood glucose levels by about 89 mg/dl in relation to insulin (145 mg/dl) in type 1 diabetic patients and it reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 40 mg/dl, compared to glibenclamide (81 mg/dl) in type 2 diabetic patients, 4 hours later. The same dose of crude Allium cepa produced a significant reduction in the induced hyperglycemia (GTT) by about 120 mg/dl compared to water (77 mg/dl) and insulin (153 mg/dl) in type 1 diabetic patients and considerably reduced GTT by 159 mg/dl in relation to water (55 mg/dl) and glibenclamide (114 mg/dl) in type 2 diabetic patients, after 4 hours. It was evident that, crude Allium cepa produced hypoglycemic effects, thus it could be used as a dietary supplement in management of type 1 and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (P<0.05) in Allium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiinflammatory and neurological activity of pyrithione and related sulfur-containing pyridine N-oxides from Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejčová, Petra; Kučerová, Petra; Stafford, Gary Ivan

    2014-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum) is a bulbous plant native to Turkey, Iran and Central Asia. It is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including inflammation and stress. Antiinflammatory and neurological activities...

  10. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Guvenc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D' from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG, 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka' seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test (BWT, standard germination test (SGT and field emergence (FE. The percentage of field emergence was evaluated at three sowing times: 20 May (FE-I, 10 June (FE-II and 20 July (FE-III. The mean germination of leek seeds varied from 77.5% to 100.0% and from 36.0% to 61.0% in SGT and BWT, respectively. While the range of results obtained in the boiling water test was from 38.5% to 60.0%, the range of results of the standard germination test was from 81.0% to 100.0% in onion seeds. The range of field emergence was between 18.5% ('Kisagün', FE-III and 72.0% (İnegöl-C', FE-II. Besides, the boiling water test was correlated highly significantly with SGT (r = 0.670**, FE-I (r = 0.923**, FE-II (r = 0.906** and FE-III (r = 0.939** in leek seeds. Similarly, BWT showed positive correlation with SGT (r = 0.568**, FE-I (r = 0.844**, FE-II (r = 0.933** and FE-III (r = 0.858** in onion seeds. In conclusion, the boiling water test is a new and reliable technique to test seed viability and it has a great potential to test rapidly germination and field emergence of leek and onion seeds at different sowing times.

  11. Modulatory effects of two levels of dietary Alliums on immune response and certain immunological variables, following immunization, in White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanieh, Hamza; Narabara, Kiyoaki; Piao, Mingzi; Gerile, Chaogetu; Abe, Asaki; Kondo, Yasuhiro

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of dietary Allium sativum (garlic, G) and Allium cepa (onion, O) on immune functions in White Leghorn chicken. One-week-old chicks, were fed diets without (control) or with Alliums (GL and OL, 10 g or GH and OH, 30 g/kg diet). Chickens were immunized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and Brucella abortus (BA). Antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation, and ratios of CD4(+) , CD8(+) and CD4⁻ CD8⁻ lymphocytes were investigated. Histology and weights of the spleen, thymus and bursa (BF), and white blood cell (WBC) counts were studied as well. Alliums at 10 g/kg diet enhanced anti-NDV, anti-SRBC and anti-BA antibody productions, whereas 30 g/kg diet had less stimulatory effects. Histology of the lymphoid organs and proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were not influenced. However, splenocyte and thymocyte proliferations were augmented with garlic. Flow cytometry analysis showed reduction in CD4(+) and increase in CD4⁻ CD8⁻ lymphocyte ratios in GH and OH groups. Garlic-supplemented chickens had heavier spleen and thymus, and higher WBC counts, whereas BF weight increased with both Alliums at 30 g/kg diet. These results suggest that dietary Alliums have a potential to enhance the immune functions in White Leghorn chickens. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Glu-Phe from onion (Allium Cepa L.) attenuates lipogenesis in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Geon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Hwang, Eom Ji; Jeon, Tae-Il; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2017-07-01

    A Glu-Phe (EF) was isolated from onion (Allium cepa L. cv. Sunpower). The chemical structure of EF was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-mass (ESI-MS) spectroscopy. We showed that EF reduced lipid accumulation in mouse hepatocytes by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and its lipogenic target genes. We also found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was required for the inhibitory effect of EF on lipid accumulation in mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, EF was qualified in nine onion cultivars by selective multiple reaction-monitoring detection of liquid chromatography-ESI-MS. These results suggest that EF could contribute to the beneficial effect of onion supplement in maintaining hepatic lipid homeostasis.

  13. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  14. Sulphur management in onion (Allium cepa) cultivation in hills of Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, R C; Sharma, R K

    2010-05-01

    Field experiment were conducted at CSK HPKV Research Farm, Palampur during Rabi seasons of 2000-01 and 2001-02, to study the response of onion (Allium cepa var Patna red) at four sulphur levels (0, 15, 30 and 60 kg ha(-1)) applied through Gypsum and S95. The analysis was done to allocate the limited availability of sulphur for maximizing net profit over fertilizer cost. The results show that the dose of sulphur under its full availability is 43.02 kg ha(-1). But under its scarce availability the maximum benefit would occur when it is applied up to 32.11 kg ha(-1) followed by even distribution of fertilizer i.e. 20 kg ha(-1). The returns following sulphur application at these rates, would be Rs 69340, 73092 and 68700 ha(-1) respectively.

  15. Occurrence of Sclerotium Rot in Allium tuberosum Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Kang, Dong-Wan; Song, Won-Doo; Choi, Okhee

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we characterized sporadically occurring sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Roth.) in farm fields in Sacheon, Korea. The initial symptom of the disease was water-soaked, which progressed to rotting, wilting, blighting, and eventually death. Further, mycelial mats spread over the lesions near the soil line, and sclerotia formed on the scaly stem and leaves. The sclerotia were globoid, 1~3 mm, and white to brown. The optimum temperature for growth and sclerotia formation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) was 30℃. The diameter of the hypae ranged from 4 to 8 µm. Clamp connection was observed on PDA medium after 5 days of incubation. Based on the mycological characteristics, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test, the causal agent was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of sclerotium rot in Chinese chive caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.

  16. Mucolytic Activity Test of Shallot Extract (Allium Ascalonicum L) by in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswati, D. A.; Dhina, M. A.; Mubaroq, S. R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to explain the results of research on the mucolytic activity of shallot extract is proportional to 0.2% N-Acetylcysteine. Shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) is efficacious for treating cough. This research was conducted by examining the mucolytic activity of shallot extract made with various dose concentration 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. The mucolytic activity test was performed in vitro based on the decrease in the viscosity of the egg whites by using the Brookfield viscometer. The results showed that shallot extract with dose concentration of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% had mucolytic activity by decreasing the viscosity of egg white solution. The effective concentration almost equal to 0.2% N-Acetylcysteine is at 25% concentration.

  17. Haemolytic activity and immunological adjuvant effect of a new steroidal saponin from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adão, Camila Rodrigues; Pereira da Silva, Bernadete; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Parente, José Paz

    2012-01-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum L. var. porrum. On the basis of chemical evidence, comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, and comparison with known compounds, its structure was established as (3β,5α,6β,25R)-3-{(O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy}-6-hydroxyspirostan-2-one (1). Results of the present study indicated that 1 exhibited haemolytic activity in the in vitro assays, and immunological adjuvant activity on the cellular immune response against ovalbumin antigen. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Organochlorine pesticide residues in leek (Allium porrum) crops grown on untreated soils from an agricultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Aizpún De Moreno, Julia E; Moreno, Víctor J

    2003-08-13

    Leek (Allium porrum) plants from organic farming were harvested at 15, 59, and 210 days after seed germination. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels were quantified by GC-ECD in vegetative tissues (roots and aerial), bulk soil and rhizosphere. Leek plant bioaccumulate OCPs efficiently in their aerial and root tissues and alter the concentration of the soil where they are grown. OCPs distribution pattern of bulk soil was endosulfans > DDTs > dieldrin, while it was endosulfans > HCHs > DDTs in leek tissues. There were statistically significant declines in DDTs, chlordane, dieldrin, and heptachlor in the rhizosphere, indicating that recalcitrant residues of OCPs may be removed from contaminated soil using leek crops under normal growing conditions. The DDE/DDT and alpha-/gamma-HCH ratios of < 1 would indicate recent inputs of DDT and lindane in the environment. The occurrence of OCPs in this farm could be the result of atmospheric deposition and/or surface runoff of these pesticides.

  19. Lectin and alliinase are the predominant proteins in nectar from leek (Allium porrum L.) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, W J; Smeets, K; Van Nerum, K; Van Leuven, F; Van Damme, E J

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of nectar from leek (Allium porrum) flowers by SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of two major polypeptide bands of 50 kDa and 13 kDa, respectively. Using a combination of agglutination tests, enzyme assays and N-terminal sequencing, the polypeptides have been identified as subunits of alliin lyase (alliinase, EC 4.4.1.4) and mannose-binding lectin, respectively. The latter protein is particularly abundant since it represents about 75% of the total nectar protein. Honey produced by bees foraging on flowering leek plants still contains biologically active lectin and alliinase. However, the levels of both proteins are strongly reduced as compared to those in the original nectar. It is evident, therefore, that the lectin as well as the alliinase are inactivated/degraded during the conversion of nectar into honey.

  20. Expression and localization of polygalacturonase during the outgrowth of lateral roots in Allium porrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretto, R; Favaron, F; Bettini, V; De Lorenzo, G; Marini, S; Alghisi, P; Cervone, F; Bonfante, P

    1992-09-01

    The presence of polygalacturonase and its correlation with the formation of lateral roots in leek (Allium porrum L.) seedlings have been investigated. During root growth, a steady increase in polygalacturonase activity was associated with that of the lateral root primordia. Fractionation of root extract by fast protein liquid chromatography resolved at least two polygalacturonase isoforms. One of the isoforms, a 75-kdalton protein, strongly reacted on Western blots probed with a polyclonal antibody raised against tomato polygalacturonase. It also reacted with both polyclonal and monoclonal antisera raised against Fusarium moniliforme polygalacturonase. In situ localization with these three antibodies showed that polygalacturonase was present over the meristems of lateral root primordia. Antibodies against pectins (Knox et al. 1990, Planta 181, 512-521) detected large amounts of pectic material filling the area between the apex of the primordium and the mother root tissues. We suggest that a polygalacturonase plays an important role in leek root morphogenesis, particularly during lateral root outgrowth.

  1. Cytogenetical and ultrastructural effects of copper on root meristem cells of Allium sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Donghua; Jiang, Wusheng; Meng, Qingmin; Zou, Jin; Gu, Jiegang; Zeng, Muai

    2009-04-01

    Different copper concentrations, as well as different exposure times, were applied to investigate both cytogenetical and ultrastructural alterations in garlic (Allium sativum L.) meristem cells. Results showed that the mitotic index decreased progressively when either copper concentration or exposure time increased. C-mitosis, anaphase bridges, chromosome stickiness and broken nuclei were observed in the copper treated root tip cells. Some particulates containing the argyrophilic NOR-associated proteins were distributed in the nucleus of the root-tip cells and the amount of this particulate material progressively increased with increasing exposure time. Finally, the nucleolar material was extruded from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Also, increased dictyosome vesicles in number, formation of cytoplasmic vesicles containing electron dense granules, altered mitochondrial shape, disruption of nuclear membranes, condensation of chromatin material, disintegration of organelles were observed. The mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of copper are briefly discussed.

  2. Purification and characterization of a soluble glycoprotein from garlic (Allium sativum) and its in vitro bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zou, Tingting; Xiang, Minghui; Jin, Chenzhong; Zhang, Xuejiao; Chen, Yong; Jiang, Qiuqing; Hu, Yihong

    2016-10-02

    A soluble glycoprotein was purified to homogeneity from ripe garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs using ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, and diethylaminoethyl-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography. A native mass of 55.7 kDa estimated on gel permeation chromatography and a molecular weight of 13.2 kDa observed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis supported that the glycoprotein is a homotetramer. β-Elimination reaction result suggested that the glycoprotein is an N-linked type. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy proved that it contains sugar. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis showed that its sugar component was galactose. The glycoprotein has 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil free radical scavenging activity and the peroxidation inhibition ability to polyunsaturated fatty acid. These results indicated that the glycoprotein has potential for food additives, functional foods, and even biotechnological and medical applications.

  3. Allium schoenoprasum L.: a review of phytochemistry, pharmacology and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varinder; Chauhan, Gargi; Krishan, Pawan; Shri, Richa

    2017-08-22

    Allium schoenoprasum L. (family Amaryllidaceae), commonly known as chives has great culinary value besides being used as ethnomedicine. This review emphasises on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of A. schoenoprasum, and discusses the future opportunities for systematic investigations. Scientific evaluation of chives validates its traditional claims and demonstrates diverse pharmacological potential including an anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, anthelmintic and antihypertensive. Though phytochemical studies revealed the presence of sulphur and phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponin and steroidal glycosides yet methodical research to identify bioactive compounds is required. This review confirms the medicinal importance of A. schoenoprasum and could stimulate future research on its unexplored aspects, especially identification of bioactive compounds and related mechanisms and safety, which might develop it as a drug.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF WILD GARLIC (Allium ursinum FROM ROMANIAN SPONTANEOUS FLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA LUPOAE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wild Romanian spontaneous garlic’s (Allium ursinum antimicrobial activity was tested in order to establish the inhibition potential of growth of some microorganisms. As test microorganisms were used pure cultures of fungs (Aspergillus glaucus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor mucedo, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacteria (Bacillus subtilis isolated from food microbiota. There were also, used microbial strains isolated from different pathological products: wound secretions (Staphylococcus aureus, throat swab (Streptococcus pyogenes, urine (Escherichia coli and oral mucosa (Candida albicans. The antimicrobial potential of used extracts is highlighted depending on the type of the vegetal tissue (leaves, roots, bulbs and the nature of the solvent used for extraction. Extracts used in these experiments are recommended to use in food industry to preserve the stability and to improve the organoleptic quality of products.

  5. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome.

  6. Phenolic Compounds from Allium schoenoprasum, Tragopogon pratensis and Rumex acetosa and Their Antiproliferative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Saha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that phenolic compounds have antiproliferative and tumour arresting effects. The aim of this original study was to investigate the content of phenolic compounds (PhC in flowers of Allium schoenoprasum (chive, Tragopogon pratensis (meadow salsify and Rumex acetosa (common sorrel and their effect on proliferation of HaCaT cells. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated in vitro using the following concentrations of phenolic compounds in cultivation medium: 100, 75, 50 and 25 µg/mL. Phenolic composition was also determined by HPLC. The results indicate that even low concentrations of these flowers’ phenolic compounds inhibited cell proliferation significantly and the possible use of the studied herb’s flowers as sources of active phenolic compounds for human nutrition.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Allium ampeloprasum ethanol extract in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemiyanpour*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: This study was designed to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of Allium ampeloprasum (Leek leaves on blood lipid profile in rats. Due to the side effects of chemical drugs and social tendency toward herbal medicines, it’s justified to propose new herbal remedies for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Thirty six adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into 6 groups. After induction of  hyperlipidemia, group I was fed with a normal diet, group II (control with high cholesterol diet (containing 5% cholesterol and 5% olive oil, group III was fed with high cholesterol diet and lovastatin (10 mg/kg, group IV with high cholesterol diet and leek extract (50 mg/kg, group V received high cholesterol diet and Allium ampeloprasum (leek extract 100 mg/kg and group VI was fed with high cholesterol diet and leek extract (250 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days through gavage. Serum cholesterol concentration, LDL, TG, HDL and ratios of CHO/HDL and LDL/HDL for each animal were analyzed by laboratory kits. Results: The regimen containing 50 mg/kg of extract resulted in a significant reduction in CHO levels (57.00 ± 2.25 mg/dL vs. 107.80 ± 3.54 mg/dL, LDL (22.00 ± 2.07 mg/dL vs. 35.80 ± 1.98 mg/dL and CHO/HDL (1.44 ± 0.07 mg/dL vs. 2.55 ± 0.06 mg/dL compared to the control group (p0.05. Conclusion: Theresults showed that ethanol extract of A. ampeloprasum could improve lipid profile comparable with lovastatin in rats. It was also conclude that 50 mg/kg dose of the extract showed the highest efficacy.

  9. Allium sativum L. regulates in vitro IL-17 gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutia, Mouna; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Abouelazz, Omar; Elouaddari, Anass; Al Jahid, Abdellah; Elhou, Abdelhalim; Nadifi, Sellama; Jamal Eddine, Jamal; Habti, Norddine; Badou, Abdallah

    2016-09-29

    Allium sativum L. (A.S.) "garlic", one of the most interesting medicinal plants, has been suggested to contain compounds that could be beneficial in numerous pathological situations including cancer. In this work, we aimed to assess the immunomodulatory effect of A.S. preparation on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. Nontoxic doses of A.S. were identified using MTT assay. Effects on CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation were studied using flow cytometry. The effect of A.S. on cytokine gene expression was studied using qRT-PCR. Finally, qualitative analysis of A.S. was performed by HPLC approach. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA test. The nontoxic doses of A.S. preparation did not affect neither spontaneous nor TCR-mediated CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation. Interestingly, A.S. exhibited a statistically significant regulation of IL-17 gene expression, a cytokine involved in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In contrast, the expression of IL-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was unaffected. Qualitative analysis of A.S. ethanol preparation indicated the presence of three polyphenol bioactive compounds, which are catechin, vanillic acid and ferulic acid. The specific inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-17 without affecting cell proliferation in human PBMCs by the Allium sativum L. preparation suggests a potential valuable effect of the compounds present in this plant for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer, where IL-17 is highly expressed. The individual contribution of these three compounds to this global effect will be assessed.

  10. First Report of the Virus Diseases in Victory Onion (Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jin Park

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, a survey was conducted to identify virus diseases on victory onion, Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum grown in Ulleung island located in the East Sea. A total of 61 samples were collected from victory onion in the neighborhood of Seonginbong. The identification of viruses from the samples were carried out by electron microscopy and RT-PCR using primers species specific to GCLV, LYSV, SLV, OYDV and genus specific to Allexivirus, respectively. From sixty-one samples, filamentous rod particles (600-900 nm were detected from four victory onion samples in EM, three samples containing SLV and one sample containing both SLV and Allexivirus in RT-PCR analysis, respectively. Victory onions naturally infected by the viruses were asymptomatic apparently. The viruses detected by RT-PCR were further characterized by the nucleotide sequence analysis of the coat protein region. Three isolates of SLV showed approximately 99% identities in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, suggesting that they were likely to be the same strain. On the other hand, they showed approximately 75.7~83.7% identities in the nucleotide and 89.2~97.0% in amino acid sequences compared with the previously reported SLV isolates in Allium. The CP gene of the Allexivirus showed approximately 99.2% nucleotide identities and 98.8% amino acid identities with Garlic virus A. However, there was relatively low homology ranging from 60.6% to 81.5% compared with other Allexiviruses (GarV-C, GarV-E, GarV-X, GMbMV, and Shal-X. These data suggested that two viruses, SLV and GarV-A identified from victory onion, are named SLV-Ulleungdo and GarV-A-Ulleungdo, respectively. This is the first report of viruses infecting victory onion.

  11. The onion (Allium cepa L. R2R3-MYB gene MYB1 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis

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    Kathy Schwinn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulb colour is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales. The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red, flavonols (pale yellow and chalcones (bright yellow. Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterised in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1 or flavonol (SG7, MYB29 production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5. MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressd and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (A. sativum L. plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  12. Hierarchical porous carbon derived from Allium cepa for supercapacitors through direct carbonization method with the assist of calcium acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jinhui

    2017-11-02

    In this paper, a direction carbonization method was used to prepare porous carbon from Allium cepa for supercapacitor applications. In this method, calcium acetate was used to assist carbonization process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and N2 adsorption/desorption method were used to characterize the morphology, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore size distribution of porous carbon derived from Allium cepa (onion derived porous carbon, OPC). OPC is of hierarchical porous structure with high specific surface area and relatively high specific capacitance. OPC possesses relatively high specific surface area of 533.5 m2/g. What’s more, OPC possesses a specific capacitance of 133.5 F/g at scan rate of 5 mV/s.

  13. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF ALLIUM SATIVUM ESSENTIAL OIL COMPARED TO DIFFERENT PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA STRAINS IN EASTERN ALGERIA

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    Mazzouz Dekhil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Allium sativum bulbs harvested in the region of El Harrouch in Skikda was studied by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry; six compounds were identified which predominant materials are: methyl allyl trisulfide (34.61�20and diallyl disulfide (31.65� The antibacterial activity was tested on 52 clinical strains and one reference strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by both variants of the dilution method, the dilution method in liquid medium and the dilution method in solid medium. The results showed that the essential oil of Allium sativum has an inhibitory activity of growth compared to over 50�0of strains tested with MICs relatively averages between 32 and 128 μg•mL-1.

  14. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts.

  15. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review

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    Catia Dini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldly data show the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. In developing countries, TB control programmes are overwhelmed by the complexity of treating MDR-TB infected people, as current tools and therapies are inadequate. MDR-TB could become the main form of TB. Risk factors that make South Africa into one of the main epicentres are analysed. A review of the studies carried out about antitubercular properties of Allium sativum both in vitro and in vivo is provided. The researches about the garlic extracts effectiveness against clinical isolates of MDR-TB are of scientific importance. Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients.

  16. S-alkenyl cysteine sulfoxide and its antioxidant properties from Allium cepa var. tropeana (red onion) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Irene; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Dini, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    A new cysteine sulfoxide, (S(S)R(C))-S-(3-pentenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1), was identified from the seeds of Allium cepa var. tropeana, together with the known methiin, etiin, alliin, isoalliin, propiin, and butiin. The structure of compound 1 was established by analysis of its physical and spectroscopic data. The antioxidant activity of an extract containing cysteine sulfoxides and compound 1 was evaluated using the FRAP and DPPH tests.

  17. Chemical Profile and Bioactivity of Chinese Chives (Allium tuberosum Rottl. Ex Spreng) Crude Extracts under Different Solvent Extractions

    OpenAIRE

    Napatsorn Lawthienchai; Suvaluk Asavasanti; Thanutcha Tongprasan; Patchanee Yasurin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng) have long been used as culinary herb in Asia diets. Since it contains many new and known bioactive compounds, it has a great potential to be developed as value-added products in food, cosmetic, and medicinal industries. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the chemical profile and bioactivity (i.e. antibacterial and antioxidant activity) of dried, fresh, and frozen Chinese chives (A. tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng) undergone 3 different s...

  18. Assessment of the potential of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for non-vital pulpotomy of primary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol in nonvital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, pulpotomy was indicated for the primary molars. Pulpotomy procedure was performed and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar was capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet while the other mola...

  19. Modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin–induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Ganiyu Oboh; Owoloye, Tosin R; Agbebi, Oluwaseun J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ameliorative effect of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups 1 and 2 were fed basal diet while Groups 3 and 4 were fed diets containing 2% and 4% garlic respectively for 27 d prior to gentamycin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body we...

  20. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum-A. cepa monosomic addition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Magdi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Suzuki, Minoru; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2017-01-01

    The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA) are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A) and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control) revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance.

  1. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum-A. cepa monosomic addition lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abdelrahman

    Full Text Available The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance.

  2. Evaluation of Analgesic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Allium cepa L. in Animal Model of Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mahdipour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain that affects on the patient’s quality of life. Use of herbal instead of synthetic drugs recently has been increased due to side effects of synthetic drugs and herbal effective components. Flavonoids are herbal compounds that have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Because Allium cepa L. has a great amount of flavonoids, this study has been designed to evaluate analgesic effects of alcoholic extract of Allium cepa L. on neuropathic pain behavior in chronic constriction injury model in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI model in Rats. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 for each: Sham, CCI model, receiving red onion hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg and a group receiving gabapentin (100 mg/kg. Red onion extract and gabapentin were administered by gavage for 21 days. Using thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical and thermal allodynia tests, the analgesic effects of extract have been measured. Results: Findings of this study revealed that CCI surgery on rats induced hyperalgesia, mechanical and thermal allodynia. Daily intakes of alcoholic extract of red onion and gabapentin significantly increase the paw withdrawal latency; increase the threshold to mechanical allodynia and decrease in response to acetone. Conclusion: Oral use of alcoholic extract of Allium cepa L. reduces neuropathic pain behavior in CCI model in rats.

  3. Effect of processing and cooking conditions on onion (Allium cepa L.) induced antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Pablo F; Galmarini, Claudio R

    2012-09-05

    Allium vegetables serve as sources of antiplatelet agents that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, onion and garlic, the major Allium species, are usually cooked before consumption. Here, we examined the effect of cooking on onion in vitro antiplatelet activity (IVAA). Two different cooking systems (convection oven and microwaves) and several time-temperature variables were tested on whole bulbs, quarters of bulbs, and completely crushed bulbs, monitoring the degradation of sulfur antiplatelet compounds (e.g., thiosulfinates) by analysis of pyruvate levels. Although heating was, in general, detrimental for onion IVAA, the extent of this effect varied greatly, from unaffected antiplatelet activity (AA) (i.e., similar to raw onion) to a complete lost of activity, depending upon the manner in which onions were prepared prior to heating, the cooking method, and the intensity of the heat treatment. "Whole", "quarters", and "crushed" onions lost their IVAA after 30, 20, and 10 min of oven heating, respectively. The longer retainment of AA in intact bulbs was attributed to a later alliinase inactivation. Proaggregatory effects observed in samples subjected to the most intense oven and microwave heat treatments suggest that extensively cooked onions may stimulate rather than inhibit platelet aggregation. The efficacy of Allium species as antiplatelet agents, as affected by preparation and cooking conditions, is discussed.

  4. Unbiased profiling of volatile organic compounds in the headspace of Allium plants using an in-tube extraction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Miyako; Kobayashi, Makoto; Iizuka, Yumiko; Fukushima, Atsushi; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-02-29

    Plants produce and emit important volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which have an essential role in biotic and abiotic stress responses and in plant-plant and plant-insect interactions. In order to study the bouquets from plants qualitatively and quantitatively, a comprehensive, analytical method yielding reproducible results is required. We applied in-tube extraction (ITEX) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for studying the emissions of Allium plants. The collected HS samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), and the results were subjected to multivariate analysis. In case of ITEX-method Allium cultivars released more than 300 VOCs, out of which we provisionally identified 50 volatiles. We also used the VOC profiles of Allium samples to discriminate among groups of A. fistulosum, A. chinense (rakkyo), and A. tuberosum (Oriental garlic). As we found 12 metabolite peaks including dipropyl disulphide with significant changes in A. chinense and A. tuberosum when compared to the control cultivar, these metabolite peaks can be used for chemotaxonomic classification of A. chinense, tuberosum, and A. fistulosum. Compared to SPME-method our ITEX-based VOC profiling technique contributes to automatic and reproducible analyses. Hence, it can be applied to high-throughput analyses such as metabolite profiling.

  5. Allium sativum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appetite and food selection. Also high dietary ... affects body weight, organ development and growth particularly at ... supplementation of raw garlic on taste response and relative organ ... period, during which they were fed with poultry growers.

  6. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh K; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars.

  7. Multiple garlic (Allium sativum L.) microRNAs regulate the immunity against the basal rot fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cepae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Mishra, Rukmini; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The basal plate rot fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC), is the most devastating pathogen posing a serious threat to garlic (Allium sativum L.) production worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key modulators of gene expression related to development and defense responses in eukaryotes. However, the miRNA species associated with garlic immunity against FOC are yet to be explored. In the present study, a small RNA library developed from FOC infected resistant garlic line was sequenced to identify immune responsive miRNAs. Forty-five miRNAs representing 39 conserved and six novel sequences responsive to FOC were detected. qRT-PCR analyses further classified them into three classes based on their expression patterns in susceptible line CBT-As11 and in the resistant line CBT-As153. North-blot analyses of six selective miRNAs confirmed the qRT-PCR results. Expression studies on a selective set of target genes revealed a negative correlation with the complementary miRNAs. Furthermore, transgenic garlic plant overexpresing miR164a, miR168a and miR393 showed enhanced resistance to FOC, as revealed by decreased fungal growth and up-regulated expression of defense-responsive genes. These results indicate that multiple miRNAs are involved in garlic immunity against FOC and that the overexpression of miR164a, miR168a and miR393 can augment garlic resistance to Fusarium basal rot infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Kumar Chand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of post transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, 6 conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L. were analysed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450 family proteins were predicted and verified using 5’ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars.

  9. Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of antioxidant potential of ethanol extract of Allium cepa and ultra-high homoeopathic dilutions available in the market: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Kundra Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As per statistics available with the WHO, 80% of the earth's population rely on traditional medicine for their primary health-care needs and most of this therapy involves the use of plant extracts and their active components. Objectives: To confirm the presence of alkaloids, fats, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, sugars, amino acids and saponins in Allium cepa extract. Method: A qualitative phytochemical analysis has been performed to confirm the presence of these components in Allium cepa extract and its homoeopathic formulations (mother tincture [MT], Allium cepa 30C and Allium cepa 200C. The total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of the prepared extract and the various homoeopathic formulations have also been studied. Results: Presence of various phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, carbohydrates and amino acids have been confirmed in the prepared extract as well as the MT. According to calculations using Avogadro's limit, preparations above 12C dilution should have no source material present. It is interesting to note that even though the formulations Allium cepa 30C and 200C are considered ultra-high dilutions, they gave a positive result for many phytochemicals. The total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of the prepared extract and various homoeopathic formulations have also been studied. Conclusion: The positive qualitative and quantitative results also reinforce the growing belief that Homoeopathy is not just a placebo effect but a 'Smart medicine' which may be working on the nanoscale. More research is required to understand various aspects.

  10. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 10{sup 15} Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: {sup 90}Sr - 1.4x10{sup 3} Bq/l; {sup 137}Cs - 3 Bq/l; {sup 3}H - 7x10{sup 2} Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10{sup -1} Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed

  11. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23... CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use of field office technical guide. A conservation plan or conservation system developed for the purposes of...

  12. Anxiolytic activity of aerial part hydroethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum Linn. (Liliaceae in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidemi J. Akindele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allium ascalonicum Linn. (Liliaceae is a mildly aromatic annual herb used to flavor food. Ethnobotanical survey revealed application of A. ascalonicum in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS disorders. Objective: To investigate the anxiolytic activity of aerial part hydroethanolic extract of A. ascalonicum. Methods: The hole-board, elevated plus maze, light/dark exploration, open field and social interaction tests were used in this study. Groups of mice were treated orally with distilled water (10 ml/kg, diazepam (1 mg/kg, and A. ascalonicum (50-400 mg/kg. Evaluations were done 1 h post-treatment and the duration of observation was mostly 5 min. In the hole-board test, mice were observed for number/duration of head dips and number of sectional crossings. In the elevated plus maze test, the time spent in the open/closed arms and the number of entries by mice were observed. In the light/dark exploration test, the latency of entry into the dark box, time spent in the light and dark compartments, number of rearing and assisted rearing were determined. In respect of the open field test, observations were made for the number of rearing, assisted rearing, and sectional crossings. In the social interaction test, pairs of mice were observed for number of interactions including sniffing, following, and partner grooming. Results: In the hole-board test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05, 0.01 increased the number/duration of head dips and number of sectional crossings. In the elevated plus maze test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05 increased the number of entries into the open arm with Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(11:448-459 Page 449 of 459corresponding reduction in number of entries into the closed arm. In the light/dark exploration test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05, 0.01 increased the latency of entry into the dark box, time spent in the light box, and number of rearing and assisted rearing. In

  13. An ultracytochemical study of nucleolar organization in meristematic plant cells (Allium porrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, B T; Lafontaine, J G

    1980-06-01

    The interphase nucleolus in Allium porrum, as in many of the plant species studied so far, is highly heterogeneous in ultrastructure owing to the presence of coarse, contorted, thread-like structures, or nucleolonemata. Each nucleolonema appears to be sharply twisted and to give rise to a skein within the nucleolar mass. In order to characterize further these nucleolar components, a variety of cytochemical techniques were exploited. For that purpose, specimens were mostly fixed in 4% formaldehyde and stained in the block according to procedures known to reveal the presence of nucleic acids or proteins. Certain specimens were also digested with deoxyribonuclease, ribonuclease or proteinase K before staining. By staining with phosphotungstic acid or bismuth oxynitrate, the presence of a high concentration of proteins can be demonstrated within thin (0.15 micrometer), filamentous structures which are believed to correspond to the outer region of the nucleolonema. Such convoluted formations disappear upon sufficiently long extraction with proteinase K. Using Bernhard's regressive staining technique for chromatin, the distribution of this substance throughout the nucleolar mass was found to match closely that of the nucleolonemata as revealed by several other procedures. As a last test for investigating the cytochemical make-up of the nucleolus, blocks of tissues were stained with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine, a substance known to react specifically with nucleic acids. When such specimens are digested with ribonuclease for 1 h, there persist within the nucleolus, fibrillogranular zones the localization of which is highly reminiscent of that of the nucleolonemata. Combination of ribonuclease hydrolysis with subsequent treatment with proteinase K (30 min) induces the extraction of a large proportion of the nucleolar material, the persisting loose and rather evenly distributed fibrils exhibiting a diamter of 3-5 nm. The possibility is considered that these units may correspond to

  14. Allium Stents: A Novel Solution for the Management of Upper and Lower Urinary Tract Strictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Bahouth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stents are widely use in endoscopic urological procedures. One of the most important indications is the treatment of urinary tract strictures. Allium™ Medical has introduced several types of stents for the treatment of different types of urinary tract strictures, based on anatomic location. All the stents are made of nitinol and coated with a co-polymer that reduces encrustations. These stents are self-expandable and have a large caliber and a high radial force. They have different shapes, designed especially for the treatment of each type of stricture. One of the most important features of Allium-manufactured stents is the ease of removal, due to their special unraveling feature. The company has introduced the Bulbar Urethral Stent (BUS for treatment of bulbar urethral strictures; a rounded stent available in different lengths. Initial data on 64 patients with bulbar urethral stricture treated with the BUS showed a significant improvement in symptoms, with minimal complications and few adverse events. For treatment of prostate obstruction in patients unfit for surgery or unwilling to undergo a classical prostatic surgery, the Triangular Prostatic Stent (TPS was introduced, which has a triangular shape that fits in the prostatic urethra. Its body has a high radial force attached to an anchor (which prevents migration through a trans-sphincteric wire (which reduces incontinence rate. Initial data on 51 patients showed significant improvement in symptoms and in urinary peak flow rate, with a relatively small number of complications. The Round Posterior Stent (RPS was designed for treatment of post radical prostatectomy bladder neck contracture. This short, round stent has an anchor, which is placed in the bladder neck. This stent being relatively new, the clinical data are still limited. Ureteral strictures can be treated with the Ureteral Stent (URS, which is round-shaped, available in different lengths, and has an anchor option (for very

  15. Field assessment of the susceptibility of onion cultivars to thrips attack – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobożniak Maria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments on the susceptibility of onion to thrips infestation were carried out in 2012 and 2013. The investigation used 18 cultivars and 5 breeding lines of Allium cepa, and the species A. fistulosum and A. roylei. In 2012 A. fistulosum was one of the most infested plants, whereas in 2013 infestation was no more than average. The most infested cultivars of A. cepa were ‘Efekt’, ‘Alonso F1’, ‘Alibaba’ and ‘Wama’ and the ‘NOE5’ breeding line. In 2012 the extent of damage ranged from 12 to 55%, in 2013 from 20 to 30%. The ‘NOE2’, ‘NOE3’ and ‘Wama’ cultivars were the most seriously damaged by thrips. Leaf damage to A. fistulosum was minimal. No damage was caused to the wild species A. roylei by feeding onion thrips.

  16. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  17. Sesquiterpene lactone dehydroleucodine selectively induces transient arrest in G2 in Allium cepa root meristematic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M E; Giordano, O S; López, L A

    2002-02-01

    Dehydroleucodine is a sesquiterpene lactone recently isolated from aerial parts of a medicinal herb, Artemisia douglasiana Besser. We have previously shown that 25 and 100 microM dehydroleucodine slowed down onion root growth by 30 and 70%, respectively, affecting neither cell viability nor cell elongation. In the present study we analyze the effect of dehydroleucodine on cell cycle phases in onion (Allium cepa L.) root meristematic cells synchronized with caffeine or caffeine and hydroxyurea. Synchronized root cells treated with 100 and 200 microM dehydroleucodine present an interphase lengthening of 5.2 h and 8.2 h, respectively. The S-phase length, estimated by [3H]thymidine incorporation assay, was 6 h for both control roots and roots that had been immersed in dehydroleucodine. The peak of [3H]leucine incorporation was observed 6 h after release from synchronization in controls and in dehydroleucodine-treated roots, indicating that protein synthesis in G2 was not affected. Thus, these results show that dose-dependently dehydroleucodine selectively induces a transient arrest of meristematic cell in G2 and that dehydroleucodine can be used experimentally as a cell cycle suppressor.

  18. Effects of Pterocaulon polystachyum DC. (Asteraceae on onion (Allium cepa root-tip cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Frainer Knoll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil leaf infusions of the plant Pterocaulon polystachyum DC (Asteraceae are used to treat digestive problems. We used plants from six P. polystachyum populations to prepare fresh aqueous leaf infusions at the concentration normally used in Brazil (2.5 g L-1 and at twice (5 g L-1 and four times (10 g L-1 this concentration. We rooted onion bulbs in a water control or one of the infusions for 24 h and used the in vivo onion (Allium cepa root-tip cell test to investigate the potential mutagenicity of the infusions by calculating the mitotic index for the control and the experimental treatments and comparing them using the Chi-squared test (chi2, p = 0.05. There was a highly significant decrease in the mitotic index of root-tip cells treated with infusion as compared to those exposed to water only. These results indicate that P. polystachyum infusions present cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity and therefore have therapeutic potential.

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  20. Metabonomic analysis of Allium macrostemon Bunge as a treatment for acute myocardial ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Xu, Qian; Zheng, Ting; Huang, Fang; Han, Lintao

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) refers to a pathological state of the heart caused by reduced cardiac blood perfusion, which leads to a decreased oxygen supply in the heart and an abnormal myocardial energy metabolism. Acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) has posed a significant health risk for humans. Allium macrostemon Bunge (AMB), a popular traditional Chinese medicine, is used for MI treatment. The therapeutic effects of AMB were assessed and the detailed mechanisms of AMB for AMI treatment were investigated. We characterized the metabonomic variations in rats from the sham surgery, AMI, and AMB-pretreated AMI groups through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. Thirty-five metabolites including carbohydrates, a range of amino acids, and organic acids were detected. The (1)H NMR spectra of the rat serum were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). Results showed that AMI induced some physiological changes in rats and also led to metabolic disorders related to glycolysis promotion, amino acid metabolism disruption, and other metabolite metabolism perturbation. AMB pretreatment reduced the AMI injury and maintained metabolic balance, possibly by limiting the change in energy metabolism and regulating amino acid metabolism. These findings provide a comprehensive insight on the metabolic response of AMI rats to AMB pretreatment and are important for the use of AMB for AMI therapy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A comparative study of the neutral and acidic polysaccharides from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanjun; Wang, Fuhua; Wang, Mingchun; Ma, Liping; Ye, Hong; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-03-06

    Neutral and acidic polysaccharides, named AMP40N and AMP40S respectively, were isolated and purified from the dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge. Both of them showed a single and symmetrically sharp peak, indicating they were homogeneous polysaccharides. Molecular weights of AMP40N and AMP40S were determined to be 18.2 and 105.1 kDa, respectively. AMP40N was composed of arabinose and glucose, while AMP40S was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose and galactose and a certain amount of uronic acid. FT-IR, periodic acid oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation and GC-MS analysis revealed that non-reducing terminal and →2,6)-Glc-(1→ existed in AMP40N and AMP40S. The glycosidic linkage of arabinose in AMP40N was →2)-Ara-(1→, whereas it was Ara-(1→ in AMP40S. AMP40S had (1→2)-linked l-rhamnose residue. Both AMP40N and AMP40S exhibited strong anti-tumor potential against human gastric carcinoma cells BGC-823, in particular, AMP40S presented significantly higher inhibitory rate of 85.94% than AMP40N of 52.63%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Active Compounds of Different Garlic (Allium sativum L. Cultivars

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    Szychowski Konrad A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has a reputation as a therapeutic agent for many different diseases such as microbial infections, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Health benefits of garlic depend on its content of biologically-active compounds, which differs between cultivars and geographical regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological activity of aqueous extracts from nine garlic varieties from different countries (Poland, Spain, China, Portugal, Burma, Thailand and Uzbekistan. Antioxidant properties were evaluated through free radical scavenging (DPPH•, ABTS•+ and ion chelation (Fe2+, Cu2+ activities. The cytotoxicity of garlic extracts was evaluated in vitro using Neutral Red Uptake assay in normal human skin fibroblasts. The obtained results revealed that garlic extracts contained the highest amount of syringic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids derivatives. The lowest IC50 values for DPPH•, ABTS•+ scavenging and Cu2+ chelating ability were determined in Chinese garlic extracts (4.63, 0.43 and 14.90 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts from Spanish cultivar Morado and Chinese garlic were highly cytotoxic to human skin fibroblasts as they reduced cellular proliferation by 70–90%. We showed diverse contents of proteins and phenolic components in garlic bulbs from different varieties. The obtained results could help to choose the cultivars of garlic which contain significant amounts of active compounds, have important antioxidant properties and display low antiproliferative effect and/or low cytotoxicity against normal human skin fibroblast BJ.

  3. Structural analyses and immunomodulatory properties of fructo-oligosaccharides from onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V Prasanna; Prashanth, K V Harish; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-03-06

    Onion (Allium cepa) is an immune-boosting food rich in fructans. The major aim of this study is to characterize and investigate the immunomodulatory properties of onion fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). FOS was isolated from onion bulbs by hot 80% ethanol extraction (yield: ∼4.5 g/100 g fw) followed by gel permeation chromatography. NMR of onion FOS revealed unusual β-D-Glc terminal residue at the non-reducing end. TLC and ESI-MS analyses showed that onion FOS ranged from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. Onion FOS (50 μg/mL) significantly increased (∼3-fold) the proliferation of mouse splenocytes/thymocytes vs. control. Further, onion FOS enhanced (∼2.5-fold) the production of nitric oxide by peritoneal exudates cells (PECs) from Wistar rats; intracellular free radicals production and phagocytic activity of isolated murine PECs were also augmented. Our structural and in vitro results indicate that onion FOS comprising of tri- to hexasaccharide units belongs to inulin-type fructans, and possess immunostimulatory activities towards murine lymphocytes and macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  5. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products. PMID:26150744

  6. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles and its effect on actively dividing cells of mitosis in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaonkar, Dipali; Shende, Sudhir; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Nanobiotechnological application of copper nanoparticles has paved the way for advancement in agriculture owing to its bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Recently, researchers have focussed on bioinspired synthesis of copper nanoparticles as a viable alternative to existing physicochemical techniques. For the commercialization of nanocopper, the toxicity evaluation is a major issue. In this context, Citrus medica (L.) fruit extract-mediated copper nanoparticles were synthesized and its different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg mL(-1) ) were evaluated for its effect on actively dividing cells of Allium cepa. The study clearly revealed that copper nanoparticles increased mitotic index up to the concentration of 20 µg mL(-1) . In addition, a gradual decline in mitotic index and increase in abnormality index was observed as the concentration of copper nanoparticles and treatment duration were increased. Aberrations in chromosomal behavior such as sticky and disturbed chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase, c-metaphase, bridges, laggard, disturbed telophase, and vacuolated nucleus were also observed. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. ALCOHOLIC TINCTURE OF GARLIC (Allium sativum ON GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOPARASITES OF SHEEP- SHORT COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carlini Cunha Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The continuous and indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has caused a growing problem of parasite resistance to conventional treatments. In this context, plant essential oils and active components can be used as alternatives or in association with current anthel¬mintic treatment. Garlic (Allium sativum is a herbal medicine with various therapeutic properties: immunostimulating, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic alcoholic tincture on gastrointestinal endoparasites of sheep. For this, 54 sheep were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment 1 (T1 received 40 g of garlic alcoholic tincture orally; treatment 2 (T2 received 60 g orally; T3 was the control group. Fecal samples were collected at days 0, 7 and 14, to perform laboratorial tests. Reduction of eggs per gram of feces in T1 and T2 was 0% on days 7 and 14. No difference in larvae genus was identified between treatments or days. In this experiment garlic alcoholic tincture presented no effect on gastrointestinal endoparasites of sheep.

  8. Correlation of toxicity with lead content in root tip cells (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruyo, Ingrid; Fernández, Yusmary; Marcano, Letty; Montiel, Xiomara; Torrealba, Zaida

    2008-12-01

    The present study determines lead content in onion root tip cells (Allium cepa L.), correlating it with its toxicity. The treatment was carried at 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C using aqueous solutions of lead chloride at 0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1 ppm for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. For each treatment, a control where the lead solution was substituted by distilled water was included. After treatment, the meristems were fixed with a mixture of alcohol-acetic acid (3:1) and colored according to the technique of Feulgen. Lead content was quantified by graphite furnace absorption atomic spectrometry. The lead content in the roots ranged from 3.25 to 244.72 microg/g dry weight, with a direct relation with the concentration and time of exposure. A significant negative correlation was presented (r = -0.3629; p < 0.01) among lead content and root growth increment, and a positive correlation (r = 0.7750; p < 0.01) with the induction of chromosomic aberrations. In conclusion, lead is able to induce a toxic effect in the exposed roots, correlated with its content.

  9. Cytotoxicity and mode of action of maleic hydrazide in root tips of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, L; Carruyo, I; Del Campo, A; Montiel, X

    2004-02-01

    Maleic hydrazide (MH) is an herbicide and is a regulator of the growth of buds in vegetables during storage. It is used in agriculture-in despite its known effect as a mutagenic and clastogenic agent. In this research the effect of MH on the root tips of Allium cepa L. was determined; correlations between the effects of different concentrations and exposure times on the mitotic index (MI) and induction of chromosomal aberrations (ChA) were also examined. Experiments were carried out in triplicate, using aqueous solutions of MH to concentrations of 10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3)M, at intervals of 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h, with a control for each combination (with the MH substituted by distilled water). The results revealed an inhibition of the MI linked to the concentration and time of treatment (F=845.51, P<0.01 and F=427.58, P<0.01, respectively). For all the concentrations used and exposure periods longer than 12 h, different types of ChA were present, with significantly increased frequencies with increases in the concentration and time of exposure (P<0.01). To determine the mechanism through which the herbicide exerts its toxicity, ultrastructural electron microscopy was conducted. The results reveal nucleolar alterations, suggesting an inhibitory effect of biosynthetic activity.

  10. Determination of vanadium accumulation in onion root cells (Allium cepa L.) and its correlation with toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, Letty; Carruyo, Ingrid; Fernández, Yusmary; Montiel, Xiomara; Torrealba, Zaida

    2006-08-01

    The vanadium is a metal that presents great interest from the toxicological point of view, because of the numerous alterations that can take place in different biological systems. This work evaluated the capacity of vanadium accumulation and its correlation with genotoxic effects in root cells of Allium cepa L. The bulbs were cultivated in renovated filtered water each 24 h, at a temperature of 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C, in darkness and constant aeration. Treatments were carried out under the same experimental conditions, using water solutions of vanadium of 25, 50, 75 and 100 microg/g for 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. A control was carried out where metal solution was substituted by distilled water. After the treatment, the meristems were fixed with alcohol--acetic acid (3:1) and stained according to the technique of Feulgen. The capacity of accumulation was determined by GFAAS. The analysis of the results revealed an accumulation of the metal for all times and concentrations. No correlation was presented among vanadium accumulation, growth and mitotic index; however, positive correlation was given with the induction of chromosomic aberrations. In conclusion, vanadium is able to induce cytotoxic effect in the exposed roots, but only genotoxic effect was correlated with metal accumulation.

  11. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products.

  12. Receptors of garlic (Allium sativum) lectins and their role in insecticidal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Santosh K; Singh, Pradhyumna K

    2012-08-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) lectins are promising candidate molecules for the protection against chewing (lepidopteran) as well as sap sucking (homopteran) insect pests. Molecular mechanism of toxicity and interaction of lectins with midgut receptor proteins has been described in many reports. Lectins show its effect right from sensory receptors of mouth parts by disrupting the membrane integrity and food detection ability. Subsequently, enter into the gut lumen and interact with midgut glycosylated proteins like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aminopeptidase-N (APN), cadherin-like proteins, polycalins, sucrase, symbionin and others. These proteins play critical role in life cycle of insect directly or indirectly. Lectins interfere with the activity of these proteins and causes physiological disorders leading to the death of insects. Lectins further transported across the insect gut, accumulated in various body parts (like haemolymph and ovary) and interact with intracellular proteins like symbionin and cytochrome p450. Binding with cytochrome p450 (which involve in ecdysone synthesis) might interfere in the development of insects, which results in growth retardation and pre-mature death.

  13. Hazardous phytotoxic nature of cobalt and zinc oxide nanoparticles assessed using Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodake, Gajanan; Seo, Yeong Deuk; Lee, Dae Sung

    2011-02-15

    The increasing use of nanotechnology requires the clarification of the behavior and the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) as they are released into the environment. This study was to investigate the phytotoxicity of cobalt and zinc oxide NPs using the roots of Allium cepa (onion bulbs) as an indicator organism. The effects of cobalt and zinc oxide NPs on the root elongation, root morphology, and cell morphology of a plant, as well as their adsorption potential, were determined through the hydroponic culturing of A. cepa. A. cepa roots were treated with dispersions of the cobalt and zinc oxide NPs having three different concentrations (5, 10, and 20 μg ml(-1)). With increasing concentrations of the NPs, the elongation of the roots was severely inhibited by both the cobalt and the zinc oxide NPs as compared to that in the control plant (untreated A. cepa roots). Massive adsorption of cobalt oxide NPs into the root system was responsible for the phytotoxicity. Zinc oxide NPs caused damage because of their severe accumulation in both the cellular and the chromosomal modules, thus signifying their highly hazardous phytotoxic nature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIINFLAMASI KUERSETIN KULIT BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepa L. PADA MENCIT PUTIH JANTAN (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulistia Budianti Soemarie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a local reaction of infection or tissue injury and involves more mediators. Utilization of traditional medicine should be used to minimize the side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as the use of onion skin (Allium cepa L.. This study aims to determine the activity of quercetin onion skin and the optimal dose of quercetin as a potential anti-inflammatory on male white mice. This study is an experimental research. Red onion skins extracted by maceration method. Preparation of the test is divided into five groups: control positive (Diclofenac Potassium 6,5mg/kg, control negative (Na-CMC, quercetin of onion skin dose I (50mg/kg, dose II (100mg/kg and dose III (200mg/kg. Adduction of test compounds is given by oral, after 30 minute the right paw of mice induced by karagenin 1 %. Paw volume is analyzed with area under curve (AUC. The results showed that quercetin of onions skin have an anti-inflammatory activity. From the analyzed of AUC for each dose of quercetin showed anti-inflammatory power value for dose I amounted 57.13 %, dose II 59.08% , and dose III 73.75 % and ANOVA statistical test with p-value 0.005 ( < 0.05 , which means there is a significant difference between control positive, dose I , and dose II with dose III, the optimal dose is dose III (200 mg / kg.

  15. Structural characterization and gastroprotective property of a novel glucofructan from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Camila R A; da Silva, Bernadete P; Tinoco, Luzineide W; Parente, José P

    2015-01-30

    A new polysaccharide with an estimated weight-average molar mass of 2.6×10(3) was isolated from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum by hot water extraction, and purified by Sephacryl S-300 HR high-resolution chromatography. It was composed of D-fructose and D-glucose in 10:6 molar ratio, respectively. The structure of the glucofructan was investigated by chemical and spectroscopic methods, including methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS). The results permitted the structure of the glucofructan to be written as α-D-Glcp-(1→1)-β-D-Fruf-(2→1)-{[α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-β-D-Fruf-(2→6)]-β-D-Fruf-(2→1)}4-β-D-Fruf-(2↔1)-α-D-Glcp. Results of the present study indicated that this new glucofructan exhibited significant gastroprotective property, using in vivo experimental models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypolipidemic activity of Allium porrum L. in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Sadeghi, Hojjat; Ghannadi, Alireza; Gharavi, Mahin; Azarpajooh, Sepideh

    2006-01-01

    Allium porrum L. is a herbaceous plant from the Liliaceae family and has been widely used in Persian foods as a flavor component and in Iranian traditional medicine as an anti-atherogenic remedy. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of A. porrum L. bulbs. Rabbits were divided into five groups--control, hypercholesterolemic control, and three treatment groups (hypercholesterolemic diet + 250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg of body weight of extract, respectively)--and were fed for 12 weeks. Blood samples were obtained to analyze plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Body weight increased in all groups throughout the treatment without significant differences among them. Plasma total cholesterol increased with respect to the control in the positive control group at the end of the treatment. Plasma total cholesterol decreased in all groups treated with A. porrum extract in a dose-dependent fashion. Changes in the distribution of cholesterol in HDL or LDL were found, and LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in all of the groups treated with A. porrum extract with respect to the hypercholesterolemic group. Thus, these findings indicate that this plant may be useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and phosphorus application on nuclear ploidy in Allium porrum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusconi, Anna; Lingua, Guido; Trotta, Antonio; Berta, Graziella

    2005-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization can strongly affect the plant cell nucleus, causing displacement from the periphery to the center of the cell, hypertrophy and polyploidization. The hypertrophy response has been shown in a variety of AM plants whilst polyploidization has been reported only in Lycopersicon esculentum, a multiploid species with a small genome. In order to determine whether polyploidization is a general plant response to AM colonization, analyses were performed on Allium porrum, a plant with a large genome, which is much less subject to polyploidization than L. esculentum. The ploidy status of leaves, complete root systems and four zones of the adventitious roots was investigated in relation to phosphorus content, AM colonization and root differentiation in A. porrum plants grown under two different regimes of phosphate nutrition in order to distinguish direct effects of the fungus from those of improved nutrition. Results showed the presence of two nuclear populations (2C and 4C) in all treatments and samples. Linear regression analyses suggested a general negative correlation between phosphorus content and the proportion of 2C nuclei. The percentage of 2C nuclei (and consequently that of 4C nuclei), was also influenced by AM colonization, differentiation and ageing of the root cells, which resulted in earlier occurrence, in time and space, of polyploid nuclei.

  18. Composition and properties of biologically active pectic polysaccharides from leek (Allium porrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratchanova, Maria; Nikolova, Mariana; Pavlova, Elena; Yanakieva, Irina; Kussovski, Veselin

    2010-09-01

    Leek (Allium porrum) is very commonly used vegetable in Bulgaria and is distinctive with high content of bioactive components. Previously we obtained five crude pectic polysaccharides from leek through consecutive extraction. Some of them appeared to be good stimulators of the immune system. Schols and Voragen investigated the composition of modified hairy regions of pectic polysaccharides isolated from leek cell walls. Samuelson et al. identified the polysaccharide structures encountered in hairy regions as bioactive. The aim of this work was to study the isolation, composition and biological activities of pectic polysaccharides from leek. Two pectic polysaccharides from leek were isolated through consecutive water and acid extraction. The water extractable pectin had higher polyuronic content, higher protein content and lower neutral sugar content. It was found that next to galacturonic acid they also contain glucuronic acid in ratio 9:1 for the water- and 3:1 for the acid-extractable polysaccharide. The main neutral sugar was galactose. The water-extractable pectic polysaccharide had higher molecular weight (10(6) Da) and homogeneity. It was shown that the pectic polysaccharides from leek have considerable immunostimulating activities. Leek polysaccharides have relatively high galacturonic and glucuronic acid content and are distinguished with high biological activity. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Partial purification of the acyl-CoA elongase of Allium porrum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessoule, J J; Lessire, R; Cassagne, C

    1989-02-01

    Acyl-CoA elongase has been partially purified from leek (Allium porrum L.) epidermal cells. The microsomal elongase is first solubilized by Triton X-100. The solubilized proteins are then submitted to anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and, finally, to gel filtration on Ultrogel 34 AcA. The purification of the elongase activity is accompanied by the enrichment in three major protein bands of 59, 61, and 65 kDa. The partially purified elongase is highly delipidated (about 10 mol lipid/mol of 60- to 65-kDa protein) and phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine account respectively for 60 and 40% of the remaining phospholipids. The partially purified elongase retains some activities associated with fatty acid biosynthesis. The overall activity is strongly stimulated by the addition of exogenous lipids. In the presence of a mixture of PS, PE, and PC the C18-CoA elongase activity is increased more than sixfold. The Km value of stearoyl-CoA, in the presence of lipid vesicles, was determined to be 1.7 microM.

  20. Metabolite profiling of leek (Allium porrum L) cultivars by (1) H NMR and HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Tuula H; Jukarainen, Niko; Soininen, Pasi; Auriola, Seppo O K; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J

    2014-01-01

    Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) is consumed as a vegetable throughout the world. However, little is known about the metabolites of leek cultivars, especially those with potentially important beneficial properties for human health. We provide new information for the overall metabolite composition of several leek cultivars grown in Europe by using HPLC-MS and (1) H NMR. The use of a novel CTLS/NMR (constrained total-line-shape nuclear magnetic resonance) approach was found to be capable of reliable quantification, even with overlapping metabolite signals in the (1) H NMR of plant metabolites. Additionally, a new application for leek flavonoids was optimised for HPLC-MS. The total concentration of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, kestose/nystose and sucrose) and nine amino acids varied by fourfold in leek juice from different cultivars, while the total concentrations of four organic acids were similar in all cultivars. All the quantified flavonols were kaempferol derivatives or quercetin derivatives and threefold differences in flavonol concentrations were detected between cultivars. In this study, various phytochemical profiles were determined for several leek cultivars by (1) H NMR spectroscopy with CTLS combined with HPLC-MS. The wide variation in bioactive compounds among commercial leek cultivars offers promising opportunities for breeders to raise the levels of important biochemical compounds in leek breeding lines, and also provides some objective measure for quality assurance for the leek industry. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

  2. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

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    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  3. Combination of Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils increased antibacterial activity in leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda A; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Cruz-Valenzuela, M Reynaldo; Nazzaro, Filomena; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils (EOs) are rich in terpenes and sulfur compounds respectively, both with antibacterial activity and different cell targets, supporting the idea that their combination can increase their efficacy. Major constituents of C. citratus were geranial and neral, while A. cepa presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide. Cymbopogon citratus and A. cepa EOs inhibited the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2.21 and 5.13 g L-1 respectively), Salmonella Choleraesuis (3.04 and 1.28 g L-1 ), Listeria monocytogenes (1.33 and 2.56 g L-1 ) and Staphylococcus aureus (0.44 and 5.26 g L-1 ). Application of the EO combination to spinach caused a greater reduction in E. coli (2.34 log colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 ), S. Choleraesuis (2.94 log CFU g-1 ), L. monocytogenes (2.06 log CFU g-1 ) and S. aureus (1.37 log CFU g-1 ) compared with higher doses of individual EOs; a similar effect was observed for romaine lettuce. Individual and combined EOs caused a reduction in flavor acceptability level; however, no significant differences were found among odor acceptability of control vegetables and those treated with the EO combination and C. citratus EO. Leafy vegetables treated with the EO combination showed higher antibacterial protection and odor acceptability compared with individual EO treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Allium cepa extract: A green approach

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    Eman Zakaria Gomaa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An economic and efficient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was performed using onion (Allium cepa extract as reducing and capping agent. UV–vis spectroscopy confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles by observing the typical surface plasmon resonance peak at 420 nm. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that AgNPs were spherical in shape with a size range of 10–23 nm. AgNPs were further demonstrated by the characteristic peaks observed in the XRD image. The possible functional groups of AgNPs were identified by FTIR analysis. AgNPs exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against all the microbial strains tested. Antioxidant activity of AgNPs revealed that they can be used as potential radical scavenger against deleterious damages caused by the free radicals. Additionally, AgNPs had antitumor activities against human breast (MCF-7, hepatocellular (HepG-2 and colon (HCT-116 carcinoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 1.6, 2.3 and 2.2 μg/ml, respectively. The overall results indicate promising baseline information for the potential uses of AgNPs in the treatment of infectious diseases and tumors.

  5. The effectiveness evaluation of indigenous microorganism (IMO preparations in the growth of onion (Allium cepa L.

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    Ramón Liriano González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was done at the Credit and Services Cooperative (CCS “Juan de Mata Reyes”, in Pedro Betancourt municipality, Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of indigenous microorganisms (IMO preparations on the growth of onion (Allium cepa L., variety Texas Early Grano. Five treatments were studied (control, a 2 mL.m2 treatment before transplantion, a 4 mL.m2 treatment before transplantation, and both 2 and 4 mL.m2 treatments 20 days after transplantion. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design. The professional statistical pack STATISTICA, version 6.0 for WINDOWS was used for data processing. The results were statistically processed using simple analysis of variance and the Duncan´s multiple comparison Test for media with a level of significance of pd”0.05. The native microorganisms in the preparations were characterized. 60 days after transplantation, the parameters height of plant, number of leaves and diameter of the false stem were evaluated; and at harvest time, the total yield (t.ha-1 and the number of bulbs in diameter category were determined. The best results concerning the height of the plant (cm, diameter of false stem (mm and total yield (t.ha-1.were obtained with the preparation of 2 mL.m2 at the moment of transplantion, and 20 days after the application.

  6. Obtaining botany seed onion (Allium cepa L. under natural conditions in Topes de Collantes, Cuba

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    Elian Bravo Alé

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in Topes de Collantes with the objective of evaluating two me -thods of “vernalization” of Allium cepa L. var., Caribe 71 in natural conditions. Two groups of bulblets (from the previous harvest were selected and subjected to methods different vernalization, the conventional (storage in cold storage at temperatures between 2 and 3 0C, for 100 days and natural (storage during 125 days within a rustic house with walls of palm board and a thatched roof, at room temperature. The bulblets from both treatments were planted randomly in different field plots. During the development of the plantation were eva-luated, agronomic variables related to seed production and the yield of onion bulbs. The conventional method was tatistically superior to natural, on the seed production; although the natural method was superior in the commercial yield of the onion bulbs. It is concluded that can be used method of natural vernalization in the climatic conditions of Topes de Collantes , because the seeds production are lower than the conventional ver-nalization, but higher yields of commercial onion bulbs are obtained, and is an economical method accessible to the producers

  7. Effect of Raw Crushed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Prema Ram; Jani, Rameshchandra D; Sharma, Megh Shyam

    2017-09-28

    Metabolic syndrome consists of a group of risk factors characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory conditions. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to reduce serum lipid levels in animal model; however, no precise studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of raw crushed garlic on components of metabolic syndrome. A total of 40 metabolic syndrome patients were randomly selected from the diabetic center of SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. They underwent treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight raw crushed garlic 2 times a day with standard diet for 4 weeks; their anthropometric and serum biochemical variables were measured at both the beginning and the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 20, and Student's paired "t" test was used to compare variables before and after treatment with garlic preparation. Raw crushed garlic significantly reduced components of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (p .05) of patients with metabolic syndrome after consumption of raw crushed garlic for 4 weeks. Raw crushed garlic has beneficial effects on components of metabolic syndrome; therefore, it can be used as an accompanying remedy for prevention and treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Relation of allium vegetables intake with head and neck cancers: evidence from the INHANCE consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Carlotta; Turati, Federica; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Guercio, Valentina; Tavani, Alessandra; Serraino, Diego; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Lissowska, Jola; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Shangina, Oxana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Vaughan, Thomas L; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Levi, Fabio; Hayes, Richard B; Purdue, Mark P; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Pelucchi, Claudio; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    Only a few studies analyzed the role of allium vegetables with reference to head and neck cancers (HNC), with mixed results. We investigated the potential favorable role of garlic and onion within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from eight case-control studies, including 4590 cases and 7082 controls. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between garlic and onion intakes and HNC risk. Compared with no or low garlic use, the ORs of HNC were 0.95 (95% CI 0.71-1.27) for intermediate and 0.74 (95% CI 0.55-0.99) for high garlic use (p for trend = 0.02). The ORs of HNC for increasing categories of onion intake were 0.91 (95% CI 0.68-1.21) for >1 to ≤3 portions per week, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.60-1.13) for >3 portions per week (p for trend = 0.02), as compared to laryngeal cancer risk (OR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.54-0.88), but no significant association for other subsites. The results of this pooled-analysis support a possible moderate inverse association between garlic and onion intake and HNC risk. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Allium sativum L.: the anti-immature leech (Limnatis nilotica) activity compared to Niclosomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Javad; Mohsenzadegan, Ava; Sadeghian, Sirous; Ahangaran, Majid Gholami

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Allium sativum L. on Limnatis nilotica compared with Niclosomide. In this experimental study in September 2010, a number of leeches (70 in total) from the southern area of Ilam province were prepared, and the effects of methanolic extract of A. sativum L. with Niclosomide as the control drug were compared and distilled water was evaluated as the placebo group which investigated L. nilotica using anti-leech assay. The average time of paralysis and death of L. nilotica for Niclosomide (1,250 mg/kg) and the methanol extract of A. sativum L. (600 μg/ml) were 6.22 ± 2.94 and 68.44 ± 28.39 min, respectively. Distilled water and garlic tablets at a dose of 400 mg were determined as the inert group. In this research, the attraction time of the leeches' death among different treatments is significant. In this study, it was determined that Niclosomide, with an intensity of 4+, and methanolic extracts of A. sativum L., with an intensity of 3+, have a good anti-leech effect and can be shown to be effective in cases of leech biting, while distilled water was negative.

  10. Garlic (Allium sativum) feeding impairs Sertoli cell junctional proteins in male Wistar rat testis: microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, I; Nahdi, A; Atig, F; El May, A; El May, M V

    2016-12-01

    Sertoli cell junctions, such as adhesion junction (AJ), gap junction (GJ) and tight junction (TJ), are important for maintaining spermatogenesis. In previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effect of crude garlic (Allium sativum, As) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of this work was to complete our investigation on the impact of this plant, especially on Sertoli cell junctional proteins (SCJPs). During 1 month, 24 male rats were divided into groups: group control (0% of As) and treated groups fed 5%, 10% and 15% of As. Light and electron microscopy observations were performed to localise junctional proteins: connexin-43, Zona Occluding-1 and N-cadherin (immunohistochemistry) and to describe junctions. We showed that the specific cells involved in the localisation of the SCJP were similar in both control and treated groups, but with different immunoreactivity intensity between them. The electron microscopy observation focused on TJs between Sertoli cells, constituting the blood-testis barrier, showed ultrastructural changes such as fragmentation of TJs between adjacent Sertoli cell membranes and dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum saccules giving an aspect of scale to these junctions. We concluded that crude garlic consumption during 1 month induces perturbations on Sertoli cell junctions. These alterations can explain apoptosis in testicular germ cells previously showed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md. Sazzadul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508

  12. The relaxant effect induced by Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract on rat isolated trachea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehri, Badreddine; Ahmed, Mueen K.K.; Aiache, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Garlic plays an important role in complementary and alternative medicine. Most people believe in and use herbal products even when they have not been as thoroughly researched as garlic. Garlic is also known for its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: The relaxant effect of Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract (ASBAE) containing 0.06%-0.10% of allicin was studied on isolated smooth muscle of trachea of rats precontracted using acetylcholine (10−5 M). Results: It was found that ASBAE induced a dose-dependent relaxation with recorded EC 50 values of 71.87 ± 5.90 µg/mL (n = 7). Pretreatments with mepyramine (10−7 M), methysergide (10−7 M), caffeine (10−6 M), theophylline (10−6 M), nifedipine (10−6 M), and dipyridamole (10−6 M) did not alter ASBAE concentration-response curves. In turn, concentration-response curves to ASBAE were significantly shifted toward right in the presence of aspirin (3.10−3 M), indomethacin (10−6 M), prazosin (10−6 M), and propranolol (10−7 M). Conclusion: It is suggested that the recorded relaxation results are due to the release of prostaglandins E 1 and E 2 consecutively to α- and β-adrenoreceptor stimulation. PMID:21472073

  13. Monitoring the efficacy of mutated Allium sativum leaf lectin in transgenic rice against Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Sen, Senjuti; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Das, Sampa

    2016-03-01

    Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most devastating diseases of rice. It is associated with significant reduction in rice productivity worldwide. A mutant variant of mannose binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL) was previously reported to exhibit strong antifungal activity against R. solani. In this study, the mASAL gene has been evaluated for its in planta antifungal activity in rice plants. mASAL was cloned into pCAMBIA1301 binary vector under the control of CaMV35S promoter. It was expressed in an elite indica rice cv. IR64 by employing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Molecular analyses of transgenic plants confirmed the presence and stable integration of mASAL gene. Immunohistofluorescence analysis of various tissue sections of plant parts clearly indicated the constitutive expression of mASAL. The segregation pattern of mASAL transgene was observed in T1 progenies in a 3:1 Mendelian ratio. The expression of mASAL was confirmed in T0 and T1 plants through western blot analysis followed by ELISA. In planta bioassay of transgenic lines against R. solani exhibited an average of 55 % reduction in sheath blight percentage disease index (PDI). The present study opens up the possibility of engineering rice plants with the antifungal gene mASAL, conferring resistance to sheath blight.

  14. Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriga, Balaji; Mopuri, Ramgopal; MuraliKrishna, T

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum (A. sativum). Dried bulbs of A. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of 81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of 1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was 100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2'-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity (80%-90% of the standard). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy of A. sativum against S. litura, a polyphagous insect. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological Properties and Characterization of ASL50 Protein from Aged Allium sativum Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Jitendra, Kumar; Singh, Kusum; Kapoor, Vaishali; Sinha, Mou; Xess, Immaculata; Das, Satya N; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P; Dey, Sharmistha

    2015-08-01

    Allium sativum is well known for its medicinal properties. The A. sativum lectin 50 (ASL50, 50 kDa) was isolated from aged A. sativum bulbs and purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 column. Agar well diffusion assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ASL50 against Candida species and bacteria then minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The lipid A binding to ASL50 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology with varying concentrations. Electron microscopic studies were done to see the mode of action of ASL50 on microbes. It exerted antimicrobial activity against clinical Candida isolates with a MIC of 10-40 μg/ml and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a MIC of 10-80 μg/ml. The electron microscopic study illustrates that it disrupts the cell membrane of the bacteria and cell wall of fungi. It exhibited antiproliferative activity on oral carcinoma KB cells with an IC50 of 36 μg/ml after treatment for 48 h and induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by inducing 2.5-fold higher caspase enzyme activity than untreated cells. However, it has no cytotoxic effects towards HEK 293 cells as well as human erythrocytes even at higher concentration of ASL50. Biological properties of ASL50 may have its therapeutic significance in aiding infection and cancer treatments.

  16. Amelioration of lead-induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a blue–gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is spread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50) induced a significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, and lead nitrate. In parallel, hepatic protein levels in lead-exposed mice were significantly depleted. Lead nitrate exposure also produced detrimental effects on the redox status of the liver indicated by a significant decline in the levels of liver antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione. After exposure to lead nitrate (50 mg/kg body weight for 10 days), the animals received aqueous garlic extract (250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight) and ethanolic garlic extract (100 mg/kg body weight and 250 mg/kg body weight), and partially restored the deranged parameters significantly. Histological examination of the liver also revealed pathophysiological changes in lead nitrate-exposed group and treatment with garlic improved liver histology. Our data suggest that garlic is a phytoantioxidant that can counteract the deleterious effects of lead nitrate. PMID:21483544

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles by Allium sativum extract and their assessment as SERS substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Cristina; Leopold, Loredana Florina; Rugină, Olivia Dumitriţa; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Leopold, Nicolae; Tofană, Maria; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    A green synthesis was used for preparing stable colloidal gold nanoparticles by using Allium sativum aqueous extract both as reducing and capping agent. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, their potential to be used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was investigated. The obtained gold nanoparticles have spherical shape with mean diameters of 9-15 nm (depending on the amount of reducing agent used under boiling conditions) and are stable up to several months. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the nanoparticles are capped by protein molecules from the extract. The protein shell offers a protective coating, relatively impervious to external molecules, thus, rendering the nanoparticles stable and quite inert. These nanoparticles have the potential to be used as SERS substrates, both in solution and inside human fetal lung fibroblast HFL-1 living cells. We were able to demonstrate both the internalization of the nanoparticles inside HFL-1 cells and their ability to preserve the SERS signal after cellular internalization.

  18. Inhibitory effects of Enteromorpha linza polysaccharide on micronucleus of Allium sativum root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Jingfen; Liu, Chongbin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the antimutagenic function of the polysaccharide from Enteromorpha linza with the micronucleus test of Allium sativum root cells induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet was studied. The concentration-effect relation of the two inducers was firstly evaluated. The results showed that an increase of genotoxicity damage was demonstrated and micronuclei frequency induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet displayed dose dependent increases. All the doses of polysaccharide did affect the micronuclei frequency formation compared with the negative control. And also, the significant increase in inhibition rate of micronuclei frequency was observed with the increase of the dose of polysaccharide. It was showed maximum inhibition of micronuclei frequency cells (71.74% and 66.70%) at a concentration of 200g/mL in three experiments. The low molecular weight polysaccharide showed higher inhibition rate than raw polysaccharide at the higher concentration (50g/mL) in the absence of sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet. It was confirmed to be a good mutant inhibitor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel natural compound from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with therapeutic effects against experimental polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Kyun; Park, Yoo Jung; Ko, Min Jung; Wang, Ziyu; Lee, Ha Young; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-28

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening, infectious disease. In this study, we demonstrate that sucrose methyl 3-formyl-4-methylpentanoate (SMFM), a novel natural compound isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.), markedly enhances survival rates by inhibiting lung inflammation in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental polymicrobial sepsis model. SMFM strongly reduced bacterial colony units from peritoneal fluid in CLP mice by stimulating the generation of reactive oxygen species. Lymphocyte apoptosis in spleens from CLP mice was also markedly decreased by SMFM administration. SMFM also significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, in CLP mice. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-6 were also strongly inhibited by SMFM in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that SMFM has therapeutic effects against polymicrobial sepsis that are mediated by enhanced microbial killing and blockage of cytokine storm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Allium sativum produces terpenes with fungistatic properties in response to infection with Sclerotium cepivorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, Mariela; Bottini, Rubén; Burba, José Luis; Piccoli, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated terpene biosynthesis in different tissues (root, protobulb, leaf sheath and blade) of in vitro-grown garlic plants either infected or not (control) with Sclerotium cepivorum, the causative agent of Allium White Rot disease. The terpenes identified by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) in infected plants were nerolidol, phytol, squalene, α-pinene, terpinolene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and γ-terpinene, whose levels significantly increased when exposed to the fungus. Consistent with this, an increase in terpene synthase (TPS) activity was measured in infected plants. Among the terpenes identified, nerolidol, α-pinene and terpinolene were the most abundant with antifungal activity against S. cepivorum being assessed in vitro by mycelium growth inhibition. Nerolidol and terpinolene significantly reduced sclerotia production, while α-pinene stimulated it in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to fungal growth inhibition, electron microscopy observations established morphological alterations in the hyphae exposed to terpinolene and nerolidol. Differences in hyphal EtBr uptake suggested that one of the antifungal mechanisms of nerolidol and terpinolene might be disruption of fungal membrane integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacteriological evaluation of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for pulpotomy of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the pulp tissue of the pulpotomized teeth. Twenty children were selected for this study. All children had a pair of non-vital primary molars. A sterile paper point was dipped in the root canals prior to the mortal pulpotomy. These paper points were collected in transfer media and immediately transported to the microbiological lab to be investigated microbiologically (for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Then the procedure of mortal pulpotomy was performed. After 2 weeks, the cotton pellets were removed and sterile paper points were dipped in the root canals for microbiological examination. Then comparison between the count of bacteria before and after treatment was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. After application of both medicaments, there was a marked decrease in S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts. The difference between the mean of log values of the count before and after the application was highly significant for both medicaments (P sativum oil was used. A. sativum oil had more powerful antimicrobial effects than formocresol on the bacteria of the infected root canals.

  2. Modulating effect of Allium cepa on kidney apoptosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghub gharadaghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of warm blooded animals as well as humans. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effects of allium cepa on renal failur in male rats which experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, RH strain. Methods: Wistar male rat (n=40 were allocated into four groups, group one that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip (n=10, group two that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip, plus fresh onion juice by gavages method (n=10, group three received just fresh onion juice by gavages method (n=10 and control group (n=10 that received nothing. Animals were kept in standard condition. In 30 day after inducing Toxoplasma infection, 5cc blood was collected for serum protein and TAC levels. Kidney tissues of Rat in whole groups were removed and prepared for apopetosis analysis. Results: Serum protein and kidneys weights were significantly decreased in groups that were infected with T. gondii, in comparison to control and onions groups. Kidneys Apopetosis in toxoplasma group significantly increased in comparison to control group (P<0.05.level of TAC was significantly increased in groups that received onio juice (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that T. gondii have significantly effect on serum protein and TAC, apopetosis and fresh onion juice returned and treated this harmful effect, so it is suggested that eating of onion is useful in toxoplasma infection.

  3. Phospholipase D from Allium sativum bulbs: A highly active and thermal stable enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Hafeeza; Talat, Sariya; Younus, Hina

    2008-05-01

    This is the first report on the identification and partial characterization of phospholipase D (EC 3.1.4.4) from Allium sativum (garlic) bulbs (PLD(GB)). The enzyme shares the phenomenon of interfacial activation with other lipolytic enzymes, i.e. the hydrolytic rate increases when the substrate changes to a more aggregated state. The enzyme activity is highly temperature tolerant and the temperature optimum was measured to be 70 degrees C. PLD(GB) unlike many plant PLDs exhibited high thermal stability. It was activated further after exposure to high temperatures, i.e. 80 degrees C, indicating that the enzyme refolds better upon cooling back to room temperature after short exposure to thermal stress. The activity of PLD(GB) is optimum in 70mM calcium ion concentration and the enzyme is activated further in the presence of phosphatidyl-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). PLD(GB) exhibited both hydrolytic and transphosphatidylation activities, both of which appear to be higher than those of PLD from cabbage leaves (PLD(CL)).

  4. Cytotoxic effects of five commonly abused skin toning (bleaching) creams on Allium cepa root tip mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udengwu, O S; Chukwujekwu, J C

    2008-09-15

    The Allium test was used to study the cytotoxic effects of five commonly abused skin toning creams--Ikb, Tura, Top gel, Dorot and Mililo. These creams are commonly used by some black skinned people (especially the females) as skin lightening (bleaching) agents. The results showed that all the five bleaching creams were mito-depressive in action. They exhibited both chromatoclassic and mitoclassic effects. Their depressive effects were found to increase with duration of treatment. The induced abnormalities included chromosome contraction, spindle breakages, c-metaphase, star anaphase, chromosome stickiness and sticky bridges, precocious chromosome movement as well as endomitosis. It is suggested that since all eukaryotic cells are basically the same, these observed abnormalities could be similar to the effects these chemicals have on human skin when they are applied. Some of these are known to cause alteration in melanin formation as well as the biosynthesis of the enzyme tyrosinase. Furthermore, since certain points on the chromosomes called fragile sites have been implicated in oncogenesis, the observed abnormalities may be part of (or include) the switching on mechanisms of such genes, which could be responsible for the transformation of normal skin cells to malignant cells in those who abuse these creams.

  5. Garlic (Allium sativum: diet based therapy of 21st century–a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional and nutraceutical foods provide an opportunity to improve one’s health by reducing health care costs and to support economic development in rural communities. For this reason, various phyto-based functional foods are becoming popular worldwide owing to number of evidences for their safer therapeutic applications. Garlic (Allium sativum L., is an essential vegetable that has been widely utilized as seasoning, flavoring, culinary and in herbal remedies. The consumption of traditional plants especially garlic has progressively increased worldwide because of their great effectiveness, fewer side effects and relatively low cost. Garlic is well known to contain an array of phytochemicals. These bioactive molecules are playing pivotal role in maintaining human health and having potential to reduce various ailments. It has distinct nutritional profile with special reference to its various bioactive components that can be used in different diet based therapies to cure various life-style related disorders. The present review is an attempt to explore the functional/nutraceutical role of garlic against various threats including dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, cardiovascular disorders, antioxidant capacity and carcinogenic perspectives.

  6. Evaluation of androgenic activity of allium cepa on spermatogenesis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, A; Fathiazad, F; Nouri, M; Khaki, A A; Khamenehi, H J; Hamadeh, M

    2009-02-01

    Allium cepa (onion) has a beneficial effect on disease treatment worldwide and has been used since ancient times as a medicinal and food source. Recently several reports have shown that onion has high antioxidant activity. As antioxidants have an essential effect on sperm health parameters, we investigated the effect of the fresh juice of onion bulbs on the spermatogenesis cycle in rats. Wistar male rats (n = 30) were allocated into 3 groups, control (n = 10) and two test groups (each of 10). The animals in the test groups were subdivided into groups of 2 that received fresh onion juice equivalent to 0.5 and 1 g/rat/ /day of fresh onion. The fresh onion juice was administered by gavage for 20 consecutive days. The animals were kept in standard conditions. On the twentieth day, the testes of rats in all groups were removed and sperm was collected from the epididymis and was prepared for analysis. Serum total testosterone significantly increased in all the test groups (p onion juice (p onion juice (p onion juice significantly affected the sperm number, percentage of viability, and motility; it seems that using 4 g/kg of freshly prepared onion juice is effective in sperm health parameters.

  7. Toxicity of silver ions and differently coated silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko, Petra; Milošić, Anita; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Tolić, Sonja; Peharec Štefanić, Petra; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Tkalec, Mirta; Balen, Biljana

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the dominating nanomaterial in consumer products due to their well-known antibacterial and antifungal properties. To enhance their properties, different surface coatings may be used, which affect physico-chemical properties of AgNPs. Due to their wide application, there has been concern about possible environmental and health consequences. Since plants play a significant role in accumulation and biodistribution of many environmentally released substances, they are also very likely to be influenced by AgNPs. In this study we investigated the toxicity of AgNO3 and three types of laboratory-synthesized AgNPs with different surface coatings [citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)] on Allium cepa roots. Ionic form of Ag was confirmed to be more toxic than any of the AgNPs applied. All tested AgNPs caused oxidative stress and exhibited toxicity only when applied in higher concentrations. The highest toxicity was recorded for AgNPs-CTAB, which resulted with increased Ag uptake in the roots, consequently leading to strong reduction of the root growth and oxidative damage. The weakest impact was found for AgNPs-citrate, much bigger, negatively charged NPs, which also aggregated to larger particles. Therefore, we can conclude that the toxicity of AgNPs is directly correlated with their size, overall surface charge and/or surface coating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine.

  9. Effect of alcoholic extract of garlic (Allium sativum on some food born pathogenic bacteria

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    M. Ghiami Rad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to consumers' desire to consume foods without preservatives or containing a natural preservative, the use of plant extracts as a food preservative instead of chemicals has increased. This study was conducted to determine the antibacterial effect of different concentration of alcoholic extract of garlic (Allium sativum on standard strains of Salmonella enteritidis, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia entrocolitica. For this purpose, the agar well diffusion method was used. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were measured with microtiter plate method using the rezazurin reagent. The results showed that garlic alcoholic extract had an inhibitory effect on any four tested bacteria. The highest inhibitory effect was observed on B. subtilis;meanwhile,the slightest effect was found on S. enteritidis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.39 mg/ml was observed for B. subtilis, however the highest amount was estimated at 12.5 mg/ml for S. enteritidis. According to the results of recent research it was concluded that alcoholic extract of garlic had appropriate antibacterial impact against bacteria and therefore could be used as a natural preservative in various foods.

  10. Assessment of genotoxicity of some common food preservatives using Allium cepa L. as a test plant

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    Himadri Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food preservatives play important role in today's food supplies that are used to prolong the self-life of products by protecting them from deterioration caused by micro-organisms. In this study, investigations were carried out to study the impacts of food preservatives like butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole, sorbic acid, propyl gallate and sodium nitrate. The effects of these preservatives at concentration of 1000 ppm, 1500 ppm, 2000 ppm, 2500 ppm for 4 h, 8 h and 16 h of exposure period were studied on the root tips of Allium cepa. Cytological studies revealed statistically significant (p < 0.05 inhibition in mitotic index with an increase in concentration of the food preservatives when compared with the control. Most frequent cytological abnormalities observed were bridges, multipolarity, C-mitosis, stickiness and cell death. The total percentages of abnormalities were also increased with increasing concentration and time duration. The abnormalities (% in root system caused by used preservatives were recorded as butylated hydroxytoluene < butylated hydroxyanisole < sodium nitrate < sorbic acid < propyl gallate.

  11. PENGARUH AIR LIMBAH INDUSTRI SUSU TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL TANAM TANAMAN BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepa L.

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    Arif Yachya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During this time the handling of waste water in dairy industry (ALIS in Indonesia is done by dumping into the river. This activity causes damage to rice fields which are located around the river flow. The yield losses due to ALIS is up to 50%. The friendly method is needed for handling ALIS. Since ALIS is known to contain beneficial macro nutrients for plants growing so potents as an organic fertilizer. This study aimed to optimize the ALIS concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% v / v for the growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L. var. Buto Ijo. The results showed, treatment ALIS 60% (v / v increasedheight ofonion leaves until 24.45 cm. Whereas ALIS treatment on various concentrations had no effect on the number of onion shoots. The yields showed, the highest of fresh weight of biomass, number of bulbs, fresh weight and dry weight of bulbs per clump approximatly 13.03 g g; 12,33 bulbs, 7.79 g and 5.38 g was achieved by treatment of ALIS 80% (v/v. Based on the result ofgrowth and crop yields, ALIS 80% (v/v was selected as the optimum concentration for onion crop. The ALIS was given100 mL and three times during the growing season.

  12. Infraspecific differentiation of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by isozyme and RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaß, H I; Klaas, M

    1995-07-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a sterile species of considerable variability with respect to morphological and physiological features. The crop presumably originated in West to Middle Asia from its progenitor A. longicuspis Regel and was transported from there to the Mediterranean and other areas of cultivation. In order to clarify older classification schemes, often based on small or biased collections, we used isozyme and RAPD markers to analyze and structure a collection of 300 accessions, many of which were gathered in Middle Asia close to the assumed center of origin. All of the accessions were first investigated with isozymes, and 48 were selected for a RAPD analysis. The resulting molecular markers were used to construct neighbor-joining dendrograms to group the accessions and to indicate the genetic distances between them. Based on the dendrograms and in conjunction with some morphological features, we propose an infraspecific classification of garlic with four major groups. In agreement with the results of other workers, A. longicuspis lies within the range of the species A. sativum. Numerous forms with varying degrees of domestication are part of our longicuspis group, from which presumably the more derived cultivar groups originated. The origin and spreading of the crop are discussed with respect to the geographical distribution and the genetic distances of the accessions.

  13. Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos mediated genotoxic and cytotoxic assessment on root meristem cells of Allium cepa

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    Sibhghatulla Shaikh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are direct recipients of agro – toxics and therefore important materials for assessing environmental chemicals for genotoxicity. The meristematic mitotic cell of Allium cepa is an efficient cytogenetic material for chromosome aberration assay on environmental pollutants. Onion root tips were grown on moistened filter paper in petri dish at room temperature. Germinated root tips were then exposed to three concentrations of each pesticide for 24 h. About 1 – 2 mm length of root tip was cut, fixed in cornoy’s fixative, hydrolyzed in warm 1 N HCL, stained with acetocarmine and squashed on glass slide. About 3000 cells were scored and classified into interphase and normal or aberrant division stage. Cytotoxicity was determined by comparing the mitotic index (MI of treated cells with that of the negative control. The MI of cells treated with Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos at one or more concentration was half or less than that of control are said to be cytotoxic. Genotoxicity was measured by comparing the number of cells/1000 in aberrant division stages at each dose with the negative control using Mann – Whitney U test. Both Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos are genotoxic at higher concentrations i.e. 0.001%, 0.002% and 0.028%, 0.056% inducing chromosome fragment, chromosome lagging and bridges, stick chromosome and multipolar anaphase.

  14. Building robust conservation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Joppa, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    Systematic conservation planning optimizes trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human activities by accounting for socioeconomic costs while aiming to achieve prescribed conservation objectives. However, the most cost-efficient conservation plan can be very dissimilar to any other plan achieving the set of conservation objectives. This is problematic under conditions of implementation uncertainty (e.g., if all or part of the plan becomes unattainable). We determined through simulations of parallel implementation of conservation plans and habitat loss the conditions under which optimal plans have limited chances of implementation and where implementation attempts would fail to meet objectives. We then devised a new, flexible method for identifying conservation priorities and scheduling conservation actions. This method entails generating a number of alternative plans, calculating the similarity in site composition among all plans, and selecting the plan with the highest density of neighboring plans in similarity space. We compared our method with the classic method that maximizes cost efficiency with synthetic and real data sets. When implementation was uncertain--a common reality--our method provided higher likelihood of achieving conservation targets. We found that χ, a measure of the shortfall in objectives achieved by a conservation plan if the plan could not be implemented entirely, was the main factor determining the relative performance of a flexibility enhanced approach to conservation prioritization. Our findings should help planning authorities prioritize conservation efforts in the face of uncertainty about future condition and availability of sites. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Conservation genetics in transition to conservation genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouborg, N. Joop; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    in conservation biology. This has allowed assessment of the impact of genetic drift on genetic variation, of the level of inbreeding within populations, and of the amount of gene flow between or within populations. Recent developments in genomic techniques, including next generation sequencing, whole genome scans...... and gene-expression pattern analysis, have made it possible to step up from a limited number of neutral markers to genome-wide estimates of functional genetic variation. Here, we focus on how the transition of conservation genetics to conservation genomics leads to insights into the dynamics of selectively...

  16. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

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    R Vahdani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative control group received 1% ethylene glycol in water during the study. The low dose and high dose preventive groups received 750 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg of Allium Jesdianum with 1% ethylene glycol every day. The 24-hour urine samples of rats were collected on days 1, 15 and 30 of the study. Then, under anesthesia, blood samples were taken directly from the heart. All rats were then killed and pathology of kidneys was checked for crystals of calcium oxalates in renal tubules. Data analysis was done by the SPSS software using One-way ANOVA. Results: The number of calcium oxalate crystals in the negative control group (18.7 ±26.1, the low dose preventive group (5.3±8.2 and high dose preventive group (80.6±82.8 in comparison to the healthy control group were increased and this difference in the high dose preventive group and healthy control group was significant (p <0.05 . Urinary oxalate in the 30th day was more in both preventive groups and negative control group in comparison to healthy control group and this diference was statistically significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that Allium Jesdianum doesn't have a preventive effect on the formation of renal stones, and it also increases calcium oxalate crystals in kidney of male wistar rats that need more studies.

  17. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  18. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect of quercetin 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from dried skin of red onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Wijaya Kusuma, Irawan; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-02-01

    In an effort to find a new whitening agent, we focused our attention on Allium cepa (red onion). Based on biologically guided fractionation using mushroom tyrosinase, quercetin 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside was isolated from the dried skin of A. cepa. Quercetin 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity using L-tyrosine or L-DOPA as a substrate, with IC(50) values of 4.3 and 52.7 µM, respectively. Based on the results obtained, the dried skin of red onion possesses ingredients with potential for skin-whitening cosmetics with anti-tyrosinase activity.

  19. A new steroidal saponin with antiinflammatory and antiulcerogenic properties from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adão, Camila Rodrigues; da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2011-12-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum var. porrumL. On the basis of chemical evidence, comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison of known compounds, its structure was established as (3β,5α,6β,25R)-6-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-spirostan-3-yl O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-galactopyranoside. Results of the present study indicated that the steroidal saponin showed haemolytic effects in the in vitro assays and demonstrated antiinflammatory activity and gastroprotective property using in vivo models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Powdery mildew of Allium species caused by Oidiopsis taurica in Brazil Oídio em espécies do gênero Allium, causado por Oidiopsis taurica, no Brasil

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    Ailton Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (Syn. Oidiopsis sicula Scalia was identified as the causal agent of a powdery mildew disease occurring on distinct Allium species in Brazil. This disease was initially observed in plastic house and field-grown garlic (Allium sativum and leek (A. porrum accessions in Brasília (Federal District and in field-grown and greenhouse onion (A. cepa cultivars in Belém do São Francisco (Pernambuco State and Brasília, respectively. Typical symptoms consisted of chlorotic areas on the leaf surface corresponding to a fungal colony. These lesions turned to a brownish color with the progress of the disease. Fungi morphology was similar to that described for O. taurica. Endophytic mycelium emerging through estomata, light pale conidia were dimorphic (lanceolate primary conidia and somewhat cylindrical secondary conidia, fibrosin bodies were absent, conidia formed predominantly single (not in chains, and appressoria were non-lobed. Its sexual stage, Leveillula taurica (Lev. Arnaud, was not observed. Inoculations were performed with the O. taurica isolates from distinct Allium hosts. These isolates were also pathogenic to sweet pepper and tomato, indicating an apparent absence of host specialization. One bunching onion (A. fistulosum accessions was not infected by O. taurica suggesting that this species might carry useful resistance alleles to this pathogen. This is the first formal report of a powdery mildew disease on species of the genus Allium in Brazil. This disease might become important on these vegetable crops especially in hot and dry areas such as those in the Central and Northeast regions of Brazil.O fungo Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (= Oidiopsis sicula Scalia foi identificado como sendo o agente causal de uma nova doença do tipo oídio em alho (Allium sativum, alho porró (A. porrum e cebola (A. cepa no Brasil. Esta doença foi observada tanto em condições de casa de vegetação quanto a campo em Brasília e Pernambuco. O

  1. Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, Antimutagenic Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Allium orientale BOISS.

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    Ozgur Ceylan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first study to investigate the antibiofilm, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and phenolic compounds of Allium orientale. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of A. orientale was determined by a broth microdilution method. Antibiofilm activity was evaluated by microplate biofilm assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using three complementary assays; namely, DPPH scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid, and total phenolic compounds assays. Phenolic compounds were evaluated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenic effect of extracts was analyzed by the Ames test. In RP-HPLC analysis, (+-catechin, apigenin and caffeic acid were identified as major phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of A. orientale. The aerial parts extract possessed the highest total phenolic content (120.979 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, which were in good correlation with its significant DPPH (IC50 42.18 ± 1.68 mg/mL and lipid peroxidation (89.98 ± 0.69% at 10 mg/mL concentration capacities. A. orientale exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with MICs ranging from 3.125 to 25 mg/mL. Escherichia coli biofilm formation was inhibited maximum by the aerial parts extract to an extent of 68.51%. The strongest antimutagenic activity was observed at 2.5 mg/plate concentration of aerial parts extract against Salmonella typhimurium TA98.These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of A.orientale could become useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant, antibiofilm and antimutagenic agent.

  2. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  3. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic (Liliaceae against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari

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    Felix Nchu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (DCM extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98 with increasing concentration (40.03% – 86.96% yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks and 87.5% (female ticks in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  4. Effect of Terminalia chebula and Allium sativum on in vivo methane emission by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, A K; Kamra, D N; Bhar, R; Kumar, R; Agarwal, N

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate some plant parts (already tested for their antimethanogenic activity in in vitro gas production test in the authors' laboratory) as feed additive to combat methane emission from sheep. Sixteen male sheep with average body weight of 29.96±1.69 kg (22 months of age) were divided into four groups in a randomized block design. The animals were fed on a diet containing forage to concentrate ratio of 1:1. The concentrate fraction composed (in parts) of maize grain, 32; wheat bran, 45; deoiled soybean meal, 20; mineral mixture, 2 and common salt, 1. The four treatments were control (without additive), seed pulp of Terminalia chebula (Harad), bulb of Allium sativum (Garlic) and a mixture (Mix) of the latter two in equal proportions at the rate of 1% of dry matter (DM) intake. There was no effect on DM intake due to the inclusion of these feed additives. The digestibilities of DM and organic matter tended to be higher (pMethane emission (L/kg digested DM intake) as estimated by open circuit respiration chamber and methane energy loss as per cent of digestible energy intake tended to be lower in T. chebula (p=0.09) and Mix (p=0.08) groups compared with control. The data indicated that T. chebula showed antimethanogenic activity, whereas both T. chebula and A. sativum improved nutrient digestibility. Therefore, these two plants appear to be suitable candidates for use as feed additive to mitigate methane emission and to improve nutrient utilization by sheep. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Vesicle formation in the membrane of onion cells (Allium cepa) during rapid osmotic dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, Akym; Moundanga, Sylvie; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Optimization of osmotic dehydration in different plant cells has been investigated through the variation of parameters such as the nature of the sugar used, the concentration of osmotic solutions and the processing time. In micro-organisms such as the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the exposure of a cell to a slow increase in osmotic pressure preserves cell viability after rehydration, while sudden dehydration involves a lower rate of cell viability, which could be due to membrane vesiculation. The aim of this work is to study cytoplasmic vesicle formation in onion epidermal cells (Allium cepa) as a function of the kinetics of osmotic pressure variation in the external medium. Onion epidermal cells were submitted either to an osmotic shock or to a progressive osmotic shift from an osmotic pressure of 2 to 24 MPa to induce plasmolysis. After 30 min in the treatment solution, deplasmolysis was carried out. Cells were observed by microscopy during the whole cycle of dehydration-rehydration. The application of an osmotic shock to onion cells, from an initial osmotic pressure of 2 MPa to a final one of 24 MPa for osmotic shift, from an initial osmotic pressure of 2 MPa to a final one of 24 MPa for 30 min, no vesicles were observed. Additionally, the absence of Hechtian strand connections led to the bursting of vesicles in the case of the osmotic shock. It is concluded that the kinetics of osmotic dehydration strongly influence vesicle formation in onion cells, and that Hechtian strand connections between protoplasts and exocytotic vesicles are a prerequisite for successful deplasmolysis. These results suggest that a decrease in the area-to-volume ratio of a cell could cause cell death following an osmotic shock.

  6. Diallyl trisulfide, a chemopreventive agent from Allium vegetables, inhibits alpha-secretases in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Violet A; Stan, Silvia D

    2017-03-18

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women throughout the course of their lifetime creating a demand for novel prevention strategies against this disease. The Notch signaling pathway is often aberrantly activated in human malignancies including breast cancer. Alpha secretases, including ADAM (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease) -10 and -17, are proteases that play a key role in the cleavage of cell surface molecules and subsequent ligand-mediated activation of Notch signaling pathway. High expression levels of ADAM10 and 17 have been clinically associated with a lower disease-free survival in breast cancer patients. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a bioactive organosulfide found in garlic and other Allium vegetables, on alpha secretases in breast cancer cells. Here we report for the first time that DATS inhibits the expression of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 and estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and in Harvey-ras (H-Ras) transformed MCF10A-H-Ras breast epithelial cells. We also show that DATS induces a dose-dependent reduction in colony formation ability of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, suggesting a long-term effect of DATS on growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we show that DATS inhibits the Notch ligands Jagged-1 and Jagged-2 involved in activation of Notch signaling pathway. Collectively, these findings show that DATS targets Notch pathway components overexpressed in breast cancer tumors and may serve as a functionally relevant bioactive for breast cancer prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of freezing stress on electrolyte leakage of Persian shallot (Allium altissimum Regel. under controlled condition

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    Shahram Rezvan beydokhti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of freezing stress on electrolyte leakage of three Mooseers’ (Allium altissimum Regel. ecotypes (Shirvan, Kalat and Tandoureh, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under the controlled conditions in the Faculty of Agricultural, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2009. Plants were grown in natural conditions to acclimate with the growth condition, and then at two growth stages of emergence and seedling were transferred to the thermogradiant freezer with the six freezing temperatures (0,-4, -8,-12, -16 and -20 oC. Cell membrane integrity was measured by electrolyte leakage (EL index and the lethal temperature 50% (LT50 of samples were determined based on this index. The results showed that electrolyte leakage percentage and LT50el were significantly affected by experimental treatments. As the temperature decreased, EL (% of leaf, bulb and root of all ecotypes was significantly increased. In the all freezing temperatures, the highest and the lowest electrolyte leakage was observed in the root and leaf in the emergence stage. Shirvan ecotype at two growth stage (emergence and seedling showed the highest root electrolyte leakage and hence showed the lowest freezing tolerance in comparison with Kalat and Tandoreh ecotypes. The lowest and highest LT50el due to freezing were observed in Kalat, Tandoureh ecotype and Shirvan ecotype, respectively. At seedling stage, Shirvan ecotype’s root showed the highest LT50el which was more sensitive to freezing temperatures in comparison with leaf and bulb. Among all ecotypes, Kalat and Tandoreh ecotypes showed the lowest electrolyte leakage percentage, the lowest LT50el and the most tolerance to the freezing stress.

  8. The Effects of Allium sativum Extracts on Biofilm Formation and Activities of Six Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-08-01

    Garlic is considered a rich source of many compounds, which shows antimicrobial effects. The ability of microorganisms to adhere to both biotic and abiotic surfaces and to form biofilm is responsible for a number of diseases of chronic nature, demonstrating extremely high resistance to antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of sessile microorganisms, embedded in an extracellular matrix and irreversibly attached to various surfaces. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum extract against the biofilms of six pathogenic bacteria and their free-living forms. The clinical isolates in this study had not been studied in any other studies, especially in regard to biofilm disruption and inhibition of biofilm cell metabolic activity. Antimicrobial activities of A. sativum L. extracts (methanol and ethanol extracts) against planktonic forms of bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were evaluated by a macrobroth dilution technique. The anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. The results showed that the A. sativum L. extract discs did not have any zone of inhibition for the tested bacteria. However, The MIC values of A. sativum L. extracts (0.078 - 2.5 mg/mL) confirmed the high ability of these extracts for inhibition of planktonic bacteria. A. sativum L. extracts were efficient to inhibit biofilm structures and the concentration of each extract had a direct relation with the inhibitory effect. Finally, it can be suggested that the extracts of this plant be applied as antimicrobial agents against these pathogens, particularly in biofilm forms.

  9. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Leon, Rubi; Vera-Ku, Marina; Peraza-Sanchez, Sergio R; Ku-Chulim, Carlos; Horta-Baas, Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP) using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice's footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine. © R. Gamboa-Leon et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  10. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  11. Diallyl Polysulfides from Allium sativum as Immunomodulators, Hepatoprotectors, and Antimycobacterial Agents.

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    Oosthuizen, Carel; Arbach, Miriam; Meyer, Debra; Hamilton, Chris; Lall, Namrita

    2017-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest killers, with an annual death rate of ∼1.5 million. The medicinal effects of garlic have been well documented, and natural products have been shown to have antimycobacterial activity. The current study evaluated the efficacy of six Allium sativum L. polysulfide mixtures as antimycobacterial agents together with their cytotoxic, immunomodulatory, and hepatoprotective activities. The microtitre PrestoBlue assay was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Excreted cytokine levels were determined by utilizing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by exposing isolated PBMCs to varying concentrations of polysulfide mixtures. Human C3A liver cells were utilized in the hepatoprotective study, to assess the protective effect against the toxicity induced by acetaminophen. Samples with higher amounts of diallyl trisulfide (Sample G4) showed the highest antimycobacterial activity, exhibiting an MIC of 2.5 μg/mL against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Five samples showed moderate toxicity in PBMC, with G1 showing no toxicity. The selective index of G4 was the highest, with a selectivity index close to one. Two samples, G3 and G6 containing higher amounts of diallyl tetrasulfide and lower amounts of diallyl trisulfide, showed >50% hepatoprotection. This is comparable to a hepatoprotective agent, Silymarin, which showed a hepatoprotective effect of 30% at the tested concentration. Diallyl tetrasulfide showed significant antimycobacterial activity. A combination of higher diallyl tetrasulfide and lower diallyl trisulfide was indicative of hepatoprotective activity.

  12. The essential oil of Allium sativum as an alternative agent against Candida isolated from dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Juache, Alejandro; Aranda-Romo, Saray; Bermeo-Escalona, Josué R; Gómez-Hernández, Araceli; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    The colonization of the surfaces of dental prostheses by Candida albicans is associated with the development of denture stomatitis. In this context, the use of fluconazole has been proposed, but its disadvantage is microbial resistance. Meanwhile, the oil of Allium sativum has shown an effect in controlling biofilm formation by C. albicans. The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from rigid, acrylic-based partial or total dentures and to compare these agents' effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells. A total of 48 clinical isolates obtained from the acrylic surface of partial or complete dentures were examined, and the following species were identified: C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. For each isolate, the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against both biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. The isolates were also evaluated by semiquantitative XTT reduction. All planktonic Candida isolates were susceptible to the essential oil of A. sativum, whereas 4.2% were resistant to fluconazole. Regarding susceptibilities in biofilms, 43.8% of biofilms were resistant to A. sativum oil, and 91.7% were resistant to fluconazole. All planktonic cells of the different Candida species tested are susceptible to sativum oil, and the majority are susceptible to fluconazole. Susceptibility decreases in biofilm cells, with increased resistance to fluconazole compared with A. sativum oil. The essential oil of A. sativum is thus active against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from dentures, with effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the structural basis for selenium/mercury antagonism in Allium fistulosum

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    McNear, Jr., David H.; Afton, Scott E.; Caruso, Joseph A. (UCIN); (Kentucky)

    2012-12-10

    While continuing efforts are devoted to studying the mutually protective effect of mercury and selenium in mammals, few studies have investigated the mercury-selenium antagonism in plants. In this study, we report the metabolic fate of mercury and selenium in Allium fistulosum (green onion) after supplementation with sodium selenite and mercuric chloride. Analysis of homogenized root extracts via capillary reversed phase chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (capRPLC-ICP-MS) suggests the formation of a mercury-selenium containing compound. Micro-focused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of freshly excised roots show Hg sequestered on the root surface and outlining individual root cells, while Se is more evenly distributed throughout the root. There are also discrete Hg-only, Se-only regions and an overall strong correlation between Hg and Se throughout the root. Analysis of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a 'background' of methylselenocysteine within the root with discrete spots of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, Se{sup 0} and solid HgSe on the root surface. Mercury outlining individual root cells is possibly binding to sulfhydryl groups or plasma membrane or cell wall proteins, and in some places reacting with reduced selenium in the rhizosphere to form a mercury(II) selenide species. Together with the formation of the root-bound mercury(II) selenide species, we also report on the formation of cinnabar (HgS) and Hg{sup 0} in the rhizosphere. The results presented herein shed light on the intricate chemical and biological processes occurring within the rhizosphere that influence Hg and Se bioavailability and will be instrumental in predicting the fate and assisting in the remediation of these metals in the environment and informing whether or not fruit and vegetable food selection from aerial plant compartments or roots from plants grown in Hg contaminated soils, are safe for consumption.

  14. Biomonitoring genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa (Chroococcales, cyanobacteria) using the Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Prá, Daniel; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Rieger, Alexandre; Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Fiore, Marli Fátima; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2012-08-15

    Water pollution caused by toxic cyanobacteria is a problem worldwide, increasing with eutrophication. Due to its biological significance, genotoxicity should be a focus for biomonitoring pollution owing to the increasing complexity of the toxicological environment in which organisms are exposed. Cyanobacteria produce a large number of bioactive compounds, most of which lack toxicological data. Microcystins comprise a class of potent cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced mainly by Microcystis aeruginosa. Other natural products can also be synthesized by cyanobacteria, such as the protease inhibitor, aeruginosin. The hepatotoxicity of microcystins has been well documented, but information on the genotoxic effects of aeruginosins is relatively scarce. In this study, the genotoxicity and ecotoxicity of methanolic extracts from two strains of M. aeruginosa NPLJ-4, containing high levels of microcystin, and M. aeruginosa NPCD-1, with high levels of aeruginosin, were evaluated. Four endpoints, using plant assays in Allium cepa were applied: rootlet growth inhibition, chromosomal aberrations, mitotic divisions, and micronucleus assays. The microcystin content of M. aeruginosa NPLJ-4 was confirmed through ELISA, while M. aeruginosa NPCD-1 did not produce microcystins. The extracts of M. aeruginosa NPLJ-4 were diluted at 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 ppb of microcystins; the same procedure was used to dilute M. aeruginosa NPCD-1 used as a parameter for comparison, and water was used as the control. The results demonstrated that both strains inhibited root growth and induced rootlet abnormalities. The strain rich in aeruginosin was more genotoxic, altering the cell cycle, while microcystins were more mitogenic. These findings indicate the need for future research on non-microcystin producing cyanobacterial strains. Understanding the genotoxicity of M. aeruginosa extracts can help determine a possible link between contamination by aquatic cyanobacteria and high risk of primary liver

  15. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum essential oil and ethanol extract

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    Raja Zouari Chekki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to establish some nutritional properties of garlic cultivated in Tunisia and to evaluate the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activites of its essential oil and ethanol extract. Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum was characterized for moisture, ash and protein contents which were determined as 66%, 1.4% and 5.2% respectively. In addition, Fe (5.90 mg/kg, Cu (1.61 mg/kg, Mg (15 mg/kg and P (140 mg/kg were reported such as the major minerals in garlic. The fat profile of tunisian garlic was conducted, the main fatty acids identified were lauric acid (49.3% and linoleic acid (20.4%. Essential oil obtained from A. sativum was analysed by capillary GCMS. Diallyl disulfide (49.1% and diallyl trisulfide (30.38% were the main components of the five identified components. The phenolic content of The ethanol extract are analysed for its phenolic profiles, colorimetric analysis revealed that the total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins contents were respectively 43.63 mg GA/g, 13.18 mg quercetin/g and 24.24 mg of catechin/g. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, essential oil presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to its ethanolic extract. IC50 values observed for the essential oil and ethanol extract were 300 μg/ml and 600 µg/ml respectively. The essential oil and ethanol extract from raw garlic were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven microorganisms. The results showed that ethanol extract was active against all tested strains: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogene, Yersinia enterocolitica and Bacillus cereus.

  16. Antihypertensive properties of Allium sativum (garlic) on normotensive and two kidney one clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, C R; Ozolua, R I; Owu, D U; Nwokocha, M I; Ugwu, A C

    2011-12-20

    Allium sativum (garlic) is reported to act as an antihypertensive amidst an inconsistency of evidence. In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) on normotensive and hypertensive rats using the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in normotensive and 2K1C rat models anesthetized with thiopentone sodium (50 mg/kg body weight i.p.) through the left common carotid artery connected to a recording apparatus. The jugular vein was cannulated for administration of drugs. Intravenous injection of AGE (5-20 mg/kg) caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in both MAP and HR in a dose-dependent manner in both the normotensive and 2K1C models, with more effects on normotensive than 2K1C rat model. The dose of 20mg/kg of AGE significantly (p<0.05) reduced systolic (16.7 ± 2.0%), diastolic (26.7 ± 5.2%), MAP (23.1 ± 3.6%) and HR (38.4 ± 4.3%) in normotensive rats. In 2K1C group, it significantly reduced systolic (22.2 ± 2.1 %), diastolic (30.6 ± 3.2%), MAP (28.2 ± 3.1%) and HR (45.2 ± 3.5%) from basal levels. Pulse pressure was significantly elevated (33.3 ±5.1%) in the 2K1C group. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (2 mg/kg, i.v.), did not affect the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the extract. AGE caused a decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia by direct mechanism not involving the cholinergic pathway in both normotensive and 2K1C rats, suggesting a likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension.

  17. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans

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    Fani M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic ( Allium sativum extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans , extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6% isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4% were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4% and least resistance (0% to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 µg ml−1 and from 0.25 to 1 µg ml−1 , respectively ( P < 0.05. All isolates, MDR and non-MDR of S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg ml−1 . Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.

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    Yi Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database, starch and sucrose metabolism (147, 2.40% constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS, both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, “starch and sucrose metabolism” (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research. PMID:27713754

  20. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  1. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars to accumulate nitrates

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    Renata Wojciechowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador’, ‘Takstar F1’,‘Tęcza’, ‘Warna’, ‘Zorza’, Polan (‘Polanowska’, ‘Topolska’, PlantiCo Gołębiew (‘Alibaba’, ‘Efekt’, ‘Kristine’, ‘Niagara F1’,and PlantiCo Zielonki (‘Bila’, ‘Irka’, ‘Wenta’, ‘Zeta’. Plants produced from seedlings were grown in the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Kraków. After crop harvesting and additional drying, nitrate and dry matter content in bulbs of all cultivars were measured. The following cultivars: ‘Efekt’, ‘Labrador’ and red-skinned ‘Wenta’, were characterized by the lowest ability to accumulate NO3- in bulbs. The highest nitrate content was noted in bulbs of ‘Takstar F1’ (a very early-season cultivar, followed by ‘Bila’ and ‘Tęcza’. A weak, yet statistically significant negative correlation between nitrate and dry matter content was observed. The highest dry matter content was determined in bulbs of white-skinned ‘Alibaba’, while the lowest – in brown-skinned ‘Labrador’.

  2. Mutagénesis inducida en microbulbos de Allium sativum L.

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    Adriana Pardo Roldán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció un protocolo de mutagénesis en microbulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. clon Boconó cultivado in vitro. Para el efecto se realizaron dos ensayos, uno de radiosensibilidad para establecer la dosimetría apropiada de radiación gamma y otro de mutagénesis para determinar el comportamiento de los materiales hasta la etapa de almacenamiento. En el primero los microbulbos fueron tratados con cuatros dosis de radiación gamma (6, 8, 10 y 12 Krad, más un control. Para establecer la dosis óptima se consideró la sobrevivencia del 50% de los microbulbos (DL50. Se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con cinco tratamientos y 20 repeticiones por tratamiento. En el ensayo mutagénico los microbulbos fueron irradiados con 8 y 10 Krad y almacenados durante 45 días a 10 °C en condiciones de oscuridad En este caso se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres tratamientos (0, 8 y 10 Krad y 20 repeticiones por tratamiento. En ambos ensayos, los microbulbos irradiados con 8 y 10 Krad registraron los mayores promedios para peso y diámetro, lo cual permite concluir que estas dosis son adecuadas para favorecer la producción de mutantes con características agronómicas deseables en el clon Boconó

  3. Ultrapathological evaluation of the anticancer effect of blackseed (Nigella sativa and garlic (Allium sativum in mice

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    Wael Gamal Nouh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, 120 virgin female mice (body weight 40±10 gm were divided into 6 equal groups. Mice in Group 1 served as a control. Mice in Groups 2 and 3 were fed on a basal diet provided with 100 mg/kg b.wt from each of blackseed (Nigella sativa and garlic (Allium sativum, respectively, for one month. Mice in Group 4 were inoculated subcutanously (S/C with Ehrlich tumor cells after one month from the start of the experiment. Mice in Groups 5 and 6 were treated similarly to those in Groups 3 and 4, respectively, for one month and then immediately inoculated S/C with Ehrlich tumor cells (ETC, 0.1 mL/mouse. Blood samples were taken from mice of Groups 1, 2 and 3 at one month of experiment and tissue specimens were collected from mice in all groups two weeks after inoculation of Ehrlich tumor cells. Histopathologically, Groups 2 and 3 showed proliferation of mononuclear phagocytic system and mild degeneration of internal organs. In Group 4, histopathology revealed neoplastic mass with signs of malignancy, ultrastructurely exhibited pleomorphism, degenerated organelles with activated euo- and heterochromatin and cavitations of the cytoplasm. Groups 5 and 6 revealed much smaller neoplastic growth with necrosis and hemorrhage. The necrotic neoplastic cells replaced by empty cavities with congested blood vessels, the others showed pyknotic or karryolytic nuclei. In Groups 5 and 6, the electron microsopic appearance of the neoplastic growth exhibited degenerated and swollen cells with multiple cavitations. Most of the cytoplasmic organelles were degenerated with activation of lysozymes. It could be concluded that, both garlic and black seed minimize the histopathological and electron microscopic alterations of ETC in mice.

  4. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa

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    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND, USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin as sub-plots. Neither tillage nor herbicide treatments affected onion stand counts. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album densities were lower in strip tillage compared to conventional tillage up to three weeks after the post-emergence applied herbicides. In general, micro-rate post-emergence herbicide treatments provided greater early-season broadleaf weed control than pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Onion yield and grade did not differ among herbicide treatments because the mid-season herbicide application provided sufficient control/suppression of the early-season weed escapes that these initial weed escapes did not impact onion yield or bulb diameter. In 2007, onion in the strip tillage treatment were larger in diameter resulting in greater total and marketable yields compared to conventional tillage. Marketable onion yield was 82.1 Mg ha−1 in strip tillage and 64.9 Mg ha−1 in conventional tillage. Results indicate that strip tillage use in direct-seeded onion production was beneficial, especially when growing conditions were conducive to higher yields and that the use of strip tillage in onion may provide an alternative to using a companion crop as it did not interfere with either early-season weed management system.

  5. A Comparative Study of Allium Hirtifolium in Traditional and Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdehvand, Laleh Zaheri; Soleymani, Samaneh

    2016-05-01

    Shallots (wild garlic/Osghordion) with the scientific name of Allium hertifolium, is one of the most famous plants from the Alliaceae family. For a long time, shallots have been used as a source of food and medicine in Iran. The active ingredients of the plant could be referred to agapentagenin, allicin, omega-3, omega-6, and minerals such as potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese. This study was conducted to compare shallots in the traditional and modern medicine in order to make a better use of this precious plant. To collect appropriate data, resources and articles in trustworthy databases (e.g. Cochrane library, PubMed, Google Scholar) and traditional literature (e.g. Makhzan-ul-Adwiah, Canon, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazmshahi) were studied. Subsequently, the findings were reviewed, classified, and reported in a tabular format. Shallots are rich in fatty acids and minerals with many pharmacological effects such as its effect on the respiratory and nervous system and blood dilution, as reflected in the modern medicine. However, certain effects as mentioned in traditional medicine (e.g. anti-warts, anti-lipoma, anti-kidney stone, and its diuretic effects) are not covered in research studies of the modern medicine. Depending on its natural habitats, shallots have different pharmacological effects for which many usages are mentioned in traditional medicine. Some of these effects have been investigated in modern medicine; however, further evaluation of its safety and dosages for clinical use is necessary. Furthermore, some cases have not been studied in modern medicine, which could be the basis for future research.

  6. All aspect of toxic effect of brilliant blue and sunset yellow in Allium cepa roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Kemal; Pandir, Dilek

    2018-01-10

    Substances added to food are considerable for survival and are the oldest technologies used in preservation, sweetening and coloring. This work was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the food additives sunset yellow (SY) and brilliant blue (BB) on Allium cepa root meristematic cells. Control and treatment groups were created from germinated roots. Group 1 (control group) did not receive chemicals. Group 2 (SY or BB-treatment group), received increasing doses of SY (25, 50, 100 and 500 ppm) and BB (100, 200, 400 and 500 ppm) with time periods of 24, 48 and 72 h. After different treatment periods, the roots were obtained from all groups and EC50 concentrations, cell death, chromosome aberrations, mitotic index were observed by a light microscopy. Changing antioxidant capacity of roots was determined by FRAP and TEAC assay. Also, DNA damage was measured by comet assay and RAPD-PCR technique. Approximately 50 and 200 ppm were accepted as EC50 value for SY and BB, respectively. Chromosome aberration values were obtained with increasing concentrations and longer treatment times such as chromosome bridge, C-mitosis, micronucleus, chromosome mis-segregation in both groups. Increasing exposure doses of SY and BB caused decreasing mitotic index values at 72 h. FRAP and TEAC assay showed that antioxidant capacity of roots was decreased by increasing concentrations of SY and BB. The tail DNA% and tail length significantly increased for all exposure times when compared to the control group. 50 and 200 ppm of SY and BB caused a genotoxic effect on genetic material at 72 h according to RAPD-PCR. Increasing the doses of SY and BB resulted in increased toxicity to all studied parameters of A. cepa. In conclusion, the SY and BB tested in this study have cytotoxic and mutagenic potential. Furthermore, SY is more harmful than BB for use in the A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  7. Dietary Allium hookeri reduces inflammatory response and increases expression of intestinal tight junctions proteins in LPS-induced young broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    We undertook a study to assess the effects of Allium hookeri (AH) root and fermented root on inflammation and intestinal integrity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged chickens. Birds were assigned to six groups (n = 25 birds/treatment) and fed with basal diets or basal diets supplemented with AH ...

  8. Observación de la actividad antimicrobiana del ajo (Allium sativum en el laboratorio de Educación Secundaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro López Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ajo (Allium sativum ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  9. Observación de la actividad antimicrobiana del ajo (Allium sativum) en el laboratorio de Educación Secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-01-01

    El ajo (Allium sativum) ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro) la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  10. The development of an efficient cultivar-independent plant regeneration system from callus derived from both apical and non-apical root segments of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2003-01-01

    Callus induction and later plant regeneration were studied in four widely grown garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars from Europe. Root segments from in vitro plantlets were used as starting material. In addition to cultivar effects, the effects of auxin and cytokinin levels and the position of the

  11. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on survival of salmonella and E.coli O157:H7 in soil and translocation into allium porrum roots and stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern agriculture disrupts the natural symbiotic relationship arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have with most vegetable plants, which may affect translocation of human pathogens into the plant. Five-month-old Allium porrum (leek) plants (with or without AMF [Glomus intraradices]) were used as a m...

  12. Polyphasic characterization of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii associated with outbreaks of bacterial blight on three Allium species in the Mascarene archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Y; Roumagnac, P; Legrand, D; Humeau, L; Robène-Soustrade, I; Chiroleu, F; Gagnevin, L; Pruvost, O

    2008-08-01

    Based on the number of new reports during the last two decades, bacterial blight of onion (Allium cepa) is considered an emerging disease. The causal agent, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is pathogenic to several Allium species after inoculation, but outbreaks worldwide have been primarily reported on onion. We describe a unique epidemiological situation in Réunion Island, France, with concomitant outbreaks on three Allium species, onion, leek (A. porrum), and garlic (A. sativum). There was no host specialization within Allium spp. among strains associated with the three host species. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism, strains associated with these outbreaks in Réunion Island were highly related genetically to strains isolated from diseased plant samples and contaminated seed lots in the neighboring island of Mauritius, where the disease has occurred since 1984. All AFLP haplotypes were identified as X. axonopodis pv. allii based on polymerase chain reaction analysis using specific primers, biochemical tests, and/or pathogenicity tests. Two genetically related groups of strains (A and B) that can be distinguished by AFLP, differential utilization of three carbon sources, and xanthomonadin pigment production were detected initially after establishment of the pathogen. In less than 10 years after the establishment of the pathogen there was nearly an extinction of group A strains in Réunion Island, suggesting differences in fitness between strains in the two groups.

  13. Molecular characterization of transgenic shallots (Allium cepa L.) by adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Genomic DNA blot hybridization is traditionally used to demonstrate that, via genetic transformation, foreign genes are integrated into host genomes. However, in large genome species, such as Allium cepa L., the use of genomic DNA blot hybridization is pushed towards its limits, because a

  14. Conversion of chromosome-specific RAPDs into SCAR-based anchor markers for onion linkage maps and its application to genetic analyses inother Allium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masuzaki, S.; Miyazaki, T.; McCallum, J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Kik, C.; Yamashita, K.; Tashiro, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of previously developed Allium cepa linkage maps requires the availability of anchor markers for each of the eight chromosomes of shallot (A. cepa L. common group Aggregatum). To this end, eight RAPD markers originating from our previous research were converted into SCAR markers via

  15. Determination of mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Limonium globuliferum aqueous extracts by Allium, Ames, and MTT tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Eren

    Full Text Available Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of roots, stems and leaves of Limonium globuliferum Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, aqueous extracts were studied by Allium, Ames, and MTT tests. These are plant, bacterial and mammalian cell assays, respectively. The Allium test analyses showed that aqueous extracts of this species have dose-dependent toxicity and induce chromosomal anomalies based on defects in the spindle fibers. EC50 values of root stem and leaf aqueous extracts were 32.5, 50, and 50 g/l, respectively. It was observed that there was an inverse correlation between root growth and extract concentration. The lowest mitotic index value (22.72 % was found in L. globuliferum root extract. As a result of the chromosome aberrations test, sticky chromosomes, anaphase bridges, laggard chromosomes, and anaphase-telophase disorders were highly detected especially in high concentration of the extract. In the Ames test, mutagenic effects were determined at all concentrations of stem and leaf aqueous extracts and only two concentrations of root extracts of L. globuliferum. Most of the extracts induced cytotoxic effects by the MTT test based on mitochondrial activity. Nevertheless, some of the extracts induced t cell proliferation.

  16. Cytotoxic effects of infusions (tea of Solidago microglossa DC. (Asteraceae on the cell cycle of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Dulce Bagatini

    Full Text Available The medicinal specie Solidago microglossa DC., which is native from South America, is used as infusion (tea for stomach disorders in popular medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effect of these infusions on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. In natura leaves of three populations of this species were used in preparing infusions at two concentrations: 1.75 mg/mL and 14 mg/mL. Onion (Allium cepa root-tip cells were used as test system in in vivo assays. Slides were done through smashing technique. Cells were analyzed in all cell cycles of A. cepa, totalizing 6000 cells for each group of bulbs. The mitotic index (MI was calculated, and the statistical analysis was carried out through the Chi-square test (χ2 = 0.05. The results show that the infusions of S. microglossa at a highest concentration (14 mg/mL caused a significant reduction in the MI compared with control in the studied populations. In concentrations commonly used by people there was a significant increase of MI in relation to controlled populations 1 and 3 and a decrease in population 2. In conclusion, infusions of S. microglossa presented antiproliferative effect at a highest concentration.

  17. Alterations in the mitotic index of Allium cepa induced by infusions of Pluchea sagittalis submitted to three different cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana V. Rossato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the antiproliferative effect of infusions from Pluchea sagittalis using the Allium cepa test. Infusions in three concentrations (2.5, 5, and 25 g dm-3 of leaves cultivated in three environments (in vitro, acclimatized growth chamber, and field were used. Six onion bulbs were used for each of the eight treatments, and the mitotic index was obtained from 6000 cells per treatment. In conclusion, leaf infusions of P. sagittalis cultivated in the field have a high antiproliferative activity, as well as the cultivation system influences the antiproliferative potential.Avaliou-se o efeito antiproliferativo de infusões de Pluchea sagittalis usando o teste de Allium cepa. Foram usadas infusões em três concentrações (2,5, 5 e 25g dm-3 de folhas cultivadas em três ambientes (in vitro, sala de crescimento climatizada e em campo. Foram usados seis grupos de bulbos para cada um dos 8 tratamentos e o os índices mitóticos foram obtidos a partir de 6000 células por tratamento. Concluiu-se que a infusão de folhas de P. sagittalis cultivadas em campo possui grande atividade antiproliferativa, bem como o sistema de cultivo de plantas influencia o potencial antiproliferativo.

  18. A Study of the Shrinkage Changes and Mathematical Modeling of Garlic (Allium sativumL. During Convective Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rasouli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativumL. is one of the most important Allium spice. From an economic point of view, the dried garlic slices are valuable products. In this research, garlic slices as a thin layer were dried in a laboratory scale hot-air dryer, under air flow of 1.5 m/s, air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70˚C and slice thicknesses of 2, 3 and 4 mm. The mean values of shrinkage of garlic slices obtained 69.8%. In addition, the effects of the drying variables on the shrinkage of dried garlic were evaluated. The ANOVA results indicated that the air temperature and slice thickness had no significant effect on final shrinkage of dried garlic slices. In order to derive and select the appropriate shrinkage model, four mathematical models were fitted to the experimental data. According to the statistical criteria (R2, SSE & RMSE the best model was found to describe the shrinkage behavior of garlic slice.

  19. Increased sulfur precursors and volatiles production by the leek Allium porrum in response to specialist insect attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugravot, Sebastien; Mondy, Nathalie; Mandon, Nicole; Thibout, Eric

    2005-06-01

    To defend themselves against herbivory, plants use a variety of direct and indirect strategies involving induced increases in secondary substances. Species of the Allium genus (Alliaceae), such as the leek Allium porrum (L.), produce nonprotein sulfur amino acids derived from cysteine, i.e., alk(en)yl-cysteine sulfoxides that are precursors of volatile thiosulfinates and disulfides. These defend most species including the specialist leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella. We determined by measuring the increase in the sulfur precursor propyl-cysteine sulfoxide (PCSO) if production of this precursor is induced in response to moth attack and mechanical wounding. The concentration of PCSO was determined by HPLC in 2- or 6-mo-old leeks after attacks of various intensity either by the specialist leek moth or by a generalist moth, Agrotis ipsilon. Injury-induced release of sulfur volatiles was measured by GC/MS after the attacks. Results showed an increase in the production of sulfur compounds in both the precursor and volatile form, occurring only in association with intensive attacks by leek moths. The increase in sulfur precursors also led to an increase in the release of sulfur volatiles. This induced response may provide an effective defense strategy against the plant's main natural enemy, both directly and indirectly by attracting entomophagous insects.

  20. Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhage, L.; Jaeger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, singly and in combination, on yield, heavy metal content and the mineral composition of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L. have been investigated. The Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations of shoots and roots of Allium porrum increased with increasing heavy metal contamination of soil. However, no visible symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were recognized. The dry matter production was reduced as a function of heavy metal concentration and combination. The mechanisms of combinations were mostly synergistic. The correlation between pollutant contents (nmol/shoot) and yield was higher than the correlation between heavy metal concentrations of soil or shoots (ppm) and yield. Results of regression analyses showed that the inhibition of copper translocation caused by Cd, Pb and Zn was responsible for the yield depressions. The antagonism between Cd and N-deficiency showed that the level of N-supply was without negative effects on yield depressions of Pisum sativum caused by Cd. In contrast to this, the N-form played an important role in Cd-toxicity as the synergism between Cd and NH4 illustrated. K-deficiency as well as acidic nutrient solution (pH=4) diminished the root/shoot-barrier for Cd and therefore Cd-translocation from roots to shoots increased. Concerning calcium, magnesium and iron the decrease of ion uptake caused by Cd was statistically significant higher than yield depression.

  1. Evaluation of DNA by the micronucleus test of the samples Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ayrton Nascimento de; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Gennari, Roseli F.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA, (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by innumerous chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long and 0, 5 g of the U. As a result 3000 cells were counted during the interphase, and structural changes were observed in the chromosomes, elongated nuclei and loose chromosomes of the spindle fiber, concluding that U possibly affected the cell cycle da Allium cepa. (author)

  2. The effect of the humic acid and garlic (Allium sativum L. on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika PISTOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and humic acids and garlic powder (Allium sativum L. combination on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chickens were studied. A total of 120 Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 3 treatments (n=40. The control group of chickens was fed complete feed mixtures without any additives. Treatment T1 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1% of humic acid. Treatment T2 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1.8% of humic acid and 0.2% of garlic powder (Allium sativum L.. At the end of the experiment was average body weight (values in the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 1999.1±355.8 and 1958.6±201.2 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 in both treatments groups compared to control group. In T1 was weight of gizzard (values in the order of the groups: 34.9±5.2; 43.1±9.4 and 38.9±7.0 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 compared to control group. Carcass weight, weight of heart weight of liver and carcass yield of treatments groups was higher, but differences in these indicators were not statistically significant (P≥0.05. The results of this experiment indicate that humic acids may by an alternative replacement of feed antibiotics.

  3. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-06-30

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration.

  4. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Vital Pulp Treatment of Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare between the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and those of formocresol in vital pulpotomy in primary teeth. A total of 20 children age ranged from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, the primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. Pulpotomy procedure was performed, and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet, whereas the other molar capped with formocresol, the teeth evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months, using standard clinical and radiographical criteria. Statistically, these results revealed no significant difference between the radiographic findings of vital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments was found. A. sativum oil offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. Vital pulpotomy with allium sativa oil was given raise 90% success rate while that with formocresol was 85%. A. sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  5. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  7. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Ali, Sara E; Hodaya, Rashad H; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Sultani, Haider N; Laub, Annegret; Eissa, Tarek F; Abou-Zaid, Fouad O F; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2017-05-08

    Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous) flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS) annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum, flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum. Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to dried specimens

  8. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum, flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA. The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum. Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to

  9. Wildlife conservation on farmland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, David W; Feber, R. (Ruth)

    2015-01-01

    ...: Integrates more than 30 years of research by the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit at Oxford to reveal how agricultural systems and wildlife interact, presenting examples from scales varying...

  10. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  11. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  12. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  13. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  14. Biodiversity Conservation in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale Squires

    2014-01-01

    Asian's remarkable economic growth brought many benefits but also fuelled threats to its ecosystems and biodiversity. Economic growth brings biodiversity threats but also conservation opportunities. Continued biodiversity loss is inevitable, but the types, areas and rates of biodiversity loss are not. Prioritising biodiversity conservation, tempered by what is tractable, remains a high priority. Policy and market distortions and failures significantly underprice biodiversity, undermine ecosys...

  15. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Context and Number Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Irwin W.

    1979-01-01

    A replication study was conducted to determine whether conservation-of-number performance would be improved by questioning the subject only after the transformation is performed, rather than before and after the transformation, as is done in the standard conservation test. Subjects were preschoolers, aged 0-4 to 5-7. (Author/MP)

  17. Conservation in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-30

    A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

  18. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  19. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  20. Studies on phyto-genotoxic assessment of tannery effluent and chromium on Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2012-05-01

    Tannery effluent contributes significantly to pollution of the environment. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluent and chromium (Cr) were investigated in Allium cepa. Forthis purpose, tannery effluent was collected from "Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket" (U.A.S.B) Jajmau, Kanpur. A. cepa were exposed to various concentrations of tannery effluent (0.0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.50, 25.0%) and Cr (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 mgl(-1)) for 48 and 168 hr. The perusal of data revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of tannery effluent viz. pH (8.5), EC (11.94 dSm(-1)), BOD (499 mgl(-1)), COD (1382 mgl(-1)) and Cr content (2.32 mgI(-1)) were much higher than the prescribed permissible limit for industrial effluent discharged into inland waters. These substances provoked phytotoxic and genotoxic effects in A. cepa. Total chlorophyll and protein content in leaves of tannery effluent and Cr treated plants decreased significantly in dose-duration dependent manner. A maximum decrease of 86.29 and 84.26% in total chlorophyll and 81.27 and 76.16% in protein content was observed after 168 hr of exposure while carotenoid content increased up to 6.25% effluent and 2.0 mgl(-1) Cr treatment and decreased further. In all treated plants, a significant (p > or = 0.05) reduction in root length, mitotic index (MI) and induction in chromosomal (CA)/mitotic (MA) aberration and micronuclei (MNC) were observed as compared to unstressed plants. A maximum reduction of 81.15 and 79.71% in MI, and induction of 6.8 and 4.8% in CA, 29.24 and 26.66% in MA and 0.52 and 0.43% in MNC were found at 12.50% effluent and 4 mgl(-1) Cr treated plants as compared to unstressed plants, however at highest effluent and Cr concentration both the plants showed pyknosis condition after 168 hr.

  1. Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2010-03-02

    Electron microscopy (EM) techniques enable identification of the main accumulations of lead (Pb) in cells and cellular organelles and observations of changes in cell ultrastructure. Although there is extensive literature relating to studies on the influence of heavy metals on plants, Pb tolerance strategies of plants have not yet been fully explained. Allium sativum L. is a potential plant for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. In previous investigations the effects of different concentrations (10(-5) to 10(-3) M) of Pb were investigated in A. sativum, indicating a significant inhibitory effect on shoot and root growth at 10(-3) to 10(-4) M Pb. In the present study, we used EM and cytochemistry to investigate ultrastructural alterations, identify the synthesis and distribution of cysteine-rich proteins induced by Pb and explain the possible mechanisms of the Pb-induced cellular defense system in A. sativum. After 1 h of Pb treatment, dictyosomes were accompanied by numerous vesicles within cytoplasm. The endoplasm reticulum (ER) with swollen cisternae was arranged along the cell wall after 2 h. Some flattened cisternae were broken up into small closed vesicles and the nuclear envelope was generally more dilated after 4 h. During 24-36 h, phenomena appeared such as high vacuolization of cytoplasm and electron-dense granules in cell walls, vacuoles, cytoplasm and mitochondrial membranes. Other changes included mitochondrial swelling and loss of cristae, and vacuolization of ER and dictyosomes during 48-72 h. In the Pb-treatment groups, silver grains were observed in cell walls and in cytoplasm, suggesting the Gomori-Swift reaction can indirectly evaluate the Pb effects on plant cells. Cell walls can immobilize some Pb ions. Cysteine-rich proteins in cell walls were confirmed by the Gomori-Swift reaction. The morphological alterations in plasma membrane, dictyosomes and ER reflect the features of detoxification and tolerance under Pb stress. Vacuoles are

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal potentials of the solvents extracts from Eryngium caeruleum, Notholirion thomsonianum and Allium consanguineum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Abdul; Ahmad, Sadiq; Ali, Rahmat; Ahmad, Fawad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Zeb, Anwar; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Siddique, Abu Nasar

    2016-11-24

    Herbal medicines have long been used for various ailments in various societies and natural bioactive compounds are gaining more and more importance due to various factors. In this context, three plant species i.e., Eryngium caeruleum, Notholirion thomsonianum and Allium consanguineum have been aimed for the scientific verification of their purported traditional uses against various infectious diseases. In this study, three plants were assayed for antibacterial and antifungal potentials. The antibacterial investigations were performed via well diffusion method and nutrient broth dilution method. The bacterial strains used in the study were Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antifungal potential was investigated by dilution method of Muller-Hinton agar media of the plants' samples. The fungal strains used were Aspergillis fumigatus, Aspergillis flavus and Aspergillis niger. Ceftriaxone and nystatin were used as standard drugs in antibacterial and antifungal assays respectively. Different fractions from N. thomsonianum were tested against five bacterial strains while the samples from A. consanguineum and E. caeruleum were tested against six bacterial strains. All the samples exhibited prominent antibacterial activity against the tested strains. Overall, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were found most potent among the three plants' samples. N. thomsonianum excelled among the three plants in antibacterial activity. Similarly, in antifungal assay, N. thomsonianum exhibited strong antifungal activity against the fungal strains. The chloroform fraction displayed MFCs of 175.67 ± 5.20***, 29.33 ± 5.48*** and 63.00 ± 4.93*** μg/ml against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger respectively. The whole study demonstrates that all the three plant species were active against tested bacterial and fungal strains. It can be concluded from

  3. Assessment of Anti-Influenza Activity and Hemagglutination Inhibition of Plumbago indica and Allium sativum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Rahul Dilip; Shinde, Pramod; Girkar, Kaustubh; Madage, Rajendra; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu ayurvedic/herbal medicines have played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. Plumbagin and allicin are commonly used ingredients in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that these extracts are associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. To evaluate anti-influenza activity from Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extract against Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Different extraction procedures were used to isolate the active ingredient in the solvent system, and quantitative HPLTC confirms the presence of plumbagin and allicin. The cytotoxicity was carried out on Madin-Darby Canine kidney cells, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were below 20 mg/mL for both plant extracts. To assess the anti-influenza activity, two assays were employed, simultaneous and posttreatment assay. A. sativum methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed only 14% reduction in hemagglutination in contrast to P. indica which exhibited 100% reduction in both simultaneous and posttreatment assay at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL. Our results suggest that P. indica extracts are good candidates for anti-influenza therapy and should be used in medical treatment after further research. The search for natural antiviral compounds from plants is a promising approach in the development of new therapeutic agents. In the past century, several scientific efforts have been directed toward identifying phytochemicals capable of inhibiting virus. Knowledge of ethnopharmacology can lead to new bioactive plant compounds suitable for drug discovery and development. Macromolecular docking studies provides most detailed possible view of drug-receptor interaction where the structure of drug is designed based on its fit to three dimensional structures of receptor site rather than by analogy to other

  4. Correlation between heavy metal ions (copper, zinc, lead concentrations and root length of Allium cepa L. in polluted river water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Moreno Palacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed using the common onion (Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator of toxicity of heavy metals in river water. The test waters were collected at two sampling sites: at the beginning and the end of the Toledo River. The bulbs of A. cepa L. were grown in test water with nine concentration levels of copper, zinc and lead from 0.1 to 50 ppm. In the laboratory, the influence of these test liquids on the root growth was examined during five days. For test liquids containing below 0.03-ppm dissolved Cu the root growth was reduced by 40% However, the same reduction occurred for 1-ppm dissolved Zn. For dissolved Pb, results reveal toxicity above 0.1 and 0.6 ppm at the beginning and the end of the Toledo river water, respectively.O presente trabalho foi realizado utilizando a cebola comum (Allium cepa L. como bioindicador da toxicidade de metais pesados em água de rio. As águas de teste foram coletadas em dois locais: na nascente e na foz do rio Toledo. Os bulbos de A. cepa L. foram cultivados em água de teste com nove níveis de concentração de cobre, zinco e chumbo de 0,1 a 50 ppm. Em laboratório a influência destes líquidos de teste em crescimento de raiz foi examinada durante cinco dias. Em todos os líquidos de teste o metal dissolvido contido foi medido pela técnica TXRF. Para líquidos de teste contendo 0,1-ppm de Cu dissolvido o crescimento da raiz foi reduzido em 50%. Entretanto, ocorreu a mesma redução para 1-ppm de Zn dissolvido. Para Pb dissolvido, o método do Allium teste revela toxidade acima de 0,1 e 0,5 ppm para a nascente e a foz do rio Toledo, respectivamente.

  5. EFEITO DA COBERTURA MORTA NO CRESCIMENTO E NA PRODUÇÃO DO ALHO (Allium sativum L. THE EFFECT OF THE MULCHING IN THE GROWTH AND BULB PRODUCTION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi avaliado o efeito das coberturas mortas do solo: palha de arroz, casca de arroz, cepilho de madeira, grama cortada e folhas de árvores, no crescimento e na produção do alho (Allium sativum L. cultivar Cateto Roxo. Os tratamentos de cobertura do solo foram feitos logo após o plantio e em camada suficiente apenas para cobrir o solo. Concluiu-se que a cobertura morta favoreceu o crescimento inicial e a produção de bulbos. Os materiais testados em cobertura do solo mostraram-se equivalentes, porém com tendência para o tratamento com casca de arroz superar os demais.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alho; AIlium sativum; cobertura morta dos solos; produção.

    The effect of flue mulching in the growth and bulb production of garlic (Allium sativum L. cv. ‘Cateto Roxo’, was evaluated. The soil cover treatments: rice straw, rice husk, smoothing plane, cut grass and dry leaves of tree, was done just after planting and in layers just to cover the soil. It was concluded that mulching favoured initial growing and bulb production. Tested materials were showed to be equivalent however with tendency to rice husk overcome the other ones.

    KEY-WORDS: Garlic; production; mulching; growth.

  6. Hospital waste incinerator bottom ash leachate induced cyto-genotoxicity in Allium cepa and reproductive toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbola, Temitayo I; Adeyemi, Adetutu; Morenikeji, Olajumoke A; Bakare, Adekunle A; Alimba, Chibuisi G

    2011-07-01

    The potentials of hospital incinerator bottom ash leachate (HIBAL) to induce cyto-genotoxicity in Allium cepa and reproductive anomalies in the mouse were investigated. The leachate obtained from simulation of the bottom ash was analyzed for some physico-chemical parameters. The A. cepa, mouse sperm morphology and histopathological tests were carried out at concentrations ranging from 1% to 50% of the leachate sample. In A. cepa, HIBAL caused significant (p animal assays, there was 100% mortality at the 50% concentrations. The leachate caused insignificant (p > 0.05) concentration-dependent induction of various types of sperm morphology. There was accumulation of fluid in the seminiferous tubule lumen and necrosis of stem cells in the testes. These effects were believed to be provoked by the somatic and germ cell genotoxins, particularly the heavy metals in the leachate. Our finding is of environmental and public health significance.

  7. Antiproliferative action of aqueous extracts of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. (Fabaceae on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOURRAN P. LACERDA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the action of crude aqueous extracts obtained from rhytidome of Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá-do-cerrado on Allium cepa meristematic root cells in three concentrations: 0.082, 0.164, 0.328g/mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. The slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5000 for each control group and concentration. It was found that all three concentrations, including the lowest which is considered ideal for use, in all exposure times, had significant antiproliferative action on the cell cycle of this test system. For cells under division, we observed a high number of cells in prophase. Therefore, under the conditions studied H. stigonocarpa indicated to be cytotoxic.

  8. PENGARUH KOMBINASI EKSTRAK PETROLEUM ETER BAWANG PUTIH (Allium sativum Linn DENGAN VITAMIN C TERHADAP AKTIVITAS Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Khaira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum contains organosulfur compound that plays an important role as an antibacterial and antifungal activities. Ascorbic acid or vitamine C also has been show has a good activity as an antioxidant and as an antifungal. The aims of the research is to determine the effect of the combination of petroleum ether garlic extract with vitamin C against Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition testing done by Kirby-Bauer method. The results showed that the combination of petroleum ether garlic extract with vitamin C in concentration of 50% did not show an activity significantly. Meanwhile, the activity of petroleum ether garlic extract alone at concentration of 50 and 75% showed activities towards Candida albicans with a diameter of inhibition zone are 19.46 and 27.46 mm respectively.

  9. Ultrastructural localization of DNA and RNA in Allium porrum interphase cells by means of nuclease-gold complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, P M; Bergeron, F; Lafontaine, J G

    1985-09-01

    Nucleic acids have been localized in Allium porrum interphase meristematic cells by means of labelling with nuclease-gold complexes, a technique which provides high resolution and improved specificity. DNase-gold labelling was observed over dense chromatin and to a lesser extent over dispersed chromatin. Nucleolar labelling was restricted to the dense fibrillar component, very few particles being located over the fibrillar centres. Labelling by the RNase-gold complex was present over both the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm. Cytoplasm labelling was intense over the rough endoplasmic reticulum but absent over vacuoles. In the nucleoplasm many gold particles were located at the border between the condensed and the dispersed chromatin. Nucleolar labelling was intense over the granular zones but many gold particles were also seen over the dense fibrillar component. Fibrillar centres showed, however, no labelling with the RNase-gold complex. These results are consistent with previous autoradiographic and cytochemical observations carried out on the same plant material.

  10. Cytogenetic effects of the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke on root-tip cells of Allium sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, K.N.; Benner, J.F.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1978-02-01

    Chromosomal and mitotic abnormalities induced by the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke on the root-tips of garlic, Allium sativum L., were investigated. Chromosomal abnormalities in the form of breakages, bridges, lags, stickiness, and differential condensation were observed. In addition, multinucleate cells, polyploid cells, and multipolar mitotic divisions were observed. In general the results indicate that the percentage of abnormalities increased when root-tips were exposed to higher numbers of smoke puffs. The effect of the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke on the mitotic index is striking. It shows a slight increase at a low number of puffs and a decrease at high numbers, particularly at the 10, 15 and 20 puff levels. The results indicate that the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke induces significant effects on chromosome structure and number.

  11. Alteraciones en las Mitosis de Raicillas de Allium Cepa Sometidas en un Ambiente Carente de Oxígeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Greiff Sonia

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un estudio de los efectos causados por un ambiente carente de oxígeno en células meristemáticas de raicillas de Allium cepa, llegándose a comprobar la presencia de alteraciones en el desarrollo de la mitosis y una disminución de la frecuencia mitótica relacionadas con el tiempo de exposición a dicho ambiente. Aunque las causas precisas de estas alteraciones son difíciles de señalar por su complejidad, parece ser que en su desarrollo están implicadas las disfunciones metabólicas resultantes de la anaerobiosis, que afectan la producción de ATP de origen citoplasmático y nuclear, necesarios para la realización de la mitosis y otras funciones celulares.

  12. Ectopically expressed leaf and bulb lectins from garlic (Allium sativum L.) protect transgenic tobacco plants against cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Amin; Smagghe, Guy; Broeders, Sylvia; Hernalsteens, Jean-Pierre; De Greve, Henri; Peumans, Willy J; Van Damme, Els J M

    2008-02-01

    The insecticidal activity of the leaf (ASAL) and bulb (ASAII) agglutinins from Allium sativum L. (garlic) against the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was studied using transgenic tobacco plants expressing the lectins under the control of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. PCR analysis confirmed that the garlic lectin genes were integrated into the plant genome. Western blots and semi-quantitative agglutination assays revealed lectin expression at various levels in the transgenic lines. Biochemical analyses indicated that the recombinant ASAL and ASAII are indistinguishable from the native garlic lectins. Insect bioassays using detached leaves from transgenic tobacco plants demonstrated that the ectopically expressed ASAL and ASAII significantly (P transgenic approach.

  13. Dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and garlic (Allium sativum alleviates oxidative stress in experimental myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mukthamba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soluble fiber-rich fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum and garlic (Allium sativum are understood to exert cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. The cardioprotective influence of a combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic by their antioxidant influence was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rats administered isoproterenol. Wistar rats were maintained on high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks along with dietary interventions of fenugreek (10%, garlic (2% and their combination. Myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol injection. Increased circulatory troponin, disturbed activities of cardiac ATPases, increased serum iron and decreased ceruloplasmin confirmed myocardial infarction. Elevated lipid peroxides accompanied with reduced antioxidant molecules caused by isoproterenol and altered activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum and heart in induced myocardial necrosis were countered by dietary fenugreek, garlic, and fenugreek + garlic. Dietary fenugreek seeds and garlic ameliorated isoproterenol-induced compromised antioxidant status, the cardioprotective effect being higher by the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic.

  14. Interaction of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin with midgut brush border membrane vesicles proteins and its stability in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Harpal; Ranjan, Amol; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-12-01

    Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) binds to several proteins in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera and causes toxicity. Most of these were glycosylated. Six ASAL-binding proteins were selected for identification. PMF and MS/MS data showed their similarity with midgut aminopeptidase APN2, polycalins and alkaline phosphatase of H. armigera, cadherin-N protein (partial AGAP009726-PA) of Acyrthosiphon pisum, cytochrome P450 (CYP315A1) of Manduca sexta and alkaline phosphatase of Heliothis virescens. Some of the ASAL-binding midgut proteins were similar to the larval receptors responsible for the binding of δ-endotoxin proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Galanthus nivalis agglutinin also interacted with most of the ASAL-binding proteins. The ASAL showed resistance to midgut proteases and was detected in the larval hemolymph and excreta. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of ASAL in the body tissue also. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Making conservation research more relevant for conservation practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurance, W.F.; Koster, H.; Grooten, M.; Anderson, A.B.; Zuidema, P.A.; Zwick, S.; Zagt, R.J.; Lynam, A.J.; Linkie, M.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation scientists and practitioners share many of the same goals. Yet in a majority of cases, we argue, research conducted by academic conservation scientists actually makes surprisingly few direct contributions to environmental conservation. We illustrate how researchers can increase the

  16. Allium compounds, dipropyl and dimethyl thiosulfinates as antiproliferative and differentiating agents of human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Merhi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Faten Merhi1, Jacques Auger2, Francine Rendu1, Brigitte Bauvois11UMR 7131 UPMC Paris Universitas/CNRS, Groupe Hospitalier Broussais-HEGP, Paris, France; 2University F. Rabelais, IRBI, UPRESA CNRS 6035, Tours, FranceAbstract: Epidemiologic studies support the premise that Allium vegetables may lower the risk of cancers. The beneficial effects appear related to the organosulfur products generated upon processing of Allium. Leukemia cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML display high proliferative capacity and have a reduced capacity of undergoing apoptosis and maturation. Whether the sulfur-containing molecules thiosulfinates (TS, diallyl TS (All2TS, dipropyl TS (Pr2TS and dimethyl TS (Me2TS, are able to exert chemopreventative activity against AML is presently unknown. The present study was an evaluation of proliferation, cytotoxicity, differentiation and secretion of AML cell lines (U937, NB4, HL-60, MonoMac-6 in response to treatment with these TS and their related sulfides (diallylsulfide, diallyl disulfide, dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide. As assessed by flow cytometry, ELISA, gelatin zymogaphy and RT-PCR, we showed that Pr2TS and Me2TS, but not All2TS and sulfides, 1 inhibited cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner and this process was neither due to cytotoxicity nor apoptosis, 2 induced macrophage maturation, and 3 inhibited the levels of secreted MMP-9 (protein and activity and TNF-α protein, without altering mRNA levels. By establishing for the first time that Pr2TS and Me2TS affect proliferation, differentiation and secretion of leukemic cell lines, this study provides the opportunity to explore the potential efficiency of these molecules in AML.Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, thiosulfinate, proliferation, differentiation, matrix metalloproteinase-9

  17. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are consumed on a daily basis universally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural characterisation of malonyl flavonols in leek (Allium porrum L.) using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna, Leonardo Di; Mazzotti, Fabio; Taverna, Domenico; Napoli, Anna; Sindona, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables contain a variety of phytochemicals that have the ability to modify enzymatic and chemical reactions, and therefore may have a positive influence on human health. In particular kaempferol is known to possess anti-carcinogenic activity. The purpose of this work was to determine the structure of glycosylated kaempferol derivatives, acylated with malonic acid on the sugar portion. A methanolic extract of the leaves of Allium porrum L. was submitted to fractionation procedures through semi-preparative HPLC/UV-MS techniques. The collected fractions were evaluated by accurate tandem mass spectrometry experiments using an electrospray ionisation (ESI) quadrupole time-of-flight instrument. Isolated compounds were hydrolysed in order to obtain information on the ester moieties. The structures of five compounds not previously reported in leek were determined. The molecules are mono-hexose, di-hexose and coumaroyl, feruloyl and caffeoyl acylated di-hexose derivatives of kaempferol. The common characteristic of the structures relies on the presence of the malonyl moiety on the primary alcoholic function of the sugar immediately linked to the aglycone. Accurate tandem MS experiments and basic hydrolysis treatments revealed a sequence of the acylated glycosidic moieties. A set of secondary metabolites of the aerial part of Allium porrum L. (leek) was identified and characterised by ESI/MS(2) . Knowledge of the presence of these first-reported compounds in leek could provide the means for fully understanding of the metabolism of this plant in relation to the biosynthesis of the phenolics. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A Novel Therapeutic Approach in the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Allium ursinum Liophylisate Alleviates Symptoms Comparably to Sildenafil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombicz, Mariann; Priksz, Daniel; Varga, Balazs; Kurucz, Andrea; Kertész, Attila; Takacs, Akos; Posa, Aniko; Kiss, Rita; Szilvassy, Zoltan; Juhasz, Bela

    2017-01-01

    Right-sided heart failure—often caused by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure—is a chronic and progressive condition with particularly high mortality rates. Recent studies and our current findings suggest that components of Wild garlic (Allium ursinum, AU) may play a role in reducing blood pressure, inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), as well as improving right ventricle function in rabbit models with heart failure. We hypothesize that AU may mitigate cardiovascular damage caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and has value in the supplementary treatment of the complications of the disease. In this present investigation, PAH was induced by a single dose of monocrotaline (MCT) injection in Sprague-Dawley rats, and animals were divided into 4 treatment groups as follows: I. healthy control animals (Control group); II. pulmonary hypertensive rats (PAH group); III. pulmonary hypertensive rats + daily sildenafil treatment (Sildenafil group); and IV. pulmonary hypertensive rats + Wild garlic liophylisate-enriched chow (WGLL group), for 8 weeks. Echocardiographic measurements were obtained on the 0 and 8 weeks with fundamental and Doppler imaging. Isolated working heart method was used to determinate cardiac functions ex vivo after thoracotomy on the 8th week. Histological analyses were carried out on excised lung samples, and Western blot technique was used to determine Phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme (PDE5) expression in both myocardial and pulmonary tissues. Our data demonstrate that right ventricle function measured by echocardiography was deteriorated in PAH animals compared to controls, which was counteracted by AU treatment. Isolated working heart measurements showed elevated aortic flow in WGLL group compared to PAH animals. Histological analysis revealed dramatic increase in medial wall thickness of pulmonary arteries harvested from PAH animals, but arteries of animals in sildenafil- and WGLL-treated groups showed physiological status

  20. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is promoted by policy makers and international organizations as a tool for advancing conservation agendas, while contributing to poverty alleviation and human development, under the banner of ecotourism or sustainable tourism. However, the indiscriminating use of complex and ambiguous...

  1. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  2. Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Börner, Dirk; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Kalz, M., Börner, D., Ternier, S., & Specht, M. (2013, 31 January). Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit. Presentation given at the symposium "Groene ICT en Duurzame ontwikkeling: Meters maken in het Hoger Onderwijs", Driebergen, The Netherlands.

  3. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  4. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Analysis suggests that progress in conservation of plastics objects and artworks can be described by a series of overlapping mesocycles. Focus has been placed for periods of 5-10 years each on determining the degradation pathways in the 1990s, developing strategies to inhibit those pathways from...... plastics has been the origin of the data describing lifetimes. By contrast, mesocycles in developing suitable storage and display microclimates for plastics have mirrored preventive conservation practices for natural polymeric materials. The rate of the third mesocycle, interventive conservation, has been...... driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...

  5. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0578-AA58 Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, United States... concerning the Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) coordination responsibilities. DATES..., Director, Ecological Sciences Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation...

  6. Orchid conservation: further links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Due in great part to their often complex interactions with mycorrhizal fungi, pollinators and host trees, Orchidaceae present particular challenges for conservation. Furthermore, orchids, as potentially the largest family of angiosperms with >26000 species, species complexes and frequent hybrid formation, are complex to catalogue. Following a highlight in 2015, a further seven papers focusing on orchids, their interactions with beneficial organisms, pollinators and mycorrhiza, and other factors relating to their conservation, including threats from human utilization and changing land use, are presented here. The production of an online flora of all known plants and an assessment of the conservation status of all known plant species as far as possible, to guide conservation action are the first two targets of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation Without knowing how many species there are and how they should be circumscribed, neither of these targets is achievable. Orchids are a fascinating subject for fundamental research with rapid species evolution, specific organ structure and development, but they also suffer from high levels of threat. Effective orchid conservation must take account of the beneficial interactions with fungi and pollinators and the potentially detrimental effects of over-collection and changes in land use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  8. Estudo quimico do Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng biomonitorado pela avaliação da atividade anti-Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Luis Taminato

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: De uso freqüente na medicina popular, o gênero Allium inclui mais de 600 espécies encontradas em diversas regiões do mundo como Europa, América do Norte, África e Ásia. A maioria das espécies é comestível e possui aroma e odor característicos, sendo também utilizadas como hipocolesterolêmico, antigripal e antimicrobiano. Alguns estudos de determinação das propriedades de Allium spp. como antifúngico e de identificação de seus compostos voláteis foram conduzidos. A maior parte de seus ...

  9. Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin; Harnly, James M

    2005-11-16

    Two garlic subspecies (n = 11), Allium sativum L. var. opioscorodon (hardneck) and Allium sativum L. var. sativum (softneck), were evaluated for their free amino acid composition. The free amino acid content of garlic samples analyzed ranged from 1121.7 to 3106.1 mg/100 g of fresh weight (mean = 2130.7 +/- 681.5 mg/100 g). Hardneck garlic had greater methiin, alliin, and total free amino acids contents compared to softneck garlic. The major free amino acid present in all but one subspecies was glutamine (cv. Mother of Pearl had aspartic acid as the major free amino acid). Cv. Music Pink garlic (a rocambole hardneck variety) contained the most methiin, alliin, and total free amino acids. The solid-phase extraction, alkylchloroformate derivatization, GC-FID, and GC-MS methods used in this study were simple and rapid, allowing 18 free amino acids in garlic to be separated within 10 min.

  10. Citotoxicity of food dyes sunset yellow (E-110, bordeaux red (E-123, and tatrazine yellow (E-102 on Allium cepa L. root meristematic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiva Maria Silva Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the food dyes sunset yellow, bordeaux red, and tartrazine yellow on the cellular cycle of Allium cepa L. Each dye was evaluated at the doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL, at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Slides were prepared and cells were analyzed during the whole cell cycle for cellular aberrations totaling 5,000 total cells for each dose evaluated. The mitotic index was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test (p < 0.05. The results showed that the three dyes used under the evaluated doses and exposure times were cytotoxic to the cells of the system-test used. Further cytotoxicity studies should be conducted for additional results and a proper evaluation of the effect of these three dyes on a cellular level.

  11. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon Α.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2016-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the as...

  12. Estudio in vitro de la viabilidad de células Caco-2 en presencia de componentes del aceite esencial de Allium spp

    OpenAIRE

    Llana Ruiz-Cabello, M.; M. Puerto; D Gutiérrez-Praena; Pichardo, S.; A Jos; A. M. Cameán

    2013-01-01

    El aceite esencial de los componentes del género Allium, principalmente ajo y cebolla, presenta propiedades antioxidantes y antibacterianas debidas a la presencia de compuestos azufrados en su composición. La industria alimentaria ha comenzado a desarrollar nuevos sistemas de envasado activo a partir de polímeros seleccionados, a los que se incorporan aceites esenciales que, por sus propiedades, contribuyen a aumentar la vida útil de los alimentos perecederos. En este sentido, se hace necesar...

  13. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Si; Ning, Fen; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and U...

  14. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) with levamisole and triclabendazole

    OpenAIRE

    Bahmani Mahmoud; Vakili-Saatloo Naiema; Gholami-Ahangaran Majid; Karamati Seyed Ahmad; Banihabib Ebrahimkhalil; Hajigholizadeh Ghader; Borjian Sayfollah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica) were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech eff...

  15. Evaluation of genetic and geographical diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) ecotypes of Iran using ISSR and M13 molecular markers

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fakhrfeshani; F. Shahriari

    2016-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) as one of the most valuable industrial and pharmaceutical plants has been studied from many aspects because of its importance. But there is not any sufficient and reliable information about its distribution and classification. So its types are categorized according to traditional, local or geographical names or some visual traits. The most important reason is the sterility of garlic and its flowering inability. This study, as the first report of using ISSR and M13 m...

  16. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq)

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia A. Egea; Leticia A. Egea; Rosa Mérida-García; Andrzej Kilian; Pilar Hernandez; Gabriel Dorado

    2017-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex...

  17. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology ?Genotyping-by-Sequencing? Platform (DArTseq)

    OpenAIRE

    Egea, Leticia A.; M?rida-Garc?a, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex...

  18. Physiology in conservation translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  19. Aberraciones cromosomales en bulbos de cebolla Allium cepa inducidas por moléculas híbridas 4-aminoquinolínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Restrepo Manrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the toxicological properties of three hybrid compounds, quinoline-thiazolidinone (FR-72 and FR-121 and acridin-epoxyisoindolindione (FR- 154, applying named compounds to the test of the roots of Allium cepa onion bulbs. Materials and methods. Molecules FR-72, FR-121 and FR-154 were synthesized de novo according to described synthetic protocols. Clean and healthy bulbs of Allium cepa (2n = 16, previously immersed in distilled water, were dried with paper towels and placed directly into test tubes filled with the test substance. The experiments were carried out at room temperature 20 ± 2°C and were kept in darkness. The period of exposure of bulbs was 120 hours; the roots used for the genotoxicity evaluation were on average of 2 to 2.5 cm in length. The evaluation of the effect of the three quinolinic molecules on the growth of onion roots of Allium cepa bulbs was achieved using different concentrations of the three growth parameters (EC50, IM, ACs The evaluated substances performed aneugenic actions, operating at cellular and molecular structure level and preventing the fixing of mitotic spindle fibers, causing the movement of chromosomes in the anaphase or loss of chromosomes, even inducing apoptosis by exceeding the homeostatic capacity of the cell. Conclusions. The preliminary analysis indicated that molecule FR-121 at 10-6 M concentration and molecule FR-154 at 10-3 M concentration, proved to be potent phytotoxic agents causing various claustogenic and aneugenic aberrations.

  20. Creative Conservation Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Jason

    2015-04-01

    I am a fellow with the International League of Conservation photographers (iLCP) and have been focused on photographing conservation dynamics at the intersection of social and environmental issues for a decade. Subjects have included traditional concerns such as deforestation, water conservation, endangered species, and fisheries. However, I rarely make photographs of the traditional nature, wildlife, landscapes, or environmental atrocities that most people think of when they think about environmentalism. Instead, I photograph people and how they live on the planet, as I believe passionately that without also considering social and cultural concerns, we will not be able to effectively and sustainably do conservation work or achieve positive environmental change. My presentation will share recent photography projects on forest conservation in Indonesian Borneo and fisheries management in Central America where I used a 'stakeholder profile-based' process to broadly survey the complexity of the issues while also making personal connections for these projects' diverse audiences. Through these case studies I will explore the opportunities and challenges of combining the authenticity, accuracy, and scientific validity of journalistic and documentary work with the emotional impact of the conventions of art and storytelling.

  1. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  2. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  3. Energy conservation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of 5-Aminouracil on mitotic cell division in Allium cepa Efeito de 5-Aminouracil na divisão mitótica de células de Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A exposição de células meristemáticas de Allium cepa por dois ciclos de divisões (48 horas, em soluções contendo concentrações mais baixas de 5-aminouracil (50, 100 e 150μM do que as usualmente empregadas para proceder à sincronização da proliferação celular, mostrou que as concentrações usadas causam anormalidades cromossômicas e formação de micronúcleos, mas não bloqueiam a entrada destas células em mitose. As células em mitose e com micronúcleos podem prosseguir em divisão e assim contribuir para o crescimento das raízes de A. cepa expostas às concentrações de 5-aminouracil estudadas. As células meristemáticas da raiz de A. cepa parecem suportar um certo nível de danos não reparados no DNA, os quais não impedem a divisão celular e o conseqüente crescimento dos tecidos. Esta flexibilidade genética do genoma de vegetais deve se constituir numa resposta metabólica adaptativa para sustentar condições ambientais adversas.Cytological preparations of Allium cepa meristematic cells were examined under a light microscope to evaluate the effect of prolonged exposure (at least two-cell cycle to 5-aminouracil (5-AU on mitotic cell division in the roots. The results are a cytological demonstration that a lower concentration of 5-AU than usually employed for synchronizing proliferating cells in A. cepa root meristems induces chromosomal abnormalities and formation of micronucleus but does not fully block the cell flow into mitosis, and that micronucleated cells can proceed in mitosis and contribute to the enhancement of root length values reported by other authors. A. cepa root tip cells seems to support a certain damage level in DNA (around 10% of micronucleated cells in mitosis without having any negative effect on cellular proliferation and growth of the roots. This genetic flexibility of vegetable genomes may permit an attenuation of the adaptative metabolic-response to sustained adverse environmental conditions.

  5. Low Genetic Diversity Among Garlic (Allium sativum L. Accessions Detected Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Escasa Diversidad Genética entre Accesiones de Ajo (Allium sativum L. Detectada Mediante ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Paredes C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is a species of vegetative propagation, showing high morphological diversity. Besides, its clones have specific adaptations to different agroclimatic regions. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 65 garlic clones collected in Chile and introduced from different countries, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Fourty random primers of 10 mers generated a total of 398 bands with an 87% of polymorphism. Each primer amplified between two and 20 bands. The size of the fragments obtained fluctuated between 3200 and 369 bp. The results showed that the clones analyzed had a genetic similarity rate of 94%. In addition, 70% of them were clustered in one major group. However, in spite of that situation several clones have different agronomic characteristicsEl ajo (Allium sativum L. es una especie de propagación vegetativa, que presenta una amplia variabilidad morfológica. Los clones de esta especie tienen una adaptación específica a diferentes regiones agroclimáticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la diversidad genética existente en 65 clones de ajos colectados en Chile e introducidos desde diferentes países, utilizando RAPD (ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar. Para esta evaluación se utilizaron 40 partidores de 10-mers. Los partidores generaron entre dos y 20 bandas, observándose un alto número de patrones con bandas múltiples. Los fragmentos generados difieren en su tamaño entre 3.200 y 369 pb. Los partidores generaron 398 bandas, de las cuales un 87% fueron polimórficas. El análisis estadístico realizado detectó una similitud genética alta, de un 94% entre las accesiones evaluadas, donde aproximadamente un 70% de los clones formaron un grupo homogéneo. Sin embargo, este grupo incluye clones que presentan diferentes características agronómicas

  6. Efecto del extracto de puerro (Allium porrum L. sobre la supervivencia de esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum Effect of leek extract (Allium porrum L. on the survival of sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Argüello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de estimulantes de la germinación de los esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum, colocados antes de la implantación del cultivo, son una alternativa de manejo de la enfermedad. Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto de puerro (Allium porrum L. sobre la supervivencia de los esclerocios del patógeno. Extracto de puerro fue colocado en cajas de Petri con 50 esclerocios, mezclados con 10 g de suelo, a las concentraciones 50, 75 y 100% (extracto en agua. Se determinó la eficiencia sobre la germinación de los esclerocios y la viabilidad de los recuperados, no germinados, ambos a los 30 y 60 días. El extracto de puerro disminuyó el porcentaje de esclerocios recuperados. Con extracto al 100% y 75% germinaron un 32-38,5% y 31,5-35,5%, respectivamente, de los esclerocios en los dos tiempos evaluados, y valores menores se encontraron con extracto al 50%. La viabilidad de los esclerocios recuperados disminuyó entre 66,5 y 54,5%, para el extracto al 100%, y entre 68,5% y 51,5% para el extracto al 75%, a los 30 y 60 días, respectivamente. La supervivencia de los esclerocios disminuyó por la estimulación de la germinación y por la pérdida de viabilidad luego de aplicados los extractos.The use of sclerotial germination stimulants of Sclerotium cepivorum prior to crop planting is an alternative for the management of the disease. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of leek extract (Allium porrum L. on the survival of sclerotia of S. cepivorum. Aqueous leek extract at concentrations of 50, 75 and 100% were placed in Petri dishes containing 50 sclerotia mixed with 10 g soil. Both the efficacy of the extract on sclerotia germination and the viability of recovered ungerminated sclerotia were determined after 30 and 60 days. Leek extract reduced the percentage of recovered sclerotia in all cases. Percentages of germinated sclerotia ranged from 32 to 38.5% and from 31.5% to 35.5% at 100% and 75% extract concentration respectively, at

  7. Future directions for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The use of target baselines or reference states for conservation and restoration has become increasingly problematic and impractical, due to rapid environmental change, the paradigm shift in ecology from a static to a dynamic view of nature, and growing awareness of the role of cultural

  8. Conservation of Beclardia macrostachya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    little research was done on the biology of these orchids in Mauritius (Roberts, 2001). Therefore, the biology of Beclardia macrostachya was studied and consequently, appropriate strategies would be devised for its conservation. There is only one known species under the genus Beclardia which is Beclardia macrostachya ...

  9. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  10. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  11. Urban bird conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, Robbert P.H.; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kwak, Robert G.M.; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Parsons, Holly; Awasthy, Monica; Sierdsema, Henk L.K.; Marzluff, John M.; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Laet, de Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird

  12. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  13. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  14. Energy Conservation Simplified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

  15. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position.

  16. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 1 — JUNE 2012. PAGE 5 .... and measurements of deforestation in Africa and Madagascar, but the deforestation itself continues: in some places – espe ... the islands around Africa, in the 1982 FAO compila- tion. For the purpose of the present article, ...

  17. Beyond conservation agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Andersson, J.A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and

  18. Diversidad genética de poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Guatemala, definida por marcadores de ADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Uber Rosales-Longo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad genética de las poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Gua temala, definida por mar cado res de ADN. En Guatemala es escasa la in for ma ción sobre la diversidad genética de ajo. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: incidir en el mejoramiento de Allium sativum, so bre la base del conocimiento de su variabilidad genética, así mismo, establecer una colección in vi tro de la co lec ción de las poblaciones cultivadas en Guatemala. Los experimentos fueron realizados entre octubre de 2005 y marzo de 2006. La determinación de las variaciones de ADN se realizaron me dian te la téc ni ca de AFLP™. La información se analiza por medio de análisis de componentes principales, análisis de coordenadas principales y análisis de conglomerados. Mediante la inspección de los pro duc tos de AFLP™ y análi sis estadísticos, se detectó una alta variabilidad genética entre los materiales vegetales colectados. Las muestras clasificadas co mo del ti po “Chi leno”, correspondieron a los tipos “Criollo”. Nueve bien diferenciados grupos genéticos se conformaron en un dendrograma y se con fir mó que la diversidad genética descubierta es una función del lugar don de se cul ti van las po bla cio nes de ajo. Se identificó una mayor diversidad genética entre las mues tras de ajo del ti po “Crio llo” que las que se tienen en tre los ma te ria les del ti po “Chileno”, como producto de la mayor dispersión espacial de los primeros. Los materiales genéticos de ajo se encuentran actualmente preservados en un Banco de Germoplasma in vi tro en la Uni dad de Bio tec no lo gía del IC TA.

  19. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2008-01-01

    Background Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Two Garlic Species (Allium Sativum and A. Tuberosum Against Staphylococci Infection. In Vivo Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Venâncio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study observed the effect of garlic extracts and amoxicillin against an induced staphylococcal infection model. MIC and MBC were also obtained for aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (Asa and Allium tuberosum (Atu against Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-sensitive (PSSA - ATCC 25923 and MRSA (ATCC 33592. Methods: Granulation tissues were induced in the back of 205 rats. After 14 days, 0.5 mL of 108 CFU/mL of PSSA or MRSA were injected inside tissues. After 24h, animals were divided: G1 (Control – 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G2 – Asa 100 mg/kg or 400mg/kg; G3 – Atu 100 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg; G4 – amoxicillin suspension 50 mg/kg, considering PSSA infection; and G5 (Control - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G6 – Asa 400mg/kg; G7 – amoxicillin 50 mg/kg; and G8 - Asa 400 mg/kg + amoxicillin 50 mg/kg for MRSA. All treatments were administered P.O. every 6h. Animals were killed at 0, 6, 12 and 24h. Samples were spread on salt-mannitol agar. Colonies were counted after 18 h at 37 °C. Atu was not able to inhibit or kill PSSA and MRSA. Considering Asa, MIC and MBC against PSSA were 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively; and 16 mg/mL and 64 mg/mL against MRSA. Results: No effect was observed in vivo for control, Asa 100 mg/kg and Atu 100 mg/kg, while amoxicillin, Atu 400 mg/kg and Asa 400 mg/kg decreased PSSA counts in all-time points. No effect of any group against MRSA was observed at any time. Conclusion: Thus, A. sativum and A. tuberosum were able to reduce PSSA infection, but not MRSA infection.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Two Garlic Species (Allium Sativum and A. Tuberosum) Against Staphylococci Infection. In Vivo Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Paulo César; Raimundo Figueroba, Sidney; Dias Nani, Bruno; Eduardo Nunes Ferreira, Luiz; Vilela Muniz, Bruno; de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Sartoratto, Adilson; Antonio Ribeiro Rosa, Edvaldo; Carlos Groppo, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: This study observed the effect of garlic extracts and amoxicillin against an induced staphylococcal infection model. MIC and MBC were also obtained for aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (Asa) and Allium tuberosum (Atu) against Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-sensitive (PSSA - ATCC 25923) and MRSA (ATCC 33592). Methods: Granulation tissues were induced in the back of 205 rats. After 14 days, 0.5 mL of 108 CFU/mL of PSSA or MRSA were injected inside tissues. After 24h, animals were divided: G1 (Control) - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G2 - Asa 100 mg/kg or 400mg/kg; G3 - Atu 100 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg; G4 - amoxicillin suspension 50 mg/kg, considering PSSA infection; and G5 (Control) - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G6 - Asa 400mg/kg; G7 - amoxicillin 50 mg/kg; and G8 - Asa 400 mg/kg + amoxicillin 50 mg/kg for MRSA. All treatments were administered P.O. every 6h. Animals were killed at 0, 6, 12 and 24h. Samples were spread on salt-mannitol agar. Colonies were counted after 18 h at 37 °C. Atu was not able to inhibit or kill PSSA and MRSA. Considering Asa, MIC and MBC against PSSA were 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively; and 16 mg/mL and 64 mg/mL against MRSA. Results: No effect was observed in vivo for control, Asa 100 mg/kg and Atu 100 mg/kg, while amoxicillin, Atu 400 mg/kg and Asa 400 mg/kg decreased PSSA counts in all-time points. No effect of any group against MRSA was observed at any time. Conclusion: Thus, A. sativum and A. tuberosum were able to reduce PSSA infection, but not MRSA infection.

  2. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor: A Novel Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor from Garlic Is a New Comrade of the Serpin Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Naz Shamsi

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to purify and characterize the Protease inhibitor (PI from a plant Allium sativum (garlic with strong medicinal properties and to explore its phytodrug potentials.Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor (ASPI was purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography on anion exchanger Hi-Trap DEAE column. The purified protein was analyzed for its purity and molecular weight by SDS PAGE. The confirmation of presence of trypsin inhibiting PI was performed by MALDI TOF-TOF and analyzed by MASCOT database. The ASPI was further investigated for its kinetic properties and stability under extreme conditions of pH, temperature and chemical denaturants. Secondary structure was determined by Circular Dichorism (CD spectroscopy.ASPI of ~15 kDa inhibited trypsin and matched "truncated kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (Glycine max" in MASCOT database. The purified ASPI showed 30376.1371 U/mg specific activity with a fold purity of 159.92 and yield ~93%. ASPI was quite stable in the range of pH 2-12 showing a decline in the activity around pH 4-5 suggesting that the pI value of the protein as ASPI aggregates in this range. ASPI showed stability to a broad range of temperature (10-80°C but declined beyond 80°C. Further, detergents, oxidizing agents and reducing agents demonstrated change in ASPI activity under varying concentrations. The kinetic analysis revealed sigmoidal relationship of velocity with substrate concentration with Vmax 240.8 (μM/min and Km value of 0.12 μM. ASPI showed uncompetitive inhibition with a Ki of 0.08±0.01 nM. The Far UV CD depicted 2.0% α -helices and 51% β -sheets at native pH.To conclude, purified ~15 kDa ASPI exhibited fair stability in wide range of pH and temperature Overall, there was an increase in purification fold with remarkable yield. Chemical modification studies suggested the presence of lysine and tryptophan residues as lead amino acids present in the reactive sites

  3. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor: A Novel Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor from Garlic Is a New Comrade of the Serpin Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Amir, Mohd; Baig, Mohd Affan; Qureshi, M Irfan; Ali, Sher; Fatima, Sadaf

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to purify and characterize the Protease inhibitor (PI) from a plant Allium sativum (garlic) with strong medicinal properties and to explore its phytodrug potentials. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor (ASPI) was purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography on anion exchanger Hi-Trap DEAE column. The purified protein was analyzed for its purity and molecular weight by SDS PAGE. The confirmation of presence of trypsin inhibiting PI was performed by MALDI TOF-TOF and analyzed by MASCOT database. The ASPI was further investigated for its kinetic properties and stability under extreme conditions of pH, temperature and chemical denaturants. Secondary structure was determined by Circular Dichorism (CD) spectroscopy. ASPI of ~15 kDa inhibited trypsin and matched "truncated kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (Glycine max)" in MASCOT database. The purified ASPI showed 30376.1371 U/mg specific activity with a fold purity of 159.92 and yield ~93%. ASPI was quite stable in the range of pH 2-12 showing a decline in the activity around pH 4-5 suggesting that the pI value of the protein as ASPI aggregates in this range. ASPI showed stability to a broad range of temperature (10-80°C) but declined beyond 80°C. Further, detergents, oxidizing agents and reducing agents demonstrated change in ASPI activity under varying concentrations. The kinetic analysis revealed sigmoidal relationship of velocity with substrate concentration with Vmax 240.8 (μM/min) and Km value of 0.12 μM. ASPI showed uncompetitive inhibition with a Ki of 0.08±0.01 nM). The Far UV CD depicted 2.0% α -helices and 51% β -sheets at native pH. To conclude, purified ~15 kDa ASPI exhibited fair stability in wide range of pH and temperature Overall, there was an increase in purification fold with remarkable yield. Chemical modification studies suggested the presence of lysine and tryptophan residues as lead amino acids present in the reactive sites. Therefore, ASPI

  4. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vudem Dasavantha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice (Oryza sativa productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal, coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH, green leafhopper (GLH and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH. Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice

  5. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2008-10-14

    Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which approximately 21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic

  6. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  7. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Bison Conservation Initiative : Bison Conservation Genetics Workshop : Reports and Recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One of the first outcomes of the Department of the Interior (DOI) Bison Conservation Initiative was the Bison Conservation Genetics Workshop held in Nebraska in...

  9. Conservation of Mangifera sylvatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, Sayma

    and mostly focused on wood quality and phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated the conservation potential of wild mango considering its contribution for food, nutrition and livelihoods. To do so, an assessment was made of the current and future distribution of the species, which......Many wild and underutilised plants contribute to food and nutrition. However, overexploitation due to ever increasing demand for wood products has frequently led to declines in populations of these species. Enhanced knowledge of the status of such species is necessary for livelihood security...... and conservation of these valuable species. The present study considers an underutilised and threatened species of Bangladesh, namely wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.). Although this wild mango is one of the genetically closest species to the common mango (Mangifera indica L.) research is very limited...

  10. Cytotoxicity of zinc nanoparticles fabricated by Justicia adhatoda L. on root tips of Allium cepa L.--a model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranath, T C; Patil, Bheemanagouda N; Santosh, T U; Sharath, B S

    2015-06-01

    Zinc nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Justicia adhatoda L. The characterization of nanoparticles was done by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characteristic absorption peak of the UV spectrum was recorded at 379 nm. The FTIR data revealed the possible biomolecules involved in bioreduction and capping of zinc nanoparticles for efficient stabilization. AFM and HR-TEM images have shown that the size of zinc nanoparticles ranges from 55 to 83 nm and they are spherical in shape. The biogenic zinc nanoparticles were evaluated for their toxic effect on mitotic chromosomes of Allium cepa as a model system. Experiments were conducted in triplicate to assay the effect of 25, 50, 75, and 100 % of zinc nanoparticles on mitotic chromosomes at an interval of 6 h duration for 24 h. The investigation revealed that the mitotic index (MI) was decreased with increased concentration of zinc nanoparticles and exposure duration. The results revealed that zinc nanoparticles have induced abnormalities like anaphase bridge formation, diagonal anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky metaphase, laggards, and sticky anaphase at different percentages and times of exposure. It is evident from the observation that mitotic cell division becomes abortive at 100 % treatment of zinc nanoparticles.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Sulfur Compounds Contents and Antiobesity Properties of Allium hookeri Prepared by Different Drying Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hye Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the nutritional and medicinal values of Allium hookeri, its unique flavor (onion or garlic taste and smell coming from sulfur containing compounds limits its usage as functional food. For comparative study, A. hookeri roots were prepared under two different drying conditions, namely, low-temperature drying that minimizes the volatilization of sulfur components and hot-air drying that minimizes the garlic odor and spicy taste of A. hookeri. In GC/MS olfactory system, the odorous chemicals and organosulfur compounds such as diallyl trisulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide were significantly decreased in hot-air drying compared to low-temperature drying. The spiciness and saltiness taste were noticeably reduced, while sourness, sweetness, and umami taste were significantly increased in hot-air dried A. hookeri according to electronic tongue. Although the content of volatile sulfur components was present at lower level, the administration of hot-air dried A. hookeri extract (100 mg/kg p.o. apparently prevented the body weight gain and improved insulin resistance in C57BL/6J obese mice receiving high fat diet. Results suggested that the hot-air dried A. hookeri possessing better taste and odor might be available as functional crop and bioactive diet supplement for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Sulfur Compounds Contents and Antiobesity Properties of Allium hookeri Prepared by Different Drying Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min Hye; Kim, Na-Hyun; Heo, Jeong-Doo; Rho, Jung-Rae; Ock, Kwang Ju; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Jeong, Eun Ju

    2017-01-01

    Despite the nutritional and medicinal values of Allium hookeri, its unique flavor (onion or garlic taste and smell) coming from sulfur containing compounds limits its usage as functional food. For comparative study, A. hookeri roots were prepared under two different drying conditions, namely, low-temperature drying that minimizes the volatilization of sulfur components and hot-air drying that minimizes the garlic odor and spicy taste of A. hookeri. In GC/MS olfactory system, the odorous chemicals and organosulfur compounds such as diallyl trisulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide were significantly decreased in hot-air drying compared to low-temperature drying. The spiciness and saltiness taste were noticeably reduced, while sourness, sweetness, and umami taste were significantly increased in hot-air dried A. hookeri according to electronic tongue. Although the content of volatile sulfur components was present at lower level, the administration of hot-air dried A. hookeri extract (100 mg/kg p.o.) apparently prevented the body weight gain and improved insulin resistance in C57BL/6J obese mice receiving high fat diet. Results suggested that the hot-air dried A. hookeri possessing better taste and odor might be available as functional crop and bioactive diet supplement for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity.

  13. Action of Aqueous Extracts of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae leaves on Meristematic Root Cells of Allium cepa L.

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    ERASMOVLANE S.B. NEVES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aqueous extracts of dried Phyllanthus niruri L. (stonebreaker leaves on Allium cepa L. root meristem cells at four concentrations, 0.02 (usual concentration, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08mg/mL and exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For each concentration we used a group of five onion bulbs that were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective concentrations. The radicles were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1 for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by the crushing technique and stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5000 for each control and exposure time. The calculated mitotic indices were subjected to the Chi-squared statistical analysis (p<0.05. From the results obtained it was observed that all four concentrations tested had significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system. We also found the presence of cellular aberrations such as colchicined metaphases, anaphasic and telophasic bridges, and micronuclei in the two exposure times for all concentrations evaluated. Therefore, under the conditions studied the concentrations of aqueous extracts of leaves of P. niruri showed to be cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  14. Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

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    Saray Quintero-Fabián

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 μmol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile.

  15. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Ultrasonic Extraction with the Solvent Sequences in Chemical Profiling of Allium ursinum L. Honey.

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    Jerković, Igor; Kuś, Piotr M

    2017-11-06

    A volatile profile of ramson (wild garlic, Allium ursinum L.) honey was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/GC-MS) analyses. The headspace was dominated by linalool derivatives: cis- and trans-linalool oxides (25.3%; 9.2%), hotrienol (12.7%), and linalool (5.8%). Besides direct extraction with dichloromethane and pentane/diethyl ether mixture (1:2, v/v), two solvent sequences (I: pentane → diethyl ether; II: pentane → pentane/diethyl ether (1:2, v/v) → dichloromethane) were applied. Striking differences were noted among the obtained chemical profiles. The extracts with diethyl ether contained hydroquinone (25.8-36.8%) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (11.6-16.6%) as the major compounds, while (E)-4-(r-1',t-2',c-4'-trihydroxy-2',6',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)but-3-en-2-one predominated in dichloromethane extracts (18.3-49.1%). Therefore, combination of different solvents was crucial for the comprehensive investigation of volatile organic compounds in this honey type. This particular magastigmane was previously reported only in thymus honey and hydroquinone in vipers bugloss honey, while a combination of the mentioned predominant compounds is unique for A. ursinum honey.

  16. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION AND FREQUENCY CROCOBER PLUS AS ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER GIVING ON THE ONION CROPS (Allium ascalonicum L.

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    Jamilah Munir Munir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of liquid organic fertilizer (POC Crocober plus and frequency of application to the crop of onion (Allium ascalonicum L. had been conducted in Sub Kajai, District lemur, Solok regency for 3 months starting from May to July 2015. The goal was to get the POC concentration and Crocober plus frequency to increase growth and yield of onion. Experiments using a randomized block design in a factorial form that consists of 2 factors. Factor 1 was 5 degree of concentration POC was 0% (P0, 2.5% (P1, 5% (P3, 7.5% (P4 and 10% (P5 while Factor 2, was the frequency of POC consists of two levels ie ; The data obtained and analyzed variance. If the F count larger than F table 5% followed by a test of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The experimental results indicated that application of 5% POC Crocober plus concentration given weekly was the exact interaction to improve the growth and yield of onion with the result reached 13.83 tons/ha.Doi: 10.22216/jit.2014.v8i2.340

  17. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

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    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  18. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    McCallum, John A.

    2011-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential control points we compared plant composition and transcript accumulation of the primary sulfur assimilation pathway in the high pungency genotype \\'W202A\\' and the low pungency genotype \\'Texas Grano 438\\' grown hydroponically under S deficient (S-) and S-sufficient (S+) conditions. Accumulation of total S and alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide flavour precursors was significantly higher under S+ conditions and in \\'W202A\\' in agreement with previous studies. Leaf sulfate and cysteine levels were significantly higher in \\'W202A\\' and under S+. Glutathione levels were reduced by S- treatment but were not affected by genotype, suggesting that thiol pool sizes are regulated differently in mild and pungent onions. The only significant treatment effect observed on transcript accumulation in leaves was an elevated accumulation of O-acetyl serine thiol-lyase under S-. By contrast, transcript accumulation of all genes in roots was influenced by one or more treatments. APS reductase transcript level was not affected by genotype but was strongly increased by S-. Significant genotype × S treatment effects were observed in a root high affinity-sulfur transporter and ferredoxin-sulfite reductase. ATP sulfurylase transcript levels were significantly higher under S+ and in \\'W202A\\'. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens.

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    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  20. Effect of cadmium on the nucleoli of meristematic cells of onion Allium cepa L: an ultrastructural study.

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    Marcano, L; Carruyo, I; Del Campo, A; Montiel, X

    2002-01-01

    This study of the effect of cadmium on nucleolar ultrastructure was carried out with meristematic cell populations of Allium cepa L. Meristems, grown at 25 degrees C, were treated with 10 ppm cadmium chloride. Conventional and silver staining techniques were carried out, and the ultrastructure was analyzed using electron microscopy. Observation showed alterations in the nucleoli of the cells that had been treated with cadmium and this effect varied according to the time of exposure to the metal. After 4h of treatment, nucleolar segregation was observed in interphase, probably because of the effect of cadmium on the synthesis of ribosomal RNA precursors. A decrease in the fibrillar to granular component ratio also occurred in the cells exposed to Cd2+ for 8 h. Some changes were observed in the G1 cells; their chromatin still remained very condensed, and prenucleolus bodies remained scattered within the nucleus. At the same time, there was a large amount of interchromatin granules. These changes produced by cadmium resembled those produced during inhibition of RNA synthesis. The fibrillar bodies, another morphologic feature, resulting from a blocked transcription, were also evidenced. All these observations suggest that one of the ways that cadmium exercises its toxicity is by altering the biosynthesis of the preribosomal RNA precursor.