WorldWideScience

Sample records for conservation tillage systems

  1. Impact of conservation tillage on nematode populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, N A

    1986-04-01

    Literature reporting the development of conservation tillage and the research that has been conducted on nematode control in crops grown in conservation tillage systems is reviewed. Effects of different types of conservation tillage on population densities of various nematode species in monocropping and multicropping systems, effects of tillage on nematode distribution in the soil profile, effects of conservation tillage on nematode control, and the role of nematology in conservation tillage research are discussed.

  2. Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation tillage systems have been adopted by farmers in many countries to solve the problem of land degradation and declining water productivity. However, direct application of such tillage systems was not possible among resource poor smallholder farmers in semi arid areas of Ethiopia. Problems

  3. Impacts of organic conservation tillage systems on crops, weeds, and soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic farming has been identified as promoting soil quality even though tillage is used for weed suppression. Adopting conservation tillage practices can enhance soil quality in cropping systems where synthetic agrichemicals are used for crop nutrition and weed control. Attempts have been made t...

  4. African Conservation Tillage Network Website

    OpenAIRE

    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  5. Comparison of effects of machine performance parameters and energy indices of soybean production in conservation and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, agricultural systems are seeking economic, ecological and bioenvironmental goals for production of agricultural crops with protection and sustainability of the environment. Therefore, there is need to extend sustainable agricultural systems such as conservation agriculture. One of the principles of conservation agriculture is conservation tillage. Conservation tillage is a kind of tillage that retains crop residues on the soil surface or mixes it with soil using related machines. It could also affect on machine performance parameters. Energy consumption for producing one kilogram crop could be studied for conservation tillage. Several researchers have conducted studies on this issue for production of different crops including wheat, sunflower and forage crops. This study conducted to assess machine performance parameters and energy indices of conservation tillage systems for soybean cultivation in Golestan province. Materials and Methods This study was conducted to investigate the effects of conservation tillage systems on machine performance and energy indices in soybean production at the Gorgan research station of Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center in 2012. The precipitation was 450 mm. Soil texture was silty clay loam. Treatments were four tillage methods, including no-till using row crop direct planter, no-till using grain direct drill, conventional tillage usin a disk harrow with working depth of 10-15 cm and minimum tillage using chisel packer with a working depth of 20 cm. Machine performance parameters and energy indices studied in a farm covered by wheat residues in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four treatments and four replications. Machine performance parameters consisted of field efficiency, field capacity, total field capacity and planting uniformity index were measured. Energy indices such as energy ratio, energy productivity, energy intensity and net energy gain were

  6. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration in conservation tillage tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased adoption of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information on the role of various cover crops in weed control, tomato quality, and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, turnip, and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to a...

  7. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil with poultry litter applications in conventional and conservation tillage systems in northern Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, T; Reddy, K C; Reddy, S S; Nyakatawa, E Z; Raper, R L; Reeves, D W; Lemunyon, J

    2008-01-01

    Increased CO2 release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage has generated concerns about contributions to global warming. Maintaining current levels of soil C and/or sequestering additional C in soils are important mechanisms to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere through production agriculture. We conducted a study in northern Alabama from 2003 to 2006 to measure CO2 efflux and C storage in long-term tilled and non-tilled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plots receiving poultry litter or ammonium nitrate (AN). Treatments were established in 1996 on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typic Paleudults) and consisted of conventional-tillage (CT), mulch-tillage (MT), and no-tillage (NT) systems with winter rye [Secale cereale (L.)] cover cropping and AN and poultry litter (PL) as nitrogen sources. Cotton was planted in 2003, 2004, and 2006. Corn was planted in 2005 as a rotation crop using a no-till planter in all plots, and no fertilizer was applied. Poultry litter application resulted in higher CO2 emission from soil compared with AN application regardless of tillage system. In 2003 and 2006, CT (4.39 and 3.40 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and MT (4.17 and 3.39 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) with PL at 100 kg N ha(-1) (100 PLN) recorded significantly higher CO2 efflux compared with NT with 100 PLN (2.84 and 2.47 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Total soil C at 0- to 15-cm depth was not affected by tillage but significantly increased with PL application and winter rye cover cropping. In general, cotton produced with NT conservation tillage in conjunction with PL and winter rye cover cropping reduced CO2 emissions and sequestered more soil C compared with control treatments.

  8. Effects of 24 Years of Conservation Tillage Systems on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24-year study was conducted in southern Illinois (USA on land similar to that being removed from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage systems on: (1 amount and rates of soil organic carbon (SOC storage and retention, (2 the long-term corn and soybean yields, and (3 maintenance and restoration of soil productivity of previously eroded soils. The no-till (NT plots did store and retain 7.8 Mg C ha−1 more and chisel plow (CP −1.6 Mg C ha−1 less SOC in the soil than moldboard plow (MP during the 24 years. However, no SOC sequestration occurred in the sloping and eroding NT, CP, and MP plots since the SOC level of the plot area was greater at the start of the experiment than at the end. The NT plots actually lost a total of −1.2 Mg C ha−1, the CP lost −9.9 Mg C ha−1, and the MP lost −8.2 Mg C ha−1 during the 24-year study. The long-term productivity of NT compared favorably with that of MP and CP systems.

  9. [Effects of Short-time Conservation Tillage Managements on Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Soybean-Winter Wheat Rotation System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Chen, Xi; Hu, Zheng-hua; Chen, Shu-tao; Zhang, Han; Ling, Hui; Shen, Shuang-he

    2016-04-15

    Field experiments including one soybean growing season and one winter-wheat growing season were adopted. The experimental field was divided into four equal-area sub-blocks which differed from each other only in tillage managements, which were conventional tillage (T) , no-tillage with no straw cover ( NT) , conventional tillage with straw cover (TS) , and no-tillage with straw cover (NTS). CO₂ and N₂O emission fluxes from soil-crop system were measured by static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that: compared with T, in the soybean growing season, NTS significantly increased the cumulative amount of CO₂ (CAC) from soil-soybean system by 27.9% (P = 0.045) during the flowering-podding stage, while NT significantly declined CAC by 28.9% (P = 0.043) during the grain filling-maturity stage. Compared with T, NT significantly declined the cumulative amount of N₂O (CAN) by 28.3% (P = 0.042) during the grain filling-maturity stage. In the winter-wheat growing season, compared with T, TS and NT significantly declined CAC by 24.3% (P = 0.032) and 36.0% (P = 0.041) during the elongation-booting stage, and also declined CAC by 26.8% (P = 0.027) and 33.1% (P = 0.038) during the maturity stage. During the turning-green stage, compared with T treatment, NT, NTS, and TS treatments had no significant effect on CAN, while NTS significant declined CAN by 42.0% (P = 0.035) compared with NT. Our findings suggested that conservation tillage managements had a more significant impact on CO₂ emission than 20 emission from soil-crop system.

  10. From Dust Bowl to Conservation Tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Dale

    1992-01-01

    Examines the causes of the dust bowl and recent changes in tillage practices in Oklahoma and other prairie states that conserve soil. Briefly discusses the success of programs that target school children for conservation education. (LZ)

  11. Soil Biochemical Changes Induced by Poultry Litter Application and Conservation Tillage under Cotton Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri Sajjala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems arising from conventional tillage (CT systems (such as soil erosion, decrease of organic matter, environmental damage etc. have led many farmers to the adoption of no-till (NT systems that are more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Results from this study clearly indicated that NT, mulch tillage (MT, and winter rye cover cropping systems increased the activity of phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase at a 0–10 cm soil depth but decreased the activity of these enzymes at 10–20 cm. The increase in enzyme activity was a good indicator of intensive soil microbial activity in different soil management practices. Poultry litter (PL application under NT, MT, and rye cropping system could be considered as effective management practices due to the improvement in carbon (C content and the biochemical quality at the soil surface. The activities of the studied enzymes were highly correlated with soil total nitrogen (STN soil organic carbon (SOC at the 0–10 cm soil depth, except for acid phosphatase where no correlation was observed. This study revealed that agricultural practices such as tillage, PL, and cover crop cropping system have a noticeable positive effect on soil biochemical activities under cotton production.

  12. Influence of conservation tillage and zero tillage on arable weeds in organic faba bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung, Rüdiger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 on a Gleyic Cambisol near Goettingen, Lower Saxony, Germany. A crop sequence of summer barley, winter cover crops (intercropped oat and sunflower and summer faba bean was examined under organic farming conditions. Emphasis was given to the studying of arable weeds in faba beans. However, enhancing symbiotic nitrogen fixation of summer faba beans by accumulation of soil-nitrogen by winter cover crops was a second objective in these experiments. The faba bean field plots had been cultivated with three different tillage systems: 1. zero tillage, sowing with cross-slottechnique, 2. conservation tillage (wing share cultivator, rotary harrow sowing with cross-slot-technique and 3. conventional tillage with mouldboard plough followed by rotary harrow, sowing with precision monoseeder. In plots with zero tillage preceding cover crops were left as mulch on the soil surface. Cover crops accumulated adequate nitrogen amounts and following faba beans reacted with significant increase (up to 10% in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Maximum of arable weed biomass was observed in zero tillage-plots at the end of May or early in June. The abundance of the predominant weed wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis increased with tillage intensity, whereas the abundance of creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense increased in 2010 with decreasing tillage intensity. Average grain yield of faba beans was low with only 3.0 and 2.4 t ha-1 in 2009 and 2010, respectively.

  13. Conservation agriculture and tillage effects on soil organic matter and residual moisture content in selected upland crop production systems in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.; Reyes, Manuel R.; Padre, R.; Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a study to analyze the influence of conservation agriculture and tillage on soil organic matter and residual moisture content in selected upland crop production systems in the Philippines LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  14. [Numerical evaluation of soil quality under different conservation tillage patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Hong; Tian, Xiao-Hong; Chi, Wen-Bo; Nan, Xiong-Xiong; Yan, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Rui-Xiang; Tong, Yan-An

    2010-06-01

    A 9-year field experiment was conducted on the Guanzhong Plain of Shaanxi Province to study the effects of subsoiling, rotary tillage, straw return, no-till seeding, and traditional tillage on the soil physical and chemical properties and the grain yield in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation system, and a comprehensive evaluation was made on the soil quality under these tillage patterns by the method of principal components analysis (PCA). Comparing with traditional tillage, all the conservation tillage patterns improved soil fertility quality and soil physical properties. Under conservative tillage, the activities of soil urease and alkaline phosphatase increased significantly, soil quality index increased by 19.8%-44.0%, and the grain yield of winter wheat and summer maize (expect that under no till seeding with straw covering) increased by 13%-28% and 3%-12%, respectively. Subsoiling every other year, straw-chopping combined with rotary tillage, and straw-mulching combined with subsoiling not only increased crop yield, but also improved soil quality. Based on the economic and ecological benefits, the practices of subsoiling and straw return should be promoted.

  15. Potential Effect of Conservation Tillage on Sustainable Land Use: A Review of Global Long-Term Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Bin; CAI Dian-Xiong; W. B. HOOGMOED; O. OENEMA; U. D. PERDOK

    2006-01-01

    Although understood differently in different parts of the world, conservation tillage usually includes leaving crop residues on the soil surface to reduce tillage. Through a global review of long-term conservation tillage research, this paper discusses the long-term effect of conservation tillage on sustainable land use, nutrient availability and crop yield response. Research has shown several potential benefits associated with conservation tillage, such as potential carbon sequestration, nutrient availability, and yield response. This research would provide a better perspective of the role of soil conservation tillage and hold promise in promoting application of practical technologies for dryland farming systems in China.

  16. Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of conservation vs. conventional tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Katharina H. E.; Ghafoor, Abdul; Haddaway, Neal R.; Bolinder, Martin A.; Kätterer, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Soil tillage has been associated with many negative impacts on soil quality, especially a reduction in soil organic carbon (SOC). The benefits of no tillage (NT) on topsoil SOC concentrations have been demonstrated in several reviews, but the effect of reduced tillage (RT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) that usually involves soil inversion through moldboard ploughing is still unclear. Moreover, the effect of tillage on total SOC stocks including deeper layers is still a matter of considerable debate, because the assessment depends on many factors such as depth and method of measurement, cropping systems, soil type, climatic conditions, and length of the experiments used for the analysis. From a recently published systematic map database consisting of 735 long-term field experiments (≥ 10 years) within the boreal and temperate climate zones (Haddaway et al. 2015; Environmental Evidence 4:23), we selected all tillage studies (about 80) reporting SOC concentrations along with dry soil bulk density and conducted a systematic review. SOC stocks were calculated considering both fixed soil depths and by using the concept of equivalent soil mass. A meta-analysis was used to determine the influence of environmental, management, and soil-related factors regarding their prediction potential on SOC stock changes between the tillage categories NT, RT, and CT. C concentrations and stocks to a certain depth were generally highest under NT, intermediate under RT, and lowest under CT. However, this effect was mainly limited to the first 15 cm and disappeared or was even reversed in deeper layers, especially when adjusting soil depth according to the equivalent soil mineral mass. Our study highlights the impact of tillage-induced changes in soil bulk density between treatments and shows that neglecting the principles of equivalent soil mass leads to overestimation of SOC stocks for by conservation tillage practices.

  17. [Effect of conservation tillage on weeds in a rotation system on the Loess Plateau of eastern Gansu, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-xin; Lu, Jiao-yun; Yang, Hui-min

    2015-04-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the influences of no-tillage, stubble retention and crop type on weed density, species composition and community feature in a rotation system (winter wheat-common vetch-maize) established 12 years ago on the Loess Plateau of eastern Gansu. This study showed that the weed species composition, density and community feature varied with the change of crop phases. No-tillage practice increased the weed density at maize phase, while rotation with common vetch decreased the density in the no-tillage field. Stubble retention reduced the weed density under maize phase and the lowest density was observed in the no-tillage plus stubble retention field. No-tillage practice significantly increased the weed species diversity under winter wheat phase and decreased the diversity under common vetch phase. At maize phase, a greater species diversity index was observed in the no-tillage field. These results suggested that no-tillage practice and stubble retention possibly suppress specific weeds with the presence of some crops and crop rotation is a vital way to controlling weeds in a farming system.

  18. Effects of Conservation Tillage on Topsoil Microbial Metabolic Characteristics and Organic Carbon within Aggregates under a Rice (Oryza sativa L.)-Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cropping System in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Jin; Lin, Shan; Liu, Tian-Qi; Cao, Cou-Gui; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Investigating microbial metabolic characteristics and soil organic carbon (SOC) within aggregates and their relationships under conservation tillage may be useful in revealing the mechanism of SOC sequestration in conservation tillage systems. However, limited studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between SOC and microbial metabolic characteristics within aggregate fractions under conservation tillage. We hypothesized that close relationships can exist between SOC and microbial metabolic characteristics within aggregates under conservation tillage. In this study, a field experiment was conducted from June 2011 to June 2013 following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT)] as main plots and straw returning methods [preceding crop residue returning (S, 2100-2500 kg C ha-1) and removal (NS, 0 kg C ha(-1))] as subplots with three replications. The objective of this study was to reveal the effects of tillage practices and residue-returning methods on topsoil microbial metabolic characteristics and organic carbon (SOC) fractions within aggregates and their relationships under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China. Microbial metabolic characteristics investigated using the Biolog system was examined within two aggregate fractions (>0.25 and 0.25 aggregate, and 0.25 mm aggregate (11.3%), and 0.25 mm aggregate, and 0.25 mm aggregate, and tillage (NT and S) increased microbial metabolic activities and Shannon index in >0.25 and 0.25 mm aggregate in the upper (0-5 cm) soil layer under conservation tillage systems, as well as directly and indirectly by promoting DOC and MBC in tillage increased SOC in aggregates in the topsoil by improving microbial metabolic activities.

  19. Conservation Tillage Impacts on Soil Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, K.

    2012-04-01

    As recent as the 1970's in University lecture halls cotton production was vilified for being "hard on the soil". This stigma is still perpetuated today in the popular press, deserving a close scrutiny of its origin and its reality as soil quality is an essential but unappreciated component of cotton's unique tolerance to heat and drought. The objective of expanding food, feed and fiber production to meet the global demand, during forecast climate disruption requires that scientists improve both the above and below ground components of agriculture. The latter has been termed the "final frontier" for its inaccessibility and complexity. The shift to conservation tillage in the U.S.A. over the previous three decades has been dramatic in multiple crops. Cotton and its major rotation crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) can be grown for multiple years without tillage using herbicides instead to control weeds. Although pesticide resistant insects and weeds (especially to Bt proteins and glyphosate) are a threat to Integrated Pest Management and conservation tillage that need vigilance and proactive management, the role of modern production tools in meeting agricultural objectives to feed and clothe the world is huge. The impact of these tools on soil quality will be reviewed. In addition ongoing research efforts to create production practices to further improve soil quality and meet the growing challenges of heat and drought will be reviewed.

  20. Conservation tillage under threat in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across the United States (U.S.) there were approximately 157.7 million ha of cropland and 127.5 million ha of harvested cropland in 2012. Approximately 44% of total cropland ha were in conservation tillage (both conservation tillage and no-till). In 1989, there were approximately 0.34 ha of conserv...

  1. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  2. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Abolanle Busari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to match food production with increasing world population through identification of sustainable land management strategies. However, the struggle to achieve food security should be carried out keeping in mind the soil where the crops are grown and the environment in which the living things survive. Conservation agriculture (CA, practising agriculture in such a way so as to cause minimum damage to the environment, is being advocated at a large scale world-wide. Conservation tillage, the most important aspect of CA, is thought to take care of the soil health, plant growth and the environment. This paper aims to review the work done on conservation tillage in different agro-ecological regions so as to understand its impact from the perspectives of the soil, the crop and the environment. Research reports have identified several benefits of conservation tillage over conventional tillage (CT with respect to soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as crop yields. Not less than 25% of the greenhouse gas effluxes to the atmosphere are attributed to agriculture. Processes of climate change mitigation and adaptation found zero tillage (ZT to be the most environmental friendly among different tillage techniques. Therefore, conservation tillage involving ZT and minimum tillage which has potential to break the surface compact zone in soil with reduced soil disturbance offers to lead to a better soil environment and crop yield with minimal impact on the environment.

  3. Conservation Tillage Systems on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 329

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP329 ),...

  4. Effects of tillage systems on yield of cotton following canola in Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghaderi- Far

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The conservation system is one of the proper methods avoiding the loss of nutrients, soil erosion, and reduce production costs. This research was examined for studying the influences of tillage systems on the three cotton cultivars at Karkandeh and Hashm-Abad stations in Gorgan. The experiments were conducted in a randomized completely block design as split plot with three replications with five tillage systems (Mould board plough, Chisel, Disc, Strip and no tillage as main plot and three cultivars (Siokra324, Zodrac-Motagenez and Cindoz 80 as sup-plot. The results showed that effects of tillage system was significant on yield. Yield was more in chisel and disk (Conservation tillage by having more monopodial branch length, number of monopodial and sympodial branch, plant height and boll in plant than Mould board plough (conventional tillage and no-tillage system in all cultivars. The Siokra324 cultivar had more yield due to having more boll in plant than two other cultivars. Yield in no-tillage system was lower than conservation and conventional tillage but the grown plants in this system were smaller and had lower branching. Thus population density can be increased for gaining higher yield from this system, and it is recommended to do complete experiments for studying the effects of various population densities in no tillage system and conservation tillage with the conclusive studies are replaced conventional tillage.

  5. The effect of conservation tillage on crop yield in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen LI,Jin HE,Huanwen GAO,Ying CHEN,Zhiqiang ZHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agricultural practices have resulted in decreased soil fertility, shortage of water resources and deterioration of agricultural ecological environment, which are seriously affecting grain production. Conservation tillage (CT research has been developed and applied in China since the 1960s and 1970s, and a series of development policies have been issued by the Chinese government. Recent research and application have shown that CT has positive effects on crop yields in China. According to the data from the Conservation Tillage Research Center (CTRC, Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (MOA, the mean crop yield increase can be at least 4% in double cropping systems in the North China Plain and 6% in single cropping systems in the dryland areas of North-east and North-west China. Crop yield increase was particularly significant in dryland areas and drought years. The mechanism for the yield increase in CT system can be attributed to enhanced soil water content and improved soil properties. Development strategies have been implemented to accelerate the adoption of CT in China.

  6. The effect of conservation tillage forward speed and depth on farm fuel consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jalali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Much research has focused on either reducing or eliminating tillage operations to develop sustainable crop production methods. The greatest costs in farm operations are associated with tillage due to greater specific energy requirement in tillage and the high fuel costs. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with eitherprimary or secondary tillage or planting operations. The amount of fuel saved depends on the combined operations. Generally, light tillage, spraying, and fertilizing operations consume between 0.25 and 0.50 gallons of diesel fuel per acre. Fuel savings of 0.12 to 0.33 gallons per acre can usually be expected from combining operations. Eliminating one primary tillage operation and combining one light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operation with another tillage or planting operation can usually save at least a gallon of diesel fuel per acre. Combining operations has the added benefit of reducing wheel traffic and compaction. To improve the tillage energy efficiency, implementing effective and agronomic strategies should be improved. Different tillage systems should be tested to determine the most energy efficient ones. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Tillage is a time consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save considerable amounts of fuel, time and

  7. Impact of No-Tillage and Conventional Tillage Systems on Soil Microbial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji P. Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil management practices influence soil physical and chemical characteristics and bring about changes in the soil microbial community structure and function. In this study, the effects of long-term conventional and no-tillage practices on microbial community structure, enzyme activities, and selected physicochemical properties were determined in a continuous corn system on a Decatur silt loam soil. The long-term no-tillage treatment resulted in higher soil carbon and nitrogen contents, viable microbial biomass, and phosphatase activities at the 0–5 cm depth than the conventional tillage treatment. Soil microbial community structure assessed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA varied by tillage practice and soil depth. The abundance of PLFAs indicative of fungi, bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and actinobacteria was consistently higher in the no-till surface soil. Results of principal components analysis based on soil physicochemical and enzyme variables were in agreement with those based on PLFA and ARISA profiles. Soil organic carbon was positively correlated with most of the PLFA biomarkers. These results indicate that tillage practice and soil depth were two important factors affecting soil microbial community structure and activity, and conservation tillage practices improve both physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil.

  8. Conservation tillage affects species composition but not species diversity: a comparative study in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscutti, Francesco; Sigura, Maurizia; Gambon, Nadia; Lagazio, Corrado; Krüsi, Bertil O; Bonfanti, Pierluigi

    2015-02-01

    Conservation tillage (CT) is widely considered to be a practice aimed at preserving several ecosystem functions. In the literature, however, there seems to be no clear pattern with regard to its benefits on species diversity and species composition. In Northern Italy, we compared species composition and diversity of both vascular plants and Carabids under two contrasting tillage systems, i.e., CT and conventional tillage, respectively. We hypothesized a significant positive impact of CT on both species diversity and composition. We also considered the potential influence of crop type. The tillage systems were studied under open field conditions with three types of annual crops (i.e., maize, soybean, and winter cereals), using a split-plot design on pairs of adjacent fields. Linear mixed models were applied to test tillage system, crop, and interaction effects on diversity indices. Plant and Carabids communities were analyzed by multivariate methods (CCA). On the whole, 136 plant and 51 carabid taxa were recorded. The two tillage systems studied did not differ in floristic or carabid diversity. Species composition, by contrast, proved to be characteristic for each combination of tillage system and crop type. In particular, CT fields were characterized by nutrient demanding weeds and the associated Carabids. The differences were especially pronounced in fields with winter cereals. The same was true for the flora and Carabids along the field boundaries. For studying the effects of CT practices on the sustainability of agro-ecosystems, therefore, the focus should be on species composition rather than on diversity measures.

  9. Soil Tillage Conservation and its Effect on Soil Properties Bioremediation and Sustained Production of Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Muresan, Liliana; Andriuca, Valentina; Cojocaru, Olesea

    2017-04-01

    Soil Tillage Conservation (STC) is considered major components of agricultural technology for soil conservation strategies and part of Sustainable Agriculture (SA). Human action upon soil by tillage determines important morphological, physical-chemical and biological changes, with different intensities and evaluative directions. Nowadays, internationally is unanimous accepted the fact that global climatic changes are the results of human intervention in the bio-geo-chemical water and material cycle, and the sequestration of carbon in soil is considered an important intervention to limit these changes. STC involves reducing the number of tillage's (minimum tillage) to direct sowing (no-tillage) and plant debris remains at the soil surface in the ratio of at least 30%. Plant debris left on the soil surface or superficial incorporated contributes to increased biological activity and is an important source of carbon sequestration. STC restore soil structure and improve overall soil drainage, allowing more rapid infiltration of water into soil. The result is a soil bioremediation, more productive, better protected against wind and water erosion and requires less fuel for preparing the germinative bed. Carbon sequestration in soil is net advantageous, improving the productivity and sustainability. We present the influence of conventional plough tillage system on soil, water and organic matter conservation in comparison with an alternative minimum tillage (paraplow, chisel plow and rotary harrow) and no-tillage system. The application of STC increased the organic matter content 0.8 to 22.1% and water stabile aggregate content from 1.3 to 13.6%, in the 0-30 cm depth, as compared to the conventional system. For the organic matter content and the wet aggregate stability, the statistical analysis of the data showed, increasing positive significance of STC. While the soil fertility and the wet aggregate stability were initially low, the effect of conservation practices on the

  10. Conservation Tillage of Grain Sorghum and Soybeans:A Stochastic Dominance Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mikesell, Chris L.; Williams, Jeffery R.; Long, James H.

    1987-01-01

    Three tillage systems: conventional tillage, ridge tillage and notillage are evaluated using stochastic dominance with respect to a function analysis. Each tillage system is evaluated for three cropping patterns: continuous grain sorghum, continuous soybeans, and soybeans after grain sorghum. Conventional tillage continuous grain sorghum would be preferred by risk averse managers, although small changes in production costs and yield differences could lead to indifference between a no-tillage ...

  11. Developments in conservation tillage in rainfed regions of North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Cai, D.X.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.; Perdok, U.D.

    2007-01-01

    Dryland regions in northern China account for over 50% of the nation's total area, where farming development is constrained by adverse weather, topography and water resource conditions, low fertility soils, and poor soil management. Conservation tillage research and application in dryland regions of

  12. The effects of forward speed and depth of conservation tillage on soil bulk density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahmoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation of tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption, and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with either primary or secondary tillage or planting operations. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Moreover, it helps easier development of root through reducing soil penetration resistance. Tillage is a time-consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save substantial amounts of fuel, time and energy consumption. Conservation tillage loosens the soil without turning, but by remaining the plant left overs, stems and roots. Bulk density reflects the soil’s ability to function for structural support, water and solute movement, and soil aeration. Bulk densities above thresholds indicate impaired function. Bulk density is also used to convert between weight and volume of soil. It is used to express soil physical, chemical and biological measurements on a volumetric basis for soil quality assessment and comparisons between management systems. This increases the validity of comparisons by removing the error associated with differences in soil density at the time of sampling. The aim of conservation tillage is to fix the soil structure. This investigation was carried out considering the advantages of conservation tillage and less scientific research works on imported conservation tillage devices and those which are made inside the country

  13. Monitoring of Conservation Tillage and Tillage Intensity by Ground and Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Rostami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Local information about tillage intensity and ground residue coverage is useful for policies in agricultural extension, tillage implement design and upgrading management methods. The current methods for assessing crop residue coverage and tillage intensity such as residue weighing methods, line-transect and photo comparison methods are tedious and time-consuming. The present study was devoted to investigate accurate methods for monitoring residue management and tillage practices. The satellite imagery technique was used as a rapid and spatially explicit method for delineating crop residue coverage and as an estimator of conservation tillage adoption and intensity. The potential of multispectral high-spatial resolution WorldView-2 local data was evaluated using the total of eleven satellite spectral indices and Linear Spectral Unmixing Analysis (LSUA. The total of ninety locations was selected for this study and for each location the residue coverage was measured by the image processing method and recorded as ground control. The output of indices and LSUA method were individually correlated to the control and the relevant R2 was calculated. Results indicated that crop residue cover was related to IPVI, RVI1, RVI2 and GNDVI spectral indices and satisfactory correlations were established (0.74 - 0.81. The crop residue coverage estimated from the LSUA approach was found to be correlated with the ground residue data (0.75. Two effective indices named as Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI with maximum R2 were considered for classification of tillage intensity. Results indicated that the classification accuracy with IPVI and RVI indices in different conditions varied from 78-100 percent and therefore in good agreement with ground measurement, observations and field records.

  14. Rainfall risk and the potential of reduced tillage systems to conserve soil water in semi-arid cropping systems of southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Munguambe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of household food security in the Limpopo Basin has been elusive due to a combination of factors related to information and market constraints, but also farmers’ risk aversion induced by the high variability of rainfall during the growing season. The purpose of this study was to (1 characterize the rainfall and growing season patterns experienced by smallholder farmers, and (2 measure soil water dynamics in ripper and basin tillage systems being promoted in the semi-arid Limpopo Basin of southern Africa. The results show that the second half of the growing season receives more rainfall than the first half in the Limpopo Basin. However, rainfall is more variable during the January-March than the October-December period. Growing seasons start earlier and end later in the Mozambique part of the basin which is closer to the Indian Ocean. The Limpopo Basin is prone to two and three week dry spells with chances of 14 day spells higher (34–42% than the 21 day spells (8–12%. The chances of 14 and 21 day dry spells increase substantially during the second half of the growing season. The 1980–1990 was one of the driest decades in the Limpopo Basin. Planting basin system conserved more soil water on sandy loam (18–24% and clay loam (4–12% soils than the conventional practice during flowering and grain filling maize growth stages. Ripper had 17–29% more soil water than conventional practice during flowering and grain filling maize growth stages. There is a high risk of dry spells and soil water deficits in smallholder cropping systems of the Limpopo basin. There is therefore scope in promoting rain and soil water management technologies, and good land husbandry in order to reduce risk of crop failure in the smallholder cropping systems.

  15. Impacts of Organic Zero Tillage Systems on Crops, Weeds, and Soil Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M. Carr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has been identified as promoting soil quality even though tillage is used for weed suppression. Adopting zero tillage and other conservation tillage practices can enhance soil quality in cropping systems where synthetic agri-chemicals are relied on for crop nutrition and weed control. Attempts have been made to eliminate tillage completely when growing several field crops organically. Vegetative mulch produced by killed cover crops in organic zero tillage systems can suppress annual weeds, but large amounts are needed for adequate early season weed control. Established perennial weeds are not controlled by cover crop mulch. Integrated weed management strategies that include other cultural as well as biological and mechanical controls have potential and need to be incorporated into organic zero tillage research efforts. Market crop performance in organic zero tillage systems has been mixed because of weed, nutrient cycling, and other problems that still must be solved. Soil quality benefits have been demonstrated in comparisons between organic conservation tillage and inversion tillage systems, but studies that include zero tillage treatments are lacking. Research is needed which identifies agronomic strategies for optimum market crop performance, acceptable levels of weed suppression, and soil quality benefits following adoption of organic zero tillage.

  16. Effects of Conventional and Conservation Tillage on Soil Hydraulic Properties of a Silty-loamy Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Niels Arne; Bens, O.; Buczko, U.

    2004-01-01

    a minimum macropore radius of 0.5 mm, range between 0.02% and 0.1%, about one order of magnitude lower than the figure obtained from visual inventarization. The results indicate a greater continuity and connectivity of the macropore system for silty soils with conservation tillage systems. Therefore...

  17. Effects of Conventional and Conservation Tillage on Soil Hydraulic Properties of a Silty-loamy Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Niels Arne; Bens, O.; Buczko, U.

    2004-01-01

    , the methods of visual inventarization of stained and unstained macropores and infiltration measurements with an infiltrometer were applied to the macropore system. Dye tracer experiments with methylene blue as tracer agent yielded a penetration depth of 120 cm on the conservation tillage plot while...

  18. Integrated palmer amaranth management in glufosinate-resistant cotton: II. primary, secondary, and conservation tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of inversion tillage, cover crops and spring tillage methods for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR) and within-row (WR) management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. Main plots were two inversion tillage systems: fall inversion tillage (IT...

  19. Potential effect of conservation tillage on sustainable land use : a review of global long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang Xiaobin,; Cai, D.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.; Perdok, U.D.

    2006-01-01

    Although understood differently in different parts of the world, conservation tillage usually includes leaving crop residues on the soil surface to reduce tillage. Through a global review of long-term conservation tillage research, this paper discusses the long-term effect of conservation tillage on

  20. Organic weed conrol and cover crop residue integration impacts on weed control, quality, and yield and economics in conservation tillage tomato - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased use of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information be developed on the role of cover crops in weed control, tomato quality and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, brassica and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to ...

  1. Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. አሕፅሮተ-ጥናት .... Previous studies have reported the impacts of CA on yield, soil and water productivity ..... American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp. 29–43. ... Effect of different tillage systems on the quality and crop.

  2. Adoption of Maize Conservation Tillage in Azuero, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    de Herrera, Adys Pereira; Sain, Gustavo

    1999-01-01

    An aggressive research and validation program launched in 1984 in Azuero, Panama, yielded a recommendation advocating zero tillage for maize production. Ten years later, maize farmers in Azuero used three land preparation methods: conventional tillage, zero tillage, and minimum tillage (an adaptation of the zero tillage technology). This study aimed to quantify the adoption of zero and minimum tillage for maize in Azuero; identify factors influencing adoption of the different land preparation...

  3. Cover crop management practices-implications for early season weed control in conservation tillage corn cotton rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the winter cover crops is an integral component of the conservation systems in corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). A field experiment was initiated in 2004 to evaluate weed suppression provided by winter cover crops in a conservation tillage corn and cotton rotation. Rotati...

  4. [Effects of conservation tillage on the composition of soil exchangeable base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Lou, Yi-Lai; Zhang, Xiao-Ke; Liang, Wen-Ju; Liang, Lei

    2010-06-01

    Taking the soil in Zhangwu County of Liaoning Province as test object, a comparative study was made to understand the composition of soil exchangeable base under traditional tillage and 6-year conservation tillage (no-tillage plus straw mulch). Comparing with traditional tillage, conservation tillage increased the total amount of exchangeable base (SEB) and the contents of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in top (0-15 cm) soil, suggesting its positive effect in increasing soil nutrient holding capacity and buffering ability. This effect had a close relationship with the changes of soil organic matter and clay contents, according to correlation analysis. In addition, the K/SEB and Ca/Mg ratios were higher, while the (Ca+Mg)/SEB, Ca/K, and Mg/K ratios were lower under conservation tillage than under traditional tillage, illustrating that the effects of conservation tillage on soil exchangeable base were mainly presented in the relative enrichment of soil exchangeable Ca and K, especially K. Conservation tillage increased the stratification ratio (0-5 cm/5-15 cm and 0-5 cm/15-30 cm) of soil exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg, and SEB, suggesting the increase of the vertical variability of SEB in plough layer.

  5. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Shannon (H') and Gini (1-G) diversity index of microbial communities were determined in soil samples (0-10 cm depth) taken in autumn 2009. All the enzymatic activities and the biomass estimated by viable cell counting were significantly higher under no-till than under conventional tillage. However, only fluorescents pseudomonas population was increased under no-till, meanwhile oligotrophic bacteria and actinomycetes populations were higher with conventional tillage than with no-till. Overall, there was a higher use all the group of carbon sources used in the BiologR test with conventional tillage than with no-till, by except amines and phenols which showed non-significant differences. This reveals different physiological profiles in the microbial communities under both tillage systems. The Gini diversity was significantly lower with no-till than with conventional tillage. It can be concluded that no-till increases microbial biomass in soil and subsequently enzymatic activities likely ascribed to an increased organic matter content. Under low availability of hydrocarbon sources in soil due to conventional tillage, which promotes a decrease in the organic matter content of the soil, populations of oligotrophods and the diversity of microbial communities are increased. Under these conditions, there must not be dominant carbon sources promoting the selection of microorganisms with a given physiological profile. The reduced hydrocarbon availability and the higher diversity contribute to explain the increased use of carbon sources used in Biolog with conventional tillage than with no-till.

  6. Soil organic carbon sequestration and tillage systems in Mediterranean environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Di Bene, Claudia; Marchetti, Alessandro; Farina, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon sequestration is of special interest in Mediterranean areas, where rainfed cropping systems are prevalent, inputs of organic matter to soils are low and mostly rely on crop residues, while losses are high due to climatic and anthropic factors such as intensive and non-conservative farming practices. The adoption of reduced or no tillage systems, characterized by a lower soil disturbance in comparison with conventional tillage, has proved to be positively effective on soil organic carbon (SOC) conservation and other physical and chemical processes, parameters or functions, e.g. erosion, compaction, ion retention and exchange, buffering capacity, water retention and aggregate stability. Moreover, soil biological and biochemical processes are usually improved by the reduction of tillage intensity. The work deals with some results available in the scientific literature, and related to field experiment on arable crops performed in Italy, Greece, Morocco and Spain. Data were organized in a dataset containing the main environmental parameters (altitude, temperature, rainfall), soil tillage system information (conventional, minimum and no-tillage), soil parameters (bulk density, pH, particle size distribution and texture), crop type, rotation, management and length of the experiment in years, initial SOCi and final SOCf stocks. Sampling sites are located between 33° 00' and 43° 32' latitude N, 2-860 m a.s.l., with mean annual temperature and rainfall in the range 10.9-19.6° C and 355-900 mm. SOC data, expressed in t C ha-1, have been evaluated both in terms of Carbon Sequestration Rate, given by [(SOCf-SOCi)/length in years], and as percentage change in comparison with the initial value [(SOCf-SOCi)/SOCi*100]. Data variability due to the different environmental, soil and crop management conditions that influence SOC sequestration and losses will be examined.

  7. Changes to infiltration and soil loss rates during the growing season under conventional and conservation tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Gergely; Madarász, Balázs; Szabó, Judit; Tóth, Adrienn; Zacháry, Dóra; Szalai, Zoltán; Dyson, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall simulation studies were conducted to determine how infiltration and soil erosion rates vary in field plots under conventional and conservation tillage practices during the growing season: i.) in April while the soil was under green cover; ii.) in May when the soil was a bare seed bed; iii.) in October when the soil was covered in stubble after harvest. At each time, five different rainfall intensities were applied to the plots and the infiltration rate calculated as function of rainfall intensity. The highest infiltration rates were observed on the plot under conservation tillage when it was under the cover crop. Comparing these infiltration rates with those at other times, important differences can be seen. When the soil was prepared as a seedbed, higher infiltration rates occurred when rainfall intensities were less than 80 mm/h. However, when the rainfall intensities were more than 80 mm/h, water infiltration rates were higher when the soil was covered in stubble. This means that natural pore forming processes can be more effective at improving soil drainage potential than temporary improvements created by soil tillage operations. Different methods were used to assess the soil erosion potential. Independently of the method used to calculate soil erodibility, it is obvious that the soil is most vulnerable when prepared as a seedbed. In addition, the highest resistance against soil erosion was observed when the soil was covered with crops. A method of calculating the sediment transporting capacity of runoff found no significant difference between conservation and conventional tillage systems. This contrasts with the Universal Soil Loss Equation method, which indicated differences between the two tillage systems substantial at each time of observation. The lowest difference (less than two times) was when the soil was covered in stubble, which matches with literature data. Overall, conservation tillage resulted in much lower soil erodibility values for the

  8. Tillage for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogmoed, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Soil tillage is the manipulation of soil which is generally considered as necessary to obtain optimum growth conditions for a crop. In the same time the resulting modification of soil structure has serious implications for the behaviour of the soil to erosive forces by water and wind. In Chapter 1 an introduction is given to the most important aspects: the objectives of tillage, the conflicting requirements set to tillage, the characteristics of soil and water conservation in the semi-arid tr...

  9. Soil nitrogen dynamics and leaching under conservation tillage in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation tillage (CsT) involves management that reduces soil erosion by maintaining crop residue cover on farm fields. Typically, both infiltration and soil organic matter increase over time with CsT practices. We compared the impact of a commonly used CsT practice, strip tillage (ST), to conven...

  10. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Information about the quantitative effect of conservation tillage combined with a cover crop on soil structure is still limited. This study examined the effect of these management practices on soil pore characteristics of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial. The tillage treatments (main...

  11. [Effects of conservation tillage and weed control on soil water and organic carbon contents in winter wheat field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Fang; Ning, Tang-Yuan; Li, Zeng-Jia; Tian, Shen-Zhong; Wang, Yu; Zhong, Wei-Lei; Tian, Xin-Xin

    2011-05-01

    Taking a long-term (since 2004) straw-returning winter wheat field as the object, an investigation was made in the wheat growth seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 to study the effects of different tillage methods (rotary tillage, harrow tillage, no-tillage, subsoil tillage, and conventional tillage) and weed management on the soil water and organic carbon contents. No matter retaining or removing weeds, the weed density under subsoil tillage and no-tillage was much higher than that under rotary tillage, harrow tillage, and conventional tillage. From the jointing to the milking stage of winter wheat, retaining definite amounts of weeds, no matter which tillage method was adopted, could significantly increase the 0-20 cm soil water content, suggesting the soil water conservation effect of retaining weeds. Retaining weeds only increased the soil organic carbon content in 0-20 cm layer at jointing stage. At heading and milking stages, the soil organic carbon contents in 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm layers were lower under weed retaining than under weed removal. Under the conditions of weed removal, the grain yield under subsoil tillage increased significantly, compared with that under the other four tillage methods. Under the conditions of weed retaining, the grain yield was the highest under rotary tillage, and the lowest under conventional tillage.

  12. 保护性耕作对小麦-土壤系统综合效应研究%COMPREHENSIVE EFFECTS OF CONSERVATION TILLAGE ON WHEAT-SOIL SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张水清; 黄绍敏; 聂胜委; 郭斗斗; 程秀洲

    2012-01-01

    Combination of long-term(18 years at Zhengzhou) and short-term(2 years at Yanling) field experiment,chemical analysis and data statistics were employed to study comprehensive effects of conservation tillage on wheat-soil system.The results showed that compared with traditional tillage,conservation tillage significantly increased soil organic matter,alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen,available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium.However,there was no significant difference in wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield between the two tillage patterns.The spike number and grain number per spike of wheat in no tillage(NT) and shallow tillage(ST) treatments were more than those in rotary tillage(RT) and deep tillage(DT) treatments,while there was no significant difference in 1000-grains weight and grain yield of wheat among the four tillage patterns.In treatments of NT and ST,soil water content,alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen,available phosphorus,were enhanced,especially for soil microbial biomass C and N.Therefore,in Henan province NT and ST is the better conservation tillage pattern for wheat production and soil continuous use.%采用长期定位试验与短期田间试验相结合的方法,通过室内化验分析和数理统计,研究了河南省不同土壤类型区保护性耕作对土壤理化性质、土壤微生物生物量碳氮及小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)籽粒产量和产量构成因素的影响。结果表明,与传统耕作相比,保护性耕作显著提高土壤有机质、碱解氮、有效磷及交换性钾含量,分别提高24.8%、14.3%、7.8%和24.8%;而对小麦增产效果并不显著。4种不同保护性耕作方式下,免耕、浅耕相比旋耕、深耕,提高小麦穗数15.0%~32.2%,提高穗粒数2.6%~12.6%,但4种处理间小麦千粒重及籽粒产量效果无显著差异;免耕、浅耕较旋耕、深耕可以一定程度上提高苗期和灌浆期土壤含水率、以及土壤碱解氮和有效磷,并显著提

  13. Simultaneous Adoption of Herbicide-Resistance and Conservation-Tillage Cotton Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Roland K.; Burton C. English; Gao, Qi; Larson, James A.

    2006-01-01

    If adoption of herbicide-resistant seed and adoption of conservation-tillage practices are determined simultaneously, adoption of herbicide-resistance seed could indirectly reduce soil erosion and adoption of conservation-tillage practices could indirectly reduce residual herbicide use and increase farm profits. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between these two technologies for Tennessee cotton production. Evidence from Bayes' theorem and a two-equation logit model suggested a ...

  14. Irrigation and cultivar effects in no-till, cover crop, and conventional tillage systems in Arkansas Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This field experiment was conducted in association with a long term tillage study established in fall 2007 at the Judd Hill Foundation Research Farm in Northeast Arkansas to assess agronomic and environmental impacts of conservation tillage systems. In component studies in 2016 we evaluated performa...

  15. [Soil respiration and carbon balance in wheat field under conservation tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Wang, Long-Chang; Huang, Zhao-Cun; Jia, Hui-Juan; Ran, Chun-Yan

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the characteristics of carbon sources and sinks in the winter wheat farmland ecosystem in southwest hilly region of China, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Chongqing. The soil respiration and plant growth dynamics were analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat-maize-soybean. Four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching), and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching) were designed. Root biomass regression (RR) and root exclusion (RE) were used to compare the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration. The results showed that the average soil respiration rate was 1.71 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) with a variation of 0.62-2.91 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Significant differences in soil respiration rate were detected among different treatments. The average soil respiration rate of T, R, TS and RS were 1.29, 1.59, 1.99 and 1.96 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. R treatment did not increase the soil respiration rate significantly until the jointing stage. Straw mulching treatment significantly increased soil respiration, with a steadily high rate during the whole growth period. During the 169 days of growth, the total soil respiration was 2 266.82, 2799.52, 3 483.73 and 3 443.89 kg x hm(-2) while the cumulative aboveground biomasses were 51 800.84, 59 563.20, 66 015.37 and 7 1331.63 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control, the yield of R, TS and RS increased by 14.99%, 27.44% and 37.70%, respectively. The contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration was 47.05% by RBR, while it was 53.97% by RE. In the early growth period, the carbon source was weak. The capacity of carbon sink started to increase at the jointing stage and reached the maximum during the filling stage. The carbon budget of wheat field was 5 924.512, 6743.807, 8350

  16. Experiment of "No-Tillage" Farming System on the Volcanic Soils of Tropical Islands of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Golabi

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study are; 1 to evaluate the use of crop rotation and tillage management for increasing organic-matter content to improve the overall quality of these severely eroded soils, 2 to evaluate the effect of conservation practices on harvested yield and crop productivity of these eroded soils and, 3 to assess the effects of conservation techniques including no-tillage systems on water runoff and infiltration. This paper discusses the effect of conservation strategies and techniques on these severely eroded soils of southern Guam.

  17. Effect of tillage practices on soil properties and crop productivity in wheat-mungbean-rice cropping system under subtropical climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Khairul; Islam, Md Monirul; Salahin, Nazmus; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0-15 cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept).

  18. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON FUEL CONSUMPTION, LABOUR REQUIREMENT AND YIELD IN MAIZE AND WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Filipović

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with five different tillage systems and their influence on fuel consumption, labour requirement and yield of tested crops was carried out on Albic Luvisol in northwest Slavonia in the period of 1996.-2000. The compared tillage systems were: 1. conventional tillage system (CT, 2. reduced tillage system (RT, 3. conservation tillage system I (CP, 4. conservation tillage system II (CM, 5. no-tillage system (NT. The crop rotation was maize (Zea mays L. - winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. – maize – winter wheat. Comparing the fuel consumption to CT system, RT system consumed 6.8% less, CP system 12.1% less, CM system 27.4% less, while NT system consumed even 82.7% less fuel. The labour requirement showed that RT system saved 7.6%, while CP system required 21.8% less, CM system 38.6% less labour, respectively. NT system saved 81.7% of labour in comparison to CT system. The highest yield of maize in the first experimental year was achieved under CT system and the lowest under RT system. In all others experimental years the highest yield of winter wheat and maize was achieved under CM system, while the lowest under RT system.

  19. Conversion of Conservation Tillage to Rotational Tillage to Reduce Phosphorus Losses during Snowmelt Runoff in the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Elliott, Jane A; Lobb, David A; Flaten, Don N; Yarotski, Jim

    2014-09-01

    In a preceding study, converting conventional tillage (ConvT) to conservation tillage (ConsT) was reported to decrease nitrogen (N) but to increase phosphorus (P) losses during snowmelt runoff. A field-scale study was conducted from 2004 to 2012 to determine if conversion of ConsT to rotational tillage (RotaT), where conservation tillage was interrupted by a fall tillage pass every other year, could effectively reduce P losses compared with ConsT. The RotaT study was conducted on long-term paired watersheds established in 1993. The ConvT field in the pair has remained under ConvT practice since 1993, whereas tillage was minimized on the ConsT field from 1997 until 2007. In fall 2007, RotaT was introduced to the ConsT field, and heavy-duty cultivator passes were conducted in the late fall of years 2007, 2009, and 2011. Runoff volume and nutrient content were monitored at the edge of the two fields, and soil and crop residue samples were taken in each field. Greater soil Olsen P and more P released from crop residue are likely the reasons for the increased P losses in the ConsT treatment (2004-2007) relative to the ConvT treatment (2004-2007). Analysis of covariance indicated that, compared with ConsT (2004-2007), RotaT (2008-2012) increased the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 62%, total dissolved N (TDN) by 190%, and total N (TN) by 272% and increased the loads of DOC by 34%, TDN by 34%, and TN by 60%. However, RotaT (2008-2012) decreased soil test P in surface soil, P released from crop residue, and duration of runoff compared with ConsT (2004-2007) and thus decreased the concentrations of total dissolved P (TDP) by 46% and total P (TP) by 38% and decreased the loads of TDP by 56% and TP by 42%. In the Canadian Prairies, where P is a major environmental concern compared with N, RotaT was demonstrated to be an effective practice to reduce P losses compared with ConsT.

  20. Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic

  1. Comparison of Surface Water Quality and Yields from Organically and Conventionally Produced Sweet Corn Plots with Conservation and Conventional Tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, Joshua; Osmond, D L; Line, D E; Hoyt, G D; Grossman, J M; Larsen, E M

    2015-11-01

    Organic agricultural systems are often assumed to be more sustainable than conventional farming, yet there has been little work comparing surface water quality from organic and conventional production, especially under the same cropping sequence. Our objective was to compare nutrient and sediment losses, as well as sweet corn ( L. var. ) yield, from organic and conventional production with conventional and conservation tillage. The experiment was located in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Four treatments, replicated four times, had been in place for over 18 yr and consisted of conventional tillage (chisel plow and disk) with conventional production (CT/Conven), conservation no-till with conventional production (NT/Conven), conventional tillage with organic production (CT/Org), and conservation no-till with organic production (NT/Org). Water quality (surface flow volume; nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment concentrations) and sweet corn yield data were collected in 2011 and 2012. Sediment and sediment-attached nutrient losses were influenced by tillage and cropping system in 2011, due to higher rainfall, and tillage in 2012. Soluble nutrients were affected by the nutrient source and rate, which are a function of the cropping system. Sweet corn marketable yields were greater in conventional systems due to high weed competition and reduced total nitrogen availability in organic treatments. When comparing treatment efficiency (yield kg ha /nutrient loss kg ha ), the NT/Conven treatment had the greatest sweet corn yield per unit of nutrient and sediment loss. Other treatment ratios were similar to each other; thus, it appears the most sustainably productive treatment was NT/Conven.

  2. Adoption of No-Tillage Practices, Other Conservation-Tillage Practices and Herbicide-Resistant Cotton Seed, and Their Synergistic Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Roland K.; Burton C. English; Gao, Qi; Larson, James A.

    2006-01-01

    If adoption of herbicide-resistant seed and adoption of conservation-tillage practices are determined simultaneously, adoption of herbicide-resistant seed could indirectly reduce soil erosion and adoption of conservation-tillage practices could indirectly reduce residual herbicide use and increase farm profits. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between these technologies for Tennessee cotton production. Evidence from simultaneous estimation of a trinomial logit model for adoption...

  3. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (pbiofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  4. Residual effect of soil tillage on water erosion from a Typic Paleudalf under long-term no-tillage and cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastrângello Enívar Lanzanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the chief causes of agricultural land degradation. Practices of conservation agriculture, such as no-tillage and cover crops, are the key strategies of soil erosion control. In a long-term experiment on a Typic Paleudalf, we evaluated the temporal changes of soil loss and water runoff rates promoted by the transition from conventional to no-tillage systems in the treatments: bare soil (BS; grassland (GL; winter fallow (WF; intercrop maize and velvet bean (M+VB; intercrop maize and jack bean (M+JB; forage radish as winter cover crop (FR; and winter cover crop consortium ryegrass - common vetch (RG+CV. Intensive soil tillage induced higher soil losses and water runoff rates; these effects persisted for up to three years after the adoption of no-tillage. The planting of cover crops resulted in a faster decrease of soil and water loss rates in the first years after conversion from conventional to no-tillage than to winter fallow. The association of no-tillage with cover crops promoted progressive soil stabilization; after three years, soil losses were similar and water runoff was lower than from grassland soil. In the treatments of cropping systems with cover crops, soil losses were reduced by 99.7 and 66.7 %, compared to bare soil and winter fallow, while the water losses were reduced by 96.8 and 71.8 % in relation to the same treatments, respectively.

  5. Residue Management: A Computer Program About Conservation Tillage Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Steve J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, Residue Management, which is designed to supplement discussions on the Universal Soil Loss Equation and the impact of tillage on soil properties for introductory soil courses. The program advances the user through three stages of residue management. Information on obtaining the program is also included. (ML)

  6. Tillage and vegetative barrier effects on soil conservation and short-term economic benefits in the Central Kenya highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guto, S.N.; Pypers, P.; Vanlauwe, B.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Minimum tillage and vegetative barriers can conserve soil and water resources in the steep-sloping highlands of East Africa but there has been little adoption by smallholder farmers. Soil conservation efficiency and short-term economic benefits provided by tillage and vegetative barriers were assess

  7. Conservation tillage versus conventional tillage on carbon stock in a Mediterranean dehesa (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Understanding soil dynamics is essential for making appropriate land management decisions, as soils can affect the carbon content from the atmosphere, emitting large quantities of CO2 or storing carbon. This property is essential for climate change mitigation strategies as agriculture and forestry soil management can affect the carbon cycle. The dehesa is a Mediterranean silvopastoral system formed by grasslands with scattered oaks (Quercus ilex or Q. suber). The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. In addition, the dehesa is a practice dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork, as well as hunting. The dehesa is characterized by the preservation of forest oaks. In this work, we compared two management practices such as organic farming (OF) and conventional tillage (CT) on soil organic carbon stocks (SOC-S) in Cambisols (CM) and Leptosols (LP), and we analyzed the quality of these soils based on stratification ratio (SR) in a Mediterranean dehesa. MATERIAL AND METHODS An analysis of 85 soil profiles was performed in 2009 in Los Pedroches Valley (Cordoba, southern Spain). Two soil management practices were selected: OF (isolated trees of variable densities —15-25— trees ha-1, mostly holm and cork oaks, and patches of shrubs — cistaceae, fabaceae and lamiaceae— with a herbaceous pasture layer mostly composed of therophytic species and livestock are introduced to provide organic fertilizer to the soil, without ploughing and animal manure from the farms may be incorporated) for 20 years and CT (similar to OF, with ploughing —annual passes with a disc harrow and/or cultivator— is aimed at growing grain for livestock or at clearing the encroaching shrubs) in CM and LP. The dehesas studied were silvopastoral systems without cropping. Soil properties

  8. Influence of Conservation Tillage on Soil Aggregates Features in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Tillage greatly influences the aggregation and stability of soil aggregates. This study investigated the effects of conservation tillage on soil aggregate characteristics. During a four-year study period (2001-2005), soils were sampled from no-tillage (NT), rotary tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (moldboard tillage, CT) plots at the Luancheng Agriculture and Ecology Experimental Station in Hebei Province, China, and the amount, size distribution, and fractal dimension of the aggregates were examined by dry and wet sieving methods. The results indicated that NT significantly increased the topsoil (0-5 cm) bulk density (BD), while RT maintained a lower BD as CT. Dry sieving results showed that NT had higher macro-aggregate content (R0.25), and a larger mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) than other treatments in the 0-10 cm layer, while RT showed no difference from CT. In wet sieving, results showed that most of the aggregates were unstable, and the MWD and GMD of water-table aggregates showed the trend of NT > RT > CT. At 0-5 cm layer, the fractal dimension (D) of water-stable aggregates under NT was lower than it was under RT and CT. At 5-10 em, RT yielded the highest D, and showed stability. After four years, NT increased the aggregation and the stability of soil aggregates; while due to intense disturbance, the aggregation and stability of the upper layer (0-10 cm) under RT and CT decreased.

  9. Precise tillage systems for enhanced non-chemical weed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurstjens, D.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and residue manipulation can assist weed management by killing weeds mechanically, interfering in weed lifecycles, facilitating operations and enhancing crop establishment and growth. Current tillage systems often compromise these functions, resulting in heavy reliance on herbicides,

  10. The effect of various long-term tillage systems on soil properties and spring barley yield

    OpenAIRE

    MALECKA, Irena; Blecharczyk, Andrzej; SAWINSKA, Zuzanna; DOBRZENIECKI, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    This study, performed on a soil that is classified as Albic Luvisols that developed on loamy sands overlying loamy material (1.4% organic matter and pH 6.5), concerns the impact of tillage systems on soil properties and the yield of spring barley. The experiment design included 3 tillage systems: conventional tillage, reduced tillage, and no-tillage. Continuous cultivation for 7 consecutive years by reduced tillage and no-tillage led to changes in the physical properties of the surface soil l...

  11. N2O and CH4 emissions from a fallow-wheat rotation with low N input in conservation and conventional tillage under a Mediterranean agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez-Rio, Angela; García-Marco, Sonia; Navas, Mariela; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Tenorio, Jose Luis; Vallejo, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Conservation agriculture that includes no tillage (NT) or minimum tillage (MT) and crop rotation is an effective practice to increase soil organic matter in Mediterranean semiarid agrosystems. But the impact of these agricultural practices on greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), is variable depending mainly on soil structure and short/long-term tillage. The main objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of three tillage systems (NT, MT and conventional tillage (CT)) and land-covers (fallow/wheat) on the emissions of N2O and CH4 in a low N input agricultural system during one year. This was achieved by measuring crop yields, soil mineral N and dissolved organic C contents, and fluxes of N2O and CH4. Total cumulative N2O emissions were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the tillage systems or between fallow and wheat. The only difference was produced in spring, when N2O emissions were significantly higher (Ptillage systems, in spite of the higher DOC content maintained in the topsoil of NT. This could be due to the similar denitrifier densities, targeted by nirK copy numbers at that time. Cumulative CH4 fluxes resulted in small net uptake for all treatments, and no significant differences were found among tillage systems or between fallow and wheat land-covers. These results suggest that under a coarse-textured soil in low N agricultural systems, the impact of tillage on GHG is very low and that the fallow cycle within a crop rotation is not a useful strategy to reduce GHG emissions.

  12. [Analysis of soil respiration and influence factors in wheat farmland under conservation tillage in southwest hilly region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Long-Chang; Luo, Hai-Xiu; Zhou, Hang-Fei; Ma, Zhong-Lian; Zhang, Cui-Wei

    2013-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect of conservation tillage on soil respiration in dry cropping farmland in southwest purple hilly region, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Beibei, Chongqing. The respiration and the hydrothermal and biotic factors of soil were measured and analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat/maize/soybean. There were four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching) and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching), which were all in triplicates. The results indicated that the soil respiration rate changed in the range of 1.100-2.508 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) during the reproductive growth stage of wheat. There were significant differences in soil respiration rate among different treatments, which could be ranked as RS > R > TS > T. The soil temperature in the 10cm layer was ranked as T > R > TS > RS. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature fitted well with an exponential function, in which the Q10 values were 1.25, 1.20, 1.31 and 1.26, respectively. The soil moisture in the 5cm layer was ranked as TS > RS > T > R. The best fitting model between soil moisture and soil respiration was a parabolic curve, indicating the presence of soil moisture with the strongest soil respiration. The response threshold of wheat to soil moisture was 14.80%-17.47% during the reproductive stage. The dominant groups of soil animals were Collembola and Acarina, which were correlated with soil respiration to some extent. The correlation was high in the treatments T and R, ranged from 0.669-0.921, whereas there was no remarkable correlation in the other treatments.

  13. [Effects of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emission during the following winter-wheat season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Hu, Zheng-Hu; Wu, Yang-Zhou; Sun, Yin-Yin; Sheng, Lu; Chen, Shu-Tao; Xiao, Qi-Tao

    2014-07-01

    In order to study the effect of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emissions in the following crop-growing season, field experiments were conducted in the winter wheat-growing season. Four treatments were conventional tillage (T), no-tillage with no straw cover (NT), no-tillage with straw cover (NTS), and conventional tillage with straw incorporation (TS), respectively. The CO2 and N2O fluxes were measured using a static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that in the following winter wheat-growing season, conservation tillage did not change the seasonal pattern of CO2 and N2O emission fluxes from soil, and had no significant effect on crop biomass. Conservation tillage significantly reduced the accumulative amount of CO2 and N2O. Compared with the T treatment, the accumulative amount of CO2 under TS, NT, and NTS treatments were reduced by 5.95% (P = 0.132), 12.94% (P = 0.007), and 13.91% (P = 0.004), respectively, and the accumulative amount of N2O were significantly reduced by 31.23% (P = 0.000), 61.29% (P = 0.000), and 33.08% (P = 0.000), respectively. Our findings suggest that conservation tillage significantly reduced CO2 and N2O emission from soil in the following winter wheat-growing season.

  14. MEAN INFILTRATION SPEED IN A VERTISOL UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez Villanueva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction is regarded as the most serious environmental problem caused by conventional agriculture. Few studies are concerned with the assessment of soil compaction using infiltration speed, specifically in the Vertisol soil characteristic of the main maize producing area of the Toluca-Atlacomulco Valley in central Mexico. The aim of this research was to examine the effect on infiltration speed and penetration resistance of a Vertisol soil when compacted by wheeled agricultural traffic in three different types of tillage systems: zero, minimal and conventional. Penetration resistance was measured on the wheel track with a portable digital penetrometer, and the mean infiltration speed was determined according to the double cylinder infiltrometer method. The pressure exerted by the number of wheeled traffic passes increased Vertisol soil compaction at 30 cm depth. Even though the benefits of zero tillage were similar to those showed by minimum tillage during the experimental period, minimum tillage reported the highest infiltration speed.

  15. The Effect of Conservation Tillage and Cover Crop Residue on Beneficial Arthropods and Weed Seed Predation in Acorn Squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N F; Brainard, D C; Szendrei, Z

    2016-12-01

    Conservation tillage combined with cover crops or mulching may enhance natural enemy activity in agroecosystems by reducing soil disturbance and increasing habitat structural complexity. In particular, weed seed predation can increase with vegetation cover and reduced tillage, indicating that mulches may improve the quality of the habitat for weed seed foraging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of tillage and mulching for conservation biological control in cucurbit fields. The effects of mulch and reduced tillage on arthropods and rates of weed seed loss from arenas were examined in field trials on sandy soils in 2014 and 2015. Experimental factors included tillage and cover crop, each with two levels: strip-tillage or full-tillage, and cover crop mulch (rye residue) or no cover crop mulch (unmulched). Arthropod abundance on the crop foliage was not affected by tillage or cover crops. Contrary to expectations, epigeal natural enemies of insects and rates of weed seed removal either did not respond to treatments or were greater in full-tilled plots and plots without mulch. Our study demonstrates the potential importance of weed seed predators in reducing weed seedbanks in vegetable agroecosystems, and suggests that early-season tillage may not be detrimental to epigeal predator assemblages. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Conservation tillage in dryland agriculture impacts watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wie, J. B.; Adam, J. C.; Ullman, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryDryland (non-irrigated) crop production in semi-arid regions requires sufficient water storage in the soil profile to ensure adequate plant available water, particularly in areas where the majority of annual precipitation occurs during the non-growing season. Producers can increase soil water storage through the adoption of best management practices (BMPs) for tillage and crop residue management. The objective of this study was to assess our hypothesis that watershed-wide adoption of no-till (NT) farming would decrease winter water losses and increase early growing season plant available water as compared with conventional tillage (CT) methods. We analyzed water storage potential under assumed full-scale adoption of NT and CT cropping practices in the Palouse region of eastern Washington State by applying the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with modifications to represent the physical changes to infiltration, evaporation, and runoff that result from tillage management. DHSVM yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE) for streamflow of 0.69 for the watershed-scale simulations over the Palouse River basin, which falls within the NSE ranges reported for DHSVM (0.57-0.91). Surface temperature predictions resulted in an NSE of 0.60, and the model was able to predict the soil state (frozen or unfrozen) 81% of the time. Simulated soil moisture was approximately 50% greater under widespread adoption of CT versus NT management during the majority of the winter months. Predicted volumetric soil moisture content for April 1, 2005 was 29% and 34% under CT and NT management, respectively. This difference in winter and spring soil moisture was caused primarily by decreased evaporation under NT, with minimal effects resulting from changes in infiltration. Two simple crop yield estimation methods indicated that increased spring soil moisture under NT management may result in a 21-26% wheat yield increase. We concluded that NT has the potential to

  17. [Diversity of soil fauna in corn fields in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China under effects of conservation tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang-Gen; Zhu, An-Ning; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Huan-Chao; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Cong-Zhi

    2009-10-01

    An investigation was made on the abundance and diversity of soil fauna in the corn fields under conventional and conservation tillage in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The abundance and diversity of soil fauna were higher at corn maturing (September) than at its jointing stage (July), and higher at jointing stage under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. Soil fauna mainly distributed in surface soil layer (0-10 cm), but still had a larger number in 10-20 cm layer under conservation tillage. The individuals of acari, diptera, diplura, and microdrile oligochaetes, especially those of acari, were higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. At maturing stage, an obvious effect of straw-returning under conservation tillage was observed, i. e., the more the straw returned, the higher the abundance of soil fauna, among which, the individuals of collembola, acari, coleopteran, and psocoptera, especially those of collembolan, increased significantly. The abundance of collembola at both jointing and maturing stages was significantly positively correlated with the quantity of straw returned, suggesting that collembola played an important role in straw decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  18. Determination of crop residues and the physical and mechanical properties of soil in different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring and management of soil quality is crucial for sustaining soil function in ecosystem. Tillage is one of the management operations that drastically affect soil physical quality. Conservation tillage methods are one of the efficient solutions in agriculture to reduce the soil erosion, air pollution, energy consumption, and the costs, if there is a proper management on the crop residues. One of the serious problems in agriculture is soil erosion which is rapidly increased in the recent decades as the intensity of tillage increases. This phenomenon occurs more in sloping lands or in the fields which are lacking from crop residues and organic materials. The conservation tillage has an important role in minimizing soil erosion and developing the quality of soil. Hence, it has attracted the attention of more researchers and farmers in the recent years. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of different tillage methods has been investigated on the crop residues, mechanical resistance of soil, and the stability of aggregates. This research was performed on the agricultural fields of Urmia University, located in Nazloo zone in 2012. Wheat and barley were planted in these fields, consecutively. The soil texture of these fields was loamy clay and the factorial experiments were done in a completely randomized block design. In this study, effect of three tillage systems including tillage with moldboard (conventional tillage, tillage with disk plow (reduced tillage, chisel plow (minimum tillage and control treatment on some soil physical properties was investigated. Depth is second factor that was investigated in three levels including 0-60, 60-140, and 140-200 mm. Moreover, the effect of different percentages of crop residues on the rolling resistance of non-driving wheels was studied in a soil bin. The contents of crop residues have been measured by using the linear transects and image processing methods. In the linear

  19. Tillage system does not affect soil macro fauna in southeastern Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manetti, P. L.; Lopez, A. N.; Clemente, N. L.; Faberi, J.

    2010-07-01

    Soil degradation increased incessantly in the Pampas region of Argentina, due to the intensification of agricultural activities, when carried out with conventional tillage (CT) systems. No-tillage system was adopted as conservation practices by the farmers. The objectives of this study were: a) to determine the macro fauna taxa and their relative abundance under CT and NT in two different seasons; and b) to evaluate soil tillage and seasonal effects on the density of the main macro fauna taxa. The study was conducted from 2002 to 2004 in 46 production farms, in Balcarce, Argentina. Ten soil monoliths (25.2 cm side; 30 cm depth) randomly directed field at July-August; and at October- November to determine the number of individuals of macro fauna and Enchytraeidae. Soil macro fauna density did not differ between tillage systems. Oligochaeta Megadrilli density was generally not affected by the tillage system (P > 0.05) except in 2004 when it was greater under CT in July-August (P = 0.0002). Chilopoda density was greater in soils under NT, with significant differences in 2002 in October-November (P = 0.0070). In July-August of 2003 it was higher in CT (P = 0.0109). Diplopoda were more abundant only under NT in July-August 2004 (P = 0.0010). In July-August a significantly (P < 0.05) higher density of Enchytraeidae was found in CT than NT fields. No differences were observed in the taxonomic composition and the relative abundance of the macro fauna when comparing CT and NT. It can be then concluded that in the study region tillage systems affected slightly soil macro fauna and significantly Enchytraeidae. (Author)

  20. Effects of Tillage Management Systems on Residue Cover and Decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZHIGUO; XUQI; 等

    1998-01-01

    The effects of tillage methods on percent surface residue cover remaining and decomposition rates of crop residues were evaluated in this study.The line transect method was used to measure residue cover percentage on continuumous corn(Zea mays L.) plots under no tillage (NT),Conventional tillage(CT),chisel plow(CH),and disk tillage (DT).Samples of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) were used for residue decompostion study,Results showed that the percentage of residue cover remaining was significantly higher for NT than for CH and DT and that for CT was the lowest(<10%),For the same tillage system ,the percent residue cover remaining was significantly higher in the higher fertilizer N rate treatments relative to the lower fertilizer N treatments.weight losses of rye and vetch residues followed a similar pattern under CT and DT ,and they were significantly faster in CT and DT than in NT system ,Alo ,the amounts of residue N remaining during the first 16 weeks were alway higher under NT than under CT and DT.

  1. Economic Comparison of the Undercutter and Traditional Tillage Systems for Winter Wheat-Summer Fallow Farming

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Wind erosion and blowing dust are major problems for traditional tillage winter wheat-summer fallow in eastern Washington. Wind erosion reduces soil productivity and dust particulates are a major air quality concern. Conservation tillage summer fallow can reduce wind erosion markedly, but is used by relatively few farmers in the low-precipitation (less than 12 inch/year) region of the Inland Pacific Northwest. Barriers to adoption include the cost of conservation tillage implements and reluct...

  2. A comparison of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, chloride and potassium loss in conventional and conservation tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage impact on dissolved losses of ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) during rotational cotton and peanut production was evaluated. Tillage treatments were strip-tillage (ST) and conventional-tillage (CT). Winter cover crops were used in both tillage...

  3. Comparison of Sorghum and Wheat Tillage Systems in the Texas Blackland Prairie using Fuzzy Multi Attributive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in cropping systems such as conservation-tillage, however, determining the best alternative between cropping system options is often complicated by disparities in research results due to seasonal variability. The economic cost of the systems further co...

  4. Water pressure head and temperature impact on isoxaflutole degradation in crop residues and loamy surface soil under conventional and conservation tillage management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alletto, Lionel; Coquet, Yves; Bergheaud, Valérie; Benoit, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory incubations were performed in order to evaluate the dissipation of the proherbicide isoxaflutole in seedbed layer soil samples from conventional and conservation tillage systems and in maize and oat residues left at the soil surface under conservation tillage. The effects of temperature and water pressure head on radiolabelled isoxaflutole degradation were studied for each sample for 21d. Mineralisation of isoxaflutole was low for all samples and ranged from 0.0% to 0.9% of applied (14)C in soil samples and from 0.0% to 2.4% of applied (14)C in residue samples. In soil samples, degradation half-life of isoxaflutole ranged from 9 to 26h, with significantly higher values under conservation tillage. In residue samples, degradation half-life ranged from 3 to 31h, with significantly higher values in maize residues, despite a higher mineralisation and bound residue formation than in oat residues. Whatever the sample, most of the applied (14)C remained extractable during the experiment and, after 21d, less than 15% of applied (14)C were unextractable. This extractable fraction was composed of diketonitrile, benzoic acid derivative and several unidentified metabolites, with one of them accounting for more than 17% of applied (14)C. This study showed that tillage system design, including crop residues management, could help reducing the environmental impacts of isoxaflutole.

  5. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON YIELD OF MAIZE, WINTER WHEAT AND SOYBEAN ON ALBIC LUVISOL IN NORTH-WEST SLAVONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio KOŠUTIĆ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents comparison of three soil tillage systems in maize, winter wheat and soybean growing on anthropogenic Albic Luvisol in north-west Slavonia, Croatia, during 1996-1999. Tillage systems and implements were: 1. conventional system (CT-plough, disc-harrow and combined implement, 2. conservation system (RT-chisel plough and multitiller, 3. no-till system (NT. The aim of testing was comparison of different tillage systems energy requirement and its influence on yield. Results indicate that conventional tillage (CT system was the greatest energy consumer with 1813.10 MJ ha-1. Comparing to conventional tillage (CT system, conservation (RT system with chisel plough and multitiller spent 1133.14 MJ ha-1or 37.5 % less, while no-till (NT system required even 85.1 % less energy or 270.13 MJ ha-1. In the first season the greatest yield of maize, 7.78 Mg ha-1, achieved conventional tillage (CT system while next to it was conservation (RT system with 7.77 Mg ha-1. No-till (NT system achieved 7.56 Mg ha-1. Second season the greatest yield of winter wheat, 5.89 Mg ha-1, achieved conservation tillage (RT system. Next to it was conventional (CT system with 5.75 Mg ha-1, while no-till (NT achieved 5.73 Mg ha-1. Third season the greatest yield of soybean, 2.71 t ha-1, achieved conservation tillage (RT system again, while next to it was conventional (CT system with 2.64 Mg ha-1. No-till (NT achieved 2.61 Mg ha-1.

  6. Impact of conservation tillage and organic farming on the diversity ofarbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Säle, Verena; Aguilera, Paula; Laczko, Endre; Mäder, Paul; Berner, Alfred; Zihlmann, Urs; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Oehl, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are strongly affected by land use intensity and soil type. The impact of tillage practices on AMF communities is still poorly understood, especially in organic farming systems. Our objective was to investigate the impact of soil cultivation on AMF co

  7. Escarificação em plantio direto como técnica de conservação do solo e da água Chiseling in no-tillage system as soil and water conservation practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Kurylo Camara

    2005-10-01

    roughness, can affect water dynamics by reducing the water infiltration rate. Our aim was to evaluate changes in soil properties under NT and chiseling in no tillage (CNT, as well as the effect of distinct planter furrow openers on soil characteristics. The following parameters were assessed: bulk and particle density, total porosity, macroporosity, water infiltration into soil prior to soybean planting, surface roughness, percentage of soil surface covered with crop residues before and after planting, and soil hydraulic conductivity after 12 months of chiseling. CNT showed a lower soil density than NT, higher water infiltration, higher saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, and higher surface roughness. Therefore, CNT improved soil and water conservation since there were still residual effects one year after chiseling. Total porosity and macroporosity did not differ significantly between the soil management systems. Soil cover was similar under both managements before planting, i.e., six months after chiseling; however, at soybean planting, the hoe-type planter provided better incorporation of crop residues into the soil than the double-disc type.

  8. Dynamics of soil water content under different tillage systems in agro-pastural eco-zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of soil water content under different tillage systems was studied throughout the growing period of oat (Arena sativa L.).The treatments included tillage system (zero tillage,minimum tillage,and conventional tillage),residue cover (with and without cover),and crop rotation (continuous cropping and crop rotation).The results indicated that soil water content and crop water use efficiency were improved under zero tillage with cover.When crop stubble was removed,soil water content under zero tillage was reduced,especially in the surface soil layer.Compared to conventional tillage,minimum tillage increased soil water content and its storage,either with cover or without cover.For all the three tillage treatments,soil water content with cover was significantly higher than that of without cover.Furthermore,soil water content and crop water use efficiency under crop rotation was consistently higher than continuous cropping.Therefore,it is concluded that minimum tillage with cover is the optimum management system in this area.At present,however,a combination of crop rotation and minimum tillage is a viable option,since there are not enough crop residues available for cover of land.

  9. Water balance and soil losses in an irrigated catchment under conservation tillage in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Patricio; Mateos, Luciano; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez-Macpherson, Helena

    2013-04-01

    Conservation tillage based on permanent beds with crop-residue retention and controlled traffic has been recently introduced in irrigated annual crops in Southern Spain as one way to improve water infiltration, reduce soil losses, and save energy. The water balance and soil losses in water runoff have been monitored during 4 years in a 28-ha catchment within a production farm where this kind of soil conservation practice was established in 2004 for a maize-cotton-wheat rotation. The catchment average slope is 6 %. Soils are Typic Calcixerept and Typic Haploxerert. The water balance components that were measured include: applied irrigation water, rainfall, and runoff. Runoff was measured at the outlet of the catchment by means of a hydrological station that consisted of long-throated flume, ultrasonic water level sensor, automatic water sampler, data logger and transmission system, weather station, and ancillary equipment. We present here results from three hydrological seasons (October to September): 2009-10, 2010-11, and 2011-12. The first season the catchment was grown with wheat, thus the irrigation depth was small (25 mm); rainfall above average, 1103 mm; and the runoff coefficient was 26 %. In the season 2010-11, the catchment was grown with cotton, the irrigation depth was 503 mm, rainfall was 999 mm, and the seasonal runoff coefficient was 7 %. The last season, the crop was maize, rainfall was below average (368 mm), irrigation 590 mm, and the runoff coefficient as the previous year, 7 %. Soil losses were very small: 0.05, 1.26, and 1.33 t per ha and year, the first, second, and third monitored seasons, respectively. A simple water balance model allowed simulating evapotranspiration, deep percolation and runoff. The Curve Number for the catchment was calibrated using the balance model.

  10. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  11. N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from a fallow–wheat rotation with low N input in conservation and conventional tillage under a Mediterranean agroecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez-Rio, Angela, E-mail: angela.tellez@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Marco, Sonia [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navas, Mariela; López-Solanilla, Emilia [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas UPM-INIA. Dpto Biotecnología. E.T.S.I. Agrónomos. Technical University of Madrid. Campus Montegancedo, UPM. Autovía M-40, Salida 38 N, 36S. 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón. Madrid (Spain); Tenorio, Jose Luis [Dpto. de Medio Ambiente, INIA. Ctra. de La Coruña km. 7.5, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vallejo, Antonio [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Conservation agriculture that includes no tillage (NT) or minimum tillage (MT) and crop rotation is an effective practice to increase soil organic matter in Mediterranean semiarid agrosystems. But the impact of these agricultural practices on greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}), is variable depending mainly on soil structure and short/long-term tillage. The main objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of three tillage systems (NT, MT and conventional tillage (CT)) and land-covers (fallow/wheat) on the emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} in a low N input agricultural system during one year. This was achieved by measuring crop yields, soil mineral N and dissolved organic C contents, and fluxes of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}. Total cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the tillage systems or between fallow and wheat. The only difference was produced in spring, when N{sub 2}O emissions were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fallow than in wheat subplots, and NT reduced N{sub 2}O emissions (P < 0.05) compared with MT and CT. Taking into account the water filled pore space (WFPS), both nitrification and denitrification could have occurred during the experimental period. Denitrification capacity in March was similar in all tillage systems, in spite of the higher DOC content maintained in the topsoil of NT. This could be due to the similar denitrifier densities, targeted by nirK copy numbers at that time. Cumulative CH{sub 4} fluxes resulted in small net uptake for all treatments, and no significant differences were found among tillage systems or between fallow and wheat land-covers. These results suggest that under a coarse-textured soil in low N agricultural systems, the impact of tillage on GHG is very low and that the fallow cycle within a crop rotation is not a useful strategy to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: • Tillage systems and land-covers with low N

  12. Integrated Palmer Amaranth Management in Glufosinate-Resistant Cotton: II. Primary, Secondary and Conservation Tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A three year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of soil inversion, cover crops and spring tillage methods for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR and within-row (WR management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. Main plots were two soil inversion treatments: fall inversion tillage (IT and non-inversion tillage (NIT. Subplots were three cover treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye or none (i.e., winter fallow; and the sub subplots were four secondary spring tillage methods: disking followed by (fb cultivator (DCU, disking fb chisel plow (DCH, disking fb disking (DD and no tillage (NT. Averaged over years and soil inversion, the crimson clover produced maximum cover biomass (4390 kg ha−1 fb cereal rye (3698 kg ha−1 and winter fallow (777 kg ha−1. Two weeks after planting (WAP and before the postemergence (POST application, Palmer amaranth WR and BR density were two- and four-times less, respectively, in IT than NIT. Further, Palmer amaranth WR and BR density were reduced two-fold following crimson clover and cereal rye than following winter fallow at 2 WAP. Without IT, early season Palmer amaranth densities were 40% less following DCU, DCH and DD, when compared with IT. Following IT, no spring tillage method improved Palmer amaranth control. The timely application of glufosinate + S-metolachlor POST tank mixture greatly improved Palmer amaranth control in both IT and NIT systems. The highest cotton yields were obtained with DD following cereal rye (2251 kg ha−1, DD following crimson clover (2213 kg ha−1 and DD following winter fallow (2153 kg ha−1. On average, IT cotton yields (2133 kg ha−1 were 21% higher than NIT (1766 kg ha−1. Therefore, from an integrated weed management standpoint, an occasional fall IT could greatly reduce Palmer amaranth emergence on farms highly infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. In addition, a cereal rye or crimson clover cover crop can effectively reduce early season Palmer

  13. Phosphorus forms and chemistry in the soil profile under long-term conservation tillage: a phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Carter, Martin R; James, Dean C; Liu, Corey W

    2010-01-01

    In many regions, conservation tillage has replaced conventional tilling practices to reduce soil erosion, improve water conservation, and increase soil organic matter. However, tillage can have marked effects on soil properties, specifically nutrient redistribution or stratification in the soil profile. The objective of this research was to examine soil phosphorus (P) forms and concentrations in a long-term study comparing conservation tillage (direct drilling, "No Till") and conventional tillage (moldboard plowing to 20 cm depth, "Till") established on a fine sandy loam (Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. No significant differences in total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total P, or total organic P concentrations were detected between the tillage systems at any depth in the 0- to 60-cm depth range analyzed. However, analysis with phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed differences in P forms in the plow layer. In particular, the concentration of orthophosphate was significantly higher under No Till than Till at 5 to 10 cm, but the reverse was true at 10 to 20 cm. Mehlich 3-extractable P was also significantly higher in No Till at 5 to 10 cm and significantly higher in Till at 20 to 30 cm. This P stratification appears to be caused by a lack of mixing of applied fertilizer in No Till because the same trends were observed for pH and Mehlich 3-extractable Ca (significantly higher in the Till treatment at 20 to 30 cm), reflecting mixing of applied lime. The P saturation ratio was significantly higher under No Till at 0 to 5 cm and exceeded the recommended limits, suggesting that P stratification under No Till had increased the potential for P loss in runoff from these sites.

  14. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON NODULATION AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jug

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary soil tillage for different crops in Croatia is generally based on mouldboard ploughing which is the most expensive for crops production. Negative effects due to frequent passes by equipment and machines (deterioration of soil structure, soil compaction, lower biogenity and soil tilth, together with negative economical and energetical costs, can be lowered and avoided by introduction of reduced soil tillage or direct drilling (No-tillage. Accordingly, the main goal of this research was to determine effects of conventional and reduced soil tillage systems on yield components and nodulation ability of nitrogen fixing bacteria in soybean crop. The research was established at chernozem soil type of northern Baranja as monofactorial completely randomized block design in four repetitions. The soil tillage variants were as follows: CT Conventional Tillage (primary soil tillage by moldboard ploughing at 25-30 cm depth, DH Multiple Diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, and NT No-tillage system. Results show significantly lower plant density, mass of 1000 grains and grain yield at variants with reduced soil tillage in both investigation years. However, reduced tillage systems had positive trend on nitrogen-fixing bacteria nodulation, since the highest values of number and mass of nodules per plant were recorded. This research was run during the years 2002 and 2003, the last one extremely droughty, thus it requires continuation.

  15. Contrasting soil microbial responses to fertilization and tillage systems in canola rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Heidari, Gholamreza; Karimi Nezhad, Mohammad Tahsin; Ghamari, Salah; Sohrabi, Yousef

    2012-07-01

    Information regarding the simultaneous evaluation of tillage and fertilization on the soil biological traits in canola production is not available. Therefore, field experiments were conducted in 2007-2010 in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots consisted of conventional tillage (CT); minimum tillage (MT) and no tillage (NT). Six strategies of fertilization including (N1): farmyard manure (cattle manure); (N2): compost; (N3): chemical fertilizers; (N4): farmyard manure + compost; (N5): farmyard manure + compost + chemical fertilizers and (N6): control, were arranged in sub plots. Results showed that the addition of organic manure increased the soil microbial biomass. No tillage system increased microbial biomass compared to other tillage systems. The activities of all enzymes were generally higher in the N4 treatment. The activity of phosphatase and urease tended to be higher in the no tillage treatment compared to the CT and MT treatments.

  16. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Optimal use of management systems including tillage and winter cover crops is recommended to improve soil quality and sustain agricultural production. The effects on soil properties of three tillage systems (as main plot) including direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H......), and moldboard plowing (MP) with and without a cover crop were evaluated in a long-term experiment on a sandy loam soil in Denmark. Chemical, physical, and biological soil properties were measured in the spring of 2012. The field measurements included mean weight diameter (MWD) after the drop-shatter test......, penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K...

  17. 农业机械化与保护性耕作关系分析%Analysis of the Relationship between Agricultural Mechanization and Conservation Tillage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯帆

    2016-01-01

    农业机械化与保护性耕作是相辅相成的关系,保护性耕作通过农业机械化来实现,同时农业机械化技术也促进保护性耕作的推广。分析机械化保护性耕作的优势,以及推广过程中存在的问题,并提出保护性耕作的推广建议。%The relationship between agricultural mechanization and conversation tillage is complementary, conservation tillage is realized by agricultural mechanization, while agricultural mechanization technology promotes the extension of conservation tillage. In this paper, it analyzed the advantages of conservation tillage and the existing problems in the process of extension, and gave suggestions for the extension of conservation tillage.

  18. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems may

  19. Assessment of tillage systems in organic farming: influence of soil structure on microbial biomass. First results

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Jean François; Peigné, Joséphine; Chaussod, Rémi; Roger-Estrade, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Soil tillage modifies environmental conditions of soil microorganisms and their ability to release nitrogen. We compare the influence of reduced tillage (RT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP) on the soil microbial functioning in organic farming. In order to connect soil structure generated by these tillage systems on the soil microbial biomass we adopt a particular sampling scheme based on the morphological characterisation of the soil structure by the description of the soil profile. This method...

  20. Development and Evaluation of Tractors and Tillage Implements Instrumentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Al-Suhaibani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Field machines contribute a major portion of the total cost of crop production. Proper selection and matching of farm machinery is essential in order to reduce the cost of crop production. Performance data for tractors and implements are, therefore, essential for farm machinery operators and manufacturers alike. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an instrumentation system for tractor and agricultural implements. Approach: An instrumentation system was developed and mounted on an MF 3090 tractor to measure and record data for the various performance parameters of the tractor and attached tillage implements. The system was designed to measure: drawbar pull, three-point linkage forces, rear and front wheel forces, PTO torque, ground speed, tillage depth, fuel consumption, engine speed and fluid temperatures. Results: The system performed well during the field operations and the results obtained showed that the accuracies of the transducers were acceptable. The wheel torque and weight transducers measured the torque and forces acting on the tractor wheels with high accuracy. The other transducers measured the vertical and the horizontal forces on mounted implements of categories II (40-100 hp and III (80-225 hp. The field tests showed significant increase in the draft with increases in the depth and speed. A general regression equation to predict draft of the implements was developed. Conclusion: The system was capable of measuring the draft of primary tillage implements on sandy loam soils at various speeds and depths with high accuracy. The data was recorded, displayed and analyzes simultaneously.

  1. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P

    2011-04-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (ptillage soil. Optimum water supply (3-irrigations) enhanced soil respiration over sub-optimum and supra-optimum irrigations by 13.32% and 79% respectively. Soil dehydrogenase (DH) activity in optimum water regime has also increased by 23.33% and 8.18% respectively over the other two irrigation regimes. Similarly, SMBC has also increased by 12.14% and 27.17% respectively in soil with optimum water supply compared to that of sub-optimum and supra-optimum water regime fields. The maximum increase in soil microbial activities is found when sole organic source (50% Farm Yard Manure+25% biofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner.

  2. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.

    2007-01-01

    Residue retention and reduced tillage are both conservation agricultural management options that may enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in tropical soils. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of long-term tillage and residue management on SOC dynamics in a Chromic Luvisol (red clay soil)

  3. [Effects of conservation tillage on soil water conservation and crop yield of winter wheat-spring maize rotation field in Weibei highland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-hua; Li, Jun; Jia, Zhi-kuan; Liu, Bing-feng; Zhao, Hong-li; Shang, Jin-xia

    2011-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2007-2010 to study the effects of no-tillage, subsoiling, and deep-ploughing combined with balanced fertilization, traditional fertilization, and no (or lower amount) fertilization on the soil water storage, crop yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and economic return of winter wheat-spring maize rotation field in Weibei highland. Among the tillage measures, no-tillage in fallow period had the best effect in soil water conservation, followed by sub-soiling, and deep-ploughing. The average water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer in crop growth period under no-tillage and sub-soiling was 6.7% and 1.9% higher than that under deep-ploughing, respectively. Under the balanced, traditional, and no (or lower amount) fertilizations, subsoiling all showed the highest yield, WUE, and economic return, with the best effect under balanced fertilization. The three-year crop yield under sub-soiling combined with balanced fertilization was 6909, 9689, and 5589 kg x hm(-2), WUE was 18.5, 25.2, and 23.0 kg x hm(-2) x mm(-1), and economic return was 5034, 5045, and 7098 yuan x hm(-2), respectively. It was suggested that balanced fertilization combined with sub-soiling had the best effect in soil water conservation and yield- and income increase, being the more appropriate fertilization and tillage mode for the wheat-maize rotation field in Weibei highland.

  4. Application of Multio-bjective Fuzzy Goal Programming to Optimize Cropping Pattern with Emphasis on Using Conservation Tillage Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samad erfanifar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optimal cropping patterns based on individual aims are presented and followed by a multi-objective cropping pattern with emphasize on the use of conservation tillage methods in Darab region presented. Individual goals consisted of maximizing gross margin and food secIn this study, the optimal cropping patterns based on individual aims were presented and followed by using a multi-objective fuzzy goal programming with emphasize on the use of conservation tillage methods in the Darab region. Individual goals consisted of maximizing gross margin and food security and minimizing water consumption and urea fertilizer use. The results showed that in the multi-objective cropping pattern, gross margin and food security increased by 23.5% and 6.1% , while water and energy consumption decreased by 4% and 5.1%, respectively as compared to the current cropping pattern. The fuzzy composite distance improved by %36, as compared to the current condition. Moreover, having replaced the conventional tillage methods with conservation tillage methods in the cropping pattern, the diesel fuel consumption reduced by 27%. Therefore, replacing multi-objective cropping pattern ,on which the conservation tillage methods are emphasized, with the conventional cropping patterns improves economic and environmental conditions. urity index and minimizing water and urea fertilizer.The results showed that in the multi-objective cropping pattern, gross margin and food security index respectively increase by 23.5% and 6.1% and water and energy consumption decrease by 4% and 5.1% respectively as compared to current cropping pattern. The fuzzy composite distance improves by %36 compares to current condition and represents better cropping pattern than the others. Morever in this cropping pattern, conventional tillage method will be replaced by conservation tillage practices, therefore the amount of diesel fuel consumption reduces by 27% that is equivalent to an

  5. Impact of Tillage and Herbicides on Weed Density, Yield and Quality of Cotton in Wheat Based Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Usman; Niamatullah Khan; Muhammad Umar Khan; Aziz ur Rehman; Said Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Conservation tillage may improve yield of cotton in addition to improvement in soil quality if practiced for longer period. However, the practice may not be productive in short-term particularly when severe weeds are infesting the crops such as Cynodon dactylon, Conyza canadensis, Tribulus terrestris, and Cyperus rotundus, etc. Recent studies indicate that conventional tillage (CT) is more productive than zero tillage (ZT)/reduced tillage (RT). Performance of cotton under three tillage systems, viz., ZT, RT and CT;and five herbicides, i.e., haloxyfop-R-methyl 10.8 EC (108 g a.i. ha-1), lactofen 24 EC (168 g a.i. ha-1), haloxyfop 10.8 EC+lactofen 24 EC, hand weeding, and weedy check were evaluated during 2010-2011 at Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan, to explore the best management option for effective weed control, enhanced yield and quality of cotton grown after wheat. The results revealed that hand weeding and Haloxyfop as post emergence alone or in combination with Lactofen reduced weed density to the minimum irrespective of the tillage systems. Excessive rainfall and cooler temperature limited cotton growth and yield in 2010. The adverse weather conditions had more adverse effect on boll weight under ZT and RT than CT. Haloxyfop+lactofen produced higher seed cotton yield in RT than ZT, however, it could not exceed CT. Broad-spectrum herbicides × CT produced the highest number of bolls/plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield. Fiber quality and net returns were also the highest in broad-spectrum herbicides × CT. In conclusion, broad-spectrum herbicides under CT were more productive in wheat based cropping system on silty clay soil of D.I.Khan.

  6. Simulation of Tillage Systems Impact on Soil Biophysical Properties Using the SALUS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sartori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable land management has been defined as the management system that allows for production, while minimizing risk, maintaining quality of soil and water. Tillage systems can significantly decrease soil carbon storage and influence the soil environment of a crop. Crop growth models can be useful tools in evaluating the impact of different tillage systems on soil biophysical properties and on the growth and final yield of the crops. The objectives of this paper were i to illustrate the SALUS model and its tillage component; ii to evaluate the effects of different tillage systems on water infiltration and time to ponding, iii to simulate the effect of tillage systems on some soil biophysical properties. The SALUS (System Approach to Land Use Sustainability model is designed to simulate continuous crop, soil, water and nutrient conditions under different tillage and crop residues management strategies for multiple years. Predictions of changes in surface residue, bulk density, runoff, drainage and evaporation were consistent with expected behaviours of these parameters as described in the literature. The experiment to estimate the time to ponding curve under different tillage system confirmed the theory and showed the beneficial effects of the residue on soil surface with respect to water infiltration. It also showed that the no-tillage system is a more appropriate system to adopt in areas characterized by high intensity rainfall.

  7. Effect of no-tillage and tillage on the ecology of mite, Acarina (Oribatida) in two different farming systems of paddy field in Cachar district of Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leimapokpam Amarjit; Ray, D C

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out in Cachar district of Assam over a period of one year (January 2011 - December 2011) to understand the seasonal ecology of Acarina (Oribatida) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated fields. Population of Oribatida was found to be maximum during August 2011, both in no-tillage (6.32 ± 0.66 No./m2 x 100(2)) and tillage (5.30 ± 0.71 No./M2 x 100(2)) sites in Dorgakona area whereas the peak was recorded during August 2011, both in no-tillage (5.38 ± 0.75 No./m(2) x 100(2)) and tillage (4.69 ± 0.77 No./m2 x 100(2)) in Durby area of study sites. Least population was encountered during January 2011, in both no-tillage (0.98 ± 0.28 ± No./m2 x 100(2)) and tillage (0.98 ± 0.30 No/m2 x 100(2)) sites in Dorgakona area whereas the same was found during November 2011 in no-tillage (0.57 ± 0.31 No.m/2 x 100(2)) and in February 2011 in tillage (0.45 ± 0.21 No./m2 x 100(2)) sites of Durby area. Linear regression analysis with all the environmental variables showed positive and significant influence on the population dynamics whereas relative humidity (R2 = 0.26 p > 0.05) in Dorgakona no-tillage and tillage (R2 = 0.19 P > 0.05) sites and relative humidity in tillage site (R2 = 0.27 P > 0.05) in Durby area showed no influence. Multiple regression analysis showed that the combined effect of climatic variables having a significant influence (p tillage and tillage systems in both the study sites. Rainfall, relative humidity and temperature facilitated the soil moisture, microbial activity and litter decomposition, which in turn may favour the reproduction and growth rate of the species. Among microclimatic conditions all the parameters showed positive and significant influence (P tillage and tillage system on both the sites except pH which showed negative correlation with the population. One way ANOVA revealed significant difference (F = 6.53, P < 0.01) of the Oribatid population between the systems.

  8. Survey on species composition of weed community at wheat-rape rotation fields in conservation tillage system of Qinghai province%保护性耕作制度下青海麦油轮作田间杂草群落组成调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏有海; 郭青云; 冯俊涛

    2011-01-01

    Weed survey was conducted by sampling methods of inverted W-pattern to determine the species composition and structure of weed communities in wheat-rope rotation fields in conservation tillage system. The results showed that among 55 weed species belonging to 22 families, 4 species were considered as dominant weeds, including Elsholtzia densa Benth, Chenopodium album, Polygonum convolvlus L and thlaspi arvense Linn.; 9 species were regional dominant weeds; 8 common weed species and 34 normal weed species. The overall abundance of Avenafatua Linn( Elsholtzia densa Benth), Sonchus arvensis Linn. And Chenopodium album were relatively high and were the main components of weed communities at the wheat-rope rotation fields in conservation tillage system.%采用倒置"W"取样法对青海麦油轮作区保护性耕作田间杂草进行了调查,以明确田间杂草的种类组成及群落结构.结果表明,青海省保护性耕作田杂革有55种,隶属于22科,其中优势杂草有密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa Benth)、藜(Chenopodium album)、荞麦蔓(Polygonum convolvlus L.)、遏蓝菜(Thlaspi arvense Linn.)等4种,区域性优势杂草有9种,常见杂草有8种,一般杂草有34种.发生优势度较大的杂草为野燕麦(Avena fatua Linn)、密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa Benth)、苣荬菜(Sonchus artensis Linn.)、藜(Chenopodium album)等,是构成保护性耕作制度下麦油轮作田间杂草群落的优势种.

  9. 短期保护性耕作措施对大豆-冬小麦轮作系统温室气体排放的影响%Effects of Short-time Conservation Tillage Managements on Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Soybean-Winter Wheat Rotation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢燕; 陈曦; 胡正华; 陈书涛; 张寒; 凌慧; 申双和

    2016-01-01

    . 3% ( P=0. 042) during the grain filling-maturity stage. In the winter-wheat growing season, compared with T, TS and NT significantly declined CAC by 24. 3% ( P =0. 032 ) and 36. 0% ( P =0. 041 ) during the elongation-booting stage, and also declined CAC by 26. 8% (P=0. 027) and 33. 1% (P=0. 038) during the maturity stage. During the turning-green stage, compared with T treatment, NT, NTS, and TS treatments had no significant effect on CAN, while NTS significant declined CAN by 42. 0% ( P=0. 035) compared with NT. Our findings suggested that conservation tillage managements had a more significant impact on CO2 emission than N2 O emission from soil-crop system.

  10. Developing a sustainable agro-system for central Nepal using reduced tillage and straw mulching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Kishor; Sharma, Subodh; Bajracharya, Roshan M; Rajbhandari, Neeranjan P

    2008-08-01

    In Nepal, soil erosion under maize (Zea mays) agro-ecosystems is most critical during the pre-monsoon season. Very few field experiments have been conducted on reduced tillage and rice straw (Oryza sativa) mulching, although these conservation approaches have been recommended. Thus, a five replicate field experiment was established in 2001 at Kathmandu University (1500 m above sea level) on land with 18% slope to evaluate the efficiency of reduced tillage and mulching on soil and nutrient losses and maize yield. The results showed non-significant differences among conservation approaches on runoff and maize yield. Mulching and reduced tillage significantly lowered annual and pre-monsoon soil and nutrient losses compared to conventional tillage. Soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen losses associated with eroded sediment were significantly higher in conventional tillage. However, due to limited availability and high opportunity cost of rice straw, reduced tillage would be a better option for soil and nutrient conservation without sacrificing economic yield in upland maize agro-ecosystems.

  11. Effect of Cropping System and Contouring or Download Sowing on Soil Water Erosion under no Tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioti, J.; Padilha, J.; Bertol, I.; Barbosa, F. T.; Ramos, J. C.; Werner, R. S.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Tanaka, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    Water erosion is the main responsible factor of soil and water losses, thus also causing soil degradation, especially on agricultural land, and it is also one factor of degradation outside the place of the origin of erosion. No tillage agriculture has been practiced in the last few decades for the purposes of water erosion control in various regions of Brazil. However, it has been shown that no tillage does not adequately control water erosion unless other complementary conservationist practices such as contour tillage or terracement. Although the erosion problem is widely recognized, there are still difficulties in estimating their magnitude, the environmental impact and the economic consequences, especially when it occurs in a conservation system like no tillage. The aim of this study was to quantify runoff and soil losses by water erosion under five different soil tillage treatments at Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. A field study was carried out using a rotating-boom rainfall simulator with 64 mmh-1 rainfall intensity for 90 minutes. Four rainfall tests were applied over the experimental period, one in each of the successive soybean and maize crop stages. Both soil cover by surface crop residue and soil cover by soybean and maize plant canopy were measured immediately before each rainfall test. Soil and water losses were smaller when sowing in contour than when sowing downslope. Contouring has promoted an average reduction of 42% in soil losses and 20% in water losses. Maize crop has promoted an average reduction of 19% in soil losses and 12% in water losses, in relation to the soybean crop. Therefore runoff rates and soil losses were higher in the downslope plots and in the soybean crop. Soil cover by previous crop residue was an important factor for reducing soil losses. Runoff rates were influenced by the soil water content before each rainfall test (R2= 0.78). The highest runoff occurred during the third simulated rainfall test, with the 83% of the

  12. Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

    2004-08-01

    higher in cotton fields previously planted in crimson clover compared with control cotton fields for all combined sampling dates in 2001. Intercropping cotton in live strips of cover crop was probably responsible for the relay of G. punctipes onto cotton in these crimson clover fields. Density of O. insidiosus was not significantly different between cover crop and control cotton fields. Lady beetles seemed to relay from cover crops into cotton. Conservation of the habitat of fire ants during planting probably was responsible for the higher density of red imported fire ants observed in all conservation tillage cotton fields relative to control cotton fields. Reduction in the number of times in which economic thresholds for heliothines were exceeded in crimson clover and rye compared with control fields indicated that the buildup of predaceous fire ants and G. punctipes in these cover crops subsequently resulted in reduction in the level of heliothines in conservation tillage cotton with these cover crops compared with conventional tillage cotton without cover crops.

  13. Agronomic performance of common bean in straw mulch systems and topdressing nitrogen rates in no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pagan Loeiro da Cunha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn no-tillage systems, straw coverage on soil surface is the key to success, and the choice of crops for rotation is crucial to achieve the sustainability and quality that conservation agriculture requires. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of the common bean cultivar IAC Formoso sown in succession to three straw mulch systems (corn alone, corn/Urochloa ruziziensisintercrop and U. ruziziensisalone and topdress nitrogen rates (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1N, at the four-leaf stage, three years after the implementation of no-tillage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block split plot design, with three replications. Common bean highest yields were achieved in succession to U. ruziziensisalone and intercropped with corn. The corn/U. ruziziensisintercrop provided both straw and seed production, allowing for quality no-tillage. Topdressed nitrogen influenced the common bean yield when in succession to corn alone, U. ruziziensisalone and corn/U. ruziziensisintercrop in no-tillage.

  14. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide effects on soybean and sorghum gas exchange in conventional and no-tillage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, S A; Runion, G B; Rogers, H H; Arriaga, F J

    2010-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration has led to concerns about potential effects on production agriculture. In the fall of 1997, a study was initiated to compare the response of two crop management systems (conventional tillage and no-tillage) to elevated CO(2). The study used a split-plot design replicated three times with two management systems as main plots and two atmospheric CO(2) levels (ambient and twice ambient) as split plots using open-top chambers on a Decatur silt loam soil (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic Rhodic Paleudults). The conventional system was a grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation with winter fallow and spring tillage practices. In the no-tillage system, sorghum and soybean were rotated, and three cover crops were used [crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Over multiple growing seasons, the effect of management and CO(2) concentration on leaf-level gas exchange during row crop (soybean in 1999, 2001, and 2003; sorghum in 2000, 2002, and 2004) reproductive growth were evaluated. Treatment effects were fairly consistent across years. In general, higher photosynthetic rates were observed under CO(2) enrichment (more so with soybean) regardless of residue management practice. Elevated CO(2) led to decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration, which resulted in increased water use efficiency. The effects of management system on gas exchange measurements were infrequently significant, as were interactions of CO(2) and management. These results suggest that better soil moisture conservation and high rates of photosynthesis can occur in both tillage systems in CO(2)-enriched environments during reproductive growth.

  15. Cotton production as affected by irrigation level and transitioning tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying management practices that conserve and protect water resources are very important to a wide variety of stakeholders within semi-arid environments. The objective of this research was to develop conservation tillage and water management strategies that enhance lint yields in subsurface dri...

  16. Experimental analysis of CO₂ emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO₂ emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to 2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230-250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120-150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250-270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120-150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO₂ emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO₂ emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO₂ emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO₂ emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO₂ emissions from soils during the maize

  17. Assessment of Micro-Basin Tillage as a Soil and Water Conservation Practice in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuanyuan; Ou, Yang; Yan, Baixing; Xu, Xiaohong; Rousseau, Alain N; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Micro-basin tillage is a soil and water conservation practice that requires building individual earth blocks along furrows. In this study, plot experiments were conducted to assess the efficiency of micro-basin tillage on sloping croplands between 2012 and 2013 (5°and 7°). The conceptual, optimal, block interval model was used to design micro-basins which are meant to capture the maximum amount of water per unit area. Results indicated that when compared to the up-down slope tillage, micro-basin tillage could increase soil water content and maize yield by about 45% and 17%, and reduce runoff, sediment and nutrients loads by about 63%, 96% and 86%, respectively. Meanwhile, micro-basin tillage could reduce the peak runoff rates and delay the initial runoff-yielding time. In addition, micro-basin tillage with the optimal block interval proved to be the best one among all treatments with different intervals. Compared with treatments of other block intervals, the optimal block interval treatments increased soil moisture by around 10% and reduced runoff rate by around 15%. In general, micro-basin tillage with optimal block interval represents an effective soil and water conservation practice for sloping farmland of the black soil region.

  18. Share of anthropophytes in the crop sequence: winter wheat – maize – spring wheat depending on tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment, conducted over the period 2008–2010, evaluated the effect of tillage system on the occurrence and species composition of anthropophytes in winter wheat, maize and spring wheat. Regardless of crop plant and tillage system, anthropophytes (73.9%, represented by archaeophytes and kenophytes, were the main component of the flora in the crops studied, whereas apophytes accounted for the remaining 26.1%. Most archaeophytes (13 species were found in the spring wheat crop under no-tillage, while their lowest number (6 species occurred in the spring wheat crop under conventional tillage. The only kenophyte, Conyza canadensis, was found to occur in the spring wheat and maize crops in the no-tillage system. The following taxa were dominant species among archeophytes: Geranium pusillum, Anthemis arvensis, and Viola arvensis (regardless of tillage system and crop plant, Anthemis arvensis (in spring wheat – conventional tillage, Echinochloa crus-galli and Setaria glauca (in maize – reduced tillage and no-tillage, Chenopodium album (in maize – no-tillage as well as Apera spica-venti, Anthemis arvensis and Papaver rhoeas (in winter wheat – no-tillage.

  19. Soil Tillage Systems and Wheat Yield under Climate Change Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Pieranna Servadio; Simone Bergonzoli; Claudio Beni

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of three different main preparatory tillage operations: ploughing at 0.4 m (P40) and 0.20 m (P20) depth and harrowing at 0.20 m depth (MT) were investigated. The tillage operations were carried out at two different times, as the soil water content increased over time from rainfall: (low, 58% (LH) and high, 80% (HH) of field capacity). Results obtained from the soil monitoring carried out before and after tillage showed high values of soil strength in terms of Penetr...

  20. Response of Wheat to Tillage Plus Rice Residue and Nitrogen Management in Rice-Wheat System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Usman; Ejaz Ahmad Khan; Niamatullah Khan; Abdur Rashid; Fazal Yazdan; Saleem Ud Din

    2014-01-01

    Zero tillage with residues retention and optimizing nitrogen fertilization are important strategies to improve soil quality and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat system. Field experiments were conducted on silty clay soil (Hyperthermic, and Typic Torrilfuvents) in D. I. Khan, Pakistan, to explore the impact of six tillage methods (zero tillage straw retained (ZTsr), ZT straw burnt (ZTsb), reduced tillage straw incorporated (RTsi, including tiller and rotavator), RT straw burnt (RTsb), conventional tillage straw incorporated (CTsi, including disc plow, tiller, rotavator, and leveling operations), CT straw burnt (CTsb)) and ifve nitrogen rates, i.e., 0, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg ha-1 on wheat yield. Mean values for N revealed that spikes m-2, grains/spike, 1 000-grain weight (g), and grain yield (kg ha-1) were signiifcantly higher at 200 kg N ha-1 in both the years as well as mean over years than all other treatments. Mean values for tillage revealed that ZTsr produced highest number of spikes m-2 among tillage methods. However, grains/spike, 1 000-grain weight, and grain yield were higher in tillage methods with either straw retained/incorporated than tillage methods with straw burnt. Interaction effects were signiifcant in year 1 and in mean over years regarding spikes m-2, 1 000-grain weight, total soil organic matter (SOM), and total soil N (TSN). ZTsr produced the most spikes m-2 and 1 000-grain weight at 200 kg N ha-1. ZTsr also produced higher SOM and TSN at 200-250 kg N ha-1 at the end of 2 yr cropping. Thus ZTsr with 200 kg N ha-1 may be an optimum and sustainable approach to enhance wheat yield and soil quality in rice-wheat system.

  1. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  2. Effects of Long-term Conservation Tillage on Soil Nutrients in Sloping Fields in Regions Characterized by Water and Wind Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunjian; Cao, Xue; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weiyu; Feng, Yongzhong; Qiao, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation tillage is commonly used in regions affected by water and wind erosion. To understand the effects of conservation tillage on soil nutrients and yield, a long-term experiment was set up in a region affected by water and wind erosion on the Loess Plateau. The treatments used were traditional tillage (CK), no tillage (NT), straw mulching (SM), plastic-film mulching (PM), ridging and plastic-film mulching (RPM) and intercropping (In). Our results demonstrate that the available nutrients in soils subjected to non-traditional tillage treatments decreased during the first several years and then remained stable over the last several years of the experiment. The soil organic matter and total nitrogen content increased gradually over 6 years in all treatments except CK. The nutrient content of soils subjected to conservative tillage methods, such as NT and SM, were significantly higher than those in soils under the CK treatment. Straw mulching and film mulching effectively reduced an observed decrease in soybean yield. Over the final 6 years of the experiment, soybean yields followed the trend RPM > PM > SM > NT > CK > In. This trend has implications for controlling soil erosion and preventing non-point source pollution in sloping fields by sacrificing some food production.

  3. Temperature and water pressure head effects on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite of isoxaflutole in a loamy soil under two tillage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alletto, Lionel [Universite de Toulouse - Ecole d' ingenieurs de Purpan, Agronomy Department, 75, voie du TOEC BP 57 611, 31 076 Toulouse Cedex 3 (France); UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: lionel.alletto@purpan.fr; Benoit, Pierre [UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: benoit@grignon.inra.fr; Bergheaud, Valerie [UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: bergheau@grignon.inra.fr; Coquet, Yves [UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: Yves.Coquet@agroparistech.fr

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature and water pressure head on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite (DKN) of isoxaflutole during 84 d in samples collected in a loamy soil under conventional (CT) and conservation (MT) tillage systems. Soil temperature was the major factor controlling DKN degradation in the two tillage systems. The shortest half-lives (T{sub 1/2}) were measured in the seedbed samples under MT at 25 deg. C and -33 cm water pressure head. We found that mouldboard ploughing under CT was responsible for the spatial variability of herbicide degradation properties, whereas under MT herbicide degradation was associated to the vertical distribution of organic matter. - Tillage practices influence the spatial variability of diketonitrile degradation in soil and its sensitivity to pedoclimatic conditions.

  4. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    highly degrade the environment, applied without practices of soil and water conservation. Such production systems are associated with a variety of environmental problems, such as soil erosion, the extensive pumping of groundwater, the partial obstruction of surface drainage to form artificial lakes, the contamination of groundwater, among others. The environmental impacts generated by all these problems assume a greater importance due to the complete absence of monitoring the continuous lowering of the water table and the changes in water quality. We consider that the main management strategies for developing sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in this area should be based on monitoring water use efficiency, increasing water availability in the root zone and also preventing runoff, leaching and evaporation of water from the soil. Therefore, techniques were applied as green manures with legumes without incorporation of the biomass, non-mechanized and curve-level soil preparation, planting in level, soil cover with crop residues, fertirrigation with solid fertilization of low value, the conduct of tomato especially supported by plastic string attached to a trellis, drip irrigation, and monitoring soil water potential (SWP) with Watermak sensors. At the end of the tomato cycle, water use efficiency and the productivity were compared at 8 micro-plots installed in the 3 studied production systems: conventional tillage (CT-H), minimum tillage (MT-H), both with "wetting irrigation with garden hose", and no-tillage with drip irrigation (NT-D). For each production system, soil physical properties were characterized and soil water potential (SWP) and soil temperature were continuously monitored at different depths (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm), as well as the total water volume used in each irrigation. In parallel, we also compared the development of the root system and the final productivity for each one of the three production systems. The results obtained in this

  5. Soil Aggregate Stability and Aggregate-Associated Carbon Under Different Tillage Systems in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zhang-liu; REN Tu-sheng; HU Chun-sheng; ZHANG Qing-zhong; Humberto Blanco-Canqui

    2013-01-01

    The inlfuences of tillage systems on soil carbon (C) stocks have been studied extensively, but the distribution of soil C within aggregate fractions is not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the inlfuences of various tillage systems on soil aggregation and aggregate-associated C under wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) double cropping systems in the North China Plain. The experiment was established in 2001, including four treatments:moldboard plow (MP) with residue (MP+R) and without residue (MP-R), rotary tillage with residue (RT), and no-till with residue (NT). In 2007 soil samples were collected from the 0-5, 5-10, and 10-20 cm depths, and were separated into four aggregate-size classes (>2 000, 250-2 000, 53-250, and2 000 and 250-2 000 µm) compared with the MP-R and MP+R treatments. Averaged across all depths, mean weight diameters of aggregates (MWD) in NT and RT were 47 and 20% higher than that in MP+R. The concentration of bulk soil organic C was positively correlated with MWD (r=0.98; P=0.024) and macroaggregate fraction (r=0.96; P=0.036) in the 0-5 cm depth. In the 0-20 cm depth, comparing with MP+R, total C occluded in the>2 000 µm fraction was increased by 9 and 6%under NT and RT, respectively. We conclude that adoption of conservation tillage system, especially no-till, can increase soil macro-aggregation and total C accumulation in macroaggregates, which may improve soil C sequestration in the intensive agricultural region of the North China Plain.

  6. 坡耕地不同保护性耕作措施对土壤酶活性的影响%Effect of different conservational tillage of sloping land on the activity of soil enzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秋颖; 周连仁; 赵红

    2012-01-01

    以黑龙江省海伦市坡耕地长期保护性耕作为研究对象,探讨5种耕作方式:免耕、少耕、横坡垄、垄向区田(前4种视为保护性耕作)及常规翻耕对土壤过氧化氢酶活性、脲酶活性及蔗糖酶活性的影响.结果表明,免耕、少耕、横坡垄及垄向区田的过氧化氢酶活性高于常规翻耕1.70%~34.21%;免耕和少耕处理的脲酶活性及蔗糖酶活性高于其他耕作处理4.81%~67.94%;横坡垄和垄向区田处理的脲酶活性及蔗糖酶活性高于常规翻耕8.97%~36.00%;过氧化氢酶、脲酶及蔗糖酶活性均于大豆鼓粒期显示活性最高值.免耕和少耕相对于防治水土流失的横坡垄和垄向区田更能有效地培育黑土,是适于坡耕地的耕作方式.%Based on the long-term conservational tillage experiment of sloping land of Heilongjiang Hailun City, the effect of five tillage treatments: no tillage, minimum tillage, cross ridge, ridge tillage (see as conservational tillage in former) and conventional plowing tillage on the activity of catalase, urease and sucrose were studied. Results showed that activity of catalase of no tillage, minimum tillage, cross ridge and ridge tillage was higher 1.70%-34.21% than that of plowing tillage; activity of urease and sucrose of no tillage and minimum tillage was higher 4.81%-67.94% than that of other tillage treatments; activity of urease and sucrose of cross ridge and ridge tillage was higher 8.97%-36.00% than that of plowing tillage; the highest activity of catalase, urease and sucrose was shown in podding period. No tillage and minimum tillage had more ability to fertilize black soil than cross ridge and ridge tillage, which could protect soil and water, thereby, no tillage and minimum tillage were fit for sloping land.

  7. Tillage for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, W.

    1999-01-01

    Soil tillage is the manipulation of soil which is generally considered as necessary to obtain optimum growth conditions for a crop. In the same time the resulting modification of soil structure has serious implications for the behaviour of the soil to erosive forces by water and wind. In

  8. Tillage for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Soil tillage is the manipulation of soil which is generally considered as necessary to obtain optimum growth conditions for a crop. In the same time the resulting modification of soil structure has serious implications for the behaviour of the soil to erosive forces by water and wind. In Chapter 1 a

  9. A multiple soil ecosystem services approach to evaluate the sustainability of reduced tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérès, Guénola; Menasseri, Safya; Hallaire, Vincent; Cluzeau, Daniel; Heddadj, Djilali; Cotinet, Patrice; Manceau, Olivier; Pulleman, Mirjam

    2017-04-01

    In the current context of soil degradation, reduced tillage systems (including reduced soil disturbance, use of cover crops and crop rotation, and improved organic matter management) are expected to be good alternatives to conventional system which have led to a decrease of soil multi-functionality. Many studies worldwide have analysed the impact of tillage systems on different soil functions, but overran integrated view of the impact of these systems is still lacking. The SUSTAIN project (European SNOWMAN programme), performed in France and the Netherlands, proposes an interdisciplinary collaboration. The goals of SUSTAIN are to assess the multi-functionality of soil and to study how reduced-tillage systems impact on multiple ecosystem services such as soil biodiversity regulation (earthworms, nematodes, microorganisms), soil structure maintenance (aggregate stability, compaction, soil erosion), water regulation (run-off, transfer of pesticides) and food production. Moreover, a socio-economic study on farmer networks has been carried out to identify the drivers of adoption of reduced-tillage systems. Data have been collected in long-term experimental fields (5 - 13 years), representing conventional and organic farming strategies, and were complemented with data from farmer networks. The impact of different reduced tillage systems (direct seeding, minimum tillage, non-inverse tillage, superficial ploughing) were analysed and compared to conventional ploughing. Measurements (biological, chemical, physical, agronomical, water and element transfer) have been done at several dates which allow an overview of the evolution of the soil properties according to climate variation and crop rotation. A sociological approach was performed on several farms covering different production types, different courses (engagement in reduced tillage systems) and different geographical locations. Focusing on French trials, this multiple ecosystem services approach clearly showed that

  10. [Effects of tillage methods on soil physicochemical properties and biological characteristics in farmland: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-jie; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Jian-ning; Huangfu, Chao-he; Yang, Dian-lin

    2015-03-01

    Tillage methods affect soil heat, water, nutrients and soil biology in different ways. Reasonable soil management system can not only improve physical and chemical properties of the soil, but also change the ecological process of farmland soil. Conservation tillage can improve the quality of the soil to different degrees. For example, no-tillage system can effectively improve soil enzyme activity. No tillage and subsoiling tillage can provide abundant resources for soil microbe' s growth and reproduction. No tillage, minimum tillage and other conservation tillage methods exert little disturbance to soil animals, and in turn affect the quantity and diversity of the soil animals as well as their population structure. Effects of different tillage methods on soil physical and chemical properties as well as biological characteristics were reviewed in this article, with the soil physical and chemical indices, enzyme activities, soil microbe diversity and soil animals under different tillage patterns analyzed. The possibility of soil quality restoration with appropriate tillage methods and the future research direction were pointed out.

  11. N-utilization in non-inversion tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2011-01-01

    When changing from ploughing to non-inversion tillage, N rates are of particular importance both for farmers and the environment. A tillage and fertilizer experiment was established in Denmark under temperate coastal climatic conditions to evaluate the N fertilizer responses on yields and N uptake...... clay kg−1. The tillage treatments were stubble cultivating to 8–10 cm or 3–4 cm, direct drilling, or ploughing to 20 cm. Five different fertilizer N treatments were included: 1:50% (0.50N), 2:75% (0.75N), 3:100% (1.00N), 4:125% (1.25N) of recommended N rates, respectively, and 5: application of 15......–30 kg N ha−1 of the total fertilizer N amount in autumn to autumn-sown crops (1.00NAut). In all the crop rotations, straw was chopped and retained after harvest. Different types of N fertilizer responses were observed in the six crops, but generally yields were lower with non-inversion tillage than...

  12. Soil Tillage Systems and Wheat Yield under Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieranna Servadio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of three different main preparatory tillage operations: ploughing at 0.4 m (P40 and 0.20 m (P20 depth and harrowing at 0.20 m depth (MT were investigated. The tillage operations were carried out at two different times, as the soil water content increased over time from rainfall: (low, 58% (LH and high, 80% (HH of field capacity. Results obtained from the soil monitoring carried out before and after tillage showed high values of soil strength in terms of Penetration resistance and shear strength particularly in deeper soil layers at lower water content. During tillage, fossil-fuel energy requirements for P40 LH and P20 LH were 25% and 35% higher, respectively, with respect to the HH treatments and tractor slip was very high (P40 LH = 32.4% with respect to the P40 HH treatment (16%. Soil water content significantly influenced tractor performance during soil ploughing at 0.40 m depth but no effect was observed for the MT treatment. The highly significant linear relations between grain yield and soil penetration resistance highlight how soil strength may be good indicator of soil productivity. We conclude that ploughing soil to a 0.20 m depth or harrowing soil to a 0.20 m depth is suitable for this type of soil under climate change scenarios.

  13. Towards Conservation Agriculture systems in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Boincean

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As the world population and food production demands rise, keeping agricultural soils and landscapes healthy and productive are of paramount importance to sustaining local and global food security and the flow of ecosystem services to society. The global population, expected to reach 9.7 billion people by 2050, will put additional pressure on the available land area and resources for agricultural production. Sustainable production intensification for food security is a major challenge to both industrialized and developing countries. The paper focuses on the results from long-term multi-factorial experiments involving tillage practices, crop rotations and fertilization to study the interactions amongst the treatments in the context of sustainable production intensification. The paper discusses the results in relation to reported performance of crops and soil quality in Conservation Agriculture systems that are based on no or minimum soil disturbance (no-till seeding and weeding, maintenance of soil mulch cover with crop biomass and cover crops, and diversified cropping s involving annuals and perennials. Conservation Agriculture also emphasizes the necessity of an agro-ecosystems approach to the management of agricultural land for sustainable production intensification, as well as to the site-specificity of agricultural production. Arguments in favor of avoiding the use of soil tillage are discussed together with agro-ecological principles for sustainable intensification of agriculture. More interdisciplinary systems research is required to support the transformation of agriculture from the conventional tillage agriculture to a more sustainable agriculture based on the principles and practices of Conservation Agriculture, along with other complementary practices of integrated crop, nutrient, water, pest, energy and farm power management.

  14. Cowpea production as affected by dry spells in no-tillage and conventional crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods of water shortage in no-tillage and conventional crop systems on cowpea yield components and grain yield in the Mossoró-RN region. For this, an experiment was conducted using two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage subjected to periods of irrigation suspension (2; 6; 10; 14; 18 end 22 days, started at flowering (34 days after sowing. Plants were harvested 70 days after sowing, and the studied variables were: Pods length (CV, number of grains per pod (NGV, number of pods per plant (NPP, the hundred grains weight (PCG and grain yield (kg ha-1. The no-tillage system is more productive than the conventional under both irrigation and water stress treatments. The water stress length affected grain yield and all yield components studied in a negative way, except for the hundred grains weight. Among the systems studied, the no-tillage provides higher values for the yield components, except the hundred grains weight.

  15. The Transformation of Agriculture in Brazil Through Development and Adoption of Zero Tillage Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. de Freitas

    2014-03-01

    These were the turning points in the sustainable development of annual crop farming in Brazil. Today, society recognizes the role of these pioneers as key to achieving social, economic and environmental sustainability. ZT/CA reversed the historically accelerating degradation of soil organic matter and soil structure by abandoning conventional tillage, thus improving soil physical and chemical characteristics. This was achieved by promoting cover cropping and permanent soil cover with crop residues, crop rotations, and complementary, environmentally suitable soil management technologies.

  16. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Z; Firouzi, Saeed; Aminpanah, Hashem; Sadeghnejhad, Hamid R

    2016-03-01

    Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.). The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1) were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1) also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1).

  17. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Z. Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.. The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1 were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1 also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1.

  18. 玉米保护性耕作技术及机具分析%Analysis on Maize Conservation Tillage Techniques and Equipment Used

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班春华

    2012-01-01

    为提高辽宁省的玉米产量,在介绍玉米保护性技术内容的基础上,介绍免耕少耕、免耕播种、药剂灭草、玉米秸秆还田等保护性耕作技术,探讨适用于辽宁地区的相关机具,为在辽宁地区的玉米种植中应用保护性耕作技术提供参考。%This a,'ticle presents major maize conservation tillage techniques and machines and tools suitable for Liaoning areas, including such techniques as zero-tillage and minimum tillage, non-tillage sowing, drug weeding and returning maize straws to fields on the basis of introducing major contents of maize conservation tillage techniques with the aim of increasing maize yields and providing reference for the application of this technology in Liaoning areas.

  19. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Charles, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems but their impact in non......-inversion tillage systems needs validation. Direct mechanical weed control methods based on rotating weeding devices such as rotary hoes may become useful in reduced tillage systems where more crop residues and less workable soils are more prevalent but further development is needed for effective application. Owing...

  20. Effects of Zero Tillage (No-Till) Conservation Agriculture on soil physical and biological properties and their contributions to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, John N.; Rass, Gerard; de Freitas, Pedro L.; Basch, Gottlieb; González Sanchez, Emilio J.; Tabaglio, Vincenzo; Kassan, Amir; Derpsch, Rolf; Friedrich, Theodor; Giupponi, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Not cultivating soil, rotating crops over the years, and leaving crop residues on the surface in the practice of zero tillage/conservation agriculture (ZT/CA) reverses the historically accelerating degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil structure, while increasing soil biological activity by a factor of 2 to 4. The results of this are many: (a) not cultivating reduces soil compaction, leaving old root holes to facilitate internal drainage, averts the pulverization of soil aggregates and formation of pans, reduces draft power for planting and gives shelter, winter food and nesting sites for fauna, (b) crop residues on the surface practically eliminate wind and water erosion, reduce soil moisture loss through the mulch effect, slow spring warm-up (possibly offset by a lower specific heat demand with less water retention in surface soil) and act as a reserve of organically-compounded nutrients (as they decompose to humus), (c) more SOM means higher available water and nutrient retention, higher biological activity year round (enhancing biological controls), higher levels of water-stable aggregates and a positive carbon sink in incremental SOM. The positive impacts for society are: (i) more and cheaper food, (ii) reduced flood and drought-induced famine risks, (iii) a positive carbon sink in SOM and possible reductions in NO2 emissions, (iv) cleaner water and greater aquifer recharge due to reduced runoff, (v) cleaner air through effective elimination of dust as a product of cultivation (vi) less water pollution and greater aquifer recharge from reduced rainfall runoff, (vii) farm diesel consumption halved, (viii) reduced demand for (tropical) de-forestation, by permitting crop expansion on steeper lands, (ix) increased wildlife populations (skylarks, plovers, partridge and peccaries) and (x) an improved conservation mindset in farmers. It is notable that, in spite of successful practitioners in all European countries, mainstream adoption is still to come

  1. Carbon dioxide emissions under different soil tillage systems in mechanically harvested sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Olaya, A. M.; Cerri, C. E. P.; La Scala, N., Jr.; Dias, C. T. S.; Cerri, C. C.

    2013-03-01

    Soil tillage and other methods of soil management may influence CO2 emissions because they accelerate the mineralization of organic carbon in the soil. This study aimed to quantify the CO2 emissions under conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and reduced tillage (RT) during the renovation of sugarcane fields in southern Brazil. The experiment was performed on an Oxisol in the sugarcane-planting area with mechanical harvesting. An undisturbed or no-till (NT) plot was left as a control treatment. The CO2 emissions results indicated a significant interaction (p residues to the adoption of green cane harvesting. The CO2 emissions in the CT system could respond to a loss of 80% of the potential soil C accumulated over one year as result of the adoption of mechanized sugarcane harvesting. Meanwhile, soil tillage during the renewal of the sugar plantation using RT and MT methods would result in low impact, with losses of 12% and 2% of the C that could potentially be accumulated during a one year period.

  2. Influence of tillage practices and straw incorporation on soil aggregates, organic carbon, and crop yields in a rice-wheat rotation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ke; Yang, Jianjun; Xue, Yong; Lv, Weiguang; Zheng, Xianqing; Pan, Jianjun

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a fixed-site field experiment was conducted to study the influence of different combinations of tillage and straw incorporation management on carbon storage in different-sized soil aggregates and on crop yield after three years of rice-wheat rotation. Compared to conventional tillage, the percentages of >2 mm macroaggregates and water-stable macroaggregates in rice-wheat double-conservation tillage (zero-tillage and straw incorporation) were increased 17.22% and 36.38% in the 0–15 cm soil layer and 28.93% and 66.34% in the 15–30 cm soil layer, respectively. Zero tillage and straw incorporation also increased the mean weight diameter and stability of the soil aggregates. In surface soil (0–15 cm), the maximum proportion of total aggregated carbon was retained with 0.25–0.106 mm aggregates, and rice-wheat double-conservation tillage had the greatest ability to hold the organic carbon (33.64 g kg‑1). However, different forms occurred at higher levels in the 15–30 cm soil layer under the conventional tillage. In terms of crop yield, the rice grown under conventional tillage and the wheat under zero tillage showed improved equivalent rice yields of 8.77% and 6.17% compared to rice-wheat double-cropping under zero tillage or conventional tillage, respectively.

  3. Influence of tillage practices and straw incorporation on soil aggregates, organic carbon, and crop yields in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ke; Yang, Jianjun; Xue, Yong; Lv, Weiguang; Zheng, Xianqing; Pan, Jianjun

    2016-11-04

    In this study, a fixed-site field experiment was conducted to study the influence of different combinations of tillage and straw incorporation management on carbon storage in different-sized soil aggregates and on crop yield after three years of rice-wheat rotation. Compared to conventional tillage, the percentages of >2 mm macroaggregates and water-stable macroaggregates in rice-wheat double-conservation tillage (zero-tillage and straw incorporation) were increased 17.22% and 36.38% in the 0-15 cm soil layer and 28.93% and 66.34% in the 15-30 cm soil layer, respectively. Zero tillage and straw incorporation also increased the mean weight diameter and stability of the soil aggregates. In surface soil (0-15 cm), the maximum proportion of total aggregated carbon was retained with 0.25-0.106 mm aggregates, and rice-wheat double-conservation tillage had the greatest ability to hold the organic carbon (33.64 g kg(-1)). However, different forms occurred at higher levels in the 15-30 cm soil layer under the conventional tillage. In terms of crop yield, the rice grown under conventional tillage and the wheat under zero tillage showed improved equivalent rice yields of 8.77% and 6.17% compared to rice-wheat double-cropping under zero tillage or conventional tillage, respectively.

  4. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced-Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolain, N.M.; Charles, R.; Wirth, J.; Schwarz, J.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Bonin, L.; Jensen, P.K.; Kudsk, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of reduc

  5. The effect of conservation tillage on the structural characteristics of Fluvo-aquic soil%保护性耕作对潮土结构特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红; 吕贻忠

    2009-01-01

    研究不同保护性耕作措施对潮土结构特性的影响,探求不同秸秆还田方式下土壤结构的变化规律.以河北省石家庄市栾城县长期定位试验为研究基础,采用了传统翻耕、翻耕秸秆还田、旋耕秸秆还田、免耕覆盖还田、免耕立秆还田和免耕粉碎还田6种处理,分别对不同耕层的土壤容重、有机碳含量、团聚体及有机无机复合体进行了测定,对比分析了不同保护性耕作对潮土结构特性的影响.结果表明:免耕覆盖还田的土壤容重值最低;干筛情况下,免耕秸秆覆盖还田的MWD值显著高于其它处理30.4%~47.4%,而湿筛情况下,免耕立秆还田与粉碎还田MWD值高于其它处理;立秆还田的土壤分散系数最低,而粉碎还田的分散系数比其它处理高20.48%~330.93%;翻耕处理的原土复合量、原土复合度分别高于免耕处理10.82%~21.62%、8.97%~20.97%.不同秸秆还田方式对土壤结构稳定性的影响有很大差异:覆盖还田能改善田间土壤结构;立秆还田能提高微团聚体的稳定性;粉碎还田通过增加土壤有机碳含量而增加水稳性大团聚体的含量.%The effect of different conservation tillage measurement on structural characteristics of Fluvo-aquic soil were studied, and the variation law of soil structure under different ways of straw returning were searched. This study is based on long field experi-ments of Luancheng country of Hebei province Shijiazhuang city, six treatments of tillage systems were utilized: conventional tillage、tillage with straw returning、rotary tillage with straw returning, no tillage with mulch, no tillage with standing stubble and no tillage with crush returning, soil bulk density, soil organic carbon content, aggregate and organo-mineral complexes were measured. The results showed: the lowest soil bulk density value is no tillage with mulch; the MWD value of no tillage with mulch significantly higher than other treatments 30

  6. Impact of Tillage and Fertilizer Application Method on Gas Emissions in a Corn Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. SMITH; D. WATTS; T. WAY; H. TORBERT; S. PRIOR

    2012-01-01

    Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas ernissions from soil.This study was conducted to determine the impact of fertilizer sources,land management practices,and fertilizer placement methods on greenhouse gas (CO2,CH4,and N2O) emissions.A new prototype implement developed for applying poultry litter in subsurface bands in the soil was used in this study.The field site was located at the Sand Mountain Research and Extension Center in the Appalachian Plateau region of northeast Alabama,USA,on a Hartsells fine sandy loam (fine-loamy,siliceous,subactive,thermic Typic Hapludults).Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4),and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions followed GRACEnet (greenhouse gas reduction through agricultural carbon enhancement network) protocols to assess the effects of different tillage (conventional vs.no-tillage) and fertilizer placement (subsurface banding vs.surface application) practices in a corn (Zea mays L.) cropping system.Fertilizer sources were urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN),ammonium nitrate (AN) and poultry litter (M) applied at a rate of 170 kg ha -1 of available N.Banding of fertilizer resulted in the greatest concentration of gaseous loss (CO2 and N2O) compared to surface applications of fertilizer.Fertilizer banding increased CO2 and N2O toss on various sampling days throughout the season with poultry litter banding emitting more gas than UAN banding.Conventional tillage practices also resulted in a higher concentration of CO2 and N2O loss when evaluating tillage by sampling day.Throughout the course of this study,CH4 flux was not affected by tillage,fertilizer source,or fertilizer placement method.These results suggest that poultry litter use and banding practices have the potential to increase greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. The Energy Effectiveness Of Crops In Crop Rotation Under Different Soil Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašil Zdeněk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and compares the energy balance of winter wheat, spring barley and white mustard – all grown in crop rotation under different tillage conditions. The field trial included the conventional tillage (CT method, minimum tillage (MT and a system with no tillage (NT. The energy inputs included both the direct and indirect energy component. Energy outputs are evaluated as gross calorific value (gross heating value of phytomass dry matter of the primary product and the total harvested production. The energy effectiveness (energy output: energy input was selected for evaluation. The greatest energy effectiveness for the primary product was established as 6.35 for barley, 6.04 for wheat and 3.68 for mustard; in the case of total production, it was 9.82 for barley, 10.08 for wheat and 9.72 for mustard. When comparing the different tillage conditions, the greatest energy effectiveness was calculated for the evaluated crops under the MT operation and represented the primary product of wheat at 6.49, barley at 6.69 and mustard at 3.92. The smallest energy effectiveness for the primary product was found in wheat 5.77 and barley 6.10 under the CT option; it was 3.55 for mustard under the option of NT. Throughout the entire cropping pattern, the greatest energy effectiveness was established under the minimum tillage option – 5.70 for the primary product and 10.47 for the total production. On the other hand, the smallest values were calculated under CT – 5.22 for the primary product and 9.71 for total production.

  8. Long-term C-CO2 emissions and carbon crop residue mineralization in an oxisol under different tillage and crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil C-CO2 emissions are sensitive indicators of management system impacts on soil organic matter (SOM. The main soil C-CO2 sources at the soil-plant interface are the decomposition of crop residues, SOM turnover, and respiration of roots and soil biota. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impacts of tillage and cropping systems on long-term soil C-CO2 emissions and their relationship with carbon (C mineralization of crop residues. A long-term experiment was conducted in a Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, with subtropical climate Cfa (Köppen classification, mean annual precipitation of 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature of 19.2 ºC. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems: (a conventional tillage (CT and (b no tillage (NT in combination with three cropping systems: (a R0- monoculture system (soybean/wheat, (b R1- winter crop rotation (soybean/wheat/soybean/black oat, and (c R2- intensive crop rotation (soybean/ black oat/soybean/black oat + common vetch/maize/oilseed radish/wheat. The soil C-CO2 efflux was measured every 14 days for two years (48 measurements, by trapping the CO2 in an alkaline solution. The soil gravimetric moisture in the 0-0.05 m layer was determined concomitantly with the C-CO2 efflux measurements. The crop residue C mineralization was evaluated with the mesh-bag method, with sampling 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, and 140 days after the beginning of the evaluation period for C measurements. Four C conservation indexes were used to assess the relation between C-CO2 efflux and soil C stock and its compartments. The crop residue C mineralization fit an exponential model in time. For black oat, wheat and maize residues, C mineralization was higher in CT than NT, while for soybean it was similar. Soil moisture was higher in NT than CT, mainly in the second year of evaluation. There was no difference in tillage systems for annual average C-CO2 emissions, but in some individual evaluations, differences between

  9. Effect of conservation practices on soil carbon and nitrogen accretion and crop yield in a corn production system in the southeastern coastal plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We implemented conservation farming practices (winter cover cropping plus strip tillage) for a non-irrigated corn production system in the southern coastal plain of Georgia, USA that had been previously been managed under a plow and harrow tillage regime. Total soil carbon and nitrogen were measure...

  10. Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liqun; Hu, Naijuan; Yang, Minfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhengwen

    2014-01-01

    Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC) and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm) for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0-7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7-14 cm depth. However, at 14-21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta.

  11. Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhu

    Full Text Available Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC, dissolved organic C (DOC and microbial biomass C (MBC contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0-7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7-14 cm depth. However, at 14-21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta.

  12. Morphology and stability of aggregates of an Oxisol according to tillage system and gypsum application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Régis de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characterization and aggregate stability is an important factor in evaluating management systems. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the stability and morphology of the aggregates of a dystrophic Oxisol managed with no-tillage and conventional tillage with and without the residual action of gypsum. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in split-split plot, where the treatments were two soil management systems (plots with 0 and 2000 kg ha-1 of gypsum (subplots and five depths (0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.15, 0.15-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m as the subsubplots, with four replications. The aggregate morphology was determined through images and later evaluated by the Quantporo software. Stability was determined by the wet method. The results showed that the no-tillage system, with or without gypsum residual effect, provided the aggregates with the largest geometric diameters. The combination of no-tillage system and the gypsum residual effect provided rougher aggregates.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF MINIMUM TILLAGE SYSTEMS UPON THE SOIL PROPERTIES, YIELD AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SOME ARABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor RUSU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the conventional ploughing tillage technology in comparison with the minimum tillage, upon the soil properties, weed control, yield and energy efficiency in the case of maize (Zea mays L., soyabean (Glycine hispida L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in a three years crop rotation. For all cultures within the crop rotation, the weed encroachment is maximum for the disc harrow and rotary harrow soil tillage, followed by the chisel and paraplow. The weed encroachment is minimum for the conventional ploughing tillage technology. The results of investigations showed that the yield is a conclusion soil tillage systems influence on soil properties, plant density assurance and on weed control.

  14. Comparative assessment of water infiltration of soils under different tillage systems in eastern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroke, T. S.; Dikinya, O.; Patrick, C.

    Water infiltration is an important component of water balance for improving crop production potential in dryland soil tillage systems in Botswana, particularly in the eastern region. Hardsetting soils common in arable lands of Botswana, often require some kind of tillage such as mouldboard ploughing, chiselling and ripping to improve waterharvesting and crop growth conditions. The objective of this study was to compare ponded cumulative infiltration, steady state infiltration rate and sorptivity of soils cultivated using deep ripping, single and double mouldboard ploughing. This study was conducted on Chromic Luvisols (sandy loam), Haplic Luvisols (sandy clay loam), Ferric Luvisols (clay loam), and Ferric Arenosols (sand). Infiltration was measured using double ring infiltrometer method for 4 h. Although infiltration was smaller on traffic line of deep ripping system at all sites, it was only significantly ( P 0.05) different under deep ripped. Cumulative and steady state infiltration rate was greater under sandy than loamy soils, smaller under double ploughing compared with single ploughed and deep ripped soils. Sorptivity was not significantly ( P > 0.05) different among tillage systems but was greater under sandy than sandy loam soils. Information on tillage and infiltration can improve implementation of waterharvesting technologies and crop production in Botswana.

  15. 保护性耕作综合效益评价体系构建及实例分析%Framework for comprehensive benefit assessment on conservation tillage and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋阳; 刘思宇; 单春艳; 姬亚芹

    2015-01-01

    Considered as a health-harmful and climate-relevant pollutant, particulate matter (PM) has become a serious concern in China for recent years. Source apportionments of Chinese major cities show that fugitive dust can explain a large percentage of PM sources, while soil wind erosion contributes substantially to fugitive dust. Conservation tillage plays an important role in promoting crop growth and increasing production as well as in preventing wind erosion. Researches have been done to assess the benefits of conversation tillage in several perspectives respectively, whereas little concentrating on its comprehensive benefits. For better assessing the benefits of conservation tillage on eco-environmental, social and economic aspects comprehensively, a 3-tired index system was constructed based on field surveys, experiments and literatures, and tested in the case study of Tianjin. The assessment system included 3 indices of Grade-1 eco-environmental index, Grade-2 social index and Grade-3 economical index. Eco-environmental index included 4 sub-indices in Grade-2: soil physical-chemical properties, water retention ability of soil, soil resistance to wind erosion, and weeds and insects indices, respectively. Social index involved 2 sub-indices: agricultural mechanization rate, transfer of rural labor. The last 2 Grade -2 indices are input, and output subject to economical index. There were 19 more detailed indices in tire-3 to cover better range of this assessment. Three tillage modes utilized in Sujiayuan Village in Dagang District, Tianjin including traditional tillage and two kinds of conservation tillage (no-tillage with mulch and subsoiling) were analyzed to verify the feasibility of this index system. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) method was adopted and the weights of indices were calculated by standard deviation method in this assessment. The values of soil anti-erosion efficiency and soil particulate emission rate subject to soil resistance to wind

  16. TILLAGE AND DYNAMICS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN IN ECOLOGICAL AND INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J SMATANA

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available During the period of 1991-1993 in the field experiment, the effect of different soil management (tillage 0,24 m and tillage 0,12-0,15 m in ecological and integration management system on changes of inorganic nitrogen (Nan = N-NH4 + + N-NO3 - content in the soil layer from 0 up to 0,6 m of the soil depth (0,00-0,30 m and 0,30- 0,60 m were studied. Trials were held in a warm climatic zone of the South – Western Slovakia on the brown soil. Different soil management systems (tillage 0,24 m and tillage 0,12-0,15 m considerably did not affected ammonification and nitrification processes in the soil. The sustainability of minimalization via shallow ploughing is not excluded, on the contrary this minimalization may have high a positive influence on economic saving the energy, labour costs, etc. The quantitative and qualitative changes of studied form of N were significantly effected by weather and soil depth. Soil content of N-NH4 + and N-NO3 - was in negative correlation with soil depth.

  17. 中国北方一年两作区保护性耕作技术研究%Conservation tillage techniques for two crops within one year in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 薛少平; 朱瑞祥; 韩思明; 杨成海

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate conservation tillage techniques suitable for semi-arid regions in North China. This paper reports on the experiment design and performances of related conservation tillage farm implements. Ten different mechanized patterns of no-till or reduced-tillage for two crops (winter wheat and summer corn) within one year were set up at the Experiment and Demonstration Site for Mechanized New Techniques and Machinery at Yangling, Shaanxi Province and these conservation tillage patterns were compared with conventional tillage. Results show that wheat yield increases by 53% and summer corn yield increases by 25%, average soil water storage increases by 1% to 1.2% at different depths, and average organic matter increases 1.03 g/kg relatively for the conservation tillage system with wheat residue cover and no-till seeding of corn immediately after wheat harvest, compared with conventional bare soil plowing. Moreover, the efficiency of yield increasing and water storage for deep soil loosening was higher than that for deep plowing;no-till seeding of corn on high stubble mulching was better than seeding on low stubble. Finally, the cost-benefit analysis results show that CT resulted in great economic returns than convention tillage due to greater yields and lower production costs resulting from reduced tillage.%该文主要研究适于中国北方半湿润偏旱区一年两作保护性耕作的技术模式.介绍了在"杨凌农业机械化保护性耕作新技术新机具试验示范园地"建立的小麦玉米一年两作区10种不同机械化保护性耕作的模式、试验方案以及自主研制开发的配套机具的性能;将不同模式与传统犁耕作业模式进行了对比试验与分析研究.结果表明:小麦生长全程秸秆粉碎还田、麦收后玉米免耕播种作业模式与传统犁耕无秸秆覆盖相比,小麦增产53%,玉米增产25%,土壤蓄水量增加1%~1.2%,各类保护性耕作模

  18. Tillage effects on N2O emissions as influenced by a winter cover crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Mutegi, James; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2011-01-01

    Conservation tillage practices are widely used to protect against soil erosion and soil C losses, whereas winter cover crops are used mainly to protect against N losses during autumn and winter. For the greenhouse gas balance of a cropping system the effect of reduced tillage and cover crops on N2O...

  19. Estimation of economic and energetic expenses of soil tillage and soil management systems for the edible beans culture; Estimativas dos custos economicos e energeticos de sistemas de preparo e de manejo do solo para a cultura do feijao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boller, Walter; Gamero, Carlos A. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas

    1997-12-31

    Soil tillage objectives to afford adequate conditions for field crop establishment and production, and contribute with a significant portion of the farming expenses. Conservation tillage aiming to protect the soil against erosion, save labor and fuel by preparing a seedbed. The purpose of these experiment was to estimate the economic and the energetic costs of three soil tillage systems (conventional tillage - disk plowing followed by harrowing twice, rotavation by means of a rotavator and chiselling using a chisel plow combined with stalk-cutting disks and a fitting roll), in combination with four pre-tillage soil cover conditions (black oats, rye, forage radish and fallow). The experiment was carried out during the years 1993/1994, in a heavy clay soil classified as Terra Roxa Estruturada, in the country of Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The fuel consumption in a time and in a area unity were determined through field measurements. Timetable economic and energetic expenses of every mechanized agricultural operation were estimated by means of calculation. The results showed that the replacement of conventional tillage by rotavation or by chiselling allow respectively economize 60,2 and 42,3% of the fuel consumption per unit of tilled area. The additional expenses of utilization of black oats or rye, in combination with rotavating or chiselling respectively a production of 22,65 and 26,73 kg/ha of edible beams. Soil cover crops utilization imply in a 2,2 to 6,0 upper energy requirement than the conventional tillage system in combination with fallow. The implantation of winter crops with the exclusive finality of produce vegetable biomass for soil coverage showed be feasible from economic standpoint, however it was disadvantageous under the energetic standpoint. The utilization of a portion of the biomass produced by soil cover crops for livestock feeding can decisively contribute towards the equilibrium of the energetic balance and to increase the economic

  20. Tillage systems and cover crops on soil physical properties after soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil management alters soil physical attributes and may affect crop yield. In order to evaluate soil physical attributes in layers from 0 to 0.40 m and soybean grain yield, in the 2012/2013 agricultural year, an essay was installed in the experimental area of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS/CPCS. Soil tillage systems were: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no tillage (DS, the cover crops used were millet, sunn hemp and fallow. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split plots. For the layer of 0.20-0.30 m, millet provided the best results for soil bulk density, macro and microporosity. The resistance to penetration (RP was influenced in the layer of 0-0.10 m, and millet provided lower RP. The DS provided the lowest RP values for the layer of 0.10-0.20 m. The treatments did not influence yield or thousand-seed weight.

  1. 保护性耕作对土壤综合特性的影响%Effects of Conservation Tillage on Characteristics of Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申丽霞; 王璞

    2011-01-01

    Conservation tillage is benefit for us to protect soil and water resources, conserve and increase their production potential and prevent degradation. It is significant in China due to the declining of cultivated land,the decreasing of soil fertility, and the expanding of soil erosion. Effects of conservation tillage on soil physical and biological property, fertility, moisture and temperature were analyzed. The roles of conservation tillage on water erosion and wind erosion control were also expressed. Study and application status and prospects of conservation tillage in China were summarized at last.%保护性耕作是一种有利于保护土壤、水等自然资源的生产潜力,提高土地生产力并防止土壤和水资源退化的一种土地利用方式.在中国耕地面积逐年减少,土壤肥力持续下降,水土流失严重的情况下发展保护性耕作具有重要意义.从土壤物理性状、土壤肥力状况、土壤生物学特性、土壤水分和温度几个方面分析了保护性耕作对土壤综合特性的影响,阐述了保护性耕作对减轻土壤水蚀、风蚀的作用,总结了目前中国保护性耕作研究与应用现状及发展前景.

  2. Effect of tillage system on distribution of aggregates and organic carbon in a hydragric anthrosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ming; LUO You-Jin; WANG Zi-Fang; TANG Xiao-Hong; WEI Chao-Fu

    2008-01-01

    The effect of different tillage systems on the size distribution of aggregates and organic carbon distribution and storage in different size aggregates in a Hydragric Anthrosol were studied in a long-term experiment in Chongqing,China.The experiment included three tillage treatments:conventional tillage with rotation of rice and winter fallow (CT-r) system,no-till and ridge culture with rotation of rice and rape (RT-rr) system,and conventional tillage with rotation of rice and rape (CT-rr) system.The results showed that the aggregates 0.02-0.25 mm in diameter accounted for the largest portion in each soil layer under all treatments.Compared with the CT-r system,in the 0-10 cm layer,the amount of aggregates>0.02 mm was larger under the RT-rr system,but smaller under the CT-rr system.In the 0-20 cm layer,the organic carbon content of all fractions of aggregates was the highest under the RT-rr system and lowest under the CT-rr system.The total organic carbon content showed a positive linear relationship with the amount of aggregates with diameter ranging from 0.25 to 2 ram.The storage of organic carbon in all fractions of aggregates under the RT-rr system was higher than that under the CT-r system in the 0-20 cm layer,but in the 0-60 cm soil layer,there was no distinct difference.Under the CT-rr system,the storage of organic carbon in all fractions of aggregates was lower than that under the CT-r system;most of the newly lost organic carbon was from the aggregates 0.002-0.02 and 0.02-0.25 mm in diameter.

  3. [Effects of different tillage measures on upland soil respiration in Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Ren-zhi; Cai, Li-qun; Chen, Qiang-qiang

    2009-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Lijiabu Town of Dingxi City, Gansu Province to study the soil respiration and its relations with the canopy temperature and soil moisture content in a rotation system with spring wheat and pea under effects of different tillage measures. Six treatments were installed, i.e., tillage with no straw- or plastic mulch (conventional tillage, T), tillage with straw mulch (TS), tillage with plastic mulch (TP), no-tillage (NT), no-tillage with straw mulch (NTS), and no-tillage with plastic mulch (NTP). During the growth periods of spring wheat and pea, soil respiration had different change patterns, with the peaks appeared at the early jointing, grain-filling, and maturing stages of spring wheat, and at the 5-leaf, silking, flowering and poding, in spring wheat field between treatments NTS and T, and the soil respiration rate was significantlyand maturing stages of pea. There was an obvious difference in the diurnal change of soil respiration lower in NTS than in T; while the soil respiration in pea field had less diurnal chan ge. Soil respiration rate had a significant linear relationship with the canopy temperature of both spring wheat andpea, the correlation coefficient being the highest at booting stage of spring wheat and at flowering and poding stage of pea, followed by at grain-filling stage of spring wheat and at branching stage of pea. There was also a significant parabola relationship between soil respiration rate and soil moisture content, the correlation coefficient being higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage, with the highest under NTS. The moisture content in 10-30 cm soil layer of spring wheat field and that in 5-10 cm soil layer of pea field had the greatest effects on soil respiration. Comparing with conventional tillage, all the five conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage with straw mulch.

  4. TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, L. EMERGENCE, YIELD, QUALITY, AND FUEL CONSUMPTION IN DOUBLE CROPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH SESSIZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between crop growing and soil tillage treatment are play important role in agricultural production. Soils under conventional tillage (CT generally have lower bulk density and associated higher total porosity within the plough layer than under no tillage (NT. No-till farming can reduce soil erosion, conserve soil moisture and minimize labor and fuel consumption. The aim of this study were to investigate the effects of conventional, reduced and notillage methods on soil physical properties, sunfl ower yield and yield components, protein and oil content and fuel consumption in Southeastern of Turkey. Six tillage methods for the second crop sunfl ower were tested and compared each other within after lentil harvesting at 2003 and 2004 years in a clay loam soil. According to results, the fi rst year, the bulk density had decreased from 1.29 to 1.09 g cm-3, the second year the δb had decreased from 1.41 to 1.23 g cm-3. Differences between years and tillage methods in terms of yield were found signifi cant (p<0.05. However, no differences were found between the NT and CT. There were also no signifi cance differences in content of protein, oil and ash among six tillage methods. The highest fuel consumption was measured in conventional method (CT whereas the lowest value was found in direct seeding method as 33.48 L ha-1 and 6.6 L ha-1, respectively.

  5. Assessing the Soil Physiological Potential Using Pedo-Biological Diagnosis Under Minimum-Tillage System and Mineral Fertilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazar Bireescu; Geanina Bireescu; Michele Vincenzo Sellitto

    2014-01-01

    .... Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources...

  6. Production and efficiency of water usage in capsicum crops under no-tillage and conventional planting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliani Holanda Coelho

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of no-tillage and conventional planting systems, and of weed-management strategies on water-usage efficiency in capsicum crops. The experiment was carried out at the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, using a split-plot layout in a randomized block design with four replications. The tillage systems were evaluated in the plots, and three weed-management strategies evaluated in the subplots (soil cover with polyethylene film, and with and without weeds. The density and dry mass of the weeds, the commercial and total productivity, and the daily water consumption were all evaluated. It was found that the no-tillage system reduced the density and dry mass of the weeds in comparison to conventional systems, and the interference of these plants reduced commercial productivity under both planting systems. The strategy of weeds under a no-tillage system, despite a higher water consumption, showed a productivity and efficiency of water usage superior to those of the strategies of polyethylene film both under no-tillage and conventional systems, and of weeds under a conventional tillage system.

  7. The Effect of Tillage System and Crop Rotation on Soil Microbial Diversity and Composition in a Subtropical Acrisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Triplett

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural management alters physical and chemical soil properties, which directly affects microbial life strategies and community composition. The microbial community drives important nutrient cycling processes that can influence soil quality, cropping productivity and environmental sustainability. In this research, a long-term agricultural experiment in a subtropical Acrisol was studied in south Brazil. The plots at this site represent two tillage systems, two nitrogen fertilization regimes and three crop rotation systems. Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the archaeal and bacterial composition was determined from phylum to species level in the different plot treatments. The relative abundance of these taxes was correlated with measured soil properties. The P, Mg, total organic carbon, total N and mineral N were significantly higher in the no-tillage system. The microbial diversity was higher in the no-tillage system at order, family, genus and species level. In addition, overall microbial composition changed significantly between conventional tillage and no-tillage systems. Anaerobic bacteria, such as clostridia, dominate in no-tilled soil as well as anaerobic methanogenic archaea, which were detected only in the no-tillage system. Microbial diversity was higher in plots in which only cereals (oat and maize were grown. Soil management influenced soil biodiversity on Acrisol by change of composition and abundance of individual species.

  8. 营口市玉米机械化保护性耕作技术应用效果%Application Effect of Mechanized Corn Conservation Tillage Technology in Yingkou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高占文; 唐文举; 王殿忠; 董俊厚

    2014-01-01

    根据营口市实施保护性耕作的示范及实践,以传统耕作为对照,选取碎秆覆盖浅旋、碎秆覆盖少耕、整秆覆盖少耕3种保护性耕作模式进行对比试验,探讨保护性耕作对土壤温度、含水量、风蚀、肥力的影响。试验结果表明:保护性耕作技术能防治水土流失、培肥地力、提高降水利用率;整秆覆盖少耕模式适合在辽宁省大部分地区推广应用。%Comparative trial was conducted on the effect of conservation tillage in Yingkou with traditional tillage as the control, selecting 3 kinds of conservation tillage patterns, namely, the crushed stalk mulching shallow rotary tillage, crushed stalk mulching minimal tillage, and whole stalk mulching minimal tillage. The effects of conservation tillage on soil temperature, moisture, wind erosion, and soil fertility were explored. The test results showed that the conservation tillage technology can prevent soil erosion, increase soil fertility, improve the utilization rate of rainfall;and the whole stalk mulching minimal tillage mode is suitable for popularization and application in most areas of Liaoning province.

  9. Application limestone forms and doses for alfalfa in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cristina Bertusso Toffolli

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. requires good soil fertility. Brazil is characterized by acidic soils which reduce the potential of the crop. Generally, liming is incorporated into the soil, but in tillage systems it is inadvisable. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the lime application method and dose on pH, Al+3, V % and Ca+Mg in the soil and on dry matter yield of alfalfa cultivated under a consolidated no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Paraná Agronomic Institute, located in Pato Branco city, in Paraná state. The plots consisted of the types of lime application (plowing+harrowing, subsoil and surface, the sub-plots was the lime dose (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Mg ha-1 and the sub-sub-plots were the sampled soil depth (0-5; 5-10; 10-20 and 20-30 cm. The results show the application of lime, even superficially, caused increases in pH, concentration of Ca and Mg and base saturation of the soil, while also reducing the concentration of Al, especially in the surface layers of the soil. The practice of plowing and harrowing or of subsoiling, with the aim of lime incorporation in a consolidated no-tillage system is unnecessary. If it is required, the application of lime to the soil should be done superficially for alfalfa cultivated in this system.

  10. Field assessment of surge and continuous furrow irrigation methods in relation to tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Mohamed A.; El-Saadawy, Mohamed A.; Helmy, Mamdouh A.; Sorour, Hussien M.

    2017-04-01

    Surge flow irrigation is one of the irrigation techniques for controlling furrow irrigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surge furrow irrigation on water management compared with continuous irrigation for different tillage systems. An experimental field was treated with various tillage systems (mouldboard plough, chisel plough and rotary plough) and water irrigation application methods (continuous flow, control) in which irrigation water was applied continuously, and surge flow (3-surges, 4-surges and 5-surges) in which irrigation water was applied intermittently until it reached the tail end of the furrow. The results showed that water savings obtained using the surge technique were 18.58, 11.84 and 18.93% lower water use than with continuous flow, for the mouldboard, chisel and rotary ploughs, respectively. The 3-surges treatment with the rotary plough reduced the advance time by 25.36% from that for continuous irrigation. The 4-surges treatment with the mouldboard plough had the highest water application efficiency (88.13%). The 3-surges treatment with the rotary plough had the highest distribution uniformity (85.01%). The rotary plough did not cause as much soil aeration around the root system as the other tillage systems. The field research provided information about surge flow, aimed at reducing advance times and increasing irrigation efficiency.

  11. Tillage practices in the conterminous United States, 1989-2004-Datasets Aggregated by Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the methods used to aggregate county-level tillage practices to the 8-digit hydrologic unit (HU) watershed. The original county-level data were collected by the Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC). The CTIC collects tillage data by conducting surveys about tillage systems for all counties in the United States. Tillage systems include three types of conservation tillage (no-till, ridge-till, and mulch-till), reduced tillage, and intensive tillage. Total planted acreage for each tillage practice for each crop grown is reported to the CTIC. The dataset includes total planted acreage by tillage type for selected crops (corn, cotton, grain sorghum, soybeans, fallow, forage, newly established permanent pasture, spring and fall seeded small grains, and 'other' crops) for 1989-2004. Two tabular datasets, based on the 1992 enhanced and 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD), are provided as part of this report and include the land-cover area-weighted interpolation and aggregation of acreage for each tillage practice in each 8-digit HU watershed in the conterminous United States for each crop. Watershed aggregations were done by overlying the 8-digit HU polygons with a raster of county boundaries and a raster of either the enhanced 1992 or the 2001 NLCD for cultivated land to derive a county/land-cover area weighting factor. The weighting factor then was applied to the county-level tillage data for the counties within each 8-digit HU and summed to yield the total acreage of each tillage type within each 8-digit HU watershed.

  12. Soil and crop residue CO2-C emission under tillage systems in sugarcane-producing areas of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate management of agricultural crop residues could result in increases on soil organic carbon (SOC and help to mitigate gas effect. To distinguish the contributions of SOC and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. residues to the short-term CO2-C loss, we studied the influence of several tillage systems: heavy offset disk harrow (HO, chisel plow (CP, rotary tiller (RT, and sugarcane mill tiller (SM in 2008, and CP, RT, SM, moldboard (MP, and subsoiler (SUB in 2009, with and without sugarcane residues relative to no-till (NT in the sugarcane producing region of Brazil. Soil CO2-C emissions were measured daily for two weeks after tillage using portable soil respiration systems. Daily CO2-C emissions declined after tillage regardless of tillage system. In 2008, total CO2-C from SOC and/or residue decomposition was greater for RT and lowest for CP. In 2009, emission was greatest for MP and CP with residues, and smallest for NT. SOC and residue contributed 47 % and 41 %, respectively, to total CO2-C emissions. Regarding the estimated emissions from sugarcane residue and SOC decomposition within the measurement period, CO2-C factor was similar to sugarcane residue and soil organic carbon decomposition, depending on the tillage system applied. Our approach may define new emission factors that are associated to tillage operations on bare or sugarcane-residue-covered soils to estimate the total carbon loss.

  13. Glyphosate resistant weeds - a threat to conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant weeds are now present throughout the Southeast. Hundreds of thousands of conservation tillage cotton acres, some currently under USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) conservation program contracts, are at risk of being converted to higher-intensity tillage systems....

  14. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  15. The Potential for Conservation Tillage Adoption in the San Joaquin Valley, California: A Qualitative Study of Farmer Perspectives and Opportunities for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossange, Anne V.; Knudson, Kandace M.; Shrestha, Anil; Harben, Ronald; Mitchell, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation tillage (CT) systems have a number of potential benefits including lower crop production costs and the ability to reduce soil erosion that have made them common in several regions of the world. Although CT systems have been researched and successfully implemented on some farms in California’s San Joaquin Valley (SJV), overall adoption is low and the reasons for the region’s comparatively low rates of adoption are not known. In 2011, we conducted written surveys and interviews with SJV farmers to identify characteristics of farmers who adopt or do not adopt CT, to determine reasons for non-adoption of CT, and to learn how successful CT adoption takes place in the SJV. We found that a universally acceptable definition of CT needs to be developed in order for effective research, outreach and communication on CT. Our research, which examined CT adoption within the expected progression of the diffusion of innovation model, suggested that larger and less diverse farms were more likely to use CT. Most farmers expressed transition to CT as a continuous learning process. Further, we conclude that gaining meaningful experience with CT practices by researchers in the local context is also a large component of successful adoption. PMID:27907196

  16. Long-term N fertilization and conservation tillage practices conserve surface but not profile SOC stocks under semi-arid irrigated corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    No tillage (NT) and N fertilization can increase surface soil organic C (SOC) stocks, but the effects deeper in the soil profile are uncertain. Subsequent tillage could counter SOC stabilized through NT practices by disrupting soil aggregation and promoting decomposition. We followed a long-term ti...

  17. Influence of Soil Tillage Systems on Soil Respiration and Production on Wheat, Maize and Soybean Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, P. I.; Rusu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant, fertilizer etc. The data presented in this paper were obtained on argic-stagnic Faeoziom (SRTS, 2003). These areas were was our research, presents a medium multiannual temperature of 8.20C, medium of multiannual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: A. Conventional system (CS): V1-reversible plough (22-25 cm)+rotary grape (8-10 cm); B. Minimum tillage system (MT): V2 - paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); V3 - chisel (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm);V4 - rotary grape (10-12 cm); C. No-Tillage systems (NT): V5 - direct sowing. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three replications. In one variant the area of a plot was 300 m2. The experimental variants were studied in the 3 years crop rotation: maize - soy-bean - autumn wheat. To soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest) using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. Soil respiration varies throughout the year for all three crops of rotation, with a maximum in late spring (1383 to 2480 mmoli m-2s-1) and another in fall (2141 to 2350 mmoli m-2s-1). The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration, the daily average is lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1), followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Productions obtained at MT and NT don't have significant differences at wheat and are higher at soybean. The differences in crop yields are recorded at maize and can be a direct consequence of loosening, mineralization and intensive mobilization of soil fertility. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by CNCSIS

  18. Economic Efficiency of Selected Crops Cultivated under Different Technology of Soil Tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vach M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the model comparison and economic evaluation of different methods of soil tillage and crop stand establishments used. Based on yield results (winter wheat, spring barley, and white mustard cultivated in three-crop rotation from field experiments with conventional, conservation with minimum tillage, and no-tillage methods conducted at the site Prague-Ruzyně, model economic balances were evaluated. Prices of the main products were determined based on the yield results from the period 2010-2013 and the current market prices. In the individual tillage systems, the total costs of production of evaluated crops were counted up and profitability was calculated as a ratio of profit to total costs. The highest total costs of crop cultivation were identified in cereals under conventional soil tillage, on the contrary, the lowest in cereals cultivated under conservation tillage technology. As for the growing technologies, the highest profitability was found in winter wheat, as for the tillage methods, it was in the conservation variant with minimum tillage. The economic evaluation for individual crops was based on standards of growing technologies and particular work operations.

  19. Atrazine degradation and enzyme activities in an agricultural soil under two tillage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahía, Jorge; Martín, Angela; Carballas, Tarsy; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2007-05-25

    The content of atrazine and its metabolites (hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine) as well as the activities of two soil enzymes (urease and beta-glucosidase) were evaluated in an acid agricultural soil, located in a temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain), with an annual ryegrass-maize rotation under conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT). Samples were collected during two consecutive years from the arable layer at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm) and different times after atrazine application. Hydroxyatrazine and deisopropylatrazine were the main metabolites resulting from atrazine degradation in the acid soil studied, the highest levels being detected in the surface layer of the NT treatment. A residual effect of atrazine was observed since hydroxyatrazine was detected in the arable layer (0-5 cm, 5-20 cm) even one year after the herbicide application. Soil enzyme activities in the upper 5 cm layer under NT were consistently higher than those in the same layer under CT. Urease and beta-glucosidase activities decreased with depth in the profile under NT but they did not show any differences between the two depths for the plots under CT. For both tillage systems enzyme activities also reflected temporal changes during the maize cultivation; however, no consistent effect of the herbicide application was observed.

  20. Experimental analysis of CO{sub 2} emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragienė, Sidona [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Šarauskis, Egidijus, E-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@asu.lt [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Romaneckas, Kęstutis, E-mail: kestas.romaneckas@asu.lt [Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Science, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Sasnauskienė, Jurgita, E-mail: jurgita.sasnauskiene@asu.lt [Institute of Environment and Ecology, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Masilionytė, Laura, E-mail: laura.masilionyte@gmail.com [Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Joniskelis, LT-39301 Pasvalys distr. (Lithuania); Kriaučiūnienė, Zita, E-mail: zita.kriauciuniene@asu.lt [Experimental Station, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Rapsu str. 7, LT-53363 Noreikiskes, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania)

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO{sub 2} emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO{sub 2} emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO{sub 2} emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO{sub 2

  1. Supersymmetric non conservative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pérez, N E

    2015-01-01

    We give the generalization of a recent variational formulation for nonconservative classical mechanics, for fermionic and sypersymmetric systems. Both cases require slightly modified boundary conditions. The supersymmetric version is given in the superfield formalism. The corresponding Noether theorem is formulated. As expected, like the energy, the supersymmetric charges are not conserved. Examples are discussed.

  2. Effect of conservation tillage on wheat and soil nutrient distribution and absorption%保护性耕作对土壤养分分布及冬小麦吸收与分配的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培培; 杨明欣; 董文旭; 陈素英; 胡春胜

    2011-01-01

    通过田间试验研究了华北平原山前平原区不同耕作方式下土壤氮、磷、钾等养分分布及冬小麦吸收与分配变化和对产量的影响.试验设深翻耕秸秆还田(MC)、秸秆还田旋耕(X)、秸秆粉碎免耕(NC)和整秸覆盖免耕(NW)4种冬小麦播前土壤耕作方式.试验结果表明,6年的不同耕作处理对土壤养分分布及冬小麦吸收与分配有显著影响.秸秆还田旋耕可显著提高土壤表层(0~5 cm)有机质、全氮以及碱解氨、速效磷、速效钾含量,但随土壤深度增加,提高效果呈逐渐下降趋势;20~30 cm土层土壤有机质、全氮和速效氮含量显著低于秸秆粉碎免耕处理,两种免耕模式(NC、NW)植株的全氮、全磷、全钾含量在苗期明显低于翻耕(MC)和旋耕(X)模式,在返青期差异最为显著.到拔节和扬花期,免耕(NC、NW)植株的全氮、全磷、全钾含量与翻耕(MC)和旋耕(X)之间的差异逐渐减少,并最终影响到籽粒养分的积累.%Conservation tillage technology improves soil environment, reduces wind and water erosion, and mitigates sandstorm. As a mode of agricultural technology, conservation tillage is drawing more and more global attention. Agricultural soils are increasingly managed through conservation or no-tillage. The objective of this study was to identify the effects of different conservation tillage patterns on N, P, K distribution in both soil and wheat, and also on their absorption of wheat in the North China Plain. The investigated tillage patterns included no-tillage with crushed straw (NC), no-tillage with entire straw (NW), traditional tillage with crushed straw (MC) and rotary tillage with crushed straw (X). The 6-year experiment showed significant differences in soil nutrient distribution and absorption, and also in wheat distribution among different tillage patterns. Rotary tillage significantly increased organic matter, total nitrogen and available N, P, K contents in the 0

  3. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  4. Evaluating energy sorghum harvest thresholds and tillage cropping systems to offset negative environmental impacts and harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meki, M. N.; Snider, J. L.; Kiniry, J. R.; Raper, R. L.; Rocateli, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    Energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) could be the ideal feedstock for the cellulosic ethanol industry because of its robust establishment, broader adaptability and drought tolerance, water and nutrient use efficiency, and the relatively high annual biomass yields. Of concern, however, is the limited research data on harvest thresholds, subsequent environmental impacts and the potential cumulative effects of harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction. Indiscriminate harvests of the high volume wet energy sorghum biomass, coupled with repeated field passes, could cause irreparable damage to the soil due to compaction. Furthermore, biomass harvests result in lower soil organic matter returns to the soil, making the soil even more susceptible to soil compaction. Compacted soils result in poor root zone aeration and drainage, more losses of nitrogen from denitrification, and restricted root growth, which reduces yields. Given the many positive attributes of conservation tillage and crop residue retention, our research and extension expectations are that sustainable energy sorghum cropping systems ought to include some form of conservation tillage. The challenge is to select cropping and harvesting systems that optimize feedstock production while ensuring adequate residue biomass to sustainably maintain soil structure and productivity. Producers may have to periodically subsoil-till or plow-back their lands to alleviate problems of soil compaction and drainage, weeds, insects and disease infestations. Little, however, is known about the potential impact of these tillage changes on soil productivity, environmental integrity, and sustainability of bioenergy agro-ecosystems. Furthermore, 'safe' energy sorghum feedstock removal thresholds have yet to be established. We will apply the ALMANAC biophysical model to evaluate permissible energy sorghum feedstock harvest thresholds and the effects of subsoil tillage and periodically plowing no-tilled (NT) energy sorghum

  5. Responses of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities to tillage and fertilization systems in soybean (Glycine max L. production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heidari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tillage operation and fertilizer type play important roles in soil properties as far as soil microbial condition is concerned. Information regarding the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of long-term tillage and fertilization on the soil microbial traits of soybean farms is not available. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that, the microbial biomass and enzyme activity, more often than not, respond quickly to changes in soil tillage and fertilization. Therefore, the experiments were aimed at analyzing the responses of soil microbial traits to tillage and fertilization in a soybean field in Kurdistan University, Iran. The field soil is categorized into coarse Loamy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, and mesic Typic Xerorthents. The experiments were arranged in split plot, based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots consisted of long-term (since 2002 tillage systems including conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no-tillage (NT. Eight fertilization methods were employed in the sub-plots, including (F1: farmyard manure (FYM; (F2: compost; (F3: chemical fertilizers; (F4: FYM + compost; (F5: FYM + chemical fertilizers; (F6: compost + chemical fertilizers; (F7: FYM + compost + chemical fertilizers and (F8: Control (without fertilizer. The highest microbial biomass carbon (385.1 μg was observed in NT-F4 treatment. The NT treatment comparatively recorded higher values of acid phosphatase (189.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1, alkaline phosphatase (2879.6 μg PNP g-1 h-1 and dehydrogenase activity (68.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1. The soil treated with a mixture of compost and FYM inputs had the maximum urease activity of all tillage treatments. Organically manured treatment (F4 showed more activity in dehydrogenase (85.7 μg PNP g-1 h-1, acid phosphatase (199.1 µg PNP g-1 h-1 and alkaline phosphatase (3183.6 µg PNP g-1 h-1 compared to those treated with chemical fertilizers. In NT-F4 treatment, using on-farm inputs is most

  6. [Impact of different tillage practices on soil organic carbon and water use efficiency under continuous wheat-maize binary cropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Sun, Han-Yin; Taraqqi, A K; Wang, Xu-Dong

    2014-04-01

    Base on an 8-year field experiment, the effects of tillage practices coupled with or without straw return on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and water use efficiency (WUE) were investigated in Guanzhong Plain during the growing seasons from 2008 to 2009. The results showed that conservation tillage practices (sub-soiling, SS; rotary tillage, RT; no-till, NT) improved the SOC, WUE and crop yield compared with conventional tillage (CT), among which, SS coupled with straw return had the highest increment, with increase in SOC content of the 0-30 cm soil layer, WUE and crop yield by 19.5%, 16.9% and 20.5%, respectively. The NT practice effectively increased the SOC content of the 0-10 cm soil layer. Conclusively, under the current soil and climatic conditions in Guanzhong Plain, sub-soiling coupled with straw return is the most efficient tillage practice for promoting SOC accumulation, increasing water-use efficiency and yield.

  7. 朝阳县玉米保护性耕作技术试验示范分析%Analysis on the Technique of Maize Conservation Tillage Demonstration in Chaoyang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑井辉

    2015-01-01

    The technique of conservation tillage is one of effective ways of fulfilling the sustainable development of agriculture. The article introduces the mode of conservation tillage technique according to natural situation in Chaoyang, expounds the content of main technique of maize conservation tillage in Chaoyang, and compared main economic index of various technique modes of conservation tillage and traditional mode, in order to provide a reference for the extension and application of maize conservation tillage technique.%保护性耕作技术是实现农业可持续发展的一条有效途径。针对朝阳县的自然情况,介绍保护性耕作技术的耕作模式,阐述朝阳县玉米保护性耕作的主要技术内容,并将保护性耕作的多种技术模式与传统模式的主要技术经济指标进行试验对比,以期为玉米保护性耕作技术的推广应用提供参考。

  8. Fabrication and evaluation of a reservoir tillage machine to reduce runoff from farms with sprinkler irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A Rostami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, in a lot of farm land due to reasons such as high density, heavy textured soils, steep terrain and a large body of water at each irrigation, rapid and complete absorption of water in the soil does not happen and runoff will be accrued. Improvement of infiltration reduces runoff and thus increases available water capacity. The main methods used to increase the infiltration area: The use of soil amendments, soil management by tillage and conservation farming. These methods may be used separately or together. Reservoir tillage is the process by which small holes or depressions are punched in the soil to prevent runoff of water from irrigation or rainfall. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a new reservoir tillage machine for runoff control in the fields. Materials and Methods Fabricated machine has four main units include three-point hitch, toolbar, frame and tillage unit. Tillage unit was a spider wheel with 6 arms that has 6 Wedge-shaped blades, mounted on them. Each tillage unit mounted on a frame and the frame is attached to the toolbar with a yoke. The toolbar was attached to the tractor by three-point hitch. The movement of tractor caused blades impact soil and spider wheel was rotating. Spider wheel rotation speed was depended on the forward speed of the tractor. Blades were created mini-reservoirs on the soil surface for "In situ" irrigation water or rainwater harvesting. Theoretically distance between basins, created by reservoir tillage machine, fabricated in this study was 57 and 68 cm for Arm's length of 30 and 40 cm respectively. For the construction of machine, first the plan was drawn with SolidWorks software and then the parts of the machine were built based on technical drawings. First tillage unit was constructed and its shaft was based in two bearings. Six of the arms were positioned at 60 degrees from each other around tillage units and connected by welding. For evaluation of machine

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of a reservoir tillage machine to reduce runoff from farms with sprinkler irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A Rostami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, in a lot of farm land due to reasons such as high density, heavy textured soils, steep terrain and a large body of water at each irrigation, rapid and complete absorption of water in the soil does not happen and runoff will be accrued. Improvement of infiltration reduces runoff and thus increases available water capacity. The main methods used to increase the infiltration area: The use of soil amendments, soil management by tillage and conservation farming. These methods may be used separately or together. Reservoir tillage is the process by which small holes or depressions are punched in the soil to prevent runoff of water from irrigation or rainfall. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a new reservoir tillage machine for runoff control in the fields. Materials and Methods Fabricated machine has four main units include three-point hitch, toolbar, frame and tillage unit. Tillage unit was a spider wheel with 6 arms that has 6 Wedge-shaped blades, mounted on them. Each tillage unit mounted on a frame and the frame is attached to the toolbar with a yoke. The toolbar was attached to the tractor by three-point hitch. The movement of tractor caused blades impact soil and spider wheel was rotating. Spider wheel rotation speed was depended on the forward speed of the tractor. Blades were created mini-reservoirs on the soil surface for "In situ" irrigation water or rainwater harvesting. Theoretically distance between basins, created by reservoir tillage machine, fabricated in this study was 57 and 68 cm for Arm's length of 30 and 40 cm respectively. For the construction of machine, first the plan was drawn with SolidWorks software and then the parts of the machine were built based on technical drawings. First tillage unit was constructed and its shaft was based in two bearings. Six of the arms were positioned at 60 degrees from each other around tillage units and connected by welding. For evaluation of machine

  10. The Effects of Different Tillage Systems on Soil Hydrology and Erosion in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, A. V. F. A.; Fernandes, N. F.; Souza, A. P.; Miranda, J. P.; Rocha, M. L.

    2009-04-01

    Conventional tillage usually imposes a variety of modifications on soil properties that can lead to important changes in the type and magnitude of the hydrological processes that take place at the upper portion of the soil profile. Plough pan formation, for example, is considered to be an important consequence of conventional tillage practices in southeastern Brazil, decreasing infiltration rates and contributing to soil erosion, especially in steep slopes. In order to characterize the changes in soil properties and soil hydrology due to the plough pan formation we carried out detailed investigations in two experimental plots in Paty do Alferes region, located in the hilly landscape of Serra do Mar in southeastern Brazil, close to Rio de Janeiro city. Farming activities are very important in this area, in particular the ones related to the tomato production. The local hilly topography with short and steep hillslopes, as well as an average annual rainfall of almost 2000 mm, favor surface runoff and the evolution of rill and gully erosion. The two runoff plots are 22m long by 4m wide and were installed side by side along a representative hillslope, both in terms of soil (Oxisol) and steepness. At the lower portion of each plot there is a collecting trough connected by a PVC pipe to a 500 and 1000 liters sediment storage boxes. Soil tillage treatments used in the two plots were: Conventional Tillage (CT), with one plowing using disc-type plow (about 18 cm depth) and one downhill tractor leveling, in addition to burning residues from previous planting; and Minimum Tillage (MT), which did not allow burning residues from previous planting and preserved a vegetative cover between plantation lines. Runoff and soil erosion measurements were carried out in both plots immediately after each rainfall event. In order to characterize soil water movements under the two tillage systems (CT and MT), 06 nests of tensiometers and 04 nests of Watermark sensors were installed in each

  11. Qualidade de solo submetido a sistemas de cultivo com preparo convencional e plantio direto Soil quality under tillage and no-tillage cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusângela Antônia Costa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de um Latossolo Vermelho submetido a sistemas de cultivo com preparo convencional e plantio direto. Foram estudadas duas áreas experimentais, localizadas na Embrapa Cerrados, em Planaltina, DF, com oito e dez anos de cultivo. Foram coletadas amostras de solo, em diversas profundidades, nas parcelas experimentais e em área de cerrado nativo. Os seguintes atributos foram avaliados: densidade do solo, porosidade total, capacidade de água disponível, grau de floculação, resistência do solo à penetração, teor de matéria orgânica, capacidade de troca catiônica, fósforo remanescente, carbono da biomassa microbiana e respiração basal. Os dados obtidos foram comparados a valores referenciais quanto à qualidade do solo, mediante modelagem gráfica. Observou-se que a qualidade do solo, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo, é similar quanto aos atributos físicos; os teores de matéria orgânica e fósforo remanescente também são semelhantes, mas a capacidade de troca catiônica é mais alta no solo sob plantio direto. Em relação aos atributos biológicos, o solo sob plantio direto apresenta atividade biológica mais elevada. A qualidade do solo em ambos os sistemas é similar, em relação aos atributos avaliados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of an Oxisol under tillage and no-tillage systems. Two experimental areas were studied, both located in Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil, with eight and ten years of cropping. Soil samples were collected from different depth layers in the experimental plots and native cerrado vegetation area. The following soil atributes were evaluated: bulk density, soil porosity, available water capacity, degree of flocculation, soil resistance to penetration, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, equilibrium phosphorus, microbial biomass carbon and basal respiration. The data obtained were compared with referential

  12. [Effects of different straw recycling and tillage methods on soil respiration and microbial activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-sha; Wu, Ning; Liu, Ling; Feng, Yu-peng; Xu, Xu; Han, Hui-fang; Ning, Tang-yuan; Li, Zeng-jia

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effects of different tillage methods and straw recycling on soil respiration and microbial activity in summer maize field during the winter wheat and summer maize double cropping system, substrate induced respiration method and CO2 release method were used to determine soil microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, soil respiration, and microbial respiratory quotient. The experiment included 3 tillage methods during the winter wheat growing season, i.e., no-tillage, subsoiling and conventional tillage. Each tillage method was companied with 2 straw management patterns, i.e., straw recycling and no straw. The results indicated that the conservation tillage methods and straw recycling mainly affected 0-10 cm soil layer. Straw recycling could significantly improve the microbial biomass carbon and microbial activity, while decrease microbial respiratory quotient. Straw recycling could improve the soil respiration at both seedling stage and anthesis, however, it could reduce the soil respiration at filling stage, wax ripeness, and harvest stage. Under the same straw application, compared with conventional tillage, the soil respiration and microbial respiratory quotient in both subsoiling and no-tillage were reduced, while the microbial biomass carbon and microbial activity were increased. During the summer maize growing season, soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial activity were increased in straw returning with conservation tillage, while the respiratory quotient was reduced. In 0-10 cm soil layer, compared with conventional tillage, straw recycling with subsoiling and no-tillage significantly increased soil microbial biomass carbon by 95.8% and 74.3%, and increased soil microbial activity by 97.1% and 74.2%, respectively.

  13. Soil microbial properties after long-term swine slurry application to conventional and no-tillage systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, Elcio L; Machineski, Oswaldo; Hamid, Karima I A; Yada, Ines F U; Barbosa, Graziela M C; Nakatani, Andre S; Coyne, Mark S

    2014-08-15

    Swine waste can be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but large amounts may accumulate excess nutrients in soil or contaminate the surrounding environment. This study evaluated long-term soil amendment (15 years) with different levels of swine slurry to conventional (plow) tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) soils. Long-term swine slurry application did not affect soil organic carbon. Some chemical properties, such as calcium, base saturation, and aluminum saturation were significantly different within and between tillages for various application rates. Available P and microbial parameters were significantly affected by slurry addition. Depending on tillage, soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity increased up to 120 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) in all application rates. The NT system had higher microbial biomass and activity than CT at all application levels. There was an inverse relationship between the metabolic quotient (qCO2) and MBC, and the qCO2 was 53% lower in NT than CT. Swine slurry increased overall acid phosphatase activity, but the phosphatase produced per unit of microbial biomass decreased. A comparison of data obtained in the 3rd and 15th years of swine slurry application indicated that despite slurry application the CT system degraded with time while the NT system had improved values of soil quality indicators. For these Brazilian oxisols, swine slurry amendment was insufficient to maintain soil quality parameters in annual crop production without additional changes in tillage management.

  14. 保护性耕作对绿洲灌区冬小麦产量形成的影响%Effect of Conservation Tillage on Dry Matter Accumulating and Yield of Winter Wheat in Oasis Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲玲; 黄高宝; 秦舒浩; 于爱忠

    2011-01-01

    Hexi Oasis is the most important region for food crop production in Gansu province, where is not only exposed to serious wind erosion but also one of the main sources of dust storm in China. Spring wheat traditionally dominates in wheat production in this region, but the bare field from dry winter to spring usually accelerates serious wind erosion. Conservation tillage proves to be able to increase water use efficiency (WUE) and eliminate soil erosion. In this study, dry matter accumulating, yield and WUE of winter wheat under different tillage practices were investigated in order to establish proper systems of conservation tillage in the Hexi Oasis area for winter wheat production, and to save water and prevent wind erosion. Experiments on five tillage practices were carried out from 2004 to 2007, including conventional tillage (T), conventional tillage with stubble incorporated (TIS), no-tillage (NT), no-tillage with stubble retention (NTS), and no-tillage with stubble standing (NTSS). The effects of conservation tillage on dry matter dynamics, grain-filling characteristics, grain yield, yield components, and WUE of winter wheat were determined using wheat cultivar Fan-13. Compared with treatment T, the growth and development process and grain-filling duration of winter wheat were prolonged in NTS and NTSS treatments. Both treatments had higher values in dry matter, relative growth rate (RGR), grain-filling duration, average filling velocity in spike of main stem, and filling index than other treatments.Although the grain number per spike and 1000-grain weight of NTS and NTSS varied across years, they generally showed higher levels than those of the T and TIS treatments, especially the NTSS treatment. The highest WUE was observed in the NTS treatment. The average grain yields (2004-2007) of NTS and NTSS were increased by 18.6% and 23.8% compared to the T treatment,and the average WUE (2005-2007) of NTS and NTSS were enhanced by 26.8% and 16.1

  15. Greenhouse gas flux and crop productivity after 10 years of reduced and no tillage in a wheat-maize cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shenzhong; Wang, Yu; Ning, Tangyuan; Zhao, Hongxiang; Wang, Bingwen; Li, Na; Li, Zengjia; Chi, Shuyun

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate tillage plays an important role in mitigating the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in regions with higher crop yields, but the emission situations of some reduced tillage systems such as subsoiling, harrow tillage and rotary tillage are not comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the emission characteristics of GHG (CH4 and N2O) under four reduced tillage systems from October 2007 to August 2009 based on a 10-yr tillage experiment in the North China Plain, which included no-tillage (NT) and three reduced tillage systems of subsoil tillage (ST), harrow tillage (HT) and rotary tillage (RT), with the conventional tillage (CT) as the control. The soil under the five tillage systems was an absorption sink for CH4 and an emission source for N2O. The soil temperature positive impacted on the CH4 absorption by the soils of different tillage systems, while a significant negative correlation was observed between the absorption and soil moisture. The main driving factor for increased N2O emission was not the soil temperature but the soil moisture and the content of nitrate. In the two rotation cycle of wheat-maize system (10/2007-10/2008 and 10/2008-10/2009), averaged cumulative uptake fluxes of CH4 under CT, ST, HT, RT and NT systems were approximately 1.67, 1.72, 1.63, 1.77 and 1.17 t ha(-1) year(-1), respectively, and meanwhile, approximately 4.43, 4.38, 4.47, 4.30 and 4.61 t ha(-1) year(-1) of N2O were emitted from soil of these systems, respectively. Moreover, they also gained 33.73, 34.63, 32.62, 34.56 and 27.54 t ha(-1) yields during two crop-rotation periods, respectively. Based on these comparisons, the rotary tillage and subsoiling mitigated the emissions of CH4 and N2O as well as improving crop productivity of a wheat-maize cropping system.

  16. Soil carbon fractions under maize-wheat system: effect of tillage and nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S; Manjaiah, K M; Pal, Sharmistha; Singh, A K

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in sustaining agroecosystems and maintaining environmental quality as it acts as a major source and sink of atmospheric carbon. The present study aims to assess the impact of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon pools in a maize-wheat cropping system of Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Soil samples from a split plot design with two tillage systems (bed planting and conventional tillage) and six nutrient treatments (T1 = control, T2 = 120 kg urea-N ha(-1), T3 = T2 (25 % N substituted by FYM), T4 = T2 (25 % N substituted by sewage sludge), T5 = T2 + crop residue, T6 = 100 % organic source (50 % FYM + 25 % biofertilizer + 25 % crop residue) were used for determining the organic carbon pools. Results show that there was a significant improvement in Walkley and Black carbon in soil under integrated and organic nutrient management treatments. KMnO4-oxidizable carbon content of soil varied from 0.63 to 1.50 g kg(-1) in soils and was found to be a better indicator for monitoring the impact of agricultural management practices on quality of soil organic carbon than microbial biomass carbon. Tillage and its interaction were found to significantly influence only those soil organic carbon fractions closely associated with aggregate stability viz, labile polysaccharides and glomalin. The highest amount of C4-derived carbon was found to be in plots receiving recommended doses of N as urea (29 %) followed by control plots (25 %). The carbon management index ranged between 82 to 195 and was better in integrated nutrient sources than ones receiving recommended doses of nutrients through mineral fertilizers alone.

  17. Short Response of Spring Wheat to Tillage, Residue Management and Split Nitrogen Application in a Rice-Wheat System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Usman; Ejaz Ahmad Khan; Fazal Yazdan; Niamatullah Khan; Abdur Rashid; Saleem Ud Din

    2014-01-01

    A ifeld experiment was conducted to study the impact of tillage, crop residue management and nitrogen (N) splitting on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield over 2 yr (2010-2012) in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat system in northwestern Pakistan. The experiment was conducted as split plot arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Treatments comprised six tillage and residue managements:zero tillage straw retained (ZTsr), zero tillage straw burnt (ZTsb), reduced tillage straw incorporated (RTsi), reduced tillage straw burnt (RTsb), conventional tillage straw incorporated (CTsi), and conventional tillage straw burnt (CTsb) as main plots and N (200 kg ha-1) was applied as split form viz., control (no nitrogen&no splitting, N0S0);2 splits of total N, half at sowing and half at the 1st irrigation (i.e., 20 d after sowing (DAS)) (NS1);3 splits of total N, 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at the 1st irrigation, and 1/3 at the 2nd irrigation (NS2);4 splits of total N, 1/4 at sowing, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation (45 DAS), and 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation (70 DAS) (NS3);and 4 splits of total N, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation, 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation, and 1/4 at the 4th irrigation (95DAS) (NS4) as sub plots. The results showed that the most pikes m-2, grains/spike, 1 000-grain weight, grain yield, and N use efifciency (NUE) were obtained at zero tillage, straw retained and 4 splits application of total N (i.e., at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing). The results indicated that ZTsr with application of 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 equal splits viz. at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing is an appropriate strategy that enhanced wheat yield (7 436-7 634 kg ha-1) and N efifciency (28.6-29.5 kg kg-1) in rice-wheat system.

  18. Status and trends in suspended-sediment discharges, soil erosion, and conservation tillage in the Maumee River basin--Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Metzker, Kevin D.; Davis, Steven

    2000-01-01

    The relation of suspended-sediment discharges to conservation-tillage practices and soil loss were analyzed for the Maumee River Basin in Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Cropland in the basin is the largest contributor to soil erosion and suspended-sediment discharge to the Maumee River and the river is the largest source of suspended sediments to Lake Erie. Retrospective and recently-collected data from 1970-98 were used to demonstrate that increases in conservation tillage and decreases in soil loss can be related to decreases in suspended-sediment discharge from streams. Average annual water and suspended-sediment budgets computed for the Maumee River Basin and its principal tributaries indicate that soil drainage and runoff potential, stream slope, and agricultural land use are the major human and natural factors related to suspended-sediment discharge. The Tiffin and St. Joseph Rivers drain areas of moderately to somewhat poorly drained soils with moderate runoff potential. Expressed as a percentage of the total for the Maumee River Basin, the St. Joseph and Tiffin Rivers represent 29.0 percent of the basin area, 30.7 percent of the average-annual streamflow, and 9.31 percent of the average annual suspended-sediment discharge. The Auglaize and St. Marys Rivers drain areas of poorly to very poorly drained soils with high runoff potential. Expressed as a percentage of the total for the Maumee River Basin, the Auglaize and St. Marys Rivers represent 48.7 percent of the total basin area, 53.5 percent of the average annual streamflow, and 46.5 percent of the average annual suspended-sediment discharge. Areas of poorly drained soils with high runoff potential appear to be the major source areas of suspended sediment discharge in the Maumee River Basin. Although conservation tillage differed in the degree of use throughout the basin, on aver-age, it was used on 55.4 percent of all crop

  19. Fabrication and evaluation of a reservoir tillage machine to reduce runoff from farms with sprinkler irrigation systems

    OpenAIRE

    M.A Rostami

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nowadays, in a lot of farm land due to reasons such as high density, heavy textured soils, steep terrain and a large body of water at each irrigation, rapid and complete absorption of water in the soil does not happen and runoff will be accrued. Improvement of infiltration reduces runoff and thus increases available water capacity. The main methods used to increase the infiltration area: The use of soil amendments, soil management by tillage and conservation farming. These met...

  20. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  1. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use...

  2. Square conservation systems and Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 曾庆存; 季仲贞

    1995-01-01

    The internal and external relationships between the square conservation scheme and the symplectic scheme are revealed by a careful study on the interrelation between the square conservation system and the Hamiltonian system in the linear situation, thus laying a theoretical basis for the application and extension of symplectic schemes to square conservations systems, and of those schemes with quadratic conservation properties to Hamiltonian systems.

  3. Simulated responses of soil organic carbon stock to tillage management scenarios in the Northwest Great Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhengpeng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tillage practices greatly affect carbon (C stocks in agricultural soils. Quantification of the impacts of tillage on C stocks at a regional scale has been challenging because of the spatial heterogeneity of soil, climate, and management conditions. We evaluated the effects of tillage management on the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC in croplands of the Northwest Great Plains ecoregion of the United States using the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS. Tillage management scenarios included actual tillage management (ATM, conventional tillage (CT, and no-till (NT. Results Model simulations show that the average amount of C (kg C ha-1yr-1 released from croplands between 1972 and 2000 was 246 with ATM, 261 with CT, and 210 with NT. The reduction in the rate of C emissions with conversion of CT to NT at the ecoregion scale is much smaller than those reported at plot scale and simulated for other regions. Results indicate that the response of SOC to tillage practices depends significantly on baseline SOC levels: the conversion of CT to NT had less influence on SOC stocks in soils having lower baseline SOC levels but would lead to higher potentials to mitigate C release from soils having higher baseline SOC levels. Conclusion For assessing the potential of agricultural soils to mitigate C emissions with conservation tillage practices, it is critical to consider both the crop rotations being used at a local scale and the composition of all cropping systems at a regional scale.

  4. Carbon Storage and Carbon Dioxide Emission as Influenced by Long-term Conservation Tillage and Nitrogen Fertilization in Corn-Soybean Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although agriculture is a victim of environmental risk due to global warming, but ironically it also contributes toglobal greenhouse gas (GHG emission. The objective of this experiment was to determine the influence of long-termconservation tillage and N fertilization on soil carbon storage and CO2 emission in corn-soybean rotation system. Afactorial experiment was arranged in a randomized completely block design with four replications. The first factorwas tillage systems namely intensive tillage (IT, minimum tillage (MT and no-tillage (NT. While the second factorwas N fertilization with rate of 0, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1 applied for corn, and 0, 25, and 50 kg N ha-1 for soybeanproduction. Samples of soil organic carbon (SOC after 23 year of cropping were taken at depths of 0-5 cm, 5-10cm and 10-20 cm, while CO2 emission measurements were taken in corn season (2009 and soybean season (2010.Analysis of variance and means test (HSD 0.05 were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System package. At 0-5 cm depth, SOC under NT combined with 200 kg N ha-1 fertilization was 46.1% higher than that of NT with no Nfertilization, while at depth of 5-10 cm SOC under MT was 26.2% higher than NT and 13.9% higher than IT.Throughout the corn and soybean seasons, CO2-C emissions from IT were higher than those of MT and NT, whileCO2-C emissions from 200 kg N ha-1 rate were higher than those of 0 kg N ha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 rates. With any Nrate treatments, MT and NT could reduce CO2-C emission to 65.2 %-67.6% and to 75.4%-87.6% as much of IT,respectively. While in soybean season, MT and NT could reduce CO2-C emission to 17.6%-46.7% and 42.0%-74.3% as much of IT, respectively. Prior to generative soybean growth, N fertilization with rate of 50 kg N ha-1could reduce CO2-C emission to 32.2%-37.2% as much of 0 and 25 kg N ha-1 rates.

  5. Soil Conservation Practices for Sustainability of Rice-wheat System in Nepal : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal, Narayan Prasad; Maharjan, Keshav Lall; Dangol, Dharma Raj

    2012-01-01

    Declining crop productivity and environmental pollution are two key issues associated with sustainability of rice-wheat system in Nepal. The former one is related to declining soil organic matter and shortage of water as well as laborer; whereas, the latter is due to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from this system. This article reviews the potential of soil conservation practices, especially organic matter and zero-tillage, against these two issues in rice-wheat system of Nepal. Farm Yar...

  6. Soil microbial substrate properties and microbial community responses under irrigated organic and reduced-tillage crop and forage production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajan; Norton, Jay B; Stahl, Peter D; Norton, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Changes in soil microbiotic properties such as microbial biomass and community structure in response to alternative management systems are driven by microbial substrate quality and substrate utilization. We evaluated irrigated crop and forage production in two separate four-year experiments for differences in microbial substrate quality, microbial biomass and community structure, and microbial substrate utilization under conventional, organic, and reduced-tillage management systems. The six different management systems were imposed on fields previously under long-term, intensively tilled maize production. Soils under crop and forage production responded to conversion from monocropping to crop rotation, as well as to the three different management systems, but in different ways. Under crop production, four years of organic management resulted in the highest soil organic C (SOC) and microbial biomass concentrations, while under forage production, reduced-tillage management most effectively increased SOC and microbial biomass. There were significant increases in relative abundance of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, with two- to 36-fold increases in biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Under crop production, dissolved organic C (DOC) content was higher under organic management than under reduced-tillage and conventional management. Perennial legume crops and organic soil amendments in the organic crop rotation system apparently favored greater soil microbial substrate availability, as well as more microbial biomass compared with other management systems that had fewer legume crops in rotation and synthetic fertilizer applications. Among the forage production management systems with equivalent crop rotations, reduced-tillage management had higher microbial substrate availability and greater microbial biomass than other management systems. Combined crop rotation, tillage management, soil amendments, and legume crops in rotations considerably influenced soil

  7. Soil microbial substrate properties and microbial community responses under irrigated organic and reduced-tillage crop and forage production systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Ghimire

    Full Text Available Changes in soil microbiotic properties such as microbial biomass and community structure in response to alternative management systems are driven by microbial substrate quality and substrate utilization. We evaluated irrigated crop and forage production in two separate four-year experiments for differences in microbial substrate quality, microbial biomass and community structure, and microbial substrate utilization under conventional, organic, and reduced-tillage management systems. The six different management systems were imposed on fields previously under long-term, intensively tilled maize production. Soils under crop and forage production responded to conversion from monocropping to crop rotation, as well as to the three different management systems, but in different ways. Under crop production, four years of organic management resulted in the highest soil organic C (SOC and microbial biomass concentrations, while under forage production, reduced-tillage management most effectively increased SOC and microbial biomass. There were significant increases in relative abundance of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, with two- to 36-fold increases in biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs. Under crop production, dissolved organic C (DOC content was higher under organic management than under reduced-tillage and conventional management. Perennial legume crops and organic soil amendments in the organic crop rotation system apparently favored greater soil microbial substrate availability, as well as more microbial biomass compared with other management systems that had fewer legume crops in rotation and synthetic fertilizer applications. Among the forage production management systems with equivalent crop rotations, reduced-tillage management had higher microbial substrate availability and greater microbial biomass than other management systems. Combined crop rotation, tillage management, soil amendments, and legume crops in rotations considerably

  8. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  9. Forms of phosphorus in an oxisol under different soil tillage systems and cover plants in rotation with maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus fractions play a key role in sustaining the productivity of acid-savanna Oxisols and are influenced by tillage practices. The aim of this study was to quantify different P forms in an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo from the central savanna region of Brazil under management systems with cover crops in maize rotation. Three cover crops (Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan (L., and Raphanus sativus L. were investigated in maize rotation systems. These cover crops were compared to spontaneous vegetation. The inorganic forms NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP represented more than half of the total P in the samples collected at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season when the maize was grown. The concentration of inorganic P of greater availability (NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP was higher in the soil under no-tillage at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season. Concentrations of organic P were higher during the dry season, when the cover crops were grown. At the dry season, organic P constituted 70 % of the labile P in the soil planted to C. cajan under no-tillage. The cover crops were able to maintain larger fractions of P available to the maize, resulting in reduced P losses to the unavailable pools, mainly in no-tillage systems.

  10. 耕作措施对东北黑土微生物呼吸的影响%Effect of Conservation Tillage on Microbial Respiration of Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾淑霞; 孙冰洁; 梁爱珍; 陈学文; 张士秀; 魏守才; 刘四义; 陈升龙; 张晓平

    2015-01-01

    耕作处理只改变了5 cm的Q10值,免耕比秋翻高10.8%。土壤微生物呼吸速率与土壤温度、水分混合回归模型能更好地反应其变化规律,解释土壤微生物呼吸速率变异的65%(秋翻)和81%(免耕)。【结论】免耕增加了表层(0—5 cm)的SOC含量,从而使得该土层的土壤微生物量碳和活性增加,但是由于免耕处理增加0—30 cm 土层SOC含量的加权平均值,因此相对于传统的耕作措施(秋翻),免耕有利于SOC含量的增加。%Objective] In this study, soil microbial activity and biomass carbon under 13-year conservation tillage (no-till) were assessed in a black soil agro-ecosystem in northeast China in order to determine the effect of tillage treatment on soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass, which would provide a theoretical basis for valuing the ‘sink’ or ‘source’ function of soil carbon pool.[Method] The present study was conducted as part of a long term tillage experiment on the continuous maize (Zea mays L.), tillage treatments consisted of no-tillage (NT), and mouldboard plough (MP). The NT treatment had no soil disturbance except planting, crop residues were left on soil surface after harvest. The MP treatment included one fall mouldboard plough (about 15 cm in depth) after maize harvest, one disking (7.5 to 10 cm in depth) in spring and field cultivation (ridging in June). Soil respiration without roots represented soil microbial respiration, which was measured biweekly from 14 June 2012 to 25 September 2013 using LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system (LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA), soil microbial biomass and the number of colony forming units of bacteria (cfub), fungi (cfuf), and actinomyces (cfua) were measured during the soil microbial respiration was the highest.[Result] It was found that the range of soil microbial respiration was 0.42-3.35μmolCO2·m-2·s-1under NT and 0.48-3.24μmolCO2·m-2·s-1under MP during growing season, the average soil

  11. Nutrient cycling and soil biology in row crop systems under intensive tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent interest in management of the soil biological component to improve soil health requires a better understanding on how management practices (e.g., tillage) and environmental conditions influence soil organisms. Intensive tillage often results in reduced organic matter content in the surface so...

  12. Soil microbial biomass under different management and tillage systems of permanent intercropped cover species in an orange orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate soil erosion and enhance soil fertility in orange plantations, the permanent protection of the inter-rows by cover species has been suggested. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the microbial biomass, due to different soil tillage systems and intercropped cover species between rows of orange trees. The soil of the experimental area previously used as pasture (Brachiaria humidicola was an Ultisol (Typic Paleudult originating from Caiuá sandstone in the northwestern part of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST (strip width 2 m, in combination with different ground cover management systems. The citrus cultivar 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime rootstock was used. Soil samples were collected after five years of treatment from a depth of 0-15 cm, under the tree canopy and in the inter-row, in the following treatments: (1 CT and an annual cover crop with the leguminous species Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and a perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and an evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and a cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of Brachiaria humidicola. Soil tillage and the different cover species influenced the microbial biomass, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row. The cultivation of brachiaria increased C and N in the microbial biomass, while bahiagrass increased P in the microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P by the presence of ground cover species and according to the soil P content. The grass species increased C, N and P in the soil microbial biomass from the inter-row more than leguminous species.

  13. Soil coverage evolution and wind erosion risk on summer crops under contrasting tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mariano J.; Buschiazzo, Daniel E.

    2015-03-01

    The effectiveness of wind erosion control by soil surface conditions and crop and weed canopy has been well studied in wind tunnel experiments. The aim of this study is to assess the combined effects of these variables under field conditions. Soil surface conditions, crop and weed coverage, plant residue, and non-erodible aggregates (NEA) were measured in the field between the fallow start and the growth period of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and corn (Zea mays). Both crops were planted on a sandy-loam Entic Haplustoll with conventional-(CT), vertical-(VT) and no-till (NT) tillage systems. Wind erosion was estimated by means of the spreadsheet version the Revised Wind Erosion Equation and the soil coverage was measured each 15 days. Results indicated that wind erosion was mostly negligible in NT, exceeding the tolerable levels (estimated between 300 and 1400 kg ha-1 year-1 by Verheijen et al. (2009)) only in an year with high climatic erosivity. Wind erosion exceeded the tolerable levels in most cases in CT and VT, reaching values of 17,400 kg ha-1. Wind erosion was 2-10 times higher after planting of both crops than during fallows. During the fallows, the soil was mostly well covered with plant residues and NEA in CT and VT and with residues and weeds in NT. High wind erosion amounts occurring 30 days after planting in all tillage systems were produced by the destruction of coarse aggregates and the burying of plant residues during planting operations and rains. Differences in soil protection after planting were given by residues of previous crops and growing weeds. The growth of weeds 2-4 weeks after crop planting contributed to reduce wind erosion without impacting in crops yields. An accurate weeds management in semiarid lands can contribute significantly to control wind erosion. More field studies are needed in order to develop management strategies to reduce wind erosion.

  14. Effect of tillage and planting date on seasonal abundance and diversity of predacious ground beetles in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R B; Parajulee, M N

    2010-01-01

    A 2-year field study was conducted in the southern High Plains region of Texas to evaluate the effect of tillage system and cotton planting date window on seasonal abundance and activity patterns of predacious ground beetles. The experiment was deployed in a split-plot randomized block design with tillage as the main-plot factor and planting date as the subplot factor. There were two levels for each factor. The two tillage systems were conservation tillage (30% or more of the soil surface is covered with crop residue) and conventional tillage. The two cotton planting date window treatments were early May (normal planting) and early June (late planting). Five prevailing predacious ground beetles, Cicindela sexguttata F., Calosoma scrutator Drees, Pasimachus spp., Pterostichus spp., and Megacephala Carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), were monitored using pitfall traps at 2-week intervals from June 2002 to October 2003. The highest total number of ground beetles (6/trap) was observed on 9 July 2003. Cicindela sexguttata was the dominant ground dwelling predacious beetle among the five species. A significant difference between the two tillage systems was observed in the abundances of Pterostichus spp. and C. sexguttata. In 2002. significantly more Pterostichus spp. were recorded from conventional plots (0.27/trap) than were recorded from conservation tillage plots (0.05/trap). Significantly more C. sexguttata were recorded in 2003 from conservation plots (3.77/trap) than were recorded from conventional tillage plots (1.04/trap). There was a significant interaction between year and tillage treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the abundances of M. Carolina and Pasimachus spp. between the two tillage practices in either of the two years. M. Carolina numbers were significantly higher in late-planted cotton compared with those observed in normal-planted cotton. However, planting date window had no significant influence on the activity patterns of the

  15. Root systems and soil microbial biomass under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venzke Filho Solismar de Paiva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Some root parameters such as distribution, length, diameter and dry matter are inherent to plant species. Roots can influence microbial population during vegetative cycle through the rhizodeposits and, after senescence, integrating the soil organic matter pool. Since they represent labile substrates, especially regarding nitrogen, they can determine the rate of nutrient availability to the next crop cultivated under no-tillage (NT. The root systems of two crop species: maize (Zea mays L. cultivar Cargill 909 and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivar Embrapa 59, were compared in the field, and their influence on spatial distribution of the microbial C and N in a clayey-textured Typic Hapludox cultivated for 22 years under NT, at Tibagi, State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, was determined. Digital image processing and nail-plate techniques were used to evaluate 40 plots of a 80 ´ 50 ´ 3 cm soil profile. It was observed that 36% and 30% of the maize and soybeans roots, respectively, are concentrated in the 0 to 10 cm soil layer. The percent distribution of root dry matter was similar for both crops. The maize roots presented a total of 1,324 kg C ha-1 and 58 kg N ha-1, with higher root dry matter density and more roots in decomposition in the upper soil layer, decreasing with depth. The soybean roots (392 kg C ha-1 and 21 kg N ha-1 showed higher number of thinner roots and higher density per length unity compared to the maize. The maize roots enhanced microbial-C down to deeper soil layers than did the soybean roots. The microbial N presented a better correlation with the concentration of thin active roots and with roots in decomposition or in indefinite shape, possibly because of higher concentration of C and N easily assimilated by soil microorganisms.

  16. The Necessity of Maize and Wheat Conservation Tillage Technology Popularization%玉米小麦保护性耕作技术推广的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立哲

    2015-01-01

    保护性耕作技术是将作物秸秆及残茬覆盖在地表后,对农田直接用免耕播种机一次性完成开沟、施肥、播种、覆土和镇压作业的农业耕作技术。相比传统耕作方式,保护性耕作技术不但可以增加土壤水分含量、有效培肥地力,而且能达到保土、保水、保肥、保护环境的目的。%The conservation tillage technology is a farming technology leaving the crop straw and stubble covering on the surface, directly furrowing,applying fertilizer,sow,cover earth and operation in the farmland with no-till planter.

  17. Tractive resistance remote monitor system for no-tillage seeder%少免耕播种机牵引阻力远程监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹彦鑫; 郑永军; 成智华; 谭彧; 王书茂

    2014-01-01

    针对少免耕播种机牵引阻力的监测,该文提出了一种能够实时采集信号、无线传输数据、现场移动监测、远程同步监测的少免耕播种机牵引阻力监测系统。该系统通过在3点悬挂杆铰接处安装2维轴销测力传感器实现对其受力情况的实时检测。采用无线传感网络技术(wireless sensor network,WSN)实现传感器信号采集和数据短距离无线传输。采用嵌入式技术开发无线数据监测移动终端,实现牵引阻力的现场监测以及数据转发。利用Visual C++开发的远程监测软件,在远程计算机上实现牵引阻力的动态监测、实时显示、在线分析和批量存储。经计量,该系统模拟量检测最大误差为4 mV,线性度为0.04%。田间试验表明:系统实现了少免耕播种机牵引阻力的现场移动监测以及远程同步监测,系统使用方便并降低了田间测试的复杂程度。%As a kind of key equipment for conservation tillage, no-tillage seeder was increasingly hot in agricultural machinery field. The traction of no-tillage seeder, which was mainly transmitted from tractor through three-point hitch mechanism, was important to working performance and safety of no-tillage seeder, and became an important monitor parameter during no-tillage seeder working. In recent years, some research were studied for tractive resistance monitor, such as five-bar dynamometer designed by Yu Yan from Shenyang Agricultural University, and three-pin summing circuit designed by Xun Chunlin from Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, the research mentioned above had achieved much whereas there were still some problems to be studied, which were including inconvenient use of the data acquirement equipment, field monitor only with wire transmission, soil-bin testing without filed testing and so on. This paper, which was aimed at tractive resistance remote monitor, developed a system that could collect signal at real time

  18. Carbon stock and its compartments in a subtropical oxisol under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage and crop rotations (R0-monoculture system, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2- intensive crop rotation on total, particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon (C stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Southern Brazil. The climate is humid subtropical Cfa 2a (Köppen classification, the mean annual precipitation 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature 19.2 ºC. The plots were divided into four segments, of which each was sampled in the layers 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m. Sampling was performed manually by opening small trenches. The SOM pools were determined by physical fractionation. Soil C stocks had a linear relationship with annual crop C inputs, regardless of the tillage systems. Thus, soil disturbance had a minor effect on SOM turnover. In the 0-0.30 m layer, soil C sequestration ranged from 0 to 0.51 Mg ha-1 yr-1, using the CT R0 treatment as base-line; crop rotation systems had more influence on soil stock C than tillage systems. The mean C sequestration rate of the cropping systems was 0.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1 higher in NT than CT. This result was associated to the higher C input by crops due to the improvement in soil quality under long-term no-tillage. The particulate C fraction was a sensitive indicator of soil management quality, while mineral-associated organic C was the main pool of atmospheric C fixed in this clayey Oxisol. The C retention in this stable SOM fraction accounts for 81 and 89 % of total C sequestration in the treatments NT R1 and NT R2, respectively, in relation to the same cropping systems under CT. The highest C management index was observed in NT R2, confirming the capacity of this soil management practice to improve the soil C

  19. Conservation agriculture impact for soil conservation in maize–wheat cropping system in the Indian sub-Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA is considered as a suitable technique for soil erosion control, productivity enhancement, and improved economic benefits. To investigate these issues, an experiment was conducted under rainfed conditions using grass vegetation strip (VS with minimum tillage, organic amendments and weed mulch during June 2007–October 2011 at Dehradun, Uttarakhand in the Indian Himalayan region. Results showed that the mean wheat equivalent yield was ~47% higher in the plots under with CA compared with conventional agriculture in a maize–wheat crop rotation. Mean runoff coefficients and soil loss with CA plots were ~45% less and ~54% less than conventional agriculture plots. On average, after the harvest of maize, soil moisture conservation up to 90 cm soil depth for wheat crop was 108% higher under CA than conventional agriculture plots. The net return from the plots with CA was 85% higher, and when expressed net return per tonne of soil loss, it was four and half times higher than conventional practice. Results demonstrate that the suitable CA practice (a grass strip of Palmarosa with applied organic amendments (farmyard manure, vermicompost and poultry manure along with weed mulching under conservation tillage enhances system productivity, reduces runoff, soil loss and conserve soil moisture.

  20. Tillage system and cereal rye residue affects pigweed establishment and competitiveness in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integral component of conservation-agriculture systems in cotton is the use of a winter cover crop; however, managing problematic weeds in such systems is a challenge. To evaluate pigweed dynamics in conventional vs. conservation systems, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was establish...

  1. Soybean root growth and crop yield in reponse to liming at the beginning of a no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Campanhola Bortoluzzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the soil near crop roots may reveal limitations to growth and yield even in a no-tillage system. The purpose of the present study was to relate the chemical and physical properties of soil under a no-tillage system to soybean root growth and plant yield after five years of use of different types of limestone and forms of application. A clayey Oxisol received application of dolomitic and calcitic limestones and their 1:1 combination in two forms: surface application, maintained on the soil surface; and incorporated, applied on the surface and incorporated mechanically. Soil physical properties (resistance to mechanical penetration, soil bulk density and soil aggregation, soil chemical properties (pH, exchangeable cations, H+Al, and cation exchange capacity and plant parameters (root growth system, soybean grain yield, and oat dry matter production were evaluated five years after setting up the experiment. Incorporation of lime neutralized exchangeable Al up to a depth of 20 cm without affecting the soil physical properties. The soybean root system reached depths of 40 cm or more with incorporated limestone, increasing grain yield an average of 31 % in relation to surface application, which limited the effect of lime up to a depth of 5 cm and root growth up to 20 cm. It was concluded that incorporation of limestone at the beginning of a no-tillage system ensures a favorable environment for root growth and soybean yield, while this intervention does not show long-term effects on soil physical properties under no-tillage. This suggests that there is resilience in the physical properties evaluated.

  2. The occurrence of fungi on the stem base and roots of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on tillage systems and catch crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2006-2008 based on an experiment established in 2005. The study evaluated the effect of conservation and plough tillage as well as of four catch crops on the level of infection by fungal pathogens of the stem base and roots of the spring wheat cultivar ‘Zebra’ grown in monoculture. The species composition of fungi colonizing the stem base and roots of spring wheat was determined. The split-plot design of the experiment set up on rendzina soil included plough tillage and conservation tillage with autumn and spring disking of catch crops. The experiment used four methods for regeneration of the spring wheat monoculture stand using the following: undersown red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops. Plots without catch crops were the control treatment. Red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass catch crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops had a significant effect on the decrease in the stem base and root infection index of spring wheat compared to the control without catch crops. The disease indices in the tillage treatments under evaluation did not differ significantly from one another. The stem base and roots of spring wheat were most frequently infected by fungi of the genus Fusarium, with F. culmorum being the dominant pathogen of cereals. Compared to conservation tillage, in plough tillage the pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was not found to occur on the stem base and roots. The Westerwolds ryegrass catch crop promoted the occurrence of F. culmorum, both on the stem base and roots of spring wheat.

  3. Assessing the Soil Physiological Potential Using Pedo-Biological Diagnosis Under Minimum-Tillage System and Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Bireescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of sustainable agriculture is the protection of environment and natural vegetal and soil resources. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources. Our research was conducted on haplic chernozem from Experimental Station of UASVM of Iasi, Romania, during the seasonal dynamic, to the soybean crop, on unfertilized and fertilized agrofond, using moderate mineral doses (N80P80 as average of 2009–2010 period, under minimum tillage (2x disk, paraplow, chisel compared to conventional (plugging at 20 cm and 30 cm. In the case of soil works with chisel and paraplow without return of furrow, the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis highlights an increase of soil physiological potential, in the both variants (unfertilized and fertilized, unlike the method of alternating the depth of plugging that proved to be ineffective.

  4. Perdas de solo e água num Latossolo Vermelho aluminoférrico submetido a diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo sob chuva natural Water erosion caused by natural rainfall in a clayey Hapludox with different cropland tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Beutler

    2003-06-01

    active agents of water erosion, furthermore influenced by soil cover and roughness, crop and soil tillage. Compared to conventional tillage, water erosion is reduced in soil conservation tillage because this method is less intensive, preserves the cover longer, and sometimes increases soil roughness. Erosion losses (soil and water of a clayey Hapludox with a slope of 0.09 m m-1 were evaluated in Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from November 1994 to October 1999 under natural rainfall. The treatments, in two replications, consisted of the following downslope soil tillage systems: no-tillage, conventional tillage, minimum tillage, and tillage rotation, with some summer and winter crop rotation combinations, and conventional tillage without crop (standard unit of the Universal Soil Loss Equation-USLE as control. In no-tillage with crop rotation there was a soil loss reduction of 45 % in relation to summer conventional tillage and to winter no-tillage crop rotation systems, and of 99 % in relation to bare soil. Conservation tillage reduced the mean soil loss by 80 % in relation to conventional tillage. Mean soil losses were twice as high during the spring/summer as in the fall/winter period in no-tillage treatments, while in the other treatments average losses of the crop years were 3.3 higher in fall/winter. Water losses were small, with a behavior similar to that of the soil losses, in spite of the quantity difference.

  5. Análise multivariada da fauna edáfica em diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo Multivariate analysis of soil fauna under different soil tillage and crop management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo sobre a diversidade de animais da fauna edáfica, por meio de técnicas de análise multivariada. Na análise canônica discriminante, os preparos conservacionistas com sucessão de culturas foram separados em relação aos tratamentos com rotação de culturas. Os grupos Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda e Collembola, e o índice de Shannon (H foram os atributos que mais contribuíram para separar os tratamentos. A análise de correspondência mostrou forte associação dos grupos Acarina e Hymenoptera com o tratamento semeadura direta com sucessão de culturas, e do grupo Collembola com o preparo convencional.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage and crop management systems on soil fauna groups, by means of multivariate analysis. In the canonical discriminant analysis the conservation soil management systems with crop succession were discriminated in relation to other treatments with crop rotation. The groups Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, and Collembola, and the Shannon index (H showed the highest contribution for the discrimination between treatments. The correspondence analysis showed a strong association between Acarina and Hymenoptera groups with the treatment no-tillage with crop succession, and between Collembola group with the conventional tillage system.

  6. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of weeds in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L. Bottega

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil is one of the largest grain producers in the world, due to its extensive arable land and favorable climate for the cultivation of any species. The production could be higher, but problems such as competition between crops and weeds reduces crop yields. This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of weeds, especially milkweed (Sonchus oleraceus, horse weed (Conyza spp. and ‘maria-mole’ (Senecio brasiliensis in an area under no-tillage system for two harvests. The work was carried out during the 2013/14 and 2014/15 crop years in an area of 22.5 ha, where soybean is grown in the summer and oat in the winter. The weeds were mapped using a sampling grid of 85 points. The number of plants present in 0.25 m2 was recorded at each sampling point. The data collected in the field composed the information bank and were used for geostatistical analysis and production of maps. Using geostatistical analysis, it was possible to map the horseweed infestation in the studied area for the 2013/14 season. The species ‘maria-mole’ and milkweed did not show spatial dependence. During the 2014/2015 season, because of the management carried out in the off season, none of the studied species showed spatial dependence.

  8. Effect of reduced herbicide amounts with minimum tillage systems on weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Minimum tillage, mainly soil cultivation without ploughing is used in Germany on 40% of arable land. In a long-term field trial in Dahnsdorf (federal state of Brandenburg, Germany the impact of reduced tillage on weed occurrence is investigated. At the same time reduced herbicide amounts are also tested. The use of glyphosate for seedbed preparation is not always necessary. The former crop rotation (67% cereals or 50% cereals has even seven years later a big influence on the weed occurrence. The weed occurrences are lower for the crop rotation with the former 50% cereals. After four years the minimum tillage shows a larger effect of weed infestation. For the non ploughed variants it is higher. If reduced herbicide amounts are used at the same time the effect will increase even more. Results for Apera spica-venti are similar, although the conditions for germination in autumn are also relevant.

  9. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Non-Chemical Weed Management in Reduced Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolan, N.; Schwarz, J.

    2012-01-01

    cropping systems to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems...... for effective application. Owing to the frequent use of glyphosate in reduced tillage systems, perennial weeds are not particularly problematic. However, results from organic cropping systems clearly reveal that desisting from glyphosate use inevitably leads to more problems with perennials, which need...

  10. Effects of land clearing techniques and tillage systems on runoff and soil erosion in a tropical rain forest in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehigiator, O A; Anyata, B U

    2011-11-01

    This work reports runoff and soil loss from each of 14 sub-watersheds in a secondary rain forest in south-western Nigeria. The impact of methods of land clearing and post-clearing management on runoff and soil erosion under the secondary forest is evaluated. These data were acquired eighteen years after the deforestation of primary vegetation during the ' West bank' project of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA). These data are presented separately for each season; however, statistical analyses for replicates were not conducted due to differences in their past management. Soil erosion was affected by land clearing and tillage methods. The maximum soil erosion was observed on sub-watersheds that were mechanically cleared with tree-pusher/root-rake attachments and tilled conventionally. A high rate of erosion was observed even when graded-channel terraces were constructed to minimize soil erosion. In general there was much less soil erosion on manually cleared than on mechanically cleared sub-watersheds (2.5 t ha(-1) yr(-1) versus 13.8 t ha(-1) yr(-1)) and from the application of no-tillage methods than from conventionally plowed areas (6.5 t ha(-1) yr(-1) versus 12.1 t ha(-1) yr(-1)). The data indicate that tillage methods and appropriate management of soils and crops play an important role in soil and water conservation and in decreasing the rate of decline of soil quality.

  11. Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Bogdan, Ileana; Ioan Pop, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    replications. In one variant the area of a plot was 300 m2. Soil respiration varies throughout the year for all three crops of rotation, with a maximum in late spring (1383 to 2480 mmoli m-2s-1) and another in fall (2141 to 2350 mmoli m-2s-1). The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average is lower at no-tillage (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1), followed by minimum tillage (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the conventional tillage (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of long-term soil fertility. By determining the humus content after 3 years, it can be observed an increasing tendency when applying the minimum tillage (the increase was up to 0.41%) and no-tillage systems tillage (the increase was up to 0.64%). Carbon sequestration in soil is net advantageous, improving the productivity and sustainability. The more the organic content in soil is higher the better soil aggregation is. The soil without organic content is compact. This reduces its capacity to infiltrate water, nutrients solubility and productivity, and that way it reduces the soil capacity for carbon sequestration. Acknowledgments This paper was performed under the frame of the Partnership in priority domains - PNII, developed with the support of MEN-UEFISCDI, project no. PN-II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-0015: Expert System for Risk Monitoring in Agriculture and Adaptation of Conservative Agricultural Technologies to Climate Change.

  12. The Effect on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Kazım

    2016-04-01

    The Effects on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications Kazım Gür1, Kazim Çarman2 and Wim M.Cornelis3 1Bahri Daǧdaş International Agricultural Research Instıtute, 42020 Konya, Turkey 2Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery, University of Selçuk, 42031 Konya, Turkey 3Department of Soil Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 653 Coupure Links, 9000 Gent, Belgium Traditional soil cultivation systems, with excessive and inappropriate soil tillage, will generally lead to soil degradation and loss of soil by wind erosion. Continuous reduced tillage and no-till maintaining soil cover with plant residues called Conservation Agriculture that is considered as effective in reducing erosion. There exist a wide variety of practices using different tools that comply with reduced tillage principles. However, few studies have compared the effect of several of such tools in reducing wind erosion and related soil and surface properties. We therefore measured sediment transport rates over bare soil surfaces (but with under stubbles of wheat, Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to three tillage practices using two pulling type machines and one type of power takeoff movable machines and generated with a portable field wind tunnel. At 10 ms-1, sediment transport rates varied from 107 to 573 gm-1h-1, and from 176 to 768 gm-1h-1 at 13 ms-1. The lowest transport rates were observed for N(no-tillage) and the highest for Rr(L-type rototiller). After tillage, surface roughness, mean weighted diameter, wind erodible fraction, mechanical stability and soil water content were measured as well and varied from 5.0 to 15.9%, 6.9 to 13.8 mm, 14.3 to 29.7%, 79.5 to 93.4% and 8.6 to 15.1%, respectively, with again N is being the most successful practice. In terms of conservation soil tillage technique, it can be said that the applications compared with each other; direct sowing machine is more appropriate and cause to the less erosion.

  13. Water stability of soil aggregates in different systems of Chernozem tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Bartlová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of various agrotechnical measures on macrostructural changes in the ploughing layer and subsoil were studied within the period of 2008–2010. Soil macrostructure was evaluated on the base of water stability of soil aggregates. Altogether three variants of soil tillage were established, viz. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1, deep soil loosening to the depth of 0.35–0.40 m (Variant 2, and shallow tillage to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 3. Experiments were established on a field with Modal Chernozem in the locality Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou (maize-growing region, altitude of 210 m, average annual sum of precipitation 461 mm. In the first experimental year, winter rape was the cultivated crop and it was followed by winter wheat, maize and spring wheat in subsequent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of different methods of tillage on water stability of soil aggregates and on yields of individual crops. An overall analysis of results revealed a positive effect of cultivation without ploughing on water stability of soil aggregates. In the variant with ploughing was found out a statistically significant decrease of this stability. At the same time it was also found out that both minimum tillage and deep soil loosening showed a positive effect on yields of crops under study (above all of maize and winter wheat.

  14. Responses by earthworms to reduced tillage in herbicide tolerant maize and Bt maize cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B.; Demsar, D.

    2007-01-01

    -toxin producing transgenic maize line MON810 was studied for 1 year. At a Danish study site, Foulum (Jutland), one year of Bt corn was followed by 2 years of herbicide tolerant corn. At the French study site the most prominent effects observed were due to the tillage method where RT significantly reduced...

  15. Soil physical quality in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.; Poot, N.; Heinen, M.; Balen, van D.J.M.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced tillage can improve soil physical quality relative to mouldboard ploughing by lessening soil disturbance, leaving organic matter at the soil surface, and stimulating soil biological activity. In organic farming, continuous ploughing may negate benefits to soil structure and function from inc

  16. Soil physical quality in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.; Poot, N.; Heinen, M.; Balen, van D.J.M.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced tillage can improve soil physical quality relative to mouldboard ploughing by lessening soil disturbance, leaving organic matter at the soil surface, and stimulating soil biological activity. In organic farming, continuous ploughing may negate benefits to soil structure and function from

  17. Influence of tillage system on the weed infestation in a long-term field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Germany reduced tillage (without ploughing increased to nearly 40% of arable land. Without using a plough weed infestation generally rises. Simultaneously the use of herbicides increases. In a long-term field trial in Dahnsdorf (federal state of Brandenburg, Germany the impact of reduced tillage on weed occurrence and herbicide use is investigated. The use of glyphosate for seedbed preparation is not always necessary, e.g. in the crop year 2010 glyphosate was not used. The use depends on the rate of weed emergence and the precedent crop. For canola the situation is different, volunteer cereal plants had to be controlled by a graminicide in 6 out of 7 years. In the first years weed emergence is determined by the former crop rotation (cash cropping with 67% cereals vs. forage cropping with 50% cereals and the herbicide strategy. Round about after four years the influence of the reduced tillage appears in case of the dicotyledonous weeds. Emergence of these weeds is promoted by the reduced tillage especially in combination with slightly reduced herbicide amounts (strategy IPS. The species of the dicotyledonous weeds are mainly (about 70% Viola arvensis, Veronica spp., Stellaria media, Matricaria spp. and Centaurea cyanus. For Apera spica-venti the emergence is mainly based on the weather conditions and the germinative terms in autumn.

  18. Gradual correction of phosphorus availability in the no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hissao Kurihara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In areas cultivated under no-tillage system, the availability of phosphorus (P can be raised by means of the gradual corrective fertilization, applying phosphorus into sowing furrows at doses higher than those required by the crops. The objective of this work was to establish the amount of P to be applied in soybean crop to increase content of P to pre-established values at the depth of 0.0 to 0.10 m. An experiment was carried out on a clayey Haplorthox soil with a randomized block experimental design distributed in split-split plot, with four replications. Two soybean crop systems (single or intercropped with Panicum maximum Jaca cv. Aruana were evaluated in the plots. In addition, it was evaluated four P levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 P2O5 applied in the first year in the split plots; and four P levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1 P2O5 applied in the two subsequent crops in the split-split plot. Contents of P were extracted by Mehlich-1 and Anion Exchange Resin methods from soil samples collected in the split-split plot. It was found that it is necessary to apply 19.4 or 11.1 kg ha-1 of P2O5, via triple superphosphate as source, to increase 1 mg dm-3 of P extracted by Mehlich-1 or Resin, respectively, in the 0.0 to 0.10 m layer of depth. The soil drain P character decreases as the amount of this nutrient supplied in the previous crops is increased.

  19. Integration of weed management and tillage practices in spring barley production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring barley can be used to diversify and intensify winter wheat-based production systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, but the response of barley to conservation tillage systems, which are needed to reduce the risk of soil erosion, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to descri...

  20. Propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Bruno afetadas pelos sistemas plantio direto e preparo convencional Physical properties of a south Brazilian Oxisol as affected by no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Costa

    2003-06-01

    0.2 m top layer of an Oxisol from Paraná, southern Brazil. In comparison with an adjacent forest soil used as reference, the use of CT system increased the soil bulk density, penetrometer resistance and soil temperature; and decreased the mean geometric diameter of soil aggregates The main changes in soil attributes by using NT in comparison with CT were: decrease in soil bulk density in subsurface layer (0.1-0.2 m from 1.08 to 0.99 Mg m-3; decrease in maximum soil temperature in the 0-0.05 m layer from 27.9 to 24.7 ºC; increase in mean geometric diameter of soil aggregates from 1.6 to 3.7 mm at 0-0.05 m layer; and increase in volumetric soil water content in the 0-0.1 m layer from 0.38 to 0.48 m³ m-3. However, there were no differences between effects of tillage systems on soil porosity (total, macro and microporosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, penetrometer resistance, and clay flocculation degree. The amelioration of physical properties in no-tilled soil may be related to increases of 42% in soybean and 22% in corn yields in this conservation tillage system, in comparison with CT system.

  1. Soybean Tillage Systems and Physical Changes in Surface Layers of Two Albaqualf Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Meneghetti Sarzi Sartori

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A compacted subsurface soil layer can be a limiting factor for soybean growing, reducing soybean yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on the physical properties of two Albaqualf soils of the Central Plains region in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. Two experiments were conducted: one in Santa Maria, RS, during the 2013/14 and 2014/15 crop seasons, and another in Formigueiro, RS, during the 2013/14 crop season. A randomized block experimental design with four replications was used. The treatments were: sowing using an offset double disc (T1; sowing using a fluted coulter disc (wavy disc with 12 waves (T2; sowing with a knife runner opener (T3; sowing with a knife runner opener + press wheel mechanism for ground levelling (T4; sowing using a furrow opener upon a raised bed (T5; and chisel plough + sowing using an offset double-disc (T6. In the 2014/15 growing season, the T4 factor was changed using a knife runner opener 0.05 m from the planting row. A smaller reduction in the compacted subsurface soil layer was observed for both T1 and T2, which exhibited high soil bulk density values for the 2013/14 and 2014/15 crop seasons. Furthermore, T3, T5 and T6 led to a reduction in bulk density, and increasing total porosity and macroporosity in the soil, which consequently increased water infiltration, water storage capacity, and crop yield in areas with the presence of a compacted subsurface soil layer.

  2. Evolution of physical properties of soils according to tillage systems on annual crops/ Evolução de propriedades físicas do solo em função dos sistemas de manejo em culturas anuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério R. M. Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil management must keep the soil physical properties next to the original conditions in natural systems to assure the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review synthesizes the effects of conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-tillage systems of annual crops, on soil physical properties as bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to root penetration, infiltration speed, hydraulic conductivity,compressibility, organic matter level, soil aggregate size and stability. No-tillage presents advantages on organic matter level, size and stability of aggregates, compressibility and hydraulic conductivity but has limitations on bulk density and resistance to root penetration. Minimum tillage with chisel plow is specially efficient in relation to infiltration speed and hydraulic conductivity, and intermediate between conventional and no-tillage in other aspects. Conventional tillage with total pulverization of soil surface,mainly on tropical conditions, presents the less favorable scores on soil physical properties, close to minimum tillage and no-till only in few circumstances, and frequently the most different from the natural conditions. The conservation systems by their side, despite of similarities in some aspects with natural conditions, are not able to reproduce the conditions of natural forests, savannas or natural pastures, but are in the sustainability direction.Para assegurar a sustentabilidade do sistema produtivo, o manejo do solo deve manter as propriedades físicas do solo o mais próximo das condições originais em que este se encontrava na natureza. Esta revisão sintetiza os efeitos de três sistemas de manejo de solo (convencional, mínimo e direto em culturas anuais sobre as propriedades físicas do solo como densidade, porosidade, resistência à penetração, velocidade de infiltração, condutividade hidráulica, compressibilidade, nível de matéria orgânica, tamanho e estabilidade de agregados. O plantio direto

  3. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Reule, Curtis A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from soil. Emissions were monitored from several irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 246 kg N ha(-1) during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Cropping systems included conventional-till (CT) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), no-till (NT) continuous corn, NT corn-dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (NT-CDb), and NT corn-barley (Hordeum distichon L.) (NT-CB). In 2005, half the N was subsurface band applied as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) at planting to all corn plots, with the rest of the N applied surface broadcast as a polymer-coated urea (PCU) in mid-June. The entire N rate was applied as UAN at barley and dry bean planting in the NT-CB and NT-CDb plots in 2005. All plots were in corn in 2006, with PCU being applied at half the N rate at corn emergence and a second N application as dry urea in mid-June followed by irrigation, both banded on the soil surface in the corn row. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during the growing season using static, vented chambers (1-3 times wk(-1)) and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Linear increases in N(2)O emissions were observed with increasing N-fertilizer rate, but emission amounts varied with growing season. Growing season N(2)O emissions were greater from the NT-CDb system during the corn phase of the rotation than from the other cropping systems. Crop rotation and N rate had more effect than tillage system on N(2)O emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions from N application ranged from 0.30 to 0.75% of N applied. Spikes in N(2)O emissions after N fertilizer application were greater with UAN and urea than with PCU fertilizer. The PCU showed potential for reducing N(2)O emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

  4. Effects of long-term conservation tillage on soil physical quality of rainfed areas of the Loess Plateau%长期保护性耕作对黄土高原旱地土壤物理质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仁陟; 罗珠珠; 蔡立群; 黄高宝; 李玲玲; 谢军红

    2011-01-01

    Long-term field experiments on soil physical quality in rainfed farming systems were conducted in Dingxi on the western Loess Plateau. The effects of conventional tillage and five conservation agriculture patterns [conventional tillage (T), conventional tillage with stubble incorporation (TS), no till with no stubble (NT), no till with stubble retention (NTS), conventional tillage with plastic mulching (TP) and no till with plastic mulching (NTP)] were studied. The experiment was fully-phased with two rotation sequences. Phase 1 started with field pea (Pisum sativum) followed by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) (P→W) whereas phase 2 started with spring wheat followed by field pea (W→P). There were highly significant differences between the six tillage measures in soil properties including soil aggregates, available water content, water use efficiency and saturation conductivity. There were also significant differences in some soil properties including soil bulk density, total porosity, capillary porosity, non-capillary porosity, soil strength and saturation capacity. There were no significant differences in soil properties such as soil temperature and field capacity. Using the addition and multiplication method, and weighted integrated method, quantitative assessments of soil physical quality in different tillage systems were carried out. The order of soil physical quality index from high to low was NTS, NTP, NT, TS, T(TP) and TP(T) in P→W rotation, and NTS, NTP, TS, NT, TP and T in W→P rotation. The various tillage measures resulted in very different soil physical quality levels. Improved soil structure arose from tillage reduction or residue retention which improved soil structure, enhanced water infiltration, reduced soil and water loss, and hence improved soil physical quality.%本研究通过设置在陇中黄土高原半干旱区的小麦→豌豆和豌豆→小麦轮作系统的长期定位试验,探讨了不同耕作方式对耕

  5. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0–5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G‑). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G+/G‑ compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems.

  6. Sampling Position under No-Tillage System Affects the Results of Soil Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Jorge Bernabé Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Understanding the spatial behavior of soil physical properties under no-tillage system (NT is required for the adoption and maintenance of a sustainable soil management system. The aims of this study were to quantify soil bulk density (BD, porosity in the soil macropore domain (PORp and in the soil matrix domain (PORm, air capacity in the soil matrix (ACm, field capacity (FC, and soil water storage capacity (FC/TP in the row (R, interrow (IR, and intermediate position between R and IR (designated IP in the 0.0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m soil layers under NT; and to verify if these soil properties have systematic variation in sampling positions related to rows and interrows of corn. Soil sampling was carried out in transect perpendicular to the corn rows in which 40 sampling points were selected at each position (R, IR, IP and in each soil layer, obtaining undisturbed samples to determine the aforementioned soil physical properties. The influence of sampling position on systematic variation of soil physical properties was evaluated by spectral analysis. In the 0.0-0.1 m layer, tilling the crop rows at the time of planting led to differences in BD, PORp, ACm, FC and FC/TP only in the R position. In the R position, the FC/TP ratio was considered close to ideal (0.66, indicating good water and air availability at this sampling position. The R position also showed BD values lower than the critical bulk density that restricts root growth, suggesting good soil physical conditions for seed germination and plant establishment. Spectral analysis indicated that there was systematic variation in soil physical properties evaluated in the 0.0-0.1 m layer, except for PORm. These results indicated that the soil physical properties evaluated in the 0.0-0.1 m layer were associated with soil position in the rows and interrows of corn. Thus, proper assessment of soil physical properties under NT must take into consideration the sampling positions and previous

  7. Disponibilidade de água do solo ao milho cultivado sob sistemas de semeadura direta e preparo convencional Water availability to maize plants cultivated under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Teresinha Petry

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o armazenamento, a disponibilidade e a extração de água no solo por plantas de milho irrigadas e submetidas a déficit hídrico terminal, cultivadas sob sistema de semeadura direta e preparo convencional. Foram realizados dois experimentos durante os anos agrícolas de 1999/00 e 2000/01, em área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, fatorial, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados dois manejos da água de irrigação (fator A: irrigado e déficit hídrico terminal (plantas de milho foram submetidas a déficit hídrico terminal a partir dos 27 dias após a emergência; e dois sistemas de cultivo (fator B: semeadura direta e preparo convencional. Nas parcelas irrigadas, irrigações foram feitas para elevar o conteúdo de água no solo ao limite superior de disponibilidade de água às plantas, sempre que a evapotranspiração máxima acumulada da cultura do milho atingia 25 mm. O conteúdo de água no solo foi medido em três leituras semanais, para determinação da extração de água pelas plantas e disponibilidade de água às plantas de milho. Os resultados indicaram que a disponibilidade de água às plantas de milho foi similar nos sistemas semeadura direta e preparo convencional, em ambos os anos agrícolas avaliados. Plantas de milho cultivadas em preparo convencional extraíram maior quantidade de água, em ambos os anos, em relação à semeadura direta.The aim objective of this study was to quantify the soil water storage, plant-available water and extraction of soil water by corn plants under irrigation and terminal drought. Plants were cultivated under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Two experiments were conducted in the 1999/00 and 2000/01 growing season on an experimental field of the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa

  8. 保护性耕作对农田土壤有机碳及农业生产力的影响%Effects of Conservation Tillage on Soil Organic Carbon and Agricultural Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩松; 李梦迪; 朱连奇

    2016-01-01

    Farmland soil organic carbon pool is the carbon pool affected by human mostly, its recovery has important significance on soil quality enhancement, food security guarantee, water conservation and CO2 emission decrease. Conservation tillage has significant effect on the decrease of water and soil loss, the increase of soil organic carbon and the increase of crop yield. The authors summarized the influence of conservation tillage on soil organic carbon and soil physical and chemical properties, discussed its effect on agricultural productivity, put forward improvement suggestions based on the problems existing in the conservation tillage, and provided scientific basis for reasonable cultivation measures and agricultural management.%农田土壤有机碳库作为陆地生态系统中受人类影响最大的碳库,其恢复对于增强土壤质量,保障粮食安全,涵养水源,减少大气CO2排放具有重要意义.保护性耕作对减少水土流失,增加土壤有机碳、增加农作物产量等方面有显著效果.笔者综述了保护性耕作对农田土壤有机碳及土壤理化性质的影响,探讨了保护性耕作对农业生产力的影响,对保护性耕作存在的问题提出了改进建议,为合理制订耕作措施和农业生产管理措施提供了科学依据.

  9. Fertilizer source and tillage effects on yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in a corn cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venterea, Rodney T; Bijesh, Maharjan; Dolan, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Management practices such as fertilizer or tillage regime may affect nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions and crop yields, each of which is commonly expressed with respect to area (e.g., kg N ha or Mg grain ha). Expressing N₂O emissions per unit of yield can account for both of these management impacts and might provide a useful metric for greenhouse gas inventories by relating N₂O emissions to grain production rates. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of long-term (>17 yr) tillage treatments and N fertilizer source on area- and yield-scaled N₂O emissions, soil N intensity, and nitrogen use efficiency for rainfed corn ( L.) in Minnesota over three growing seasons. Two different controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) and conventional urea (CU) were surface-applied at 146 kg N ha(-1) several weeks after planting to conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT) treatments. Yield-scaled emissions across all treatments represented 0.4 to 1.1% of the N harvested in the grain. Both CRFs reduced soil nitrate intensity, but not N₂O emissions, compared with CU. One CRF, consisting of nitrification and urease inhibitors added to urea, decreased N₂O emissions compared with a polymer-coated urea (PCU). The PCU tended to have lower yields during the drier years of the study, which increased its yield-scaled N₂O emissions. The overall effectiveness of CRFs compared with CU in this study may have been reduced because they were applied several weeks after corn was planted. Across all N treatments, area-scaled N₂O emissions were not significantly affected by tillage. However, when expressed per unit yield of grain, grain N, or total aboveground N, N₂O emissions with NT were 52, 66, and 69% greater, respectively, compared with CT. Thus, in this cropping system and climate regime, production of an equivalent amount of grain using NT would generate substantially more N₂O compared with CT.

  10. PHOSPHORUS FRACTIONS AND AVAILABILITY IN A HAPLIC PLINTHOSOL UNDER NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM IN THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ricardo Rotta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil use and fertilizer management as well as cropping systems influence phosphorus (P availability in the soil. This study evaluated P fractions and availability in a chronosequence of anthropic influence in a Haplic Plinthosol, in sites under no-till for different time periods: seven (NT7, eleven (NT11, and sixteen (NT16 years. Labile P concentrations in the soil accounted for 10%, 8%, and 9% of the total P for treatments NT7, NT11, and NT16, respectively. The labile P values ranged between 99 and 122 mg dm-3andindicatied no time in no-tillage influence on labile P under in the studied Plinthosol. However, moderately labile P contents increased with time: NT7 < NT11 < NT16 (237, 341, and 375 mg dm-3, respectively. This increased followed the elevation in iron oxide contents, indicating a relationship between mineralogy and P accumulation. Regardless of no-tillage period, P contents extracted by Mehlich-1 were lower, underestimating the available P content, when compared with the extraction using a P selective resin. The stocks of labile P were sufficient to maintain high crop yields, according to the recommendations for the Cerrado region. Even if labile P contents are reduced, when adopting no-till system, the contents and stocks of P in the soil after several years were high enough to provide for adequate crop yields.

  11. The Effect of Different in-situ Water Conservation Tillage Methods on Growth and Development of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Manyatsi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. is an important food crop in the diet of Swazi people. However, there is dearth of information in the country on appropriate agronomic practices which can adequately conserve soil moisture to meet taro crop water requirements. The effects of in-situ water conservation practices on growth, development and yield of taro were investigated. Five in-situ water conservation methods/treatments [tied ridges, ridges, half moon, flat (not irrigated and flat (irrigated] were evaluated. The flat (irrigated treatment served as a control. The experiment was conducted in a sandy clay loam soil at Luyengo. The treatments were laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD replicated three times. Each plot measured 5.0 m x 5.0 m with inter-row spacing of 0.9 m and intra- row plant spacing of 0.3 m for flat seedbeds. The ridges were 0.3 m high and 1 m apart, and ties were 0.2 m high spaced at 0.5 m intervals. The half moons had a diameter of 0.5 m. Planting was done in October 2009 using corms. The plants were rainfed, except for the irrigated treatment where irrigation w as done to field capacity when soil moisture matric potential reached 10 bars. Parameters measured included soil moisture, plant emergence, plant height, number of leaves, leaf length and leaf width. Leaf area and Leaf Area Index (LAI were calculated. The fresh yield of corms was measured at 24 weeks after planting. The results showed plant emergence rate after three weeks being highest under the half moon, at 94% followed in decreasing order by irrigated flat at 90% , tied ridges at 85%, ridges at 82% and lastly flat (not irrigated at 80%. The various treatments did not show significant (p>0.05 differences in plant height throughout the growing period. However plants grown in irrigated flat plots consistently exhibited significantly (p<0.01 the highest number of leaves compared to other treatments. A similar trend w as also observed with LAI. Taro corm yield were

  12. Emissions of CH4 and N2O under different tillage systems from double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Bai, Xiao-Lin; Xue, Jian-Fu; Chen, Zhong-Du; Tang, Hai-Ming; Chen, Fu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is becoming increasingly important with the climate change. Most previous studies have focused on the assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential and GHG emissions from agriculture. However, specific experiments assessing tillage impacts on GHG emission from double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China are relatively scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of tillage systems on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in a double rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system. The experiment was established in 2005 in Hunan Province, China. Three tillage treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design: conventional tillage (CT), rotary tillage (RT) and no-till (NT). Fluxes of CH4 from different tillage treatments followed a similar trend during the two years, with a single peak emission for the early rice season and a double peak emission for the late rice season. Compared with other treatments, NT significantly reduced CH4 emission among the rice growing seasons (P<0.05). However, much higher variations in N2O emission were observed across the rice growing seasons due to the vulnerability of N2O to external influences. The amount of CH4 emission in paddy fields was much higher relative to N2O emission. Conversion of CT to NT significantly reduced the cumulative CH4 emission for both rice seasons compared with other treatments (P<0.05). The mean value of global warming potentials (GWPs) of CH4 and N2O emissions over 100 years was in the order of NT

  13. Influence of tillage practices on soil biologically active organic matter content over a growing season under semiarid Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martín-Lammerding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In semiarid areas, traditional, intensive tillage has led to the depletion of soil organic matter, which has resulted in reduced soil fertility. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of different soil management systems, practised over 12 years, on soil organic carbon (SOC, nitrogen (SN and biologically active organic matter (particulate organic matter [POM]; potentially mineralisable nitrogen [PMN]; microbial biomass [MB]. A Mediterranean Alfisol, located in central Spain, was managed using combinations of conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT or no-tillage (NT, plus a cropping background of either continuous wheat (WW or a fallow/wheat/pea/barley rotation (FW. Soil was sampled at two depths on four occasions during 2006-2007. The results showed the sampling date and the cropping background to significantly affect the SOC (p<0.0057 and p<0.0001 respectively. Tillage practice, however, had no effect on SOC or SN. The C-and N-POM contents were significantly influenced by the date, tillage and rotation. These variables were significantly higher under NT than CT and under WW than FW. The PMN was influenced by date, tillage and rotation, while C-MB was significantly affected by tillage (p< 0.0063, but not by rotation. The NT plots accumulated 66% C-POM, 60% N-POM, 39% PMN and 84% C-MB more than the CT plots. After more than 12 years, the benefits of conservation practices were found in the considered soil properties, mainly under no tillage. In order to obtain a consistent data set to predict soil biological status, it is necessary further study over time.

  14. Evidence of limited carbon sequestration in soils under no-tillage systems in the Cerrado of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeels, Marc; Marchão, Robelio Leandro; Neto, Marcos Siqueira; Ferreira, Eliann Garcia; Madari, Beata Emöke; Scopel, Eric; Brito, Osmar Rodrigues

    2016-02-24

    The Brazilian government aims at augmenting the area cropped under no-tillage (NT) from 32 to 40 million ha by 2020 as a means to mitigate CO2 emissions. We estimated soil carbon (C) sequestration under continuous NT systems in two municipalities in the Goiás state that are representative of the Cerrado. A chronosequence of NT fields of different age since conversion from conventional tillage (CT) was sampled in 2003 and 2011. Soil C levels of native Cerrado and pasture were measured for comparison. After about 11 to 14 years, soil C stocks under NT were highest and at the levels of those under natural Cerrado. Average annual rates of soil C sequestration estimated using the chronosequence approach were respectively 1.61 and 1.48 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) for the 2003 and 2011 sampling, and were higher than those observed using repeated sampling after eight years. The diachronic sampling revealed that the younger NT fields tended to show higher increases in soil C stocks than the older fields. Converting an extra 8 million ha of cropland from CT to NT represents an estimated soil C storage of about 8 Tg C yr(-1) during 10 to 15 years.

  15. Avaliações qualitativas e quantitativas de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja submetida aos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional Quantitative and qualitative weed evaluation of soybean crop in no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Sá Pereira

    2000-08-01

    pré-emergência proporcionaram melhor controle de A. viridis do que de B. plantaginea; o controle com herbicidas pós-emergentes foi insatisfatório para ambas espécies. No plantio direto, o controle de E. heterophylla foi insatisfatório em todos os sistemas de controle testados. O plantio direto apresentou sempre menor número total de plantas daninhas, sobretudo de gramineas. A germinação de plantas daninhas limitou-se ao período de até 15 dias após a emergência da cultura, nos dois sistemas de cultivo.With the objective to evaluate the effects of different tillage systems and different methods of control on mulch of black oat (Avena strigosa on evolution and control of weeds in soybean crop (cultivar 'IAC 14', a field experiment was carried out in Fazenda Experimental Lageado - UNESP Botucatu - SP, in 1993/94. The different cultivation systems were no tillage and conventional tillage, and the last cultivation system was made with disk harrow and three tandem disk harrow. The weed control methods were: control (weedy check, pre-emergence herbicides (0,28 kg/ha of metribuzim + 1,29 kg/ha of oryzalin, post-emergence herbicides (0,25 kg/ha of Fluacifop-p-butil +0,25 kg/ha of fomesafen and pre and post-emergence treatments (with the four herbicides in the same rates. Glyphosate was applied for weed and black oat elimination before the crop establishment. The experimental design used was a randomized block arranged in split-plots scheme with four replications. The different cultivation systems were applied on plots and the different weed control on sub-plots. In the early stages of crop development, the rain was scarce, limiting crop growth and performance of the preemergence herbicides. The number the weeds/m2 was evaluated at 14, 28 and 35 days after soybean emergency, showing differences between cultivation systems and among different control systems. Brachiaria plantaginea and Amaranthus viridis were predominant on conventional tillage, and less important

  16. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from irrigated cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluvione, Francesco; Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Long-term effects of tillage intensity, N fertilization, and crop rotation on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) flux from semiarid irrigated soils are poorly understood. We evaluated effects of: (i) tillage intensity [no-till (NT) and conventional moldboard plow tillage (CT)] in a continuous corn rotation; (ii) N fertilization levels [0-246 kg N ha(-1) for corn (Zea mays L.); 0 and 56 kg N ha(-1) for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.); 0 and 112 kg N ha(-1) for barley (Hordeum distichon L.)]; and (iii) crop rotation under NT soil management [corn-barley (NT-CB); continuous corn (NT-CC); corn-dry bean (NT-CDb)] on CO(2) and CH(4) flux from a clay loam soil. Carbon dioxide and CH(4) fluxes were monitored one to three times per week using vented nonsteady state closed chambers. No-till reduced (14%) growing season (154 d) cumulative CO(2) emissions relative to CT (NT: 2.08 Mg CO(2)-C ha(-1); CT: 2.41 Mg CO(2)-C ha(-1)), while N fertilization had no effect. Significantly lower (18%) growing season CO(2) fluxes were found in NT-CDb than NT-CC and NT-CB (11.4, 13.2 and 13.9 kg CO(2)-C ha(-1)d(-1) respectively). Growing season CH(4) emissions were higher in NT (20.2 g CH(4) ha(-1)) than in CT (1.2 g CH(4) ha(-1)). Nitrogen fertilization and cropping rotation did not affect CH(4) flux. Implementation of NT for 7 yr with no N fertilization was not adequate for restoring the CH(4) oxidation capacity of this clay loam soil relative to CT plowed and fertilized soil.

  17. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  18. Conservation agriculture practices in rainfed uplands of India improve maize-based system productivity and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Pradhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift towards more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over three years (2011-2014 of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation i.e. minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e. conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  19. Long and Midterm Effect of Conservation Agriculture on Soil Properties in Dry Areas of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Laghrour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Morocco, conservation agriculture, particularly no tillage systems, has become an alternative strategy to mitigate land degradation caused by conventional tillage in semiarid to arid regions. This paper is based on behaviour to tillage treatments of two Vertisols in Morocco. After 11 years of testing, soil organic matter content results showed a significant difference (P<0.05 only at soil surface (0–10 cm in favour of no tillage and a variation of 30% at this depth. The results obtained after 32 years of testing showed a significant soil profile difference (P<0.05, up to 40 cm under no tillage compared to conventional tillage, and a variation of 54% at 5–10 cm. For total nitrogen, there was no significant effect between no tillage and conventional tillage at the soil surface after 11 years unlike the result obtained after 32 years. There are no significant differences in bulk density between tillage treatments at soil surface for both sites. The measurement of soil structural stability showed a significant effect (P<0.05 for all three tests and for both sites. This means that no tillage helped Vertisols to resist different climatic constraints, preserving environmental soil quality.

  20. Contributions of long-term tillage systems on crop production and soil properties in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yining; Zhang, Renzhi; Luo, Zhuzhu; Li, Lingling; Cai, Liqun; Li, Guang; Xie, Junhong

    2016-06-01

    This study determined the long-term effect of tillage systems on soil properties and crop yields in a semi-arid environment. Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were alternately grown in six tillage systems at Dingxi (35° 28' N, 104° 44' E), north-west China starting in 2001. After the first 6 years of experiments, conventional tillage with stubble incorporating (TS) and no-till with stubble cover (NTS) increased soil organic matter by 9.9% and 13.0%, respectively, compared to the conventional tillage with stubble removed (T); both TS and NTS also increased soil microbial counts, available K and P, and total N. No-till with stubble removed (NT), NTS and NTP (no-till with plastic mulching) had 20.7%, 62.6% and 43.7% greater alkaline phosphatase activity compared to the T treatment. Soil catalase, urease and invertase activities were all greater in the no-till treatments than in the T treatment. Averaged across 6 years, both wheat and pea achieved highest grain yields under NTS treatment. No-till with stubble retention is the most promising system for improving soil physical, biological and chemical properties, and increasing crop yields, and thus, this system can be adopted in areas with conditions similar to the semi-arid north-west China. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of conservation tillage on soil quality in the piedmont plain of Mount Taihang%保护性耕作对太行山前平原土壤质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜章留; 高伟达; 陈素英; 胡春胜; 任图生

    2011-01-01

    保护性耕作被认为是华北平原农业可持续发展的重要措施,但目前缺乏这些措施对土壤质量影响的系统报道.本研究以长期定位试验为基础,探讨了太行山前平原两熟制高产农田不同耕作措施对麦田土壤质量的影响.试验始于2001年,设置翻耕玉米秸秆不还田(非保护性耕作对照,CK)、翻耕玉米秸秆粉碎还田(CT)、旋耕玉米秸秆粉碎还田(RT)和免耕玉米秸秆直立还田(NT)4个处理.2007年冬小麦收获后分层测定土壤有机碳(soil organic carbon,SOC)含量、容重(Pb)、水稳性团聚体、水分特征曲线、饱和导水率(Ks)和微生物量碳氮.2008年测定了剖面SOC含量、Pb和蚯蚓数量.结果表明,连续多年保护性耕作后土壤剖面的SOC储量无显著变化,但保护性耕作(RT和NT)下SOC的层化比率(1.74~2.04)显著高于翻耕处理(CK和CT,1.37~1.45);保护性耕作显著提高了表层微生物量碳、氮含量以及单位面积土壤中的蚯蚓数量.NT处理导致耕层(0~20 cm)土壤pb增加,但提高了土壤团聚体的稳定性.CK和CT处理显著增加了0~5 cm土层裂隙(>500 μm)和传输孔隙(500~50 μm)的比例,而NT处理则增加储水孔隙(50~0.5 μm)的含量.另外,保护性耕作提高了土壤的Ks、田间持水量和有效水含量.对土壤质量指标S的分析结果表明,实施保护性耕作后,太行山前平原地区土壤质量总体上得到改善.%Abstract Conservation tillage is a viable option for sustainable agricultural development in the North China Plain. Yet few studies exist on the influences of conservation tillage practices on soil quality. The objective of this study was to investigate soil quality changes as related to the shift from moldboard plow to conservation tillage practices based on a long-term field experiment. The experiment was started in 2001 and included four winter wheat tillage treatments - moldboard plow without corn residue (CK), moldboard plow with

  2. Combining Ridge with No-Tillage in Lowland Rice-Based Cropping System:Long-Term Effect on Soil and Rice Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xian-Jun; and XIE De-Ti

    2009-01-01

    A tillage method of combining ridge with no-tillage (RNT) was employed in lowland rice-based cropping system to study the long-term effects of RNT on soil profile pattern,soil water stable aggregate distribution,nutrients stratification and yields of rice and post-rice crops.After flooded paddy field (FPF) was practiced with RNT for a long time,soil profile changed from G to A-P-G,and horizon G was shifted to a deeper position in the profile.Also the proportion of macroaggregate (> 2 mm) increased,whereas the proportion of silt and clay (< 0.053 mm) decreased under RNT,indicating a better soil structure that will prevent erosion.RNT helped to control leaching and significantly improved total N,P,K and organic matter in soil.The highest crop yields were found under RNT system every year,and total crop yields were higher under conventional paddy-upland rotation tillage (CR) than under FPF,except in 2003 and 2006 when serious drought occurred.RNT was proven to be a better tillage method for lowland rice-based cropping system.

  3. Variation in antibiosis ability, against potato pathogens, of bacterial communities recovered from the endo- and exoroots of potato crops produced under conventional versus minimum tillage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturz, A V; Peters, R D; Carter, M R; Sanderson, J B; Matheson, B G; Christie, B R

    2005-08-01

    The culturable component of bacterial communities found in the endoroot and associated exoroot (root zone soil) was examined in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown under either conventional or minimum tillage systems. Bacterial species--abundance relationships were determined and in vitro antibiosis ability investigated to discover whether tillage practice or bacteria source (endo- or exoroot) influenced bacterial community structure and functional versatility. Antibiosis abilities against Phytophthora erythroseptica Pethyb. (causal agent of pink rot of potatoes), Streptomyces scabies (Thaxt.) Waksm. and Henrici) (causal agent of potato common scab), and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. Emend. Snyder and Hansen (causal agent of fusarium potato wilt) were selected as indicators of functional versatility. Bacterial community species richness and diversity indices were significantly greater (P = 0.001) in the exoroot than in the endoroot. While both endo- and exoroot communities possessed antibiosis ability against the phytopathogens tested, a significantly greater proportion (P = 0.0001) of the endoroot population demonstrated antibiosis ability than its exoroot counterpart against P. erythroseptica and F. oxysporum. Tillage regime had no significant influence on species-abundance relationships in the endo- or exoroot but did influence the relative antibiosis ability of bacteria in in vitro challenges against S. scabies, where bacteria sourced from minimum tillage systems were more likely to have antibiosis ability (P = 0.0151). We postulate that the difference in the frequency of isolates with antibiosis ability among endoroot versus exoroot populations points to the adaptation of endophytic bacterial communities that favour plant host defence against pathogens that attack the host systemically.

  4. Strip tillage for single and twin-row peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil degradation and rising production costs have prompted grower interest in conservation tillage with high residue cover crops for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objective was to evaluate single and twin-row peanut production across three different strip tillage implements with and without a c...

  5. Water Availability for Winter Wheat Affected by Summer Fallow Tillage Practices in Slope Dryland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-bin; YANG Bo; Roger Hartmann; Donald Gabriels; CAI Dian-xiong; JIN Ke; WU Hui-jun; BAI Zhan-guo; ZHANG Can-jun; YAO Yu-qing; LU Jun-jie; WANG Yu-hong

    2003-01-01

    The tillage experiments for winter wheat were conducted on the slope farmland in Luoyang,Henan Province in the semihumid to arid loess plateau areas of North China. Different tillage methods inclu-ding reduced tillage (RT), no-till (NT), 2 crops/year (2C), subsoiling(SS), and conventional tillage (CT)were compared to determine the effects of tillage methods on soil water conservation, water availability, andwheat yields in a search for better farming systems in the areas. The NT and SS showed good effects on waterconservation. The soil water storage increased 12 - 33 mm with NT and 9 - 24 mm with SS at the end of sum-mer fallow periods. The soil evaporation with NT and SS decreased 7 - 8 mm and 34 - 36 mm during the fallowperiods of 1999 and 2001, respectively. Evapotranspiration (ET) with NT and SS increased about 47 mm dur-ing wheat growth periods of 2000 to 2001. Treatment RT and 2C had low water storage and high water lossesduring the fallow periods. The winter wheat yields with conservation tillage practices were improved in the 2ndyear, increased by 3, 5 and 8 % with RT, NT and SS, respectively, compared with CT. The highest wheatyields were obtained with subsoiling, and the maximum economic benefits from no-till. All conservation tillagepractices provided great benefits to saving energy and labors, reducing operation inputs, and increasing eco-nomic returns. No-till and subsoiling have shown promise in increasing water storage, reducing water loss, en-hancing water availability, and saving energy, as well as increasing wheat yield.

  6. [Effects of planting system on soil and water conservation and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Da-Bing; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Kai

    2010-06-01

    A three-year experiment was conducted to study the effects of wheat/maize/soybean with total no-tillage and mulching (NTM), wheat/maize/soybean with part no-tillage and part mulching (PTM), wheat/maize/soybean with total tillage without mulching (TWM), and wheat/maize/ sweet potato with total tillage without mulching (TWMS) on the soil and water conservation, soil fertility, and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China. The average soil erosion amount and surface runoff of NTM were significantly lower than those of the other three planting systems, being 1189 kg x hm(-2) and 215 m3 x hm(-2), and 10.6% and 84.7% lower than those of TWMS, respectively. The soil organic matter, total N, available K and available N contents of NTM were increased by 15.7%, 18.2%, 55.2%, and 25.9%, respectively, being the highest among the test planting systems. PTM and TWM took the second place, and TWMS pattern had the least. NTM had the highest annual crop output value (18809 yuan x hm(-2)) and net income (12619 yuan x hm(-2)) in three years, being 2.2% -20.6% and 3.8% -32.9% higher than other three planting systems, respectively. In a word, the planting system wheat/maize/soybean was more beneficial to the water and soil conservation and the improvement of soil fertility and crop output value, compared with the traditional planting system wheat/maize/sweet potato.

  7. Root-knot Nematode Management and Yield of Soybean as Affected by Winter Cover Crops, Tillage Systems, and Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, N A; Parker, M B

    1987-01-01

    Management of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean as affected by winter small grain crops or fallow, two tillage systems, and nematicides was studied. Numbers of M. incognita did not differ in plots planted to wheat and rye. Yields of soybean planted after these crops also did not differ. Numbers of M. incognita were greater in fallow than in rye plots, but soybean yield was not affected by the two treatments. Soybean yields were greater in subsoil-plant than in moldboard plowed plots. Ethylene dibromide reduced nematode population densities more consistently than aldicarb and phenamiphos. Also, ethylene dibromide increased yields the most and phenamiphos the least. There was a positive correlation (P = 0.001) of seed size (weight of 100 seeds) with yield (r = 0.79), indicating that factors affecting yield also affected seed size.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR WEED DETECTION DURING BOTH OF OFF-SEASON AND IN-SEASON IN BROADACRE NO-TILLAGE CROPPING LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the Australian cropping land is no-tillage and weed control within continuous no-tillage agricultural cropping area is becoming more and more difficult. A major problem is that the heavy herbicide usage causes some of more prolific weeds becoming more resistant to the regular herbicides and therefore more powerful and more expensive options are being pursued. To overcome such problems with aiming at the reduction of herbicide usage, this proposed research focuses on developing a machine vision system which can detect and mapping weeds or do spot spray. The weed detection methods described in this study include three aspects which are image acquisition, a new green plant detection algorithm using hybrid spectral indices and a new inter-row weed detection method taking the advantage of the location of the crop rows. The developed method could detect the weeds both during the non-growing summer period and also within the growing season until the canopy of the crop has closed. The design of the methods focuses on overcoming the challenges of the complex no-tillage background, the faster image acquisition speed and quicker processing time for real-time spot spray. The experiment results show that the proposed method are more suitable for the weed detection in the no-tillage background than the existing methods and could be used as a powerful tool for the weed control.

  9. Carbon sequestration in clay and silt fractions of Brazilian soils under conventional and no-tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Estima Sacramento dos Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of soils to sequestrate carbon (C is mainly related to the formation of organo-mineral complexes. In this study, we investigated the influence of soil management systems on the C retention capacity of soil with an emphasis on the silt and clay fractions of two subtropical soils with different mineralogy and climate. Samples from a Humic Hapludox and a Rhodic Hapludox, clayey soils cultivated for approximately 30 years under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT were collected from six layers distributed within 100-cm soil depth from each site and from an adjacent native forest. After the removal of particulate organic matter (POM, the suspension (<53 µm was sonicated, the silt and clay fractions were separated in accordance with Stokes' law and the carbon content of whole soil and physical fractions was determined. In the Humic Hapludox, the clay and silt fractions under NT showed a higher maximum C retention (72 and 52 g kg-1, respectively in comparison to those under CT (54 and 38 g kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the C concentration increase in both fractions under NT occurred mainly in the topsoil (up to 5 cm. The C retention in physical fractions of Rhodic Hapludox varied from 25 to 32 g kg-1, and no difference was observed whether under an NT or a CT management system. The predominance of goethite and gibbsite in the Humic Hapludox, as well as its exposure to a colder climate, may have contributed to its greater C retention capacity. In addition to the organo-mineral interaction, a mechanism of organic matter self-assemblage, enhanced by longer periods of soil non-disturbance, seems to have contributed to the carbon stabilization in both soils.

  10. Effects of conservation tillage on soil photosynthetic bacteria and typeⅡ methanotrophs%保护性耕作对土壤光合细菌和Ⅱ型甲烷氧化菌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬敬; 李新宇; 徐明恺; 苏振成; 李旭; 孙健; 张惠文

    2012-01-01

    保护性耕作对土壤微生物具有明显的保护效应,但是其对土壤光合细菌和甲烷氧化菌的影响却鲜有报道.本文采用土壤宏基因组16S rDNA变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)和荧光定量PCR技术比较了不同耕作模式(免耕和传统翻耕)和不同秸秆覆盖量(0、50%、100%)对潮土中光合细菌和Ⅱ型甲烷氧化菌数量和群落结构的影响.结果表明:免耕土壤中光合细菌的多样性(多样性指数H=2.47)显著高于传统翻耕土壤(多样性指数H=2.35),且与土壤总氮呈显著正相关,数量略低于传统翻耕土壤;光合细菌的数量和多样性虽均随着秸秆覆盖量的增加而有所增加,但不显著;虽然免耕和秸秆覆盖对Ⅱ型甲烷氧化菌数量和多样性产生了有益的影响,但是耕作模式、秸秆覆盖及二者互作对其影响均不显著;不同处理中光合细菌和Ⅱ型甲烷氧化菌的种群结构无明显变化,光合细菌优势种群以根瘤菌目(Rhizobiales)和鞘脂单胞菌目(Sphingomonadales)为主,Ⅱ型甲烷氧化菌优势种群主要为甲基孢囊菌科(Methylocystaceae)的细菌类群.%Conservation tillage has beneficial effects on soil microbes, but the effects on soil photosynthetic,bacteria and methanotrophs are rarely reported. In this study, denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR technique were adopted to investigate the abundance and community structure of photosynthetic bacteria and type Ⅱ methanotrophs in a fluvo-aquic soil as affected by different tillage modes ( no-tillage and conventional tillage) and straw mulching (0, 50% , 100% ). Under no tillage, the diversity of soil photosynthetic bacteria was significantly higher but the abundance was slightly lower, as compared with those under conventional tillage, and there was a significant positive correlation between the diversity of soil photosynthetic bacteria and the soil total nitrogen. Both the abundance and the diversity of soil

  11. Soil infrastructure evolution and its effect on water transfer processes under contrasted tillage systems with preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Nargish; Degré, Aurore; Chélin, Marie; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Garré, Sarah; Bodson, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of soil tillage along with residue management on the changing pattern of soil structure. This investigation will help to emphasize the different water flow dynamics especially the preferential flow processes through the soil that are influenced by the changes in structural distribution in the soil profile. Mostly the preferential flow of water is addressed by the apparent velocity through the soil but this study will focus on soil structure along with soil moisture dynamics at pedon scale or more specifically at aggregate scale. The experimentation has been started from June 2013 in the research field known as Solcouvert (objects: strip-till (ST) versus winter ploughing (WP)) and Solresidus (objects: no-till with organic matter restitution (NI) versus no-till without organic matter restitution (NO)). Soil profile description has been carried out in the four objects of land management. Soil sampling has been done in different depths of soil according to the soil profile description. Soil samples will be used for the measurement of water retention capacity (done), hydraulic conductivity and x-ray microtomography. The assessment of soil water retention curves with pressure plate technique show significantly (pnetworks in the field under four different trials. The soils from the different trials and also from different depths (0-15, 25-30 and 50-60 cm) were used for zone specific calibration of the sensors. All the experiments will be repeated twice a year. For the specific spatio-temporal comparison, the monitoring results from electrical resistance tomography will be available from the collaborated project of the same faculty.

  12. Macro- and microscale gaseous diffusion in a Stagnic Luvisol as affected by compaction and reduced tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SIMOJOKI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of mechanical agriculture has increased the risk for soil compaction and deformation. Simultaneously, reduced tillage practices have become popular due to energy saving and environmental concerns, as they may strengthen and improve the functioning of structured soil pore system. Soil aeration is affected by both compaction and reduced tillage through changes in soil structure and in the distribution of easily decomposable organic matter. We investigated whether a single wheeling by a 35 000 kg sugar-beet harvester in a Stagnic Luvisol derived from loess near Göttingen, Germany, influenced the gas transport properties (air permeability, gaseous macro- and microdiffusivities, oxygen diffusion rate in the topsoil and subsoil samples, and whether the effects were different between long-term reduced tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Poor structure in the topsoil resulted in slow macro- and microscale gas transport at moisture contents near field capacity. The macrodiffusivities in the topsoil under conventional tillage were slower compared with those under conservation treatment, and soil compaction reduced the diffusivities by about half at the soil depths studied. This shows that even one pass with heavy machinery near field capacity impairs soil structure deep into the profile, and supports the view that reduced tillage improves soil structure and aeration compared with ploughing, especially in the topsoil.;

  13. Surface runoff, subsurface drainflow and soil erosion as affected by tillage in a clayey Finnish soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turtola, Eila; Alakukku, Laura; Uusitalo, Risto; Kaseva, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Conservation tillage practices were tested against autumn mouldboard ploughing for differences in physical properties of soil, surface runoff, subsurface drainflow and soil erosion. The study (1991-2001...

  14. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity of conventional and conservation agriculture system in rainfed semi arid tropics of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratibha, G.; Srinivas, I.; Rao, K. V.; Shanker, Arun K.; Raju, B. M. K.; Choudhary, Deepak K.; Srinivas Rao, K.; Srinivasarao, Ch.; Maheswari, M.

    2016-11-01

    Agriculture has been considered as one of the contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and it continues to increase with increase in crop production. Hence development of sustainable agro techniques with maximum crop production, and low global warming potential is need of the hour. Quantifying net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of an agricultural activity is a method to assess the mitigation potential of the activity. But there is dearth of information on NGWP of conservation agriculture under rainfed conditions. Hence in this study two methods such as crop based (NGWPcrop) and soil based (NGWPsoil) were estimated from the data of the experiment initiated in 2009 in rainfed semiarid regions of Hyderabad, India with different tillage practices like conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT), zero tillage (ZT) and residue retention levels by harvesting at different heights which includes 0, 10 and 30 cm anchored residue in pigeonpea-castor systems. The results of the study revealed that under rainfed conditions CT recorded 24% higher yields over ZT, but CT and RT were on par with each other. However, the yield gap between the tillage treatments is narrowing down over 5 years of study. ZT and RT recorded 26 and 11% lower indirect GHG emissions (emissions from farm operations and input use) over CT, respectively. The percent contribution of CO2 eq. N2O emission is higher to total GHG emissions in both the crops. Both NGWPcrop, NGWPsoil, GHGIcrop, and GHGIsoil based were influenced by tillage and residue treatments. Further, castor grown on pigeonpea residue recorded 20% higher GHG emissions over pigeonpea grown on castor residues. The fuel consumption in ZT was reduced by 58% and 81% as compared to CT in pigeonpea and castor, respectively. Lower NGWP and GHGI based on crop and soil was observed with increase in crop residues and decrease in tillage intensity in both the crops. The results of the study indicate that, there

  15. Sistemas de cultivo de arroz irrigado e a compactação de um Planossolo Tillage systems of irrigated rice and compaction of a Planosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Pedrotti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Em 1993 foi avaliada a compactação de um Planossolo cultivado sob diferentes sistemas de manejo, medindo-se a densidade do solo, por meio do método do anel volumétrico, em três camadas de solo. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis sistemas de manejo, selecionados de um experimento conduzido na Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, desde 1985. Observaram-se, de maneira geral, valores altos de densidade do solo; na primeira camada de solo (0-10 cm o sistema que apresentou o menor valor foi o cultivo de arroz em plantio direto sob a resteva do azevém e nos sistemas que envolvem maior mobilização do solo (arroz contínuo e rotação arroz-soja-milho os valores de densidade do solo foram maiores em relação aos sistemas de preparo reduzido do solo (azevém x arroz plantio direto e soja x arroz plantio direto. Ocorreu maior compactação, em relação à primeira camada, na camada intermediária (1020 cm, em todos os sistemas de cultivo, exceto no sistema de rotação arroz-soja-milho, no qual não houve diferença de densidade entre as camadas de solo.In 1993, it was evaluated the compaction of a Planosol (Albaqualf submitted to different tillage systems, measuring soil density through the volumetric ring method, in three layers. Treatments consisted of six tillage systems selected from an experiment conducted at Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, Brazil, since 1985. High soil density values were obtained; in the first layer (0-10 cm, the no-tillage rice cultivation on the rye-grass straw was the system with the lowest value. The systems that involved more soil mobilization (rice continuous and rotation rice-soybeans-maize resulted in higher soil density values compared to the reduced preparing systems (rye-grass x rice in zero tillage and soybean x rice in zero tillage. Compacted structures were identified in the intermediate layer (10-20 cm in all tillage systems, except for the

  16. 保护性耕作和杂草管理对冬小麦农田土壤水分及有机碳的影响%Effects of conservation tillage and weed control on soil water and organic carbon contents in winter wheat field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩惠芳; 宁堂原; 李增嘉; 田慎重; 王瑜; 仲惟磊; 田欣欣

    2011-01-01

    在秸秆全量还田的试验田中(从2004年起),于2008-2009年及2009-2010年冬小麦生育期间,研究了不同耕作措施(旋耕、耙耕、免耕、深松和常规耕作)和杂草管理对冬小麦田土壤水分及有机碳的影响.结果表明:在未除草条件下,免耕、深松的杂草总密度显著提高;而在除草条件下,杂草密度显著下降.小麦从拔节期到灌浆期0~60 cm土层水分含量呈明显波动变化,田间保留一定量的杂草可增加不同耕作方式0~20 cm的土壤水分含量,表现出一定的土壤水分保持效应.保留杂草仅提高了拔节期0~20 cm土层的土壤有机碳含量;而在抽穗期和灌浆期,0~20、20~40和40~60 cm土层有机碳含量均低于去除杂草处理.去除杂草条件下,深松显著提高了冬小麦籽粒产量;保留杂草条件下,旋耕的籽粒产量最高,常规耕作产量最低.%Taking a long term ( since 2004) straw-returning winter wheat field as the object, an investigation was made in the wheat growth seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 to study the effects of different tillage methods ( rotary tillage, harrow tillage, no-tillage, subsoil tillage, and conven tional tillage) and weed management on the soil water and organic carbon contents. No matter retaining or removing weeds, the weed density under subsoil tillage and no-tillage was much higher than that under rotary tillage, harrow tillage, and conventional tillage. From the jointing to the milking stage of winter wheat, retaining definite amounts of weeds, no matter which tillage method was adopted, could significantly increase the 0-20 cm soil water content, suggesting the soil water conservation effect of retaining weeds. Retaining weeds only increased the soil organic carbon content in 0-20 cm layer at jointing stage. At heading and milking stages, the soil organic carbon contents in 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm layers were lower under weed retaining than under weed removal.Under the conditions of

  17. Comparison of ecological evaluation results on conservation tillage by different methods%不同方法对保护性耕作的生态评价结果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈源泉; 隋鹏; 高旺盛

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive evaluation on agricultural production technologies can provide scientific base for technology application for agriculture production. However, a good comprehensive evaluation on agricultural production system must integrate the economic, ecological and environmental aspects of a production system. Agricultural production should not only focus on the yield increasing, but also should avoid the degradation of ecosystem services and alleviate the negative environmental impacts. Therefore, when selecting an appropriate agricultural technology for a production system, a comprehensive evaluation is needed for decision-make process. In recent decades, many kinds of theories and methods in the ecological economic research have been developed and some are used widely, such as emergy, ecosystem services, ecosystem health, ecological footprint, life cycle assessment, etc. However, each method has its independent theory base and calculation process. In additional, single method is hard to meet the multi-aspect evaluation needs. Therefore, to compare the results of different ecological evaluation methods, three methods including emergy (EM), ecosystem services (ES) and life circle assessment (LCA) were used in this research to evaluate economic, ecological and environmental concerns of an agricultural production technology. Four kinds of conservation tillage (CT) patterns in Jilin province, northeastern of China were taken as case study. The four CT patterns include‘direct-seeding on ridge side and standing-stubble return’ (CT1), ‘wide/narrow row alternation planting and high stubble mulching’ (CT2), ‘stubble mulching and direct-seeding on ridge’ (CT3) and‘cutting stubble combined ridge with subsoiling’ (CT4). The results showed that four kinds of CT methods had a consistent trend of advantage of eco-ecological effects compared to the conventional tillage (CK). Based on evaluation result of EM, the average value of EYR (emergy yield ratio) of the

  18. Manejo da irrigação na cultura do feijoeiro em sistemas plantio direto e convencional Irrigation management in dry bean under conventional and no tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. Pavani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O manejo inadequado do solo e da água é limitante à produtividade do feijoeiro irrigado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dois métodos de manejo da irrigação, um via solo (tensiometria e outro via clima (tanque Classe A, conjugados com os sistemas plantio direto e convencional de manejo do solo com a cultura do feijoeiro de "inverno", no segundo ano de plantio direto, em Jaboticabal - SP. Foi medido o potencial mátrico do solo e estimada a variação diária do armazenamento de água no solo, na camada de 0 a 0,40 m de profundidade, e avaliados os componentes de produtividade, além de determinadas a evapotranspiração real média e a eficiência média de uso de água pela cultura. O sistema de preparo convencional do solo com manejo de irrigação pelo tanque Classe A proporcionou maior produtividade de grãos, evapotranspiração média e eficiência de uso de água pela cultura, seguido pelo plantio direto com manejo de irrigação por tensiometria e por tanque Classe A. O sistema plantio direto foi menos suscetível às variações hídricas no solo decorrentes dos manejos de irrigação empregados do que o sistema de preparo convencional, resultando em menor variação na produtividade de grãos.The unsuitable soil and water management in irrigated bean crop is a limitant factor for the yield of this crop. The objective of this research was to compare the performance of two methods of irrigation management, one by soil (tensiometry and another by climate (Class A pan, in conventional and no tillage systems on the irrigated dry bean winter crop in the second year of no tillage system in Jaboticabal - SP. It was evaluated; average number of pods, grains per pods, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield per hectare, soil humidity variation, real evapotranspiration and crop water use efficiency. It was concluded that the biggest grains yield, mean daily evapotranspiration and crop water use efficiency was found in the conventional

  19. Effects of Conservation Tillage and Cropping Patterns on Vegetables Topsoil CO2 Content%保护性耕作及种植模式对蔬菜地耕层土壤CO2含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁耀; 段宗颜; 胡万里; 陈宝红; 陈拾华; 杨文柱

    2011-01-01

    采用动态气室法分别对云南省通海县山地蔬菜地、长期连作蔬菜地及不同种植模式下的露地蔬菜地20cm耕层土壤CO2含量进行田间直接测定,分析了不同保护性耕作措施及种植模式对土壤CO2含量的影响,同时分析了保护性耕作措施对蔬菜产量的影响.结果表明,以秸秆还田及有机物质增施为代表的保护性耕作措施能显著提高土壤CO2含量;秸秆覆盖和免耕相结合既有利于土壤呼吸产生CO2,又有利于蔬菜产量、产值提高,但免耕、深耕土壤CO2产生量无显著差异;增施有机物质总体上有利于蔬菜产量、产值提高,增施不同有机物质对蔬菜生产的影响顺序为烟杆>家禽、家畜粪便>废弃蔬菜叶>稻草,其中稻草对蔬菜具有较大的负面影响;土壤CO2含量与耕地利用情况密切相关,土壤CO2含量大小表现为水田>旱坡地;蔬菜-蔬菜连作>水稻/烤烟/玉米-蔬菜轮作;蔬菜-蔬菜连作地5年>10年>20年.%To analyze the effect of conservation tillage and cropping patterns on vegetables topsoil CO2 content and conservation tillage on vegetables outputs, the 20 cm topsoil CO3 content of mountain vegetables, the long-term continuous cropping of vegetables and different cropping patterns in fields were respectively and directly measured by dynamic chamber method in Tonghai county Yunnan province. The results showed that the straw and other increasing organic matter, represented by measures of conservation tillage could evidently improve the soil CO2 content. No-tillage with straw cover was conducive to soil respiration to produce CO2 and vegetables output, but there was no significant difference between the no-tillage and deep plow. The vegetable outputs increased generally by tobacco straw > poultry and livestock manure > waste organic matter > rice straw, and rice straw had a greater negative effect on vegetables production. Soil CO2 content was nearly related to

  20. EVALUATION OF THE AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF CORN AFTER GREEN MANURE IN NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Humberto Silva e Castro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main causes of low utilization of cover crops on farms is the lack of awareness of its importance, the limited availability of seeds and the lack of dissemination of research results related to the subject. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and agronomic performance of corn in succession to different cover crops by tillage technique. The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Field of the Centro Universitário do Plantalto de Araxá in Araxá, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with plots of 2.5 x 5 m, with five treatments and three replications. The treatments were: T1 control, T2 crotalaria, T3 consortium of lupine and millet, T4 estilosantes Campo Grande, and T5 cocktail of legumes (Crotalaria + estilosantes + lupine. At 69 days after sowing (DAS it was evaluated plant height, height of ear height, stem diameter and number of green leaves. At 130 DAS evaluated the length, ear diameter in the middle third of the spike and productivity. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s tests at 5% significance. The cocktail of legumes and sunn hemp were green manures that provided the greatest yields, grain weight, ear length, number of green leaves and stem diameter of maize plants.

  1. Sistemas de preparo do solo, plantas de cobertura e produtividade da cultura da mandioca Soil tillage systems, cover crops and productivity in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auro Akio Otsubo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do uso de plantas de cobertura e de sistemas de preparo do solo, no desenvolvimento e na produtividade da cultura da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. O trabalho foi conduzido em Argissolo Vermelho, sob sistema convencional de preparo do solo, e em cultivo mínimo sobre palhada de mucuna-cinza (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy, sorgo granífero [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] e milheto [Pennisetum americanum (L. K. Schum.]. Aos dezoito meses após o plantio da mandioca, foram avaliados: altura de plantas, produção de massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, número de raízes tuberosas, produtividade, percentagem de matéria seca e de amido nas raízes tuberosas e índice de colheita. Observou-se que o sistema convencional de preparo do solo pode ser substituído, na cultura da mandioca, pela prática do cultivo mínimo, associada ao uso de coberturas vegetais, por promover incrementos significativos na produtividade da cultura, especialmente, quando se utiliza o milheto como planta de cobertura. O uso de plantas de cobertura no pré-cultivo de mandioca, em sistema de preparo mínimo do solo, representa uma alternativa eficiente para um melhor manejo dessa cultura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of cover crops and soil tillage systems in the development and yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. The experiment was carried out in an Arenic Hapludult under conventional tillage, and in a minimum tillage system over mucuna (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy, sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] and millet straw [Pennisetum americanum (L. K. Schum.]. Eighteen months after cassava planting, the following variables were evaluated: plant height, shoot dry matter production, number of roots, yield, dry matter and starch content on storage roots, and harvest index. It was observed that conventional tillage could be replaced by minimum tillage in cassava crop, when associated

  2. Vertical Mulching e manejo da água em semeadura direta Vertical Mulching and water management in no tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Garcia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A intensa mobilização do solo no sistema cultivo convencional causou degradação da estrutura, compactação e adensamento do solo abaixo da camada arável, reduzindo a macroporosidade e a taxa de infiltração de água no solo, com conseqüente aumento de escoamento superficial, de erosão e de assoreamento de rios e de reservatórios. A semeadura direta, que protege a superfície do solo, praticamente controlou a perda por erosão hídrica, os terraços foram eliminados, pelos agricultores, e a conseqüência foi maior escoamento superficial do que no sistema cultivo convencional. Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento hidrológico do vertical mulching em semeadura direta, em relação ao escoamento superficial, realizou-se esta pesquisa nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, na região fisiográfica do planalto médio do Rio Grande do Sul, isto é, um experimento em escala de campo, com parcelas sem vertical mulching, com vertical mulching a cada 10 m e com vertical mulching a cada 5 m, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Sulcos em nível, perpendiculares ao declive, com dimensões de 0,08 m de largura por x 0,38 m de profundidade, foram abertos e preenchidos com palha compactada o suficiente para prevenir desmoronamento das paredes do sulco. No ciclo da cultura da soja e do trigo foram simuladas chuvas com duas intensidades, 70 e 106 mm h-1. Foram determinados o escoamento superficial, a taxa de infiltração básica de água no solo e a concentração de nutrientes e de CO no escoamento superficial. Os resultados indicam que o vertical mulching na semeadura direta reduz, significativamente, o volume do escoamento superficial aumenta a taxa de infiltração básica de água no solo e reduz também as perdas totais de nutrientes e de CO devido ao menor volume de água no escoamento superficial.Intensive soil mobilization in the conventional tillage system has caused

  3. Qualidade e rendimento de sementes de soja produzidas sob cultivo orgânico em plantio direto e preparo reduzido do solo = Quality and production of soybean seeds in no tillage and reduced tillage soil systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a qualidade das sementes de soja em cultivo orgânico sob dois sistemas de manejo do solo, plantio direto e preparo reduzido do solo (escarificação + gradagem na região Oeste do Paraná. Foram utilizados 6 tratamentos para o controle de pragas mais uma testemunha (1.Baculovirus anticarsia; 2.Baculovirus anticarsia + Extrato de Cinamomo; 3.Extrato de Cinamomo; 4.Bacillus thurigiensis; 5.Óleo de Neen; 6.Composto A; 7.Testemunha. Os parâmetros avaliados foram teor de água, peso de100 sementes, porcentagem de germinação, vigor determinado pelo envelhecimento acelerado e teste de tetrazólio e também rendimento de sementes. Os dados obtidos foram analisados pelo teste de Scott – Knott a 5% de significância e permitiram concluir que o alto grau dedeterioração das sementes, provocado pela baixa eficiência dos tratamentos, contribuiu para o decréscimo da qualidade. O sistema de manejo do solo não influenciou no rendimento de sementes e o tratamento com Composto A apresentou maior rendimento.This trial aimed at determining soybean seeds quality in an organic production under two soil management systems: no tillage and reduced tillage (scarification + grading in western region of the State of Paraná. Six treatments were designed to control some weeds plus one check treatment (1.Baculovirus anticarsia; 2.Baculovirus anticarsia +cinnamon extract; 3.Cinnamon extract; 4.Baculovirus thurigiensis; 5.Neen oil; 6.Composite A; 7.Check treatment. Parameters as water content, weight of one hundred seeds, seedling percentage, seeds vigor determined by fast aging, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride andseedling yield were evaluated. The data were analyzed by the Scott Knott test – 5% of significance – which allowed to conclude that the high level of seedling deterioration, derived from the low efficiency of treatments, contributed to the decreased seed quality. However, the soil tillage system did not influence

  4. TOTAL COMMON BEAN WATER DEMAND UNDER CONVENTIONAL AND NO-TILLAGE SYSTEMS DEMANDA TOTAL DE ÁGUA DO FEIJOEIRO NOS SISTEMAS DE PLANTIO CONVENCIONAL E DIRETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Coutinho de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A line source with a five-band irrigation experiment was used to determined the total common bean water demand under conventional and no-tillage systems. Irrigation was controlled by two tensiometer sets installed in the second band parallel to the line source. The no-tillage system resulted in a 20% reduction in irrigation water demand as compared to the conventional system. The total estimated demand based on the class “A” evaporation tank overestimated the tensiometer determined demand for conventional and no-tillage systems by 11% and 29%, respectively.

    KEY-WORDS: No-tillage; tensiometer; irrigation.

    Em um experimento com cinco faixas de irrigação, obtidas por uma linha central de aspersão, determinou-se a demanda total de água do feijoeiro nos sistemas de plantio convencional e direto. O controle da irrigação foi feito por duas baterias de tensiômetros instaladas na segunda faixa paralela à linha de aspersão. O sistema de plantio direto proporcionou economia de 20% de água de irrigação em relação ao plantio convencional. A demanda total estimada com base na evaporação do tanque classe “A”, superestimou em 11,0% e 29,0% a demanda determinada por tensiometria para os sistemas de plantio convencional e direto, respectivamente.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Plantio direto; tensiômetro; irrigação.

  5. [Effects of long-term tillage measurements on soil aggregate characteristic and microbial diversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wu, Hui-Jun; Wu, Xue-Ping; Cai, Dian-Xiong; Yao, Yu-Qing; Lü, Jun-Jie; Tian, Yun-Long

    2014-08-01

    Soil aggregate stability and microbial diversity play important roles in nutrient recycling in soil-crop systems. This study investigated the impacts of different soil tillage systems on soil aggregation and soil microbial diversity based on a 15-year long-term experiment on loess soil in Henan Province of China. Treatments included reduced tillage (RT), no-tillage (NT), sub-soiling with mulch (SM), wheat-peanut two crops (TC), and conventional tillage (CT). Soil aggregates were separated by wet sieving method, and soil microbial (bacterial, archaeal and fungal) diversity was examined by using the techniques of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. The results showed that water-stable macroaggregates concent (R0.25) and the mean mass diameter (MWD) in the surface soil significantly increased under NT, SM and TC, R0.25 increased by 21.5%, 29.5% and 69.2%, and MWD increased by 18.0%, 12.2% and 50.4%, respectively, as compared with CT. Tillage practices caused changes in bacterial, archaeal and fungal community compositions. With NT, SM and TC, the bacterial, archaeal and fungal Shannon indices increased by 0.3%, 0.3%, and 0.6%, and 20.2%, 40.5%, and 49.1%, and 23.7%, 19.5%, and 25.8%, respectively, as compared with CT. Both bacterial and archaeal Shannon indices were significantly correlated with the indices of R0.25 and MWD, while the fungal Shannon index was not significantly correlated with these two indices. In conclusion, conservation tillage, including NT and SM, and crop rotation, including TC, improved soil aggregation and soil microbial diversity.

  6. Influence of Conservation Tillage and Soil Water Content on Crop Yield in Dryland Compacted Alfisol of Central Chile Influencia de la Labranza de Conservación y el Contenido de Agua sobre el Rendimiento del Cultivo en un Alfisol compactado del Secano Central de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martinez G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean dryland areas of the Mediterranean climate region are characterized by highly degraded and compacted soils, which require the use of conservation tillage systems to mitigate water erosion as well as to improve soil water storage. An oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA crop rotation was established under the following conservation systems: no tillage (Nt, Nt + contour plowing (Nt+Cp, Nt + barrier hedge (Nt+Bh, and Nt + subsoiling (Nt+Sb, compared to conventional tillage (Ct to evaluate their influence on soil water content (SWC in the profile (10 to 110 cm depth, the soil compaction and their interaction with the crop yield. Experimental plots were established in 2007 and lasted 3 yr till 2009 in a compacted Alfisol. At the end of the growing seasons, SWC was reduced by 44 to 51% in conservation tillage systems and 60% in Ct. Soil water content had a significant (p En Chile, las zonas de clima mediterráneo se caracterizan por suelos altamente degradados y compactados por erosión, lo que requiere el uso de sistemas de labranza conservacionista para mitigar la erosión hídrica, así como incrementar el contenido de agua en el suelo. Se evaluó una rotación avena (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA establecida bajo los siguientes sistemas conservacionistas: cero labranza (Nt, Nt + curvas de nivel (Nt+Cp, Nt + franjas vivas (Nt+Bh y Nt + subsolado (Nt+Sb, las que fueron comparadas al sistema de labranza convencional (Ct, para evaluar su influencia en el contenido de agua en el suelo (SWC en el perfil (10 a 110 cm profundidad, la compactación del suelo y su interacción con el rendimiento del cultivo. Las parcelas experimentales fueron establecidas 3 años seguidos (2007 al 2009 en un Alfisol compactado. Al final de la temporada, el SWC disminuyó 44 a 51% en los sistemas conservacionistas y 60% en el sistema convencional. El sistema de

  7. Responses of soil CH4 fluxes to simulated warming in conventional tillage and no-tillage systems%模拟增温条件下翻耕免耕农田土壤 CH4通量响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂纯; 李发东

    2016-01-01

    为研究未来气候变暖下我国华北翻耕、免耕农田 CH4通量响应,评估该地农田碳汇/源情况,使用远红外辐射增温仪模拟气候变暖,设计翻耕增温(CTW)、翻耕不增温(CTN)、免耕增温(NTW)、免耕不增温(NTN)4个处理。研究表明,2013—2015年小麦-玉米季,增温分别显著提高翻耕、免耕农田10 cm 土壤温度1.5℃和1.4℃(P﹤0.05);但对两种耕作农田土壤水分的影响并不显著(P﹥0.05)。各处理土壤 CH4通量无明显季节变化,但累积 CH4吸收具有显著年际差异。2013—2014年小麦季,CTW 和 NTW 相比 CTN和 NTN 处理,累积 CH4吸收分别显著增加35.8%和108.8%(P﹤0.01);但在2014—2015年,CTW 处理显著降低17.7%(P﹤0.05)。两年玉米季,处理间累积 CH4吸收无显著差异(P﹥0.05)。各处理土壤微生物生物量碳(MBC)含量与 CH4存在显著正相关关系。未来气候变暖条件下,翻耕农田 MBC 含量减小将可能减缓华北农田 CH4吸收。%Methane(CH4)is one of the most important greenhouse gases contributing to climate warming. Understanding the responses of cropland soil CH4 fluxes to climate warming under different tillage systems is critical to evaluation of the dynamics of soil carbon sink/source along with climate changes in the North China Plain(NCP). A field experiment of simulated climate warming using infrared radiation in-strument was conducted to measure CH4 fluxes from the wheat-maize rotation field with four treatments including conventional tillage with and without warming(CTW and CTN)and no-tillage with and without warming(NTW and NTN). Results showed that during wheat-maize growing period in 2013—2015 soil temperature at 10 cm soil depth was significantly elevated by 1.5 ℃ in CTW, and 1.4 ℃ in NTW, com-pared with CTN and NTN, respectively(P﹤0.05). The warming did not significantly affect soil moisture in these two tillage systems

  8. influence of tillage practices on physical properties of a sandy loam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Soil organic carbon (OC) and aggregate stability in water (MAW, ASC, DR and WSI) ... Key words: Tillage, Tillage systems, Soil Physical properties, Moisture storage, Physical quality ..... OC/organic matter contents of soils exerts great influe.

  9. 华北高寒区多年保护性耕作对农田土壤容重的影响%Long-term Effects of Conservation Tillage on Soil Bulk Density in Cropping Zone of Cold Plateau in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 张静; 刘玉华

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect the soil, reduce wind erosion and ensure the production, explore the suitable conservation tillage model for the alpine area in North China, to provide a theoretical basis to the local crop production. Based on located experiment of different farming methods for 9 years in Zhangbei, the ministry of agriculture field station, and in 2007-2008, the author studied the effect of the no-tillage, reduced tillage and traditional tillage soil bulk density. The results showed that 3 types of farming methods at the seeding stage and harvesting stage both with the highest was no tillage and the lowest was traditional tillage, at the seeding stage the 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil bulk density of no-tillage, respectively were 1.65 g/cm3 and 1.81 g/cm3, with traditional tillage were 1.38 g/cm3 and 1.47 g/cm3, at harvesting stage there was no significant change. In cold plateau in North China, the soil bulk density of cropping zone had been influenced obviously by different tillage methods, the traditional tillage and reduced tillage could be a significant reduction in soil bulk density. With the bio-power effect of crop root growth, seeding stage and harvesting stage no tillage and reduced tillage in cropping zone soil bulk density was downward trend, and there was no significant change in traditional tillage.%为了在保护土壤、减抑风蚀的同时,兼顾作物的产量,探索适合华北高寒区的保护性耕作模式,给当地作物生产提供理论依据,在农业部张北野外观测站连续9年不同耕作方式定位研究的基础上,于2007-2009年探讨了免耕、松耕和翻耕对土壤耕层容重的影响.结果表明,3种耕作方式播种期不同耕层土壤容重均以免耕最高,翻耕最低,播前0~10 cm、10~20 cm土壤容重免耕分别为1.65、1.81 g/cm3,翻耕则分别为1.38、1.47 g/cm3,收获期土壤容重差异不明显.华北高寒区不同耕作方式对农田耕层土壤容重具有明显的影响,翻耕和松耕

  10. Long-Term No-Tillage Direct Seeding Mode for Water-Saving and Drought-Resistance Rice Production in Rice-Rapeseed Rotation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xing-bin; CHEN Chen; LUO Li-jun; XIA Long-ping; LIU Kang; CHEN Yin-hua; YU Xin-qiao

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of long-term no-tillage direct seeding mode on rice yield and the soil physiochemical property in a rice-rapeseed rotation system, a comparative experiment with a water-saving and drought-resistance rice (WDR) variety and a double low rapeseed variety as materials was conducted under no-tillage direct seeding (NTDS) mode and conventional tillage direct seeding (CTDS) mode for four years, using the CTDS mode as the control. Compared with the CTDS mode, the actual rice yield of WDR decreased by 8.10%at the first year, whereas the plant height, spikelet number per panicle, spikelet fertility, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, actual yield, and harvest index increased with no-tillage years, which led to the actual yield increase by 6.49%at the fourth year. Correlation analysis showed that the panicle length was significantly related to the actual yield of WDR. Compared with the CTDS mode in terms of the soil properties, the pH value of the NTDS mode decreased every year, whereas the contents of soil organic matter and total N of the NTDS mode increased. In the 0-5 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the soil bulk decreased, whereas the contents of soil organic matter, total N, and available N increased. In the 5-20 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the available N and K decreased, whereas the soil bulk, contents of soil organic matter, and total N increased. In summary, the NTDS mode increased the rice yield, and could improve the paddy soil fertility of the top layer.

  11. Nitrogen application in the maize, under no tillage system: effects in the soil physical quality and agronomics characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Carvalho Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed in the experimental area of ESALQ-USP, city of Piracicaba , state of Sao Paulo, in a soil of sandy-clay texture and aimed to evaluate the soil physical quality and maize agronomic characteristics with maize crop under different N doses and different tillage systems. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates. Treatments consisted of three nitrogen doses (N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1 and a control. The ammonium sulfate fertilizer was applied at 30 kg ha-1 N during seeding, and the rest was applied as sidedressing when the plants had between six and eight leaves. Were determined the bulk density, microporosity, macroporosity and total porosity of soil, at depths of 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 m, and the maize components yield. The soil physical properties tend to change over time and N levels, especially with regard to soil macroporosity and microporosity, conditioned by the structural change of the soil.

  12. Soil respiration, labile carbon pools, and enzyme activities as affected by tillage practices in a tropical rice-maize-cowpea cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, S; Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Panda, B B; Nayak, A K; Rao, K S; Manna, M C

    2014-07-01

    In order to identify the viable option of tillage practices in rice-maize-cowpea cropping system that could cut down soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, sustain grain yield, and maintain better soil quality in tropical low land rice ecology soil respiration in terms of CO2 emission, labile carbon (C) pools, water-stable aggregate C fractions, and enzymatic activities were investigated in a sandy clay loam soil. Soil respiration is the major pathway of gaseous C efflux from terrestrial systems and acts as an important index of ecosystem functioning. The CO2-C emissions were quantified in between plants and rows throughout the year in rice-maize-cowpea cropping sequence both under conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) practices along with soil moisture and temperature. The CO2-C emissions, as a whole, were 24 % higher in between plants than in rows, and were in the range of 23.4-78.1, 37.1-128.1, and 28.6-101.2 mg m(-2) h(-1) under CT and 10.7-60.3, 17.3-99.1, and 17.2-79.1 mg m(-2) h(-1) under MT in rice, maize, and cowpea, respectively. The CO2-C emission was found highest under maize (44 %) followed by rice (33 %) and cowpea (23 %) irrespective of CT and MT practices. In CT system, the CO2-C emission increased significantly by 37.1 % with respect to MT on cumulative annual basis including fallow. The CO2-C emission per unit yield was at par in rice and cowpea signifying the beneficial effect of MT in maintaining soil quality and reduction of CO2 emission. The microbial biomass C (MBC), readily mineralizable C (RMC), water-soluble C (WSC), and permanganate-oxidizable C (PMOC) were 19.4, 20.4, 39.5, and 15.1 % higher under MT than CT. The C contents in soil aggregate fraction were significantly higher in MT than CT. Soil enzymatic activities like, dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, and β-glucosidase were significantly higher by 13.8, 15.4, and 27.4 % under MT compared to CT. The soil labile C pools, enzymatic activities, and

  13. Eficácia do herbicida acetochlor na semeadura direta e convencional com ou sem palha e os efeitos sobre o rendimento do milho Acetochlor herbicide efficacy on tillage and no-tillage systems on straw mulch presence or absence and effect on corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Vicente Weiss Ferri

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, ano agrícola de 2000/2001, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas com o herbicida acetochlor em Argissolo Vermelho, conduzido sob semeadura direta e preparo convencional, na presença ou ausência de palha. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de acetochlor nas doses de 0, 1680, 3360 e 5040g ha-1, aplicado em solo sob semeadura direta e preparo convencional, na presença (4,5t ha-1 ou ausência de palha de aveia. Foram avaliados o controle das plantas daninhas, além da altura de plantas e rendimento de grãos de milho. O acetochlor foi mais eficiente para o controle das plantas daninhas no preparo convencional, comparado à semeadura direta. A palha reduziu a eficácia de controle pelo acetochlor. A altura das plantas de milho foi maior na semeadura direta. O rendimento de grãos de milho foi maior no preparo convencional e na presença da palha devido ao melhor controle das plantas daninhas.An experiment was carried out at Federal University at Rio Grande do Sul, with the objective of avaluating herbicide acetochlor efficacy on conventional tillage and no-till soils. The soil is classified as at Paleudult. The following treatments were tested: acetochlor at 0, 1680, 3360 and 5040g ha-1, applied on tillage and no-tillage systems on oat straw mulch presence (4,5t ha-1 and absence. Assessements included crop injury, weed control at 15, 30 and 45 days after herbicide application, and corn crop yeld. The weed control with acetochlor herbicide was more efficient on tillage than on no-tillage system. Straw mulch reduced acetochlor herbicide weed control. Corn plant height was higher on no-tillage than on tillage systems, indicating lower herbicide activity on the first. Corn yield was higher on tillage system and straw mulch presence, due to

  14. Efeito de três sistemas de preparo do solo sobre a rentabilidade econômica da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz = Effects of three tillage systems on economic profitability of cassava crop (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Genildo Pequeno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a rentabilidade econômica da cultura damandioca em três sistemas de preparo de solo durante os anos agrícolas de 1999/2000 a2002/2003, em Araruna, Estado do Paraná. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o deblocos completos casualizados, com oito repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos deplantio direto; preparo mínimo (escarificação e preparo convencional (aração + gradagemniveladora. A força de tração e o consumo de combustível requeridos nas operações depreparo do solo e de plantio da mandioca foram maiores no sistema de preparoconvencional. Os maiores custos com combustível, preparo do solo e plantio da mandioca, ecusto operacional relativo às culturas de inverno e à cultura da mandioca, bem como a maiorrenda bruta foram observados no sistema de preparo convencional, seguidos pelo preparomínimo e plantio direto. A maior renda líquida e a melhor relação benefício/custo foramobservadas no sistema de preparo convencional que proporcionou maior produtividade deraízes tuberosas em relação aos sistemas de preparo mínimo e de plantio direto.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the economicprofitability of cassava crop submitted to the three soil tillage systems during the years1999/2000 to 2002/2003, in Araruna, state of Parana. The treatments consisted of three soiltillage systems: no-tillage, minimum tillage using chiseling, and conventional tillage withmoldboard plow and disking, arranged in a randomized complete blocks with eightreplications. The traction strength and fuel consumption in the soil tillage and in the cassavasowed operation were more required in the conventional tillage system. The conventionaland the minimum tillage systems showed the highest costs for fuel, soil tillage and cassavasowed. They also presented the highest gross income. The greatest net income and the bestbenefit/cost relation were observed in the conventional tillage system, which

  15. Responses by earthworms to reduced tillage in herbicide tolerant maize and Bt maize cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B.; Demsar, D.

    2007-01-01

    Genetically modified crops (GM) may affect earthworms either directly through the plant, its root exudates and litter, or indirectly through the agricultural management changes that are associated with GM plant production. In order to investigate such possible effects we established two field...... studies of Bt corn and a glufosinate ammonium tolerant corn and included a reduced tillage treatment (RT) and a conventional tillage treatment (CT) as examples of a likely concomitant change in the agricultural practise. At a French study site at Varois, (Bourgogne), a field grown with the Bt......-toxin producing transgenic maize line MON810 was studied for 1 year. At a Danish study site, Foulum (Jutland), one year of Bt corn was followed by 2 years of herbicide tolerant corn. At the French study site the most prominent effects observed were due to the tillage method where RT significantly reduced...

  16. Soil water retention as affected by tillage and residue management in semiarid Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bescansa, P.; Imaz, M.J.; Virto, I.; Enrique, A.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation tillage preserves soil water and this has been the main reason for its rapid dissemination in rainfed agriculture in semiarid climates. We determined the effects of conservation versus conventional tillage on available soil water capacity (AWC) and related properties at the end of 5 yea

  17. Symmetry breaking in non conservative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pérez, N E

    2016-01-01

    We apply Noether's theorem to show how the invariances of conservative systems are broken for nonconservative systems, in the variational formulation of Galley. This formulation considers a conservative action, extended by the inclusion of a time reversed sector and a nonconservative generalized potential. We assume that this potential is invariant under the symmetries of the initial conservative system. The breaking occurs because the time reversed sector requires inverse symmetry transformations, under which the nonconservative potential is not invariant. The resulting violation of the conservation laws is consistent with the equations of motion. We generalize this formulation for fermionic and sypersymmetric systems. In the case of a supersymmetric oscillator, the effect of damping is that the bosonic and fermionic components become different frequencies. Considering that initially the nonconservative action is invariant under supersymmetry, and that the breaking is associated to an instability, this resul...

  18. Tillage Effect on Organic Carbon in a Purple Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xue-Xia; GAO Ming; WEI Chao-Fu; XIE De-Ti; PAN Gen-Xing

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) based on a long-term experiment with various tillage systems were studied in a paddy soil derived from purple soil in Chongqing, China. Organic carbon storage in the 0-20and 0-40 cm soil layers under different tillage systems were in an order: ridge tillage with rice-rape rotation (RT-rr)> conventional tillage with rice only (CT-r) > ridge tillage with rice only (RT-r) > conventional tillage with rice-rape rotation (CT-rr). The RT-rr system had significantly higher levels of soil organic carbon in the 0-40 cm topsoil, while the proportion of the total remaining organic carbon in the total soil organic carbon in the 0-10 cm layer was greatest in the RT-rr system. This was the reason why the RT-rr system enhanced soil organic carbon storage. These showed that tillage system type was crucial for carbon storage. Carbon levels in soil humus and crop-yield results showed that the RT-rr system enhanced soil fertility and crop productivity. Adoption of this tillage system would be beneficial both for environmental protection and economic development.

  19. Model reduction of linear conservative mechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, van der A.J.; Oeloff, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    An approach for model reduction of linear conservative or weakly damped mechanical systems is proposed. It is based on the balancing of an associated gradient system. It uses the joint knowledge of the system matrix and the input and output matrices of the Hamiltonian system. The key idea is to asso

  20. Indicadores da acidez do solo para recomendação de calagem no sistema plantio direto Soil acidity indicators for liming in no-tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Nicolodi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O tempo de cultivo do solo no sistema plantio direto (SPD altera a magnitude das relações entre os componentes da acidez do solo e o rendimento das culturas. Altos rendimentos podem ser obtidos nesse sistema mesmo em áreas com alta acidez. Assim, é provável que o critério de calagem utilizado no sistema convencional (SC de cultivo não seja adequado para o SPD. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os critérios para recomendação de calagem em seis lavouras no SPD representativas da região do Planalto do RS. Foram selecionadas lavouras com alta variabilidade dos indicadores de acidez do solo. Para cada lavoura, foram avaliados 20 locais. Em cada local, foram coletadas amostras de solo das camadas de 0-10 e 0-20 cm e foi avaliado o rendimento de grãos. Nas amostras de solo, foram determinados o pH em água e CaCl2, o índice SMP, os teores de Ca, Mg e Al trocáveis, de MO, de P e K disponíveis. Com base nas relações entre os indicadores de acidez do solo e o rendimento de grãos, concluiu-se que nenhum dos indicadores de acidez do solo, quando utilizados isoladamente, descreve de modo adequado o rendimento das plantas no solo cultivado no SPD consolidado. Nas duas camadas avaliadas, o rendimento relativo foi sempre maior que 65 % quando o pH em água e em CaCl2 foi maior que 5,5 e 5,1, respectivamente; a saturação por bases, maior que 65 %; o Al trocável, menor que 0,3 cmol c dm-3; e a saturação por Al, menor que 5 %. Para avaliação da acidez do solo em SPD com a finalidade de recomendar calagem, podem ser utilizadas tanto a camada de 0-10 como a de 0-20 cm de profundidade.No-tillage systems can change the ratio between soil acidity components and crop yields over the course of time. High crop yields are not seldom observed in highly acid soils. The liming criteria established for conventional tillage soils are likely to be unsuitable for no-tillage soils. The objective of this report was to define liming criteria, based on

  1. COLONIZAÇÃO E DENSIDADE DE ESPOROS DE FUNGOS MICORRÍZICOS EM DOIS SOLOS DO CERRADO SOB DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE MANEJO COLONIZATION AND SPORE DENSITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN TWO CERRADO SOILS IN DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Barbosa Paulino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a colonização micorrízica e a densidade de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, bem como os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de manejo em duas classes de solo (Neossolo Quartzarênico e Latossolo Vermelho. O estudo foi conduzido em áreas agrícolas do entorno do Parque Nacional das Emas, Estado de Goiás, onde se determinaram a densidade de esporos de FMA e a colonização micorrízica de raízes, nos diferentes sistemas de manejo. Áreas sob cultivo de gramíneas apresentaram maiores colonização micorrízica e densidade de esporos de FMA, nos dois solos estudados, relativamente à área cultivada com soja. Verificou-se pequeno efeito dos sistemas de manejo do solo nas características avaliadas, no entanto, os resultados obtidos mostram alterações na população de FMA, com um aumento na densidade de esporos que refletiu na colonização micorrízica nas áreas agrícolas, em relação às áreas de referência.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Indicador biológico; solos arenosos; conservação do solo; qualidade de solo.

    The objective of this study was the evaluation of root micorrhyzal colonization and the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, as well as the effects of tillage systems in two soil classes (Entisol and Oxisol. The study was carried out in farms around the ";Parque Nacional das Emas";, Goiás State, Brazil, where density of AMF spores and mycorrhizal colonization of roots in the different tillage systems were determined. Areas cultivated with grasses presented larger mycorrhizal colonization and density of AMF spores in both soils as compared with the soybean cropped area. Small effect of the tillage systems was verified in regard to evaluated characteristics. However, the results showed

  2. Testing and research on space distribution rule of drifting sand flux on farmland with conservative tillage%保护性耕作农田风沙流空间分布规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙悦超; 麻硕士; 陈智; 赵永来

    2009-01-01

    为了解保护性耕作农田风沙流的空间分布规律,对保护性耕作农田进行了野外风洞原位风蚀测试.结果表明:保护性耕作农田在不同风速下各高度的风沙流水平分布符合三次多项式规律,经过27行残茬、5.5 m的水平距离风沙流基本达到了平衡稳定状态;在垂直方向上风沙流分布符合高阶多项式规律,具有与砾石戈壁地表输沙量垂直分布极为相似的"象鼻"效应.试验还发现保护性耕作农田风沙流主要活动在近地表40 cm高度以下范围,占到风蚀物总质量的90%左右.%The original position of field wind tunnel was tested in order to make clear the space distribution rule of drifting sand flux on farmland with conser vative tillage. The result showed that horizontal distribution in all heights of drifting sand flux on farmland with conservative tillage followed cubic polynom ial rule in different wind speed, and drifting sand flux in each height basicall y reached the balancing and stable state when passed through 27 rows stubble and 5.5 m horizontal distances; drifting sand flux distribution curve in the ve rtic al direction followed higher polynomial rule,and there was "trunk" domino aff ect alike the vertical distribution of the ground surface sediment runoff in gra vel Gobi. The result also showed that drifting sand flux on farmland with conser vative tillage mainly moved bellow 40cm height of the ground surface, about 90% of all wind erosions.

  3. Eight years of Conservation Agriculture-based cropping systems research in Eastern Africa to conserve soil and water and mitigate effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Tesfay; Nyssen, Jan; Govaerts, Bram; Lanckriet, Sil; Baudron, Frédéric; Deckers, Jozef; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    In Ethiopia, repeated plowing, complete removal of crop residues at harvest, aftermath grazing of crop fields and occurrence of repeated droughts have reduced the biomass return to the soil and aggravated cropland degradation. Conservation Agriculture (CA)-based resource conserving cropping systems may reduce runoff and soil erosion, and improve soil quality, thereby increasing crop productivity. Thus, a long-term tillage experiment has been carried out (2005 to 2012) on a Vertisol to quantify - among others - changes in runoff and soil loss for two local tillage practices, modified to integrate CA principles in semi-arid northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were (i) derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, ploughed only once at planting by refreshing the furrow from 2005 to 2012 and 30% standing crop residue retention, (ii) terwah+ (TER+) with furrows made at 1.5 m interval, plowed once at planting, 30% standing crop residue retention and fresh broad beds, and (iii) conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three plain tillage operations and complete removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plough mahresha and wheat, teff, barley and grass pea were grown. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year onwards (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weeds in CA plots. Runoff and soil loss were measured daily. Soil water content was monitored every 6 days. Significantly different (pwater storage during the growing season was constantly higher in CA-based systems compared with CT. A period of at least three years of cropping was required before improvements in crop yield became significant. Further, modeling of the sediment budgets shows that total soil loss due to sheet and rill erosion in cropland, when CA would be practiced

  4. Tillage practices and identity formation in High Plains farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Katherine; Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    landscape. Specifically, they compare conservation tillage wedded to ‘modern’ ideologies of scientific farming with conventional tillage newly linked to beliefs about both organic and traditional farming, and examine how farmers use these different forms of tillage to create their identities. Roadside...... farming, recognition and denunciation of other farmers’ practices, and recognition and justification of their own contribute to identity formation. This research contributes to the ongoing discussion of how identity is formed through day-to-day activities in the material world. The plow creates divisions...

  5. Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize ( Zea mays L.), sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean ( Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems in a semi-arid agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; López-de-Sa, Esther G.; Polo, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In semi-arid agricultural soils, seasonal dynamic of soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is highly variable. Based on soil respiration measurements the effects of different management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) was investigated in a long-term field experiment (28 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station 'La Higueruela' (40o 03'N, 4o 24'W). Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 Mg ha-1 prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. SCE was moderate in late spring (2.2-11.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) when amendments were applied and tillage was performed, markedly decreased in summer (0.4-3.2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), following a moderate increase in autumn (3.4-14.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), rising sharply in October (5.6-39.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 ). In winter, SCE was low (0.6-6.5 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). In general, SCE was greater in chisel and moldboard tilled soils, and in CS and particularly TSS-amended soils, due to the addition of labile C with these amendments, meanwhile no-tillage soils exhibited smaller increases in C efflux throughout the seasons. Soil temperature controlled the seasonal variations of SCE. In summer, when drought occurs, a general decrease of SCE was observed due to a deficit in soil water content. After drought period SCE jumped to high values in response to rain events ('Birch effect') that changed soil moisture conditions. Soil drying in summer and rewetting in autumn may promotes some changes on the structure of soil microbial community, affecting associated metabolic processes, and enhancing a rapid mineralization of water-soluble organic C compounds and/or dead microbial biomass that acts as an energy source for soil microorganisms. To assess the effects of tillage and amendments on SCE, Q10 values were calculated. Data were grouped into three groups according to soil moisture (0

  7. Comparison of tillage treatments on greenhouse gas fluxes in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage is commonly used to control weeds and prepare fields for planting. Repeated tillage can result in soil drying, sudden bursts of mineralized carbon and nitrogen from soil organic matter, and alterations in soil microbial communities. The effects of tillage on winter wheat cropping systems an...

  8. 保护性耕作下农田土壤风蚀量及其影响因子的研究初报%A Preliminary Study on Soil Wind Erosion and its Impact Factors with Conservation Tillage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 王俊英; 刘永霞; 周继红; 韩烈刚

    2009-01-01

    [研究目的]通过对保护性耕作下土壤风蚀影响与控制的研究,旨在为指导京郊裸露农田治理和结构调整,生态补贴的实施提供理论依据.[方法]2008年4月采用移动式风洞仪进行研究,并得出以下初步结论:[结果](1)六种地块下土壤风蚀量以裸露翻旋地最高,种植越冬覆盖作物能显著降低土壤风蚀量;不同免耕播种机和秸秆处理方式下,风蚀量区别主要在于播种机,以迪尔风蚀量最低,农哈哈机型最高;四种耕作方式下土壤风蚀量以旋耕地最高,翻耕地比旋耕地降低80.81%,重耙和免耕地风蚀量分别比旋耕地降低95.35%和97.71%;冬小麦五种不同播期下土壤风蚀量随着播期的推后逐渐增大.(2)四种作物中小麦田的覆盖率最高,其次为紫花苜蓿和小黑麦,油菜覆盖率最低;四种耕作方式下耙耕小麦田覆盖率最高为84.00%,旋耕最低为55.33%;五个播期下9月27日播种的小麦田覆盖率显著高于其他播期,10月7日和10月12日最低.(3)将土壤风蚀量作为依变量,覆盖率、作物株高和土壤容重作为自变量进行多元回归分析,并建立多元回归方程:Y=173.186-0.449X1-0.485X2-72.699X3.%In this paper, we studied farmland soil wind erosion and its impact factors in Beijing city under con-servation tillage in use of Movable Erosion Wind Tunnel. The results show that (1) the volume of soil wind ero-sion in rotary exposed farmland shows the highest spin in Six plots, cover crops planted in winter can signifi-cantly reduce the volume of soil erosion; In different no-tillage methods and straw treatment, the amount of wind erosion depends on seeding-machine, and the volume of Deere comes up to minimum, agricultural haha maximum; Volume of soil erosion in rotary reach the highest spin in four farming methods, plough tillage less 80.81% than rotary, and harrow tillage less 97.71%,no tillage less 95.35%; With the delay of sowing dates, the amount of soil erosion in

  9. Gyroscopic stabilization of non-conservative systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, Oleg N. [Dynamics Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Darmstadt, Hochschulstr. 1, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany) and Institute of Mechanics, Moscow State Lomonosov University, Michurinskii pr. 1, 119192 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kirillov@dyn.tu-darmstadt.de

    2006-11-20

    Gyroscopic stabilization of a linear conservative system, which is statically unstable, can be either improved or destroyed by weak damping and circulatory forces. This is governed by Whitney umbrella singularity of the boundary of the asymptotic stability domain of the perturbed system.

  10. Relative Efficiency of Different Tillage Practices and Their Effect on Soil Physical Properties under Semi-Arid Climate of Tandojam, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimatullah Leghari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tillage practices affect physical properties of soil that are crucial for better crop production. The study was carried out to compare the efficiency of two different tillage implements and their effect on some soil physical properties. The tillage implements included cultivator and disc plow. The soil properties viz. soil moisture, bulk density and infiltration rate were determined before and after the tillage practices. However, the efficiency of tillage operation including operating speed, travel reduction and fuel consumption were taken during the tillage operation. The comparative analysis showed that the cultivator was better in reducing soil bulk density (12-18% along with increasing the infiltration rate up to 61.5% and conserving soil moisture up to 95%. The disc plow, on the other hand, reduced the bulk density of soil more effectively with up to 21% efficiency and enhancing soil porosity (23%. However, disc plow was less efficient in increasing infiltration rate (38% and conserving soil moisture (87-90%. Comparatively higher fuel consumption (23.3 L hr-1 was observed in operating disc plow with less operating speed (4.1 km hr-1 and higher travel reduction (27.5%. On the other hand, higher cultivator operating speed (4.76km hr-1 was observed with less travel reduction (21.8% and fuel consumption (14.9 Lhr-1. The cultivator, being more economical and having good effects on soil properties, was the best option for tillage operations in the clay soils of cotton-wheat rotation system under semi-arid climate of Tandojam, Pakistan.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF TILLAGE TRANSLOCATION AND TILLAGE EROSION ON LOESS SLOPE BY CONTOUR MOULDBOARD TILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rybicki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of tillage experiments that were set up to investigate the intensity of net soil displacement and the associated tillage erosivity for mouldboard tillage carried out in direction parallel to the contour lines (contour tillage. Tillage was performed with typical set of cultivation for an average farm on soil developed from loess located on a slope with 7.5 to 13.5% decrease. Aluminium cubes of 15 cm edge-length were used as tracers. The studies showed that average translocation of soil along the slope (perpendicular to tillage direction was 0,35 m and 0,28 m respectively for tillage with downslope and upslope direction of soil overturning. It means that each year about 2,89 Mg per hectare of soil is net displaced in downslope direction per plough operation. The studies indicated that contour moldboard tillage is also an important factor in relief and soil transformation of eroded areas.

  12. Influence of crop rotation and tillage intensity on soil physical properties and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krümmelbein, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage intensity can vary concerning tillage depth, frequency, power input into the soil and degree of soil turn-over. Conventional tillage systems where a plough is regularly used to turn over the soil can be differentiated from reduced tillage systems without ploughing but with loosening the upper soil and no tillage systems. Between conventional tillage and no tillage is a wide range of more or less reduced tillage systems. In our case the different tillage intensities are not induced by different agricultural machinery or techniques, but result from varying crop rotations with more or less perennial crops and therefore lower or higher tillage frequency. Our experimental area constitutes of quite unstructured substrates, partly heavily compacted. The development of a functioning soil structure and accumulation of nutrients and organic matter are of high importance. Three different crop rotations induce varying tillage intensities and frequencies. The first crop rotation (Alfalfa monoculture) has only experienced seed bed preparation once and subsequently is wheeled once a year to cut and chaff the biomass. The second crop rotation contains perennial and annual crops and has therefore been tilled more often, while the third crop rotation consists only of annual crops with annual seedbed preparation. Our results show that reduced tillage intensity/frequency combined with the intense root growth of Alfalfa creates the most favourable soil physical state of the substrate compared to increased tillage and lower root growth intensity of the other crop rotations. Soil tillage disturbs soil structure development, especially when the substrate is mechanically unstable as in our case. For such problematic locations it is recommendable to reduce tillage intensity and/or frequency to allow the development of soil structure enhanced by root growth and thereby the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients within the rooting zone.

  13. Fuzzy multi attributive comparison of tillage crop and manure management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the best alternative between cropping system options is often complicated by disparities in research results due to differences between years as a result of seasonal variability. The economic cost of the systems further complicates the determination of best alternative for sustainable c...

  14. Avaliação da compressibilidade de um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico sob sistema plantio direto, preparo convencional e mata nativa Evaluation of compressibility of a dystroferric Red Nitosol under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems and a native forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lara de Assis

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do tráfego de máquinas nos atributos do solo de acordo com o tempo de adoção do sistema plantio direto são ainda pouco pesquisados em ambientes tropicais, e muitas dúvidas ainda persistem sobre a variação dinâmica da estrutura do solo e a sua interação com máquinas e equipamentos. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito do tempo de adoção do sistema plantio direto, comparativamente com área de mata nativa e de preparo convencional, usando os modelos de compressibilidade do solo. O estudo foi realizado em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, sob mata nativa (MN, preparo convencional (PC, plantio direto com um ano (PD1, plantio direto com quatro anos (PD4, plantio direto com cinco anos (PD5 e plantio direto com 12 anos (PD12. Amostras indeformadas e deformadas foram coletadas em duas profundidades (0-5 e 10-15 cm. O tempo de adoção do sistema plantio direto alterou o comportamento compressivo dos solos em ambas as profundidades, por meio das mudanças na pressão de preconsolidação. A profundidade de 0-5 cm apresentou menor capacidade de suporte de carga do que a profundidade de 10-15 cm. A profundidade de 0-5 cm, em todos os sistemas de manejo, mostrou-se mais susceptível à compactação em relação à profundidade de 10-15 cm. Os sistemas de plantio direto e convencional apresentaram a capacidade de suporte de carga crescente na seguinte ordem: PD5 @ PC, para a profundidade de 0-5 cm e para a profundidade de 10-15 cm: MN @ PD12 @ PD4 The effects of machinery traffic on soil attributes following the adoption of no-till systems in tropical environments are still poorly documented. Numerous questions persist about the dynamic variation of soil structure and its interaction with machinery and equipments. The present study had the objective to evaluate the effect of time of adoption of no-tillage system and compare them to a conventionally tilled soil and a soil under a native forest using soil compressibility

  15. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  16. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Charles, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems but their impact in non...

  17. Weed infestation of a spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop under the conditions of plough and ploughless tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2007- 2009 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm (Lublin region belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. Different tillage systems - plough and ploughless tillage - were the experimental factors. In the plough tillage system, tillage involved skimming done after the harvest of the forecrop and autumn ploughing. In the ploughless tillage system, only the herbicide Roundup 360 SL (active substance - glyphosate was applied after the harvest of the forecrop. In both tillage treatments, spring tillage involved field cultivating and the use of a tillage assembly consisting of a cultivator, cage roller, and harrow. The present experiment evaluated weed infestation of the crop expressed by the number and air-dry weight of weeds and their species composition. Under the conditions of ploughless tillage, air-dry weight of weeds in the spring wheat crop was shown to increase significantly compared to plough tillage. The tillage systems under comparison did not differentiate the number of weeds per 1 m2. Spring wheat sown using plough tillage was colonized most extensively by the following weed species: Avena fatua L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Galium aparine L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., and Consolida regalis Gray. In the ploughless tillage treatments, the following weeds were predominant: Stellaria media (L. Vill., Avena fatua L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve, Papaver rhoeas L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Galium aparine L., and Chenopodium album L.

  18. Efeitos de sistemas de preparo do solo no uso da água e na produtividade do feijoeiro Effects of soil tillage systems on the water use and on common bean yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FERNANDO STONE

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo comparar o plantio direto, em duas densidades de palhada, com outros sistemas de preparo do solo, quanto à eficiência do uso da água e à produtividade de duas cultivares de feijoeiro com diferentes arquiteturas de planta. O experimento foi conduzido por quatro anos em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, utilizando o delineamento em faixas, com parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As faixas A, paralelas a uma linha central de aspersores, consistiram de cinco lâminas de irrigação. Considerando a média dos quatro anos, as quantidades de água aplicadas em cada faixa foram de 399,8; 307,0; 216,8; 128,0 e 54,0 mm. As faixas B, transversais à linha central de aspersores, consistiram de cinco sistemas de preparo do solo: plantio direto, plantio direto mais cobertura morta, grade aradora, arado de aiveca e arado escarificador. Nas subparcelas foram plantadas as cultivares de feijão Aporé e Safira. A magnitude da resposta da produtividade do feijoeiro à lâmina de água aplicada variou com a cultivar e com o sistema de preparo do solo. O sistema de plantio direto, com adequada cobertura morta, propiciou maior economia de água em comparação aos demais sistemas de preparo do solo.The objective of this work was to compare water use efficiency and yield of two common bean cultivars with different plant architectures under no-tillage system, using two amounts of straw in relation to other soil tillage systems. The experiment was carried out during four years on a Dark Red Latosol, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil. The experimental design was a splitplot strip block with four replications. The A strips, parallel to a sprinkler line source, consisted of five irrigation levels. The four year-average water amounts applied to each strip were: 399.8, 307.0, 216.8, 128.0, and 54.0 mm. The B strips, across to sprinkler line source, consisted of five soil tillage systems: no-tillage

  19. Sustainable semiarid dryland production in relation to tillage effects on Hydrology: 1983-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid dryland crop yields with no-till, NT, residue management are often greater than stubble-mulch tillage, SM, as a result of improved soil conditions or water conservation, but knowledge of long-term tillage effects on the comprehensive field hydrology and sustained crop production is needed. ...

  20. Conformal invariance conserved quantity of Hamilton systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jian-Le; Luo Shao-Kai; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies conformal invariance and comserved quantRies of Hamilton system.The definition and the determining equation of conformal invariance for Hamilton system are provided.The relationship between the conformal invariance and the Lie symmetry are discussed,and the necessary and sufficient condition that the conformal invariance would be the Lie symmetry of the system under the infinitesimal one-parameter transformation group is deduced.It gives the conserved quantities of the system and an example for illustration.

  1. Modern concepts of soil conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dumanski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to soil conservation are in constant evolution and improvement. This paper summarizes some of the modern approaches, ranging from no till to conservation agriculture to sustainable land management. These approaches are not separate, but components of a continuum of conservation approaches applicable at different levels and different scales. No tillage is important at the detailed, farm level, while CA and SLM are important at the farming systems and corporate levels. The successes achieved with no till in Argentina (also Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Mexico, Canada, Australia, and others illustrate how these concepts relate to each other.

  2. Consórcio de Urochloas com milho em sistema plantio direto Intercropping of pasture with maize in the no tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alessandro Chioderoli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma alternativa para suprir o aporte anual de palha exigido para manutenção do sistema plantio direto (SPD, nas regiões tropicais, é o cultivo de milho consorciado com urochloas. Com o objetivo de identificar o melhor sistema de cultivo de duas espécies forrageiras (Urochloa brizantha e Urochloa ruzizienses em consórcio com o milho (Zea mays L. em sistema plantio direto, foi realizada a presente pesquisa. O milho foi semeado em consórcio com as forrageiras em cinco sistemas de cultivo. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (2x4+1, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas: massa seca de palha do milho, massa seca da palha de urochloa, massa seca total de palha, população de plantas de milho, massa de 1000 grãos e produtividade de grãos. Os resultados demonstraram que o consórcio de milho com urochloa não apresentou efeito negativo na produtividade do milho e incrementou o aporte de matéria seca no sistema de produção sob plantio direto. A escolha de determinado sistema de cultivo depende do gerenciamento e da disponibilidade de máquinas, visto que todos os sistemas apresentaram comportamento positivo em relação à produtividade de grãos e à produção de palhada.An alternative to supply the annual input of straw required to maintain the no-tillage system (SPD in the tropics is the cultivation of maize intercropped with Urochloa. In order to identify the best cropping system of two forage species (Urochloa brizantha and Urochloa ruzizienses intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in no tillage system, the present study was conducted. Maize was seeded intercropped with forage in five cropping systems. The experimental design was in randomized blocks in factorial scheme (2x4+1 with four replications. There were evaluated: dry mass of maize straw, dry mass of urochloa straw, total dry mass of straw, maize plant population, mass of 1000 grain and grain yield. The results showed that maize intercropped

  3. Changes in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability after conversion to conservation tillage for seven years in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Xin; ZHU An-ning; ZHANG Jia-bao; YANG Wen-liang; XIN Xiu-li; ZHANG Xian-feng

    2015-01-01

    Soil aggregate stability and organic carbon (OC) are regarded as effective indicators of soil structure and quality. A long-term ifeld experiment was established in 2006 to examine the inlfuence of til age systems on soil aggregation and OC in a sandy loam soil in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The study involved eight treatments:plowing every year with (TS) and without residue (T), plowing every 2 years with (2TS) and without residue (2T), plowing every 4 years with (4TS) and without residue (4T), and no plowing with (NTS) and without residue (NT). In 2013, soil samples were col ected at depths of 0–5, 5–10 and 10–20 cm, and separated into three aggregate-size classes:macroaggregates (>250μm), microaggregates (53–250μm) and the silt+clay fraction (microaggregates>silt+clay fraction. In the 0–5 cm soil layer, concentrations of macroaggregate-associated OC in 2TS, 4TS and NTS were 14, 56 and 83%higher than for T, whereas T had the greatest concentration of OC associated with the silt+clay fraction in the 10–20 cm layer. Soil OC concentrations under 4TS and NTS were signiifcantly higher (P<0.05) than that of T in the 0–10 cm layer. Residue retention promoted formation of macroaggregates, increased macroaggregate-associated OC concentrations and thus increased total soil OC stock. The macroaggregate-associated OC was positively correlated (R2=0.96) with soil OC concentration, while the silt+clay fraction-associated OC was negatively correlated (R2=0.82) with soil OC concentration. The concentration of soil OC was positively correlated with MWD (R2=0.94) and GMD (R2=0.92). We concluded that increasing til age intensity led to a loss of carbon (C)-rich macroaggregates and an increase of C-depleted silt+clay fraction. The conservation til age system, especial y NTS and 4TS, increased soil aggregate stability and promoted OC accumulation in macroaggregates, provided the potential to improve soil C sequestration and soil structure in the Huang

  4. Citrus orchard planted with no tillage and conventional systemsHuerto de cítricos plantado con sistema de cero labranza y sistema convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available No tillage system has brought many advantages to soil protection, without reducing the yield of annual crops. This system has been adapted for Citrus orchards, with the plantation of trees in furrows opened in areas previously occupied by pastures. This work had as objective to evaluate tree development, root system, yield, and soil characteristics in an orchard planted in two systems. The study was made in Parana State, Brazil, in a medium texture oxisol with ‘Valência’ orange (Citrus sinensis L. trees with Rangpur lime rootstock (Citrus limonia Osbeck. The treatments were no tillage (furrowing and plantation and conventional plantation (hole area plowing and disk harrowing before furrowing and plantation. The yield was 86 - 129 kg of fruits per plant, without significant difference between treatments. The plantation systems either do not affect the development of the plants, the amount of roots and the fruit quality. In the conventional plantation system the soil has greater resistance to penetration in inter rows than in the zero tillage system plantation.El sistema de cero labranza ha traído muchas ventajas en la protección del suelo, sin perjudicar el rendimiento de los cultivos anuales. Este sistema ha sido adaptado para los huertos citrícolas, realizándose la plantación en surcos abiertos en terrenos anteriormente ocupados por pastizales. El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el desarrollo de las plantas y del sistema radicular, producción, características del suelo en un huerto plantado en dos sistemas de labranza. El estudio fue realizado en el Noroeste de Paraná, en un oxisol con textura media, en plantas de naranja ‘Valência’ con patrón de lima Rangpur. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: cero labranza (apertura de surcos y plantación y plantación convencional (arado de discos y grada, seguido de apertura de surcos y plantación. La producción fue de 86 a 129 kg de frutos por planta, sin diferencia significativa

  5. Análisis de los escurrimientos de una microcuenca de Pampa Ondulada bajo diferentes sistemas de labranza Runoff analysis of a watershed belonging to the rolling Pampa under different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Castiglioni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La tasa de escurrimiento del agua juega un rol crítico en la determinación de la pérdida de suelo en las tierras agrícolas. En la última década la siembra directa se ha difundido en la Pampa Ondulada en forma considerable, siendo escasos los estudios a nivel microcuenca en los cuales se analice sus efectos sobre los escurrimientos respecto a otros sistemas de labranza. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar distintos parámetros correspondientes a la respuesta hidrológica superficial de una microcuenca de la Pampa Ondulada, ante cambios en los sistemas de labranza empleados. La microcuenca bajo estudio posee una superficie de 300 ha y está ubicada en la vertiente norte de la cuenca media del Arroyo del Tala, San Pedro, provincia de Bs. As. Los suelos presentes corresponden a la serie Ramallo (Argiudol vértico y sus fases por erosión. Se confeccionaron los hidrogramas y hietogramas correspondientes a las distintas tormentas ocurridas durante el período 1995-2002, analizándose los escurrimientos en forma global y los tramos ascendentes y descendentes de los caudales de agua obtenidos en forma separada. El sistema de labranza siembra directa originó valores de curva número mayores respecto al sistema convencional. La duración de los escurrimientos fue mayor bajo siembra directa debido a un alargamiento de la fase descendente de los hidrogramas. Los caudales de escurrimiento generados por unidad de lluvia caída fueron siempre menores bajo el sistema de siembra directa respecto al sistema de labranza convencional. Los milímetros escurridos durante la fase descendente de los hidrogramas no fue diferente entre sistemas de labranza ya que el menor caudal registrado bajo la siembra directa fue compensado por una mayor duración de este período en dicho sistema de labranza.The runoff rate constitutes a key factor in the determination of soil losses in arable lands. In the last decade, no tillage system became widespread in the

  6. Effect of Traffic and Tillage on Agriculture Machine Traction and Fuel Consumption in Northern China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlled traffic with conservation tillage can reduce soil compaction, thus to improve operation performance and fuel consumption of agricultural machine. Northern Chinese Plain is one of the main agricultural production bases with high level of agricultural mechanization. To explore the effect of wheel traffic on machine traction force and fuel consumption, three treatments were conducted: zero tillage with Controlled Traffic (NTCN, Compacted Treatment (CT and traditional tillage system with random traffic (CK. Results showed that wheel traffic increased soil bulk density in the top soil layer in both fully compacted and random compacted plots. Controlled traffic system should certain potential on soil compaction amelioration. Controlled traffic system reduced traction force on winter wheat planting by 9.5 and 6.3%, compared with fully compacted treatment and random compacted treatment. Controlled traffic system reduced fuel consumption in both winter wheat planting and sub soiling (significantly, compared with fully compacted treatment and random compacted treatment. Results indicated that controlled traffic system had certain advantages in soil compaction and fuel consumption in this region and with high application potential.

  7. THE ECO-PEDOLOGICAL AND PEDO- FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK OF CHERNOZEM SUITABILITY TO UNCONVENTIONAL TILLAGE SYSTEMS FROM THE DNIESTER-PRUT INTERFLUVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Jigau

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements, even unconventional tillage systems have come to the attention of both research and production activities starting from the early nineteen eighties. Although research in the pilot lands have revealed promising results, until recently they remained unsolicited. The main factor that has supported such a situation was the total dependence to conventional farming systems, based on plowing, and this is supported by the low prices practiced by energy agents and also by the low prices of mineral fertilizers. In addition, in relation to economic interests, conventional systems materialized into increased land productivity and income. At the same time, in relation to ecologic balance, they have produced profound changes, evidenced by increased vulnerability to the actions of various soil degradation processes, diseases and pests and the emergence of new limiting factors.

  8. Analysis of Soil Respiration and Influence Factors in Wheat Farmland Under Conservation Tillage in Southwest Hilly Region%西南丘陵区保护性耕作下小麦农田土壤呼吸及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赛; 张晓雨; 王龙昌; 罗海秀; 周航飞; 马仲炼; 张翠微

    2013-01-01

    为了探讨保护性耕作对旱作农田土壤呼吸的影响,采用LI6400-09呼吸室在重庆北碚西南大学试验农场对平作(T)、垄作(R)、平作+覆盖(TS)、垄作+覆盖(RS)这4种处理下的西南紫色土丘陵区小麦/玉米/大豆套作体系中小麦作物生长季节的土壤呼吸及其水热生物因子进行了测定和分析.结果表明,小麦生殖生长阶段农田土壤呼吸速率变化范围为1.100~2.508 μmol·(m2·s)-1,各处理的土壤呼吸速率差异显著,表现为RS>R>TS>T.各处理10 cm土层的土壤温度表现为T>R>TS >RS.土壤呼吸与土壤温度的关系符合指数函数,Q10值分别为1.25、1.20、1.31和1.26.5 cm土层的土壤含水量高低排序为TS>RS>T>R.土壤水分与土壤呼吸以抛物线曲线拟合最好,说明存在土壤呼吸最强的土壤含水量点,本研究得出小麦生殖生长阶段在土壤含水量的响应阈值为14.80% ~ 17.47%.土壤动物中优势类群为弹尾目和螨目,与土壤呼吸存在一定相关性,对照处理和垄作下相关性高,而秸秆覆盖的处理土壤呼吸与土壤动物没有明显的相关性.%In order to investigate the effect of conservation tillage on soil respiration in dry cropping farmland in southwest purple hilly region,the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Beibei,Chongqing.The respiration and the hydrothermal and biotic factors of soil were measured and analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat/maize/soybean.There were four treatments including T (traditional tillage),R (ridge tillage),TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching) and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching),which were all in triplicates.The results indicated that the soil respiration rate changed in the range of 1.100-2.508 μmol· (m2 ·s)-1 during the reproductive growth stage of wheat.There were significant differences

  9. Soil Tillage Needs a Radical Change for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kisić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In Central Europe, the challenge in soil tillage throughout the last century can be characterized as a fight against extreme climatic and economic situations. From 1800s till the 1970s, the main requirement of soil tillage was to provide suitable soil conditions for plant growth (moreover with fi ne structure. Both climatic and economic difficulties were beneficial in establishing new tillage trends, however overestimation of the crop demands have presumably been promoted by the deterioration in soil quality. From the end of the 1990s, new requirements have also been introduced because of the rise in energy prices and because of the need to cut production costs. The reduced tillage in Central European region showed some advantages, e.g. less soil disturbance and traffic however, that resulted in new soil condition defects (e.g. top- and subsoil compaction, structure degradation. The ideas of sustainability offered a better solution that is to conserve soil resources and to protect the environment. A new problem, the global climate change, and the importance of the adaptability fasten to the original sustainable goals. In this paper the features of soil quality deteriorating tillage (conventional, over-reduced are summarised, the steps of improvement are demonstrated, and factors affecting sustainable soil tillage are formulated.

  10. Efeito prolongado de sistemas de preparo do solo com e sem cultivo de soqueira de cana crua em algumas propriedades físicas do solo Long-term effect of soil tillage systems with and without tillage of green-cane stump in soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camilotti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, sob cultivo de cana crua, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito prolongado de sistemas de preparo do solo, com e sem cultivo da soqueira, e épocas de amostragem sobre algumas propriedades físicas do solo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, sendo os tratamentos principais quatro sistemas de preparo do solo: (i controle da soqueira com duas gradagens, subsolagem e mais uma gradagem de nivelamento; (ii controle da soqueira com herbicida e uma subsolagem; (iii controle da soqueira com herbicida; (iv controle da soqueira com herbicida, aração com arado de aivecas e uma gradagem de nivelamento. Os tratamentos secundários foram: com cultivo e sem cultivo da soqueira. Os tratamentos ternários foram as épocas de avaliação: dois dias antes e após a quarta colheita da cultura. A porosidade total, macroporosidade, microporosidade e densidade do solo foram avaliadas, além do perfilhamento e da produtividade da cultura. Após quatro sucessivas colheitas de cana crua, houve redução da macroporosidade com aumento da microporosidade nas camadas abaixo de 10 cm e aumento da densidade do solo entre 20 e 50 cm. A densidade do solo não foi alterada de modo consistente em função de todos os tratamentos testados. O cultivo da soqueira favoreceu o aumento da macroporosidade com decréscimo na microporosidade, e o efeito inverso foi observado após a colheita. Os sistemas de preparo do solo e de cultivo da soqueira não afetaram o perfilhamento e a produtividade da cultura.This work was carried out at the field conditions in a Typic Haplustox soil with green-cane crop with the objective to evaluate long-term effect of soil tillage systems with and without tillage of stump in soil physical properties. A complete randomized blocks in split-split-plots arrangement of treatments were used. The principal treatments were four soil

  11. [Effects of Tillage on Soil Respiration and Root Respiration Under Rain-Fed Summer Corn Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xing-li; Liao, Yun-cheng

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effects of different tillage systems on soil respiration and root respiration under rain-fed condition. Based on a short-term experiment, this paper investigated soil respiration in summer corn growth season under four tillage treatments including subsoiling tillage (ST), no tillage (NT), rotary tillage (RT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT). The contribution of root respiration using root exclusion method was also discussed. The results showed that soil respiration rate presented a single peak trend under four tillage methods during the summer corn growing season, and the maximum value was recorded at the heading stage. The trends of soil respiration were as follows: heading stage > flowering stage > grain filling stage > maturity stage > jointing stage > seedling stage. The trends of soil respiration under different tillage systems were as follows: CT > ST > RT > NT. There was a significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperatures (P tillage systems. Therefore, root exclusion method could be used to study the contribution of crop growth to carbon emission, to compare effects of different tillage systems on the contribution of root respiration provides the bases for selecting the measures to slow down the decomposition of soil carbon.

  12. 保护性耕作对科尔沁沙地坨沼区土壤理化性质的影响%Effect of Conservation Tillage Ways on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Sandy Hill Land in Ke'erqin Deserts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范富; 徐寿军; 张庆国; 邰继承; 吴晓光

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic changes of soil physical and chemical properties were studied under different tillage methods(tradition,conservation of protection forest)and different tillage years on dune land and meadow of Khorchin.The results showed as follows: Conservation tillage had significant effects on soil bulk destiny and mechanical composition.Comparing with CK2,at the plough layer of T4,T5 under conservation tillage on sandy land,soil bulk density was respectively decreased by 0.16,0.21 g/cm3;2~0.02 mm of soil particles was decreased by 27.99% and 40.59%;comparing with CK1,at the plough layer of conservation tillage D3,D4 on meadow,soil bulk density was respectively decreased by 0.21,0.29 g/cm3;2~0.02 mm of soil particles was respectively decreased by 42.85% and 55.59%.These indicators were lower than traditional tillage.Conservation tillage could improve soil nutrition content.Comparing with CK2,at the plough layer of conservation tillage T4,T5 on dune land,the content of organic matter was increased by 12.69,18.65 g/kg;alkali solution nitrogen was increased by 7.7,15.7 mg/kg;available phosphorus was increased by 15.27,27.06 mg/kg;available potassium was increased by 40.19,46.58 mg/kg,respectively.Comparing with CK1,at the plough layer of conservation tillage D3,D4 on meadow land,the content of organic matter was increased by 19.77,22.83 g/kg;alkali solution nitrogen was increased by 28.35,25.55 mg/kg;available phosphorus was increased by 27.36,38.22 mg/kg;available potassium was increased by 19.3,81.5 mg/kg,respectively.The differences had reached extremely significant levels.The content of organic matter,alkali solution nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium in conservation tillage was higher than those of traditional tillage.%试验研究了科尔沁沙地坨沼区坨子地和甸子地在不同耕作方式(传统、防护林保护)、不同耕作年限下的土壤理化性质动态变化。结果表明:保护性耕作对土壤容重

  13. Differentiation of Soil Fauna Populations in Conventional Tillage and No—Tillage Red Soil Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUFENG; LIHUIXIN; 等

    1997-01-01

    In a field experiment ,the popultions of major soil fauna groups including earthworms,enchytraeids,arthropods and nematodes were examined in conventional tillage(CT) and no-tillage(NT) red soil ecosystems to evaluate their responses to tillage disturbance.Earthworms,macro- and micro-arthropods were stimulated under NT with earthworms showing the highest population increase by four times ,while enchytraeids and nematodes favored CT system predicting certain adaptability of these animals to plow-disturbed soil envi-ronment ,On the basis of relative response index it was found that soil fauna was more sensitive to tillage than soil resource base(C and N pools) and microflora.The population structure of soil fauna was also affected by tillage treatments.Analysis on nematode trophic groups showed that bacteria-feeding and plant parasitic nematodes were more abundant in CT soil whereas the proportions of fungivores and onmivore-predators increased in NT soil.Possible reasons for the differentiaion in both size and structure of the fauna populaion were discussed and the ecological significance involved in these changes was emphasized.

  14. Comparison of tillage treatments on greenhouse gas and soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in established winter wheat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage is commonly used to control weeds and prepare fields for planting. Repeated tillage can result in soil drying, sudden bursts of mineralized carbon and nitrogen from soil organic matter, and alterations in soil microbial communities. The effects of tillage on winter wheat cropping systems an...

  15. Erosion and sediment deposition evaluation in two slopes under different tillage systems using the '1{sup 37C}s fallout' technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Robson C.J.; Oliveira, Roberto A.S.; Bacchi, Osny O.S. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: rcarthur@cena.usp.br; betuzzz@yahoo.com.br; osny@cena.usp.br; Correchel, Vladia [Universidade Federal de Goias UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil)]. E-mail: vladia@agro.ufg.br; Santos, Dileia S.; Sparovek, Gerd [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: leiass@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; gerd@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    With the increasing of occupation of the Brazilian Cerrado a series of environmental problems followed by the deforestation as soil erosion and soil compaction are appearing, and many of than are being related to the CT used. The NT cropping system which is being adopted more recently in the 'cerrado' region, has revealed benefic to the soil, mainly in terms of soil erosion control. The objective of the present work was to analyze the effect of the No Tillage NT and Conventional Tillage CT systems on the erosion process and to measure the efficiency of the riparian forest in trapping the sediments produced by erosion coming from crop areas cultivated by both systems trough the technique of 137Cs 'fallout' redistribution analysis. The study was carried out in Goiatuba/GO in two sampling dowslope transects located in areas of CT and NT cropping systems. Samples were taken from five points in transects of 200 and 140 meters long respectively, as well as from three soil profiles of a 30 m transect in the downstream riparian forests of each area. Incremental depth samples were also taken from two pits inside each transect in the forest down to 40 and 60 cm depth for the CT and NT respectively. The soil samples were air dried and sieved and the {sup 137}Cs activity was analyzed for in a gamma ray detector (GEM-20180P, EG and ORTEC) coupled to a multichannel analyzer at CENA/USP. The results indicate variation of {sup 137}Cs in soil profiles and high erosion rates for both cropping areas also indicate a movement of sediments from the two cropping areas to the riparian forest. (author)

  16. Soil physical and X-ray computed tomographic measurements to investigate small-scale structural differences under strip tillage compared to mulch till and no-till

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlitz, Julia; Rücknagel, Jan; Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing application of conservation tillage techniques where the soil is no longer turned, but only loosened or left completely untilled. Dead plant material remains on the soil surface, which provides environmental and economic benefits such as the conservation of water, preventing soil erosion and saving time during seedbed preparation. There is a variety of conservation tillage systems, e.g. mulch till, no-till and strip tillage, which is a special feature. In strip tillage, the seed bed is divided into a seed zone (strip-till within the seed row: STWS) and a soil management zone (strip-till between the seed row: STBS). However, each tillage application affects physical soil properties and processes. Here, the combined application of classical soil mechanical and computed tomographic methods is used on a Chernozem (texture 0-30 cm: silt loam) to show small-scale structural differences under strip tillage (STWS, STBS) compared to no-till (NT) and mulch till (MT). In addition to the classical soil physical parameters dry bulk density and saturated conductivity (years: 2012, 2014, 2015) at soil depths 2-8 and 12-18 cm, stress-strain tests were carried out to map mechanical behavior. The stress-strain tests were performed for a load range from 5-550 kPa at 12-18 cm depth (year 2015). Mechanical precompression stress was determined on the stress-dry bulk density curves. Further, CT image cross sections and computed tomographic examinations (average pore size, porosity, connectivity, and anisotropy) were used from the same soil samples. For STBS and NT, a significant increase in dry bulk density was observed over the course of time compared to STWS and MT, which was more pronounced at 2-8 cm than at 12-18 cm depth. Despite higher dry bulk density, STBS displayed higher saturated conductivity in contrast to STWS, which can be attributed to higher earthworm abundance. In strip tillage, structural differences were identified

  17. Survival of pathogens on soybean debris under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems Sobrevivência de patógenos em restos de cultura de soja mantidos em sistema de semeadura direta e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Manuel Rodrigues Almeida

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the subtropical area of Southern Brazil to determine the survival of pathogens in soybean residues under conventional and no-tillage cultivation systems from March to September of 1998 and 1999. The pathogens most frequently isolated were Colletotrichum truncatum, Phomopsis spp., Cercospora kikuchii, Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina, and Rhizoctonia solani. Other fungi isolated were Myrothecium roridum, Penicillium sp., Chaetomium sp., Epicoccum sp., Corynespora cassiicola and Trichoderma sp. The percent of survival of each pathogen varied according to the month and the year. Survival of C. truncatum, Phomopsis spp. and C. kikuchii were significantly reduced (pAvaliou-se a sobrevivência de patógenos em restos de soja, em sistema de semeadura direta e convencional, entre março e setembro de 1998 e 1999, em Londrina, PR. Os patógenos mais freqüentemente isolados foram Colletotrichum truncatum, Phomopsis spp., Cercospora kikuchii, Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina e Rhizoctonia solani. Outros fungos isolados foram Myrothecium roridum, Penicillium sp., Chaetomium sp., Epicoccum sp., Corynespora cassiicola e Trichoderma sp. A porcentagem de sobrevivência variou com o mês e o ano. A sobrevivência de C. truncatum, Phomopsis spp. e C. kikuchii foi significativamente reduzida (P<0,05 entre a primeira e última avaliação nos resíduos mantidos sobre ou sob o solo. M. phaseolina e Fusarium spp. não foram afetados, ou foram favorecidos pelo enterro dos resíduos. A freqüência de isolamento de Fusarium spp. aumentou em resíduos enterrados no solo. A perda de biomassa mostrou redução de 44,4% no sistema convencional e 34,9% no sistema de semeadura direta, em 1998, quando a distribuição de chuvas foi mais regular. Em 1999, a redução foi de 48,2% e 39,0% para os sistemas convencional e de semeadura direta, respectivamente.

  18. Gross mineralization of nitrogen in fertile soils. Effects of the tillage system and soil depths; Mineralizacao bruta do nitrogenio em solos de alta fertilidade. Efeito do manejo e a profundidade de amostragem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videla, C.; Echeverria, H.; Studdert, G. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Balcarce (Argentina). Facultad Ciencias Agrarias; Trivelin, P.C.; Bendassolli, J.A. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out with the aim of determining the effect of different tillage systems and soil depths on gross mineralization rates (TMB). The studied soil was a Typic Argiudoll Petrocalcic Paleudoll complex, under: conventional tillage for 23 yr. (PC treatment); no tillage for 6 yr. (PD treatment), and pasture for 4 yr. (P treatment) and 0-10 and 10-20 sampling depths. TMB were estimated through {sup 15} N dilution technique, by addition of labelled (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10% {sup 15} N at. exc.) at days 0, 7, 21 and 35. Twenty-four and 72 h after each addition, N inorganic content and {sup 15} N enrichment of inorganic were determined on 2M KCl extracts in order to estimate the TMB. At 0-10 cm depth, TMB increase until day 21 and decreased afterwards. There were no significant differences between tillage treatments. At 10-20 cm soil depth PC and PD TMB were constant during the whole analysed period. P treatment had a quadratic adjust, with negative linear component. P TMB was lower than PC and PD until day 21 but afterwards it was significantly higher. These results suggest the presence in the pasture of an organic matter fraction, which mineralizes lately but with a high rate. (author)

  19. Persistência do acetochlor em solo sob semeadura direta e convencional Acetochlor persistence in soil under no-tillage and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.W. Ferri

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O manejo do solo pode alterar a persistência dos herbicidas e influi na atividade para controle de plantas daninhas, no potencial de injúria das culturas em sucessão e no risco de contaminação ambiental. Um experimento foi conduzido, no ano agrícola de 1999/2000, na Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de avaliar a persistência do herbicida acetochlor em Argissolo Vermelho manejado sob semeadura direta e preparo convencional. A dose de acetochlor utilizada foi de 3.360 g ha-1. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. A persistência do herbicida acetochlor foi avaliada através de bioensaio, utilizando-se o trigo (Triticum aestivum como planta indicadora. O herbicida acetochlor foi menos persistente no solo sob semeadura direta que sob preparo convencional, com meia-vida de 10 e 29 dias, respectivamente.Soil management affects herbicide persistence, weed control, crop injury and environmental risks. An experiment was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil to evaluate the persistence of acetochlor herbicide in conventional tillage and no-tilage systems. The soil was classified as Paleudult. The tested dose of the herbicide was 3.360 g ha-1. The persistence of acetochlor was evaluated in a bio-assay using wheat (Triticum aestivum. Assessments included plant height and dry matter. Acetochlor half-life was 10 and 29 days under no-tillage and conventional tilled system, respectively.

  20. 青海保护性耕作农田杂草群落组成及生物多样性%The community composition and biodiversity of weeds in conservati on tillage system in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏有海; 郭青云; 郭良芝; 翁华; 程亮

    2013-01-01

    采用倒置“W”9点取样法对青海保护性耕作农田杂草种类进行了调查,以明确田间杂草的种类组成及群落结构.结果表明,青海省保护性耕作农田杂草有67种,隶属于25科,其中优势杂草有密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa Benth)、猪殃殃(Galium maborasense Masamune)、野燕麦(Avena fatua Linn.)、藜(Chenopodium album L.)、苣荬菜(Sonhus arvensis Linn.)、大刺儿菜(Cephalanoplos setosum(Willd.) Kitam.)6种,是构成青海各地区保护性耕作农田杂草群落的主要优势种,区域性优势杂草有5种,常见杂草有17种,一般杂草有39种.湟中地区主要形成猪殃殃+密花香薷+藜+野燕麦+大刺儿菜+芦苇+尼泊尔蓼为主的杂草群落;民和地区为狗尾草+藜+扁蓄+野燕麦+田旋花+荞麦蔓+大刺儿菜,平安地区为野燕麦+猪殃殃+苣荬菜+大刺儿菜+赖草+荞麦蔓+密花香薷+扁蓄+泽漆,化隆地区为薄蒴草+猪殃殃+野燕麦+荞麦蔓+苣荬菜+密花香薷,大通地区为野燕麦+猪殃殃+藜+大刺儿菜+问荆+密花香薷,刚察地区为密花香薷+西伯利亚蓼+薄蒴草+藜+微孔草+旱雀麦+苣荬菜+野胡萝卜.湟中和大通地区保护性耕作农田杂草群落的物种丰富度、多样性及均匀度较其它地区高,而优势度较低.从群落相似性来看,湟中和大通群落结构最为相似.地理环境、气候条件及控草措施的不同,可能是导致保护性耕作农田杂草发生及群落组成产生差异的原因.%Weed survey was conducted by the method of inverted W-sampling to determine the composition of species and structure of weed communities in conservation tillage system in Qinghai Province. The results showed that there were 67 weed species belonging to 25 families in conservation tillage fields. The predominant species were Elsholtzia densa Benth, Galium maborasense Masamune, Avena fatua Linn, Chenopodium album L., Sonchus arvensis Linn and Cephalanoplos setosum (Willd.) Kitam. There were 5

  1. Practicing Conservation Agriculture to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios indicate that Jordan and the Middle East could suffer from reduced agricultural productivity and water availability among other negative impacts. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6 °C by 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. The dominant form of agriculture system in Jordan is based on intensive tillage. This form of tillage has resulted in large losses of organic soil carbon, weaker soil structure, and cause compaction. It has negative effects on soil aeration, root development and water infiltration among other factors. There is a need to transform farming practices to conservation agriculture to sequester carbon so that climate change mitigation becomes an inherent property of future farming systems. Conservation Agriculture, a system avoiding or minimizing soil disturbance, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, is considered to be a sustainable production system that can also sequester carbon unlike tillage agriculture. Conservation agriculture promotes minimal disturbance of the soil by tillage (zero tillage), balanced application of chemical inputs and careful management of residues and wastes. This study was conducted to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and conservation agriculture with respect to their effects on land productivity and on soil carbon pools. The study results indicated that conservation agriculture contributed to the reduction of the farming systems' greenhouse gas emissions and enhance its role as carbon sinks. Also, it was found that by shifting to conservation agriculture labor cost needed for

  2. Soja em sucessão a adubos verdes no sistema de plantio direto e convencional em solo de Cerrado Soybean grown after green manures under no-tillage and conventional management systems in savannah soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camillo de Carvalho

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A adubação verde é uma prática em que se procura preservar a qualidade do ambiente sem prescindir de produtividades elevadas das culturas e do retorno econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho da cultura da soja em sucessão a adubos verdes nos sistemas de plantio direto e de preparo convencional do solo (uma gradagem pesada + duas gradagens leves. O experimento foi realizado num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, originalmente sob vegetação de Cerrado em Selvíria, MS. Utilizaram-se quatro adubos verdes: mucuna-preta, guandu, crotalária e milheto, e área de pousio (vegetação espontânea. O cultivo de diferentes adubos verdes na primavera não influencia a produtividade da soja em sucessão, tanto em plantio direto quanto no sistema de preparo convencional do solo. Em ano com precipitação normal, o preparo convencional do solo proporciona maior produtividade da soja do que o sistema de plantio direto.The green manures aim to preserve the environment quality without discarding the largest yield of economic crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of soybean grown after green manures under no-tillage and conventional tillage (one disk harrow + two leveling harrow systems. The experiment was carried out in a Distrophic Red Latossol (typic Hapludox, covered by savannah vegetation, in Selvíria, MS, Brazil. The green manures utilized were: black velvet bean, pigeon pea, sunn hemp, millet and fallow area (spontaneous vegetation. The green manures previously grown in spring do not affect the soybean yield, in both no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. In year without dry periods, the conventional tillage provided greater grain yield.

  3. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND, USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin as sub-plots. Neither tillage nor herbicide treatments affected onion stand counts. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album densities were lower in strip tillage compared to conventional tillage up to three weeks after the post-emergence applied herbicides. In general, micro-rate post-emergence herbicide treatments provided greater early-season broadleaf weed control than pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Onion yield and grade did not differ among herbicide treatments because the mid-season herbicide application provided sufficient control/suppression of the early-season weed escapes that these initial weed escapes did not impact onion yield or bulb diameter. In 2007, onion in the strip tillage treatment were larger in diameter resulting in greater total and marketable yields compared to conventional tillage. Marketable onion yield was 82.1 Mg ha−1 in strip tillage and 64.9 Mg ha−1 in conventional tillage. Results indicate that strip tillage use in direct-seeded onion production was beneficial, especially when growing conditions were conducive to higher yields and that the use of strip tillage in onion may provide an alternative to using a companion crop as it did not interfere with either early-season weed management system.

  4. Análise técnica de fontes de nutrientes associadas a sistemas de preparo do solo Nutrient sources associated with soil tillage systems: technical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Pandolfo

    2008-04-01

    crop attributes. The study was carried out at an experimental station of Epagri in Campos Novos, on a Typic Hapludox, in a long-term experiment. The treatments were a combination of five tillage systems (no-till, chisel plow, conventional tillage, conventional tillage with burned crop residues, and conventional tillage with crop residues removal with five nutrient sources (TES = control, without fertilizer; AM = mineral fertilizer according with technical recommendation for each crop; CA = 5 Mg ha-1 year-1 of moist poultry litter; DLB = 60 m³ ha-1 year-1 of liquid cattle manure; and, DLS = 40 m³ ha-1 year-1 of liquid pig manure. A model was established to evaluate the nutrient sources use. The model was fed data of soil and crop attributes, that were transformed into the respective indexes. A model was used to quantify and analyze the effect of nutrient sources on technical aspects of each soil management type. The outputs were triangular pictures and their areas, with the respective confidence limits (p < 0.10. The nutrient sources did not differ when the plant, chemical and physical indexes were considered together, whereas results of poultry litter were best when evaluated by the chemical or the plant index. The technical behavior of the nutrient sources and the physical index in particular were related to soil tillage. Among the evaluated tillage systems, no-till performed best and the conventional system with straw removal worst. The model used to analyze the technical aspects was an efficient tool for a more comprehensive evaluation of the use of organic nutrient sources.

  5. Design and field experiment of power consumption measurement system for high stubble returning and tillage machine%高茬秸秆还田耕整机功耗检测系统设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张居敏; 贺小伟; 夏俊芳; 张顺; 翟建波; 桂鹏; 张彪

    2014-01-01

    important technical parameter to consider the overall performance, directly affecting the overall performance. The actual power consumption was undefined; the relationships between motion parameters of helical rotary blade roller and power consumption were uncertain. In order to detect the power consumption of high stubble returning and tillage machine during the working process in fields, the real-time measurement system for rotary speed, torque and power consumption was designed based on virtual instrument technology. The torque and rotary speed of rotary knife roller were measured by the CKY-810 dynamic torque sensor and inductance proximity switch, respectively. Meanwhile, the power consumption was shown in real time by the measurement system processing. Calibration testing results showed that the maximum absolute torque error was 5.367 N·m, the corresponding relative error was 0.27%, the maximum absolute speed error was 0.261 r/min, and the corresponding relative error is 0.073%. It indicated that the power consumption test system could accurately detect torque, speed signal, and thereby detect dynamic power consumption. Using the high stubble returning and tillage machine with real-time measurement system in both paddy and dry fields, and the field experiment on power consumption was conducted in the dry late rice fields. Three main factors affecting the power consumption including the tillage depth, rotary speed of knife roller, and the forward speed of the machine were evaluated with the L9(34) orthogonal test. The different forward speeds corresponding to tractor gears were measured before the experiment. At the same time, the relationship between tillage depth and height adjustable of hydraulic regulating handle was clear. The tillage depth and rotary speed of knife roller as well as the forward speed of the machine were nearly obtained by adjusting gears, accelerator and hydraulic regulating handle of the Dong-Fanghong LX-954 tractor, and the final values of the

  6. Conservation Laws for Partially Conservative Variable Mass Systems via d'Alembert's Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AFTAB Ahmed; NASEER Ahmed; QUDRAT Khan

    2008-01-01

    Conservation laws for partially conservative variable mass dynamical systems under symmetric infinitesimal transformations are determined. A generalization of Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle for a variable mass system in terms of asynchronous virtual variation is presented. The generalized Killing equations are obtained such that their solution yields the transformations and the associated conservation laws. An example illustrative of the theory is furnished at the end as well.

  7. Weed interference in sweet pepper in no-tillage and conventional planting systems = Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do pimentão nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Xavier Lins Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is evaluate the periods of weeds interference on yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., cultivated in no-tillage and conventional systems. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in randomized blocks of a distributed split plots with four replications design. The no-tillage and conventional systems were evaluated in plots and subplots, during the seven periods of control and coexistence among sweet peppers and weeds: 0; 0–14; 0–28; 0–49; 0–70; 0–91 and 0–112 days after transplanting (DAT. Before weeding and harvest time, they were evaluated species, density and dry mass of weeds. In the sweet peppers crops, diameter, length, number, average fruit weight and yield were evaluated. It was observed less weeds in no-tillage than conventional system. Without competitors, these weet peppers productivity was 69.57% less in conventional than no-tillage system. The critical period of weeds interference was from 19 to 95 DAT in no-tillage system and from 11 to 100 DAT in convention tillage = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferências das plantas daninhas no pimentão (Capsicum annum L., cultivado nos sistemas de plantio direto (SPD e convencional (SPC. Para isso, foi realizado um experimento em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, distribuídas no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. O SPD e o SPC foram avaliados nas parcelas, e nas subparcelas, os sete períodos de controle e convivência entre as plantas daninhas e o pimentão: 0; 0–14; 0–28; 0–49; 0–70; 0–91 e 0–112 dias após transplantio (DAT. Antes de cada capina e na ocasião da colheita, foram avaliadas as espécies, a densidade e a matéria seca das plantas daninhas. Na cultura do pimentão foram avaliados diâmetro, comprimento, número, peso médio dos frutos e produtividade. Verificou-se menor incidência de plantas daninhas no SPD em relação ao SPC. Quando mantida livre da competição com as

  8. Integrating factors and conservation theorems of constrained Birkhoffian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Yong-Fen; Zhao Shu-Hong; Li Ren-Jie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the conservation theorems of the constrained Birkhoffian systems are studied by using the method of integrating factors. The differential equations of motion of the system are written. The definition of integrating factors is given for the system. The necessary conditions for the existence of the conserved quantity for the system are studied.The conservation theorem and its inverse for the system are established. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  9. Cultivo orgânico de coentro em plantio direto utilizando cobertura viva e morta adubado com composto Organic faming of coriander in no-tillage system fertilized with compost using dead and living mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico do coentro em sistema de plantio direto orgânico sob diferentes tipos de cobertura viva e palhada e doses crescentes de composto orgânico. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos aleatorizados em esquema de parcela subdividida com quatro repetições. As parcelas corresponderam aos sistemas de plantio direto com cobertura viva de Arachis pintoi, cobertura viva de plantas espontâneas e cobertura com palhada de resteva natural que foram comparados ao preparo convencional do solo com canteiro e sem cobertura. As subparcelas representavam as doses residuais de composto orgânico 10; 20 e 30 t ha-1 (base seca. O sistema de plantio direto com palhada de resteva natural e o preparo convencional proporcionaram os melhores resultados em todas as variáveis avaliadas na planta, comparado com os sistemas de plantio direto com cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro e plantas espontâneas. O coentro respondeu linearmente a adubação orgânica, com produtividade de 4.554 t ha-1 a 6.542 t ha-1 quando adubado de 10 a 30 t ha-1, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic behavior of the cilantro in organic no-tillage system under alive and dead mulching and fertilized with doses of compost. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a split-plot arrangement with four replications. The plot corresponded to the planting system (no-tillage with live mulching of Arachis pintoi, with live mulching of native weed, with mulching of straw and conventional tillage. In each plot the split-plot were represented by the doses of organic compost 10; 20 e 30 t ha-1 of dry compost. The no-tillage system with straw and conventional tillage showed the best results in all variables in the plant compared with no-tillage systems with live mulching of peanut crop and native weed. Cilantro answered linearly to fertilization, with yields of 4,554 t ha-1 to 6,542 t ha-1 when fertilized

  10. Tillage, mulch and N fertilizer affect emissions of CO2 under the rain fed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    A two year (2010-2012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010-11 relative to the year 2011-12. During cropping year 2010-11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011-12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options.

  11. Tillage, mulch and N fertilizer affect emissions of CO2 under the rain fed condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikander Khan Tanveer

    Full Text Available A two year (2010-2012 study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage, T2: (zero-tillage, T3: (rotary tillage and T4: (mold board plow tillage, 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch and M1 (application of corn residue mulch and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha. A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010-11 relative to the year 2011-12. During cropping year 2010-11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011-12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options.

  12. 保护性耕作对黄土旱塬玉米土壤呼吸及微生物数量的影响%Effects of conservation tillage on soil respiration and microorganism amount in maize rhizosphere soil in Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 张清平; 蒋海亮; 杨德雄; 王先之; 沈禹颖

    2012-01-01

    The study was executed to analyze the influence of no tillage and residue retention on soil respiration and microorganism of maize rhizosphere soil in Qingyang Loess plateau after 10 years' implementation of conservation tillage. Soil respiration was measured using LI-COR-6400-09, soil Respiration Chamber completed with Infrared Gas Analyzer under 10-years conservation tillage, and microorganism amount of maize rhizosphere soil was measured by the method of dilution plate counting. The results showed that no tillage and residue retention significantly decreased the soil respiration rates of maize anthesis by 8.3 and 7.8%as well as harvesting period by 15.5% and 13.6%. The top 10 cm ground temperature and the soil respiration rates were the same and the top 10 cm ground temperature under traditional tillage treat ment was the highest. The amount of bacteria, fungi and actinomycosis under no tillage and residue reten- tion were higher than that in conventional tillage treatment and the ratio between three kinds microbe was not changed. Soil respiration rate had negative correlation with the amount of bacteria, fungi and actinomycosis, which was not significant (P〈0.05). Many factors can influence the soil respiration rate, and the soil temperature was the main factor for soil respiration rate.%研究了实施保护性耕作10年后秸秆还田和免耕对土壤可培养微生物数量和CO2释放的影响,采用LI—COR-6400—09土壤气室连接红外线气体分析仪测定了玉米(Zea mays cv.Zhongdan No.2)土壤呼吸速率,采用平板涂抹计数法测定了根际土壤细菌、真菌和放线菌数量。结果表明,免耕和秸秆还田处理玉米花期土壤呼吸速率降低了8.3%和7.8%,玉米收获期土壤呼吸速率降低了15.5%和13.6%;土壤10cm处地温与土壤呼吸速率变化趋势一致,且在传统耕作处理下最高;与传统耕作相比,免耕和秸秆还田不同程度地增加了根际土

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROXIMAL MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR OFF-SEASON WEED MAPPING IN BROADACRE NO-TILLAGE FALLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weeds are among the most significant and costly environmental threats in Australian agriculture. Weeds compete with crop plants for moisture, nutrients and sunlight and can have a detrimental impact on crop yields and quality if uncontrolled. The distribution, size, density and species of the weeds are often heterogeneous in the cropping land. Instead of uniformly spray the same type of herbicide to the whole farm land, selective spray can reduce the herbicide usage therefore can reduce the serious problems of herbicide resistance, soil damage and food safety. This study describes a weed mapping method which could be used for broadacre no-tillage fallow weed management. The weed maps have the potential to be used as powerful herbicide prescription maps for spot spray. The weed mapping is realized by the machine vision technologies which including image acquisition, image stitching and photomosaic processing. The sampling points are continuous and the interpolation methods are used at the minimum levels. The experiment result shows that this weed mapping method can map weed under limited conditions.

  14. Minimum tillage and vegetative barrier effects on crop yields in relation to soil water content in the Central Kenya highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guto, S.N.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.; Pypers, P.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2012-01-01

    The sub-humid zone of Central Kenya is water deficient due to regular intra-seasonal dry spells that constrain rain-fed crop production. A study was initiated to investigate the effects of minimum tillage and vegetative barriers on soil and water conservation and crop yield. There were two tillage p

  15. Tillage Effects on Spatiotemporal Variability of Particulate Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate effects of no-till (NT and standard tillage (ST on POM in two 15-ha neighboring fields from 2003 to 2004. We also evaluated the effects of minimum tillage (MT on POM after both NT and ST fields were converted to MT in the summer of 2005. We quantified C and N stocks of three size fractions (53–250, 250–1000, and 1000–2000 μm of POM (0–0.15 m depth. The POM-C 53–250 μm and 250–1000 μm fractions decreased by 25% and 36% after six months under ST, whereas relatively little change occurred under NT, suggesting significant tillage effects over the period 2003-2004. Only small changes in POM content then occurred under MT on both fields. Changes in POM-N were similar to POM-C changes upon tillage conversions. This suggests that reduced tillage did not lead to soil C increase compared to ST but may help maintain the level of soil C for a typical California farming system. Short-term, field level variability of POM was primarily affected by tillage and was further influenced by clay content, bulk density, and scale of observation.

  16. Evaluación de la compactación de suelos en siembra directa en la Llanura Chacopampeana de la provincia de Tucumán, R. Argentina Evaluation of soil compaction under no tillage systems in the Chacopampeana Plain in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Agustín Sanzano

    2012-06-01

    para decidir el uso de descompactadores de suelo.No-tilled soils can cause topsoil compaction as a result of the lack of soil removal and of machinery traffic. Using subsoilers can reduce this effect. This study was carried out in grain fields located at four sites in the Chacopampeana Plain, province of Tucumán, Argentina. Five no-tillage soil management situations were evaluated in terms of soil compaction degree and other related soil physical properties. These situations were: 'new soils', under no tillage management for less than five years (N; more than 10 years under no tillage management, continuously planted with soybean (SS; more than 10 years under no tillage management and soybean/corn rotation (SM; more than 10 years under no tillage management, with deep vertical tillage prior to sowing, and continuously planted with soybean (SS + LVP; and soils of more than 10 years under no tillage management, soybean/corn rotation, and deep vertical tillage before sowing (SM + LVP. Parameters evaluated before sowing were: bulk density (Dap, maximum bulk density (Dap max, relative apparent density, penetration resistance (RP, crop residue, infiltration rate (I, and organic matter (OM. In topsoil, OM was significantly higher in N than in SS and SS + LVP, while SM and SM + LVP showed intermediate values. LVP showed significantly lower crop residues than those without LPV. In turn, SM had higher crop residues than SS. Upper 20 cm Dap was higher in all situations without LVP, except in N. In most situations, relative apparent density did not exceed 90%, considered critical for normal soybean root growth. RP was significantly lower in SS + LPV and SM + LVP than in SS and SM, respectively. Infiltration rates (I were significantly higher in LPV than in those situations without tillage. However, N had the highest I, probably due to soil porous system conservation. It is advisable to quantify all these parameters before deciding to use deep tillage equipments.

  17. A meta-analysis of long-term effects of conservation agriculture on maize grain yield under rain-fed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, L.; Corbeels, M.; Wijk, van M.T.; Rufino, M.C.; Nyamangara, J.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation agriculture involves reduced tillage, permanent soil cover and crop rotations to enhance soil fertility and to supply food from a dwindling land resource. Recently, conservation agriculture has been promoted in Southern Africa, mainly for maize-based farming systems. However, maize yiel

  18. Effect of tillage practices on least limiting water range in Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Meharban S.; Chawla, Karitika

    2017-04-01

    Tillage practices affect mechanical and hydrological characteristics of soil and subsequently the least limiting water range. This quality indicator under the wheat-maize system of northwest India has not been studied yet. The treatments included four tillage modes, namely conventional tillage, no-tillage without residue, no-tillage with residue, and deep tillage as well as three irrigation regimes based on the irrigation water and pan evaporation ratio i.e. 1.2, 0.9, and 0.6. The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with three replications. At the end of cropping system, the mean least limiting water range (m3 m-3) was found to be highest in deep tillage (0.26) and lowest in notillage without residue (0.15). The field capacity was a limiting factor for the upper range of the least limiting water range beyond soil bulk density 1.41 Mg m-3 and after that 10% air filled porosity played a major role. However, for the lower range, the permanent wilting point was a critical factor beyond soil bulk density 1.50 Mg m-3 and thereafter, the penetration resistance at 2 MPa becomes a limiting factor. Thus, deep tillage under compaction and no-tillage with residue under water stress is appropriate practice for achieving maximum crop and water productivity.

  19. No-tillage system applied to the sunflower (hybrid pioneer PR64E83) resistant to the tribenuron-methyl in the conditions from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpe, Nicolae; Poienaru, Stefan; Maschio, Mirco

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2006, the first experience with the NO-TILLAGE system for sunflower crops was organized in Romania, using the Pioneer PR64E83 sunflower hybrid resistant to the tribenuron-methyl herbicide. The experience took place in the Danube river flood plain, on an alluvial soil with a content between 3.1-4.5% and a content of clay of 34-40%. In the conventional system, in the fall of the year 2005, autumn ploughing was carried out, along with harrowing, and in spring the land was tilled two more times, using both the disk and the harrow. Before sowing, the land was prepared by using the combiner-machine. After the sunflower sprouted, three-time mechanical hoeing between the rows, as well as three-time manual hoeing on the sunflower row were performed. In the no-tillage system, no autumn ploughing, nor any other soil work were performed, and the sunflower was sowed directly, by using the Gaspardo seeder. Before sowing, the soil was covered in proportion of 70% by species of weeds of the Cirsum, Sonchus and Polygonum amphibium type. To destroy these species of weeds, 3 days before sowing, the soil was treated with the Roundup herbicide in a dose of 7 litres/ha. After the sunflower sprouted, when the plants had 4-5 leaves, the following sulphonylurea herbicides were applied post-emergently. (1) Express 50SG--which contains tribenuron-methyl (2) Granstar 75DF--which contains 75% tribenuron-methyl (3) Titus 25DF--which contains 25% rimsulfuron (4) Mistral--which contains 40 g/L nicosulfuron (5) Lintur 70WG--which contains 4.1% triasulfuron + 65.9% dicamba (6) Peak 75WG--which contains 75% prosulfuron The Express 50SG and Granstar 75DF herbicides were selective for the sunflower hybrid PR64E83, and the other herbicides although belonging o the same sulphonylurea group, they proved to have a very phytotoxic effect upon the sunflower crop. In the report, selectivity is presented depending on the dose of herbicide, weed control and sunflower production.

  20. Aspectos fitossociológicos da comunidade de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão sob diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo Phytosociological aspects of the weed community in bean crop under different soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, os efeitos de sistemas de preparo do solo: [(plantio direto (PD, arado de discos (AD, arado de aivecas (AA, grade aradora (GA, grade aradora+arado de discos (GA+AD e grade aradora+arado de aivecas (GA+AA] sobre a comunidade de plantas daninhas da cultura do feijão. Este experimento foi desenvolvido em área onde os diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo estavam sendo avaliados desde 1985. Todavia, os resultados aqui apresentados são referentes apenas à safra 2000/2001. Neste ensaio, as parcelas foram subdivididas pela aplicação ou não de herbicidas em pós-emergência. As plantas daninhas presentes na área experimental foram separadas por espécie, classificadas, secadas e pesadas, sendo analisadas segundo a sua importância relativa dentro da comunidade, através dos índices fitossociológicos de densidade, freqüência e dominância. A aplicação de herbicidas em pós-emergência diminuiu a biomassa total das plantas daninhas, e esse efeito foi independente do sistema de preparo. Os sistemas de preparo do solo e a aplicação de herbicida em pós-emergência alteraram a importância relativa das plantas daninhas dentro da comunidade. As espécies que apresentaram maior importância foram Cyperus rotundus, nos tratamentos com preparo convencional do solo, e Galinsoga parviflora, no plantio direto.Tillage systems change the floral composition of a weed community. The changes can be either a simple fluctuation in plant population or the establishment of a permanent new weed community, affecting competition, management and control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of tillage systems on the weed community in bean crop in areas where different tillage systems were being applied since 1985.The experimental soil was cultivated with annual cultures and submitted to six tillage systems: no-tillage (PD, moilboard plow (AD, plow of disc (AA, heavy bars (GA, heavy bars + moilboard plow (GA+AD and heavy

  1. Soil carbon storage and stratiifcation under different tillage/residue-management practices in double rice cropping system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhong-du; ZHANG Hai-lin; S Batsile Dikgwatlhe; XUE Jian-fu; QIU Kang-cheng; TANG Hai-ming; CHEN fu

    2015-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils as climate-change-mitigating strategy has become an area of focus by the scientiifc community in relation to soil management. This study was conducted to determine the temporal effect of different til age systems and residue management on distribution, storage and stratiifcation of SOC, and the yield of rice under double rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system in the southern China. A til age experiment was conducted in the southern China during 2005–2011, including plow til age with residue removed (PT0), plow til age with residue retention (PT), rotary til age with residue retention (RT), and no-til with residue retention on the surface (NT). The soil samples were obtained at the harvesting of late rice in October of 2005, 2007 and 2011. Multiple-year residue return application signiifcantly increased rice yields for the two rice-cropping systems;yields of early and late rice were higher under RT than those under other til age systems in both years in 2011. Compared with PT0, SOC stocks were increased in soil under NT at 0–5, 5–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm depths by 33.8, 4.1, 6.6, and 53.3%, respectively, in 2011. SOC stocks under RT were higher than these under other til age treatments at 0–30 cm depth. SOC stocks in soil under PT were higher than those under PT0 in the 0–5 and 20–30 cm soil layers. Therefore, crop residues played an important role in SOC management, and improvement of soil quality. In the 0–20 cm layer, the stratiifcation ratio (SR) of SOC fol owed the order NT>RT>PT>PT0;when the 0–30 cm layer was considered, NT also had the highest SR of SOC, but the SR of SOC under PT was higher than that under RT with a multiple-year til age practice. Therefore, the notion that conservation til age lead to higher SOC stocks and soil quality than plowed systems requires cautious scrutiny. Nevertheless, some beneifts associated with RT system present a greater

  2. Depth distribution of glyphosate and AMPA under diferent tillage system and soils in long-term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis; De Geronimo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine) is a post-emergence, non-selective, foliar herbicide. Around 200 million liters of this herbicide are applied every year in Argentina, where the main agricultural practice is no-till (NT), accounting for 78 % of the cultivated land. In this work, we studied the depth distribution of glyphosate in long-term experiments (more than 15 years) at different locations under NT and conventional tillage (CT). Samples from 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm depth with four replication and two treatments NT CT at three locations: Balcarce (BA) a loam soil, Bordenave (BO) a sandy loam soil y Marcos Juarez a silty loam soil (MJ). The glyphosate concentration in the first 2 cm of soil was, on the average, 70% greater than in the next 2-5 cm. The mass of glyphosate in CT was higher at 2 to 10 cm depth. The depth concentration of AMPA follows the same trend than glyphosate, although its average concentration at 0-2 cm depth is 28 times higher than the glyphosate concentration at 2-5 cm (glyphosate = 147 ppb and AMPA = 4100 ppb). Beside the AMPA concentration at 0-2 cm depth is greater in NT than in CT, the mass of AMPA is higher in CT only for the Balcarce location. To our knowledge, this study is the first dealing with the depth distribution of glyphosate concentration in soils under different soil managements. In the present study, it was demonstrated that glyphosate and AMPA are present in soils under agricultural activity with maximum concentration in the first two cm of soil and the AMPA concentration at this depth is greater in NT than in CT.

  3. Common bean cultivars response to lime surface application under no tillage systemResposta de cultivares de feijoeiro comum à calagem superficial em semeadura direta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil acidity in no tillage system, if not in high situations, can be neutralized by lime surface application, improving mineral nutrition and crop yield. Aiming to evaluate the agronomic performance of common bean cultivars, to surface lime application, in no tillage system, an experiment was conducted in Oxisol, Botucatu Municipal District, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was a complete randomized block in split plot with four replications, where the plots were formed by common bean cultivars (Carioca, IAC Carioca Eté, Pérola, IAPAR 81 e Campeão 2 and subplots consisted of surface application of dolomitic limestone (zero, 1.8 t ha-1, 3.6 t ha-1 and 5.4 t ha-1. The surface lime application on the soil occurred in October 2002 and subsequently the sequence millet (spring – beans (summer – oat (autumn-winter were planted under rainfed conditions. Bean cultivars sowing were done on December 17, 2003. It can be concluded that there is influence of cultivars and limestone surface application under no tillage, where IAPAR 81 showed better grain yield with the increase of lime rates, obtaining values of 2,025 kg ha-1 without the lime application to 2,655 kg ha-1 with 5.4 t ha-1 lime rate, obtaining 31% yield increase. A acidez do solo no sistema de semeadura direta, caso não se encontre em situações elevadas, pode ser resolvida com aplicação superficial de calcário, melhorando a nutrição mineral e a produtividade das culturas. Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho agronômico de cultivares de feijoeiro, em razão da aplicação superficial de calcário, em semeadura direta, foi realizado um experimento num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em Botucatu (SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições, onde as parcelas foram formadas por cultivares de feijão comum (Carioca, IAC Carioca Eté, Pérola, IAPAR 81 e Campeão 2 e as subparcelas constitu

  4. Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of non-conservative Lagrange systems by point transformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chang; Mei Feng-Xiang; Guo Yong-Xin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the conformal invariance by infinitesimal point transformations of non-conservative Lagrange systems. It gives the necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal invariance by the action of infinitesimal point transformations being Lie symmetric simultaneously. Then the Noether conserved quantities of conformal invariance are obtained. Finally an illustrative example is given to verify the results.

  5. Continuum analysis of biological systems conserved quantities, fluxes and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the analysis, in the continuum regime, of biological systems at various scales, from the cellular level to the industrial one. It presents both fundamental conservation principles (mass, charge, momentum and energy) and relevant fluxes resulting from appropriate driving forces, which are important for the analysis, design and operation of biological systems. It includes the concept of charge conservation, an important principle for biological systems that is not explicitly covered in any other book of this kind. The book is organized in five parts: mass conservation; charge conservation; momentum conservation; energy conservation; and multiple conservations simultaneously applied. All mathematical aspects are presented step by step, allowing any reader with a basic mathematical background (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, etc.) to follow the text with ease. The book promotes an intuitive understanding of all the relevant principles and in so doing facilitates their applica...

  6. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. directsowing rice 10-20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting), ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting), PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting), and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting), were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002), there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003). Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments. The rice in

  7. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees Mineralização do carbono e nitrogênio sob diferentes preparos de solo e coberturas permanentes intercalares em pomar de laranjeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a mineralização do Carbono e Nitrogênio devido ao cultivo intercalar de diferentes coberturas permanentes em pomar de laranjeira. O experimento foi

  8. [Effects of tillage conversion on carbon sequestration capability of farmland soil doubled cropped with wheat and corn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Kong, Fan-Lei; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Chen, Fu

    2010-01-01

    By the methods of field experiment, laboratory analysis, and in situ investigation, this paper studied the effects of different tillage conversion on the carbon sequestration capability of farmland soil doubled cropped with wheat and corn. Compared with conventional tillage (CTA), conservation tillage practices benefited the accumulation of soil organic carbon, among which, no-tillage plus straw returning (NTS) increased the organic carbon accumulation in 0-5 cm soil layer by 18.0%, rotary tillage plus straw returning (RTS) increased this accumulation in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers by 17.6% and 25.0%, respectively, and conventional tillage plus straw returning (CTS) increased the organic carbon in 10-30 cm soil layer by 31.8%. After the conversion from CTA to NTS, the carbon emission from farm operations decreased by 54.3 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1); while the conversion from CTA to CTS and RTS resulted in an increase of this emission by 46.9 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1) and 34.4 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively. Considering of the accumulation of soil organic carbon and the carbon emission from farm operations, it could be concluded that the conversion from CTA to conservation tillage changed this farmland soil from carbon source to carbon sink, and the RTS among the three conservation tillage modes resulted in the highest soil carbon sequestration (1011.1 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1)).

  9. Conserved quantities and symmetries related to stochastic Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Mei; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper symmetries and conservation laws for stochastic dynamical systems are discussed in detail.Determining equations for infinitesimal approximate symmetries of Ito and Stratonovich dynamical systems are derived. It shows how to derive conserved quantities for stochastic dynamical systems by using their symmetries without recourse to Noether's theorem.

  10. The effect of the glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine e nicosulfuron herbicides upon the Edaphic collembola (Arthropoda: Ellipura) in a no tillage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Vilma S; Santos, Honório R; Gonçalves, Manoel C

    2007-01-01

    The use of herbicides is a common and intensive practice in no tillage systems. The herbicides can influence, directly or indirectly, the population of edaphic arthropods. Collembola is a group that functions as a bio-indicator of soil conditions. The degree of abundance and diversity of Collembola provides the level of soil disturbance provoked by agricultural practices. This experiment was designed to compare the influence of herbicides on the population fluctuation of Collembola in a no-till soil preparation system. The work was conducted in a non irrigated no-till area at the Núcleo Experimental de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campus de Dourados, in soil planted with corn as a surface covering, during the period of December, 2002 to December, 2003. The data were analyzed according to a completely randomized model, in a split plot design. The plots received four types of herbicides: glyphosate, atrazine, 2,4-D and nicosulfuron. A fifth plot did not receive any herbicide (control), for a total of five treatment types. The sub plots were represented by their collection times (10, 20, 30 and 40 days after the herbicide applications). Both the type of herbicide and the time of data sampling influenced the Collembola population fluctuaction. The treatments with atrazine and 2,4-D caused the most reduction of the population of Collembola, depending on the time of application.

  11. Soil management system for water conservation and mitigation of global change effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, A.; Florentino, A.; Lorenzo, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main constraints in rained agriculture is the water availability for plant growth which depends largely on the ability of the soil to allow water flow, infiltration and its storage. In Venezuela, the interaction between aggressive climatic conditions, highly susceptible soils and inadequate management systems have caused soil degradation which together with global change threatened the food production sustainability. To address this problem, we need to implement conservationist management strategies that improve infiltration rate, permeability and water holding capacity in soil and reduce water loss by protecting the soil surface. In order to study the impact of different management systems on soil water balance in a Fluventic Haplustept, the effects of 11 years of tillage and crops rotation management were evaluated in a long term field experiment located in Turén (Portuguesa state). The evaluated tillage systems were no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and crop rotation treatments were maize (Zea mays)-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and maize-bean (Vigna unguiculata). Treatments were established in plots arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. The gravimetric moisture content was determined in the upper 20 cm of soil, at eight different sampling dates. Results showed increased in time of the water availability with the use of tillage and corn-cotton rotation and, better protection of the soil against raindrop impact with crop residues. Water retention capacity also increased and improved structural condition on soil surface such as infiltration, storage and water flow distribution in the rooting zone. We conclude that these strategies of land use and management would contribute to mitigate the climate change effects on food production in this region of Venezuela. Key words: Soil quality; rained agriculture; plant water availability

  12. Energy Diffusion in Harmonic System with Conservative Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Giada; Olla, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    We prove diffusive behaviour of the energy fluctuations in a system of harmonic oscillators with a stochastic perturbation of the dynamics that conserves energy and momentum. The results concern pinned systems in any dimension, or unpinned systems in dimension.

  13. Earthworm activity and soil structural changes under conservation agriculture in central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Navarrete, A.; Rodriguez-Aragonés, C.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Kooistra, M.J.; Sayre, K.D.; Brussaard, L.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Crop residue mulching combined with zero tillage and crop rotation, known as conservation agriculture (CA), is being promoted as an alternative system to revert soil degradation in maize-based farming in the central highlands of Mexico. The goal of this paper was to determine the effects of CA vs. c

  14. 保护性耕作方式对土壤微生物生理类群和酶活性的影响%Effects of conservation tillage on soil microbial physiologies colony and enzyme activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 张仁陟; 张天佑

    2011-01-01

    Based on different tillages experiment in Dingxi,the effects of soil microbial physiologies colony,soil enzyma activities and their relationship under different conversation tillage measures(no-tillage and straw cover,plough with straw incorporated,no-til%通过设置在甘肃省定西市安定区李家堡乡的田间定位试验,研究了不同耕作方式下(NTS、TS、NT、T)土壤微生物生理类群数量和酶活性及其相关性。结果表明:与传统耕作(T)相比,保护性耕作方式(NTS、TS、NT)能显著增加土壤微生物生理类群数量,增强酶活性。不同的保护性耕作方式下,土壤微生物生理类群数量和酶活性存在显著差异。相关性分析表明,土壤微生物生理类群数量和酶活性间大部分呈显著或极显著正相关。

  15. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils.

  16. Shallow non-inversion tillage in organic farming maintains crop yields and increases soil C stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, Julia; Baranski, Marcin; Stewart, Gavin; Nobel-de Lange, Majimcha; Bàrberi, Paolo; Fließbach, Andreas; Peigné, Josephine; Berner, Alfred; Brock, Christopher; Casagrande, Marion; Crowley, Oliver; David, Christophe; Vliegher, De Alex; Döring, Thomas F.; Dupont, Aurélien; Entz, Martin; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Halde, Caroline; Hammerl, Verena; Huiting, Hilfred; Leithold, Günter; Messmer, Monika; Schloter, Michael; Sukkel, Wijnand; Heijden, van der Marcel G.A.; Willekens, Koen; Wittwer, Raphaël; Mäder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Reduced tillage is increasingly promoted to improve sustainability and productivity of agricultural systems. Nonetheless, adoption of reduced tillage by organic farmers has been slow due to concerns about nutrient supply, soil structure, and weeds that may limit yields. Here, we compiled the resu

  17. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems.

  18. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  19. Energy conservation in molecular dynamics simulations of classical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole; Dyre, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Classical Newtonian dynamics is analytic and the energy of an isolated system is conserved. The energy of such a system, obtained by the discrete “Verlet” algorithm commonly used in molecular dynamics simulations, fluctuates but is conserved in the mean. This is explained by the existence...

  20. Morfologia e propriedades físicas de solo segundo sistemas de manejo em culturas anuais Morphology and physical properties of soil according to tillage systems in annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fuentes-Llanillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualidade física do solo é sua capacidade de sustentar o pleno desenvolvimento das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar diferentes sistemas de semeadura direta para a produção de grãos em áreas de agricultura familiar sob Latossolo Vermelho no norte do Paraná, Brasil, através do estudo da morfologia e de algumas propriedades físicas do solo. O estudo foi baseado na descrição da estrutura de solo de perfis culturais em áreas cultivadas com lavouras anuais sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de solo (semeadura direta com e sem rotação de culturas, semeadura direta com escarificação eventual e o cultivo mínimo. Concomitantemente à descrição dos perfis foi determinada a resistência do solo a penetração, a densidade do solo, a umidade do solo e o grau de floculação da argila. Cada manejo estudado foi caracterizado por um tipo de estrutura de solo a qualse correlacionou com os valores de resistência, densidade e grau de floculação e em todos os manejos estudados abaixo dos 0,30 m, os perfis analisados apresentavam condições estruturais satisfatórias ao desenvolvimento radicular.Soil physical quality is the ability to sustain the full development of plants. The aim of this research was to study different tillage systems for grain production in family farming enterprises on an Oxisol in northern Parana, Brazil, through the study of morphology and physical properties of soil. The study was based on description of soil structure of soil profiles in cultivated areas with annual crops under different soil management systems (no-tillage with and without crop rotation, no-tillage with eventual chisel ploughing and minimum tillage. Simultaneously with the profiles' description some physical properties were determined such as resistance to penetration, bulk density, soil moisture and the degree of clay flocculation. Each studied soil tillage system was characterized by a type of soil structure and correlated with values of

  1. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  2. Soil tillage, water erosion, and calcium, magnesium and organic carbon losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertol Ildegardis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil tillage influences water erosion, and consequently, losses of calcium, magnesium and organic carbon in surface runoff. Nutrients and organic carbon are transported by surface runoff in particulate form, adsorbed to soil colloids or soluble in water, depending on the soil tillage system. This study was carried out on an Inceptisol, representative of the Santa Catarina highlands, southern Brazil, between November 1999 and October 2001, under natural rainfall. The soil tillage treatments (no replications were: no-tillage (NT, minimum soil tillage with chiseling + disking (MT, and conventional soil tillage with plowing + two diskings (CT. The crop cycles sequence was soybean (Glycine max, oats (Avena sativa, beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and vetch (Vicia sativa. Conventional soil tillage treatment with plowing + two disking in the absence of crops (BS was also studied. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined in both water and sediments of the surface runoff, while organic carbon was measured only in sediments. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were greater in sediments than in surface runoff, while total losses of these elements were greater in surface runoff than in sediments. The greatest calcium and magnesium concentrations in surface runoff were obtained under CT, while in sediments the greatest concentration occurred under MT. Organic carbon concentration in sediments did not differ under the different soil tillage systems, and the greatest total loss was under CT system.

  3. Effect of different fertilizer resources on yield and yield components of grain maize (Zea mays L. affected by tillage managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to the development of sustainable agriculture and the reduction of utilizing chemical fertilizers, it is essential to use organic fertilizer. Organic matter is vital to soil fertility and its productivity. To maintain the level of fertility and the strength of soil, organic matter levels should be maintained at an appropriate level. Unfortunately, the level of organic matter in soil is generally less than 1%. One solution to increase the soil’s organic matter content is to use organic fertilizers such as animal manure, green manure, and vermicompost (Nuralvandy, 2011. As a correction factor, green manure can increase water supply and nutrient soil conservation (Tajbakhsh et al., 2005. Materials and methods In order to assess the effects of fertilizer sources (green manure, cow manure, and chemical fertilizer on maize yield and yield components (KSC 704 under tillage management, a field experiment was carried out at Zahak Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Station in two years (from 2013 to 2014. Before corn planting, barley was planted as green manure in the fall of each year. The experiment was conducted as a split plot arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The main plots were tillage and no tillage, whereas the sub plots were: 1-barley green manure (without application of fertilizer, 2-barley green manure with applying 100% chemical fertilizer (NPK to the barley during cultivation, tillering and stemming stages, 3- green manure with 2/3 of chemical fertilizer to the barley and 1/3 to the maize, 4- green manure with 1/3 of chemical fertilizer to the barley and 2/3 to the maize, 5- barley green manure with 50% animal and chemical manures, 6- barley green manure with 40 t ha-1 of animal manure, 7-control (non-fertilizer application. Corn was planted on 15 March each year. Phosphorus, potassium fertilizer, and animal manure were added to the soil as the base fertilizers. At full

  4. 玉米秸秆还田保护性耕作对产量及土壤理化性状影响的灰色关联分析%Analysis of grey correlation between conservation tillage modes and corn yield and soil physiochemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凡; 何秀云; 沈玉梅; 牛建彪; 李建平; 李胜克; 张继祖

    2011-01-01

    Through continious experiments of conservation tillage of returning corn stalk to field in arid areas of cen- tral Gansu , study was conducted on gray relativity between corn yield and the lasting years of the tillage and soil physio- chemical properties , and regression analysis was also made of fertility factors which had high degree of correlation with soil organic matter. The results showed that 2 ~ 6 year conservation tillage could increase corn yield by 2 .63% ~ 6 .08% . The order of degree of correlation between soil physiochemical properties and yield increase is organic matter (0 .7456) > total N (0 .706) > available K (0 .6495) > available N (0 .5977) > available P (0 .5712) > pH (0 .5134) . The content of soil organic matter tended to increas with the elongation of tillage years , with an annual increase of 3 .894% . The content of organic matter had high degree of grey correlation and positive relation with available K, available P, available Zn and availabe Cu . Returning corn stalk to field , the conservation tillage helped increase the content of organic matter in soil , which had significant effect on improving soil fertility and maintaining high and stable yield of crops .%通过在甘肃中部干旱区设置的农艺农机结合持续秸秆还田保护性耕作试验,研究了玉米增产量(率)与年限的关系及与土壤理化性状的灰色关联度,并对与有机质关联度高且相关关系显著的肥力因子进行了回归分析.结果表明:秸秆还田保护性耕作2~6a的增产率为2.63%~6.08%.土壤理化性状与增产量的灰色关联序为有机质(0.7456)>全氮(0.706)>速效钾(0.6495)>碱解氮(0.5977)>速效磷(0.5712)> pH值(0.5134).土壤有机质含量随覆盖年限的延长呈三次曲线的递增趋势,年均增加3.894%.有机质与速效钾、速效磷、有效锌、有效铜灰色关联度高且存在呈显著正相关关系的函数方程,反映出土壤有机质与它们的关系密切且稳定,

  5. EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Panachuki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT, conventional tillage (CT, and minimum tillage (MT with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.. Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

  6. Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L. Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (II Fumonisin Incidence on Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gavazzi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Planting maize under no-tillage is an increasing farming practice for sustainable agriculture and sound environmental management. Although several studies on yield of no-till maize have been done, there is few information about the effect of tillage on fumonisin contamination. The present study was done to determine the effect of notillage and conventional tillage with two rates of nitrogen on fumonisin content in kernels of continuous maize. Average grain contamination with fumonisins B1 and B2 over the years 2004-06 was not significantly different, with mean values of 1682, 1984 and 2504 μg kg-1, respectively. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant toxin found in the samples. No-tillage significantly affected the incidence of fumonisins during the first year of the trial, in which fumonisin content was significantly higher with no-till (2008 μg kg-1 compared with conventional tillage (1355 μg kg-1. However, no-tillage did not significantly affect the incidence of fumonisins in the second and third years of the study. Fumonisin content at the rate of 300 kg N ha-1 was not statistically different compared to that obtained without N fertilization. The interaction between the soil management system and the rate of applied nitrogen was only evident in the second year. Our results indicate that fumonisin contamination was affected by no-tillage only in the first year. Nitrogen fertilization had no significant effect on fumonisin content in any year. The weather conditions during susceptible stages of maize development have probably overridden the effect of nitrogen fertilization.

  7. Do Rates and Splitting of Phosphogypsum Applications Influence the Soil and Annual Crops in a No-Tillage System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vicensi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Applications of phosphogypsum (PG provide nutrients to the soil and reduce Al3+ activity, favoring soil fertility and root growth, but allow Mg2+ mobilization through the soil profile, resulting in variations in the PG rate required to achieve the optimum crop yield. This study evaluated the effect of application rates and splitting of PG on soil fertility of a Typic Hapludox, as well as the influence on annual crops under no-tillage. Using a (4 × 3 + 1 factorial structure, the treatments consisted of four PG rates (3, 6, 9, and 12 Mg ha-1 and three split applications (P1 = 100 % in 2009; P2 = 50+50 % in 2009 and 2010; P3 = 33+33+33 % in 2009, 2010 and 2011, plus a control without PG. The soil was sampled six months after the last PG application, in stratified layers to a depth of 0.8 m. Corn, wheat and soybean were sown between November 2011 and December 2012, and leaf samples were collected for analysis when at least 50 % of the plants showed reproductive structures. The application of PG increased Ca2+ concentrations in all sampled soil layers and the soil pH between 0.2 and 0.8 m, and reduced the concentrations of Al3+ in all layers and of Mg2+ to a depth of 0.6 m, without any effect of splitting the applications. The soil Ca/Mg ratio increased linearly to a depth of 0.6 m with the rates and were found to be higher in the 0.0-0.1 m layer of the P2 and P3 treatments than without splitting (P1. Sulfur concentrations increased linearly by application rates to a depth of 0.8 m, decreasing in the order P3>P2>P1 to a depth of 0.4 m and were higher in the treatments P3 and P2 than P1 between 0.4-0.6 m, whereas no differences were observed in the 0.6-0.8 m layer. No effect was recorded for K, P and potential acidity (H+Al. The leaf Ca and S concentration increased, while Mg decreased for all crops treated with PG, and there was no effect of splitting the application. The yield response of corn to PG rates was quadratic, with the maximum

  8. Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Zhong; Fu Hao; Fu Jing-Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems.Firstly,the discrete generalized Hamiltonian canonical equations and discrete energy equation of nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems are derived from discrete Hamiltonian action.Secondly,the determining equations and structure equation of Lie symmetry of the system are obtained.Thirdly,the Lie theorems and the conservation quantities are given for the discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems.Finally,an example is discussed to illustrate the application of the results.

  9. Effects of Subsoiling on Soil Moisture Under No-Tillage for Two Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the water use efficiency under conservation tillage, the effects of subsoiling on soil moisture under no tillage were studied. An experiment of 40 cm subsoiling in a field kept under no-tillage for 2 years was operated from 2005 to 2006. Based on the data of the soil moisture and crop yield, the physical basis of subsoiling for water conservation and yield increase was analyzed.The results showed that the soil water storage under subsoiling, from the soil surface to a depth of 100 cm was more than that under no-tillage for the growth season. In the 0-100 cm soil depth,the soil moisture in 50-100 cm depth under subsoiling was more compared with no-tillage, which increased when it's drought and decreased when it's rainy with the increase in soil depth. Compared with no-tillage, subsoiling could reduce the water consumption of oats in the 0-50 cm depth and increase the water consumption in the 50-100 cm depth. Also, subsoiling increased the yield by 18.29% and the water use efficiency by 16.8% in a two-year average. The effects of subsoiling on water conservation and yield increase were affected by precipitation, and a well-proportioned rainfall was better to increase yield and water use efficiency. Meanwhile, subsoiling decreased bulk density, which increased with the available precipitation. Subsoiling under no-tillage is the effective rotation tillage to contain more soil moisture and improve water use efficiency in ecotone of North China.

  10. Hojman Conserved Quantities for Birkhoffian Systems in Event Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying a Hojman conserved quantity directly derived from a Lie symmetry for a Birkhoffian system in the event space.The Birkhoffian parametric equations for the system are established,and the determining equations of Lie symmetry for the system are obtained.The conditions under which a Lie symmetry of Birkhoffian system in the event space can directly lead up to a Hojman conserved quantity and the form of the Hojman conserved quantity are given.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Intermittently Flooded (Dambo) Rice under Different Tillage Practices in Chiota Smallholder Farming Area of Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyamadzawo, George; Wuta, Menas; Chirinda, Ngoni

    2013-01-01

    emissions from dambo rice under different tillage treatments, which were conventional tillage, no tillage, tied ridges, tied fallows, and mulching. Average soil nitrous oxide emissions were 5.9, 0.2, 5.4, 5.2 and 7.8 μg·m−2·hr−1 for tied fal- lows, conventional tillage, tied ridges, mulching and no tillage...... respectively. Average methane emission was 0.35 mg·m−2·hr−1 and maximum as 1.62 mg·m−2·hr−1. Average methane emissions for the different tillage systems were 0.20, 0.18, 0.45, 0.52 and 0.38 mg·m−2·hr−1 for tied fallows, conventional tillage, tied ridges, mulching and no tillage respec- tively. Carbon dioxide...... emissions were 98.1, 56.0, 69.9, 94.8 and 95.5 mg·m−2·hr−1 for tied fallows, conventional tillage, tied ridges, mulching and no tillage respectively. The estimated emissions per 150 day cropping season were 1.4, 3.6 and 0.6 kg·ha−1 for methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide respectively. We concluded...

  12. Sistemas de preparo do solo e rotação de culturas na produtividade de milho, soja e trigo Tillage systems and crop rotation on yield of corn, soybean and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. da Silveira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se determinar quanto os sistemas de preparo do solo e as rotações de culturas afetam a produtividade de grãos do milho, da soja e do trigo. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em área irrigada por pivô central, na EMBRAPA Arroz e Feijão, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, por seis anos, setembro de 1992 a setembro de 1998, durante os quais foram feitos 12 cultivos e comparados três sistemas de preparo do solo: a aração com arado de aiveca, realizada em novembro-dezembro e em maio-junho; b aração com grade aradora, em ambos os períodos, e c plantio direto e quatro rotações de cultura: 1 milho-feijão; 2 soja-trigo; 3 soja-trigo-soja-feijão-arroz-feijão e 4 milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão. As culturas de arroz, soja e milho, foram semeadas em novembro-dezembro e as de feijão e trigo, em maio-junho. Para efeito do estudo, consideraram-se somente as culturas do milho, da soja e do trigo. O sistema de preparo do solo não afetou a produtividade de soja mas, sim, a de milho e de trigo, tendo o preparo com arado propiciado maiores produtividades em comparação com o plantio direto. As diferenças entre o plantio direto e os demais sistemas de preparo do solo, com relação à produtividade acumulada relativa de milho, diminuíram com o tempo de cultivo. Não houve efeito da rotação de culturas sobre a produtividade das culturas estudadas.The objective of this study was to determine how much soil tillage and crop rotation affected grain yield of corn, soybean and wheat. The study was carried out at EMBRAPA (Rice and Beans, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil, in a Red Latosol (Oxisol, under center pivot irrigation system, for six consecutive years. During the experimentation, 12 crops were cultivated. The tillage treatments were a moldboard plough, b harrow disc and c no-tillage. The crop rotations were 1 corn-bean, 2 soybean-wheat, 3 soybean

  13. Implementation of Quality Management System for Historical Building Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are twofold. Firstly, to identify the implementation of ISO 9001 procedures being used as references for conservation works and the development of Quality Management System (QMS guidelines. Data were solicited from three (3 conservation areas. The analysis involved of descriptive approach and statistical methods. The findings revealed that QMS is not structurally established, implemented and enforced as part of conservation practice in Malaysia. From the findings, the authors hope to give clear perception to the reader on current preservation practice and the existence of QMS with reference to ISO 9001 for future conservation mechanism.

  14. Variational Tricomplex, Global Symmetries and Conservation Laws of Gauge Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Alexey A.

    2016-10-01

    Using the concept of variational tricomplex endowed with a presymplectic structure, we formulate the general notion of symmetry. We show that each generalized symmetry of a gauge system gives rise to a sequence of conservation laws that are represented by on-shell closed forms of various degrees. This extends the usual Noether's correspondence between global symmetries and conservation laws to the case of lower-degree conservation laws and not necessarily variational equations of motion. Finally, we equip the space of conservation laws of a given degree with a Lie bracket and establish a homomorphism of the resulting Lie algebra to the Lie algebra of global symmetries.

  15. Variational tricomplex, global symmetries and conservation laws of gauge systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Using the concept of variational tricomplex endowed with a presymplectic structure, we formulate the general notion of symmetry. We show that each generalized symmetry of a gauge system gives rise to a sequence of conservation laws that are represented by on-shell closed forms of various degrees. This extends the usual Noether's correspondence between global symmetries and conservation laws to the case of lower-degree conservation laws and not necessarily variational equations of motion. Finally, we equip the space of conservation laws of a given degree with a Lie bracket and establish a homomorphism of the resulting Lie algebra to the Lie algebra of global symmetries.

  16. ECASTAR: Energy Conservation; an Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for a systems approach display and assessment of the potential for energy conservation actions and the impacts of those actions was presented. The U.S. economy is divided into four sectors: energy industry, industry, residential/commercial and transportation. Each sector is assessed with respect to energy conservation actions and impacts. The four sectors are combined and three strategies for energy conservation actions for the combined sectors are assessed. The three strategies (national energy conservation, electrification and diversification) represent energy conservation actions for the near term (now to 1985), the mid term (1985 to 2000) and the far term (2000 and beyond). The assessment procedure includes input/output analysis to bridge the flows between the sectors, and net economics and net energetics as performance criteria for the conservation actions. Targets of opportunity for large net energy net energy savings and the application of technology to achieve these savings are discussed.

  17. Integrating Factors and Conservation Laws for Relativistic Mechanical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to construct the conservation laws for relativistic mechanical systems by finding corresponding integrating factors. First, the Lagrange equations of relativisticmechanical systems are established, and the definition of integrating factors of the systems is given; second, the necessary conditions for the existence of conserved quantities of the relativistic mechanical systems are studied in detail, and the relation between the conservation laws and the integrating factors of the systems is obtained and the generaized Killing equations for the determination of the integrating factors are given; finally, the conservation theorem and its inverse for the systems are established, and an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  18. Measurements of soil carbon dioxide emissions from two maize agroecosystems at harvest under different tillage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomo, Gerosa; Angelo, Finco; Fabio, Boschetti; Stefano, Brenna; Riccardo, Marzuoli

    2014-01-01

    In this study a comparison of the soil CO2 fluxes emitted from two maize (Zea mays L.) fields with the same soil type was performed. Each field was treated with a different tillage technique: conventional tillage (30 cm depth ploughing) and no-tillage. Measurements were performed in the Po Valley (Italy) from September to October 2012, covering both pre- and postharvesting conditions, by means of two identical systems based on automatic static soil chambers. Main results show that no-tillage technique caused higher CO2 emissions than conventional tillage (on average 2.78 and 0.79 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1), resp.). This result is likely due to decomposition of the organic litter left on the ground of the no-tillage site and thus to an increased microbial and invertebrate respiration. On the other hand, fuel consumption of conventional tillage technique is greater than no-tillage consumptions. For these reasons this result cannot be taken as general. More investigations are needed to take into account all the emissions related to the field management cycle.

  19. Measurements of Soil Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Two Maize Agroecosystems at Harvest under Different Tillage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerosa Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a comparison of the soil CO2 fluxes emitted from two maize (Zea mays L. fields with the same soil type was performed. Each field was treated with a different tillage technique: conventional tillage (30 cm depth ploughing and no-tillage. Measurements were performed in the Po Valley (Italy from September to October 2012, covering both pre- and postharvesting conditions, by means of two identical systems based on automatic static soil chambers. Main results show that no-tillage technique caused higher CO2 emissions than conventional tillage (on average 2.78 and 0.79 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1, resp.. This result is likely due to decomposition of the organic litter left on the ground of the no-tillage site and thus to an increased microbial and invertebrate respiration. On the other hand, fuel consumption of conventional tillage technique is greater than no-tillage consumptions. For these reasons this result cannot be taken as general. More investigations are needed to take into account all the emissions related to the field management cycle.

  20. Effects of Conservation Tillage and Postponing N Application on Phosphorous Loss from Wheat Field in Chaohu Lake Region, China%保护性耕作与氮肥后移对巢湖流域麦田磷素流失的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 郭熙盛; 王允青; 丁树文

    2011-01-01

    农田磷素随地表径流向水体迁移可导致磷肥利用率降低、生产成本上升和环境污染风险增加,源头控制农田磷素流失对于治理巢湖水体富营养化具有重要意义.采用野外定位观测结合室内分析的研究方法,对2009-2010年冬小麦生长期间的径流、泥沙和磷素进行了监测与测定分析,研究了保护性耕作和氮肥后移对巢湖流域麦田P素径流损失及其对环境的影响.结果表明,相对于传统耕作处理(T),传统耕作+秸秆还田处理(TS)、氮肥后移处理(NFP)和少免耕+秸秆还田+氮肥后移(NTS+NFP)径流量分别减少了20%、10%和22%,泥沙量分别减少了30%、14%和38%,表现出显著的水土保持作用.各处理径流液总磷(TP)浓度范围是0.095~0.360 mg.L-1,其中,颗粒态磷(PP)是磷素随地表径流迁移的主要形式,约占TP的51%~69%.长期的保护性耕作提高径流液中溶解态磷(DP)的浓度,降低了PP的浓度,但TP浓度难以看出明显的变化规律,而氮肥后移降低了径流液中各形态磷的浓度.各处理TP流失量在0.060~0.079 kg·hm-2之间,约占当季施磷量的0.2%.处理TS、NFP和NTS+NFP与处理T相比,TP流失量分别减少了20%、21%和24%.作物生长情况显著影响土壤磷素的流失,地上部分生物量、地上部分吸磷量与径流TP的迁移量呈负相关关系.因此保护性耕作和氮肥后移可以作为源头控制农田磷素流失的较好措施加以推广.%The phosphorous loss via runoff from farmland to waters not only leads to the decline of the P fertilizer use efficiency, but also resuits in the increasing of farming cost, and the environmental pollution risk. Source control of the P loss from farmland plays an important role in remediation of the eutrophication of Chaohu Lake. The field experiments were carried out from 2009 to 2010 in Chaohu Lake region in order to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage and postponing N application on phosphorous

  1. Stability, Resonance and Lyapunov Inequalities for Periodic Conservative Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Canada, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of Lyapunov type inequalities for periodic conservative systems. The main results are derived from a previous analysis which relates the best Lyapunov constants to some especial (constrained or unconstrained) minimization problems. We provide some new results on the existence and uniqueness of solutions of nonlinear resonant and periodic systems. Finally, we present some new conditions which guarantee the stable boundedness of linear periodic conservative systems.

  2. Grass cover crop and tillage method on watermelon production on porous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Cogn.] production in the Southern Plains is often on well-drained soil, which makes conservation of water difficult. Established cover crops can conserve moisture, but it needs to be determined what cover and tillage method provides the most benefit to watermel...

  3. The effect of tillage intensity on soil structure and winter wheat root/shoot growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage intensity on crop growth dynamics and soil structure. A tillage experiment was established in autumn 2002 on two Danish sandy loams (Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in a cereal-based crop rotation. The tillage systems included in this study were direct drilling (D...... with decreasing tillage intensity for the first year winter wheat at Foulum. In general ploughing resulted in the highest grain yields. This study highlights the important interaction between soil structure and crop growth dynamics....... was followed during the growing seasons using spectral reflectance and mini-rhizotron measurements, respectively. A range of soil physical properties were measured. We found decreased early season shoot and root growth with decreasing tillage intensity. Differences diminished later in the growing season...

  4. 麦稻轮作下耕作模式对土壤理化性质和作物产量的影响%Effects of tillage patterns on crop yields and soil physicochemical properties in wheat-rice rotation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武际; 郭熙盛; 张祥明; 王允青; 许征宇; 鲁剑巍

    2012-01-01

    为了探明不同耕作模式对土壤理化性质和作物产量的影响,采用田间定位试验方法,于2007-2010连续4a在麦稻轮作制下开展了本试验研究.结果表明,免耕提高了耕层土壤体积质量,降低了土壤含水率.但是免耕土壤表层(0~10 cm)的体积质量仍在作物适宜生长的范围内,并未对作物的生长产生不利影响.免耕促进了土壤有机质和全氮在表层土壤的富集.0~10cm土层有机质和全氮含量比翻耕处理显著增加,而>10~20 cm土层上述养分含量明显低于翻耕处理.小麦季免耕土壤的碱解氮、速效磷和速效钾含量的变化趋势与有机质和全氮含量相似,而水稻季免耕处理整个耕层土壤碱解氮、速效磷和速效钾含量均低于翻耕处理.免耕显著的提高了小麦产量,但降低了水稻产量,起主要作用的产量构成因素是小麦和水稻的有效穗数.整个轮作周期的作物产量以小麦免耕水稻翻耕模式的产量较高,比小麦翻耕水稻免耕模式产量增加了5.70%.%In order to study effects of tillage systems on crop yields and soil physical and chemical properties in wheat-rice rotation system, a long term (2007-2010) experiment was conducted. The results showed that compared with conventional tillage, the soil bulk density increased and soil water content decreased with no-tillage. But even without tillage, bulk density of the 0-10 cm soil layer was still suitable for the growth of crops. No-tillage enriched soil organic matter and total nitrogen in the surface soil layer. Both the soil organic matter and total N content of no-tillage were significantly higher in 0-10 cm layer and lower in 10-20 cm layer than that of conventional tillage. During the wheat season, the soil alkali N, available P and available K contents had the same trends with those of organic matter and total N. Whereas during the rice season, with no-tillage, the soil alkali N、available P and available K contents

  5. Tillage, cover-crop residue management, and irrigation incorporation impact on fomesafen runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Webster, Theodore M; Bosch, David D; Strickland, Timothy C

    2011-07-27

    Intensive glyphosate use has contributed to the evolution and occurrence of glyphosate-resistant weeds that threaten production of many crops. Sustained use of this highly valued herbicide requires rotation and/or substitution of herbicides with different modes of action. Cotton growers have shown considerable interest in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor, fomesafen. Following registration for cotton in 2008, use has increased rapidly. Environmental fate data in major use areas are needed to appropriately evaluate risks. Field-based rainfall simulation was used to evaluate fomesafen runoff potential with and without irrigation incorporation in a conventional tillage system (CT) and when conservation tillage (CsT) was practiced with and without cover crop residue rolling. Without irrigation incorporation, relatively high runoff, about 5% of applied, was measured from the CT system, indicating that this compound may present a runoff risk. Runoff was reduced by >50% when the herbicide was irrigation incorporated after application or when used with a CsT system. Data indicate that these practices should be implemented whenever possible to reduce fomesafen runoff risk. Results also raised concerns about leaching and potential groundwater contamination and crop injury due to rapid washoff from cover crop residues in CsT systems. Further work is needed to address these concerns.

  6. Épocas de manejo químico de Brachiaria decumbens antecedendo o plantio direto de soja Brachiaria decumbens management times in soybean under no tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Nunes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O manejo químico da cobertura vegetal e a manutenção da palhada sobre o solo são preocupações comuns para os produtores que adotam o sistema plantio direto na região dos cerrados. Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da época de manejo químico de B. decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento e a produtividade da cultura da soja em sistema plantio direto, foram realizados dois ensaios a campo, respectivamente, com os cultivares BRS 154 e MG/BR 46-Conquista, no ano de 2003. Em cada ensaio, testaram-se quatro épocas de manejo de B. decumbens antecedendo a semeadura da soja (28, 14, 7 e 0 dias, utilizando-se o herbicida glifosato. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se três repetições no primeiro e quatro no segundo. Determinou-se a matéria seca da cobertura vegetal e avaliou-se a reinfestação de B. decumbens. Na cultura da soja, foram determinados: altura de inserção da primeira vagem, número de vagens por planta, umidade dos grãos, massa de 100 grãos e produtividade. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a época mais adequada para o manejo químico de B. decumbens com glifosato situa-se entre 7 e 14 dias antes da semeadura da cultura da soja e que a escolha da época de manejo químico da cobertura vegetal afeta de forma decisiva o desenvolvimento e a produtividade da cultura.Cover crop management and straw maintenance over the soil are common concerns for producers adopting the no tillage system in the cerrado region in Brazil. In order to study the influence of B. decumbens time management on soybean development and productivity under no tillage system, two assays were carried out using the cultivars BRS 154 and MG/BR 46-Conquista. For each cultivar, four B. decumbens management times prior to sowing of soybean (28, 14, 7 and 0 days were tested using glyphosate for weed control, in three replicates for cultivar BRS 154 and four replications for MG/BR 46-Conquista, in a

  7. Forms of carbon in an oxisol under no-tillage and crop-livestock integration systems in the cerrado, Goias State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Pinheiro Martins Bezerra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The no-tillage system (NTS and more recently, the crop-livestock integration (CLI are very used for grain production in the Cerrado biome. This, the soil organic matter (SOM is one of the main components responsible for maintaining the quality of tropical soils. This study aimed to quantify the levels of total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (total N, water soluble carbon (WSC and carbon of humic fractions in areas with different land use systems in the Cerrado of Goias. The farming systems were used: CLI (brachiaria + corn/beans/cotton/soybean and NTS (sunflower/millet/soybean/corn andas a reference, area native Cerrado vegetation (Cerradão. We collected soil samples at 0-10, 10- 20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm. The contents of TOC, total N, WSC, humin fraction carbon (C-HUM, humic acid fraction (C-HAF and fulvic acid fraction (C-FAF. The area of Cerradão had the highest TOC, total N, C-HUM and C-FAH in the surface layer (0-10 cm. The levels of WSC and humic fractions of SOM showed significant differences between the systems of land use and sampling depths. The highest levels of C-HAF were found in the area of CLI, at 0-10 and 20-30 cm. The CLI systems and NTS did not differ for the TOC and total N except for N in layer 20-30 cm. The system CLI favors the formation of C-HUM compared to the NTS. The CLI system leads to lower levels of WSC and higher C-FAF compared with the NTS, which has higher levels of WSC and C-FAH. The use of WSC and carbon of humic fractions was more efficient to identify differences from the land use systems evaluated (NTS, CLI and Cerradão when compared to the TOC for the climatic conditions of this study.

  8. Comportamento de cultivares de feijoeiro-comum em sistema convencional e plantio direto com diferentes palhadas Performance of common beans cultivars in both conventional and no-tillage systems using different straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Luíz Laurinho dos Santos

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o comportamento agronômico de cultivares de feijoeiro-comum, de diferentes grupos comerciais, em sistema convencional e em plantio direto sobre diferentes coberturas do solo, foram conduzidos em Lavras-MG quatro experimentos de campo, em três safras. Nos três primeiros, estudaram-se seis cultivares (Ouro Negro, Talismã, Carioca, Pérola, Roxão e Jalo ESAL e quatro sistemas de plantio (plantio direto sobre as palhadas de aveia, trigo, resteva do pousio, mais o plantio convencional. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e esquema experimental em faixas. No quarto experimento, adotaram-se o mesmo delineamento e as mesmas cultivares, mas os sistemas foram apenas três (plantio direto sobre palhadas de aveia e resteva do pousio, mais o sistema convencional. Avaliaram-se, em cada safra, as quantidades de palha no plantio direto, o estande final e o rendimento de grãos do feijoeiro. O comportamento do rendimento de grão e o estande final do feijoeiro são modificados pelo sistema de plantio e principalmente pelas safras. De modo geral, a cultivar Ouro Negro, de grãos pretos, é mais produtiva que as cultivares de grão carioca (Talismã, Carioca e Pérola. As cultivares de grãos maiores (Jalo ESAL e Roxão tiveram o pior comportamento. Nos ambientes mais favoráveis, o plantio direto suplanta o sistema convencional. Em solo com pequena quantidade de palha e turnos de irrigação espaçados entre três ou quatro dias, o plantio direto sobre resteva do pousio propicia maior rendimento de grãos.Four field experiments were carried out in Lavras (south region of Minas Gerais State during three seeding seasons whit the purpose of studying the agronomical performance of common beans cultivars from different commercial groups by using both the conventional and no-tillage systems on different soil coats. The treatments were arranged in a split block schema. A randomized block design was used with

  9. NUMERICALLY SOLVING PERIODICALLY PERTURBED CONSERVATIVE SYSTEMS BY PARAMETER EMBEDDING METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The parameter embedding method is applied for numerically solving the perturbed conservative systems. By means of Newtonian iteration, a simple algorithm has been constructed. Finally, the convergence of the iteration is proved.

  10. On Symmetry Analysis and Conservation Laws of the AKNS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhonglong; Han, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The Lie symmetry analysis is applied to study the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) system of water wave model. The AKNS system can be obtained from a dispersive-wave system via a variable transformation. Lie point symmetries and corresponding point transformations are determined. The optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras is presented. On the basis of the optimal system, the similarity reductions and the invariant solutions are obtained. Some conservation laws are derived using the multipliers. In addition, the AKNS system is quasi self-adjoint. The conservation laws associated with the symmetries are also constructed.

  11. A New Strategy for Utilizing Rice Forage Production Using a No-Tillage System to Enhance the Self-Sufficient Feed Ratio of Small Scale Dairy Farming in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windi Al Zahra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice forage systems can increase the land use efficiency in paddy fields, improve the self-sufficient feed ratio, and provide environmental benefits for agro-ecosystems. This system often decreased economic benefits compared with those through imported commercial forage feed, particularly in Japan. We observed the productivities of winter forage after rice harvest between conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT in a field experiment. An on-farm evaluation was performed to determine the self-sufficient ratio of feed and forage production costs based on farm evaluation of the dairy farmer and the rice grower, who adopted a rice forage system. The field experiment detected no significant difference in forage production and quality between CT and NT after rice harvest. However, the production cost was dramatically decreased by 28.1% in NT compared with CT. The self-sufficient ratio was 5.4% higher when dairy farmers adopted the rice forage system compared with those using the current management system. Therefore, this study demonstrated the positive benefits for dairy farmers and rice growers in Japan when adopting a rice forage system with NT, which could improve the self-sufficient feed ratio and reduce production costs.

  12. Diferencias de las condiciones mecánicas de un suelo arcilloso sometido a diferentes sistemas de labranza Differences in mechanical conditions of a clayey soil under different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Draghi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue cuantificar la reacción mecánica del suelo al tránsito, a través de la resistencia a la penetración y la densidad aparente para visualizar posibles diferencias debido al sistema de labranza utilizado. El ensayo se instaló sobre un suelo Argiudol típico, sobre dos lotes, provenientes cada uno de seis años de cultivo trigo-soja bajo dos formas de labranza: siembra directa (SD y labranza convencional (LC. Se establecieron 4 tratamientos de tránsito, correspondientes a 6, 8, 10 y 12 pasadas de un tractor de diseño convencional (2WD Massey Fergusson 1175 de 52,25 kW (71 CV en el motor. Para determinar los efectos del tránsito sobre la compactación inducida, se determinaron la densidad global (DA y la resistencia a la penetración (RP. Luego de 6 años de rotación trigo-soja bajo estas dos formas de cultivo (siembra directa y labranza convencional la condición mecánica de los suelos resultó ser significativamente diferente, al menos en las capas más superficiales, resultando el suelo trabajado con SD mayores valores de RP que la condición de LC. La siembra directa registró valores de DA limitantes para el normal desarrollo radicular a menores intensidades de tráfico y desde menores profundidades. A medida que aumentó la intensidad de tráfico disminuyó la profundidad donde se alcanzaron valores de resistencia a la penetración potencialmente determinantes de la detención en el crecimiento radicular.With the aim to evaluate the soil mechanic reaction-traffic relationship to different tillage systems, penetration resistance and soil bulk density measurements were made. Four traffic conditions (6, 8, 10 and 12 passes of a 2WD, 52.25 kW tractor were evaluated in a typic Argiudol soil with six years of wheat-soybean rotation under no-tillage and conventional tillage. Bulk density and penetration resistance were used to evaluate the traffic effects on soil compaction. After the six-year rotation

  13. Introducing a Strategy for Selection of Plowing Systems Using Hybrid SWOT-AHP Method (Khodabandeh, Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Afsahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For improvement or change in a plowing system, it is crucial that all important parameters to be taken in account. Recommendation of a tillage system should receive supports from research data as well as from skilled farmers in order to find a resolution to problems of that system. In this study, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT of different tillage systems for wheat cultivation in the Khodabandeh region (Zanjan province, Iran were identified and ranked using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Based on the viewpoints of skilled farmers, the main threats in tillage systems, which include small farm lands in the region, lack of qualitative research on new tillage systems and lack of government support, affected the system selection (32 percent, relative strengths(26 percent, opportunities (22 percent, and weakness(20 percent. Because of these threats, farmers keep using conventional tillage method (with the value of 47 percent in spite of their awareness about the benefits of conservation tillage and no-tillage methods. In this situation, the recommended measures are; making new policies for the land integration, performing qualitative research specially on new machinery, clarifying the government's policies on exporting and importing agricultural products and on the amount of guaranteed prices of products before starting the growing season. By these activities the threats can be replaced by opportunities and strengths.

  14. Reducing tillage intensity affects the cumulative emergence dynamics of annual grass weeds in winter cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, A; Melander, B; Jensen, P K

    2017-01-01

    Annual grass weeds such as Apera spica-venti and Vulpia myuros are promoted in non-inversion tillage systems and winter cereal-based crop rotations. Unsatisfactory weed control in these conditions is often associated with a poor understanding of the emergence pattern of these weed species. The aim...... drilling delayed the cumulative emergence of A. spica-venti and V. myuros (counted together) in contrast with ploughing, while the emergence pattern of P. annua was unaffected by the type of tillage system. The total density of emerged weed seedlings varied between the tillage systems and years...

  15. Emergy Analysis on Orchard Systems Under Different Tillage Patterns%不同果园管理模式下系统能值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟珍梅; 翁伯琦; 应朝阳; 罗旭辉; 李振武

    2013-01-01

    Emergy analysis is an important method to current energy research and systematic sustainability assessment ,which characterizes all products and services in equivalents of solar emergy .In this paper ,emergy flows ,emergy input and output ,and emergy index (EIR , EYR , ELR , EST) of three orchard systems were characterized by emergy analysis .Our results showed that the largest energy flows in all systems is associated with labor ,FCM P fertilizer and sunlight .In addition ,66.3% -73.9% of the total emergy inputs to the orchard system was economic resources . In the end , our results suggest that the terracing orchard system has the lowest environmental loading ratio (ELR) due to the reduced soil erosion and the highest emergy sustainability Index (ESI) ,for it is based on the 100% living mulch compared to the other two clean tillage systems .%能值分析方法能将不同质的能量和物质转换为同一标准的太阳能值,是当前进行系统能量研究和可持续发展评估的一种重要方法。本文应用能值分析方法对3种管理模式下果园生态系统进行分析,结果表明系统总能值投入中所占比例最大的均为外界购买能值,占总投入的66.3%~73.9%,其中人力和肥料投入最大;自然资源投入方面以阳光投入所占比重最大。与其他两种模式相比,平台生草模式下果园生态系统的环境负载率最低,可持续发展指数最高。

  16. Improvement of native grassland by legumes introduction and tillage techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu Bahar

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A factorial design using three species of legumes (Siratro, Centro and Stylo and three different of tillage techniques (no-tillage, minimum tillage and total tillage was applied in this experiment. The results showed that there was no interaction between species and tillage techniques. There was significant reductions on bulk density from 1.23±0.03 g/cm3 (no-tillage to 1.07±0.02 g/cm3 (minimum tillage and 1.05±0.03 g/cm3 (total tillage. Also reductions on penetration resistance from 17.47±3.84 kg/cm2 (no-tillage to 3.31±0.43 kg/cm2 (minimum tillage and 3.19±0.45 kg/cm2 (total tillage. Otherwise significant increasing on aeration porosity from 12.80±0.80% vol. (no-tillage to 21.70±0.95% vol. (minimum tillage and 20.70±0.35% vol. (total tillage. Total tillage gives increased dry matter yield. Also both total tillage and minimum tillage give yields with a higher percentage of legumes compared with no-tillage. It was concluded that total tillage and minimum tillage could be used for improving native grassland.

  17. Evaluation index system for positive operation of water conservancy projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-yuan ZHU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the positive operation of water conservancy projects are described in this paper. A scientific and effective evaluation index system was established based on frequency analysis, theoretical analysis, and expert consultation. This evaluation index system can be divided into six first-level indices: the degree to which facilities are intact and functionality standards are reached, the status of operation and management funds, the rationality and degree of advancement of the management team structure, the adaptability and rationality of the water conservancy project management system, the degree of automatization and informationization of the management techniques, and the conduciveness of the exterior environment. The weights for evaluation indices were obtained through the analytic hierarchy process method with consideration of the difference between public welfare and profit-oriented water conservancy projects. This study provides a scientific method for evaluating the positive operation of water conservancy projects.

  18. ECASTAR: Energy conservation. An assessment of systems, technologies and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology was presented for a systems approach to energy conservation actions and their potentials and impacts in the United States. Constraints affecting the approach were ranked, and the most important ones are the present economic and technical conditions. The following unresolved issues were identified: consumptive lifestyles vs. conservation ethic, environmental standards vs. energy conservation, capital availability, decentralization and vertical integration vs. centralization, fuel rich regions vs. fuel poor regions, supply vs. end use conservation, life cycle costing vs. initial cost, mandatory savings vs. voluntary savings, labor intensive vs. capital intensive, price control vs. free market. The following recommendations were made: provide action/impact assessment, establish regional energy centers, improve technology articulation with government, design total energy systems, utilize existing systems approach expertise.

  19. Modifica��ões nos atributos físicos de solos submetidos a dois sistemas de preparo em rebrota de Eucalyptus saligna Monitoring soil physical characteristics in Eucalyptus saligna coppice under different soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Cavichiolo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito do revolvimento do solo das entrelinhas na produtividade de rebrota de Eucalyptus saligna, por meio das modificações em alguns atributos físicos do solo, e estabelecer qual profundidade de revolvimento apresenta maior ganho em produtividade em solos de texturas distintas, no Estado de São Paulo. Os sistemas de preparo foram: grade até 20 cm de profundidade e subsolador até 30 cm. Foram obtidas amostras indeformadas do solo nas seguintes profundidades: 0 a 10, 10 a 20 e 20 a 30 cm, em nove repetições por tratamento; nos mesmos pontos foram coletadas amostras de solo para análise da fertilidade. Os seguintes atributos físicos do solo foram determinados: densidade do solo, porosidade total e de aeração, macro e microporosidade e da planta: altura e DAP (Diâmetro à Altura do Peito. No solo de textura média não houve efeito do preparo do solo no crescimento das plantas, sendo estabelecido correlação negativa entre a porosidade de aeração, na profundidade de 10 - 20 cm, e o incremento em DAP (r²= 0,74. Essa mesma correlação foi positiva no solo de textura argilosa (r² = 0,78. No solo de textura argilosa, os dois sistemas de preparo de solo apresentaram maiores incrementos em altura e DAP do que a testemunha, diferindo estatisticamente no nível de 1%, pelo teste de Tukey.The objective of this work was to evaluate soil physical characteristic changes in soil of different textures after mechanized harvesting under different tillage systems, in an area of Eucalyptus saligna coppice. The soils were a coarse Yellow Latosol and a Clayey Red Latosol occurring in an area of commercial plantation, in São Paulo State. Soil tillage systems were harrowing to 20-cm depth and subsoiling to a 30-cm depth. The following soil physical characteristics determined were bulk density, total and aeration porosity; and in the plant total height and DBH. There was no tillage effect on plants growing

  20. Scenario Analysis of Tillage, Residue and Fertilization Management Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Bin; CAI Dian-Xiong; W.B.HOOGMOED; O.OENEMA; U.D.PERDOK

    2005-01-01

    Based on data from 10-year field experiments on residue/fertilizer management in the dryland farming region of northern China, Century model was used to simulate the site-specific ecosystem dynamics through adjustment of the model's parameters, and the applicability of the model to propose soil organic carbon (SOC) management temporally and spatially, in cases such as of tillage/residue/fertilization management options, was identified via scenario analysis.Results between simulations and actual measurements were in close agreement when appropriate applications of stover,manure and inorganic fertilizer were combined. Simulations of extreme C/N ratios with added organic materials tended to underestimate the measured effects. Scenarios of changed tillage methods, residue practices and fertilization options showed potential to maintain and enhance SOC in the long run, while increasing inorganic N slowed down the SOC turnover rate but did not create a net C sink without any organic C input. The Century model simulation showed a good relationship between annual C inputs to the soil and the rate of C sequestration in the top 20 cm layer and provided quantitative estimations of changes in parameters crucial for sustainable land use and management. Conservation tillage practices for sustainable land use should be integrated with residue management and appreciable organic and inorganic fertilizer application, adapted according to the local residue resource, soil fertility and production conditions. At least 50%residue return into the soil was needed annually for maintenance of SOC balance, and manure amendment was important for enhancement of SOC in small crop-livestock systems in which crop residue land application was limited.

  1. Efeitos de sistemas de preparo nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico Effects of tillage systems on the soil physical properties of a dystrophic Red Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Maria Vieira Cavalieri

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de preparo do solo e o manejo dos resíduos culturais assumem fundamental importância para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas de produção de mandioca nos solos de textura média a arenosa da região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de preparo utilizados para o plantio da cultura da mandioca, em algumas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: plantio sem revolvimento do solo (PSR, preparo mínimo com escarificação (PM e preparo convencional com aração e gradagem (PC. Nas camadas de 0-0,15 e 0,15-0,30 m, foram avaliadas as seguintes propriedades físicas: a densidade do solo (Ds, a curva de retenção de água no solo, a curva de resistência do solo à penetração e o intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO. Nos sistemas de preparo com reduzida mobilização do solo (PSR e PM, foram constatados maiores valores de Ds e de resistência do solo à penetração. A curva de retenção de água foi influenciada apenas pela Ds, a qual incorporou os efeitos dos sistemas de preparo, independentemente da camada amostrada. A modelagem da curva de resistência do solo à penetração foi influenciada pelos sistemas de preparo e camadas amostradas, com maior resistência à penetração em PSR > PM > PC, acentuada na camada subsuperficial. Com o aumento da Ds, verificou-se redução do IHO associada aos efeitos da resistência do solo à penetração e da porosidade de aeração que determinaram, respectivamente, os limites inferior e superior de água disponível. Os valores do IHO seguiram a seqüência PC = PM > PSR na camada de 0-0,15 m, não diferindo significativamente na camada de 0,15-0,30 m. O valor de densidade do solo crítica (Dsc, densidade em que IHO = 0, foi menor no PSR e PM, comparado ao PC, o que contribuiu para a menor freqüência de valores de densidade maiores que a Dsc no PC.Soil tillage systems and the crop

  2. [Impact of tillage practices on microbial biomass carbon in top layer of black soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing-jie; Jia, Shu-xia; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Liang, Ai-zhen; Chen, Xue-wen; Zhang, Shi-xiu; Liu, Si-yi; Chen, Sheng-long

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted on a long-term (13 years) tillage and rotation experiment on black soil in northeast China to determine the effects of tillage, time and soil depth on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC). Tillage systems included no tillage (NT), ridge tillage (RT) and mould-board plough (MP). Soil sampling was done at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths in June, August and September, 2013, and April, 2014 in the corn phase of corn-soybean rotation plots. MBC content was measured by the chloroform fumigation extraction (CFE) method. The results showed that the MBC content varied with sampling time and soil depth. Soil MBC content was the lowest in April for all three tillage systems, and was highest in June for MP, and highest in August for NT and RT. At each sampling time, tillage system had a significant effect on soil MBC content only in the top 0-5 cm layer. The MBC content showed obvious stratification under NT and RT with a higher MBC content in the top 0-5 cm layer than under MP. The stratification ratios under NT and RT were greatest in September when they were respectively 67.8% and 95.5% greater than under MP. Our results showed that soil MBC contents were greatly affected by the time and soil depth, and were more apparently accumulated in the top layer under NT and RT.

  3. Phytosociology of weeds under different soil management systems in field reform of raw sugarcane. = Fitossociologia de plantas daninhas sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de solo em áreas de reforma de cana crua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Bernardes Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the phytosociological survey of weeds in areas of reform of raw cane, kept fallow after the use of three soil management systems in two regions of São Paulo. The study was conducted during 2007/08 crop year, in commercial production in the municipalities of Novais and Guaira. The last harvest of sugarcane was done in the first fortnight of July 2007. We used randomized block design, the treatments consisted of three soil tillage systems: conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no tillage. After treatments of tillage plots were maintained in a fallow period of 150 days. We carried out sampling in each plot by doing the identification, counting and collecting all the shoots of the weeds present. The data were interpreted statistically by ANOVA and Tukey’s test, then calculated the phytosociological index. No-tillage gave lower dry matter and fewer weeds than the other soil management systems in two growing regions. The Guaira region had a higher weed infestation that the region of Novais, where the species that stood out, presenting high IVR in all types of management was the Cyperus rotundus L. The importance of this species decreased with the use of more conservation managements. The similarity between tillage and conventional tillage was lower in both regions.

  4. Cost of electric energy in irrigated dry bean for center pivot, affected by the irrigation management and tillage systems; Custo de energia eletrica em cultura do feijoeiro irrigado por pivo central, afetado pelo manejo da irrigacao e sistemas de cultivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turco, Jose E.P.; Rizzatti, Gilcileia dos S.; Pavani, Luiz C. [UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2009-04-15

    The objective of this work was to analyze the consumption and cost of electric energy in dry bean crop, IAC-Carioca, irrigated by center pivot, submitted to two irrigation managements: tensiometry and climatological water balance with Class A pan, under conventional and no-tillage systems, grown in Oxisol, in the year of 2002. The research was developed at the Demonstrative and Experimental Area of Irrigation - ADEI, of FCAV/UNESP, Campus of Jaboticabal - SP, Brazil. The irrigation system electric energy consumption was monitored for two tariff groups: A and B. The prices of kWh of the tariff systems of electric energy had been gotten in the CPFL (Sao Paulo Company of Force and Light). The treatments where the irrigation management was carried through the method of the Class A pan showed higher consumption and cost of electric energy, in relation to the treatments where the management was carried through tensiometry; for the tillage systems it had not been observed differences. The green and/or blue tariff with discount was the best option for the four treatments. (author)

  5. Converting perennial legumes to organic cropland without tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic producers are interested in developing a no-till system for crop production. In this study, we examined management tactics to convert perennial legumes to annual crops without tillage. Our hypothesis was that reducing carbohydrate production in the fall by mowing would favor winterkill. M...

  6. Conserved Quantities and Conformal Mechanico-Electrical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-Li; WANG Xian-Jun; XIE Feng-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The conformal mechanico-electrical systems are presented by infinitesimal point transformations of time and generalized coordinates. The necessary and sufficient conditions that the conformal mechanico-electrical systems possess Lie symmetry are given. The Noether conserved quantities of the conformal mechanico-electrical systems are obtained from Lie symmetries.

  7. Efeito de diferentes coberturas vegetais e sistemas de preparo do solo na produção da cultura da soja = Effect of different vegetal coverings and soil tillage systems on soybean crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Adilmar Prestes Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o desempenho da soja sob a influência de cobertura vegetal e de manejo do solo em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Utilizaram-se aveia, nabo, ervilhaca, ervilha, milheto e tremoço. Avaliaram-se altura e densidade de plantas, altura de inserção de vagens, número de vagens, produtividade, massa de mil grãos, teor de água, densidade e resistência do solo à penetração. O sistema semeadura direta teve maior altura de inserção de vagens, quantidade de vagens, altura de plantas, teor de água e densidade do solo. Maiores valores de resistência do solo à penetração foram verificados no preparo convencional, porém obteve-se maior produtividade. As coberturas e os sistemas de preparo influenciaram na produtividade das plantas de soja. As coberturas vegetaispromoveram melhorias no solo com redução da compactação em algumas camadas do solo. O consórcio aveia/ervilhaca mostrou-se uma técnica de manejo inadequada para as condições às quais o solo foi submetido. O consórcio aveia/milheto mostrou ser uma opção viável de cobertura de solo antecessora à soja. A semeadura direta mostrou ser técnica demanejo adequado para o tipo de solo estudado.This study evaluated the performance of the soybean under the influence of vegetal covering and soil management in Red Latosol dystrofic. Oats, turnip, hairy vetch, pea, millet and lupine were used. The study evaluated height and density of plants, height of insertion in string beans, number of string beans, productivity, athousand grain mass, water contend, bulk density and soil resistance to penetration. The no-tillage system had greater height of insertion of string beans, amount of string beans, height of plants, water contend and soil bulk density. Greater values of soil resistance topenetration were verified in the tillage, though higher productivity was observed. The coverings and the soil tillage systems influenced the productivity of soybean plants. The

  8. Variabilidade de micronutrientes, matéria orgânica e argila de um Latossolo submetido a sistemas de preparo Variability of micronutrients, organic matter and clay content in Oxisol under different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marques da Silveira

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos dos sistemas de preparo do solo, arado de aiveca, grade aradora e plantio direto, sobre a variabilidade de atributos físico-químicos do solo. O trabalho foi conduzido em Latossolo Vermelho perférrico, textura argilosa, cultivado com milho no verão e feijão no inverno, durante cinco anos consecutivos. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em 49 pontos, de uma malha quadrada de 7x7, espaçados de 4x4 m, nas profundidades de 0-5 cm e 5-20 cm de solo. Os valores de Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, B, matéria orgânica (MO e argila do solo variaram nos diferentes tratamentos. Na profundidade de 0-5 cm, os valores de Cu, Mn, B, MO e argila foram maiores no sistema plantio direto. Os valores de Cu e de Zn apresentaram as maiores variabilidades, e os de MO e argila, as menores. Utilizando-se o procedimento de coletar 20 subamostras para formar uma amostra composta, os teores de argila, MO, B e Mn estariam sendo estimados com erro em torno de 10% do valor médio. Para o Cu e o Zn a variação em torno da média atingiu mais de 25%.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of soil tillage systems, moldboard plough, harrow disc and no-tillage, on the variability of some soil physico-chemical properties. The study was conducted in a clayey Oxisol, subjected to different soil tillage systems for five consecutive years and cultivated with corn in the summer and bean in the winter. Forty nine soil samples were collected from a grid 7x7 lattice sampling area spaced 4x4 m at 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm soil depth. The values of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, B, organic matter and clay contents of soil varied for different treatments. The Cu, Mn, B, organic matter and clay content values were higher in the 0-5 cm soil depth in no-tillage treatment. Among the soil chemical properties evaluated, the concentrations of Cu and Zn showed the highest variability, whereas organic matter and clay contents had the lowest. In 20 samples analyzed

  9. THE EFFECT OF INTERCROPS AND DIFFERENTIATED TILLAGE ON THE MAIZE YIELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Biskupski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the years 2008–2010 in the fields of the Experimental Station IUNG at Jelcz-Laskowice. Two-factorial experiments were laid out on the grey-brown podzolic soil formed out of loamy sand silt by the method of randomized subblocks in four replications. The experimental factors were intercrops (mustard and lupine and tillage system (traditional, simplified and zero. Winter wheat was the forecrop and maize the sequent plant. Leaf area index (LAI and mean tip angle (MTA were determined in the stage of early flowering with use of a LAI-2000 meter (LI-COR, USA in four replications. The research was carried out to find out which tillage system and intercrop would positively influence the yielding, selected indices of canopy architecture (height of plants, LAI, MTA and the amount of weeds in maize grown for grain. The yield of maize grain grown in simplified and zero tillage appeared to be lower than that obtained in traditional tillage. The highest LAI index of maize grown after both forecrops was found with traditional tillage, while the lowest with zero one. The highest maize plants were those in conventional tillage. The intercrop which appeared to have the most favourable effect on the height of maize was mustard. Reduced tillage systems increased total weed infestation in comparison to conventional tillage. Compensation of Echinochloa crus-galli, Geranium pusillum and Chenopodium album was noticed. The greatest number of weeds per unit area was found in the experiment after no-tillage system.

  10. Sorption and degradation of 14C-Atrazine in oat straw and in Brazilian Acrisol under no-tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D.; Dick, D.; Burauel, P.; Langen, U.; Koeppchen, S.

    2012-04-01

    The worldwide use of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) resulted in its distribution in soil and aquatic systems, which lead to its prohibition by the European Union Member States. In Brazil, ATZ is still widely applied for broadleaf control in maize, soybean and sugar cane crops. Due to changing agricultural management systems from tillage to no-tillage or conservation tillage systems, information on the environmental fate (sorption/desorption and degradation) and behavior of ATZ is needed when this herbicide is applied to the straw cover in no-tillage systems. Our study evaluates the pattern of ATZ degradation in a Brazilian Acrisol used for agricultural purposes under no-tillage treatment. The incubation experiments were conducted for 85 days in order to compare the mineralization, formation of metabolites and nonextractable residues of ATZ in two soils with a different ATZ application and soil management history: cultivated soil - the soil was exposed to ATZ application for more than 10 years; native soil - the soil was collected at an adjacent area with no history of ATZ application. An incubation experiment using a layer of oat straw on the soil surface was conducted to evaluate the sorption, the mineralization, formation of metabolites and nonextractable residues formation of ATZ in the straw compared to the soil alone. First results showed higher 14C-ATZ mineralization in cultivated soil (around 86% of the total amount of 14C activity applied) in comparison to the native soil (around 8% of the amount applied) after 68 days of incubation. The water-extractable amount of 14C-ATZ directly after its application was >60% of the amount applied and it decreased during the time in both soils. However, the water-extractable amount of 14C-ATZ in the cultivated soil was lower than in the native soil due to its higher mineralization. The water-extractable metabolites detected were hydroxyatrazine and deethylatrazine. The water-extractable amount of deethylatrazine was higher

  11. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igonin, Sergei

    2002-12-13

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with t-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order t-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for the existence of higher conservation laws in terms of the system's symbol. For systems that violate this condition we give an effective upper bound on the order of conservation laws. Using this result, we completely describe conservation laws for viscous transonic equations, for the Brusselator model and the Belousov-Zhabotinskii system. To achieve this, we solve over an arbitrary field the matrix equations SA=A{sup t}S and SA=-A{sup t}S for a quadratic matrix A and its transpose A{sup t}, which may be of independent interest.

  12. Influence of forage sorghum systems under different tillage practices on microbial biomass and soil C/N pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum has become a popular annual forage and silage crop in the Southern Great Plains. Most sorghum hybrids require higher nitrogen fertilization for sustainable biomass production and subsequent removal for grazing or hay. Higher nitrogen application and monoculture sorghum systems can negatively...

  13. Evaluation and Comparison of Different Tillage Methods in Improvement of Salt-affected Soils in Wheat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Roozbeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main strategy for controlling salt-affected soils is to implement proper tillage method. A field experiments was conducted to determine the effect of different tillage methods on salt distribution and wheat yield in saline-sodic soil. The experiment was laid out according to randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were studied in the experiment including conventional tillage (T1, reduced tillage (T2, subsoiling+ conventional tillage (T3, subsoiling+reduced tillage (T4, subsoiling+power harrow (T5 and plowing without moldboard (T6. Electrical conductivity (EC Ph of the soil sodium adsorption ratio (SAR and cone index (CI were measured for all treatments. The results showed that the T3 and T4 treatments compared to T1, caused a significant salinity reduction by 17.8 and 10.3%, respectively. The SAR was influenced by different tillage systems. The maximum SAR was observed for T1 system and T2 relative to T1 system reduced SAR by 4.1%. The results also revealed that SAR in T3 system was significantly less than T1 (23.4% and T2 (20.1% systems. Different tillage systems had significant effects on wheat yield.

  14. Conformal Invariance and Conserved Quantities of General Holonomic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jian-Le

    2008-01-01

    Conformal invarianee and conserved quantities of general holonomic systems are studied. A one-parameter infinitesimal transformation group and its infinitesimal transformation vector of generators are described.The definition of conformal invariance and determining equation for the system are provided.The conformal factor expression is deduced from conformal invariance and Lie symmetry.The necessary and sufficient condition,that conformal invariance of the system would be Lie symmetry,is obtained under the infinitesimal one-parameter transformation group. The corresponding conserved quantity is derived with the aid of a structure equation.Lastly,an example is given to demonstrate the application of the result.

  15. Métodos de aplicação de fosfato na soja em plantio direto Phosphate application methods for soybean under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Rogério Motomiya

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de métodos de aplicação e fontes de adubo fosfatado no sistema plantio direto na produção de grãos de soja, num Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico argilo-arenoso. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. As parcelas constituíram-se dos modos de aplicação a lanço e em sulco de semeadura; as subparcelas foram representadas pela testemunha sem fósforo, por adubações de 120 kg ha-1 e 80 kg ha-1 de P2O5, no primeiro e segundo cultivo de soja, respectivamente, com superfosfato triplo (ST, fosfato de Gafsa (FG e a combinação destas duas fontes (67% ST + 33% FG e 33% ST + 67% FG. As misturas de superfosfato triplo e de fosfato de Gafsa apresentam menor eficiência agronômica, quando comparadas ao superfosfato triplo. O fosfato de Gafsa, quando aplicado a lanço, é equivalente ao superfosfato triplo, no entanto, quando aplicado no sulco de semeadura, mostra-se ineficiente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of application methods and phosphate sources in the no-tillage system, on grain yield of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol clay-sandy. The experiment design was a complete randomized block with four replications. The treatments were arranged in split-plot. The plots were constituted of application methods (applied broadcast on the surface and in the band, and the subplots of the control with no phosphorus, of fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 and 80 kg ha-1 of P2O5, in the first and second soybean cultivation, respectively, with triple superphosphate (TS, Gafsa phosphate (GP and the combination of these two sources (67% TS+33% GP and 33% TS+67% GP. The results showed that the mixtures of triple superphosphate and phosphate of Gafsa result in smaller agronomic efficiency, when compared to the triple superphosphate. The phosphate of Gafsa, when applied broadcast, is equivalent to the triple superphosphate

  16. Profundidade e espaçamento da mandioca no plantio direto na palha Depth and spacing of the cassava in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gabriel Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento em LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Eutroférrico de textura argilosa, localizado no município de Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, onde se utilizou delineamento em blocos casualizados com arranjo fatorial 2 x 3, 4 repetições e com dois espaçamentos: fileiras simples (1,00 x 0,60m e fileiras duplas (1,50 x 0,50 x 0,60m, e três profundidades de plantio (0,05, 0,10 e 0,15m. Nos dois tipos de espaçamentos, a população de plantas foi de 16.666 plantas ha-1. O plantio direto na palha de aveia foi feito com a abertura de covas. Estudou-se o diâmetro médio dos caules, índice de tombamento, esforço para o arranquio manual, teor de amido nas raízes, produtividade de raízes e de amido, determinados aos 17 meses após o plantio. A disposição das linhas em fileiras duplas e simples não afetou as variáveis estudadas. O plantio das manivas em profundidade de 0,15m reduziu significativamente o índice de tombamento. Por outro lado, o plantio nessa profundidade dificultou a colheita, devido à maior resistência ao arranquio manual, além de reduzir significativamente a produtividade de raízes e amido. O plantio com 0,10m de profundidade proporcionou a melhor produtividade de raízes e amido.The experiment was conducted in eutrophic Oxisol soil in Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR, Brazil. It consisted of planting cassava in a factorial design. Factors included two row design: simple (1.00 x 0.60m, double rank (1.50 x 0.50 x 0.60m; and three planting depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.15m. Planting was accomplished in no-tillage system over oat straw. Measured variables 17 months after planting included: stalk mean diameter; damping-off index; resistence to manual harvesting; root starch concentration; and productivity of root and starch. The results indicated that damping-off index was lower at 0.15m planting depth. However, cassava planted at the 0.15m depth demanded the higest labor for harvesting and the lowest root and starch productivities

  17. [Effect of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil potassium content and stratification ratio in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang-lan; Li, Xiu-shuang; Wang, Shu-juan; Li, Shuo; Li, You-bing; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    Soil stratified sampling method and potassium chemical fractionation analysis were used to investigate effects of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil K contents and stratification ratios in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain of Northwest China. The results showed that after 13-year continuous shallow tillage and straw returning, surface accumulation and stratification effect obviously occurred for soil available K (SAK) and non-exchangeable K (NEK), which was particularly remarkable for SAK and its fractions. Serious depletion of SAK occurred in 15-30 cm soil layer, and the SAK value was lower than the critical value of soil potassium deficiency. Meanwhile, significant differences were found between SR1 and SR2 values of SAK and its fractions, SR was obtained by values of topsoil layer (0-5 cm) divided by corresponding values of lower soil layers (5-15 cm layer, SR1, or 15-30 cm layer, SR2). However, no significant difference was observed between SR values of NEK and mineral K. In conclusion, returning of all straw over 10 years in the winter wheat/summer maize rotation system contributed greatly to maintaining soil K pool balance, while special attention should be paid to the negative effects of surface accumulation and stratification of SAK on soil K fertility.

  18. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). Reducing potable water demand for landscape irrigation correlates to lower energy costs necessary...irrigation is necessary. Typically, timer-based systems are adjusted higher than needed to account for consecutive hot days that stress turf beyond the...implementation at sports field, parade grounds, and/or landscape near buildings. Appendix C details the life cycle cost for the smart water

  19. 耕作方式对紫色水稻土颗粒态氮的影响%Effect of Tillage Systems on Soil Particulate Organic Nitrogen in a Purple Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志祥; 郝庆菊; 江长胜; 祝滔

    2011-01-01

    土壤颗粒态氮作为土壤有机氮中的非稳定性部分,对土壤中氮的平衡有着重要的影响,对作物的生长及增产增收也有着重要意义.试验以西南大学农业部重庆紫色土生态环境重点野外科学观测试验站内于1989年设立的长期免耕试验田为研究对象,研究冬水田平作、水旱轮作、垄作免耕和垄作翻耕等耕作方式对土壤颗粒态氮的影响.结果表明,不同耕作方式下土壤全氮及颗粒态氮含量均具有明显的垂直分布特征,由上到下含量逐渐降低.在0-60 cm的土壤深度内,土壤全氮平均含量依次为垄作免耕(1.53g/kg)>冬水田平作(1.50 g/kg)>垄作翻耕(1.31 g/kg)>水旱轮作(1.16 g/kg);颗粒态氮平均含量依次为冬水田平作(0.55 g/kg)>垄作免耕(0.46 g/kg)>垄作翻耕(0.40 g/kg)>水旱轮作(0.35 g/kg).免耕能够增加土壤全氮含量,但无助于颗粒态氮含量的增加.不同耕作方式下的颗粒态土碳氮比大于全土碳氮比,表明颗粒态土壤有机质易被微生物分解,是土壤营养物质的重要来源.%Soil particulate organic nitrogen as the instable part of soil organic nitrogen, playing an important role in the nitrogen balance, and is of great significance in the growth of plant and the increase of crop yield. In this paper four tillage treatments including conventional tillage with rice only system (DP), conventional tillage with rotation of rice and rape system (SH), no-till and ridge culture with rotation of rice and rape system (LM), and tillage and ridge culture with rotation of rice and rape system (LF) were selected as research objectives to study the effect of tillage system on soil particulate organic nitrogen. The tillage experiment was established in the Key Field Station for Monitoring of Eco-Environment of Purple Soil of the Ministry of Agriculture of China located in the farm of southwest university (30°26 N, 106°26 E) , Chongqing. The results indicated that soil total nitrogen

  20. Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

  1. A fourth principle is required to define Conservation Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa: The appropriate use of fertilizer to enhance crop productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Wendt, J.; Giller, K.E.; Corbeels, M.; Gerard, B.; Nolte, C.

    2014-01-01

    Intensification of agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is considered a pre-condition for alleviation of rural poverty. Conservation Agriculture (CA) has been promoted to achieve this goal, based on three principles: minimum tillage, soil surface cover, and diversified crop rotations. CA

  2. A fourth principle is required to define Conservation Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa: The appropriate use of fertilizer to enhance crop productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Wendt, J.; Giller, K.E.; Corbeels, M.; Gerard, B.; Nolte, C.

    2014-01-01

    Intensification of agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is considered a pre-condition for alleviation of rural poverty. Conservation Agriculture (CA) has been promoted to achieve this goal, based on three principles: minimum tillage, soil surface cover, and diversified crop rotations. CA

  3. Adubação nitrogenada no feijoeiro em sistema de semeadura direta e preparo convencional do solo = Nitrogen fertilization in common bean crops under no-tillage and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guilhien Gomes Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de N em cobertura é indispensável para a obtenção de altasprodutividades do feijoeiro e estudos de respostas ao fertilizante em condições de semeadura direta e preparo convencional do solo ainda consistem numa necessidade fundamental. Assim, a pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de N e a produtividade do feijoeiro em sistema de semeadura direta e de preparo convencional dosolo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (2x8+1 com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da combinação das doses de 40 e 80 kg ha-1 de N aplicadas em oito épocas do estádio V4 do desenvolvimento vegetativo (V4-3, V4-4, V4-5, V4-6, V4-7, V4-8, V4-9 e V4-10, além da testemunha sem N em cobertura. O experimento foi desenvolvido no período de outono-inverno de 2002 e 2003 nos sistemas de semeadura direta sobre palhada de milheto e preparo convencional comarado de aiveca. Conclui-se que a adubação nitrogenada no estádio fenológico V4 do feijoeiro propicia produtividade de sementes equivalentes entre a semeadura direta e o preparo convencional do solo. As diferenças de produtividade entre a semeadura direta e opreparo convencional do solo são inconsistentes em uma mesma área de cultivo.Nitrogen fertilizer is necessary for high yields in common beancrops and N responses under conditions of no-tillage and conventional systems are still basic needs. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of N application and common bean yield in no-tillage and conventional systems. The experimental designwas a randomized block in a factorial scheme (2x8+1 with four replications. The treatments were constituted by the combination of two N doses (40 and 80 kg ha-1 applied at side dressing at eight distinct stadia during vegetative development of the common bean(V4-3, V4-4, V4-5, V4-6, V4-7, V4-8, V4-9 and V4-10, in addition to a control plot without N in side dressing

  4. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels