WorldWideScience

Sample records for conservation program icp

  1. 75 FR 59469 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators, Refrigerator... Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and......

  2. 75 FR 27165 - Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program AGENCY... amending the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) regulations to add provisions for incentives to retired or... farmer or rancher for production. The Transition Incentives Program involves new and mandatory provisions...

  3. 75 FR 48934 - Coral Reef Conservation Program Implementation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC19 Coral Reef Conservation Program... Implementation Guidelines for the Coral Reef Conservation Program. SUMMARY: This document provides NOAA's revised Grant Program Implementation Guidelines (Guidelines) for the Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP or...

  4. Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sherri

    This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

  5. Conservation Education Outreach Program Accomplishment Report, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindlund, Rod, Comp.; Boshart, Tihisia, Comp.

    In 1992, Elaine McKinney and six college interns set into motion an experiment in human relations at the Forest Service's Northeast Area and Station Headquarters in Radnor, PA. The program provides basic conservation education to urban youth who may never have been exposed to the concepts of conservation, recycling, or forest management. This…

  6. Conservation Reserve Program Acreage by County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains information regarding the acreages of land currently (as of 2004) enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) distributed by county and...

  7. 76 FR 57897 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power... exclude external power supplies used in specific applications from certain energy conservation standards prescribed under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). Congress enacted this exclusion,...

  8. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air.... SUMMARY: This final rule corrects the energy conservation standards for room air conditioners. In the direct final rule establishing amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers...

  9. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ...-AD08 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products AGENCY... energy conservation standards enacted through the American Energy Manufacturing Technical Corrections Act, among which were a revised definition and revised energy conservation standards for small duct...

  10. 77 FR 18477 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... March 27, 2012 Part III Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy... 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and... Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and...

  11. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... November 14, 2011 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy...-AB50 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts AGENCY... Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation...

  12. 77 FR 8525 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... February 14, 2012 Part IV Department of Energy 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC07 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby...: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for......

  13. Making an Energy Conservation Program Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rump, Erwin E.; Hunter, James L.

    The first step of an energy conservation program is to monitor energy consumption. A system is explained that, in order to determine which buildings are energy efficient (considering all types of energy that a building might use), monitors total energy consumption. All such consumptions can be reduced to a common denominator: Barrels of Energy…

  14. 77 FR 54839 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by...

  15. 78 FR 7296 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC95 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and... energy conservation standards for certain commercial air-conditioning and heating equipment. This notice... ] Public Law 95-619, Title IV, Sec. 441(a), established the Energy Conservation Program for...

  16. 78 FR 77019 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AD08 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer... the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA or ``the Act'') (42 U.S.C. 6291-6309, as codified), which provides for an energy conservation program for consumer products other than automobiles, and...

  17. 75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric... Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AB70 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable......

  18. 76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... April 11, 2011 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts AGENCY: Office of Energy... public meeting. SUMMARY: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy......

  19. 76 FR 39245 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC06 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential... Register on June 27, 2011, regarding the Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards...

  20. 76 FR 22453 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... April 21, 2011 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy... 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA89 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for..., Department of Energy. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

  1. 77 FR 7281 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... February 10, 2012 Part III Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Energy... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers AGENCY: Office... rulemaking and public meeting. SUMMARY: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as...

  2. Summary of commercial conservation programs environmental issues and program consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachler, M.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration. The purpose of the report is to compare and contrast the environmental requirements and issues involving Bonneville's residential conservation programs. In addition to environmental issues that Bonneville has addressed in environmental documents, this report also briefly examines new issues that may affect residential conservation programs. The key environmental concern confronting each of the programs with measures aimed at reducing air leakage in houses (both new and existing) is indoor air quality. There are inconsistencies in how the Weatherization Program and the New Homes programs approach indoor air quality. However, these differences make sense, given the character and constraints affecting how each program operates. Newer issues that have arisen include global warming, potential health effects of mineral and glass fibers, and possible fire hazards associated with plastic foam and cellulose insulation. Bonneville staff are aware of these issues as they relate to conservation programs. No action appears necessary at this time.

  3. 77 FR 22472 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External... energy conservation standards for certain external power supplies to re-insert a table that had been... statutorily-prescribed energy conservation standards for all Class A external power supplies to meet....

  4. 75 FR 41102 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards... establish energy conservation standards for the use of electricity for purposes of circulating air through... (DOE) initiated a rulemaking to consider establishing new energy conservation standards or energy......

  5. 76 FR 31795 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB85 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-In Coolers... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended by section... Subjects in 10 CFR Part 431 Administrative practice and procedure, Energy conservation, Reporting...

  6. 77 FR 13026 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standard for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC39 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standard for Automatic... classes that DOE plans to analyze for purposes of establishing energy conservation standards for automatic... products; and potential energy conservation standard levels derived from these analyses that DOE...

  7. 78 FR 62494 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans... certain information to help inform its current rulemaking to consider setting energy conservation... INFORMATION: I. Introduction Title III, Part B \\1\\ of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA...

  8. 76 FR 22324 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA89 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards... Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and......

  9. 77 FR 59719 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AB90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for... of Energy (DOE) published a direct final rule to establish amended energy conservation standards for... adoption of the energy conservation standards established in the direct final rule and announcing...

  10. 76 FR 52852 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AA89 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential....S. Department of Energy (DOE) adopted amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. As required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), DOE...

  11. 76 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB50 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp... fluorescent lamp ballasts (ballasts) pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA). During... The EPCA establishes energy conservation standards for certain ballasts and requires that DOE...

  12. 78 FR 62988 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Parts 430 and 431 RIN 1904-AD08 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain... American Energy Manufacturing Technical Corrections Act amended the Energy Policy and Conservation Act as... revised energy conservation standards and definitions, as well as technical corrections, which...

  13. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB70 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric... rule regarding the energy conservation standards for small electric motors, which was published on... energy conservation standards for small electric motors. Due to a drafting error, an incorrect...

  14. 75 FR 27227 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB47 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential... preliminary analyses performed by DOE for these products; and potential energy conservation standard levels... on the energy conservation standards notice of public meeting (NOPM) and availability of...

  15. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC04 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution... regarding energy conservation standards for distribution transformers. It was recently discovered that... the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA or the Act), Public Law 94-163 (42 U.S.C....

  16. 75 FR 5544 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC00 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards...: Any comments submitted must identify the Framework Document for energy conservation standards for... energy conservation standards for metal halide lamp fixtures. The notice provided for the submission...

  17. 76 FR 69122 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... published amended energy and water conservation standards for commercial clothes washers on January 8, 2010... and water conservation standards and effective dates. (a) Each commercial clothes washer manufactured... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB93 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain...

  18. 76 FR 57515 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... September 15, 2011 Part III Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Energy Efficiency... Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AB79 Energy Conservation Program:...

  19. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  20. Marketing: an approach to successful energy-conservation information programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, R. B.; McNeill, D. L.

    1980-08-01

    This monograph shows how the adoption of a marketing approach can improve the quality of the development and delivery of energy-conservation programs. Several factors make the use of such a marketing approach to conservation particularly beneficial, namely: (1) goals of conservation programs can be quantified (e.g., specified amount of energy to be saved); in addition, intermediate effects necessary for program success are also measureable (e.g., knowledge, attitude change, etc); (2) there is an apparent and increasing need for conservation by different parts (or sectors) of the population; however, it is clear that the desire for conservation is not the same for all sectors; (3) conservation programs can be thought of in much the same way as products with benefits and costs; this necessitates an understanding of how the population makes conservation decisions so that the program can fit into that decision process; (4) the need to tailor programs to the needs of the population is heightened by the general competition for the consumer dollar; it is necessary to design and present programs in a way that the individual will view conservation as an attractive choice among many (e.g., bank savings, buying clothes, furniture, car, etc.); and (5) the population's response to, and need for conservation is constantly changing; consequently, it is important to realize that these changes may need to be reflected in the conservation programs themselves (both ongoing and new).

  1. 75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB71 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors..., promulgating energy conservation standards for certain electric motors as prescribed in the Energy Policy and... motors that, due to a drafting error, are not consistent with statutory requirements. DATES:...

  2. 77 FR 59712 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Dishwashers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC64 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for...) published a direct final rule to establish amended energy conservation standards for dishwashers in the... direct final rule. Therefore, DOE provides this document confirming adoption of the energy...

  3. 75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC06 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... the product classes that DOE plans to analyze for purposes of amending energy conservation...

  4. 78 FR 77607 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation... January 23, 2014. ADDRESSES: Any comments submitted must identify the NOPR for Energy Conservation... (78 FR 64067) to make available and invite comments on the proposed rule regarding energy...

  5. 75 FR 19296 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AB89; 1904-AC06 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy... the energy conservation standards notice of public meeting (NOPM) and availability of a...

  6. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards... and invite comments on the Framework Document regarding energy conservation standards for...

  7. 78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC98 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential... conservation standards for room air conditioners. In the direct final rule establishing amended energy... May 8, 2013. ADDRESSES: Any comments submitted must identify the proposed rule for Energy...

  8. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities.

  9. 77 FR 15933 - Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... provide financing. This often means implementation of vital conservation measures must be postponed. This... effects, distributive impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasized the importance of quantifying...

  10. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  11. Farmer Participation in U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Adam P.; Prokopy, Linda S.

    2014-02-01

    Conservation policy in agricultural systems in the United States relies primarily on voluntary action by farmers. Federal conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, offer incentives, both financial and technical, to farmers in exchange for adoption of conservation practices. Understanding motivations for (as well as barriers to) participation in voluntary programs is important for the design of future policy and effective outreach. While a significant literature has explored motivations and barriers to conservation practice adoption and participation in single programs, few studies in the U.S. context have explored general participation by farmers in one place and time. A mixed-methods research approach was utilized to explore farmer participation in all U.S. Farm Bill programs in Indiana. Current and past program engagement was high, with nearly half of survey respondents reporting participation in at least one program. Most participants had experience with the Conservation Reserve Program, with much lower participation rates in other programs. Most interview participants who had experience in programs were motivated by the environmental benefits of practices, with incentives primarily serving to reduce the financial and technical barriers to practice adoption. The current policy arrangement, which offers multiple policy approaches to conservation, offers farmers with different needs and motivations a menu of options. However, evidence suggests that the complexity of the system may be a barrier that prevents participation by farmers with scarce time or resources. Outreach efforts should focus on increasing awareness of program options, while future policy must balance flexibility of programs with complexity.

  12. Managing state energy conservation programs - The Minnesota experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, E.; Armstrong, J. R.

    1980-11-01

    The development and operation of energy conservation programs in the Minnesota Energy Agency (MEA) are discussed. The MEA has responsibility for voluntary conservation efforts, regulating energy efficient devices, and grant programs to audit and retrofit public buildings. The MEA has developed the plan under which the Minnesota utilities will provide conservation services to residential customers, including an on-site home energy audit. The relation between the Department of Energy (DOE) and state energy offices in implementing programs is considered. The DOE has provided technical assistance to the states through the development of a model audit. Steps are discussed to reduce the burdens imposed on the states by program planning, funding, and management responsibilities, including the consolidation of several existing state conservation programs. Improved policy analysis is suggested to correct inefficiencies in government programs.

  13. Use of a business excellence model to improve conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Simon; Groombridge, Jim

    2010-12-01

    The current shortfall in effectiveness within conservation biology is illustrated by increasing interest in "evidence-based conservation," whose proponents have identified the need to benchmark conservation initiatives against actions that lead to proven positive effects. The effectiveness of conservation policies, approaches, and evaluation is under increasing scrutiny, and in these areas models of excellence used in business could prove valuable. Typically, conservation programs require years of effort and involve rigorous long-term implementation processes. Successful balance of long-term efforts alongside the achievement of short-term goals is often compromised by management or budgetary constraints, a situation also common in commercial businesses. "Business excellence" is an approach many companies have used over the past 20 years to ensure continued success. Various business excellence evaluations have been promoted that include concepts that could be adapted and applied in conservation programs. We describe a conservation excellence model that shows how scientific processes and results can be aligned with financial and organizational measures of success. We applied the model to two well-documented species conservation programs. In the first, the Po'ouli program, several aspects of improvement were identified, such as more authority for decision making in the field and better integration of habitat management and population recovery processes. The second example, the black-footed ferret program, could have benefited from leadership effort to reduce bureaucracy and to encourage use of best-practice species recovery approaches. The conservation excellence model enables greater clarity in goal setting, more-effective identification of job roles within programs, better links between technical approaches and measures of biological success, and more-effective use of resources. The model could improve evaluation of a conservation program's effectiveness and may be

  14. Assessment of USDA-NRCS rangeland conservation programs: recommendation for an evidence-based conservation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briske, D D; Bestelmeyer, B T; Brown, J R; Brunson, M W; Thurow, T L; Tanaka, J A

    2017-01-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was created in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget that the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) document the societal benefits anticipated to accrue from a major increase in conservation funding authorized by the 2002 Farm Bill. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of rangeland conservation practices cost-shared with private landowners was unable to evaluate conservation benefits because outcomes were seldom documented. Four interrelated suppositions are presented to examine the causes underlying minimal documentation of conservations outcomes. These suppositions are (1) the benefits of conservation practices are considered a certainty so that documentation in not required, (2) there is minimal knowledge exchange between the USDA-NRCS and research organizations, (3) and a paucity of conservation-relevant science, as well as (4) inadequate technical support for land owners following implementation of conservation practices. We then follow with recommendations to overcome potential barriers to documentation of conservation outcomes identified for each supposition. Collectively, this assessment indicates that the existing conservation practice standards are insufficient to effectively administer large conservation investments on rangelands and that modification of these standards alone will not achieve the goals explicitly stated by CEAP. We recommend that USDA-NRCS modify its conservation programs around a more comprehensive and integrative platform that is capable of implementing evidence-based conservation. Collaborative monitoring organized around landowner-agency-scientist partnerships would represent the focal point of a Conservation Program Assessment Network (CPAN). The primary network objective would be to establish missing information feedback loops between conservation practices and their agricultural and environmental outcomes

  15. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning...

  16. 75 FR 11194 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... application, and notice of public meetings for the San Diego County Water Authority's (Water Authority...

  17. ERDA programs and objectives: energy conservation in food processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towne, E A [ed.

    1977-07-01

    A workshop on energy conservation in the agriculture processing industry sponsored by ERDA in March 1976 resulted in 87 conservation research recommendations to ERDA. These recommendations and their incorporation into ongoing and planned ERDA research and development programs are discussed. Information is included on using food processing wastes, energy conservation in hot processes and waste heat recovery, ERDA responses to specific workshop recommendations on the processing of chemical fertilizers, dairy products, fruits, meats, vegetables, grain, and textiles.

  18. 76 FR 19683 - Conservation Program Recipient Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... after October 1, 2010. The Watershed Operations and Flood Prevention Program, Emergency Watersheds... Operations and Flood Prevention Program (7 CFR part 622), Emergency Watershed Protection Program (7 CFR part... mandated change into the regulations implementing the Watershed Operations and Flood Prevention...

  19. 75 FR 31609 - Conservation Stewardship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... method to determine in an open and participatory process, potential participants' current and future... the ranking factors were defined and implemented. Finally, program design and adaptive program... provide recommendations to the Chief. NRCS designed the program to recognize excellent stewards and...

  20. The Role of Communicative Feedback in Successful Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Tauchus, Gail; Williams, Jared; Tong, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The Sacramento County Water Agency has made available 2 water conservation programs to its customers. The Data Logger Program attaches the Meter Master Model 100 EL data logger to the customer's water meter for 1 week and provides a detailed report of water usage from each fixture. The Water Wise House Call Program provides findings and…

  1. 78 FR 73355 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... assist electric borrowers in implementing Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation... the purpose of assisting electric borrowers to implement Demand side management, energy efficiency and... permit REA to make loans for demand side management and energy conservation program which are required...

  2. 77 FR 43723 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... implementing demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid... assisting electric borrowers to implement demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation... efficiency, and (5) encouraging the use of renewable energy fuels for both demand side management and...

  3. State waterfowl conservation stamp/print programs considerations for Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An Alaska Waterfowl Conservation Stamp program has been proposed in several bills put before the legislature in 1983. The intent of this report is to present a brief...

  4. 76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Parts 430 and 431 Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of ``Smart'' Appliances in Energy Conservation... Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Energy Conservations Standards: Treatment of Smart... INFORMATION: In support of its Energy Conservation Standards Rulemakings, DOE conducts in-depth technical...

  5. 76 FR 51943 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Dolphin Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ...; International Dolphin Conservation Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... (NOAA) collects information to implement the International Dolphin Conservation Program Act (Act). The... ] nations in the International Dolphin Conservation Program that would otherwise be under embargo. The...

  6. 78 FR 36315 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles. Pursuant to EPCA, any new or amended energy conservation standard... Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,\\7\\ a program covering most major household... installation configurations, display types, and manufacturers/ brands. Table ] III-1 presents the results of...

  7. A conservation program for Alaska's commercial fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It is the purpose of this report to show how the present programs of the Alaska Region of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries relate to problems of the various...

  8. 77 FR 14509 - State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request for Information AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of the General Counsel... mechanisms by grantees of the State Energy Program (SEP) and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block...

  9. Evaluating Conservation Education Programs at a South American Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de White, Teresa Gutierrez; Jacobson, Susan K.

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study to determine the effectiveness of conservation education strategies in use at zoological parks by comparing program formats. Fourth-grade students (n=1,015) were assigned to experimental groups and completed questionnaires. Knowledge and attitude scores of students whose teachers participated in the educational program improved…

  10. Strategy Plan Strengthens Energy Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minning, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Schools and Hospitals Program has been popular among schools. The necessity of locating nonfederal resources to achieve energy management warrants (1) developing a strategy of evaluation among schools and (2) market research and analysis. (CJH)

  11. Process Document for the Conservation Competitive Bidding Pilot Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is proposing to test competitive bidding for Conservation Resources to expand its existing resource acquisition capabilities. Competitive bidding may target specific types of electric end-uses or end-use sectors. It is a new acquisition approach through which Bonneville seeks to acquire resources that are not acquired through other existing or planned conservation programs. This proposal describes the conservation component of the all-source competitive acquisition approach that will be developed. It is expected that the combined resource acquisition effort will target about 100 average megawatts (aMW) as proposed in the 1990 Resource Program, although the exact amount has not yet been determined. Increasing the acquisition target will, to some extent, depend on whether the proposed pilot program is large enough to establish confidence in the approach.

  12. 76 FR 56126 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Parts 430 and 431 Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of ``Smart'' Appliances in Energy Conservation...'' appliances in the development of DOE's energy conservation standards, as well as in test procedures used to...'' appliances in the development of DOE's energy conservation standards, as well as in test procedures used...

  13. 75 FR 70083 - Emergency Forest Restoration Program and Emergency Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... CFR Part 701 RIN 0560-AH89 Emergency Forest Restoration Program and Emergency Conservation Program... amending regulations as required by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm Bill) to... owners of nonindustrial private forest land to restore land that was damaged by a natural disaster on...

  14. Optimum allocation of conservation funds and choice of conservation programs for a set of African cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulai Awudu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although funds for livestock conservation are limited there is little known about the optimal allocation of conservation funds. A new algorithm was used to allocate Mio US$ 1, 2, 3, 5 or unlimited funds, discounted over 50 years, on 23 African cattle breeds conserved with four different possible conservation programs. Additionally, Mio US$ 1 was preferably allocated to breeds with special traits. The conceptional in situ conservation programs strongly involve breeders and give them part of the responsibility for the conservation of the breed. Therefore, the pure in situ conservation was more efficient than cryoconservation or combined in situ and cryoconservation. The average annual discounted conservation cost for a breed can be as low as US$ 1000 to US$ 4400 depending on the design of the conservation program and the economic situation of the country of conservation. The choice of the breeds and the optimal conservation program and the amount of money allocated to each breed depend on many factors such as the amount of funds available, the conservation potential of each breed, the effects of the conservation program as well as its cost. With Mio US$ 1, 64% of the present diversity could be maintained over 50 years, which is 13% more than would be maintained if no conservation measures were implemented. Special traits could be conserved with a rather small amount of the total funds. Diversity can not be conserved completely, not even with unlimited funds. A maximum of 92% of the present diversity could be conserved with Mio US$ 10, leaving 8% of the diversity to unpredictable happenings. The suggested algorithm proved to be useful for optimal allocation of conservation funds. It allocated the funds optimally among breeds by identifying the most suited conservation program for each breed, also accounting for differences in currency exchange rates between the different countries.

  15. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  16. Measuring the effectiveness of conservation programs for shrubland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Schlossberg; David I. King

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance-dependent habitats such as grasslands and shrublands are declining in many regions. To mitigate these declines, government agencies are using anthropogenic disturbances like logging and mowing to mimic natural ones. Because these programs can be costly or controversial, measuring their effectiveness is important. Here, we evaluate the conservation...

  17. 78 FR 67128 - Coral Reef Conservation Program; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Conservation Program; Meeting AGENCY: Coral Reef... of public comment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a public meeting of the U.S. Coral Reef Task... to do so. Established by Presidential Executive Order 13089 in 1998, the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force...

  18. 49 CFR 227.107 - Hearing conservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees. § 227.107 Hearing conservation program. (a) Consistent with the requirements of the... exposure shall be computed in accordance with the tables in appendix A of this part, and without regard...

  19. Evaluation of the State Energy Conservation Program from program initiation to September 1978. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, James N.; Grossmann, John R.; Shochet, Susan; Bresler, Joel; Duggan, Noreene

    1980-03-01

    The State Energy Conservation Program was established in 1975 to promote energy conservation and to help states develop and implement their own conservation programs. Base (5) and supplemental (3) programs required states to implement programs including: mandatory thermal-efficiency standards and insulation requirements for new and renovated buildings; mandatory lighting efficiency standards for public buildings; mandatory standards and policies affecting the procurement practices of the state and its political subdivisions; program measures to promote the availability and use of carpools, vanpools, and public transportation; a traffic law or regulation which permits a right turn-on-red; and procedures to carry out a continuing public education effort to increase awareness of energy conservation; procedures which promote effective coordination among local, state, and Federal energy conservation programs; and procedures for carrying out energy audits on buildings and industrial plants. All 50 states and Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the District of Columbia participated in the program. The total 1980 energy savings projected by the states is about 5.9 quadrillion Btu's or about 7% of the DOE projected 1980 baseline consumption of just under 83 quads. The detailed summary is presented on the following: information the SECP evaluation; DOE response to the SECP; DOE's role in the program management process; the effectiveness of the states in managing the SECP; the status of program measure implementation; innovative state energy conservation programs; and the evaluation methodology.

  20. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  1. Split diversity in constrained conservation prioritization using integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomor, Olga; Minh, Bui Quang; Forest, Félix; Klaere, Steffen; Ingram, Travis; Henzinger, Monika; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a measure of biodiversity based on the evolutionary history of species. Here, we discuss several optimization problems related to the use of PD, and the more general measure split diversity (SD), in conservation prioritization.Depending on the conservation goal and the information available about species, one can construct optimization routines that incorporate various conservation constraints. We demonstrate how this information can be used to select sets of species for conservation action. Specifically, we discuss the use of species' geographic distributions, the choice of candidates under economic pressure, and the use of predator-prey interactions between the species in a community to define viability constraints.Despite such optimization problems falling into the area of NP hard problems, it is possible to solve them in a reasonable amount of time using integer programming. We apply integer linear programming to a variety of models for conservation prioritization that incorporate the SD measure.We exemplarily show the results for two data sets: the Cape region of South Africa and a Caribbean coral reef community. Finally, we provide user-friendly software at http://www.cibiv.at/software/pda.

  2. Thermographic Inspections And The Residential Conservation Service Program (RCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ronald J.

    1983-03-01

    Rhode Islanders Saving Energy (RISE) is a non-profit corporation founded in 1977 to provide Rhode Island residents with a variety of energy conservation services. Since January of 1981, it has been performing energy audits in compliance with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Residential Conservation Service Program (RCS). One aspect of the RCS program is the performance of inspections on energy conservation activities completed according to RCS installation guidelines. This paper will describe both the use and results of thermographic inspections within the RISE program. The primary objective of these inspections has been to assure the quality of the building envelope after completion of retrofit measures. Thermal anamolies have been detected that vary in size, location and probable cause. Approximately 37% of all jobs performed through RISE in conjunction with the RCS program have required remedial work as a result of problems that were identi-fied during the thermographic inspection. This percentage was much higher when infra-red inspections were conducted on "Non-RCS" retrofits. Statistics will be presented that provide an interesting insight on the quality of retrofit work when performed in associa-tion with a constant inspection process.

  3. 77 FR 4698 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure and Energy Conservation Standard for Set-Top Boxes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC52 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure and Energy Conservation Standard for... development of test procedures and energy conservation standards for set-top boxes and network equipment....

  4. Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in Maasailand, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzah, Leela; Dolrenry, Stephanie; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Naughton, Lisa; Edwards, Charles T T; Mwebi, Ogeto; Kearney, Fiachra; Frank, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    Lion (Panthera leo) populations are in decline throughout most of Africa. The problem is particularly acute in southern Kenya, where Maasai pastoralists have been spearing and poisoning lions at a rate that will ensure near term local extinction. We investigated 2 approaches for improving local tolerance of lions: compensation payments for livestock lost to predators and Lion Guardians, which draws on local cultural values and knowledge to mitigate livestock-carnivore conflict and monitor carnivores. To gauge the overall influence of conservation intervention, we combined both programs into a single conservation treatment variable. Using 8 years of lion killing data, we applied Manski's partial identification approach with bounded assumptions to investigate the effect of conservation treatment on lion killing in 4 contiguous areas. In 3 of the areas, conservation treatment was positively associated with a reduction in lion killing. We then applied a generalized linear model to assess the relative efficacy of the 2 interventions. The model estimated that compensation resulted in an 87-91% drop in the number of lions killed, whereas Lion Guardians (operating in combination with compensation and alone) resulted in a 99% drop in lion killing. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. 78 FR 8444 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1710 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Programmatic... entitled ``Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program,'' which expands upon policies and procedures specific to loans for a new Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. The program would...

  6. 77 FR 24341 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers; Correction AGENCY: Office... energy conservation standards until the compliance date of any amended standards. In the preamble to the... Administrative practice and procedure, Confidential business information, Energy conservation,...

  7. 77 FR 73 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Natural Resources... improvements will be accomplished through a conservation systems approach to address water quality, wetland... habitat, and wetland restoration; (e) Provide innovation in approved conservation practices,...

  8. Resource conservation program in terms of Vostokgazprom environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Nadyumov, S. V.; Adam, A. M.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-09-01

    The article examines a number of key areas of environmental policy of Vostokgazprom. The Associated Petroleum Gas program is an important step within the resource conservation and environmental protection framework. In addition, the company undertakes the extensive work on emergency response programs, and carries out continuous protection of the subsurface and control over environmental safety in all production sites. Vostokgazprom continuously modernizes the basic industrial facilities and invests money in new projects. The study analyzes the steps being taken by the company within the energy saving policy that leads to significant costs cut.

  9. Dynamics of a wellness program: a conservation of resources perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Doo; Hollensbe, Elaine C; Schwoerer, Catherine E; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B

    2015-01-01

    We leverage conservation of resources theory to explain possible dynamics through which a holistic wellness program results in positive longer-term outcomes. Specifically, we hypothesize that wellness self-efficacy at the end of a wellness program will create a positive resource gain spiral, increasing psychological availability (a sense of having cognitive, physical, and emotional resources to engage oneself) 6 months later, and career satisfaction, 1 year later. To test these hypotheses, using a time-lagged with control group design, we gathered questionnaire data from 160 Episcopal priests who participated in a 10-day off-site wellness program. We developed a scale measuring self-efficacy in the 4 wellness areas the program was designed to improve: physical, spiritual, financial, and vocational. Our findings provide evidence from a field setting of a relatively untested tenet of conservation of resources theory, resource gain spirals. The wellness program that we studied served as an opportunity for participants to gain new resources in the form of wellness self-efficacy, which in turn helped participants experience positive outcomes over time. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the findings.

  10. Jersey City energy conservation demonstration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, R.F.

    1978-08-01

    The Aerospace Corporation, the City Government, and the Board of Education of Jersey City have conducted a group of energy-conservation experiments to explore a number of conservation techniques believed to offer quick payback and to be of wide applicability. Experiments include the updating and/or rehabilitation of the energy-consuming features of old buildings and installation of devices designed to minimize energy losses caused by human error or laxity. Specific examples include: upgrading of the deteriorated and inefficient steam-distribution system of the city hall (originally constructed in 1894); an extensive program of reducing infiltration in an old school building; use of several timing devices in connection with heating, ventilation, and lighting systems to encourage energy-conservation practices; retrofit of school classrooms with high-pressure sodium lamps; and demonstration of practical and cost-effective ways of increasing the efficiency of conventional steam boilers. The report presents: the nature of the selected experiments; technical, human, and organizational factors that proved significant in performing and evaluating the experiments; discussions of observations and lessons learned; and general recommendations for an extended program of energy conservation in local governments. It is emphasized that, in retrofit of existing buildings, the unexpected is commonplace; and the habits and attitudes of building occupants are elements of the system that must always be taken into account. This report shows the benefits of energy saving, cost saving, and added comfort that may be attained by retrofitting old buildings, noting typical complications that arise. The effectiveness of the conservation methods is presented in terms of costs relative to effective payback periods calculated from results of their application in Jersey City.

  11. Private landowners and environmental conservation: a case study of social-psychological determinants of conservation program participation in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drescher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of biodiversity and continued provision of ecosystem services increasingly relies on environmental conservation on private lands. Despite a multitude of past studies, our knowledge of the motives, opportunities, and challenges of private land conservation, especially on nonworking lands, where financial incentives are less relevant, remains incomplete. A key reason is that a variety of theoretical approaches, resulting in diverging study results, have been used to investigate private land conservation. To help remedy this problem, the current study rigorously examined several established social-psychological determinants of proenvironmental behaviors and developed a comprehensive model, which merged elements from previous studies, to investigate landowner participation in a government-sponsored private land conservation program for nonworking lands. The results are based on analysis of a mailed survey of 800 program-eligible landowners. Contrasting program participants with nonparticipants, we elicited information such as about values, worldviews, socio-demographic characteristics, and property attributes that led landowners to participate in this conservation program. The results of our study illustrate the complex relationships among values, worldviews, norms, attitudes, and behaviors emphasizing the importance of proenvironmental worldviews and of formal education for increasing the likelihood of enrollment in this government-sponsored private land conservation program. Against expectation, neither personal norms, household income, political leaning, nor the size of the eligible property area were found to be important in directly determining the decision to enroll in this conservation program. However, an association of political leaning with stated personal obligation for private land conservation was found. Our results highlight the relationship between formal education and achievement of private land conservation goals

  12. Evidence, models, conservation programs and limits to management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Walsh et al. (2012) emphasized the importance of obtaining evidence to assess the effects of management actions on state variables relevant to objectives of conservation programs. They focused on malleefowl Leipoa ocellata, ground-dwelling Australian megapodes listed as vulnerable. They noted that although fox Vulpes vulpes baiting is the main management action used in malleefowl conservation throughout southern Australia, evidence of the effectiveness of this action is limited and currently debated. Walsh et al. (2012) then used data from 64 sites monitored for malleefowl and foxes over 23 years to assess key functional relationships relevant to fox control as a conservation action for malleefowl. In one set of analyses, Walsh et al. (2012) focused on two relationships: fox baiting investment versus fox presence, and fox presence versus malleefowl population size and rate of population change. Results led to the counterintuitive conclusion that increases in investments in fox control produced slight decreases in malleefowl population size and growth. In a second set of analyses, Walsh et al. (2012) directly assessed the relationship between investment in fox baiting and malleefowl population size and rate of population change. This set of analyses showed no significant relationship between investment in fox population control and malleefowl population growth. Both sets of analyses benefited from the incorporation of key environmental covariates hypothesized to influence these management relationships. Walsh et al. (2012) concluded that "in most situations, malleefowl conservation did not effectively benefit from fox baiting at current levels of investment." In this commentary, I discuss the work of Walsh et al. (2012) using the conceptual framework of structured decision making (SDM). In doing so, I accept their analytic results and associated conclusions as accurate and discuss basic ideas about evidence, conservation and limits to management.

  13. 78 FR 15807 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Television Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... March 12, 2013 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 Energy Conservation Program: Test... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Television Sets AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...) established the ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles.'' The...

  14. The Holyoke Industrial Energy Conservation And Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufler, Edward R.; Bateman, Robert H.; Connor, Frederick J.

    1982-03-01

    An innovative approach to the development of a model system for comprehensive industrial sector thermographic investigations and inspections will be taken during the winter of 1981-82 in Holyoke, MA. Infrared thermography techniques will be utilized for cost effective identification of building and process heat losses. The Holyoke program provides for a wide range of energy conservation services and will result in the implementation of no-cost, low-cost, and cost-effective capital intensive measures financed through a cooperative effort of government and private funding.

  15. Planning and programing in the soil conservation service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    The historical base is presented for the framework plan for soil conservation. Conservation effects, resource management systems, and accomplishments, activities, and costs of the Soil Conservation Service are discussed.

  16. From participation to adoption: Comparing the effectiveness of soil conservation programs in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, H.; Gardebroek, C.; Ruben, R.

    2010-01-01

    Many efforts are made to promote soil conservation in developing countries. This paper compares the effect of two programs promoting soil conservation in Peru on the adoption decision of households. One program applies a top-down approach with soil conservation as its core activity. The other progra

  17. From Participation to Adoption: Comparing the effectiveness of soil conservation programs in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, H.; Gardebroek, C.; Ruben, R.

    2010-01-01

    Many efforts are made to promote soil conservation in developing countries. This paper compares the effect of two programs promoting soil conservation in Peru on the adoption decision of households. One program applies a top-down approach with soil conservation as its core activity. The other

  18. Effects of a Conservation Education Camp Program on Campers' Self-Reported Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Cara K.; Card, Jaclyn A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effects of a conservation education camp program offered through one zoo education department. The conservation education program included 4 levels of camps with increasing levels of animal husbandry. Campers rated their conservation knowledge, attitude, and behavior prior to, immediately after, and 1 month…

  19. 77 FR 1591 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ...-AC38 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers AGENCY: Office of... and Background A. Authority Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6291, et... subject of today's rulemaking. DOE's energy conservation program, established under EPCA,...

  20. Programs in Fortran language for reporting the results of the analyses by ICP emission spectroscopy; Programas en lenguaje Fortran para la informacion de los resultados de los analisis efectuados mediante Espectroscopia Optica de emision con fuente de plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M.

    1985-07-01

    Three programs, written in FORTRAN IV language, for reporting the results of the analyses by ICP emission spectroscopy from data stored in files on floppy disks have been developed. They are intended, respectively, for the analyses of: 1) waters, 2) granites and slates, and 3) different kinds of geological materials. (Author) 8 refs.

  1. Conserved Gene Expression Programs in Developing Roots from Diverse Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Schiefelbein, John

    2015-08-01

    The molecular basis for the origin and diversification of morphological adaptations is a central issue in evolutionary developmental biology. Here, we defined temporal transcript accumulation in developing roots from seven vascular plants, permitting a genome-wide comparative analysis of the molecular programs used by a single organ across diverse species. The resulting gene expression maps uncover significant similarity in the genes employed in roots and their developmental expression profiles. The detailed analysis of a subset of 133 genes known to be associated with root development in Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that most of these are used in all plant species. Strikingly, this was also true for root development in a lycophyte (Selaginella moellendorffii), which forms morphologically different roots and is thought to have evolved roots independently. Thus, despite vast differences in size and anatomy of roots from diverse plants, the basic molecular mechanisms employed during root formation appear to be conserved. This suggests that roots evolved in the two major vascular plant lineages either by parallel recruitment of largely the same developmental program or by elaboration of an existing root program in the common ancestor of vascular plants.

  2. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) program represents a Presidential priority to invest in the cheapest, cleanest and most reliable energy technologies we have—energy efficiency and conservation—which can be deployed immediately.

  3. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) program represents a Presidential priority to invest in the cheapest, cleanest and most reliable energy technologies we have—energy efficiency and conservation—which can be deployed immediately.

  4. Primate conservation: integrating communities through environmental education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Suzana M

    2010-05-01

    Environmental education has evolved over the years to respond to the varied complexities found in the different localities where it is practiced. In many parts of the world where biodiversity is rich, social conditions are poor, so educators have included sustainable development alternatives to better the environment and the livelihoods of local communities. Primate conservation education programs, which are often based in areas that face such challenges, have been a vanguard in creating means to integrate people with their natural environment and thus conquer supporters for the protection of natural habitats. In the search for effectiveness they have adopted evaluation methods to help assess what was offered. An example from Brazil is described in this commentary.

  5. 75 FR 17079 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Part 431 Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification... manufacturers or private labelers to report on and certify compliance with energy efficiency standards for... Service officials to facilitate compliance with and enforcement of the energy conservation...

  6. 75 FR 73027 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... will be accomplished through a conservation systems approach to address water quality, wetland, and...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Natural...

  7. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume I. Energy conservation technology: management and energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction was developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This training manual is both an introduction to the need for energy conservation in buildings and a definition of the need for and the role of the enforcement official for energy conservation.

  8. 77 FR 13261 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY..., State and Private Forestry, Cooperative Forestry staff, published a document in the Federal Register of... Conservation Program (Community Forest Program or CFP). The document contained incorrect funding information...

  9. Amur tiger conservation education program: A pilot study on program effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhacheva, Anna S; Derugina, Vasilissa V; Maksimova, Galina D; Soutyrina, Svetlana V

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic impacts are the primary threats to Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and their habitat. Villagers living in proximity to tigers tend to view them negatively and, often, as a source of revenue on black markets. We aim to reduce human-tiger conflict by working with young students of Ternei County in the heart of tiger habitat in Primorskii Krai (Province). To inform and influence Ternei County's future decision-makers, we developed "Safe Conduct", a year-long education program held in 6 villages, culminating in a multi-school conference. We tested the efficacy of Safe Conduct as a potential model for tiger conservation educational programs. We measured levels of student knowledge about tiger ecology, their attitude towards tigers, and their willingness to engage in tiger conservation activites prior to, immediately after and 6 months following the completion of our program. Results supported the fundamental premise of Safe Conduct that knowledge and attitude towards tigers are correlated. Knowledge of tiger ecology and attitude towards tigers increased by the project's completion; both remained high after 6 months. However, commitment to participation in conservation efforts rose temporarily post-program and then dropped. Results varied by village. We recommend that the reasons for the high performance measures of students in 2 villages be investigated, and that lessons learned be applied to villages that underperformed. Safe Conduct represents a potential model for environmental education programs in Ternei County and elsewhere to educate future generations, to eventually develop a strong commitment to Amur tiger conservation at the community level.

  10. A human-centered framework for innovation in conservation incentive programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Donlan, C Josh

    2015-12-01

    The promise of environmental conservation incentive programs that provide direct payments in exchange for conservation outcomes is that they enhance the value of engaging in stewardship behaviors. An insidious but important concern is that a narrow focus on optimizing payment levels can ultimately suppress program participation and subvert participants' internal motivation to engage in long-term conservation behaviors. Increasing participation and engendering stewardship can be achieved by recognizing that participation is not simply a function of the payment; it is a function of the overall structure and administration of the program. Key to creating innovative and more sustainable programs is fitting them within the existing needs and values of target participants. By focusing on empathy for participants, co-designing program approaches, and learning from the rapid prototyping of program concepts, a human-centered approach to conservation incentive program design enhances the propensity for discovery of novel and innovative solutions to pressing conservation issues.

  11. Chapter 1: Assessing pollinator habitat services to optimize conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanna, Richard; Ando , Amy W.; Swinton, Scott; Hellerstein, Daniel; Kagan, Jimmy; Mushet, David M.; Otto, Clint R.; Rewa, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Pollination services have received increased attention over the past several years, and protecting foraging area is beginning to be reflected in conservation policy. This case study considers the prospects for doing so in a more analytically rigorous manner, by quantifying the pollination services for sites being considered for ecological restoration. The specific policy context is the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), which offers financial and technical assistance to landowners seeking to convert sensitive cropland back to some semblance of the prairie (or, to a lesser extent, forest or wetland) ecosystem that preceded it. Depending on the mix of grasses and wildflowers that are established, CRP enrollments can provide pollinator habitat. Further, depending on their location, they will generate related services, such as biological control of crop pests, recreation, and aesthetics. While offers to enroll in CRP compete based on cost and some anticipated benefits, the eligibility and ranking criteria do not reflect these services to a meaningful degree. Therefore, we develop a conceptual value diagram to identify the sequence of steps and associated models and data necessary to quantify the full range of services, and find that critical data gaps, some of which are artifacts of policy, preclude the application of benefit-relevant indicators (BRIs) or monetization. However, we also find that there is considerable research activity underway to fill these gaps. In addition, a modeling framework has been developed that can estimate field-level effects on services as a function of landscape context. The approach is inherently scalable and not limited in geographic scope, which is essential for a program with a national footprint. The parameters in this framework are sufficiently straightforward that expert judgment could be applied as a stopgap approach until empirically derived estimates are available. While monetization of benefit-relevant indicators of yield

  12. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB99 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts... procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The... the Secretary I. Authority and Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42...

  13. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products... pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The five sources are electricity, natural gas, No. 2... of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Act) requires that DOE prescribe test procedures for...

  14. 77 FR 28805 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY.... Authority and Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6291, et seq... essentially of four parts: (1) Testing, (2) labeling, (3) Federal energy conservation standards, and...

  15. 78 FR 62488 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date for the Dehumidifier Test Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AD06 Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date for the Dehumidifier Test Procedure... for the dehumidifier test procedures established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA... with the existing energy conservation standards, with the following exceptions. The appendix in...

  16. 78 FR 8992 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC63 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers... procedures for residential clothes dryers established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The... Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6291, et seq.; ``EPCA'' or...

  17. 78 FR 79637 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Set-Top Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...-BT-TP-0046] RIN 1904-AC52 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Set-Top Boxes AGENCY.... Authority Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6291, et seq.; ``EPCA'') sets forth... Administrative practice and procedure, Confidential business information, Energy conservation,...

  18. 76 FR 76328 - Energy Conservation Program: Enforcement of Regional Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC68 Energy Conservation Program: Enforcement of Regional Standards for... (EISA) of 2007 modified the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) to authorize DOE to consider... enforcement of regional energy conservation standards for residential furnaces and residential central...

  19. 77 FR 20291 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers... determine compliance of their products with energy conservation standards until the compliance date of any... need not be performed to determine compliance with the energy conservation standards for...

  20. 76 FR 72332 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...-BT-TP-0011] RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY... 9, 2011, amending its test procedures for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation... Secretary I. Background and Legal Authority Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42...

  1. 78 FR 12349 - Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (LWCF Act) (16 U.S.C. 460l-4 et seq... discussed in detail in the Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program Federal...

  2. 76 FR 30186 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Birds and Wetlands Conservation Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Birds and Wetlands Conservation... administers grant programs associated with the North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA), Public Law... partnerships to carry out wetlands conservation projects in the United States, Canada, and Mexico for...

  3. 40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.80 Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General. The Administrator will allocate allowances from the Conservation...

  4. Selected effects of the Conservation Reserve Program on program participants: A report to survey respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.; Allen, Arthur W.; Sexton, Natalie R.

    2002-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) established under the 1985 Food Security Act was initially designed to provide the agricultural community economic assistance while protecting highly erodible cropland. Many of the environmental benefits to soil, water, and wildlife resources have been documented (Dunn and others, 1993; Ryan and others, 1998; Flather and others, 1999; Heard and others, 2000). However, the personal and social effects of the program on CRP participants (or contractees) had not been formally documented. Information had been limited to anecdotal comments from individual participants, such as: “since establishment of the CRP the streams have surface water in them” or “the CRP grasses capture drifting snow, making winter feeding of cattle easier.” The Farm Service Agency (FSA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) wanted to have a better picture of the strengths and weaknesses of the program, according to those most affected by it. In addition, policy makers wanted to get input from program participants on the growing emphasis of the program on long-term management and wildlife habitat requirements.

  5. Assessment of USDA-NRCS Rangeland Conservation Programs: Recommendation for an Evidence-based Conservation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was created in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget that the U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA – NRCS) document the societal benefits anticipated to accrue from a major increase in...

  6. 76 FR 38618 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coral Reef Conservation Program Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... United States (U.S.) jurisdictions containing coral reefs. Specifically, NOAA is seeking information on... collection of social and economic data related to the communities affected by coral reef conservation programs. The Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP), developed under the authority of the Coral Reef...

  7. Snakes. A Conservation Education Program of the Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kelly; Theiss, Nancy S.

    The Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources is charged with the responsibility to preserve, protect, and perpetuate the fish and wildlife in Kentucky. Involved in this broad program are a number of services, including the Wildlife Conservation Education Program. During the months of September through April, Conservation Club leaders…

  8. 75 FR 28801 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program: Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program: Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000013) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... grants of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program of the American Recovery...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Energy Program Conservation Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... have a personal and sustained commitment to the program, provide active direction and motivation, and... energy conservation. (7) Employee Awareness. Employees must gain an awareness of energy conservation through formal training and employee information programs. They should be invited to participate in...

  10. Successes and challenges from formation to implementation of eleven broad-extent conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A; Mattsson, Brady J; Germino, Matthew J; Burg, Max Post Van Der; Bradford, John B; Brunson, Mark W

    2014-04-01

    Integration of conservation partnerships across geographic, biological, and administrative boundaries is increasingly relevant because drivers of change, such as climate shifts, transcend these boundaries. We explored successes and challenges of established conservation programs that span multiple watersheds and consider both social and ecological concerns. We asked representatives from a diverse set of 11 broad-extent conservation partnerships in 29 countries 17 questions that pertained to launching and maintaining partnerships for broad-extent conservation, specifying ultimate management objectives, and implementation and learning. Partnerships invested more funds in implementing conservation actions than any other aspect of conservation, and a program's context (geographic extent, United States vs. other countries, developed vs. developing nation) appeared to substantially affect program approach. Despite early successes of these organizations and benefits of broad-extent conservation, specific challenges related to uncertainties in scaling up information and to coordination in the face of diverse partner governance structures, conflicting objectives, and vast uncertainties regarding future system dynamics hindered long-term success, as demonstrated by the focal organizations. Engaging stakeholders, developing conservation measures, and implementing adaptive management were dominant challenges. To inform future research on broad-extent conservation, we considered several challenges when we developed detailed questions, such as what qualities of broad-extent partnerships ensure they complement, integrate, and strengthen, rather than replace, local conservation efforts and which adaptive management processes yield actionable conservation strategies that account explicitly for dynamics and uncertainties regarding multiscale governance, environmental conditions, and knowledge of the system? © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Evaluation of conservation program for the Pantaneiro horse in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A genealogical analysis of registered Pantaneiro horses was carried out with 3647 males and 6794 females. Of these animals, 50.66% had identified sires and 48.86% identified dams. The number of pedigrees increased over the generations, with higher registration of parents of sires than dams. Two municipalities are responsible for almost 70% of all registers: i Poconé (Mato Grosso State, where the headquarters of the breeders association is located and ii Corumbá (Mato Grosso do Sul State, where EMBRAPA Pantanal conducts its research. The mean inbreeding was 0.04% and average relatedness was 0.13%. Mean generation interval was 8.20 years. There is moderate to high genetic differentiation between farms (15% of total genetic variation while between municipalities there is little differentiation. Wright's fixation statistics were calculated and F IS (inbreeding coefficient of individuals relative to the subpopulation values indicate some heterozygosity between farms but not municipalities, with overall F IT (inbreeding coefficient of individuals relative to the total population close to zero. The municipalities with the highest number of animals (Poconé and Corumbá import relatively fewer sires (45 and 67% respectively. Genetic indices from genealogical data on the Pantaneiro horse population show that inbreeding is under control.Future breeding plans should include germplasm exchange between municipalities. The conservation program for the Pantaneiro horse has been shown to be successful but careful planning is needed in the future to avoid inbreeding and changes in important breed traits given the increasing interest in the use of the breed in sporting competitions.

  12. Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs Fiscal Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  13. Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  14. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects to address coral reef conservation issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to address aspects of coral reef conservation: Enhancing Management of Pacific ESA-listed Corals with Improved Utility...

  15. ICP-MS Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carman, April J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eiden, Gregory C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This is a short document that explains the materials that will be transmitted to LLNL and DNN HQ regarding the ICP-MS Workshop held at PNNL June 17-19th. The goal of the information is to pass on to LLNL information regarding the planning and preparations for the Workshop at PNNL in preparation of the SIMS workshop at LLNL.

  16. Factors that influence the success of conservation programs in communal property areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Bunge-Vivier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the natural vegetation in Mexico is managed collectively within common property systems. The appropriation and continuity of government programs related to the conservation of land that is communally used is proposed to depend on the level of organization of the communities and the interaction between the local and governmental institutions, as well as the benefits derived from conservation projects. Patterns of what drives the conservation of common natural resources were analyzed in order to propose improvements to conservation policy. Changes in primary and secondary vegetation cover in common and private properties were identified by performing a historical spatial analysis. Questionnaires were used to survey 32 populations of seven states of the Mexican Republic to determine the conservation status of common property resources, as well as the ability of the community to continue conservation activities initially undertaken by government programs. Some 53% of the primary and secondary vegetation in Mexico is found in common property areas, but the change from primary and secondary vegetation to other uses is the same for common and private property. Communities with a high level of conservation of communal areas and with the ability to continue conservation projects were those that had dedicated the areas to recreation and conservation, had stronger community organization and were less marginalized. A recognition of the heterogeneity of the socioeconomic and cultural context of communities with common property is necessary to design governmental conservation programs that achieve long-term conservation. To meet the needs of a region that is both degraded and marginalized, the creation of synergies between programs that combat poverty and programs that promote conservation is needed. In addition, the continuation of payments with public funds for work that preserves or rehabilitates natural areas is needed, thereby

  17. 78 FR 12969 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... manufactures thermal storage water heater controls. This is referred to as the ``Joint Utilities comment'' in... Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... heaters. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether more...

  18. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... 46,000 65 Table II.3--Current Federal Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters Thermal efficiency as of Product class January 1, 1990 Gas-Fired Pool Heater Thermal Efficiency = 78% ] 2. History of... Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No....

  19. 76 FR 52854 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Equipment Price Forecasting in Energy Conservation Standards Analysis (76 FR 9696, Feb. 22, 2011), has not... innovations for production of gas from tight shales. AGA recommended that DOE conduct its analysis using the.... Equipment Price Forecasting AHAM expressed concern regarding the use of experience curves in equipment...

  20. 75 FR 1651 - Multistate Conservation Grant Program; Priority List for Conservation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... management and research projects, boating access development, hunter safety and education, aquatic education... be eligible for funding, a project must benefit fish and/or wildlife conservation in at least 26... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  1. 77 FR 31964 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Dishwashers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... email, postal mail, or hand delivery/courier two well-marked copies: one copy of the document marked.... 77, No. 104 / Wednesday, May 30, 2012 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429... rule. SUMMARY: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy...

  2. 76 FR 26656 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... U.S.C. 6295(o) or other applicable law. If the Secretary makes such a determination, DOE must..., Arcelik, Fisher & Paykel, Scotsman Ice, Indesit, Kuppersbusch, Kelon, and DeLonghi); energy and... Water Efficiency (AWE), Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), and Northeast Energy...

  3. Successes and challenges from formation to implementation of eleven broad-extent conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Bradford, John B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Post van der Burg, Max; Brunson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Integration of conservation partnerships across geographic, biological, and administrative boundaries is increasingly relevant because drivers of change, such as climate shifts, transcend these boundaries. We explored successes and challenges of established conservation programs that span multiple watersheds and consider both social and ecological concerns. We asked representatives from a diverse set of 11 broadextent conservation partnerships in 29 countries 17 questions that pertained to launching and maintaining partnerships for broad-extent conservation, specifying ultimate management objectives, and implementation and learning. Partnerships invested more funds in implementing conservation actions than any other aspect of conservation, and a program’s context (geographic extent, United States vs. other countries, developed vs. developing nation) appeared to substantially affect program approach. Despite early successes of these organizations and benefits of broad-extent conservation, specific challenges related to uncertainties in scaling up information and to coordination in the face of diverse partner governance structures, conflicting objectives, and vast uncertainties regarding future system dynamics hindered long-term success, as demonstrated by the focal organizations. Engaging stakeholders, developing conservation measures, and implementing adaptive management were dominant challenges. To inform future research on broad-extent conservation, we considered several challenges when we developed detailed questions, such as what qualities of broad-extent partnerships ensure they complement, integrate, and strengthen, rather than replace, local conservation efforts and which adaptive management processes yield actionable conservation strategies that account explicitly for dynamics and uncertainties regarding multiscale governance, environmental conditions, and knowledge of the system?

  4. Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

  5. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program: Bibliography, 1988 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H. (comp.)

    1988-04-01

    The 831 references covering the period 1980 through Feb. 1988, are arranged under the following: analysis and evaluation, building equipment, building thermal envelope systems and materials, community systems and cogeneration, residential conservation service, retrofit, advanced heat engine ceramics, alternative fuels, microemulsion fuels, industrial chemical heat pumps, materials for waste heat utilization, energy conversion and utilization materials, tribology, emergency energy conservation,inventions, electric energy systems, thermal storage, biofuels production, biotechnology, solar technology, geothermal, and continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations. An author index is included.

  6. Residue Management: A Computer Program About Conservation Tillage Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Steve J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, Residue Management, which is designed to supplement discussions on the Universal Soil Loss Equation and the impact of tillage on soil properties for introductory soil courses. The program advances the user through three stages of residue management. Information on obtaining the program is also included. (ML)

  7. 78 FR 48035 - Conservation Reserve Program, Re-Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... years in exchange for annual rental payments and financial assistance to install certain conservation.... 553 or the Statement of Policy of the Secretary of Agriculture effective July 24, 1971, (36 FR 13804... impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasized the importance of quantifying both costs...

  8. 75 FR 66119 - Proposed Information Collection; International Conservation Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... most treasured and exotic animals are dangerously close to extinction. Destruction of natural habitat, illegal poaching, and pet-trade smuggling are devastating populations of tigers, rhinos, marine turtles... Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-411). Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Act of 1994 (16 U.S.C. 5306). Marine...

  9. Earth is a Marine Habitat. Habitat Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This brochure is intended to educate the public about the need to conserve and preserve the earth's environment (man's habitat). It contains an introduction to the ocean world and threats to coastal habitat. Photos and narrative revolve around the theme "Earth is a Marine Habitat." Sections include: "The Web of Life,""Oceans and the United…

  10. Using Audience Segmentation to Tailor Residential Irrigation Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Today's complex issues require technical expertise as well as the application of innovative social science techniques within Extension contexts. Researchers have suggested that a social science approach will play a critical role in water conservation, and people who use home landscape irrigation comprise a critical target audience for agriculture…

  11. 77 FR 35299 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    .... Description of Utility Electric Thermal Storage Programs for Water Heaters B. Discussion of Utility Company... Electric Thermal Storage Programs for Water Heaters Electric thermal storage (ETS) programs, also known as... Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water...

  12. Energy conservation: Policies, programs, and general studies. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-08-01

    National policies, programs, and general studies or ways to conserve energy are presented. Topic areas cover such subjects as electric load management, effects of price and taxation on energy conservation, public attitudes and behavior toward energy saving, energy savings through reduction in hot water consumption, and telecommunications substitutability for travel.

  13. Assessing the effects of USDA conservation programs on ecosystem services provided by wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is led by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in an effort to quantify the environmental effects of conservation programs and practices on privately owned agricultural landscapes across the United States. CEAP’s approach includes application ...

  14. 75 FR 17078 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Part 431 Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification... horsepower electric motors covered under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended, Public Law 94-163, codified at, 42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq. Under EPCA, a manufacturer or private labeler...

  15. 76 FR 65631 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC26 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office... efficiency test procedure for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). 75...

  16. Water Conservation and Reuse. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Univ., Middletown. Inst. of State and Regional Affairs.

    Described is a learning session on water conservation intended for citizen advisory groups interested in water quality planning. Topics addressed in this instructor's manual include water conservation needs, benefits, programs, technology, and problems. These materials are components of the Working for Clean Water Project. (Author/WB)

  17. What happens to soil ecological properties when conservation reserve program land is disturbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, expiring Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts results in the conversion of restored CRP land back to croplands, potentially reversing multiple ecological benefits including C sequestration potential and microbial biodiversity. We evaluated microbial community composition (fatty ac...

  18. Combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Jared G

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss is a major factor in the endangerment and extinction of species around the world. One promising strategy to balance continued habitat loss and biodiversity conservation is that of biodiversity offsets. However, a major concern with offset programs is their consistency with landscape-level conservation goals. While merging offset policies and landscape-level conservation planning is thought to provide advantages over a traditional disconnected approach, few such landscape-level conservation-offset plans have been designed and implemented, so the effectiveness of such a strategy remains uncertain. In this study, we quantitatively assess the conservation impact of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs by comparing regions of San Diego County, USA with the combined approach to regions with only an offset program. This comparison is generally very difficult due to a variety of complicating factors. We overcome these complications and quantify the benefits to rare and threatened species of implementing a combined approach by assessing the amount of each species' predicted distribution, and the number of documented locations, conserved in comparison to the same metric for areas with an offset policy alone. We found that adoption of the combined approach has increased conservation for many rare species, often 5-10 times more than in the comparison area, and that conservation has been focused in the areas most important for these species. The level of conservation achieved reduces uncertainty that these species will persist in the region into the future. This San Diego County example demonstrates the potential benefits of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs.

  19. The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Acs, Szvetlana; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Incentive payments to private landowners provide a common strategy to conserve biodiversity and enhance the supply of goods and services from ecosystems. To deliver cost-effective improvements in biodiversity, payment schemes must trade-off inefficiencies that result from over-simplified policies...... are worth bearing even when these constitute a substantial proportion (70% or more) of the payments that would otherwise have been given to farmers....

  20. Process of consumer energy conservation: A conceptual framework for program analysis. Energy conservation programs for consumers: A comparative overview of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerges, B.; Olsen, M.E.; Mueller, H.

    1983-01-01

    In the first volume of the CECP Technical Reports Series two studies are combined: one version of the initial conceptual framework guiding CECP-research, and a condensed comparative analysis of the national findings in phase I of our research. Since the two papers originally stood on their own, some figures, tables, introductory remarks, and explications of terms are repeated. The first part, on the process of consumer energy conservation, is one of several formulations of a conceptual and analytical perspective for the evaluation of energy conservation policies and programs. The second part, on the comparison of conservation policies and programs, summarizes the findings of studies in the eight countries included. This cross-national overview should be understood as an attempt to identify common themes and trends as well as characteristic differences in conservation policies and programs directed at private end-users of energy. It should not be read as a substitute but rather an invitation to refer back to the original studies contained in this series.

  1. Multi-faceted energy-conservation program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design and build 19 solar thermosiphoning air panels, insulate walls, generally tighten up the library building, and install other energy conserving devices. Another purpose of the project was to serve as a model to other libraries in Kentucky, to commercial buildings in this area, and to homeowners in the area. After much discussion with architects and among ourselves, we chose a type of solar installation that would be visible to the public and easily replicated. We also carried out a number of procedures to make the library building more energy efficient: installed a 7-day programmable setback thermostat; insulated the walls; improved weatherstripping around the doors; added an economizer control to our air-handling system; and put an electric damper controlling supply air to a large but intermittently usedmeeting room. These changes resulted in approximately $700 in savings from December 1981, through February 1982. Thus far, we have carried out public education with a sign, brochures, press releases, and the purchase of appropriate books; librarians have received our brochure, and some have attended a workshop given here on energy conservation and solar energy.

  2. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    Tropical Forests: A Call for Action. Report of an International Task Force convened by the World Resources Institute, The World Bank, and the United Nations Development Program. World Resources Institute, 1735 New York Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006, U.S.A. October 1985. ISBN 0-915825-10-4. The

  3. Training program for energy conservation in new building construction. Volume III. Energy conservation technology for plan examiners and code administrators. Energy Conservation Technology Series 200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, a Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. The subject of regulation of new building construction to assure energy conservation is recognized as one in which code officials have not had previous exposure. It was also determined that application of the model code would be made at varying levels by officials with both a specific requirement for knowledge and a differing degree of prior training in the state-of-the-art. Therefore, a training program and instructional materials were developed for code officials to assist them in the implementation and enforcement of energy efficient standards and codes. The training program for Energy Conservation Tehnology for Plan Examiners and Code Administrators (ECT Series 200) is presented.

  4. Programmed Instruction Manual for a New Solar and Energy Conservation Laboratory. Final Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. of New York, Farmingdale. Agricultural and Technical Coll.

    A programmed instruction course was developed, consisting of fifteen experiments encompassing eleven separate pieces of equipment operational in a solar and energy conservation lab. The programmed instruction manual for the lab was evaluated and revised during a workshop. This evaluation indicated that both the lab and manual are valuable tools…

  5. Empirical Evidence in Support of a Research-Informed Water Conservation Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ruthanne; Serna, Victoria Faubion

    2016-01-01

    Based on results from a 2008 research study of regional citizen knowledge concerning watershed issues, a water conservation education program was designed and implemented. Findings from the initial study demonstrated program success as evidenced by knowledge gain and willingness to "commit" to water saving behaviors in 94% of students. A…

  6. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC88 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  7. ICP35 Is a TREX-Like Protein Identified in White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairoh, Panapat; Suthibatpong, Thana; Rattanarojpong, Triwit; Jongruja, Nujarin; Senapin, Saengchan; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Khunrae, Pongsak

    2016-01-01

    ICP35 is a non-structural protein from White spot syndrome virus believed to be important in viral replication. Since ICP35 was found to localize in the host nucleus, it has been speculated that the function of ICP35 might be involved in the interaction of DNA. In this study, we overexpressed, purified and characterized ICP35. The thioredoxin-fused ICP35 (thio-ICP35) was strongly expressed in E. coli and be able to form itself into dimers. Investigation of the interaction between ICP35 and DNA revealed that ICP35 can perform DNase activity. Structural model of ICP35 was successfully built on TREX1, suggesting that ICP35 might adopt the folding similar to that of TREX1 protein. Several residues important for dimerization in TREX1 are also conserved in ICP35. Residue Asn126 and Asp132, which are seen to be in close proximity to metal ions in the ICP35 model, were shown through site-directed mutagenesis to be critical for DNase activity. PMID:27348862

  8. 76 FR 744 - Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... 1500-1508 as well as the Council on Environmental Quality's NEPA procedures at 40 CFR 1500-1508. CFP... of Grant Requirements with the deed in the lands records of the local county or municipality. (2... include: improved water quality, wildlife and fish habitat, forest based educational programs including...

  9. A landholder-based approach to the design of private-land conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Cocklin, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Many ecosystems exist primarily, or solely, on privately owned (freehold) or managed (leasehold) land. In rural and semirural areas, local and regional government agencies are commonly responsible for encouraging landholders to conserve native vegetation and species on these private properties. Yet these agencies often lack the capacity to design and implement conservation programs tailored to rural and semirural landholdings and instead offer one program to all landholders. Landholders may elect not to participate because the program is irrelevant to their property or personal needs; consequently, vegetation-retention objectives may not be achieved. We differentiated landholders in Queensland, Australia, according to whether they derived income from the land (production landholders) or not (nonproduction landholders). We compared these two groups to identify similarities and differences that may inform the use of policy instruments (e.g., voluntary, economic, and regulatory) in conservation program design. We interviewed 45 landholders participating in three different conservation agreement programs (price-based rate [property tax] rebate; market-based tender; and voluntary, permanent covenant). Production landholders were more likely to participate in short-term programs that offered large financial incentives that applied to 75% of their property. These results may be explained by significant differences in the personal circumstances of production and nonproduction landholders (income, education, health) and differences in their norms (beliefs about how an individual is expected to act) and attitudes. Knowledge of these differences may allow for development of conservation programs that better meet the needs of landholders and thus increase participation in conservation programs and retention of native vegetation.

  10. Conservation Compromises: The MAB and the Legacy of the International Biological Program, 1964-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleper, Simone

    2017-02-01

    This article looks at the International Biological Program (IBP) as the predecessor of UNESCO's well-known and highly successful Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB). It argues that international conservation efforts of the 1970s, such as the MAB, must in fact be understood as a compound of two opposing attempts to reform international conservation in the 1960s. The scientific framework of the MAB has its origins in disputes between high-level conservationists affiliated with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) about what the IBP meant for the future of conservation. Their respective visions entailed different ecological philosophies as much as diverging sets of political ideologies regarding the global implementation of conservation. Within the IBP's Conservation Section, one group propagated a universal systems approach to conservation with a centralized, technocratic management of nature and society by an elite group of independent scientific experts. Within IUCN, a second group based their notion of environmental expert roles on a more descriptive and local ecology of resource mapping as practiced by UNESCO. When the IBP came to an end in 1974, both groups' ecological philosophies played into the scientific framework underlying the MAB's World Network or Biosphere Reserves. The article argues that it is impossible to understand the course of conservation within the MAB without studying the dynamics and discourses between the two underlying expert groups and their respective visions for reforming conservation.

  11. The ERP energy conservation program. Das ERP-Energiesparprogramm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althammer, W. (Deutsche Ausgleichsbank, Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-08-17

    The paper mainly addresses small- and medium-scale enterprises. ERP financial assistance is exclusively intended for the support of projects which promise economic and industrial benefits. It is explicitly reserved for projects which very much depend on financial support, and would hardly get along otherwise. The overall economic situation of owners is to be considered. Plants in need of rehabilitation are excluded from this program. (orig.).

  12. Management of conservation reserve program grasslands to meet wildlife habitat objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.; Allen, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies document environmental and social benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). This report offers a synopsis of findings regarding effects of establishing CRP conservation practices on the quality and distribution of wildlife habitat in agricultural landscapes. On individual farms, year-round provision of wildlife habitat by the CRP may appear relatively insignificant. However, considered from multi-farm to National scales, such improvements in habitat and wildlife response have proven to be extensive and profound.

  13. Expansion of the residential conservation service program to multi-family and small commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    Alternative regulatory provisions are considered which might permit achievement of the building energy conservation regulatory goals at a lower cost. Major issues, regulatory and legislative options, and cost-benefit analyses are discussed for multi-family and commercial buildings. The following are presented: related government programs, urban and community impact analysis, institutional impacts, energy cost, Residential Conservation Service coverage, methods of analysis, and regional studies. (MHR)

  14. Three essays on the incentive structure of energy conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwelum, Edson Ogochukwu

    This dissertation is comprised of three related essays examining the potential effectiveness of government energy efficiency programs from both the producer and consumer perspectives. The first chapter is based on a paper I coauthored with Corey Lang. In this manuscript, I address the question of whether strategic behavior by consumers could result in the erosion of energy savings in a demand response program. Understanding how the strategic behavior of consumers affects the net benefits from a demand response program has policy implications because of the increasing importance that demand response has come to play in utility load and reliability management during peak times. Using data from a large field experiment in California in 2007, we test the hypothesis that under a technology program, consumers' strategic behavior results in outcomes that are opposite what is obtainable under a program with price incentive or based of behavior. Chapter II is also an empirical study which explores how the preferences of consumers for large and heavy vehicles imposes costs on society in the form of external costs of accident. This chapter looks at how fleet changes in weight distribution due to corporate average fuel economy and consumer demand for heavier vehicles results in fatalities. It is important to understand how consumer behavior affects the accident rates so that one can obtain unbiased estimates of accident costs that go into benefit-cost analysis of the impact of regulations in automobiles. Chapter three addresses how unobserved heterogeneity and sorting affect the estimates of the consumer willingness to pay for reduction in future gasoline costs. This tradeoff is important to policy makers and manufactures because it could help explain why manufacturers fail to adopt technologies for which the fuel savings far outweigh the costs. The remainder of the abstract provides a more detailed outlines of the three essays. Chapter 1 explores strategic behavior by

  15. Hearing of Personnel Included in the USAF Hearing Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    ORGNIZTIO NAE AN ADRES - 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK 9. PFORINGORGAIZAIONNAMEANDADDESSAREA ft WORK UNIT NUMBERS USAF School of Aerospace Medicine...0 0)~’ to (00w " 0 -q N~ m M VC0 CO~j 0 N 01) a)inUjU) tD -4 N o O 0 N 0 a) m m~0 di .. 0 alO1 O0- cn cO N - m -4N (0-00N (0 it) W N n N . o4Ca 0 0

  16. San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Rare Plant Monitoring Review and Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlik, Bruce M.; Rebman, Jon; Sutter, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the south part of San Diego County, under the California Natural Community Conservation Planning Act of 1991 (California Department of Fish and Game) and the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S. Code 1531-1544.) The Program is on the leading edge of conservation, as it seeks to both guide development and conserve at-risk species with the oversight of both State and Federal agencies. Lands were identified for inclusion in the MSCP based on their value as habitat for at-risk plants or plant communities (Natural Community Conservation Planning, 2005). Since its inception in the mid-1990s the Program has protected over 100,000 acres, involving 15 jurisdictions and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) in the conservation of 87 taxa. Surveys for covered species have been conducted, and management and monitoring have been implemented at some high priority sites. Each jurisdiction or agency manages and monitors their conservation areas independently, while collaborating regionally for long-term protection. The San Diego MSCP is on the forefront of conservation, in one of the most rapidly growing urban areas of the country. The planning effort that developed the MSCP was state-of-the-art, using expert knowledge, spatial habitat modeling, and principles of preserve design to identify and prioritize areas for protection. Land acquisition and protection are ahead of schedule for most jurisdictions. Surveys have verified the locations of many rare plant populations known from earlier collections, and they provide general information on population size and health useful for further conservation planning. Management plans have been written or are in development for most MSCP parcels under jurisdictional control. Several agencies are developing databases for implementation

  17. Natural forest conservation hierarchical program with neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Chuanwen; LI Jihong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,the implementing steps of a natural forest protection program grading (NFPPG) with neural network (NN) were summarized and the concepts of program illustration,patch sign unification and regression,and inclining factor were set forth.Employing Arc/Info GIS,the tree species diversity and rarity,disturbance degree,protection of channel system,and classification management in the Maoershan National Forest Park were described,and used as the input factors of NN.The relationships between NFPPG and above factors were also analyzed.By artificially determining training samples,the NFPPG of Moershan National Forest Park was created.Tested with all patches in the park,the generalization of NFPPG was satisfied.NFPPG took both the classification management and the protection of forest community types into account,as well as the ecological environment.The excitation function of NFPPG was not seriously saturated,indicating the leading effect of the inclining factor on the network optimization.

  18. Persepsi Guru dan Siswa SD di Yogyakarta terhadap Program Conservation Scout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Wido Sari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Penanaman karakter cinta lingkungan dan pemahaman akan pentingnya konservasi perlu dilakukan sejak dini. Program conservation scout atau pandu konservasi menawarkan edukasi dan empowering siswa SD mengenai konservasi. Kegiatan ini bertempat di Pusat Studi Lingkungan, Universitas Sanata Dharma dan melibatkan 38 SD di Yogyakarta. Peserta conservation scout terdiri dari 32 guru dan 70 siswa SD.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat respon sekolah, persepsi guru, persepsi siswa, dan keberhasilan sekolah dalam mendukung program conservation scout. Metode yang digunakan adalah action reseach, survey, dan diskriptif kualitatif. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah kuesioner dengan hasil validasi sangat baik.Sekolah memberikan respon sangat positif (84% terhadap program conservation scout, dari 38 sekolah yang diundang, ada 32 sekolah yang mengikuti program ini. Guru memberikan persepsi negatif (2,50, bukan pada esensi program melainkan pada teknik pelaksanaan program. Siswa memberikan persepsi positif (3,51 dan 36 dari 70 siswa berhasil melakukan peer tutoring dan kampanye mengenai konservasi. Ada 53, 12 % SD yang siswanya menjadi duta konservasi lingkungan.

  19. Estimating landholders' probability of participating in a stewardship program, and the implications for spatial conservation priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M Adams

    Full Text Available The need to integrate social and economic factors into conservation planning has become a focus of academic discussions and has important practical implications for the implementation of conservation areas, both private and public. We conducted a survey in the Daly Catchment, Northern Territory, to inform the design and implementation of a stewardship payment program. We used a choice model to estimate the likely level of participation in two legal arrangements--conservation covenants and management agreements--based on payment level and proportion of properties required to be managed. We then spatially predicted landholders' probability of participating at the resolution of individual properties and incorporated these predictions into conservation planning software to examine the potential for the stewardship program to meet conservation objectives. We found that the properties that were least costly, per unit area, to manage were also the least likely to participate. This highlights a tension between planning for a cost-effective program and planning for a program that targets properties with the highest probability of participation.

  20. An Empirical Evaluation of Private Landowner Participation in Voluntary Forest Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauneckis, Derek; York, Abigail M.

    2009-09-01

    The use of voluntary programs targeting resource conservation on private land has become increasingly prevalent in environmental policy. Voluntary programs potentially offer significant benefits over regulatory and market-based approaches. This article examines the factors affecting landowner participation in voluntary forest conservation programs using a combination of parcel-level GIS and remotely sensed data and semi-structured interviews of landowners in Monroe County, Indiana. A logistic regression model is applied to determine the probability of participation based on landowner education, membership in other non-forest voluntary programs, dominant land use activity, parcel size, distance from urban center, land resource portfolios, and forest cover. Both land use activity and the spatial configuration of a landholder’s resource portfolio are found to be statistically significant with important implications for the design and implementation of voluntary programs.

  1. An empirical evaluation of private landowner participation in voluntary forest conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauneckis, Derek; York, Abigail M

    2009-09-01

    The use of voluntary programs targeting resource conservation on private land has become increasingly prevalent in environmental policy. Voluntary programs potentially offer significant benefits over regulatory and market-based approaches. This article examines the factors affecting landowner participation in voluntary forest conservation programs using a combination of parcel-level GIS and remotely sensed data and semi-structured interviews of landowners in Monroe County, Indiana. A logistic regression model is applied to determine the probability of participation based on landowner education, membership in other non-forest voluntary programs, dominant land use activity, parcel size, distance from urban center, land resource portfolios, and forest cover. Both land use activity and the spatial configuration of a landholder's resource portfolio are found to be statistically significant with important implications for the design and implementation of voluntary programs.

  2. A comparative approach to assess drivers of success in mammalian conservation recovery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crees, Jennifer J; Collins, Amy C; Stephenson, P J; Meredith, Helen M R; Young, Richard P; Howe, Caroline; Price, Mark R Stanley; Turvey, Samuel T

    2016-08-01

    The outcomes of species recovery programs have been mixed; high-profile population recoveries contrast with species-level extinctions. Each conservation intervention has its own challenges, but to inform more effective management it is imperative to assess whether correlates of wider recovery program success or failure can be identified. To contribute to evidence-based improvement of future conservation strategies, we conducted a global quantitative analysis of 48 mammalian recovery programs. We reviewed available scientific literature and conducted semistructured interviews with conservation professionals involved in different recovery programs to investigate ecological, management, and political factors associated with population recoveries or declines. Identifying and removing threats was significantly associated with increasing population trend and decreasing conservation dependence, emphasizing that populations are likely to continue to be compromised in the absence of effective threat mitigation and supporting the need for threat monitoring and adaptive management in response to new and potential threats. Lack of habitat and small population size were cited as limiting factors in 56% and 42% of recovery programs, respectively, and both were statistically associated with increased longer term dependence on conservation intervention, demonstrating the importance of increasing population numbers quickly and restoring and protecting habitat. Poor stakeholder coordination and management were also regularly cited by respondents as key weaknesses in recovery programs, indicating the importance of effective leadership and shared goals and management plans. Project outcomes were not influenced by biological or ecological variables such as body mass or habitat, which suggests that these insights into correlates of conservation success and failure are likely to be generalizable across mammals.

  3. Developing an effective community conservation program for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, A; Guillen, R; Lamilla, I; Soto, L

    2010-05-01

    Developing effective conservation programs that positively impact the survival of a species while considering the needs of local communities is challenging. Here we present an overview of the conservation program developed by Proyecto Tití to integrate local communities in the conservation of Colombia's critically endangered primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Our comprehensive assessment of the threats effecting the long-term survival of the cotton-top tamarin allowed us to establish the primary components of our program. Proyecto Tití has three areas of emphasis: (1) scientific studies detailing the biology and long-term survival of the cotton-top tamarin, (2) conservation education programs to increase public awareness and conservation knowledge, and (3) community empowerment programs that demonstrate a valuable economic incentive to protecting wildlife and forested areas in Colombia. This integrated approach to conservation that involves local communities in activities that benefit individuals, as well as wildlife, has proven to be remarkably effective in protecting cotton-top tamarins and their forested habitat. Our bindes program, which uses small cook stoves made from clay, has demonstrated a marked reduction in the number of trees that have been harvested for firewood. Developing environmental entrepreneurs, who create products made from recycled plastic for sale in national and international markets, has had a significant impact in reducing the amount of plastic that has been littering the environment and threatening the health of wildlife, while creating a stable economic income for rural communities. Proyecto Tití has provided economic alternatives to local communities that have dramatically reduced the illegal capture of cotton-top tamarins and forest destruction in the region that has positively impacted the long-term survival of this critically endangered primate.

  4. Considering the needs of indigenous and local populations in conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Florent; Brondizio, Eduardo S

    2017-04-01

    Local rural and indigenous communities have assumed increasing responsibility for conservation within and between areas buffering the impacts of agricultural or resource-extraction zones and protected areas. Empowering local communities as central partners in conservation and climate-change mitigation has allowed many people to gain access to land and citizenship rights but has provided limited improvements in access to social services and economic opportunities even as expectation about their role as environmental stewards grows. These expectations, however, are inconsistent with reality. We conducted multiple field studies in Brazil since the mid-1980s to illustrate the discrepancies between conservation programs and local conditions and expectations. We suggest that public policies and conservation programs should not delegate responsibility for managing protected areas to local and indigenous communities without considering local needs and expectations and locals' attitudes toward conservation. In other words, behavior that maintains or improves the environment should not be treated as traditional based on the expectations of outsiders. Framing local populations as traditional environmentalists creates contradictions and frustrations for local populations and for conservation professionals and policy makers.

  5. Measuring a professional conservation education training program for zoos and wildlife parks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askue, Laurel; Heimlich, Joe; Yu, Jin Ping; Wang, Xiaohong; Lakly, Shelly

    2009-09-01

    Designed and implemented in 2006, the Academy for Conservation Training (ACT) is a conservation education academy modeled after the Association for Zoos and Aquariums' (AZA) professional conservation education course. ACT incorporates conservation education best practices utilized by AZA-accredited institutions to provide zoo and wildlife park professionals in China with the skills, knowledge, and tools needed to design, implement, and evaluate effective conservation education programs at their facilities. Initial findings indicate that the ACT model is an effective approach to connect these emerging educators with conservation education best practices. The strongest satisfaction responses in this study were in perceptions of the program preparing the individual for work and in personal development. In terms of the longitudinal survey conducted with ACT graduates after the training, the lowest scoring items were the opportunities to meet other zoo educators in China and the quantity of information provided. The most revealing trend in regards to preparedness in becoming zoo educators was that specific pedagogical skills were those where perceived gain was consistent and strong across all three academies.

  6. Predicting compliance with an information-based residential outdoor water conservation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Adam C.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Kaiser, Ronald A.

    2016-05-01

    Residential water conservation initiatives often involve some form of education or persuasion intended to change the attitudes and behaviors of residential consumers. However, the ability of these instruments to change attitudes toward conservation and their efficacy in affecting water use remains poorly understood. In this investigation the authors examine consumer attitudes toward complying with a persuasive water conservation program, the extent to which those attitudes predict compliance, and the influence of environmental contextual factors on outdoor water use. Results indicate that the persuasive program was successful in developing positive attitudes toward compliance, and that those attitudes predict water use. However, attitudinal variables explain a relatively small proportion of the variance in objectively measured water use behavior. Recommendations for policy are made stressing the importance of understanding both the effects of attitudes and environmental contextual factors in behavior change initiatives in the municipal water sector.

  7. 75 FR 37593 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... procedure additional language based upon provisions from European Standard EN 61121, ``Tumble dryers for... Dryers and Room Air Conditioners; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 124 / Tuesday... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners...

  8. 77 FR 21038 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Light-Emitting Diode Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC67 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Light-Emitting Diode... light-emitting diode (LED) lamps to support implementation of labeling provisions by the Federal Trade... procedures. This rulemaking establishes test procedures that manufacturers of light-emitting diode (LED...

  9. Energy Conservation: Policies, Programs, and General Studies. 1979-July, 1980 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundemann, Audrey S.

    The 135 abstracts presented pertain to national policies, programs, and general strategies for conserving energy. In addition to the abstract, each citation lists the title, author, sponsoring agency, subject categories, number of pages, date, descriptors, identifiers, and ordering information for each document. Topics covered in this compilation…

  10. 75 FR 57556 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... technologies not covered by the current procedure; (2) more accurately reflect current consumer behavior and... amendments are based on recent data that more accurately describe current consumer behavior and updated... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential...

  11. 75 FR 57555 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... technologies not covered by the current procedure; (2) more accurately reflect current consumer behavior and... amendments are based on recent data that more accurately describe current consumer behavior and updated... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential...

  12. 76 FR 77914 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC37 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial.... Power Supply Impedance c. Reference Ballasts d. Instrumentation i. Instrumentation Required for Electrical Measurement ii. Instrumentation for Photometric Measurement 2. Lamp Selection and Setup a....

  13. Is Energy Conservation Education Effective? An Evaluation of the Powersave Schools Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMatteo, Julie; Radnitz, Cynthia; Zibulsky, Jamie; Brown, Jeffrey; Deleasa, Courtney; Jacobs, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    To strengthen energy conservation knowledge and behaviors in youth, the PowerSave Schools Program (PSP) instructs students using hands-on projects. However, there is a lack of empirical support for the PSP. The present study is the first to use a repeated measures design to assess its effectiveness in two school districts. In District 1, there was…

  14. 76 FR 70918 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers Correction In proposed rule document 2011-28543 appearing on pages 69870-69893 in the issue...

  15. Design and Implementation of a Research-Informed Water Conservation Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ruthanne; Coe, Alice; Klaver, Irene; Dickson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Informed by the results of a baseline research study of regional citizen knowledge and understanding concerning watershed issues, a team of university faculty and classroom teachers designed and implemented a water conservation education program to address lacking areas of watershed knowledge. The authors developed age-appropriate, hands-on…

  16. 78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Rural Utilities Service Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact... (RUS) has made a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for implementing its new Energy Efficiency... 12 to authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to reduce demand on...

  17. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and availability of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Mohammed Khan, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy......

  18. 76 FR 56339 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... efficiency and established the Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles, a... stability requirements for all measurement methods to ensure that results are as representative as possible... the stability criteria required to measure that power. IEC Standard 62301 (Second Edition)...

  19. 78 FR 4015 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of...) to amend the test procedures for microwave ovens. That SNOPR proposed amendments to the DOE test... measuring the standby mode and off mode energy use of products that combine a microwave oven with other...

  20. Conservation Compromises: The MAB and the Legacy of the International Biological Program, 1964–1974

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleper, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the International Biological Program (IBP) as the predecessor of UNESCO’s well-known and highly successful Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB). It argues that international conservation efforts of the 1970s, such as the MAB, must in fact be understood as a compound of two opp

  1. Department of Energy programs and objectives: energy conservation in agricultural production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This document describes the current Department of Energy agriculture research program as it relates to the research recommendations submitted by a 1976 workshop on energy conservation in agricultural production. In-depth discussions on fertilizers, irrigation, crop drying, fuel substitution, crop and animal production systems, greenhouses, materials handling, and transport systems are included. (MCW)

  2. 75 FR 81258 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Electrolux...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... III provides for the ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles.'' (42... procedure.'' The interim waiver applies to the following basic model groups: Model Brand EIFLS55 Electrolux... brands in the United States include Electrolux , Frigidaire , and the following OEM brands: Kenmore...

  3. Energy conservation programs developed by PETROBRAS; Programas de eficiencia energetica desenvolvidos pela PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair Arone; Marinho, Frederico Augusto Varejao [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The two oil shocks of the 70s provoked a great swerve of course in PETROBRAS during the 80s and 90s. The most important and well known was the strategic decision of exploring oil under the sea. Another important area of the Company includes internal programs for cutting its own energy use and external programs, encouraging their products end-users to rationalize fuel's use. After 1974, our refineries concentrated efforts in level reduction of self-consumption fuel. In the 90s, the Federal Government introduced two energy conservation programs. One created Energy Saving Internal Committees - CICE - in all PETROBRAS' operational units. Another one established a National Program for Oil and Natural Gas Conservation - CONPET. PETROBRAS is in charge of the development and implementation of projects related to this. All these efforts were thoroughly successful. The currently oil production is higher than the country consumption. Nonetheless, as new exploratory frontiers must develop to hold this self-sufficiency in progress, conservation energy programs also have to be continuously updated. This paper presents a balance of the projects implemented since the creation of both programs, a critical analysis on the achieved results and, finally, suggestions on how to improve the effective accomplishment of the initially proposed targets. (author)

  4. 76 FR 48745 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC58 Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test... INFORMATION: I. Background The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended by section 312(c) of the... compliance with the energy conservation standards currently under development. DOE plans to issue the...

  5. 76 FR 65362 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC58 Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test... Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended by section 312(c) of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007... compliance date for the performance-based energy conservation standards currently under development. 76...

  6. Influence of conservation programs on amphibians using seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Caleb J.; Euliss, Ned H.; Mushnet, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive modification of upland habitats surrounding wetlands to facilitate agricultural production has negatively impacted amphibian communities in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America. In attempts to mitigate ecosystem damage associated with extensive landscape alteration, vast tracks of upland croplands have been returned to perennial vegetative cover (i.e., conservation grasslands) under a variety of U.S. Department of Agriculture programs. We evaluated the influence of these conservation grasslands on amphibian occupancy of seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region. Using automated call surveys, aquatic funnel traps, and visual encounter surveys, we detected eight amphibian species using wetlands within three land-use categories (farmed, conservation grasslands, and native prairie grasslands) during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Seasonal wetlands within farmlands were used less frequently by amphibians than those within conservation and native prairie grasslands, and wetlands within conservation grasslands were used less frequently than those within native prairie grasslands by all species and life-stages we successfully modeled. Our results suggest that, while not occupied as frequently as wetlands within native prairie, wetlands within conservation grasslands provide important habitat for maintaining amphibian biodiversity in the Prairie Pothole Region

  7. Analysis to develop a program for energy conservation in irrigated agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.; Brix, V.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Laughlin, B.M.

    1978-09-01

    It is estimated by the FEA that 0.26 quadrillion Btus of energy is annually required to irrigate crops in the USA. The development of a DOE program for energy conservation in irrigation is described. Information is included on: studies of how this energy consumption can be reduced and by how much; engineering and economic studies of irrigation equipment and methods; proposals for improving the efficiency of pumps and prime movers; projects selected for demonstrating irrigation energy conservation; and recommendations for further research. (LCL)

  8. Green energy education programs and demonstrations at the Kortright Centre for Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A. [Kortright Centre for Consevation, Woodbridge, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The Kortright Centre for Conservation is situated on 325 hectares of pristine woodlands a few kilometres north of Toronto, Ontario. It has one of the most progressive and innovative environmental outdoor programs, demonstrations and events in Canada. It is intended to inspire people to think and act more sustainably and to promote green energy solutions. The Centre has designed several successful programs for students and adults that provide both theoretical and hands on learning opportunities. This paper described some of the unique demonstration programs used at the Kortright Centre for Conservation which is owned and operated by the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. The demonstrations include the following: Canada's most energy efficient building; 8 kw of grid connected photovoltaic systems; 500 watts of remote photovoltaic systems; Canada's first roof-mounted grid-connected photovoltaic system; Canada's first solar shingle roof system; 120 watt solar water pumping system; 10 kw grid connected wind turbine; 50 and 400 watt small wind turbines; an energy efficient cottage powered entirely by solar/wind energy; 3 solar hot water heating demonstrations; solar assisted ground source heat pump; hybrid popular plantation; wood energy display; high efficiency wood burning appliances; biological wetland waste water treatment; and composting toilets. These programs engage a variety of groups, including industry, families and students in sustainable practices. 7 figs.

  9. Stress-induced cellular adaptive strategies: ancient evolutionarily conserved programs as new anticancer therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipponi, Arcadi; Thomas, David M

    2014-06-01

    Despite the remarkable achievements of novel targeted anti-cancer drugs, most therapies only produce remission for a limited time, resistance to treatment, and relapse, often being the ultimate outcome. Drug resistance is due to highly efficient adaptive strategies utilized by cancer cells. Exogenous and endogenous stress stimuli are known to induce first-line responses, capable of re-establishing cellular homeostasis and determining cell fate decisions. Cancer cells may also mount second-line adaptive strategies, such as the mutator response. Hypermutable subpopulations of cells may expand under severe selective stress, thereby accelerating the emergence of adapted clones. As with first-line protective responses, these strategies appear highly conserved, and are found in yeasts and bacteria. We hypothesize that evolutionarily conserved programs rheostatically regulate mutability in fluctuating environments, and contribute to drug resistance in cancer cells. Elucidating the conserved genetic and molecular mechanisms may present novel opportunities to increase the effectiveness of cancer therapies. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Association of wintering raptors with Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program grasslands in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Brittingham, M.; Grove, G.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation grasslands can provide valuable habitat resource for breeding songbirds, but their value for wintering raptors has received little attention. We hypothesized that increased availability of grassland habitat through the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) has resulted in an increase or redistribution in numbers of four species of raptors in Pennsylvania since 2001. We tested this by analyzing winter raptor counts from volunteer surveys, conducted from 2001 to 2008, for Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), and American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). During that period, numbers of wintering Northern Harriers increased by more than 20% per year. Log-linear Poisson regression models show that all four species increased in the region of Pennsylvania that had the most and longest-established conservation grasslands. At the county scale (N= 67), Bayesian spatial models showed that spatial and temporal population trends of all four species were positively correlated with the amount of conservation grassland. This relationship was particularly strong for Northern Harriers, with numbers predicted to increase by 35.7% per year for each additional 1% of farmland enrolled in CREP. Our results suggest that conservation grasslands are likely the primary cause of the increase in numbers of wintering Northern Harriers in Pennsylvania since 2001. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2010 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  11. Research and development separation technology: The DOE Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    This brochure summarizes the Office of Industrial Programs' RandD efforts in the advancement of separation technology. The purpose of this brochure is to provide interested parties with information on federal industrial energy conservation activities in separation technology. The brochure is comprised of the following sections: Separation Technology, summarizes the current state of separation technology and its uses. Potential Energy Savings, discusses the potential for industrial energy conservation through the implementation of advanced separation processes. Office of Industrial Programs' RandD Efforts in Separation Technology Development, describes the separation RandD projects conducted by IP. RandD Data Base, lists contractor, principal investigator, and location of each separation-related RandD effort sponsored by IP.

  12. Assessment of the effects of farming and conservation programs on pesticide deposition in high plains wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jason B; Hanson, Brittany Rae; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2012-03-20

    We examined pesticide contamination in sediments from depressional playa wetlands embedded in the three dominant land-use types in the western High Plains and Rainwater Basin of the United States including cropland, perennial grassland enrolled in conservation programs (e.g., Conservation Reserve Program [CRP]), and native grassland or reference condition. Two hundred and sixty four playas, selected from the three land-use types, were sampled from Nebraska and Colorado in the north to Texas and New Mexico in the south. Sediments were examined for most of the commonly used agricultural pesticides. Atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and trifluralin were the most commonly detected pesticides in the northern High Plains and Rainwater Basin. Atrazine, metolachlor, trifluralin, and pendimethalin were the most commonly detected pesticides in the southern High Plains. The top 5-10% of playas contained herbicide concentrations that are high enough to pose a hazard for plants. However, insecticides and fungicides were rarely detected. Pesticide occurrence and concentrations were higher in wetlands surrounded by cropland as compared to native grassland and CRP perennial grasses. The CRP, which is the largest conservation program in the U.S., was protective and had lower pesticide concentrations compared to cropland.

  13. States may need aid to obtain aid for energy-conservation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The $50 million in aid for states' energy conservation, authorized by Congress in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (PL94-163), would more than fill the gap left by shrinkage of other Federal programs. But much of the $50 million will be difficult to get, even for states like Pennsylvania which has an energetic conservation program. To qualify for aid, governors must fight difficult political battles on state and local levels. The priorities that Congress imposes as funding criteria are mandatory lighting-efficiency standards for public buildings; programs to promote carpooling and public transport; legalization of right turns at red lights; establishment of energy efficiency as a governing consideration in the procurement procedures of states and their political subdivisions; and mandatory thermal-efficiency standards and insulation requirements for new and renovated buildings. Guidelines for meeting those criteria were recently promulgated by the Federal Energy Administration, but FEA has not yet published critical data projections and measurement methodologies. (MCW)

  14. Development of a community energy conservation program. Volume II. Energy saving techniques for use by local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-26

    This volume contains technical material related to community energy conservation programs, and supplements the organizational material in Volume I. It is in looseleaf format so that sections related to specific topics can be easily copied or transferred to individuals responsible for various sorts of conservation, such as carpooling programs, building improvements, and community outreach. Three technical chapters are included, discussing topics in the areas of: internal city and county operations; community powers and regulations, and outreach programs. In the first, the concern is with what the community can do to reduce energy use in its own operations, an effective first step in promoting comprehensive energy conservation. The second chapter analyzes ways that the police power and fiscal powers of the community can be used for energy conservation, through building codes, zoning, and similar measures. In the final chapter, ways to promote energy conservation in the community are discussed: programs include outreach to households and firms, carpool promotion, waste oil recycling, etc.

  15. Handbook for the marketing of conservation and solar-energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mick, C K; Callahan, D

    1980-07-09

    A process-oriented approach is described for encouraging community level energy conservation and planning programs. The approach is designed to augment existing energy programs by focusing on the major barriers to changing current energy-related behavior and attitudes. A variety of concepts, tools and techniques which can be used to overcome these barriers are described. Suggestions are offered on how to design community energy campaign based on the concepts, tools and techniques described. Some brief case studies are provided as examples. (LEW)

  16. Revised congressional budget request, FY 1982. Conservation and renewable energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Programs dealing with conservation and renewable energy are reprinted from the Revised Congressional Budget Request FY 1982. From Volume 7, Energy Conservation, information is presented on: buildings and community systems; industrial programs; transportation programs; state and local programs; inventor's program energy conversion technology; energy impact assistance; and residential/commercial retrofit. From Volume 2, Energy Supply Research and Development, information and data are presented on: solar building applications; solar industrial applications; solar power applications; solar information systems; SERI facility; solar international activities; alcohol fuels; geothermal; and hydropower. From Volume 6, Energy Production, Demonstration, and Distribution, information and data on solar energy production, demonstration, and distribution are presented. From Volume 3, Energy Supply and R and D Appropriation, information and data on electric energy systems and energy storage systems are included. From Volume 4, information and data are included on geothermal resources development fund. In Volume 5, Power Marketing Administrations, information and data are presented on estimates by appropriations, positions and staff years by appropriation, staffing distribution, and power marketing administrations. Recissions and deferrals for FY 1981 are given. (MCW)

  17. The role of the Wetland Reserve Program in conservation efforts in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sammy L.; Twedt, Daniel J.; Wilson, R. Randy

    2006-01-01

    The Mississippi River Alluvial Valley includes the floodplain of the Mississippi River from Cairo, Illinois, USA, to the Gulf of Mexico. Originally this region supported about 10 million ha of bottomland hardwood forests, but only about 2.8 million ha remain today. Furthermore, most of the remaining bottomland forest is highly fragmented with altered hydrologic processes. During the 1990s landscape-scale conservation planning efforts were initiated for migratory birds and the threatened Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus). These plans call for large-scale reforestation and restoration efforts in the region, particularly on private lands. In 1990 the Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act authorized the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP). The WRP is a voluntary program administered by the United States Department of Agriculture that provides eligible landowners with financial incentives to restore wetlands and retire marginal farmlands from agricultural production. As of 30 September 2005, over 275,700 ha have been enrolled in the program in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, with the greatest concentration in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi, USA. Hydrologic restoration is common on most sites, with open-water wetlands, such as moist-soil units and sloughs, constituting up to 30% of a given tract. Over 33,200 ha of open-water wetlands have been created, potentially providing over 115,000,000 duck-use days. Twenty-three of 87 forest-bird conservation areas have met or exceed core habitat goals for migratory songbirds and another 24 have met minimum area requirements. The WRP played an integral role in the fulfillment of these goals. Although some landscape goals have been attained, the young age of the program and forest stands, and the lack of monitoring, has limited evaluations of the program's impact on wildlife populations.

  18. Building local institutions for national conservation programs: lessons for developing Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wain Collen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For programs that aim to promote forest conservation and poverty alleviation, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+, the participation of indigenous communities is essential to meet program goals. Using Ostrom's theory of collective action for common pool resource management, we evaluated the institutions governing indigenous participation in the Programa Socio Bosque incentive-based conservation program in Ecuador. We conducted structured interviews with 94 members in 4 communities to assess community institutions for 6 of Ostrom's principles, using 12 measures we developed for the principles. We found substantial variation between communities in terms of their institutional performance. The best-performing community performed well (>50% of interviewees reported successfully meeting the measure on 8 of the 12 measures. The weakest performed well on only 2 out of 12 measures. Overall, our results indicate that there is stronger performance for constitutional-level institutions, which determine who gets to make the rules, and some collective-choice institutions, which determine how local rules are made. We identified specific challenges with the day-to-day operational institutions that arise from participation in nation state-community conservation programs, such as restricted resource appropriation, monitoring and compliance, and conflict resolution. We found that top-down policy making has an important role to play in supporting communities to establish constitutional-level and some collective-choice institutions. However, developing operational institutions may take more time and depend on local families' day-to-day use of resources, and thus may require a more nuanced policy approach. As some countries and donors find a jurisdictional REDD+ approach increasingly attractive, complementing top-down policy measures with bottom-up institutional development could provide a stronger platform to achieve the

  19. Incentive structure of and private landowner participation in an endangered species conservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Haider, Wolfgang; Conner, J Richard; Ditton, Robert B

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, voluntary incentive programs that aid conservation of plant and wildlife species on private lands provide a structural solution to the problem of protecting endangered species by reducing costs and enhancing benefits to landowners. We explored the potential for incentives to encourage landowners to manage land cover for the benefit of endangered songbirds in central Texas (U.S.A.) by asking landowners to indicate their preferences for financial incentives, technical assistance, and regulatory assurances. We identified owners of potential songbird habitat and collected data in face-to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires. We used a latent-class stated-choice model to identify 3 classes of landowners whose choices varied on the basis of their attitudes and perceived social norms: (1) strong positive attitude, perceived social pressure to participate, and willing to participate with relatively few incentives, (2) weak positive attitude, perceived no social pressure to participate, and required strongest incentives, and (3) negative attitude, perceived social pressure not to enroll, and unwilling to participate regardless of incentive structure. Given this heterogeneity in preferences, conservation incentives may increase management of land cover to benefit endangered species on private lands to some degree; however, exclusive reliance on incentives may be insufficient. Promoting conservation on private lands may be enhanced by integrating incentives into an approach that incorporates other strategies for conservation, including social networks and collaborative processes that reinforce social norms.

  20. Energy management: a program of energy conservation for the community college facility. [Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various Authors

    1978-01-01

    This handbook developes helps for assessing and improving the energy efficiency of the community-college facility. The TEEM approach (Total Educational Energy Management) is a labor-intensive approach which requires the commitment and participation of all segments of the college community. The TEEM program presented here defines a series of tasks selected, ordered, and implemented in such a way as to achieve two basic objectives: (1) reducing campus energy requirements, and (2) meeting those reduced energy requirements more efficiently without adversely affecting the quality of educational programs. This guide to large-scale energy conservation on college campuses includes step-by-step procedures for establishing a program task force, defining specific tasks, and assigning responsibilities. Action plans are developed, energy consumption monitored, goals set, and conservation measures implemented. A series of appendices provides more detailed information, charts, and worksheets related to all aspects of energy use. The TEEM program provides the basic structure for achieving a significant reduction in campus energy costs.

  1. The Adopt-a-Herring program as a fisheries conservation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Holly J.; Mather, Martha E.; Muth, Robert M.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Smith, Joseph M.; Finn, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Successful conservation depends on a scientifically literate public. We developed the adopt-a-Herring program to educate nonscientists about fisheries and watershed restoration. this interactive educational and outreach project encouraged coastal residents to be involved in local watershed restoration. In the northeastern United States, river herring (Alosa spp.) are an important component of many coastal watersheds and often are the object of conservation efforts. In order to understand river herring spawning behavior and to improve the effectiveness of restoration efforts, our research tracked these fish via radiotelemetry in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts. In our adopt-a-Herring Program, participating stakeholder organizations adopted and named individual tagged river herring and followed their movements online. We also made information available to our adopters on our larger research goals, the mission and activities of other research and management agencies, examples of human actions that adversely affect watersheds, and opportunities for proactive conservation. Research results were communicated to adopters through our project web page and end-of-the-season summary presentations. Both tools cultivated a personal interest in river herring, stimulated discussion about fisheries and watershed restoration, educated participants about the goals and methods of scientists in general, and initiated critical thinking about human activities that advance or impede sustainability.

  2. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume II. Energy conservation technology: for the building inspector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This training manual contains the basic information necessary to acquaint the field building inspector with the concepts of energy conservation in buildings and instructs him in the basic techniques of field inspection of energy compliance.

  3. The impact of a shade coffee certification program on forest conservation using remote sensing and household data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryo, E-mail: inter.takahashi@gmail.com [Policy Research Center, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, 7-22-1, Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-8677 (Japan); Todo, Yasuyuki, E-mail: yastodo@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of International Studies, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    In recent years, shade coffee certification programs have attracted increasing attention from forest conservation and development organizations. The certification programs could be expected to promote forest conservation by providing a premium price to shade coffee producers. However, little is known about the significance of the conservation efforts generated by certification programs. In particular, the relationship between the impact of the certification and producer characteristics has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study, which was conducted in Ethiopia, was to examine the impact of a shade coffee certification program on forest conservation and its relationship with the socioeconomic characteristics of the producers. Remote sensing data of 2005 and 2010 was used to gauge the changes in forest area. Employing a probit model, we found that a forest coffee area being certified increased the probability of forest conservation by 19.3 percentage points relative to forest coffee areas lacking certification. We also found that although economically poor producers tended to engage in forest clearing, the forest coffee certification program had a significant impact on these producers. This result suggests that the certification program significantly affects the behaviors of economically poor producers and motivates these producers to conserve the forest. -- Highlights: • We employed the probit mode to evaluate the impact of the shade coffee certification on forest conservation in Ethiopia. • We estimated how the impact of the certification varied among producers with different characteristics. • The certification increased the probability of conserving forest by 19.3 percentage points. • Certification program motivated the economically poor producers to conserve the forest.

  4. Bird use and nest success in Conservation Reserve Program fields in the northeastern Great Plains : Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on a study of bird use and nest success in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields. This study aims to find that reproductive success in CRP fields is at...

  5. 76 FR 21879 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to LG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... codified) established the Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles, a... according to the alternate test procedure as set forth in paragraph (3) below. Model Brand WM3360H* * LG...

  6. A highly conserved program of neuronal microexons is misregulated in autistic brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Manuel; Weatheritt, Robert J; Ellis, Jonathan D; Parikshak, Neelroop N; Gonatopoulos-Pournatzis, Thomas; Babor, Mariana; Quesnel-Vallières, Mathieu; Tapial, Javier; Raj, Bushra; O'Hanlon, Dave; Barrios-Rodiles, Miriam; Sternberg, Michael J E; Cordes, Sabine P; Roth, Frederick P; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Geschwind, Daniel H; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2014-12-18

    Alternative splicing (AS) generates vast transcriptomic and proteomic complexity. However, which of the myriad of detected AS events provide important biological functions is not well understood. Here, we define the largest program of functionally coordinated, neural-regulated AS described to date in mammals. Relative to all other types of AS within this program, 3-15 nucleotide "microexons" display the most striking evolutionary conservation and switch-like regulation. These microexons modulate the function of interaction domains of proteins involved in neurogenesis. Most neural microexons are regulated by the neuronal-specific splicing factor nSR100/SRRM4, through its binding to adjacent intronic enhancer motifs. Neural microexons are frequently misregulated in the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorder, and this misregulation is associated with reduced levels of nSR100. The results thus reveal a highly conserved program of dynamic microexon regulation associated with the remodeling of protein-interaction networks during neurogenesis, the misregulation of which is linked to autism.

  7. Joint strategies for urban transportation, air quality, and energy conservation. Joint action programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Henneman, S.S.; Hudson, C.L.; Putnam, E.S.; Thiesen, D.J.

    1974-12-01

    An integrated approach is given for resolving problems created by traffic congestion, air pollution, and petroleum shortages. In Part 1, the basic relationships among the strategies and actions are summarized in a matrix display. Each item is ranked to access its impact on six subgoals, or phenomena, in the near or long term: improved auto alernatives; improved vehicular flow; reduced auto use; reduced travel demand; reduced vehicular emissions; and reduced vehicular petroleum consumption. Two synergistic joint action programs are presented. Part II contains an information review of experience, impacts on goals (mobility, air quality, energy conservation), and an overall evaluation of 54 specific actions.

  8. Federal energy conservation programs pursuant to section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163). Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-21

    This report provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the executive branch of the Federal Government in implementing the energy conservation requirements and provisions of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163). The report describes Federal actions to develop procurement policies that promote energy conservation and efficiency, develop a Federal 10-Year Buildings Energy Conservation Plan, develop responsible public education and information programs, encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency, and promote vanpooling and carpooling arrangements. About half of the Nation's energy is used in our homes and automobiles. Another 48 percent is used by State and local governments, business and insutry, in providing needed goods and services. The Federal Government is the Nation's largest energy user, accouting for 2.2 percent of the total national energy used in 1977. This energy is used by nearly 6 million people in more than 400 thousand buildings and in the operation of more than 600 thousand vehicles. While energy conservation and energy efficiency measures alone cannot solve our immediate problems, they are an essential part of our transition to an era of scarce and expensive energy supplies.

  9. Urban transportation energy conservation. SRGP operating instructions and program documentation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMann, J. F.; Nestle, R. E.

    1979-10-01

    SRGP is a computer program for Short Range Generalized transportation Policy analysis for use in analyzing the energy conservation potential of a broad spectrum of transit, carpooling, vanpooling, parking, pricing, and other transportation system management measures. It is intended for use in either an areawide or corridor context and in what is referred to as a sketch planning style of analysis. Outputs include changes in fuel consumption, vehicle emissions, vehicle miles of travel and modal shares for drive alone, shared ride, and transit. Changes in travel behavior are forecast relating to auto ownership, work trip mode choice, and the frequency, destination, and mode choice for both shopping and social/recreational non-work travel. Using a random sample household forecasting procedure, SRGP is a modified version of the program UMODEL, distributed by the US Urban Mass Transportation Administration as part of UTPS, the Urban Transportation Planning System.

  10. Effects of the Conservation Reserve Program on Hydrologic Processes in the Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, E. M.; Smidt, S. J.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern High Plains Aquifer is a rapidly depleting resource that supports agriculture in parts of New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle. The development of the aquifer has changed the landscape and the water cycle of the region. This study illustrates the evolving patterns of land use and the effects of cultivation, from irrigated to dryland farming to the countermanding influence of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Previous research indicates that greater recharge rates occur under cultivated land in the Southern High Plains than under unbroken soil: the transition to cultivation causes increased recharge, under both dryland and irrigated management, though most recharge still occurs through playa lakes. The Conservation Reserve Program takes land out of crop production, replacing the land cover with something more like the natural ecosystem. This may decrease recharge below fields, and reduce runoff that feeds playa lakes; or, CRP may help stabilize playa lakes, increasing recharge. Changes to the water cycle are investigated at the field scale using the System Approach to Land Use Sustainability (SALUS) crop model, and at the regional scale with the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM), and compared with historical data and water table elevations.

  11. Framework and criteria for program evaluation in the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-30

    This study addresses the development of a framework and generic criteria for conducting program evaluation in the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy. The evaluation process is intended to provide the Assistant Secretary with comprehensive and consistent evaluation data for management decisions regarding policy and strategy, crosscutting energy impacts and resource allocation and justification. The study defines evaluation objectives, identifies basic information requirements (criteria), and identifies a process for collecting evaluation results at the basic program level, integrating the results, and summarizing information upward through the CE organization to the Assistant Secretary. Methods are described by which initial criteria were tested, analyzed, and refined for CE program applicability. General guidelines pertaining to evaluation and the Sunset Review requirements are examined and various types, designs, and models for evaluation are identified. Existing CE evaluation reports are reviewed and comments on their adequacy for meeting current needs are provided. An inventory and status survey of CE program evaluation activities is presented, as are issues, findings, and recommendations pertaining to CE evaluation and Sunset Review requirements. Also, sources of data for use in evaluation and the Sunset Review response are identified. An inventory of CE evaluation-related documents and reports is provided.

  12. Starting a local conservation and passive solar retrofit program: an energy planning sourcebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, V; Mathews, R

    1982-02-01

    A city planner or a neighborhood activist may wish to initiate a local conservation and passive solar retrofit program but may not have previous experience in doing so. This sourcebook is designed to assist interested individuals with their energy planning efforts, from determining retrofit potential, to financing and implementing the program. An approach or methodology is provided which can be applied to determine retrofit potential in single-family residences, mobile homes, multifamily residences, and nonresidential buildings. Case studies in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are given as examples. Guidelines are provided for evaluating the economic benefits of a retrofit program through benefit-cost analysis and economic base studies at the city and neighborhood levels. Also included are approaches to community outreach, detailing how to get started, how to gain local support, and examples of successful programs throughout the US. The need for financing, the development of a local strategy, public and private financing techniques, and community energy service organizations are examined. In addition to the Albuquerque case studies, a brief technology characterization, heat-loss calculations, economic tools, and a list of resources are appended.

  13. Density and fledging success of ground-nesting passerines in Conservation Reserve Program fields in the northeastern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koford, Rolf R.

    1999-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program, initiated in 1985, was designed primarily to reduce soil erosion and crop surpluses. A secondary benefit was the provision of habitat for wildlife. Grassland bird populations, many of which declined in the decades prior to the Conservation Reserve Program, may have benefited from the Conservation Reserve Program if reproduction in this newly available habitat has been at least as high as it would have been in the absence of the Conservation Reserve Program. On study areas in North Dakota and Minnesota, I examined breeding densities and fledging success of grassland birds in Conservation Reserve Program fields and in an alternative habitat of similar structure, idle grassland fields on federal Waterfowl Production Areas. Fields were 10 to 25 hectares in size. The avifaunas of these two habitats were similar, although brush-dependent species were more abundant on Waterfowl Protection Areas. The common species in these habitats included ones whose continental populations have declined, such as Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), and Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). These ground-nesting species were pooled with other ground nesters in an analysis of fledging success, which revealed no significant differences between habitats, between states, or among years (1991-1993). Predation was the primary cause of nest failure. I concluded that Conservation Reserve Program fields in this region were suitable breeding habitat for several species whose populations had declined prior to the Conservation Reserve Program era. This habitat appeared to be as secure for nests of ground-nesting birds as another suitable habitat in North Dakota and Minnesota.

  14. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  15. Bainbridge Energy Challenge. Energy efficiency and conservation block grant (EECBG) - Better buildings neighborhood program. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Yvonne X.

    2014-02-14

    RePower Bainbridge and Bremerton (RePower) is a residential energy-efficiency and conservation program designed to foster a sustainable, clean, and renewable energy economy. The program was a 3.5 year effort in the cities of Bainbridge Island and Bremerton, Washington, to conserve and reduce energy use, establish a trained home performance trade ally network, and create local jobs. RePower was funded through a $4.8 million grant from the US Department of Energy, Better Buildings Program. The grant’s performance period was August 1, 2010 through March 30, 2014.

  16. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG)- Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Donisha; Harris, Barbara; Blue, Cynthia; Gaskins, Charla

    2014-09-16

    The original BetterBuildings for Greensboro grant program included an outreach campaign to inform 100% of the Greensboro community about the benefits of reducing energy use; a plan to reduce energy consumption in at least 34% of the homes and 10% of the other buildings in the east Greensboro target area; and a plan to create and retain jobs in the energy conservation industry. Under the original program structure the City of Greensboro planned to partner with local and regional lenders to create a diversified portfolio of loan products to meet the needs of various income levels and building types. All participants would participate in the loan programs as a method of meeting the program’s 5 to1 private capital match/leverage requirements. In June 2011 the program was restructured to include partnerships with large commercial and multifamily projects, with these partners providing the greater portion of the required match/leverage. The geographic focus was revised to include reducing energy consumption across the entire City of Greensboro, targeting neighborhoods with high concentrations of low-moderate income households and aged housing stock. The community outreach component used a neighborhood-based approach to train community residents and volunteers to conduct door-to-door neighborhood sweeps; delivered high quality information on available program resources; helped residents to evaluate alternative energy efficiency measures and alternative financing sources; assisted with contractor selections and monitoring/evaluation of work; coordinated activities with BetterBuildings program partners; and collected data required by the Department of Energy. Additionally, HERO (Home Energy Response Officers) delivered intro packages (energy efficiency information and products) to thousands of households at the initial point of contact. A pilot program (Early Adopters) was offered from March 1, 2011 through June 30, 2011. The Early Adopters program was designed to offer

  17. International training programs in reproductive sciences for conservation of Latin American felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, W F; Brown, J L

    2004-07-01

    Survival of the ten non-domestic felid species endemic to Latin America is imperiled by habitat loss, poaching and poor captive management. Over the past 10 years, conservation of these felids has been the primary focus of a reproductive research and training program conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA. The objectives of this program were to: (1) provide intensive training in reproductive sciences to Latin American scientists, (2) conduct collaborative studies investigating basic and applied reproduction in endangered felids, and (3) establish a highly-trained scientific cohort to conduct independent conservation-based research. Four formal training courses, consisting of didactic lectures and hands-on instruction in research techniques, including semen collection, sperm cryopreservation and laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI), were taught in Brazil and Mexico between 1995 and 1998. Several of these scientists received further training in conducting fecal hormone analysis in the USA, and a number of research studies, many in collaboration with American scientists, were initiated in Latin American felids. Research findings have characterized basal reproductive traits in several felid species, including ocelots, margay, tigrinas and jaguars, and established that Latin American felids exhibit only minimal seasonal variation in most reproductive traits. Other studies have explored the impact of acute and chronic stressors on adrenocortical activity and demonstrated the importance of environmental enrichment in captivity, especially in small felids. Additional research has examined ovarian and immunological responsiveness of Latin American felids to exogenous gonadotropins and assessed the impact of nutrition on sperm production and oocyte quality. Applied reproductive studies have investigated sperm cryopreservation in both captive and wild felid populations and demonstrated the production of viable offspring in ocelots and tigrinas following laparoscopic AI

  18. Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-06-15

    A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

  19. 76 FR 63904 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coral Reef Conservation Program Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ..., extension 150, or Jenny.Waddell@noaagov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Coral Reef Conservation... reef conservation to conduct activities to protect and conserve coral reef ecosystems. The information...) if a proposed project is consistent with the coral reef conservation priorities of authorities...

  20. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume IV. Energy conservation technology: advanced course for plan examiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This manual contains a more in-depth training in the review techniques and concepts required by the plan examiners and code officials in administering the code for conventional (buildings of 3 stories or less) construction.

  1. The St. Catherine`s sea turtle conservation program: Modeling effective science education through conservation and research partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, N.B.; Bishop, G. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Georgia school teachers served eight to ten day internships as research colleagues on St. Catherine`s island, Georgia. Interns monitored daily nesting activity, evaluated possible nests, validated egg chambers, screened the nests, and monitored each nest daily and assessed hatching success by excavation upon emergence of hatchlings. The real-world, hands-on holistic field experience immersed school teachers in the problems of executing a natural history conservation project integrating scientific content and methodology, mathematical analysis, and computer documentation. Outcomes included increased scientific inquiry, reduced science anxiety, heightened self-confidence, and enhanced credibility with students and colleagues. This educational model is applicable to many areas and problems.

  2. Conserved and novel functions of programmed cellular senescence during vertebrate development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaapil, Hongorzul; Brockes, Jeremy P.

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a form of stable cell cycle arrest that is traditionally associated with tumour suppression, has been recently found to occur during mammalian development. Here, we show that cell senescence is an intrinsic part of the developmental programme in amphibians. Programmed senescence occurs in specific structures during defined time windows during amphibian development. It contributes to the physiological degeneration of the amphibian pronephros and to the development of the cement gland and oral cavity. In both contexts, senescence depends on TGFβ but is independent of ERK/MAPK activation. Furthermore, elimination of senescent cells through temporary TGFβ inhibition leads to developmental defects. Our findings uncover conserved and new roles of senescence in vertebrate organogenesis and support the view that cellular senescence may have arisen in evolution as a developmental mechanism. PMID:27888193

  3. Differences in quantitative characteristics of intracranial pressure in hydrocephalic children treated surgically or conservatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per Kristian; Due-Tønnessen, Bernt; Helseth, Eirik; Lundar, Tryggve

    2002-06-01

    This study reports the results of quantitative analysis of continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) recordings in 33 hydrocephalic children. The aim of the study was to compare the exact numbers of increases in ICP during sleep or the awake state in hydrocephalic children who were treated either surgically or conservatively. At the time of ICP monitoring, the ICP curves were assessed by the calculation of mean ICP and visual inspection for the detection of plateau waves. Quantitative analysis was performed with the software Sensometrics Pressure Analyser, which presented the ICP curve as a matrix of numbers of ICP elevations of different levels (20-40 mm Hg) and durations (0.5-20 min). In each case, the numbers of ICP elevations were standardized to 10 h of recording time, providing the opportunity for comparisons of ICP curves between individuals. Compared to the surgery group, there was a rather high number of ICP elevations of 20 mm Hg of various durations in the nonsurgery group, e.g. ICP elevations of 20 mm Hg lasting 10 min occurred in 13 of 19 children (68%) in the nonsurgery group. There was no apparent relationship between ICP and age or between the size of the cerebral ventricles and ICP. In children with hydrocephalus, the presentation of the ICP data as a matrix of ICP elevations of different levels and durations may enhance the informative value of continuous ICP monitoring, as compared to the calculation of mean ICP and visual detection of plateau waves. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. The Human Dimension of Energy Conservation and Sustainability: A Case Study of the University of Michigan's Energy Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marans, Robert W.; Edelstein, Jack Y.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the behaviors, attitudes, and levels of understanding among faculty, staff, and students in efforts to design programs aimed at reducing energy use in University of Michigan (UM) buildings. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-method approach is used in five diverse pilot buildings including focus…

  5. Exact solutions to robust control problems involving scalar hyperbolic conservation laws using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP (or MILP if the objective function depends on boolean variables). Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Basic-research foundations for public-education programs in energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, J B; Misch, M R

    1980-09-01

    The processes whereby people make decisions about specific behavior, the forces that operate on these decisions, and the interaction of several decisions and their modifying effect upon each other are studied. An overview of the current approach to decision study and behavior-change studies is presented. Brief papers prepared by such experts as Maccoby, Tversky, Cialdine, Margolin, Simon, Heider, Festinger, and Lervin are presented. Methodological considerations are discussed. Task B focuses on the specific issue of the purchase of energy-efficient appliances. Task C investigates individual and small-group data-quantification techniques. Task D explains monitoring of ongoing energy-relevant consumer/purchaser surveys. A cost-benefit analysis is made and discussed in Task E of other public and private information programs designed to serve the public welfare. A number of useful findings are presented with the caveat that cost-benefit analysis is not a precise technique. The application of this study to the needs of the energy-conservation program is summarized. (MCW)

  7. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  8. Impact of Years of Enrollment in the Conservation Reserve Program on Depth of Rain Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, T.; Lascano, R. J.; Acosta-Martinez, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a USDA program administered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) introduced in 1985 to reduce soil erosion by increasing vegetative cover of highly erodible land. The Texas High Plains (THP) leads the US with >890,000 ha enrolled in CRP. Potential benefits of the CRP include, e.g., increased infiltration of rainfall and organic matter, and better soil structure. However, impact of these benefits is not well characterized. Participation in the CRP is done via contracts (10-15 years in length) and since its inception land area of the THP enrolled in CRP has varied significantly allowing the evaluation of years of enrollment (age) on soil structure and impact on rain infiltration. This information is critical for land users to determine how long it is necessary to enroll their land in the CRP to improve soil structure and impact rain infiltration and increase the water holding capacity of the soil. Stable isotopes of water present a useful technique that is used in ecology and hydrology to study water movement through ecosystems and can be used to evaluate the depth of infiltration of rainwater under CRP management. We compared the infiltration depth of rain in land under CRP management to land under continuous dryland cotton with no irrigation. Two locations, in Terry and Lynn counties, were used for this study. The site in Terry County was enrolled in CRP for 25 years (1985) and 22 years (1992) in Lynn County.

  9. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... agreements with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water... concerns to be addressed, and specifically what water conservation resource issues and water quality... long-term conservation of surface and ground water or water quality improvement and related...

  10. Regulation of Innate Immune Responses by Bovine Herpesvirus 1 and Infected Cell Protein 0 (bICP0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton Jones

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 infected cell protein 0 (bICP0 is an important transcriptional regulatory protein that stimulates productive infection. In transient transfection assays, bICP0 also inhibits interferon dependent transcription. bICP0 can induce degradation of interferon stimulatory factor 3 (IRF3, a cellular transcription factor that is crucial for activating beta interferon (IFN-β promoter activity. Recent studies also concluded that interactions between bICP0 and IRF7 inhibit trans-activation of IFN-β promoter activity. The C3HC4 zinc RING (really important new gene finger located near the amino terminus of bICP0 is important for all known functions of bICP0. A recombinant virus that contains a single amino acid change in a well conserved cysteine residue of the C3HC4 zinc RING finger of bICP0 grows poorly in cultured cells, and does not reactivate from latency in cattle confirming that the C3HC4 zinc RING finger is crucial for viral growth and pathogenesis. A bICP0 deletion mutant does not induce plaques in permissive cells, but induces autophagy in a cell type dependent manner. In summary, the ability of bICP0 to stimulate productive infection, and repress IFN dependent transcription plays a crucial role in the BoHV-1 infection cycle.

  11. Cognitive Research with Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at Disney’s The Seas: A Program for Enrichment, Science, Education, and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Harley, Heidi E.; Fellner, Wendi; Stamper, M. Andy

    2010-01-01

    The dolphins at Disney contribute to a cognitive research program. This program has been very successful in four main areas: enrichment, science, education, and conservation. Dolphins are large brained,long-lived mammals with extended developmental periods, complex social lives, a large variety of foraging techniques, and intricate vocal emissions; consequently, they need to engage incognitive tasks, and they respond well to them. Our tasks have been designed for scientifically valid data col...

  12. California Institute of Technology: Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program (CECIP) was initiated in 2009. It manages $8 million within an existing fund in the school's endowment, which had been created to finance capital projects. Any member of the Caltech community may submit a project proposal, and projects are considered for approval as long as they have at least a 15…

  13. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Colchero, Fernando; Pearce-Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red Lis...

  14. Egyptian tortoise conservation: A community-based, field research program developed from a study on a captive population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attum, Omar; Baha El Din, Mindy; Baha El Din, Sherif; Habinan, Suliman

    2007-09-01

    Local community participation and ex situ conservation has the potential to assist the recovery of the endangered Egyptian tortoise, Testudo kleinmanni. We initiated an in situ community-based conservation and research program from a captive population of T. kleinmanni. We used a captive population of the Egyptian tortoise to train a member of the local community as a research technician and used his indigenous tracking skills and knowledge of the area to collect activity and dietary data on 28 captive tortoises. We overcame problems with illiteracy by creating a data sheet based on symbols and numbers. This data sheet allowed us to use the indigenous knowledge of various people from the community, and employ them in the future. Our local community approach to data collection, in conjunction with a craft program, made the conservation of the Egyptian tortoise more rewarding to the local community by providing a more sustainable form of income than collecting animals for the pet trade. Our multidimensional approach (local community participation as research technicians, craft program, and trust building) for gaining local support eventually led to the rediscovery of wild Egyptian tortoises in North Sinai, which was significant, as this species was presumed extinct in Egypt. We have now shifted our focus to in situ conservation, using the research and local capacity building template developed from this captive population study. Our template can be used by zoos and conservation organizations with small budgets and collections of native species in natural habitats to create similar captive research programs that can be applied to in situ conservation. Zoo Biol 26:397-406, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation: 1997/1998 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report reviews the achievements of the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) during the fiscal year 1997/1998. Notable initiatives include: regular sector task force meetings in which energy-efficiency-related information is exchanged; energy forums to share ideas and information; support for energy management seminars sponsored by NRCan`s Office of Energy Efficiency; the development of individual sector leadership nuclei capable of expanding CIPEC participation within the sector; the creation of communication programs to bolster public and industry awareness; participation in energy efficiency benchmarking and other activities initiated by the Office of Energy Efficiency. CIPEC also cooperates with the Canadian Industry Energy End-Use Database and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC) at Simon Fraser University in BC, working together to improve the quality of the data used in measuring energy intensity performance. Similarly, CIPEC focuses on transforming the sector-level commitments made by the Task Forces into company-level action by helping to overcome obstacles to energy efficiency. As of the end of 1998, some 250 companies representing 75 per cent of industrial energy use have been participants in the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry. Voluntary actions of CIPEC sectors are focused on energy intensity improvements, thereby controlling and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The report contains the reports of the various industry sectors, and highlights the efforts of 12 the many CIPEC participants who are making innovative changes to improve the effectiveness of energy use within their organizations. The sector reports contain a record of the challenges, a summary of the actions taken, achievements and objectives and targets. A list of the member companies in each sector is also included.

  16. Genetic variability and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys: implications for breeding and conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbano, Marianna; Schühli, Guilherme Schnell E; Santos, Élide Pereira Dos

    2015-04-08

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys Benth were assessed. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to investigate the restricted distribution of S. lachnostachys in Parana State, Brazil. Leaves of 73 individuals representing three populations were collected. DNA was extracted and submitted to PCR-ISSR amplification with nine tested primers. Genetic diversity parameters were evaluated. Our analysis indicated 95.6% polymorphic loci (stress value 0.02) with a 0.79 average Simpson's index. The Nei-Li distance dendrogram and principal component analysis largely recovered the geographical origin of each sample. Four major clusters were recognized representing each collected population. Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index were 0.25 and 0.40 respectively. As is typical for outcrossing herbs, the majority of genetic variation occurred at the population level (81.76%). A high gene flow (Nm = 2.48) was observed with a correspondingly low fixation index. These values were generally similar to previous studies on congeneric species. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCA) and of arithmetic average (UPGMA) were consistent and all three populations appear distinct as in STRUCTURE analysis. In addition, this analysis indicated a majority intrapopulation genetic variation. Despite the human pressure on natural populations our study found high levels of genetic diversity for S. lachnostachys. This was the first molecular assessment for this endemic species with medicinal proprieties and the results can guide for subsequent bioprospection, breeding programs or conservation actions.

  17. Individualized Career Plan (ICP): Implementation Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsche, Catherine; And Others

    This implementation manual was designed to assist local education agency personnel implement the individualized career plan (ICP) concept in high schools. Questions commonly asked about the ICP are answered. Guidelines are then provided for implementing the four stages of the process: planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating/refining.…

  18. Comparison of simultaneous continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) signals from a Codman and a Camino ICP sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per Kristian

    2006-07-01

    Simultaneous continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) signals from two different sensors were compared. Continuous ICP monitoring from two ICP sensors (i.e. Codman ICP MicroSensor; Johnson & Johnson, Raynham, MA and Camino OLM ICP; Camino Laboratories, San Diego, CA) placed within the brain parenchyma was performed in three patients within the intensive care unit (ICU) as part of routine management of severe subarachnoid hemorrhage. For each 6s time window mean ICP was computed, showing large differences in mean ICP values between the signals. Differences above 5 mmHg were observed in 13% of the 128,425 time windows derived from 214 h ICP recordings in these three patients. In one patient, mean ICP differed more than 10 mmHg in 23% of the time windows. Comparisons of 675,503 individual single pressure wave pairs of these 128,425 time windows revealed marginal differences in single wave amplitude (dP, i.e. pulse pressure) and latency (dT, i.e. rise time) values, suggesting that differences in mean ICP were caused by differences in baseline pressure. For the individual time windows were computed the mean wave amplitude and mean wave latency values according to a new algorithm. There were as well marginal differences between signals of mean wave amplitude and latency values. Thus, changes in baseline pressure affect mean ICP but not single pressure wave characteristics such as amplitude (dP) and (dT) latency values.

  19. South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisak, Grant; Marotz, Brian

    2003-06-01

    In 1999, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) began a program aimed at conserving the genetically pure populations of westslope cutthroat trout in the South Fork Flathead River drainage. The objective of this program is to eliminate all of the exotic and hybrid trout that threaten the genetically pure westslope cutthroat populations in the South Fork Flathead. The exotic and hybrid trout populations occur in several headwater lakes and their outflow streams. In 2001 MFWP released a draft environmental assessment, pursuant to the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA), that addressed the use of motorized equipment to deliver personnel and materials to some of these lakes in the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wildernesses (Grisak 2001). After a 30-day public comment period, MFWP determined that the complexity of issues was too great and warranted a more detailed analysis. These issues included transportation options for personnel, equipment and materials, the use of motorized equipment in wilderness, fish removal methods, fish stocking, and the status and distribution of amphibian populations in the project area. Because the program also involves the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the environmental analysis needs to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In October 2001, pursuant to NEPA, MFWP, along with the USFS and BPA initiated an environmental assessment to address these issues. In June 2002, the three agencies determined that the scope of these issues warranted an Environmental Impact Statement. This specialist report describes the logistical, technical and biological issues associated with this project and provides an analysis of options for fish removal, transportation and fish stocking. It further analyzes issues and concerns associated with amphibian populations and creating new domesticated stocks of westslope cutthroat trout. Finally, this document provides a description of each lake, the best

  20. Conservation and development projects in the Brazilian Amazon: lessons from the Community Initiative Program in Rondônia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, John O

    2002-06-01

    Community-based conservation and development has become the prevailing programmatic paradigm of conservation organizations and development donors over the last 20 years, spawning a myriad of integrated conservation and development projects (ICDP) around the world. Appealing for its ambitious aspiration to harmonize sustainable economic development at the local level with the conservation of legally established protected areas (e.g., parks and reserves), the ICDP approach recently has drawn criticism from conservation biologists for failing to ensure adequate protection of biodiversity. Development planners and economists have also raised questions about the financial sustainability of ICDPs in practice and the replicability of the model from highly local contexts to larger regional scales. This paper briefly reviews the central elements of the concept of integrated conservation and development and the emerging debate over its effectiveness. A description of the Community Initiative Program (CIP), a pilot program of the Rondônia Natural Resources Management project (PLANAFLORO) in the western Brazilian Amazon state of Rondônia, follows. The CIP is a significant experiment because it boldly attempted to apply the principles of ICDP to the regional scale involving numerous different communities in one program simultaneously. Based on the author's mid-term review of the CIP in 1999, the development and conservation impacts of the program are considered. While the CIP has not significantly curbed the degradation of protected areas in Rondônia as intended, the evidence suggests lower rates of deforestation in municipios (i.e. counties) with the highest concentrations of CIP projects. Although the economic development impacts are mixed, approximately 50% of the projects delivered tangible benefits to local communities. Lessons learned from the CIP are presented in the final section. Among the lessons learned from the CIP, detailed in the final section, are several that

  1. Estimating the Counterfactual Impact of Conservation Programs on Land Cover Outcomes: The Role of Matching and Panel Regression Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly W Jones

    Full Text Available Deforestation and conversion of native habitats continues to be the leading driver of biodiversity and ecosystem service loss. A number of conservation policies and programs are implemented--from protected areas to payments for ecosystem services (PES--to deter these losses. Currently, empirical evidence on whether these approaches stop or slow land cover change is lacking, but there is increasing interest in conducting rigorous, counterfactual impact evaluations, especially for many new conservation approaches, such as PES and REDD, which emphasize additionality. In addition, several new, globally available and free high-resolution remote sensing datasets have increased the ease of carrying out an impact evaluation on land cover change outcomes. While the number of conservation evaluations utilizing 'matching' to construct a valid control group is increasing, the majority of these studies use simple differences in means or linear cross-sectional regression to estimate the impact of the conservation program using this matched sample, with relatively few utilizing fixed effects panel methods--an alternative estimation method that relies on temporal variation in the data. In this paper we compare the advantages and limitations of (1 matching to construct the control group combined with differences in means and cross-sectional regression, which control for observable forms of bias in program evaluation, to (2 fixed effects panel methods, which control for observable and time-invariant unobservable forms of bias, with and without matching to create the control group. We then use these four approaches to estimate forest cover outcomes for two conservation programs: a PES program in Northeastern Ecuador and strict protected areas in European Russia. In the Russia case we find statistically significant differences across estimators--due to the presence of unobservable bias--that lead to differences in conclusions about effectiveness. The Ecuador case

  2. Estimating the Counterfactual Impact of Conservation Programs on Land Cover Outcomes: The Role of Matching and Panel Regression Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly W; Lewis, David J

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and conversion of native habitats continues to be the leading driver of biodiversity and ecosystem service loss. A number of conservation policies and programs are implemented--from protected areas to payments for ecosystem services (PES)--to deter these losses. Currently, empirical evidence on whether these approaches stop or slow land cover change is lacking, but there is increasing interest in conducting rigorous, counterfactual impact evaluations, especially for many new conservation approaches, such as PES and REDD, which emphasize additionality. In addition, several new, globally available and free high-resolution remote sensing datasets have increased the ease of carrying out an impact evaluation on land cover change outcomes. While the number of conservation evaluations utilizing 'matching' to construct a valid control group is increasing, the majority of these studies use simple differences in means or linear cross-sectional regression to estimate the impact of the conservation program using this matched sample, with relatively few utilizing fixed effects panel methods--an alternative estimation method that relies on temporal variation in the data. In this paper we compare the advantages and limitations of (1) matching to construct the control group combined with differences in means and cross-sectional regression, which control for observable forms of bias in program evaluation, to (2) fixed effects panel methods, which control for observable and time-invariant unobservable forms of bias, with and without matching to create the control group. We then use these four approaches to estimate forest cover outcomes for two conservation programs: a PES program in Northeastern Ecuador and strict protected areas in European Russia. In the Russia case we find statistically significant differences across estimators--due to the presence of unobservable bias--that lead to differences in conclusions about effectiveness. The Ecuador case illustrates that

  3. 78 FR 79643 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Landmark Legal Foundation; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    .... Under EPCA, any new or amended energy conservation standard shall achieve the maximum improvement in... Forest & Paper Association, Council of Industrial Boiler Owners, and National Mining Association... or amended energy conservation standard at the point that achieves the maximum improvement in...

  4. 78 FR 41868 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    .... Estimating the Energy Use and Efficiency Potential of U.S. Data Centers. Proceedings of the IEEE 99 (8), 1440... explored in an energy conservation standards and test procedure rulemaking. Economic impacts on small... environmental impacts should be explored in an energy conservation standards rulemaking. DOE has determined that...

  5. Genetic Variability and Population Structure of Salvia lachnostachys: Implications for Breeding and Conservation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Erbano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys Benth were assessed. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR molecular markers were used to investigate the restricted distribution of S. lachnostachys in Parana State, Brazil. Leaves of 73 individuals representing three populations were collected. DNA was extracted and submitted to PCR-ISSR amplification with nine tested primers. Genetic diversity parameters were evaluated. Our analysis indicated 95.6% polymorphic loci (stress value 0.02 with a 0.79 average Simpson’s index. The Nei-Li distance dendrogram and principal component analysis largely recovered the geographical origin of each sample. Four major clusters were recognized representing each collected population. Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s information index were 0.25 and 0.40 respectively. As is typical for outcrossing herbs, the majority of genetic variation occurred at the population level (81.76%. A high gene flow (Nm = 2.48 was observed with a correspondingly low fixation index. These values were generally similar to previous studies on congeneric species. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCA and of arithmetic average (UPGMA were consistent and all three populations appear distinct as in STRUCTURE analysis. In addition, this analysis indicated a majority intrapopulation genetic variation. Despite the human pressure on natural populations our study found high levels of genetic diversity for S. lachnostachys. This was the first molecular assessment for this endemic species with medicinal proprieties and the results can guide for subsequent bioprospection, breeding programs or conservation actions.

  6. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  7. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  8. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  9. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  10. 78 FR 17925 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to BSH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... Title III provides for the ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles... test procedure as set forth in paragraph (3) below: Bosch brand: Basic Model--SHE43T5 Basic Model--SHX43T5 Basic Model--SHE33T5 Kenmore brand: Basic Model--S38KML4 Basic Model--S48KML2 Basic Model--S48KML3...

  11. Forestland Restoration Partnership with The Conservation Fund’s Go Zero Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Conservation Fund Intends to Purchase a total of 1,182 acres of private, marginal agricultural land, reduce climate change through carbon sequestration, and restore...

  12. The Development Program of Energy Conservation and Comprehensive Utilization 2005-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Jointly published by 14 Department headed by Standardization Administraion ofChina(SAC) Subtitle: China will formulate and reformulate 926 standards for energy conservation and comprehensive utilization during 2005 and 2007.

  13. Lessons Learned: A review of utility experience with conservation and load management programs for commercial and industrial customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, S.

    1990-10-01

    This report examines utility experience with conservation and load management (C LM) programs of commercial and industrial (C I) customers in order to summarize the lessons learned from program experiences to date and what these teach us about how to operate successful programs in the future. This analysis was motivated by a desire to learn about programs which achieve high participation rates and high electricity savings while remaining cost effective. Also, we wanted to review the very latest experiences with innovative program approaches -- approaches that might prove useful to utilities as they scale up their C LM activities. Specific objectives of this phase of the study are threefold: (1) To disseminate information on utility C LM experience to a nationwide audience. (2) To review current New York State utility programs and make suggestions on how these programs can be improved. (3) To collect data for the final phase of the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy/New York State Energy Research and Development Authority project, which will examine the savings that are achievable if C LM programs are pushed to the limit'' of current knowledge on how to structure and run cost-effective C LM programs. 19 tabs.

  14. Metal RIE 2: Unaxis SHUTTLELINE ICP

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Unaxis ICP EtcherChlorine-based system utilizing Boron Trichloride and Chlorine to etch metals and III-V group materials on planar substrates...

  15. Growing a sustainable biofuels industry: economics, environmental considerations, and the role of the Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher M.; Lin, Yolanda; Bierwagen, Britta G.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Morefield, Philip E.; Ridley, Caroline E.; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian W.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuels are expected to be a major contributor to renewable energy in the coming decades under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). These fuels have many attractive properties including the promotion of energy independence, rural development, and the reduction of national carbon emissions. However, several unresolved environmental and economic concerns remain. Environmentally, much of the biomass is expected to come from agricultural expansion and/or intensification, which may greatly affect the net environmental impact, and economically, the lack of a developed infrastructure and bottlenecks along the supply chain may affect the industry’s economic vitality. The approximately 30 million acres (12 million hectares) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent one land base for possible expansion. Here, we examine the potential role of the CRP in biofuels industry development, by (1) assessing the range of environmental effects on six end points of concern, and (2) simulating differences in potential industry growth nationally using a systems dynamics model. The model examines seven land-use scenarios (various percentages of CRP cultivation for biofuel) and five economic scenarios (subsidy schemes) to explore the benefits of using the CRP. The environmental assessment revealed wide variation in potential impacts. Lignocellulosic feedstocks had the greatest potential to improve the environmental condition relative to row crops, but the most plausible impacts were considered to be neutral or slightly negative. Model simulations revealed that industry growth was much more sensitive to economic scenarios than land-use scenarios—similar volumes of biofuels could be produced with no CRP as with 100% utilization. The range of responses to economic policy was substantial, including long-term market stagnation at current levels of first-generation biofuels under minimal policy intervention, or RFS-scale quantities of biofuels if policy or market conditions were

  16. A novel and cost-effective monitoring approach for outcomes in an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available We report on the design and implementation of ecological monitoring for an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive scheme - the Environmental Stewardship Program. The Program uses competitive auctions to contract individual land managers for up to 15 years to conserve matters of National Environmental Significance (with an initial priority on nationally threatened ecological communities. The ecological monitoring was explicitly aligned with the Program's policy objective and desired outcomes and was applied to the Program's initial Project which targeted the critically endangered White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland ecological community in south eastern Australia. These woodlands have been reduced to <3% of their original extent and persist mostly as small remnants of variable condition on private farmland. We established monitoring sites on 153 farms located over 172,232 sq km. On each farm we established a monitoring site within the woodland patch funded for management and, wherever possible, a matched control site. The monitoring has entailed gathering data on vegetation condition, reptiles and birds. We also gathered data on the costs of experimental design, site establishment, field survey, and data analysis. The costs of monitoring are approximately 8.5% of the Program's investment in the first four years and hence are in broad accord with the general rule of thumb that 5-10% of a program's funding should be invested in monitoring. Once initial monitoring and site benchmarking are completed we propose to implement a novel rotating sampling approach that will maintain scientific integrity while achieving an annual cost-efficiency of up to 23%. We discuss useful lessons relevant to other monitoring programs where there is a need to provide managers with reliable early evidence of program effectiveness and to demonstrate opportunities for cost-efficiencies.

  17. Evaluating Safeguards in a Conservation Incentive Program: Participation, Consent, and Benefit Sharing in Indigenous Communities of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Krause

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Critics suggest that Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ may not generate improvements in well-being for participating stakeholders, and may in fact undermine indigenous rights. To ensure positive social benefits from REDD+ projects, the United Nations REDD Programme has proposed core safeguards, including local stakeholder participation; free, prior, and informed consent; and equitable distribution of benefits. However, there is little experience to date in implementing and evaluating these safeguards. We apply these core safeguards as a framework to study how people in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon perceive and benefit from Programa Socio Bosque, a conservation incentive program in Ecuador's national REDD+ Programme portfolio. We interviewed 101 individuals in five communities that had participated in the Programa Socio Bosque for at least 18 months. Close to 80% of respondents reported that the decision to join Socio Bosque was made democratically, that they were familiar with the conservation goals of Socio Bosque, and that they were aware which area their community had selected for conservation. However, only 17% were familiar with the overall terms of the conservation agreement, implying that they were either not fully informed of or did not fully understand what they were consenting to in joining the program. Although the terms of the program require a community investment plan to be democratically developed by community members, less than half of respondents were aware of the existence of the investment plan, and fewer than 20% had participated in its development. The majority of respondents (61% reported that they did not know the amount of incentives that their community currently receives, and only 44% stated that incentives were managed democratically in communal assemblies. Moreover, although a slight majority (53% said they had noticed benefits to the community from participating in

  18. Annual report to Congress on Federal Government energy management and conservation programs, Fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-06

    This report provides sinformation on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet statutory requirements of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act. It also describes energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Implementation activities undertaken during FY94 by the Federal agencies under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and Executive Orders 12759 and 12902 are also described. During FY94, total (gross) energy consumption of the US Government, including energy consued to produce, process, and transport energy, was 1.72 quadrillion Btu. This represents {similar_to}2.0% of the total 85.34 quads used in US.

  19. Annual report to Congress on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report on Federal Energy Management for Fiscal year (FY) 1992 provides information on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet the statutory requirements of Title V, Part 3, of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 8251-8261, and Title VIII of NECPA, 42 U.S.C. 8287-8287b. This report also describes the energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under the authorization of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6361. Implementation activities undertaken during FY 1992 by the Federal agencies under Executive Order 12759 on Federal Energy Management are also described in this report.

  20. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  1. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia A Conde

    Full Text Available Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23% terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  2. Investment risk evaluation techniques: use in energy-intensive industries and implications for ERDA's Industrial Conservation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-13

    The trade-off between risk and rate-of-return in investment evaluations is crucial in assessing the commercial potential of future energy-conservation technologies. The focus of the Industrial Conservation Program at ERDA is to reduce the perceived risks of a given technology to the extent that the private sector will adopt the technology within the normal course of its business operations. These perceived risks may emanate from technical, institutional, or commercial uncertainties, or in many cases they may result merely from a company's or industry's lack of previous experience with a particular technology. Regardless of the source of the risk surrounding a project, the uncertainty it poses to the private sector will serve to inhibit decisions to invest. This study evaluates the treatment of risk in capital investments in certain energy-intensive industries which are the primary targets of ERDA's Industrial Conservation Program. These risks evaluation considerations were placed within a context that includes capital budgeting practices and procedures, organizational considerations, and basic rate-of-return evaluation procedures in the targeted energy-intensive industries (petroleum, chemicals, paper, textiles, cement, food processing, aluminum, steel, glass, and agriculture).

  3. Should social psychologists create a disciplinary affirmative action program for political conservatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweder, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Freely staying on the move between alternative points of view is the best antidote to dogmatism. Robert Merton's ideals for an epistemic community are sufficient to correct pseudo-empirical studies designed to confirm beliefs that liberals (or conservatives) think deserve to be true. Institutionalizing the self-proclaimed political identities of social psychologists may make things worse.

  4. Farmers' Cynicism toward Nature and Distrust of the Government: Where Does that Leave Conservation Buffer Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, Katherine L.; Burnett, Ann; Meister, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Farmers are commonly regarded as stewards of the land. Farmers have, however, become cynical toward nature (Meister, Hest, & Burnett, 2009) and distrustful of the government (Cantrill, 2003). This study examines whether or not that cynicism and distrust is reflected in U.S. farmers' opinions of and future participation in conservation buffer…

  5. Primate Conservation--An Evaluation of Two Different Educational Programs in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Brigitte; Braunbeck, Thomas; Randler, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all primate species are globally threatened. Conservation approaches need to focus on local people and users of resources from the habitats of the apes. Students worldwide should become aware of the context and relationships in school, and they should change their usage and behaviour as the ultimate goals. This study explored the…

  6. 77 FR 76972 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...-displacement, dynamic, or hybrid. A positive-displacement compressor increases the pressure of the intake air... hybrid compressor is some combination of positive- displacement and dynamic compressors. \\1\\ Compressors... improve the efficiency of electric motors and pumps and certain other industrial equipment to conserve...

  7. 78 FR 15891 - Energy Conservation Program: Data Collection and Comparison With Forecasted Unit Sales of Five...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... combination, to provide 3 light levels; and (ii) is designated on the lamp packaging and marketing materials... the light level. Three-way incandescent lamps are typically used in residential multi-purpose areas... conservation standard levels and related requirements by statute. Id. As in the 2008 analysis and previous...

  8. 77 FR 8801 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... forms and supporting materials must be included in the application: (1) An Application for Federal... wildlife habitat; (iii) Benefits from forest-based experiential learning, including K-12 conservation... Information System (GIS) shapefile: a digital, vector-based storage format for storing geometric location and...

  9. Conservation program works as an alternative irrigation districts in sustainable water management of agricultural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Peinado Guevara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is an issue of worldwide concern since it is already having an impact on social development. Mexico is not an exception to this problem because in several regions of the country are great difficulties in supplying water, primarily for agricultural use. In Sinaloa, it had been mentioned repeatedly by the media that in the Irrigation District 063, located in the northern of the state, there are problems of water scarcity, and yet there still exist difficulties in conserving the resource. More than 49% of the water used for agriculture is wasted. To resolve this problem, producers and government agencies spend significant resources for investment in water conservation. However, the results have not been entirely satisfactory because the waste is high, a situation that motivates them to study more deeply the main weaknesses that affect sustainable resource use. Farmer’s participation in the administration of water infrastructure is important, as well as providing financial resources for the conservation of water system; and participation in activities of construction and repaired of water infrastructure. Farmer’s should also plan and design strategies for water conservation. This situation requires an appropriate level of technology and intellectual, rather than local producers and thus no complicated sustainable resource management. That is what local producers don’t have and therefore it complicates the sustainable management of the resource.

  10. Farmers' Cynicism toward Nature and Distrust of the Government: Where Does that Leave Conservation Buffer Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, Katherine L.; Burnett, Ann; Meister, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Farmers are commonly regarded as stewards of the land. Farmers have, however, become cynical toward nature (Meister, Hest, & Burnett, 2009) and distrustful of the government (Cantrill, 2003). This study examines whether or not that cynicism and distrust is reflected in U.S. farmers' opinions of and future participation in conservation buffer…

  11. Water Wizards: School Program on Water Conservation for Third and Fourth Grade Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    Water is precious. It is also easy to take for granted. Many people recognize that water is scarce in desert areas. but it is harder to realize that places like Massachusetts could face a shortage of pure drinking water. This manual provides teachers with curriculum resources to introduce concepts of water supply and water conservation to third…

  12. 78 FR 79638 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Hearth Products as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... any potential test procedure or energy conservation standard that may arise from today's proposed...+PR+N+O+SR+PS;rpp=50;so=DESC;sb=postedDate;po= 0;D=EERE-2011-BT-STD-0047). Heatilator. Common... of the General Counsel's Web site at www.gc.doe.gov ./gc/office-general-counsel. DOE reviewed...

  13. 75 FR 25224 - Energy Conservation Program for Commercial Equipment: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    .... Department of Energy's (DOE) decision and order in Case No. CAC-025, which grants a waiver to Daikin from the.... (Daikin) (Case No. CAC-025). Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) sets..., Inc., (Daikin) (Case No. CAC-025) is hereby granted as set forth in the paragraphs below. (2)...

  14. 75 FR 6013 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... No. CAC-022. DOE grants a waiver to Hallowell from the existing DOE test procedure applicable to... International (Hallowell) (Case No. CAC-022). Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...: (1) The ``Petition for Waiver'' filed by Hallowell International (Hallowell) (Case No. CAC-022)...

  15. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external power... Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies'') and provide the appropriate docket number...

  16. Industrial sector energy conservation programs in the People`s Republic of China during the seventh five-year plan (1986--1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhiping [State Planning Commission, Beijing (China). Energy Research Inst.; Sinton, J.E.; Yang Fuqiang; Levine, M.D.; Ting, M.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The impetus at the national level to invest in energy conservation is quite strong and has long been reflected not only in official pronouncements, but also in the investments and organizational activities of the Chinese government. In the early 1980s the central government began a program of direct investments in industrial energy conservation that continues to the present. In addition, concurrently established governmental and quasi-governmental agencies have pursued conservation through administrative and educational measures. In Section 2 of this paper the authors outline the policies and institutions that supported China`s program of energy conservation investments in the Sixth and Seventh Five-Year Plans (FYPs) (1981--1985 and 1986--1990). In Section 3 they describe examples of the types of conservation projects pursued in four industrial subsectors: ferrous metals manufacturing; non-ferrous metals mining and manufacturing; chemicals manufacturing; and building materials manufacturing. Section 4 presents a simple methodology for comparing the costs of energy conservation to those of energy supply. Further discussion points out the applicability and limitations of this methodology to State Planning Commission published statistical material on the overall results of energy conservation investments. Though problematic, such analysis indicates that energy conservation investments were probably substantially cheaper than investments in equivalent energy supply would have been. They end with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered in carrying out the conservation investment programs.

  17. Industrial sector energy conservation programs in the People`s Republic of China during the seventh five-year plan (1986--1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhiping [State Planning Commission, Beijing (China). Energy Research Inst.; Sinton, J.E.; Yang Fuqiang; Levine, M.D.; Ting, M.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The impetus at the national level to invest in energy conservation is quite strong and has long been reflected not only in official pronouncements, but also in the investments and organizational activities of the Chinese government. In the early 1980s the central government began a program of direct investments in industrial energy conservation that continues to the present. In addition, concurrently established governmental and quasi-governmental agencies have pursued conservation through administrative and educational measures. In Section 2 of this paper the authors outline the policies and institutions that supported China`s program of energy conservation investments in the Sixth and Seventh Five-Year Plans (FYPs) (1981--1985 and 1986--1990). In Section 3 they describe examples of the types of conservation projects pursued in four industrial subsectors: ferrous metals manufacturing; non-ferrous metals mining and manufacturing; chemicals manufacturing; and building materials manufacturing. Section 4 presents a simple methodology for comparing the costs of energy conservation to those of energy supply. Further discussion points out the applicability and limitations of this methodology to State Planning Commission published statistical material on the overall results of energy conservation investments. Though problematic, such analysis indicates that energy conservation investments were probably substantially cheaper than investments in equivalent energy supply would have been. They end with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered in carrying out the conservation investment programs.

  18. EnviroAtlas - Acres of USDA Farm Service Agency Conservation Reserve Program land by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the acres of land enrolled in the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The CRP is administered by...

  19. ICP-MS Data Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Document designed to offer data reviewers guidance in determining the validity ofanalytical data generated through the USEPA Contract Laboratory Program Statement ofWork (SOW) ISM01.X Inorganic Superfund Methods (Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration)

  20. NATIONAL QUESTION IN PROGRAM DOCUMENTS OF UKRAINIAN POLITICAL ASSOCIATIONS OF CONSERVATIVE-CLERICAL DIRECTION IN WESTERN UKRAINE (1920-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Demczyszak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article activity of Ukrainian parties and social and political associations of conservative-clerical direction in Western Ukraine –UKA, UKS, UKNP (UNA– is explored. The place of national question in their programs is found out. The attitude to the slogan of autonomy of Western Ukraine within Poland and possible independence of Ukraine was researched. It analyzes the decision of party conferences, discussions on this subject on the pages of print media related to political organizations. Looks to character of Ukrainian-Polish relations of metropolitan Andrey Sheptytskyi and bishop Hrygory Khomyshyn are exposed.

  1. 78 FR 52900 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... final program rule as: (i) Economic benefits such as timber and non-timber products; (ii) Environmental... purpose of the program is to establish community forests by protecting forest land from conversion to non... also be threatened by conversion to non-forest uses, must not be held in trust by the United States on...

  2. 75 FR 22027 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 253 RIN 0584-AD95 Food Distribution Program on Indian... Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes to amend Food Distribution Program on... permanently exclude combat pay from being considered income and eliminate the ] maximum dollar limit of...

  3. 76 FR 11228 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of LG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles, a program covering most major household appliances... waiver applies to the following basic model groups: Model Brand WM3360H LG WM3550H LG WM3150H LG WM3975H...-3777-1114); URL: http.www.LGE.com . LG's principal brands include LG and OEM brands, including GE and...

  4. 78 FR 7939 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) conducted a round-robin testing program to evaluate...-robin test program. (AHAM, No. 18 at pp. 2-3; \\8\\ Whirlpool, No. 15 at p. 1) AHAM and Whirlpool..., whereas a hood fan used for cooling an over-the-range microwave oven is typically rated at 100-200 watts...

  5. [Modern spectral estimation of ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Jia, Q; Liu, S; Guo, L; Chen, H; Zeng, X

    2000-06-01

    The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and its signal characteristics were discussed using modern spectral estimation technique. The power spectra density (PSD) was calculated using the auto-regression (AR) model of modern spectra estimation. The Levinson-Durbin recursion method was used to estimate the model parameters which were used for the PSD computation. The results obtained with actual ICP-AES spectra and measurements showed that the spectral estimation technique was helpful for the better understanding about spectral composition and signal characteristics.

  6. The Challenges of Red Wolf Conservation and the Fate of an Endangered Species Recovery Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Dennis L; Bastille‐Rousseau, Guillaume; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-01-01

    ... by hybridization with closely related coyotes ( C. latrans ) and illegal human‐caused mortality. Ongoing review of the red wolf program in the single recovery area in North Carolina prompted us to compare demography...

  7. Conserved Transcription Factors Steer Growth-Related Genomic Programs in Daphnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, Katina I.; Jansen, Mieke; Decaestecker, Ellen; Hulselmans, Gert; Becker, Dörthe; Colbourne, John K.; Orsini, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ecological genomics aims to understand the functional association between environmental gradients and the genes underlying adaptive traits. Many genes that are identified by genome-wide screening in ecologically relevant species lack functional annotations. Although gene functions can be inferred from sequence homology, such approaches have limited power. Here, we introduce ecological regulatory genomics by presenting an ontology-free gene prioritization method. Specifically, our method combines transcriptome profiling with high-throughput cis-regulatory sequence analysis in the water fleas Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna. It screens coexpressed genes for overrepresented DNA motifs that serve as transcription factor binding sites, thereby providing insight into conserved transcription factors and gene regulatory networks shaping the expression profile. We first validated our method, called Daphnia-cisTarget, on a D. pulex heat shock data set, which revealed a network driven by the heat shock factor. Next, we performed RNA-Seq in D. magna exposed to the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Daphnia-cisTarget identified coregulated gene networks that associate with the moulting cycle and potentially regulate life history changes in growth rate and age at maturity. These networks are predicted to be regulated by evolutionary conserved transcription factors such as the homologues of Drosophila Shavenbaby and Grainyhead, nuclear receptors, and a GATA family member. In conclusion, our approach allows prioritising candidate genes in Daphnia without bias towards prior knowledge about functional gene annotation and represents an important step towards exploring the molecular mechanisms of ecological responses in organisms with poorly annotated genomes. PMID:28854641

  8. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROGRAMS AND INVESTIGATIONS RELATED TO SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.R.OSTERKAMP; J.R.GRAY

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a rich tradition of collecting hydrologic data, especially for fluxes of water and suspended sediment, that provide a foundation for studies of soil and water conservation.Applied and basic research has included investigations of the effects of land use on rangelands,croplands, and forests; hazards mapping; derivation of flood and drought frequency, and other statistics related to streamflow and reservoir storage; development and application of models of rainfall-runoff relations, chemical quality, and sediment movement; and studies of the interactive processes of overland and channel flow with vegetation. Networks of streamgaging stations and (or) sampling sites within numerous drainage basins are yielding information that extends databases and enhances the ability to use those data for interpretive studies.

  9. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG): Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Kat A.

    2014-01-10

    The Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge (N2N) brought together a consortium of 14 leading clean energy rural, suburban, and low income communities throughout Connecticut. N2N was awarded $4.2 million from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) competitive BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program on August 10, 2010 to run a two-year pilot program (plus one year of transition and evaluation) (Award No. EMCBC- 00969-10). N2N tested innovative program models and hypotheses for improving Connecticut’s existing residential energy efficiency programs that are overseen by the ratepayer fund board and administered by CT utilities. N2N’s original goal was to engage 10 percent of households in participating communities to reduce their energy usage by 20 percent through energy upgrades and clean energy measures. N2N planned for customers to complete more comprehensive whole-home energy efficiency and clean energy measures and to achieve broader penetration than existing utility-administered regulated programs. Since this was an ARRA award, we report the following figures on job creation in Table 1. Since N2N is not continuing in its current form, we do not provide figures on job retention. Table 1 N2N Job Creation by Quarter Jobs Created 2010 Q4 6.65 2011 Q1 7.13 2011 Q2 4.98 2011 Q3 9.66 2011 Q4 5.43 2012 Q1 11.11 2012 Q2 6.85 2012 Q3 6.29 2012 Q4 6.77 2013 Q1 5.57 2013 Q2 8.35 2013 Q3 6.52 Total 85.31 The N2N team encountered several gaps in the existing efficiency program performance that hindered meeting N2N’s and DOE’s short-term program goals, as well as the State of Connecticut’s long-term energy, efficiency, and carbon reduction goals. However, despite the slow program start, N2N found evidence of increasing upgrade uptake rates over time, due to delayed customer action of one to two years from N2N introduction to completion of deeper household upgrades. Two main social/behavioral principles have contributed to driving deeper upgrades in CT: 1. Word of mouth

  10. Determination of thorium by ICP-MS and ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, L

    2001-01-01

    Natural thorium (232-Th) has traditionally been measured by radiometric techniques such as alpha and gamma spectrometry. However. with both ICP-OES and ICP-MS instruments becoming relatively common in many analytical laboratories. these techniques have become more acceptable in thorium analysis. This paper will briefly describe an overview of the instrumentation currently available and the techniques themselves applied to thorium analysis. Both techniques have low detection limits and require little sample treatment after the sample digestion. Routine sample analysis time is short and spectra easy to interpret. usually giving results with low uncertainties, Whereas ICP-OES measures total thorium only, ICP-MS also offers the potential to measure other long-lived thorium isotopes (t 1/2 > 10(4) years), such as 232Th. However, other important isotopes, such as 228Th. are still out of reach for routine analysis. The main disadvantage of the techniques is the requirement for a sample digestion stage.

  11. Grasslands, wetlands, and agriculture: the fate of land expiring from the Conservation Reserve Program in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morefield, Philip E.; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Clark, Christopher M.; Iovanna, Richard

    2016-09-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is the largest agricultural land-retirement program in the United States, providing many environmental benefits, including wildlife habitat and improved air, water, and soil quality. Since 2007, however, CRP area has declined by over 25% nationally with much of this land returning to agriculture. Despite this trend, it is unclear what types of CRP land are being converted, to what crops, and where. All of these specific factors greatly affect environmental impacts. To answer these questions, we quantified shifts in expiring CRP parcels to five major crop-types (corn, soy, winter and spring wheat, and sorghum) in a 12-state, Midwestern region of the United States using a US Department of Agriculture (USDA), field-level CRP database and USDA’s Cropland Data Layer. For the years 2010 through 2013, we estimate almost 30%, or more than 530 000 ha, of expiring CRP land returned to the production of these five crops in our study area, with soy and corn accounting for the vast majority of these shifts. Grasslands were the largest type of CRP land converted (360 000 ha), followed by specifically designated wildlife habitat (76 000 ha), and wetland areas (53 000 ha). These wetland areas were not just wetlands themselves, but also a mix of land covers enhancing or protecting wetland ecosystem services (e.g., wetland buffers). Areas in the Dakotas, Nebraska, and southern Iowa were hotspots of change, with the highest areas of CRP land moving back to agriculture. By contrast, we estimate only a small amount (∼3%) of the expiring land shifted into similar, non-CRP land-retirement or easement programs. Reconciling needs for food, feed, fuel, and healthy ecosystems is an immense challenge for farmers, conservationists, and state and federal agencies. Reduced enrollment and the turnover of CRP land from conservation to agriculture raises questions about sustaining ecosystem services in this region.

  12. Application of Multio-bjective Fuzzy Goal Programming to Optimize Cropping Pattern with Emphasis on Using Conservation Tillage Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samad erfanifar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optimal cropping patterns based on individual aims are presented and followed by a multi-objective cropping pattern with emphasize on the use of conservation tillage methods in Darab region presented. Individual goals consisted of maximizing gross margin and food secIn this study, the optimal cropping patterns based on individual aims were presented and followed by using a multi-objective fuzzy goal programming with emphasize on the use of conservation tillage methods in the Darab region. Individual goals consisted of maximizing gross margin and food security and minimizing water consumption and urea fertilizer use. The results showed that in the multi-objective cropping pattern, gross margin and food security increased by 23.5% and 6.1% , while water and energy consumption decreased by 4% and 5.1%, respectively as compared to the current cropping pattern. The fuzzy composite distance improved by %36, as compared to the current condition. Moreover, having replaced the conventional tillage methods with conservation tillage methods in the cropping pattern, the diesel fuel consumption reduced by 27%. Therefore, replacing multi-objective cropping pattern ,on which the conservation tillage methods are emphasized, with the conventional cropping patterns improves economic and environmental conditions. urity index and minimizing water and urea fertilizer.The results showed that in the multi-objective cropping pattern, gross margin and food security index respectively increase by 23.5% and 6.1% and water and energy consumption decrease by 4% and 5.1% respectively as compared to current cropping pattern. The fuzzy composite distance improves by %36 compares to current condition and represents better cropping pattern than the others. Morever in this cropping pattern, conventional tillage method will be replaced by conservation tillage practices, therefore the amount of diesel fuel consumption reduces by 27% that is equivalent to an

  13. Program for conservation of electric energy, its developments and needs for consolidation; Programa de conservacao de energia eletrica, seus desdobramentos e necessidades para consolidacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Luiz Gustavo de Vargas; Ramos, Maria Olivia de Souza; Pereira, Osvaldo Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The object of this article is to present the National Program for Conservation of Electric Energy (PROCEL), used in Brazil as a solution for the problems of rational use of electric energy by the federal government. It presents a brief history of its creation, several activities areas that it is proposing to act and some results obtained at the moment. It discusses the program's expectation and the potential gains, tracing a brief parallel with the National Plan of Climate Changes. The weak points are presented as suggestions for improvement. Other programs in different stages also are presented like a solution for the conservation of electric energy. Finally, the article presents the actual stage of discussions and actions from society in response to the question of the continuation of the conservation of electric energy's programs and its necessary improvement in Brazil. (author)

  14. 78 FR 5075 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Set-Top Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standards. DOE reviewed the comments it received on the 2011 proposed... weather and location. (DISH, EchoStar, DIRECTV, No. 0030 at p. 11) Because of the complexity associated... program is CEA's standards making body that is accredited by ANSI.\\11\\ CEA-2043 is being developed under...

  15. 78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... for Electric Motors; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 240 / Friday, December 13, 2013... Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... efficiency test procedures for electric motors to allow currently unregulated motors to be tested...

  16. 78 FR 7681 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... test procedure explicitly provides for such an option. This ambiguity has worked its way into the AFUE... $1280 to $3200 to update the automatic AFUE calculation program. DOE notes that given the role AHRI has... general duty to adhere to the following requirements: (1) Eliminate drafting errors and ambiguity;...

  17. Defining Audience Segments for Extension Programming Using Reported Water Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Paul; Ott, Emily; Wilber, Wendy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Racevskis, Laila

    2013-01-01

    A tool from social marketing can help Extension agents understand distinct audience segments among their constituents. Defining targeted audiences for Extension programming is a first step to influencing behavior change among the public. An online survey was conducted using an Extension email list for urban households receiving a monthly lawn and…

  18. 78 FR 13566 - Energy Conservation Program for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps: Public Meeting and Availability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... request an opportunity to make an oral presentation. Such persons may hand-deliver requests to speak... alternative arrangements with the Building Technologies Program. The request to give an oral presentation... feedback from interested parties on its analytical framework, models, and interim results. II. History...

  19. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... opportunity to make an oral presentation at the public meeting. Such persons may hand-deliver requests to... feedback on how manufacturers currently develop any simulation tools to ensure they are applicable across a... with the Building Technologies Program in advance. When necessary, the request to give an...

  20. 76 FR 12825 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    .... Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024... with or without thermal elements designed for surface browning of food and combination ovens. DOE..., including microwave ovens with or without thermal elements designed for surface browning of food. DOE...

  1. 78 FR 7390 - Information Collection Request; Economic Assessment of Conservation Reserve Program Lands for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    .... Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication (Braille, large print, audio... program conditions. The research proposal has been discussed with the respective State Fish and Game... survey because the State Fish and Game agencies do not have email addresses for all hunters, and hunters...

  2. Functional Interaction between Class II Histone Deacetylases and ICP0 of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Patrick; Thomas, Joëlle; Texier, Pascale; Caron, Cécile; Khochbin, Saadi; Epstein, Alberto L.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the physical and functional interactions between ICP0 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4, 5, and 7. Class II HDACs are mainly known for their participation in the control of cell differentiation through the regulation of the activity of the transcription factor MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2), implicated in muscle development and neuronal survival. Immunofluorescence experiments performed on transfected cells showed that ICP0 colocalizes with and reorganizes the nuclear distribution of ectopically expressed class I and II HDACs. In addition, endogenous HDAC4 and at least one of its binding partners, the corepressor protein SMRT (for silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptor), undergo changes in their nuclear distribution in ICP0-transfected cells. As a result, during infection endogenous HDAC4 colocalizes with ICP0. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays confirmed that class II but not class I HDACs specifically interacted with ICP0 through their amino-terminal regions. This region, which is not conserved in class I HDACs but homologous to the MITR (MEF2-interacting transcription repressor) protein, is responsible for the repression, in a deacetylase-independent manner, of MEF2 by sequestering it under an inactive form in the nucleus. Consequently, we show that ICP0 is able to overcome the HDAC5 amino-terminal- and MITR-induced MEF2A repression in gene reporter assays. This is the first report of a viral protein interacting with and controlling the repressor activity of class II HDACs. We discuss the putative consequences of such an interaction for the biology of the virus both during lytic infection and reactivation from latency. PMID:15194749

  3. Conservation of DNA Methylation Programming Between Mouse and Human Gametes and Preimplantation Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carlee R; MacDonald, William A; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2016-09-01

    In mice, assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) applied during gametogenesis and preimplantation development can result in disruption of genomic imprinting. In humans, these technologies and/or subfertility have been linked to perturbations in genomic imprinting. To understand how ARTs and infertility affect DNA methylation, it is important to understand DNA methylation dynamics and the role of regulatory factors at these critical stages. Recent genome studies performed using mouse and human gametes and preimplantation embryos have shed light onto these processes. Here, we comprehensively review the current state of knowledge regarding global and imprinted DNA methylation programming in the mouse and human. Available data highlight striking similarities in mouse and human DNA methylation dynamics during gamete and preimplantation development. Just as fascinating, these studies have revealed sex-, gene-, and allele-specific differences in DNA methylation programming, warranting future investigation to untangle the complex regulation of DNA methylation dynamics during gamete and preimplantation development.

  4. The impact of a shade coffee certification program on forest conservation: a case study from a wild coffee forest in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryo; Todo, Yasuyuki

    2013-11-30

    In recent years, shade coffee certification programs have attracted increasing attention from conservation and development organizations. Certification programs offer an opportunity to link environmental and economic goals by providing a premium price to producers and thereby contributing to forest conservation. However, the significance of the conservation efforts of certification programs remains unclear because of a lack of empirical evidence. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a shade coffee certification program on forest conservation. The study was conducted in the Belete-Gera Regional Forest Priority Area in Ethiopia, and remote sensing data of 2005 and 2010 were used to gauge the change of forest area. Using propensity score matching estimation, we found that forests under the coffee certification program were less likely to be deforested than forests without forest coffee. By contrast, the difference in the degree of deforestation between forests with forest coffee but not under the certification program and forests with no forest coffee is statistically insignificant. These results suggest that the certification program has had a large effect on forest protection, decreasing the probability of deforestation by 1.7 percentage points. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated Design for Marketing and Manufacturing team: An examination of LA-ICP-AES in a mobile configuration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified the need for field-deployable elemental analysis devices that are safer, faster, and less expensive than the fixed laboratory procedures now used to screen hazardous waste sites. As a response to this need, the Technology Integration Program (TIP) created a mobile, field-deployable laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-AES) sampling and analysis prototype. Although the elemental. screening prototype has been successfully field-tested, continued marketing and technical development efforts are required to transfer LA-ICP-AES technology to the commercial sector. TIP established and supported a student research and design group called the Integrated Design for Marketing and Manufacturing (IDMM) team to advance the technology transfer of mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES. The IDMM team developed a conceptual design (which is detailed in this report) for a mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES sampling and analysis system, and reports the following findings: Mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES is commercially viable. Eventual regulatory acceptance of field-deployable LA-ICP-AES, while not a simple process, is likely. Further refinement of certain processes and components of LA-ICP-AES will enhance the device`s sensitivity and accuracy.

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  7. Florida manatee avoidance technology: A pilot program by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Katherine; Haubold, Elsa

    2003-10-01

    Since 1976, approximately 25% of the annual Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) mortality has been attributed to collisions with watercraft. In 2001, the Florida Legislature appropriated $200,000 in funds for research projects using technological solutions to directly address the problem of collisions between manatees and watercraft. The Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission initially funded seven projects for the first two fiscal years. The selected proposals were designed to explore technology that had not previously been applied to the manatee/boat collision problem and included many acoustic concepts related to voice recognition, sonar, and an alerting device to be put on boats to warn manatees. The most promising results to date are from projects employing voice-recognition techniques to identify manatee vocalizations and warn boaters of the manatees' presence. Sonar technology, much like that used in fish finders, is promising but has met with regulatory problems regarding permitting and remains to be tested, as has the manatee-alerting device. The state of Florida found results of the initial years of funding compelling and plans to fund further manatee avoidance technology research in a continued effort to mitigate the problem of manatee/boat collisions.

  8. Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel industry demonstration program. Task III. GTE high temperature recuperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, F.C.; Hoffman, A.O.; Lownie, H.W.

    1983-06-01

    The Office of Industrial Programs of the Department of Energy has undertaken a program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing various energy-conserving devices and equipment. This report presents results on one of those systems, a high-temperature ceramic recuperator designed and manufactured by Sylvania Chemical and Metallurgical Division, GTE Products Corporation of Towanda, Pennsylvania. The ceramic cross-flow recuperator unit recovers waste heat from the hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature burners of various manufacture. Of the 38 host site installations included in the program, sufficient operating data were obtained from 28 sites to evaluate the benefits in terms of energy and economic savings that can be achieved. Performance and cost data are analyzed and presented for those 28 installations, which covered a variety of applications, sizes, and industry types. Except for 5 sites where unusual operating or data-collection problems were encountered, the improvements in performance of the recuperated furnaces equalled or exceeded estimates; the average of the total fuel savings for these 23 sites was 44.0 percent, some portion of which resulted from furnace improvements other than recuperation. Payback times were calculated for both total costs and for recuperator-related costs, using a cumulative annual after-tax cash flow method which includes tax investment credits, estimates of general and fuel-price inflation, and maintenance costs.

  9. Corn-Based Ethanol Production and Environmental Quality: A Case of Iowa and the Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Silvia; Gassman, Philip W.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2009-10-01

    Growing demand for corn due to the expansion of ethanol has increased concerns that environmentally sensitive lands retired from agricultural production and enrolled into the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) will be cropped again. Iowa produces more ethanol than any other state in the United States, and it also produces the most corn. Thus, an examination of the impacts of higher crop prices on CRP land in Iowa can give insight into what we might expect nationally in the years ahead if crop prices remain high. We construct CRP land supply curves for various corn prices and then estimate the environmental impacts of cropping CRP land through the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model. EPIC provides edge-of-field estimates of soil erosion, nutrient loss, and carbon sequestration. We find that incremental impacts increase dramatically as higher corn prices bring into production more and more environmentally fragile land. Maintaining current levels of environmental quality will require substantially higher spending levels. Even allowing for the cost savings that would accrue as CRP land leaves the program, a change in targeting strategies will likely be required to ensure that the most sensitive land does not leave the program.

  10. Regional estimates of ecological services derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Stephen P.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Waddle, Hardin; Keeland, Bobby D.; Walls, Susan C.; James, Dale; Moorman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) is the Nation?s largest floodplain and this once predominantly forested ecosystem provided significant habitat for a diverse flora and fauna, sequestered carbon in trees and soil, and stored floodwater, sediments, and nutrients within the floodplain. This landscape has been substantially altered by the conversion of nearly 75% of the riparian forests, predominantly to agricultural cropland, with significant loss and degradation of important ecosystem services. Large-scale efforts have been employed to restore the forest and wetland resources and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent some of the most extensive restoration programs in the MAV. The objective of the WRP is to restore and protect the functions and values of wetlands in agricultural landscapes with an emphasis on habitat for migratory birds and wetland-dependent wildlife, protection and improvement of water quality, flood attenuation, ground water recharge, protection of native flora and fauna, and educational and scientific scholarship.

  11. Data Acquisition, Management, and Analysis in Support of the Audiology and Hearing Conservation and the Orbital Debris Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, Todd

    2012-01-01

    My internship at Johnson Space Center, Houston TX comprised of working simultaneously in the Space Life Science Directorate (Clinical Services Branch, SD3) in Audiology and Hearing Conservation and in the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Sciences Directorate in the Orbital Debris Program Office (KX). The purpose of the project done to support the Audiology and Hearing Conservation Clinic (AuHCon) is to organize and analyze auditory test data that has been obtained from tests conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in Johnson Space Center's clinic. Astronauts undergo a special type of auditory test called an On-Orbit Hearing Assessment (OOHA), which monitors hearing function while crewmembers are exposed to noise and microgravity during long-duration spaceflight. Data needed to be formatted to assist the Audiologist in studying, analyzing and reporting OOHA results from all ISS missions, with comparison to conventional preflight and post-flight audiometric test results of crewmembers. Orbital debris is the #1 threat to manned spacecraft; therefore NASA is investing in different measurement techniques to acquire information on orbital debris. These measurements are taken with telescopes in different parts of the world to acquire brightness variations over time, from which size, rotation rates and material information can be determined for orbital debris. Currently many assumptions are taken to resolve size and material from observed brightness, therefore a laboratory (Optical Measurement Center) is used to simulate the space environment and acquire information of known targets suited to best model the orbital debris population. In the Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) telescopic data were acquired and analyzed to better assess the orbital debris population.

  12. Land use and conservation reserve program effects on the persistence of playa wetlands in the High Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dale W; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A; Johnson, Lacrecia A; McMurry, Scott T

    2014-04-15

    Watershed cultivation and subsequent soil erosion remains the greatest threat to the service provisioning of playa wetlands in the High Plains. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plants perennial vegetation cover on cultivated lands including playa watersheds, and therefore, the program influences sediment deposition and accumulation in playas. Our objective was to measure the effects of the CRP on sediment deposition by comparing sediment depth and present/historic size characteristics in 258 playas among three High-Plains subregions (northern, central, and southern) and the three dominant watershed types: cropland, CRP, and native grassland. Sediment depth and resultant volume loss for CRP playas were 40% and 57% lower than cropland playas, but 68% and 76% greater than playas in native grassland. Playas in CRP had remaining volumes exceeding those of cropland playas. Grassland playas had nearly three times more original playa volume and 122% greater wetland area than CRP playas. Overall, playas were larger in the south than other subregions. Sediment depth was also three times greater in the south than the north, which resulted in southern playas losing twice as much total volume as northern playas. However, the larger southern playas provide more remaining volume per playa than those in other subregions. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of proper watershed management in preserving playa wetland ecosystem service provisioning in the High Plains. Furthermore, we identify regional differences in playas that may influence management decisions and provide valuable insight to conservation practitioners trying to maximize wetland services with limited resources.

  13. Determination of trace metals in electrolytic copper by ICP OES and ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder José dos Santos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of axial view ICP OES and ICP-MS techniques were compared through the determination of As, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sb and Sn in electrolytic copper. Samples were prepared by two procedures: 1. Total dissolution with 5 % v/v HNO3 and 2. Dissolution with 1.4 % v/v HNO3 plus 2.0 % v/v H2SO4, followed by separation of the Cu by electrodeposition. The methods were applied for the analysis of standard copper solutions, using calibration against aqueous solutions with or without the addition of Cu. The results obtained by the two techniques were similar, but the separation of Cu from the sample matrix proved to be more adequate for practical reasons.O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo comparativo das técnicas ICP-MS e ICP OES com configuração axial e também de dois métodos diferentes de tratamento das amostras, ou seja, por dissolução total com e sem separação do cobre por eletrodeposição, para as determinações de As, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sb e Sn em amostras de cobre eletrolítico. Amostras comerciais e industriais foram dissolvidas com HNO3 5% v/v e o cobre foi eletrodepositado em meio de HNO3 (1,4% v/v e H2SO4 (2,0% v/v. Verificou-se que a separação do cobre foi eficiente, contudo se constatou contaminação de Fe e Sn durante o processo de eletrodeposição. As determinações foram realizadas utilizando-se um ICP OES Axial Varian (Vista Pro e um ICP-MS Perkin Elmer (Elan Sciex 6000. Foi aplicada a calibração externa, com soluções padrão contendo ou não cobre na concentração equivalente à da amostra. Os limites de detecção (3s, n=10 para a técnica de ICP OES foram bastante semelhantes na presença ou não do cobre. Já usando ICP-MS, os limites foram melhores na ausência do cobre. Com o objetivo de estabelecer o nível de significância entre as técnicas de quantificação, ou seja, entre ICP OES e ICP-MS,foi aplicado o teste t emparelhado, que demonstrou, para um nível de confiança de 95%, não haver diferen

  14. Conclusions drawn from actions implemented within the first stage of the Cracow program of energy conservation and clean fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.

  15. Analysis of the ecological conservation behavior of farmers in payment for ecosystem service programs in eco-environmentally fragile areas using social psychology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Sun, Pingsheng; Zhao, Fazhu; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong

    2016-04-15

    Studies on the ecological conservation behavior of farmers usually focus on individual and socio-economic characteristics without consideration of the underlying psychological constructs, such as farmers' intention and perceptions. This study uses the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a typical social psychology construct, to analyze the factors affecting the intention and behavior of farmers for conserving the ecological achievements from payment for ecosystem service (PES) programs in eco-environmentally fragile areas. Questionnaires based on TPB were administered to 1004 farmers from the Grain to Green Program area in the Loess Plateau, China, with the resulting dataset used to identify the underlying factors determining farmers' intention and behavior based on the structural equation model. The results show that the farmers' intention and behavior toward conserving ecological achievements were explained well by TPB. The farmers'behavior was significantly positively affected by their intention toward conserving ecological achievements, and their intention was significantly influenced by their attitude (positive or negative value of performance), the subjective norm (social pressure in engaging behavior), and perceived behavioral control (perceptions of their ability). The farmers' degree of support for PES programs and their recognition of environmental effects were the factors that most influenced the farmers' attitude. Pressure from neighbors was the most potent driver of the subjective norm. Meanwhile, perceptions of their ability to perform the behavior were the most potent factors affecting intention and it was mostly driven by the farmers' feelings toward environmental improvement and perceived ability (time and labor) to participate in ecological conservation. The drivers of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control can be used by policy makers to direct farmers' intention and behavior toward conserving ecological achievements in fragile

  16. Vegetation changes over 12 years in ungrazed and grazed Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands in the central and southern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S.; Vandever, Mark W.; Allen, Arthur W.; Terrell, James W.

    2005-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) established under the 1985 Food Security Act has the fundamental objectives of jointly providing economic support to segments of the agricultural community and conservation of natural resources (Osborn, 1997; Heard and others, 2000). Although soil loss on highly erodable lands was the principal natural resource conservation issue addressed in the 1985 CRP, improving water quality and wildlife habitat both became important considerations as the program evolved (Farmer and others, 1988). For example, Best and others (1997) found that production of young birds on CRP fields in the Midwest was ≥15 times the production on row-crop fields because of improved habitat. The increasing importance of wildlife habitat is reflected in continuing refinement of the Environmental Benefits Index (EBI) used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to quantify the potential benefits of enrolling lands in CRP (Osborn, 1997; Ribaudo and others, 2001). The refinements reflect input furnished by federal, state, and non-government organizations seeking greater wildlife habitat quality on CRP lands (Roseberry and David, 1994; Hughes and others, 1995; Millenbah and others, 1996; Patterson and Best, 1996; Rodgers, 1999; Allen and others, 2001).Refinement in the EBI has changed the types of grasses planted on newly enrolled land. In early CRP signups (1 through 11), 71% of new grassland acres were planted to introduced grasses and legumes [Conservation Practice (CP) 1] while 29% of the acres were planted to native grasses (CP2) (Osborn and others, 1992). By the 27th signup in July 2004, over 34.8 million acres (14 million ha) were enrolled in the CRP. More than 73% of these lands were planted to various mixtures of introduced (CP1) or native (CP2) grasses for a minimal contract period of 10 years (USDA, 2004). Continuation of grass plantings under the 2002 Farm Bill may result in CRP lands furnishing grass dominated cover for 20 or more consecutive

  17. The Evaluation of Water Conservation for Municipal and Industrial Water Supply: Illustrative Examples. Water Conservation and Supply Information Transfer and Analysis Program. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    percent is for toilets and none is for showers. (Although there are showers in hotels /motels, this consumption is small when compared to the total...commercial consumption. Since hotels /motels pay the water bill for guests, it is in their best interest to install water conserving showers and many have...appointment on the enclosed form and return it to us. Upon our arrival in Tucson we will call to confirm the appointment. We will be staying at the Marriot

  18. Title: The validation of Cryogenic Laser Ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS) methods by comparison to laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS and solution based ICP-MS methods, for the analysis of metals in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, R.; Darrah, T. H.; Horton, M.

    2009-12-01

    ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) are well established techniques for the analysis of metals in geological and environmental samples. LA-ICP-MS is commonly used in geological applications to determine the spatial distribution of metal concentrations at small sampling intervals (as low as 10 microns). However, measurement of metals in water-rich, soft biological tissues typically requires samples to be digested into solutions, obfuscating spatial variations in metal concentrations. The cryogenic cell solidifies (by freezing) soft tissue, allowing these tissues to be analyzed by laser ablation for spatial variations in metal concentration. The cell is temperature programmable and capable of maintaining a sample at any temperature between -35C and 25C throughout prolonged analysis. We validate the cryogenic laser ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS) method using NIST Glass SRM 612. We also compare metal concentration data analyzed by cryogenic laser ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS), LA-ICP-MS, and solution based ICP-MS, for human and rodent brain samples. The cryogenic laser ablation cell will expand analytical capabilities for measuring spatial distribution and concentration of metals incorporated into biological tissues.

  19. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  20. The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Multiple Function Protein ICP27

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei ZHAO; Wen-bo ZHU; Qiong DING; Gui-qiang PENG; Chun-fu ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infected-cell protein 27 (ICP27) is an essential,highly conserved protein involved in various steps of HSV-1 gene regulation as well as in the shut-off of host gene expression during infection.It functions primarily at the post-transcriptional level in inhibiting precursor mRNA splicing and in promoting nuclear export of viral transcripts.Recently,many novel functions performed by the HSV-1 ICP27 protein were shown,including leptomycin B resistance,inhibition of the type I interferon signaling,regulation of the viral mRNA translation and determining the composition of HSV-1 virions.

  1. Compensation of inorganic acid interferences in ICP-OES and ICP-MS using a Flow Blurring® multinebulizer

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Pastor, Miguel Ángel; Fialhob, Lucimar L.; NÓBREGA, Joaquim A.; Hidalgo Núñez, Montserrat; Canals Hernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A new and easy method has been proposed for compensation of inorganic acid matrix effects in ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The method consists on an on-line standard addition calibration using a Flow Blurring® multinebulizer (FBMN-based system). Experimental conditions of the FBMN-based system are optimized for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Under optimized conditions recovery values obtained in the analysis of synthetic acid samples were close to 100% for HNO3 and HCl (with acid concentrations of up to 15% ...

  2. Changes over time in audiometric thresholds in a group of automobile stamping and assembly workers with a hearing conservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, LuAnn L; Talbott, Evelyn O; Burks, J Alton; Palmer, Catherine V

    2002-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is among the 10 leading occupational diseases, afflicting between 7.4 and 10.2 million people who work in noise above 85 dBA. Although mandatory hearing conservation programs (HCPs) have been in effect since 1972, this problem persists, as hearing protectors are not consistently used by workers, or may not attenuate to manufacturer's estimates in real world conditions. In this study, information from noise and hearing protection use measurements taken at an automobile assembly plant were used to construct average lifetime noise exposure and hearing protection compliance estimates for use in modeling to predict both total hearing loss and onset of two accepted definitions of hearing loss. There were 301 males and females in this cohort; their mean age was 42.6 (7.2) years, and mean tenure was 14.3 (3.5) years. Average length of follow-up was 14.0 years. There were 16 members of this cohort who had hearing loss at the speech frequencies (defined as an average hearing level > or = 25 dB at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz). In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, years of employment, male gender, and proportion of time wearing hearing protection were the factors most associated with hearing loss at the average of 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz (p noise exposure), race, and lifetime average noise exposure. The most consistent predictor of hearing loss in both univariate and multivariate analyses was percentage of time having used hearing protection during the workers' tenure.

  3. Use of historical data and a novel metric in the evaluation of the effectiveness of hearing conservation program components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Nicholas; Morata, Thais C; Pinkerton, Lynne E; Brueck, Scott E; Stancescu, Daniel; Panaccio, Mary Prince; Kim, Hyoshin; Sinclair, J Stephen; Waters, Martha A; Estill, Cherie F; Franks, John R

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of hearing conservation programs (HCP) and their specific components in reducing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This retrospective cohort study was conducted at one food-processing plant and two automotive plants. Audiometric and work-history databases were combined with historical noise monitoring data to develop a time-dependent exposure matrix for each plant. Historical changes in production and HCP implementation were collected from company records, employee interviews and focus groups. These data were used to develop time-dependent quality assessments for various HCP components. 5478 male (30,427 observations) and 1005 female (5816 observations) subjects were included in the analysis. Analyses were conducted separately for males and females. Females tended to have less NIHL at given exposure levels than males. Duration of noise exposure stratified by intensity (dBA) was a better predictor of NIHL than the standard equivalent continuous noise level (L(eq)) based upon a 3-dBA exchange. Within this cohort, efficient dBA strata for males were <95 versus ≥ 95, and for females <90 versus ≥ 90. The reported enforced use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) significantly reduced NIHL. The data did not have sufficient within-plant variation to determine the effectiveness of noise monitoring or worker training. An association between increased audiometric testing and NIHL was believed to be an artifact of increased participation in screening. Historical audiometric data combined with noise monitoring data can be used to better understand the effectiveness of HCPs. Regular collection and maintenance of quality data should be encouraged and used to monitor the effectiveness of these interventions.

  4. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buh, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Sarabia, A. M. Cepeda; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; De Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Wagner, A. Fink; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garces, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzman, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; Keenoy, E. de Manuel; Masjedi, M. R.; Meten, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Mamas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Pontal, F. Radier; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schunemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; Van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will ad

  5. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buh, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Sarabia, A. M. Cepeda; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; De Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Wagner, A. Fink; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garces, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzman, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; Keenoy, E. de Manuel; Masjedi, M. R.; Meten, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Mamas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Pontal, F. Radier; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schunemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; Van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will

  6. A plan to implement the Urban Refuge Conservation Program at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In October of 2011, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service released a new vision document entitled 'Conserving the Future: Wildlife Refuges and the Next...

  7. Biodiversity conservation, sustainable development, and the U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program: Past contributions and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. N. Manley; D. C. Hayes

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program is part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) MAB program, and is one of six regional MAB programs that span the globe. The MAB Program was created in 1971 with the goal to explore, demonstrate, promote, and encourage harmonious relationships between people and their environments....

  8. LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: Methods and reference materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadoll, P.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a common accessory mineral in many geologic settings. Its variable geochemistry makes it a powerful petrogenetic indicator. Electron microprobe (EMPA) analyses are commonly used to examine major and minor element contents in magnetite. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is applicable to trace element analyses of magnetite but has not been widely employed to examine compositional variations. We tested the applicability of the NIST SRM 610, the USGS GSE-1G, and the NIST SRM 2782 reference materials (RMs) as external standards and developed a reliable method for LA-ICP-MS analysis of magnetite. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on well characterized magnetite samples with a 193 nm, Excimer, ArF LA system. Although matrix-matched RMs are sometimes important for calibration and normalization of LA-ICP-MS data, we demonstrate that glass RMs can produce accurate results for LA-ICP-MS analyses of magnetite. Cross-comparison between the NIST SRM 610 and USGS GSE-1G indicates good agreement for magnetite minor and trace element data calibrated with either of these RMs. Many elements show a sufficiently good match between the LA-ICP-MS and the EMPA data; for example, Ti and V show a close to linear relationship with correlation coefficients, R2 of 0.79 and 0.85 respectively. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Integral programs of energy conservation (exergy) in the petroleum industry; Programas integrales de ahorro de energia (exergia) en la industria petrolera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero Rodriguez, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents some of the fundamental issues related to energy conservation programs in general and to the petroleum industry in particular with the purpose of integrating them both, that is, considering not only the energy issues, but also the ecological and economical aspects. This is achieved by using the two fundamental laws of thermodynamics (the science that studies energy, its characteristics, and its transformations) through the use of the exergy concept, which is a measure of the energy quality and of its withdrawal with respect to the environment. The origins of the present-day technologies, regarding energy conservation, the short, medium and long term general strategies and the implementation stages of the integral programs of energy conservation are presented, and it concludes with a series of general policies aimed at making the energy conservation programs more congruent with the maintenance of a sustainable development. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales relacionados con los programas de ahorro de energia en general, y en la industria petrolera en particular, con objeto de lograr que los mismos sean integrales, es decir que consideren no solo los aspectos puramente energeticos, sino tambien los aspectos ecologicos y economicos. Esto se logra utilizando conjuntamente las dos leyes fundamentales de la termodinamica (la ciencia que estudia la energia, sus caracteristicas y sus transformaciones), mediante la utilizacion del concepto de exergia, que es una medida de la calidad de la energia y de su alejamiento con respecto al medio ambiente. Se presentan los origenes de las tendencias tecnologicas actuales en materia de ahorro de energia, las estrategias generales a corto, mediano y largo plazos y las etapas en la implementacion de programas integrales de ahorro de energia, para concluir con una serie de politicas generales tendientes a lograr que los programas de ahorro de energia sean congruentes con el

  10. Comparison of sp-ICP-MS and MDG-ICP-MS for the determination of particle number concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Sabrina; Aja Montes, Maria de Lourdes; Günther, Detlef

    2015-05-01

    In 2011, the European Commission introduced new regulations on how nanomaterials are defined. Since then, researchers have emphasized that more complete characterization of nanoparticles (NPs) includes not just mass and size determinations, but also the determination of the particle number concentrations. In this study, two different sample introduction approaches for the analysis of NP suspensions with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were investigated: pneumatic nebulization (sp-ICP-MS) and microdroplet generation (MDG-ICP-MS). These approaches were compared for the determination of particle number concentrations (PNCs) of gold and silver NP suspensions diluted in either ultra-pure water or citrate solution. For accurate sp-ICP-MS analysis, it is crucial to know the transport efficiency of nebulized sample into the plasma. Here, transport efficiencies, measured by the waste collection method, were 11-14 % for Ag suspensions and 9-11 % for Au. In contrast, the droplet transport efficiency of MDG-ICP-MS was 100 %. Analysis by sp-ICP-MS yielded a lower particle number concentration than expected (only 20-40 % of the expected value), whereas MDG-ICP-MS had NP recoveries up to 80 %. This study indicates that NP reference materials are of major importance for particle number determination and detailed results on particle number concentrations for different suspensions with respect to storage time are discussed.

  11. Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in Rock and Mineral Samples by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindern, Sven

    2017-02-01

    The group of the rare earth elements (REEs) serves as valuable indicator of numerous geological processes such as magma formation or fluid-rock interaction. The decay systems of the radioactive REE isotopes 138La, 147Sm and 176Lu are used for geochronometric dating of a range of events, starting from first steps of planetary formation to younger steps of geodynamic development. Thus, the abundance of all REEs occurring in a large range of concentrations as well as precise isotope ratios must be analysed in different geomaterials. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ion source and various types of mass spectrometers (MS) represent the basis to fulfil the analytical requirements of geoscientific studies. Today, ICP-quadrupole MS and ICP-sector field MS (SFMS) with a single detector or multiple ion collection (MC-ICP-MS) are standard instruments for REE analyses in the geosciences. Due to the need for in situ analysis, laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS has become an important trace element microprobe technique, which is widely applied for determination of REE concentrations and isotope compositions in geoscientific laboratories. The quality of concentration analysis or isotope ratio determination of REEs by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS is affected by many parameters. Most significant are interferences caused by polyatomic oxide and hydroxide ion species formed in the plasma as well as fractionation effects leading to non-stoichiometric behaviour during element determination or to biased isotope ratio measurements. Laser-induced fractionation and isobaric interferences have to be considered as additional effects for LA-ICP-MS. As analyte elements and matrix are unseparated, mineral standards matching the matrix of samples are a prerequisite for accurate and precise REE concentration and isotope ratio determination. Application of fs lasers instead of the more common ns lasers in LA-ICP-MS systems turns out to be a significant step to reduce laser-induced fractionation and to

  12. Conservation in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-30

    A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

  13. 77 FR 25192 - Wild Bird Conservation Act; Receipt of Application for Approval of a Cooperative Breeding Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Cooperative Breeding Program AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of... listed birds for scientific research, zoological breeding or display programs, or personal pet purposes, when the applicant meets certain criteria. We also may approve cooperative breeding programs of...

  14. The De Mayerne program: breaking new grounds for art science and conservation in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    When the Dutch Delta-plan for Cultural Heritage Protection was inaugurated in the early 1990’s nobody would have thought that The Netherlands was to become later world renowned not only for its focus on preventive and active conservation of the cultural heritage, but also for an innovative...

  15. Landscape control of nitrous oxide emissions during the transition from conservation reserve program to perennial grasses for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Future liquid fuel demand from renewable sources may, in part, be met by converting the seasonally wet portions of the landscape currently managed for soil and water conservation to perennial energy crops. However, this shift may increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, thus limiting the carbon benef...

  16. Analyzing Barriers to Energy Conservation in Residences and Offices: The Rewire Program at the University of Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leah C.; Mildenberger, Matto; Savan, Beth; Kolenda, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Conducting a barriers analysis is an important first step when designing proenvironmental behavior change interventions. Yet, detailed information on common barriers to energy conservation campaigns remains unavailable. Using a pair of original surveys, we leverage the theory of planned behavior to report on the most important barriers for…

  17. Conservation program and practice effects on ecosystem services in the mid atlantic region of the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Mid-Atlantic Regional (MIAR) Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP-Wetland) study area covers approximately ~58,000 km2 in the eastern United States, including areas of within five states (North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and New...

  18. Analyzing Barriers to Energy Conservation in Residences and Offices: The Rewire Program at the University of Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leah C.; Mildenberger, Matto; Savan, Beth; Kolenda, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Conducting a barriers analysis is an important first step when designing proenvironmental behavior change interventions. Yet, detailed information on common barriers to energy conservation campaigns remains unavailable. Using a pair of original surveys, we leverage the theory of planned behavior to report on the most important barriers for…

  19. Rarity-weighted richness: a simple and reliable alternative to integer programming and heuristic algorithms for minimum set and maximum coverage problems in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Fabio; Beier, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that prioritizing sites in order of rarity-weighted richness (RWR) is a simple, reliable way to identify sites that represent all species in the fewest number of sites (minimum set problem) or to identify sites that represent the largest number of species within a given number of sites (maximum coverage problem). We compared the number of species represented in sites prioritized by RWR to numbers of species represented in sites prioritized by the Zonation software package for 11 datasets in which the size of individual planning units (sites) ranged from algorithms remain superior for conservation prioritizations that consider compactness and multiple near-optimal solutions in addition to species representation. But because RWR can be implemented easily and quickly in R or a spreadsheet, it is an attractive alternative to integer programming or heuristic algorithms in some conservation prioritization contexts.

  20. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Addis, A; Adcock, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy....... AIRWAYSICPs was initiated by Area 5 of the Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. All stakeholders are involved (health and social care, patients, and policy makers)....

  1. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

  2. Efficacy of a Conservative Weight Loss Program in the Long-Term Management of Chronic Upper Airway Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Case

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity is a significant contributor to oxygen demand and dynamic airway obstruction. The objective of the current study is to determine the long-term success of conservative measures directed toward weight reduction on airway management without respect to specific airway disease etiology. Methods. Patients with chronic airway obstruction secondary anatomic lesions or obstructive sleep apnea were recruited and followed prospectively. Demographics, initial and final weights, diagnosis, and followup information were recorded. Patients were referred to a registered dietician, provided counseling, and started on a weight-loss regimen. Outcome measures were change in body mass index (BMI and rate of decannulation from weight loss alone. Results. Of fourteen patients, ten remained tracheostomy-dependent and four had high-grade lesions with the potential for improvement in oxygen demand and dynamic airway collapse with weight loss. The mean follow up period was 25 months. The mean change in BMI was an increase of 1.4 kg/m2 per patient. Conclusions. Conservative measures alone were not effective in achieving weight reduction in the population studied. This may be due to comorbid disease and poor compliance. The promise of decannulation was an insufficient independent motivator for weight loss in this study. Although the theoretical benefits of weight loss support its continued recommendation, the long-term success rate of conservative measures is low. More aggressive facilitated interventions including pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery should be considered early in the course of treating airway disease complicated by obesity.

  3. PROMOTING STUDENTS’ AUTONOMOUS LEARNING THROUGH ICT BASED LEARNING IN ICP: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Budianto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Promoting Information and Communication Technology (ICT into teaching and learning is a growing area that has attracted many educators’ efforts in recent years. Based on the scope of content covered, ICT integration can happen in three different areas: curriculum, topic, and lesson. The evolution of the ICT has changed the way student or individual learns and communicates. It has created a global social network, where everyone is connected, either directly or indirectly, to each other, especially in exchanging, sharing and learning autonomously. This study attemptted to delineate how the students of International Class Program (ICP at the Faculty of Islamic Education, handle the use of online sources. The students of ICP were selected as the informant. For eliciting information; observation and interview are used in this study. Data are collected by mean of interview guide and field notes. There are 18 students in ICP class. However for the purpose of the study, the researcher selected only three students to participate in the study. The results indicated that three respondents felt positive about using internet to perform task learning experience compared to their experiences in the regular class.

  4. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling.

  5. Monitoring for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Williams, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Human-mediated environmental changes have resulted in appropriate concern for the conservation of ecological systems and have led to the development of many ecological monitoring programs worldwide. Many programs that are identified with the purpose of `surveillance? represent an inefficient use of conservation funds and effort. Here, we revisit the 1964 paper by Platt and argue that his recommendations about the conduct of science are equally relevant to the conduct of ecological monitoring programs. In particular, we argue that monitoring should not be viewed as a stand-alone activity, but instead as a component of a larger process of either conservation-oriented science or management. Corresponding changes in monitoring focus and design would lead to substantial increases in the efficiency and usefulness of monitoring results in conservation.

  6. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program participant... conservation plan for the acreage designated under an agreement. (b) The conservation plan is the basis for...

  7. Analysis and Speciation of Lanthanoides by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgmann, Lena; Lindner, Uwe; Lingott, Jana; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2016-11-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is based on formation of positively charged atomic ions in a high-frequency inductively coupled Argon plasma at atmospheric pressure. The ions are extracted and transferred from the plasma source into a mass analyzer operated at high vacuum via an interface equipped with a sampling and a skimmer cone. The ions are separated in the mass analyzer according to their charge to mass ratio. The ions are converted at a conversion dynode and are detected by use of a secondary electron multiplier or a Faraday cup. From an analytical point of view, ICP-MS is a well-established method for multi-elemental analysis in particular for elements at trace- and ultra-trace levels. Furthermore, methods based on ICP-MS offer simple quantification concepts, for which usually (liquid) standards are applied, low matrix effects compared to other conventional analytical techniques, and relative limits of detection (LODs) in the low pg g-1 range and absolute LODs down to the attomol range. For these applications, ICP-MS excels by a high sensitivity which is independent of the molecular structure and a wide linear dynamic range. It has found acceptance in various application areas and during the last decade ICP-MS is also more and more applied for detection of rare earth elements particularly in the life sciences. Due to the fact that all molecules introduced into the high temperature of the plasma in the ion source were completely dissociated and broken down into atoms, which are subsequently ionized, all elemental species information is completely lost. However, if the different species are separated before they enter the plasma by using adequate fractionation or separation techniques, then ICP-MS can be used as a very sensitive element-specific detector. We will discuss this feature of ICP-MS in this chapter in more detail at hand of the speciation of gadolinium-containing contrast agents.

  8. Fish species of greatest conservation need in wadeable Iowa streams: current status and effectiveness of Aquatic Gap Program distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Anthony R.; Pierce, Clay; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation of fish species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) requires an understanding of species–habitat relationships and distributional trends. Thus, modeling the distribution of fish species across large spatial scales may be a valuable tool for conservation planning. Our goals were to evaluate the status of 10 fish SGCN in wadeable Iowa streams and to test the effectiveness of Iowa Aquatic Gap Analysis Project (IAGAP) species distribution models. We sampled fish assemblages from 86 wadeable stream segments in the Mississippi River drainage of Iowa during 2009 and 2010 to provide contemporary, independent fish species presence–absence data. The frequencies of occurrence in stream segments where species were historically documented varied from 0.0% for redfin shiner Lythrurus umbratilis to 100.0% for American brook lampreyLampetra appendix, with a mean of 53.0%, suggesting that the status of Iowa fish SGCN is highly variable. Cohen's kappa values and other model performance measures were calculated by comparing field-collected presence–absence data with IAGAP model–predicted presences and absences for 12 fish SGCN. Kappa values varied from 0.00 to 0.50, with a mean of 0.15. The models only predicted the occurrences of banded darterEtheostoma zonale, southern redbelly dace Phoxinus erythrogaster, and longnose daceRhinichthys cataractae more accurately than would be expected by chance. Overall, the accuracy of the twelve models was low, with a mean correct classification rate of 58.3%. Poor model performance probably reflects the difficulties associated with modeling the distribution of rare species and the inability of the large-scale habitat variables used in IAGAP models to explain the variation in fish species occurrences. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the confidence in species distribution model predictions with an independent data set and the need for long-term monitoring to better understand the

  9. 76 FR 11233 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to LG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Products Other Than Automobiles, a program covering most major household appliances, which includes the... according to the alternate test procedure as set forth in paragraph (3) below: Model Brand WT5001C LG...

  10. Visitation by wild and managed bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) to eastern U.S. native plants for use in conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Fiedler, Anna K; Landis, Douglas; Isaacs, Rufus

    2008-06-01

    Addition of floral resources to agricultural field margins has been shown to increase abundance of beneficial insects in crop fields, but most plants recommended for this use are non-native annuals. Native perennial plants with different bloom periods can provide floral resources for bees throughout the growing season for use in pollinator conservation projects. To identify the most suitable plants for this use, we examined the relative attractiveness to wild and managed bees of 43 eastern U.S. native perennial plants, grown in a common garden setting. Floral characteristics were evaluated for their ability to predict bee abundance and taxa richness. Of the wild bees collected, the most common species (62%) was Bombus impatiens Cresson. Five other wild bee species were present between 3 and 6% of the total: Lasioglossum admirandum (Sandhouse), Hylaeus affinis (Smith), Agapostemon virescens (F.), Halictus ligatus Say, and Ceratina calcarata/dupla Robertson/Say. The remaining wild bee species were present at plant species were visited at least once by wild bees; 9 were highly attractive, and 20 were moderately attractive. Honey bees visited 24 of the 43 plant species at least once. Floral area was the only measured factor accounting for variation in abundance and richness of wild bees but did not explain variation in honey bee abundance. Results of this study can be used to guide selection of flowering plants to provide season-long forage for conservation of wild bees.

  11. Adenoviral Vector Vaccination Induces a Conserved Program of CD8+ T Cell Memory Differentiation in Mouse and Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bolinger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following exposure to vaccines, antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses develop as long-term memory pools. Vaccine strategies based on adenoviral vectors, e.g., those developed for HCV, are able to induce and sustain substantial CD8+ T cell populations. How such populations evolve following vaccination remains to be defined at a transcriptional level. We addressed the transcriptional regulation of divergent CD8+ T cell memory pools induced by an adenovector encoding a model antigen (beta-galactosidase. We observe transcriptional profiles that mimic those following infection with persistent pathogens, murine and human cytomegalovirus (CMV. Key transcriptional hallmarks include upregulation of homing receptors and anti-apoptotic pathways, driven by conserved networks of transcription factors, including T-bet. In humans, an adenovirus vaccine induced similar CMV-like phenotypes and transcription factor regulation. These data clarify the core features of CD8+ T cell memory following vaccination with adenovectors and indicate a conserved pathway for memory development shared with persistent herpesviruses.

  12. Conservation Education: A Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

  13. I Principi Internazionali di Catalogazione (ICP e il loro futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Genetasio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to provide an update on the 2009 Statement of International Cataloguing Principles (ICP and on the status of work on the Statement by the IFLA Cataloguing Section. The article begins with a summary of the drafting process of the ICP by the IME ICC, International Meeting of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code, focusing in particular on the first meeting (IME ICC1 and on the earlier drafts of the 2009 Statement. It then analyzes both the major innovations and the unsatisfactory aspects of the ICP. Finally, it explains and comments on the recent documents by the IFLA Cataloguing Section relating to the ICP, which express their intention to revise the Statement and to verify the convenience of drawing up an international cataloguing code. The latter intention is considered in detail and criticized by the author in the light of the recent publication of the RDA, Resource Description and Access. The article is complemented by an updated bibliography on the ICP.

  14. Summary of science, activities, programs, and policies that influence the rangewide conservation of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, D.J.; Wood, David J.A.; Bowen, Z.H.; Donovan, R.M.; Holloran, M.J.; Juliusson, L.M.; Mayne, K.S.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Quamen, F.R.; Saher, D.J.; Titolo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Sage-Grouse, has been observed, hunted, and counted for decades. The sagebrush biome, home to the Greater Sage-Grouse, includes sagebrush-steppe and Great Basin sagebrush communities, interspersed with grasslands, salt flats, badlands, mountain ranges, springs, intermittent creeks and washes, and major river systems, and is one of the most widespread and enigmatic components of Western U.S. landscapes. Over time, habitat conversion, degradation, and fragmentation have accumulated across the entire range such that local conditions as well as habitat distributions at local and regional scales are negatively affecting the long-term persistence of this species. Historic patterns of human use and settlement of the sagebrush ecosystem have contributed to the current condition and status of sage-grouse populations. The accumulation of habitat loss, persistent habitat degradation, and fragmentation by industry and urban infrastructure, as indicated by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) findings, presents a significant challenge for conservation of this species and sustainable management of the sagebrush ecosystem. Because of the wide variations in natural and human history across these landscapes, no single prescription for management of sagebrush ecosystems (including sage-grouse habitats) will suffice to guide the collective efforts of public and private entities to conserve the species and its habitat. This report documents and summarizes several decades of work on sage-grouse populations, sagebrush as habitat, and sagebrush community and ecosystem functions based on the recent assessment and findings of the USFWS under consideration of the Endangered Species Act. As reflected here, some of these topics receive a greater depth of discussion because of the perceived importance of the issue for sagebrush ecosystems and sage-grouse populations. Drawing connections between the direct effects on sagebrush ecosystems and the effect of ecosystem condition on

  15. Ecotourism, sustainable development, and conservation education: Development of a tour guide training program in Tortuguero, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Robles, Rafael

    1992-11-01

    A tour guide training program was developed for rural communities near Costa Rica's Tortuguero National Park to respond to the impacts of the 24-fold increase in park visitation in the past decade, to involve local communities in resource management, and to provide regional environmental education. The development of the training course involved a survey of scientists and park managers to ascertain resource management needs, priorities for information to be disseminated, and impacts of tourism on the resource base. Current and potential tour guides were surveyed to identify their information needs, solicit their input in the training program, and to determine their knowledge and skills. Written questionnaires were developed and given to 400 tourists to determine their activities and environmental information needs, and hotel owners were censused to examine the economic feasibility of a local guide program. A pilot training course and guide program involving 12 Tortuguero residents demonstrated that a tour guide program: (1) helped mitigate negative tourism impacts on Tortuguero National Park's natural resources, particularly by regulating tourists on the park's 35-km beach used for nesting by endangered sea turtles; (2) provided environmental education to an important segment of the local community not traditionally reached through school or government development projects; (3) provided environmental information to tourists, thus enhancing their visit; and (4) provided local economic benefits through lucrative part-time employment, thereby allowing local people to participate more fully in the tourism system. An extended training course is being planned to provide further environmental education programming and to increase year-round employment opportunities for the tour guides.

  16. 76 FR 33631 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... regulatory text should read as set forth below: PART 431--ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... measure the energy consumption of the components that make up the envelope of a walk-in cooler or walk-in... ``external conditions'' of the shared surface(s) must reflect the internal conditions of the adjacent walk-in...

  17. ICP-MS and elemental tags for the life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesen, Charlotte

    2012-08-07

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied for the analysis of biomolecules due to its high sensitivity, wide linear dynamic range, and multielement capabilities. However, outside the elemental MS community the potential of this technique, e.g. for life sciences applications, is not yet fully exploited. Thus, the development of ICP-MS-based (immuno) assays for a wide range of medical (cancer diagnostics, cisplatin toxicity studies), biochemical (DNA microarray, single cell analysis), and environmental (analysis of comestible goods) applications was accomplished by utilization of chemical labels. Laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS was employed for the direct analysis of solid samples like microarrays and thin tissue sections. An immunoassay was developed for ochratoxin A (OTA) determination in wine, and ICP-MS detection was compared to conventional photometry by gold nanoparticle tagging and horseradish peroxidase, respectively. Detection limits of the assay were optimized to 0.003 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and the quantification range was 0.01-1 {mu}g L{sup -1} for both methods. For LA-ICP-MS-based DNA microarray detection, gold nanoparticle tags were specifically introduced via a streptavidin-biotin linkage. In immunohistochemistry (IHC), up to 20 tumor markers are routinely evaluated for one patient and thus, a common analysis results in a series of time consuming staining procedures. Hence, LA-ICP-MS was elaborated as a detection tool for a novel, multiplexed IHC analysis of tissue sections. Different lanthanides were employed for the simultaneous detection of up to three tumor markers (Her 2, CK 7, and MUC 1) in a breast cancer tissue. Additionally, iodine was employed as a labeling reagent, and a new LA-ICP-MS method for single cell and cell nucleus imaging was developed at 4 {mu}m laser spot size. Iodine was also applied as a new internal standard for tissue samples. Moreover, Pt-protein complexes separated by an optimized 1D and 2D gel

  18. Quantification of Si in silicone oils by ICP-OES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    was verified by the standard reference material SRM1066a. The precision and accuracy of the emulsion method applied to three phenyl containing silicone oils and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with low viscosity (10 cSt) were good and acceptable (RSD limits of detection...... (LOD) in the emulsion as 0.5 ppm Si. Compared to the Si determination by the direct organic solvent ICP-OES, this method is much more convenient, where a regular ICP-OES instrument can be directly used for the quantification of Si in the silicone oils obtained via extraction by organic solvents from...... plastics and other samples....

  19. Bi-Temporal Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery in Support of a Forest Conservation Program in Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Lambin, E.; Audy, R.; Biryahwaho, B.; de Laat, J.; Jayachandran, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies in land use sustainability have shown the conservation value of even small forest fragments in tropical smallholder agricultural regions. Forest patches provide important ecosystem services, wildlife habitat, and support human livelihoods. Our study incorporates multiple dates of high-resolution Quickbird imagery to map forest disturbance and regrowth in a smallholder agricultural landscape in western Uganda. This work is in support of a payments for ecosystem services (PES) project which uses a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of PES for enhancing forest conservation. The research presented here details the remote sensing phase of this project. We developed an object-based methodology for detecting forest change from high-resolution imagery that calculates per class image reflectance and change statistics to determine persistent forest, non-forest, forest gain, and forest loss classes. The large study area (~ 2,400 km2) necessitated using a combination of 10 different image pairs of varying seasonality, sun angle, and viewing angle. We discuss the impact of these factors on mapping results. Reflectance data was used in conjunction with texture measures and knowledge-driven modeling to derive forest change maps. First, baseline Quickbird images were mapped into tree cover and non-tree categories based on segmented image objects and field inventory data, applied through a classification and regression tree (CART) classifier. Then a bi-temporal segmentation layer was generated and a series of object metrics from both image dates were extracted. A sample set of persistent forest objects that remained undisturbed was derived from the tree cover map and the red band (B3) change values. We calculated a variety of statistical indices for these persistent tree cover objects from the post- survey imagery to create maps of both forest cover loss and forest cover gain. These results are compared to visually assessed image objects in addition

  20. Biological Analysis of HSV-1 Immediate-early Proteins ICPO, ICP22,and ICP27 in Neuro-blastoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei WANG; Yan-chun CHE; Wei CUN; Wei-zhong LI; Yun LIAO; Long-ding LIU; Qi-han LI

    2008-01-01

    The three immediate-early proteins of HSV-1, ICPO, ICP22, and ICP27, have specific and pivotal functions in transcriptional activation and inhibition, multiple regulatory and control processes of viral genes. In this paper, the expression and localization of these three proteins were studied in neuroblastoma cells using biochemical assays, and their possible and potential interactive functions are discussed. The data show that the three proteins are localized in different structures, specifically in the PML-NB-associated structure, which is a specific nuclear structure composed of many protein molecules and bound tightly to the nuclear matrix in neuroblastoma cells. The results suggest that the activating and suppressive functions of ICPs are mostly dependent on their transcriptional and regulatory roles, including the PML-NB-associated structure.

  1. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure. PMID:26722345

  2. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure.

  3. Conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, W; Leifeld, L; Pfützer, R

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of diverticulitis comprises at least two options: conservative or surgical management. There is a recent trend to limit surgical treatment of acute diverticulitis and to favor conservative management. This review addresses general aspects of conservative patient care with special focus on the treatment of patients with a first attack of diverticulitis. The presentation does not include a discussion of specific drugs which is given in other sections of this issue.

  4. Herpes simplex virus ICP27 increases translation of a subset of viral late mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine-Rodriguez, Errin C; Knipe, David M

    2008-04-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) ICP27 immediate-early protein plays an essential role in the expression of viral late genes. ICP27 is a multifunctional protein and has been reported to regulate multiple steps of mRNA synthesis and processing, including transcription, splicing, and nuclear export. Recently, ICP27 was reported to interact with translation factors and to stimulate translation of the viral late mRNA encoding VP16. We examined the effects of ICP27 on accumulation, nuclear export, and translation of HSV 1 (HSV-1) late mRNAs encoding VP16, ICP5, and gD. We confirm here that ICP27 stimulates translation of VP16 mRNA as well as an additional HSV-1 late ICP5 mRNA. The data presented here demonstrate that translation levels of both VP16 and ICP5 mRNA is reduced during infections with the ICP27-null virus mutant d27-1, and with ICP27 C-terminal deletion mutant viruses n406 and n504, compared to wild-type virus. In contrast, the translation of gD mRNA is not affected by the presence of ICP27 during infection. These data demonstrate that ICP27 functions to increase the translation levels of a subset of HSV-1 late genes, and this function requires the C terminus of ICP27.

  5. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  6. Determination of Inorganic Elements in Cassia obtusifolia L.by ICP-MS/ICP-AES%ICP-MS/ICP-AES法测定决明子中无机元素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉庭; 陈少东; 王力前

    2012-01-01

    The content of Na, Mg, P, Ca, Ti, Zn, Mn, Fe, K, Sr, B, Al, Ba in Cassia obtusifolia L was determined by ICP-AES while of Li, Be, Tl, Mo, Pb, Cd, Co, V, Cr, Cu, Ni was determined by ICP-MS technique. The results indicated that the content of K, Ca, P, Mg, Al, Fe, Na was high in C. obtusifolia L.. However, the content of Be, Cd, Tl and Pb in samples was low, all less than 0.02 μg/g. The content of 24 elements renked as K>Ca>P>Mg>Al>Fe>Na>Zn>Sr>B>Mn>Ba>Cu>Ti>Cr>Ni>Mo>Co>V>Li>Cd>Pb>Tl>Be.%采用ICP-AES法测定决明子(Cassia obtusifolia L.)中Na、Mg、P、Ca、Ti、Zn、Mn、Fe、K、Sr、B、Al、Ba,采用ICP-MS法测定Li、Be、Tl、Mo、Pb、Cd、Co、V、Cr、Cu、Ni.结果表明,决明子中富含K、Ca、P、Mg、Al、Fe、Na,而Be、Cd、Tl、Pb等元素含量极微,不足0.02 μg/g.在所测定的24种元素中,含量顺序依次为K>Ca>P>Mg>Al>Fe>Na>Zn>Sr>B>Mn>Ba>Cu>Ti>Cr>Ni>Mo>Co>V>Li>Cd>Pb>Tl>Be.

  7. Mode transitions and electronegativity in oxygen CCP and ICP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichsner, Juergen; Wegner, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Mode transitions in 13.56 MHz oxygen radio frequency plasmas (CCP, ICP) and their impact on the electron heating mechanisms and electronegativity were studied by advanced plasma diagnostics. In particular, Langmuir probe measurements, Gaussian beam microwave interferometry (160 GHz) coupled with laser photodetachment of negative oxygen ions, as well as the (phase resolved) optical emission and VUV absorption spectroscopy, and ion mass spectrometry are taken into consideration. With increasing RF power a transition between high and low electronegativity was found both in CCP and ICP discharge configuration. Thereby, the changed electron heating mechanisms, e.g., the alpha-gamma mode transition in CCP and the E-H mode transition in ICP is combined with the change of electronegativity. In strongly asymmetric CCP at moderate pressure the emission of secondary negative ions at the powered electrode have to be considered, too. Thereby, pseudo secondary electrons may be produced due to collision detachment of negative ion by metastables. During the E-H mode transition in oxygen ICP, the increasing gas temperature and the metastables influences significantly the oxygen kinetics. Supported by the DFG Collaborative Research Centre Transregio 24 ``Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas''.

  8. Analysis of nanoparticles using the ICAP Q ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutscher, Daniel; McSheehy-Ducos, Shona; Lindemann, Torsten;

    2014-01-01

    separation technique like Field-Flow-Fractionation (FFF), or direct analysis using spICP-MS. The separation of particles and particle mixtures using FFF is based on the differing mobilities of different particle sizes in a laminar liquid flow. FFF is compatible for particle sizes in the low nm to low μm...

  9. A surface acoustic wave ICP sensor with good temperature stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Hu, Hong; Ye, Aipeng; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-20

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is very important for assessing and monitoring hydrocephalus, head trauma and hypertension patients, which could lead to elevated ICP or even devastating neurological damage. The mortality rate due to these diseases could be reduced through ICP monitoring, because precautions can be taken against the brain damage. This paper presents a surface acoustic wave (SAW) pressure sensor to realize ICP monitoring, which is capable of wireless and passive transmission with antenna attached. In order to improve the temperature stability of the sensor, two methods were adopted. First, the ST cut quartz was chosen as the sensor substrate due to its good temperature stability. Then, a differential temperature compensation method was proposed to reduce the effects of temperature. Two resonators were designed based on coupling of mode (COM) theory and the prototype was fabricated and verified using a system established for testing pressure and temperature. The experiment result shows that the sensor has a linearity of 2.63% and hysteresis of 1.77%. The temperature stability of the sensor has been greatly improved by using the differential compensation method, which validates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. ICP-AES与ICP-MS在水中测定金属元素的方法比较%The Comparison Between ICP-AES and ICP-MS Method for The Determination of Metal Elements in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶露欢

    2015-01-01

    水是膳食的一个重要组成部分,是一切生命必需的物质,在生命活动中发挥着重要功能。电感耦合等离子体光谱法(ICP-AES)以及电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)由于其适用于多元素分析及痕量元素分析等特点,在水中的重金属测定中有着广泛的应用。本文对两种方法的测定进行介绍并对其原理和特点进行比较。%Water is an important part of diet,it is a substance necessary for all life.In life activities it plays an important role. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry(ICP-AES)and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrom⁃etry(ICP-MS)because of their suitables for multi elemental analysis and trace element analysis,they are widely used in the determination of heavy metals in water. In this paper,the determination of two kinds of the methods will be introduced and contrasted.

  11. Expression of HSV-1 ICP0 Antigen Peptide in Prokaryotic Cells and Preparation of Specific Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As an immediate-early protein of herpes simplex virus, infected-cell polypeptide 0 (ICP0) exhibits complicated interactions with host cells, and its regulatory function on gene expression is of great importance. Since the ICP0 encoding sequence contains many rare codons which are absent in E.coli, and ICP0 is highly unstable in prokaryotic cells, expression of entire ICP0 in prokaryotic cells has never been reported. In order to further investigate the function of ICP0, a recombinant plasmid was constructed by subcloning a cDNA fragment encoding an amino-terminal of 105 residues of the ICP0 protein into pGEX-5x-1 vector. The resulting GST-105 fusion antigen peptide was expressed with high efficiency in E.coli. Antibodies prepared after the immunization of mice with purified fusion protein can recognize not only the denatured ICP0 protein, but also the native ICP0 protein with normal biological conformation.

  12. [Study on the determination of 28 inorganic elements in sunflower seeds by ICP-OES/ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Qin, Zong-Hui; Xie, Hua-Lin; Cao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes a simple method for the determination of trace elements in sunflower seeds by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS). HNO3 + H2O2 were used to achieve the complete decomposition of the organic matrix in a closed-vessel microwave oven. The contents of 10 trace elements (Al, B, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, P and S) in sunflower seeds were determined by ICP-OES while 18 trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Sn, Sb, Ti, V and Zn) were determined by ICP-MS. The rice reference material (GBW10045) was used as standard reference materials. The results showed a good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes. The concentrations of necessary micro elements Ca, K, Mg, P and S were higher. This method was simple, sensitive and precise and can perform simultaneous multi-elements determination of sunflower seeds.

  13. Early Growth Response gene 1 (Egr-1) regulates HSV-1 ICP4 and ICP22 gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam R Bedadala; Rajeswara C Pinnoji; Shao-Chung V Hsia

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms mediating herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene silencing during latent infection are not clear. Five copies of early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1) binding elements were identified in the intron of HSV-1 ICP22 (infected cell protein No. 22) gene, leading to the hypothesis that Egr-1 binds to the viral genome and regulates the viral gene expression. Transient co-transfection assays indicated that Egr-1 negatively regulated the transcription of both full-length and intron-removed ICP22 promoters. The same assays also revealed that Egr-1 repressed ICP4 (infected cell protein No. 4) promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner but showed less inhibition when the intron was removed.Histone deacetylation was not involved in this regulation since histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A did not exhibit any effect on Egr-1-mediated repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Egr-1 reduced the binding of Sp1 to the promoters and that the co-repressor Nab2 (NGFI-A/EGR1-binding protein) was recruited to the proximity of ICP4 in the presence of Egr-1. These results suggested that the multi functional transcription factor Egr-1 can repress HSV-1 immediate-early gene expression through the recruitment of co-repressor Nab2 and reduction of Sp1 occupancy,and thus may play a critical role in HSV-1 gene silencing during latency.

  14. Predicted effect of landscape position on wildlife habitat value of Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program wetlands in a tile-drained agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, David L.; Crumpton, William R.; Green, David; Loan-Wilsey, Anna; Cooper, Tom; Johnson, Rex R.

    2013-01-01

    Justification for investment in restored or constructed wetland projects are often based on presumed net increases in ecosystem services. However, quantitative assessment of performance metrics is often difficult and restricted to a single objective. More comprehensive performance assessments could help inform decision-makers about trade-offs in services provided by alternative restoration program design attributes. The primary goal of the Iowa Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program is to establish wetlands that efficiently remove nitrates from tile-drained agricultural landscapes. A secondary objective is provision of wildlife habitat. We used existing wildlife habitat models to compare relative net change in potential wildlife habitat value for four alternative landscape positions of wetlands within the watershed. Predicted species richness and habitat value for birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles generally increased as the wetland position moved lower in the watershed. However, predicted average net increase between pre- and post-project value was dependent on taxonomic group. The increased average wetland area and changes in surrounding upland habitat composition among landscape positions were responsible for these differences. Net change in predicted densities of several grassland bird species at the four landscape positions was variable and species-dependent. Predicted waterfowl breeding activity was greater for lower drainage position wetlands. Although our models are simplistic and provide only a predictive index of potential habitat value, we believe such assessment exercises can provide a tool for coarse-level comparisons of alternative proposed project attributes and a basis for constructing informed hypotheses in auxiliary empirical field studies.

  15. Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9% of locations in CRP were documented prior to 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Conversely, selection for corn occurred during late summer; 86.0 and 68.4% of locations in corn were documented after 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Additionally, deer selected for forested cover and rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

  16. Conservation status of bryophytes in eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Streimann, Heinar

    1994-01-01

    No bryophyte conservation programs are in place in Australia as the knowledge of bryophytes is poor, especially of their habitat preferences and distribution. The conservation of species against habitats is discussed and it is maintained on present evidence that areas conserved for vascular plants and/or animal habitats, as national parks and forest reserves, in most cases would adequately conserve bryophytes.

  17. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  18. Determination of the genetic structure of remnant Morus boninensis Koidz. trees to establish a conservation program on the Bonin Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Naoki; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Takayuki; Hoshi, Yoshio; Nobushima, Fuyuo; Yasui, Takaya

    2006-10-11

    Morus boninensis, is an endemic plant of the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands of Japan and is categorized as "critically endangered" in the Japanese red data book. However, little information is available about its ecological, evolutionary and genetic status, despite the urgent need for guidelines for the conservation of the species. Therefore, we adopted Moritz's MU concept, based on the species' current genetic structure, to define management units and to select mother tree candidates for seed orchards. Nearly all individuals of the species were genotyped on the basis of seven microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity levels in putative natural populations were higher than in putative man-made populations with the exception of those on Otouto-jima Island. This is because a limited number of maternal trees are likely to have been used for seed collection to establish the man-made populations. A model-based clustering analysis clearly distinguished individuals into nine clusters, with a large difference in genetic composition between the population on Otouto-jima Island, the putative natural populations and the putative man-made populations. The Otouto-jima population appeared to be genetically differentiated from the others; a finding that was also supported by pairwise FST and RST analysis. Although multiple clusters were detected in the putative man-made populations, the pattern of genetic diversity was monotonous in comparison to the natural populations. The genotyping by microsatellite markers revealed strong genetic structures. Typically, artificial propagation of this species has ignored the genetic structure, relying only on seeds from Otouto-jima for replanting on other islands, because of a problem with inter-specific hybridization on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands. However, this study demonstrates that we should be taking into consideration the genetic structure of the species when designing a propagation program for the conservation of this species.

  19. Determination of the genetic structure of remnant Morus boninensis Koidz. trees to establish a conservation program on the Bonin Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobushima Fuyuo

    2006-10-01

    propagation program for the conservation of this species.

  20. Water Conservation Education with a Rainfall Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Hans; Kessen, Shelly

    1997-01-01

    Describes a program in which a rainfall simulator was used to promote water conservation by showing water infiltration, water runoff, and soil erosion. The demonstrations provided a good background for the discussion of issues such as water conservation, crop rotation, and conservation tillage practices. The program raised awareness of…

  1. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits......, although the monitoring scheme has also to some extent become dominated by local 'conservation elites' who negotiate the terrain between the state and other community members. Our findings suggest that we need to move beyond simplistic assumptions of community strategies and incentives in participatory...... conservation and allow for more adaptive and politically explicit governance spaces in protected area management....

  2. A comparative analysis of locally based conservation education programs that promote issue awareness and community solutions within Honduras and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nicole R.

    Public understanding and concern for environment issues is critical to conservation efforts. In this study, I investigated education programs focused on the local environmental issues and their impact on sense of place, environmental knowledge, empowerment and awareness (Honduras and Boston). I hypothesized that the curriculum will have an effect on multiple student measures and teachers who participate in workshops will have greater ownership of the curriculum, influencing curriculum's effectiveness. Then I looked at the relation of environmental knowledge to environmental connection, at the regional (Honduras) and international levels (Honduras vs. United States), comparing cultural differences in same measures mentioned. I hypothesized that a population connected to their natural surroundings will have an embedded biological understanding and appreciation of their surroundings. I surveyed a total of 887 students (727 Honduras, 160 Boston) and 293 teachers (Honduras), with participant and nonparticipant teachers included, in a pre/post/follow-up survey design. To evaluate these hypotheses, I used multiple measures to assess program success and regional differences: implicit measures (general sense of place); explicit measures (knowledge of problems and solutions; degree of specificity in thinking about these issues); and affective and attitudinal components (sense of empowerment). For the exploratory study, I gathered parallel data from teachers, so that the effects of the program on both teachers and students would be evident. Our results indicate that there were significant changes in number of problem and solution types proposed by students, that students' responses matched those of their teacher on some measures (but not all) by the end of the program. In Honduras, the main effect of being in the teacher workshop appears to be in their willingness to teach environmental education. Results for student's sense of place and environmental empowerment were

  3. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  4. Wildlife Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash; Aldred, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we consider how conservation has arisen as a key aspect of the reaction to human-initiated degradation and disappearance of ecosystems, wild lands. and wildlife. Concern over species extinction is given an historical perspective which shows the way in which pressure on wild and natural aspects of global ecology have changed in recent centuries. The role of conservation in the struggle to protect the environment is then analysed using underlying ethical arguments behind the econo...

  5. The U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory: an integrated scientific program supporting research and conservation of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) was established in 1920 after ratification of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act with the United Kingdom in 1918. During World War II, the BBL was moved from Washington, D.C., to what is now the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC). The BBL issues permits and bands to permittees to band birds, records bird band recoveries or encounters primarily through telephone and Internet reporting, and manages more than 72 million banding records and more than 4.5 million records of encounters using state-of-the-art technologies. Moreover, the BBL also issues bands and manages banding and encounter data for the Canadian Bird Banding Office (BBO). Each year approximately 1 million bands are shipped from the BBL to banders in the United States and Canada, and nearly 100,000 encounter reports are entered into the BBL systems. Banding data are essential for regulatory programs, especially migratory waterfowl harvest regulations. The USGS BBL works closely with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to develop regulations for the capture, handling, banding, and marking of birds. These regulations are published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In 2006, the BBL and the USFWS Division of Migratory Bird Management (DMBM) began a comprehensive revision of the banding regulations. The bird banding community has three major constituencies: Federal and State agency personnel involved in the management and conservation of bird populations that include the Flyway Councils, ornithological research scientists, and avocational banders. With increased demand for banding activities and relatively constant funding, a Federal Advisory Committee (Committee) was chartered and reviewed the BBL program in 2005. The final report of the Committee included six major goals and 58 specific recommendations, 47 of which have been addressed by the BBL. Specifically, the Committee recommended the BBL continue to support science

  6. Coupling and Shielding Properties of the Baffle in ICP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Brcka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is dealing with experimental and computational evaluation of the deposition baffle that is transparent to radio frequency (RF magnetic fields generated by an external antenna in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP source but opaque to the deposition of the metal onto a dielectric wall in ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD system. Various engineering aspects related to the deposition baffle are discussed. Among the many requirements focus is on specific structure of the slots and analysis to minimize deposition on the baffle (we used a string model for simulating the profile evolution and deposition through the DB on dielectric components of the ICP source. Transparency of the baffle to RF magnetic fields is computed using a three-dimensional (3D electromagnetic field solver. A simple two-dimensional sheath model is used to understand plasma interactions with the DB slot structure. Performance and possible failure of device are briefly discussed.

  7. Laser ablation ICP-MS: Application in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussulini, Alessandra; Becker, Julia Susanne; Becker, Johanna Sabine

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the development of diverse bioanalytical methodologies based on mass spectrometry imaging has increased, as has their application in biomedical questions. The distribution analysis of elements (metals, semimetals, and non-metals) in biological samples is a point of interest in life sciences, especially within the context of metallomics, which is the scientific field that encompasses the global analysis of the entirety of elemental species inside a cell or tissue. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been efficiently employed to generate qualitative and quantitative maps of elemental distribution in thin tissue sections of a variety of biological samples, for example, brain, cartilage, spinal cord, etc. The combination of elemental with molecular mass spectrometry allows obtaining information about the elements bound to proteins, when they are previously separated by gel electrophoresis (metalloproteomics), and also adding a new dimension to molecular mass spectrometry imaging by the correlation of molecular and elemental distribution maps in definite regions in a biological tissue. In the present review, recent biomedical applications in LA-ICP-MS imaging as a stand-alone technique and in combination with molecular mass spectrometry imaging techniques are discussed. Applications of LA-ICP-MS in the study of neurodegenerative diseases, distribution of contrast agents and metallodrugs, and metalloproteomics will be focused in this review. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 36:47-57, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. From Dust Bowl to Conservation Tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Dale

    1992-01-01

    Examines the causes of the dust bowl and recent changes in tillage practices in Oklahoma and other prairie states that conserve soil. Briefly discusses the success of programs that target school children for conservation education. (LZ)

  9. State Conservation Lands; StaCons11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Approximate edges of Conservation Lands protected by the State of Rhode Island through Fee Title Ownership, Conservation Easement, or Deed Restriction. Includes:...

  10. Implementation proposal of a water conservation and reuse program at the TRANSPETRO; Proposta de implementacao de um programa de conservacao e reuso de agua na TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The great amount of water that is used by industries and the ascendant preoccupation about the quantity and quality of water resources in Brazil and in the world are important justifications to start thinking of more efficient proposals for water application. Between the alternatives for water consume reduction in industry there is the reuse as the principle of those. A study of PricewaterhouseCoopers about this matter at the main national industries identified that 48% have reuse goals. The present work intends to show a methodology and the justifications to implement a conservation and water reuse program at the Terminals of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO. Therefore are presented the many possible applications for reuse water at TRANSPETRO and the stages to the implementation of this kind of project. The methodology presented, based on FIESP Proposal, has as the objective both water consumed reduction and water discharged reduction. Then it must be realized an identification of several water consumed sources and water discharged sources, focusing on the many reuse possible. (author)

  11. Metrology and Energy Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Xiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ May 20 is World Metrology Day and the theme of this year is "Metrology and Energy Conservation." Energy is not only a vital issue for China, but also for the world. In order to implement Proposal of the CPC Central Committee on the 11th Five-Year Program for National Economic and Social Development, the government bulletin of 5th Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee announced that "there shall be marked improvement on resource utilization; the energy consumption for unit GDP shall cut 20%, water consumption of unit industrial added value drop 30%... and the recycle ratio of industrial solid wastes shall raise by 60%." These are key targets of economic development during the 11th five-year program. To make full use of metrology for energy conservation and energy utilization, the competent metrology department of Chinese Goyernment advanced metrology program in light of China's energy status.

  12. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  13. Interface COMSOL-PHREEQC (iCP), an efficient numerical framework for the solution of coupled multiphysics and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Albert; Idiart, Andrés; Trinchero, Paolo; de Vries, Luis Manuel; Molinero, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the development, verification and application of an efficient interface, denoted as iCP, which couples two standalone simulation programs: the general purpose Finite Element framework COMSOL Multiphysics® and the geochemical simulator PHREEQC. The main goal of the interface is to maximize the synergies between the aforementioned codes, providing a numerical platform that can efficiently simulate a wide number of multiphysics problems coupled with geochemistry. iCP is written in Java and uses the IPhreeqc C++ dynamic library and the COMSOL Java-API. Given the large computational requirements of the aforementioned coupled models, special emphasis has been placed on numerical robustness and efficiency. To this end, the geochemical reactions are solved in parallel by balancing the computational load over multiple threads. First, a benchmark exercise is used to test the reliability of iCP regarding flow and reactive transport. Then, a large scale thermo-hydro-chemical (THC) problem is solved to show the code capabilities. The results of the verification exercise are successfully compared with those obtained using PHREEQC and the application case demonstrates the scalability of a large scale model, at least up to 32 threads.

  14. Colorful Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  15. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  16. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  17. Energy conservation programs of Pemex exploration and production, south region; Programas de ahorro de energia en Pemex exploracion y produccion, region sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Milla, Guillermo; Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The technological developments of energy economizing equipment constitute a powerful tool for the conservation and saving of the electric energy in new or existing installations. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploration and Production initiated in 1997 a program for energy economizing in the South region, for which the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, through its Unit for the Use of Energy, collaborated performing energy assessments in 115 buildings of the above mentioned region. This paper describes the employed methodology to carry on the energy assessment, which consisted in an analysis of each building and different options for energy economizing were presented, which was accompanied with cost-benefit studies. The results obtained show that the air conditioning equipment and lighting represent the most important loads permanently connected, therefore the study was concentrated in these two loads [Espanol] Los desarrollos tecnologicos de equipos ahorradores de energia constituyen una poderosa herramienta para la conservacion y el ahorro de energia electrica en instalaciones nuevas o existentes. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploracion y Produccion inicio en 1997 un programa para el ahorro de energia en la region sur, para lo cual el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, a traves de la Unidad de Uso de Energia, colaboro realizando diagnosticos energeticos en 115 edificios de dicha region. En este documento se describe la metodologia utilizada para realizar el diagnostico energetico, el cual consistio en un analisis de cada edificio y se presentaron diversas opciones para ahorrar energia, lo cual se acompano de estudios de costo-beneficio. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los equipos de aire acondicionado e iluminacion representan la parte mas importante de las cargas conectadas permanentemente, por lo que el estudio se concentro en estas dos cargas

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) system contains information reported to the state environmental programs on activities and cleanup...

  19. Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

  20. The Data Conservancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, S.; Duerr, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    NSF's Sustainable Digital Data Preservation and Access Network Partners program is an ambitious attempt to integrate a wide variety of expertise and infrastructure into a network for providing "reliable digital preservation, access, integration, and analysis capabilities for science." One of the first two DataNet award recipients, the Data Conservancy, is itself a network of widely diverse partners led by the libraries at the Johns Hopkins University. The Data Conservancy is built on existing exemplar scientific projects, communities, and virtual organizations that have deep engagement with their user communities, and extensive experience with large-scale distributed system development. Data Conservancy members embrace a shared vision that data curation is not an end, but rather a means to collect, organize, validate, and preserve data needed to address the grand research challenges that face society. Data Conservancy members holdings encompass the entire range of earth, life, and space science data. New to the Data Conservancy is the concept that University libraries will be part of the distributed network of data centers and that data science will become a path in the library and information science curricula. As noted by Winston Tabb (JHU Dean of Libraries) "Data Centers are the new library stacks."

  1. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall require fuel and energy conservation practices in the operation...

  2. The influence of laser pulse duration and energy on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental fractionation, and particle size distribution in NIR fs-LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Laser parameters, typically wavelength, pulse width, irradiance, repetition rate, and pulse energy, are critical parameters which influence the laser ablation process and thereby influence the LA-ICP-MS signal. In recent times, femtosecond laser ablation has gained popularity owing to the reduction in fractionation related issues and improved analytical performance which can provide matrix-independent sampling. The advantage offered by fs-LA is due to shorter pulse duration of the laser as compared to the phonon relaxation time and heat diffusion time. Hence the thermal effects are minimized in fs-LA. Recently, fs-LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved analytical performance as compared to ns-LA-ICP-MS, but detailed mechanisms and processes are still not clearly understood. Improvement of fs-LA-ICP-MS over ns-LA-ICP-MS elucidates the importance of laser pulse duration and related effects on the ablation process. In this study, we have investigated the influence of laser pulse width (40 fs to 0.3 ns) and energy on LA-ICP-MS signal intensity and repeatability using a brass sample. Experiments were performed in single spot ablation mode as well as rastering ablation mode to monitor the Cu/Zn ratio. The recorded ICP-MS signal was correlated with total particle counts generated during laser ablation as well as particle size distribution. Our results show the importance of pulse width effects in the fs regime that becomes more pronounced when moving from femtosecond to picosecond and nanosecond regimes. PMID:26664120

  3. Heron conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushlan, J.A.; Hafner, H.

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  4. Manganese speciation in paired serum and CSF samples using SEC-DRC-ICP-MS and CE-ICP-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, B; Lucio, M; Berthele, A; Kanawati, B

    2013-03-01

    Occupational manganese (Mn) overexposure leads to accumulation in the brain and has been shown to cause progressive, permanent, neuro-degenerative damage with syndromes similar to idiopathic Parkinsonism. Mn is transported by an active mechanism across neural barriers (NB) finally into the brain; but to date, modes of Mn neurotoxic action are poorly understood. This paper investigates the relevant Mn-carrier species which are responsible for widely uncontrolled transport across NB. Mn speciation in paired serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples was performed by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-DRC-MS) and capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to ICP-DRC-MS in a 2D approach for clear identification. For additional species verification, electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry was used after SEC-ICP-DRC-MS (second 2D approach). The Mn species from the different sample types were interrelated and correlation coefficients were calculated. In serum protein-bound Mn species like Mn-transferrin/albumin (Mn-Tf/HSA) were dominant, which had the main influence on total Mn in serum if Mn(total) was 1,550 ng/L) or correlated to Mn-Tf/HSA (samples with serum Mn(total) < 1,550 ng/L). We conclude that elevated Mn-Cit(serum) could be a valuable marker for increased total Mn in CSF (and brain), i.e., it could be a marker for elevated risk of Mn-dependent neurological disorders such as manganism in occupational health.

  5. Comparative tissue distribution of metals in birds in Sweden using ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Kristine H; Morrison, Gregory M; Lindberg, Peter; Rauch, Sébastien

    2004-08-01

    Cadmium, copper, lead, palladium, platinum, rhodium, and zinc profiles were investigated along feather shafts of raptor and other bird species by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The distribution of external versus internal metal contamination of feathers was investigated. The species examined were peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), sparrowhawk ( Accipiter nisus), willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus), and house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Sweden. For habitat comparisons, total Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd concentrations were analyzed by ICP-MS in feathers of the examined species as well as captive peregrine falcon. For investigation of metal distribution and correlation in different biological materials of raptors, total concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also investigated by ICP-MS in feathers, eggs, blood, feces, liver, and kidney of wild peregrine falcon from southwestern Sweden. Laser ablation of feathers revealed that Pb contamination is both external and internal, Zn contamination is internal, and Cd and Cu contamination is predominantly internal, with a few externally attached particles of high concentration. Pb, Cu, and Cd signal intensities were highest in urban habitats and contamination was mainly external in feathers. The background signal intensity of Zn was also higher in birds from urban habitats. The laser ablation profile of PGE (Pt, Pd, Rh) demonstrated that PGE contamination of feathers consists almost exclusively of externally attached PGE-containing particles, with little evidence of internally deposited PGE.Generally, total metal concentrations in feathers were highest in sparrowhawk and house sparrow due to their urban habitat. Total Cu, Zn, and Cd concentrations were highest in liver and kidney due to binding to metallothionein, while the total Pb concentration was highest in feces due to the high excretion rate of Pb. A decreasing temporal trend for Pb in feathers, showing that Pb levels in feathers have

  6. Recent applications on isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS on biological samples and single particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. Sabine; Sela, Hagit; Dobrowolska, Justina; Zoriy, Miroslav; Becker, J. Susanne

    2008-02-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) have proved themselves to be powerful and sensitive inorganic mass spectrometric techniques for analysing stable and radioactive isotopes in different application fields because of their high sensitivity, low detection limits, good accuracy and precision. New applications of ICP-MS focus on tracer experiments and the development of isotope dilution techniques together with nanoflow injections for the analysis of small volumes of biological samples. Today, LA-ICP-MS is the method of choice for direct determination of metals, e.g., on protein bands in gels after the gel electrophoresis of protein mixtures. Tracer experiments using highly enriched 65Cu were utilized in order to study the formation of metal-binding bovine serum proteins. A challenging task for LA-ICP-MS is its application as an imaging mass spectrometric technique for the production of isotope images (e.gE, from thin sections of brain tissues stained with neodymium). In this paper, we demonstrate the application of imaging mass spectrometry on single particles (zircon and uranium oxide). Single Precambrian zircon crystals from the Baltic Shield were investigated with respect to isotope ratios using LA-ICP-MS for age dating. The U-Pb age was determined from the isochrone with (1.48 ± 0.14) × 109 a. Using isotope ratio measurements on 10 nuclear uranium oxide single particles the 235U/238U isotope ratio was determined to be 0.032 ± 0.004. This paper describes recent developments and applications of isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS on biological samples and single particles.

  7. Direct stimulation of translation by the multifunctional herpesvirus ICP27 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Osmany; Smith, Richard W P; Wilkie, Gavin S; Malik, Poonam; Gray, Nicola K; Clements, J Barklie

    2006-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP27 protein is an essential regulator of viral gene expression with roles at various levels of RNA metabolism in the nucleus. Using the tethered function assay, we showed a cytoplasmic activity for ICP27 in directly enhancing mRNA translation in vivo in the absence of other viral factors. The region of ICP27 required for translational stimulation maps to the C terminus. Furthermore, in infected cells, ICP27 is associated with polyribosomes, indicating a function in translation during the lytic cycle.

  8. Direct Stimulation of Translation by the Multifunctional Herpesvirus ICP27 Protein†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Osmany; Smith, Richard W. P.; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Malik, Poonam; Gray, Nicola K.; Clements, J. Barklie

    2006-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP27 protein is an essential regulator of viral gene expression with roles at various levels of RNA metabolism in the nucleus. Using the tethered function assay, we showed a cytoplasmic activity for ICP27 in directly enhancing mRNA translation in vivo in the absence of other viral factors. The region of ICP27 required for translational stimulation maps to the C terminus. Furthermore, in infected cells, ICP27 is associated with polyribosomes, indicating a function in translation during the lytic cycle. PMID:16415034

  9. Quantification of pharmaceutical peptides in human plasma by LC-ICP-MS sulfur detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Laura Hyrup; Macherius, André; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    2016-01-01

    A method for quantification of a pharmaceutical peptide in human plasma was developed using gradient elution LC-ICP-MS. A membrane desolvation (MD) system was applied to remove organic solvents from the eluent prior to the detection as SO+ in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP-DRC-MS inst......A method for quantification of a pharmaceutical peptide in human plasma was developed using gradient elution LC-ICP-MS. A membrane desolvation (MD) system was applied to remove organic solvents from the eluent prior to the detection as SO+ in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP...

  10. Glass particles produced by laser ablation for ICP-MSmeasurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.; Liu, C.; Wen, S.; Mao, X.; Russo, R.E.

    2007-06-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (266nm) was used to generate glass particles from two sets of standard reference materials using femtosecond (150fs) and nanosecond (4ns) laser pulses with identical fluences of 50 J cm{sup -2}. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the collected particles revealed that there are more and larger agglomerations of particles produced by nanosecond laser ablation. In contrast to the earlier findings for metal alloy samples, no correlation between the concentration of major elements and the median particle size was found. When the current data on glass were compared with the metal alloy data, there were clear differences in terms of particle size, crater depth, heat affected zone, and ICP-MS response. For example, glass particles were larger than metal alloy particles, the craters in glass were less deep than craters in metal alloys, and damage to the sample was less pronounced in glass compared to metal alloys samples. The femtosecond laser generated more intense ICP-MS signals compared to nanosecond laser ablation for both types of samples, although glass sample behavior was more similar between ns and fs-laser ablation than for metals alloys.

  11. 湿法分解-ICP-AES 测定废钯碳催化剂中的钯%Determination of Palladium in Spent Palladium Carbon Catalyst by ICP-AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红新; 岳伟; 庄艾春; 王芳; 陈小兰; 林海山; 李小琳; 王彩华

    2013-01-01

    In order to decomposes the sample completely and eliminate the impact of carbon, preparation of sample, carbon removed by H2SO4+HNO3 smoking, formic acid reduction, dissolved by aqua regia. determine palladium content in the selected conditions of ICP-AES. The recovery ranged from 97.0% to 101.8%, the relative standard deviation (n=6) is less than 3%, determination result of the method and method of ignition reduction and fire assay is consistent, the method is simple and fast, environmental protection, conservation, and accurate.%为完全分解样品,消除碳的影响,以 H2SO4+HNO3冒烟消除碳,甲酸还原,王水溶解,在ICP-AES 选定的条件下测定废钯炭催化剂样品中钯的含量。样品加标回收率97.0%~101.6%,测定0.099%~0.324%的钯含量,相对标准偏差2.55%~2.84%,方法与灼烧还原法及火试金法测定结果一致,方法简单快速,环保节约,结果准确。

  12. Evolution and results of the energy conservation programs in PEMEX-REFINACION; Evolucion y resultados de los programas de ahorro de energia en PEMEX-REFINACION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Soberanes, J.A. [PEMEX-REFINACION, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The nature of the industrial activities of PEMEX-REFINACION aimed at the energy production area in the refineries of the system, requires for its operation of an energy consumption that represents a highly significant amount among its total operation costs. These energy costs are being reduced in figures higher than 50% in 1990 to 43% in 1993 through coordination programs and investments oriented to the efficient use of energy and losses control. This paper presents the historical description of the developments, advances and achievements that have been obtained up to date in this subject in the production plant of PEMEX-REFINACION, beginning with the intensification of the program of energy conservation and efficient use of energy in 1990. As a substantial part of this paper the different actions being applied are listed right from the beginning of the program with their corresponding cost-benefit analysis, in order to eliminate the energy wastes that correspond fundamentally to short term measures requiring minimum investments and medium term actions with moderate investments. Likewise, the plan of action to be implemented is presented for the operation optimization of the system and the existing equipment, with the long term actions that for their execution require of large investments. The efforts made in the last 4 years in the system oil refineries have been important, which has been reflected in the reduction of energy consumption in an average of 10,000 equivalent barrels of oil (EBCO) per day; nevertheless there are still great opportunity areas to reach the energy efficiency levels and profitability of the world leading refineries, which is consistent with the conceptual frame of the 1995- 2000 business plan structured for PEMEX-REFINACION. [Espanol] La naturaleza misma de las actividades industriales de PEMEX-REFINACION, enfocada al area de produccion de energeticos en las refinerias del sistema, requiere para sus operaciones de un consumo de energia que

  13. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  14. Sample introduction systems for the analysis of liquid microsamples by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoli, Jose L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es; Mermet, Jean M. [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)

    2006-03-15

    There are many fields in which the available sample volume is the limiting factor for an elemental analysis. Over the last ten years, sample introduction systems used in plasma spectrometry (i.e., Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry, ICP-AES, and Mass Spectrometry, ICP-MS) have evolved in order to expand the field of applicability of these techniques to the analysis of micro- and nanosamples. A full understanding of the basic processes occurring throughout the sample introduction system is absolutely necessary to improve analytical performance. The first part of the present review deals with fundamental studies concerning the different phenomena taking place from aerosol production to analyte excitation/ionization when the liquid consumption rate does not exceed 100 {mu}l/min. Existing sample introduction systems are currently far from the ideal and a significant effort has been made to develop new and efficient devices. Different approaches for continuously introducing small sample volumes (i.e., microsamples) have been reviewed and compared in the present work. Finally, applications as well as basic guidelines to select the best sample introduction system according to the sample particularities are given at the end of this review.

  15. ICP0 dismantles microtubule networks in herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Liu

    Full Text Available Infected-cell protein 0 (ICP0 is a RING finger E3 ligase that regulates herpes simplex virus (HSV mRNA synthesis, and strongly influences the balance between latency and replication of HSV. For 25 years, the nuclear functions of ICP0 have been the subject of intense scrutiny. To obtain new clues about ICP0's mechanism of action, we constructed HSV-1 viruses that expressed GFP-tagged ICP0. To our surprise, both GFP-tagged and wild-type ICP0 were predominantly observed in the cytoplasm of HSV-infected cells. Although ICP0 is exclusively nuclear during the immediate-early phase of HSV infection, further analysis revealed that ICP0 translocated to the cytoplasm during the early phase where it triggered a previously unrecognized process; ICP0 dismantled the microtubule network of the host cell. A RING finger mutant of ICP0 efficiently bundled microtubules, but failed to disperse microtubule bundles. Synthesis of ICP0 proved to be necessary and sufficient to disrupt microtubule networks in HSV-infected and transfected cells. Plant and animal viruses encode many proteins that reorganize microtubules. However, this is the first report of a viral E3 ligase that regulates microtubule stability. Intriguingly, several cellular E3 ligases orchestrate microtubule disassembly and reassembly during mitosis. Our results suggest that ICP0 serves a dual role in the HSV life cycle, acting first as a nuclear regulator of viral mRNA synthesis and acting later, in the cytoplasm, to dismantle the host cell's microtubule network in preparation for virion synthesis and/or egress.

  16. [Development of ICP-OES, ICP-MS and GF-AAS Methods for Simultaneous Quantification of Lead, Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Soft Drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yohei; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hayashi, Tomoko; Teshima, Reiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed methods to quantify lead, total arsenic and cadmium contained in various kinds of soft drinks, and we evaluated their performance. The samples were digested by common methods to prepare solutions for measurement by ICP-OES, ICP-MS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). After digestion, internal standard was added to the digestion solutions for measurements by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. For measurement by GF-AAS, additional purification of the digestion solution was conducted by back-extraction of the three metals into nitric acid solution after extraction into an organic solvent with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. Performance of the developed methods were evaluated for eight kinds of soft drinks.

  17. Biodiversity conservation and the eradication of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Aveling, Ros; Brockington, Dan; Dickson, Barney; Elliott, Jo; Hutton, Jon; Roe, Dilys; Vira, Bhaskar; Wolmer, William

    2004-11-12

    It is widely accepted that biodiversity loss and poverty are linked problems and that conservation and poverty reduction should be tackled together. However, success with integrated strategies is elusive. There is sharp debate about the social impacts of conservation programs and the success of community-based approaches to conservation. Clear conceptual frameworks are needed if policies in these two areas are to be combined. We review the links between poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation and present a conceptual typology of these relationships.

  18. Strategy for water analysis using ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Turiel, J.L.; Llorens, J.F. [Inst. of Earth Sciences, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Lopez-Vera, F.; Gomez-Artola, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas; Morell, I. [Universitat Jaume I, Esc. Sup. Tecnologia y Ciencias Experimentales, Castello (Spain); Gimeno, D. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-11-01

    The developed strategy permits determination in three steps of sixty-seven elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sodium, Mg, Si, S, Cl, K, and Ca are determined in a first step; B, Al, P, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, and Pb are determined in a second step; and Li, Be, Ti, V, Co, Ga, Ge, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sn, Te, I, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Tl, Bi, Th, and U are analyzed in a third step. The figures of merit obtained are adequate to carry out water quality monitoring and other hydrochemical studies, such those based in the application of hydrochemical fingerprinting to water management. (orig.)

  19. Trace element determination in vitamin E using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce De León, Claudia A; Montes Bayón, Maria; Caruso, Joseph A

    2002-09-01

    Vitamin E supplements are either isolated from plants sources or prepared synthetically. Isolation from plants includes eight different tocopherol structures. Vitamin E synthesis includes seven different stereoisomers, which involves the use of several catalysts that may lead to trace element contamination in the vitamin. The use of ICP-MS is an ideal technique for detecting these trace elements. However, the oily nature of the samples requires the development of a sample preparation methodology. This study was done upon the request of synthetic vitamin E manufacturers to test the trace metal purity of their samples. In this work, the comparison of an acid microwave digestion and emulsion preparation is discussed. Cromium, nickel, tin and lead were found in the synthetic vitamin E analyzed and 200, 60, 9 and 45 ppb were the concentrations found respectively for these elements. Digesting the samples gives slightly lower detection limits compared to the emulsion preparation.

  20. Numerical Simulations for ICP Source for Implant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudriavtsev, Vladimir; Adibi, Babak; Bluck, Terry; Kolobov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    ICP Plasma source characteristics depend significantly on cavity aspect ratio and operating pressure. In this work we investigate the effect of chamber height and antenna coil placement on current flux and plasma uniformity at pressures in 5 mtorr - 1torr range and also study computationally appropriate scaling laws. Cavity dimensions are 0.2×0.2 m. CFD-ACE/Plasma software is used to conduct 2D planar plasma simulations for Ar and H2 plasmas. Software allows use of unstructured and non-uniform mesh to resolve geometry details. At low pressure plasma peaks in the middle of the cavity even when RF antenna is placed on top. Results show that there is a maximum in plasma density that corresponds with a unique aspect ratio.

  1. Early Implementation of THAM for ICP Control: Therapeutic Hypothermia Avoidance and Reduction in Hypertonics/Hyperosmotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Zeiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tromethamine (THAM has been demonstrated to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP. Early consideration for THAM may reduce the need for other measures for ICP control. Objective. To describe 4 cases of early THAM therapy for ICP control and highlight the potential to avoid TH and paralytics and achieve reduction in sedation and hypertonic/hyperosmotic agent requirements. Methods. We reviewed the charts of 4 patients treated with early THAM for ICP control. Results. We identified 2 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and 2 with traumatic brain injury (TBI receiving early THAM for ICP control. The mean time to initiation of THAM therapy was 1.8 days, with a mean duration of 5.3 days. In all patients, after 6 to 12 hours of THAM administration, ICP stability was achieved, with reduction in requirements for hypertonic saline and hyperosmotic agents. There was a relative reduction in mean hourly hypertonic saline requirements of 89.1%, 96.1%, 82.4%, and 97.0% for cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, comparing pre- to post-THAM administration. Mannitol, therapeutic hypothermia, and paralytics were avoided in all patients. Conclusions. Early administration of THAM for ICP control could potentially lead to the avoidance of other ICP directed therapies. Prospective studies of early THAM administration are warranted.

  2. Salpeterzuurdestructie en ICP-MS analyse van biotisch materiaal en voeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde-Koerts T van der; LAC

    2000-01-01

    Voor de bepaling van elementen in voeding en biotisch materiaal werd een analytische methode ontwikkeld, bestaande uit een salpeterzuurdestructie en een ICP-MS-analyse. De destructie werd geoptimaliseerd op basis van de salpeterzuurconcentratie en de destructietijd. De ICP-MS-analyse werd

  3. Sensitive redox speciation of neptunium by CE-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoebener, Nils; Amayri, Samer; Gehl, Aaron; Kaplan, Ugras; Malecha, Kurtis; Reich, Tobias [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to separate the neptunium oxidation states Np(IV) and Np(V), which are the only oxidation states of Np that are stable under environmental conditions. The CE setup was coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Agilent 7500ce) using a Mira Mist CE nebulizer and a Scott-type spray chamber. The combination of the separation capacity of CE with the detection sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) allows identification and quantification of Np(IV) and Np(V) at the trace levels expected in the far field of a nuclear waste repository. Limits of detection of 1 x 10{sup -9} and 5 x 10{sup -10} mol L{sup -1} for Np(IV) and Np(V), respectively, were achieved, with a linear range from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}. The method was applied to study the redox speciation of the Np remaining in solution after interaction of 5 x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} Np(V) with Opalinus Clay. Under mildly oxidizing conditions, a Np sorption of 31% was found, with all the Np remaining in solution being Np(V). A second sorption experiment performed in the presence of Fe{sup 2+} led to complete sorption of the Np onto the clay. After desorption with HClO{sub 4}, a mixture of Np(IV) and Np(V) was found in solution by CE-ICP-MS, indicating that some of the sorbed Np had been reduced to Np(IV) by Fe{sup 2+}. (orig.)

  4. Metal particles produced by laser ablation for ICP-MSmeasurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; Liu, Chunyi; Wen, Sy-Bor; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2007-06-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (266nm) was used to generate metal particles of Zn and Al alloys using femtosecond (150 fs) and nanosecond (4 ns) laser pulses with identical fluences of 50 J cm{sup -2}. Characterization of particles and correlation with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) performance was investigated. Particles produced by nanosecond laser ablation were mainly primary particles with irregular shape and hard agglomerates (without internal voids). Particles produced by femtosecond laser ablation consisted of spherical primary particles and soft agglomerates formed from numerous small particles. Examination of the craters by white light interferometric microscopy showed that there is a rim of material surrounding the craters formed after nanosecond laser ablation. The determination of the crater volume by white light interferometric microscopy, considering the rim of material surrounding ablation craters, revealed that the volume ratio (fs/ns) of the craters on the selected samples was approximately 9 (Zn), 7 (NIST627 alloy) and 5 (NIST1711 alloy) times more ablated mass with femtosecond pulsed ablation compared to nanosecond pulsed ablation. In addition, an increase of Al concentration from 0 to 5% in Zn base alloys caused a large increase in the diameter of the particles, up to 65% while using nanosecond laser pulses. When the ablated particles were carried in argon into an ICP-MS, the Zn and Al signals intensities were greater by factors of {approx} 50 and {approx} 12 for fs vs. ns ablation. Femtosecond pulsed ablation also reduced temporal fluctuations in the {sup 66}Zn transient signal by a factor of ten compared to nanosecond laser pulses.

  5. Optical Emission Spectroscopic Studies of ICP Ar Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xuelian; REN Chunsheng; ZHANG Jian; MA Tengcai

    2007-01-01

    The ion line of 434.8 nm and atom line of 419.8 nm of Ar plasma produced by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) were measured by optical emission spectroscopy and the influences from the working gas pressure, radio-frequency (RF) power and different positions in the discharge chamber on the line intensities were investigated in this study. It was found that the intensity of Ar atom line increased firstly and then saturated with the increase of the pressure. The line intensity of Ar+, on the other hand, reached a maximum value and then decreased along with the pressure. The intensity of the line in an RF discharge also demonstrated a jumping mode and a hysteresis phenomenon with the RF power. When the RF power increased to 400 W, the discharge jumped from the E-mode to the H-mode where the line intensity of Ar atom demonstrated a sudden increase, while the intensity of Ar+ ion only changed slightly. If the RF power decreased from a high value, e.g., 1000 W, the discharge would jump from the H-mode back to the E-mode at a power of 300 W. At this time the intensities of Ar and Ar+ lines would also decrease sharply. It was also noticed in this paper that the intensity of the ion line depended on the detective location in the chamber, namely at the bottom of the chamber the line was more intense than that in the middle of the chamber, but less intense than at the top, which is considered to be related to the capacitance coupling ability of the ICP plasma in different discharge areas.

  6. Energy Costs and Energy Conservation Programs in Colleges and Universities: 1972-73, 1974-75. Higher Education Panel Reports, Number 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    A survey was initiated at the request of the U.S. Office of Education and the Energy Task Force to: (1) measure the increase in energy expenditures since the OPEC oil embargo of 1973-74; (2) assess changes in energy consumption over a two-year period; and (3) examine some of the specific conservation practices of higher education institutions.…

  7. Green and efficient sample preparation method for the determination of catalyst residues in margarine by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Carla Andrade; Pereira, Rodrigo Mendes; Novo, Diogo La Rosa; Oliveira, Dirce Taina Teixeira; Mesko, Marcia Foster

    2017-11-01

    Responding to the need for green and efficient methods to determine catalyst residues with suitable precision and accuracy in samples with high fat content, the present work evaluates a microwave-assisted ultraviolet digestion (MW-UV) system for margarines and subsequent determination of Ni, Pd and Pt using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It was possible to digest up to 500mg of margarine using only 10mL of 4molL(-1) HNO3 with a digestion efficiency higher than 98%. This allowed the determination of catalyst residues using the ICP-MS and free of interferences. For this purpose, the following experimental parameters were evaluated: concentration of digestion solution, sample mass and microwave irradiation program. The residual carbon content was used as a parameter to evaluate the efficiency of digestion and to select the most suitable experimental conditions. The accuracy evaluation was performed by recovery tests using a standard solution and certified reference material, and recoveries ranging from 94% to 99% were obtained for all analytes. The limits of detection for Ni, Pd and Pt using the proposed method were 35.6, 0.264 and 0.302ngg(-1), respectively. When compared to microwave-assisted digestion (MW-AD) in closed vessels using concentrated HNO3 (used as a reference method for sample digestion), the proposed MW-UV could be considered an excellent alternative for the digestion of margarine, as this method requires only a diluted nitric acid solution for efficient digestion. In addition, MW-UV provides appropriate solutions for further ICP-MS determination with suitable precision (relative standard deviation < 7%) and accuracy for all evaluated analytes. The proposed method was applied to margarines from different brands produced in Brazil, and the concentration of catalyst residues was in agreement with the current legislation or recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ICP-MS仪器的过去、现在和未来%The Past,Current Situation and Developing Trend of ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金英; 徐书荣

    2011-01-01

    本文从ICP-MS仪器的各个结构组成,介绍了ICP-MS仪器硬件的发展历史和展望,其中重点讨论了ICP-MS进样系统、离子透镜和池技术的发展现状和趋势。越来越多的ICP-MS配置了提升量小、雾化效率高的雾化器,Peltier效应半导体精密控温雾室以及可拆卸式的炬管,而直角偏转的离子透镜也逐渐成为潮流,这些因素提高了ICP-MS在分析高盐样品时的长期稳定性的同时,降低了仪器维护的频率和难度。%Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer hardware history and prospect are introduced based on its framework.Current situation and developing trend of ICP-MS sample introduction system,ion lens and cell technology are the main points to discuss.More and more ICP-MS equip with low uptake,high efficiency nebulizer,Peltier effect temperature precisely controlled chamber and detachable torch,and prevailing right angle defection ion lens,all these factors improve the long term stability for high total dissolved salt samples,and lower the frequency and difficulty of maintenance.

  9. Determination of 238u/235u, 236u/238u and uranium concentration in urine using sf-icp-ms and mc-icp-ms: an interlaboratory comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Randall R; Thirlwall, Matthew F; Pickford, Chris; Horstwood, Matthew; Gerdes, Axel; Anderson, James; Coggon, David

    2006-02-01

    Accidental exposure to depleted or enriched uranium may occur in a variety of circumstances. There is a need to quantify such exposure, with the possibility that the testing may post-date exposure by months or years. Therefore, it is important to develop a very sensitive test to measure precisely the isotopic composition of uranium in urine at low levels of concentration. The results of an interlaboratory comparison using sector field (SF)-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and multiple collector (MC)-ICP-MS for the measurement of uranium concentration and U/U and U/U isotopic ratios of human urine samples are presented. Three urine samples were verified to contain uranium at 1-5 ng L and shown to have natural uranium isotopic composition. Portions of these urine batches were doped with depleted uranium (DU) containing small quantities of U, and the solutions were split into 100 mL and 400 mL aliquots that were subsequently measured blind by three laboratories. All methods investigated were able to measure accurately U/U with precisions of approximately 0.5% to approximately 4%, but only selected MC-ICP-MS methods were capable of consistently analyzing U/U to reasonable precision at the approximately 20 fg L level of U abundance. Isotope dilution using a U tracer demonstrates the ability to measure concentrations to better than +/-4% with the MC-ICP-MS method, though sample heterogeneity in urine samples was shown to be problematic in some cases. MC-ICP-MS outperformed SF-ICP-MS methods, as was expected. The MC-ICP-MS methodology described is capable of measuring to approximately 1% precision the U/U of any sample of human urine over the entire range of uranium abundance down to <1 ng L, and detecting very small amounts of DU contained therein.

  10. Study on determination of available arsenic in soil by ICP-MS%ICP-MS法测定土壤中有效态砷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传琦; 程丽娅; 黄勤; 王金云; 朱江

    2011-01-01

    分别以等离子体质谱法和原子荧光法,测定了国标土壤样品中有效态砷的含量,研究了两种方法的准确度;对等离子体质谱测定方法做消除基体干扰的对比研究。两种方法的测定值均在土壤样中有效砷的允许误差范围内,ICP-MS法的检出限为2.8 ng/g,精密度(RSD)在10%以下,符合分析测定要求。%For the purpose of investigating the accuracy between available arsenic concentrations determined by ICP-MS and by atomic fluorescence spectrometry, the contents of available arsenic in the extracting solution from the soil National Standard Reference sample were determined by ICP-MS and atomic fluorescence spectrometry respectively after the soil samples were extracted with 0. 1 mol/1 HC1 using the ratio of soil to waters = 1:5. At the same time, comparative study was done for elimination of matrix interference in the method of ICP-MS. The results showed that; the determination values of available arsenic concentrations in the soil National Standard Reference samples by ICP-MS and by atomic fluorescence spectrometry were both within the allowable error scope. And, in the method of ICP-MS, the detection limit was found to be 2. 8 ng/g and the RSD was below 10% , which can meet the requirements of the determination. Therefore, ICP-MS can be applied to the determination of available arsenic in soil.

  11. Prioritizing trees for global conservation action: BGCI’s tree conservation agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Shaw; M. Rivers; E. Beech

    2017-01-01

    Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) is a global voice for plant conservation via its worldwide network of botanic gardens and partners. Tree conservation has been a strong focus of BGCI’s program for many years. In collaboration with Fauna & Flora International, BGCI runs the Global Trees Campaign (GTC, www.globaltrees.org), the only international...

  12. H.R. 2343: A Bill to amend the Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 to permit States to adopt timber export programs, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The report H.R. 2343 is a bill to amend the Forest Resources and Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 to permit States to adopt timber export programs. The proposed legislative text is included.

  13. Precise determination of Pb isotope ratios by simple double spike MC-ICP-MS technique without Tl addition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Makishima, A.; Nath, B.N.; Nakamura, E.

    A double-spike multicollector ICP-MS (DS-MC-ICP-MS) technique for Pb isotope analysis without Tl addition is established and its analytical performance is examined in detail. This simple DS-MC-ICP-MS technique using 20 ng ml sup(-1) gave averages...

  14. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  15. Effects of elevated ICP on brain function: can the multiparametric monitoring system detect the 'Cushing Response'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Mayevsky, Avraham

    2003-01-01

    The 'Cushing Response' is a significant phenomenon associated with elevated ICP. The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of the intracranial hypertension level and duration on the cerebral tissue physiology, using a Multiprobe assembly (MPA). The parameters monitored simultaneously included ICP, CBF, mitochondrial NADH redox state, extracellular K+ and H+ levels, DC potential and ECoG, calculated CPP and blood pressure. Two groups of rats were used. In one group, ICP was elevated to 50-60 mmHg for 13-15 min and, in the second group, ICP was elevated to 20 mmHg for 30 min. The results show that ICP of 50-60 mmHg led to CPP reduction below the lower limits of autoregulation. However, ICP of 20 mmHg, even for a prolonged period of time is completely tolerated. Additionally, we found that the 'Cushing Response', developed in the moderate treatment (ICP = 20 mmHg) is beneficial, assuring high CBF levels under intracranial hypertension. Furthermore, CBF and CPP monitoring, apparently, are not sufficient for autoregulation assessment; more parameters are needed.

  16. mPed : a computer program for converting pedigree data to a format used by the PMx-software for conservation genetic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Mija; Ståhl, Ingvar; Laikre, Linda

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need for conservation genetic management of animal populations when individual relatedness data (pedigrees) are available. Such data can be used to monitor rates of inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity. Traditionally, pedigree analysis for conservationmanagement has focused on zoo populations of threatened wild animals; available software has been developed in that context. Population Management x (PMx) is a free software for estimating genetic parameters including inbr...

  17. 7 CFR 1410.22 - CRP conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CRP conservation plan. 1410.22 Section 1410.22... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.22 CRP conservation plan. (a) The producer shall obtain a CRP conservation plan that complies with CCC guidelines...

  18. Ultratrace analysis of {sup 129}I in sediments by ICP-MS with collision cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izmer, A.V.; Becker, J.S. [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Central Div. of Analytical Chemistry; Boulyga, S.F. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry; Zoriy, M.V. [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Central Div. of Analytical Chemistry]|[Research Center Juelich (Germany). Dept. for Safety and Radiation Protection

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the work was the development of a rapid and high-sensitive analytical method using ICP-MS with hexapole collision cell (ICP-CC-MS) for the determination of low 129I+/127I+ isotope ratios in synthetic lab standards and environmental samples. A special direct sample introduction device for iodine extraction via the gas phase from solid environmental material coupled on-line to ICP-CC-QMS was developed. The detection limit for 129I+ determination in aqueous solution and soil samples via gas-phase extraction was determined to be of 0.8 pg/g and 30 pg/g, respectively. (orig.)

  19. Metal ion transport quantified by ICP-MS in intact cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Julio A. Landero; Stiner, Cory A.; Radzyukevich, Tatiana L.; Heiny, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of ICP-MS to measure metal ion content in biological tissues offers a highly sensitive means to study metal-dependent physiological processes. Here we describe the application of ICP-MS to measure membrane transport of Rb and K ions by the Na,K-ATPase in mouse skeletal muscles and human red blood cells. The ICP-MS method provides greater precision and statistical power than possible with conventional tracer flux methods. The method is widely applicable to studies of other metal ion transporters and metal-dependent processes in a range of cell types and conditions. PMID:26838181

  20. I think that I shall never see {hor_ellipsis} a lovely forestry policy: Land use programs for conservation of forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.F.; Richards, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    Forestry programs are frequently invoked as having potential for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Most studies have attempted to quantify the potential impact of forest programs on carbon uptake and the potential costs of such programs. In this paper, we will attempt instead to focus on the institutional issues of the implementation of forestry programs for carbon sequestration. In particular, we explore the challenges for implementing forest programs that are: of increasing technological complexity; and in settings that depart significantly from the idealized conditions of economic models. We start in Section 1 by examining a suite of instruments that are commonly employed to implement a given policy. Section 2 examines a relatively simple case -- a tree-planting program in the US -- and demonstrates that there are significant difficulties involved in implementing a carbon sequestration program, even in a well-developed market economy. Section 3 focuses on other technologies in the US and why the choice of policy instruments and program design is more difficult than for the simple tree-planting case. Section 4 considers implementation of forestry policies in other countries where the economies may bear less resemblance to the ideal market economy than the US. In those settings, the choice of policy instruments may be very sensitive to non-market considerations that are often missed in conventional policy and cost analysis.

  1. Normalized power transmission between ABP and ICP in TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, S; Hallen, T; McKelvey, T; Ritzen, C; Rydenhag, B

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to study the pulse transmission between the cerebrovascular bed and the intracranial space is presented. In the proposed approach, the normalized power transmission between ABP and ICP has got the main attention rather than the actual power transmission. Evaluating the gain of the proposed transfer function at any single frequency can reveal how the percentage of contribution of that specific frequency component has been changed through the cerebrospinal system. The gain of the new transfer function at the fundamental cardiac frequency was utilized to evaluate the state of the brain in three TBI patients. Results were assessed using the reference evaluations achieved by a novel CT scan-based scoring scheme. In all three study cases, the gain of the transfer function showed a good capability to follow the trend of the CT scores and describe the brain state. Comparing the new transfer function with the traditional one and also the index of compensatory reserve, the proposed transfer function was found more informative about the state of the brain in the patients under study.

  2. ICP MS selection of radiopure materials for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Vacri, M. L.; Nisi, S.; Cattadori, C.; Janicsko, J.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Smolnikov, A.; Walter, M.

    2015-08-01

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment, located in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) aims to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of the 76Ge isotope. Both an ultra-low radioactivity background environment and active techniques to abate the residual background are required to reach the background index (of 10-3 counts/keV kg y) at the Qββ. In order to veto and suppress those events that partially deposit energy in Ge detectors, the readout of liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light (SL) has been implemented for the second GERDA experimental Phase. A double veto system has been designed and constructed using highly radiopure materials (scintillating fibers, wavelength shifters, polymeric foils, reflective foils). This work describes the study of lead, thorium and uranium ultra-trace content, performed at the LNGS Chemistry Laboratory by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR ICP MS), for the selection of all materials involved in the construction of the veto system

  3. ICP MS selection of radiopure materials for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Vacri, M. L., E-mail: divacrim@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, via G.Acitelli 22, 67100 Assergi (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, University of L’Aquila, via Vetoio, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Nisi, S., E-mail: nisi@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, via G.Acitelli 22, 67100 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Cattadori, C., E-mail: cattadori@lngs.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Janicsko, J. [TUM Munich (Germany); Lubashevskiy, A. [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany); JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Smolnikov, A. [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany); Walter, M. [Physik-Institut, Universitat Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-08-17

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment, located in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) aims to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of the {sup 76}Ge isotope. Both an ultra-low radioactivity background environment and active techniques to abate the residual background are required to reach the background index (of 10{sup −3} counts/keV kg y) at the Q{sub ββ}. In order to veto and suppress those events that partially deposit energy in Ge detectors, the readout of liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light (SL) has been implemented for the second GERDA experimental Phase. A double veto system has been designed and constructed using highly radiopure materials (scintillating fibers, wavelength shifters, polymeric foils, reflective foils). This work describes the study of lead, thorium and uranium ultra-trace content, performed at the LNGS Chemistry Laboratory by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR ICP MS), for the selection of all materials involved in the construction of the veto system.

  4. Selenite biotransformation during brewing. Evaluation by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Maria; da Silva, Erik Galvão P; Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Cámara, Carmen; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Madrid, Yolanda

    2012-01-15

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and lactic bacteria have shown their ability to accumulate and transform inorganic selenium into organo Se compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate selenium biotransformation during brewing by using S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum for Ale and Lager fermentation, respectively. Se-enriched beer was produced by the addition of sodium selenite (0, 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, 10.0, 20.0 μg Se mL(-1), respectively) to the fermentation media composed of yeast, malt extract and water. The alcoholic fermentation process was not affected by the presence of selenium regardless of the type of Saccharomyces being used. The percentage of selenium incorporated into beer, added between 1.0 and 10 μg mL(-1) was 55-60% of the selenium initially present. Se-compounds in post-fermentation (beer and yeast) products were investigated by using an analytical methodology based on HPLC-ICP-MS. For this purpose, several sample treatments, including ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis, in conjunction with different separation mechanisms like dialysis and anion exchange HPLC chromatography were applied for unambiguously identifying Se-species that produce during brewing. Selenomethionine was the main selenium compound identified in beer and yeast, being this species in the only case of the former not associated to peptides or proteins.

  5. Combination of ICP-MS, capillary electrophoresis, and their hyphenation for probing Ru(III) metallodrug-DNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteeva, Lidia S; Matczuk, Magdalena; Pawlak, Katarzyna; Aleksenko, Svetlana S; Nosenko, Sergey V; Karandashev, Vasily K; Jarosz, Maciej; Timerbaev, Andrei R

    2017-03-01

    Determination of the DNA-binding reactivity and affinity is an important part of a successful program for the selection of metallodrug candidates. For such assaying, a range of complementary analytical techniques was proposed and tested here using one of few anticancer metal-based drugs that are currently in clinical trials, indazolium trans-[tetrachloridobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III), and a DNA oligonucleotide. A high reactivity of the Ru drug was confirmed in affinity capillary electrophoresis (CE) mode, where adduct formation takes place in situ (i.e., in the capillary filled with an oligonucleotide-containing electrolyte). To further characterize the binding kinetics, a drug-oligonucleotide mixture was incubated for a different period of time, followed by ultrafiltration separation into two different in molecular weight fractions (>3 and ICP-MS), revealing that at least two DNA adducts exist at equilibrium conditions. Using standalone ICP-MS, dominant equilibrium amount of the bound ruthenium was found to occur in a fraction of 5-10 kDa, which includes the oligonucleotide (ca. 6 kDa). Importantly, in all three assays, the drug was used for the first time in in-vitro studies, not in the intact form but as its active species released from the transferrin adduct at simulated cancer cytosolic conditions. This circumstance makes the established analytical platform promising to provide a detailed view on metallodrug targeting, including other possible biomolecules and ex vivo samples.

  6. Quantitative simulation tools to analyze up- and downstream interactions of soil and water conservation measures: supporting policy making in the Green Water Credits program of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunink, J E; Droogers, P; Kauffman, S; Mwaniki, B M; Bouma, J

    2012-11-30

    Upstream soil and water conservation measures in catchments can have positive impact both upstream in terms of less erosion and higher crop yields, but also downstream by less sediment flow into reservoirs and increased groundwater recharge. Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes are being developed to encourage upstream farmers to invest in soil and water conservation practices which will positively effect upstream and downstream water availability. Quantitative information on water and sediment fluxes is crucial as a basis for such financial schemes. A pilot design project in the large and strategically important Upper-Tana Basin in Kenya has the objective to develop a methodological framework for this purpose. The essence of the methodology is the integration and use of a collection of public domain tools and datasets: the so-called Green water and Blue water Assessment Toolkit (GBAT). This toolkit was applied in order to study different options to implement GWC in agricultural rainfed land for the pilot study. Impact of vegetative contour strips, mulching, and tied ridges were determined for: (i) three upstream key indicators: soil loss, crop transpiration and soil evaporation, and (ii) two downstream indicators: sediment inflow in reservoirs and groundwater recharge. All effects were compared with a baseline scenario of average conditions. Thus, not only actual land management was considered but also potential benefits of changed land use practices. Results of the simulations indicate that especially applying contour strips or tied ridges significantly reduces soil losses and increases groundwater recharge in the catchment. The model was used to build spatial expressions of the proposed management practices in order to assess their effectiveness. The developed procedure allows exploring the effects of soil conservation measures in a catchment to support the implementation of GWC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Raquel Verola Mataveli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled, consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  8. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  9. Implantation of a program of conservation and quality of electric power at UNICAMP; Implantacao de um programa de conservacao e qualidade de energia eletrica na UNICAMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Caio Gomes de; Sato, Fujio; Ruppert Filho, Ernesto; Kubo, Marcio Massakiti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], e-mail: caio@dsee.fee.unicamp.br, e-mail: sato@dsee.fee.unicamp.br, e-mail: ruppert@dsce.fee.unicamp.br, e-mail: massakit@dsce.fee.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the results of the electrical energy conservation and power quality evaluation done in the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) in Sao Paulo State, Brazil through the Project named Ecogera. The analysis was based on the electrical signals acquired using measurement and energy management instruments. The replacement of the old lightning system using 40 W old fashion fluorescent bulbs mounted on non reflective fixtures by new energy save fluorescent bulbs mounted on reflective fixtures reduced expressively the electrical energy consumption and the installation electrical power demand. The measurements allowed to know the details of harmonic distortions and disturbances that affect the voltage magnitude. (author)

  10. HR-ICP-MS an appropriate technique to leachate characterization study; HR-ICP-MS - metodo adequado para o estudo de caracterizacao de chorumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabaleiro, Selma Lopes; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de; Cabaleiro, Henrique Lopes [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: cabal1@terra.com.br; heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br; hcabaleiro@hotmail.com

    2005-07-01

    The determination of toxic elements, in samples of leachate from the water drainage through the mass of waste disposed at a place without sanitary control closer to the Lixao de Contagem, has used High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). The samples were collected in two seasons, considering the wet and dry seasons. The results confirmed the leachate's pollutant load by the presence of metals like Al, Cd, Zn, Cu, As, and also confirmed that HR-ICP-MS is an appropriate technique to the studies of metal distribution, at the trace level and ultra traces, in environmental matrices. (author)

  11. Multielemental speciation analysis by advanced hyphenated technique - HPLC/ICP-MS: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Monika; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-12-01

    Speciation analysis has become an invaluable tool in human health risk assessment, environmental monitoring or food quality control. Another step is to develop reliable multielemental speciation methodologies, to reduce costs, waste and time needed for the analysis. Separation and detection of species of several elements in a single analytical run can be accomplished by high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS). Our review assembles articles concerning multielemental speciation determination of: As, Se, Cr, Sb, I, Br, Pb, Hg, V, Mo, Te, Tl, Cd and W in environmental, biological, food and clinical samples analyzed with HPLC/ICP-MS. It addresses the procedures in terms of following issues: sample collection and pretreatment, selection of optimal conditions for elements species separation by HPLC and determination using ICP-MS as well as metrological approach. The presented work is the first review article concerning multielemental speciation analysis by advanced hyphenated technique HPLC/ICP-MS.

  12. Method for Vanadium Speciation in Aqueous Samples by HPLC-ICP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Anion exchange, vanadium speciation, EDTA, HPLC, ICP-OES. 1. Introduction ... The stock solutions of 200 mmol L–1 EDTA and 500 mmol L–1 sodium carbonate ... Merck, Darmstadt, Germany), and 0.1148 g of ammonium metavanadate ...

  13. ICP-MS: Analytical Method for Identification and Detection of Elemental Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Mohini; Kumar, Kapil; Anghore, Durgadas; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this article is to review and discuss the currently used quantitative analytical method ICP-MS, which is used for quality control of pharmaceutical products. ICP-MS technique has several applications such as determination of single elements, multi element analysis in synthetic drugs, heavy metals in environmental water, trace element content of selected fertilizers and dairy manures. ICP-MS is also used for determination of toxic and essential elements in different varieties of food samples and metal pollutant present in the environment. The pharmaceuticals may generate impurities at various stages of development, transportation and storage which make them risky to be administered. Thus, it is essential that these impurities must be detected and quantified. ICP-MS plays an important function in the recognition and revealing of elemental impurities. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Quality and Safety of Home ICP Monitoring Compared with In-Hospital Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Juhler, Marianne; Munch, Tina Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    , and adequacy for clinical evaluation in ICP monitoring in the home setting versus in-hospital monitoring. Methods: Patients were divided into two subgroups (home or hospital monitoring). We noted technical curve quality and clinically useful parameters for both subgroups. Results: Forty-four patients (aged 1...... evaluation of the data (p = 0.52). No clinically detectable complications were encountered in either group. Conclusion: We propose home ICP monitoring as a feasible and safe alternative to in-hospital monitoring in select cases where the patient's caregiver - with prior meticulous instructions - can......Introduction: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is usually conducted in-hospital using stationary devices. Modern mobile ICP monitoring systems present new monitoring possibilities more closely following the patients' daily life. We reviewed patient safety, quality of technical data...

  15. Screening of TiO2 and Au nanoparticles in cosmetics and determination of elemental impurities by multiple techniques (DLS, SP-ICP-MS, ICP-MS and ICP-OES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle, Inmaculada; Menta, Mathieu; Klein, Marlène; Séby, Fabienne

    2017-08-15

    Cosmetics are part of the daily life of most of the people. Thus, a complete characterization of the products we applied in our skin is necessary. In this work, an analytical investigation of a wide variety of cosmetics from the point of view of total element content and metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has been performed. Firstly, we analyzed the total element content by ICP-MS and ICP-OES after acid digestion as an assessment of the presence of metal impurities. Prohibited elements in cosmetics, according to the European Commission regulation No 1223/2009, were not detected, and only elements mentioned in the label were found (e.g. Al, Fe, Ti and Si). Secondly, a screening of the presence of NPs has been performed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Single Particle Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS). Two sample preparation procedures were applied. The first protocol consisted in the preparation of suspensions in 0.1% w/v SDS and the second based on defatting with hexane followed by resuspension in water. DLS was employed as a routine method for a fast analysis of NPs, but this technique showed limitations due to the lack of specificity. SP-ICP-MS analyses were then performed, first as a screening technique to evaluate the presence of TiO2 and Au NPs in cosmetics suspensions prepared in SDS; and second, when a positive answer was obtained about the presence of NPs from the screening, SP-ICP-MS was used for particle size determination. Results showed that only TiO2 NPs were present in two sunscreens, one anti-wrinkle day cream, one lip balm protector labeled as 'nano' and in one brand of toothpaste not labeled as 'nano'. Sizes obtained for both sample preparations were compared and ranged from 30 to 120nm in most of the samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fast diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam, Parisa; Sutin, Jason; Wu, Kuan-Cheng; Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Tamborini, Davide; Dubb, Jay; Boas, David A.; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2017-02-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has a key role in the management of neurosurgical and neurological injuries. Currently, the standard clinical monitoring of ICP requires an invasive transducer into the parenchymal tissue or the brain ventricle, with possibility of complications such as hemorrhage and infection. A non-invasive method for measuring ICP, would be highly preferable, as it would allow clinicians to promptly monitor ICP during transport and allow for monitoring in a larger number of patients. We have introduced diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) as a non-invasive ICP monitor by fast measurement of pulsatile cerebral blood flow (CBF). The method is similar to Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), which derives ICP from the amplitude of the pulsatile cerebral blood flow velocity, with respect to the amplitude of the pulsatile arterial blood pressure. We believe DCS measurement is superior indicator of ICP than TCD estimation because DCS directly measures blood flow, not blood flow velocity, and the small cortical vessels measured by DCS are more susceptible to transmural pressure changes than the large vessels. For fast DCS measurements to recover pulsatile CBF we have developed a custom high-power long-coherent laser and a strategy for delivering it to the tissue within ANSI standards. We have also developed a custom FPGA-based correlator board, which facilitates DCS data acquisitions at 50-100 Hz. We have tested the feasibility of measuring pulsatile CBF and deriving ICP in two challenging scenarios: humans and rats. SNR is low in human adults due to large optode distances. It is similarly low in rats because the fast heart rate in this setting requires a high repetition rate.

  17. ICP-MS法测定硅片表面BPSG中B、P含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄曜; 黄郁芳; 宗祥福

    2000-01-01

    Boron and Phosphorus doped oxides are important films in the processing of IC' s, both as a planarization dielectric and as a passivation. The accurate analysis of dopants in these films is also of great importance to the analytical chemist. In this paper, Boron and Phosphorus are detrmined by ICP-MS after the films dissolved by HF, HNO3. The errors of the results and those gotten by ICP-AES from Balazs Lab are less than 5%.

  18. Determination of Long-lived Radionuclides in the Environment using ICP-MS and AMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    ICP-MS and AMS have been widely used for the measurement of radionuclides, especially long-lived radionculides. The new progress, major advantages of these two techniques and their major applications for measurement of important radionculides are summarized.......ICP-MS and AMS have been widely used for the measurement of radionuclides, especially long-lived radionculides. The new progress, major advantages of these two techniques and their major applications for measurement of important radionculides are summarized....

  19. A study of ICP-CR difference in children with normal anterior overjet and anterior crossbite

    OpenAIRE

    石川, 亜実; 宇賀, 茂; 桑原, 幹夫; 六車, 武史; 高木, さやか; 丹下, 貴司; 藤川, 隆義; 五十嵐, 清治; 溝口, 到; イシカワ, アミ; ウガ, シゲル; クワバラ, ミキオ; ムグルマ, タケシ; タカギ, サヤカ; タンゲ, タカシ

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated ICP-CR (Intercuspal Position -Centric Relation) difference at bilateral condyles and incisors in growing patients with anteriro crossbite (mean age; 9 years 2 months), and compared with that of subjects with normal anterior overjet (mean age; 9 years 8 months), using an indicator of the mandibular position, Mandibular Positioning Indicator (MPI). With respect to direction of the ICP-CR difference at condyles and incisors, there were no significant defferences between subj...

  20. Studies on Measurement of Impurities in U3O8 With ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Liu-chao; XU; Chang-kun; WANG; Tong-xing; ZHAO; Yong-gang; ZHAO; Xing-hong; JIANG; Xiao-yan; ZHAO; Li-fei

    2013-01-01

    The impurities in uranium sample vary slightly according to the local environment and produced method employed.By comparing the measured data to database information,this characterisic information can be used to trace to the source of uranium sample together with other clues.GD-MS,ICP-AES and especially ICP-MS are mainly used in the determination of impurities.This work aims to

  1. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  2. Williamson Act - The California Land Conservation Act of 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The California Land Conservation Act of 1965 - commonly referred to as the Williamson Act - is the State's primary program for the conservation of private land in...

  3. HSV-1 ICP0: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Counteracts Host Intrinsic and Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Perusina Lanfranca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0, is required for efficient lytic viral replication and regulates the switch between the lytic and latent states of HSV-1. As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, ICP0 directs the proteasomal degradation of several cellular targets, allowing the virus to counteract different cellular intrinsic and innate immune responses. In this review, we will focus on how ICP0’s E3 ubiquitin ligase activity inactivates the host intrinsic defenses, such as nuclear domain 10 (ND10, SUMO, and the DNA damage response to HSV-1 infection. In addition, we will examine ICP0’s capacity to impair the activation of interferon (innate regulatory mediators that include IFI16 (IFN γ-inducible protein 16, MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88, and Mal (MyD88 adaptor-like protein. We will also consider how ICP0 allows HSV-1 to evade activation of the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B inflammatory signaling pathway. Finally, ICP0’s paradoxical relationship with USP7 (ubiquitin specific protease 7 and its roles in intrinsic and innate immune responses to HSV-1 infection will be discussed.

  4. Bioimaging of metals by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J Sabine; Zoriy, Miroslav; Matusch, Andreas; Wu, Bei; Salber, Dagmar; Palm, Christoph; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The distribution analysis of (essential, beneficial, or toxic) metals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, and others), metalloids, and non-metals in biological tissues is of key interest in life science. Over the past few years, the development and application of several imaging mass spectrometric techniques has been rapidly growing in biology and medicine. Especially, in brain research metalloproteins are in the focus of targeted therapy approaches of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, or stroke, or tumor growth. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) using double-focusing sector field (LA-ICP-SFMS) or quadrupole-based mass spectrometers (LA-ICP-QMS) has been successfully applied as a powerful imaging (mapping) technique to produce quantitative images of detailed regionally specific element distributions in thin tissue sections of human or rodent brain. Imaging LA-ICP-QMS was also applied to investigate metal distributions in plant and animal sections to study, for example, the uptake and transport of nutrient and toxic elements or environmental contamination. The combination of imaging LA-ICP-MS of metals with proteomic studies using biomolecular mass spectrometry identifies metal-containing proteins and also phosphoproteins. Metal-containing proteins were imaged in a two-dimensional gel after electrophoretic separation of proteins (SDS or Blue Native PAGE). Recent progress in LA-ICP-MS imaging as a stand-alone technique and in combination with MALDI/ESI-MS for selected life science applications is summarized.

  5. A glossary for avian conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf R. Koford; John B. Dunning; Christine A. Ribic; Deborah M. Finch

    1994-01-01

    This glossary provides standard definitions for many of the terms used in avian conservation biology. We compiled these definitions to assist communication among researchers, managers, and others involved in the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, also known as Partners in Flight. We used existing glossaries and recent literature to prepare this glossary....

  6. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) - Better Buildings Neighborhood Program at Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance: Home Performance with Energy Star® and Better Buildings Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzhauser, Andy; Jones, Chris; Faust, Jeremy; Meyer, Chris; Van Divender, Lisa

    2013-12-30

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (Energy Alliance) is a nonprofit economic development agency dedicated to helping Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky communities reduce energy consumption. The Energy Alliance has launched programs to educate homeowners, commercial property owners, and nonprofit organizations about energy efficiency opportunities they can use to drive energy use reductions and financial savings, while extending significant focus to creating/retaining jobs through these programs. The mission of the Energy Alliance is based on the premise that investment in energy efficiency can lead to transformative economic development in a region. With support from seven municipalities, the Energy Alliance began operation in early 2010 and has been among the fastest growing nonprofit organizations in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area. The Energy Alliance offers two programs endorsed by the Department of Energy: the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Program for homeowners and the Better Buildings Performance Program for commercial entities. Both programs couple expert guidance, project management, and education in energy efficiency best practices with incentives and innovative energy efficiency financing to help building owners effectively invest in the energy efficiency, comfort, health, longevity, and environmental impact of their residential or commercial buildings. The Energy Alliance has raised over $23 million of public and private capital to build a robust market for energy efficiency investment. Of the $23 million, $17 million was a direct grant from the Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The organization’s investments in energy efficiency projects in the residential and commercial sector have led to well over $50 million in direct economic activity and created over 375,000 hours of labor created or retained. In addition, over 250 workers have been trained through the Building Performance Training

  7. Accurate quantification of total chromium and its speciation form Cr(VI) in water by ICP-DRC-IDMS and HPLC/ICP-DRC-IDMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Barbara; Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-05-15

    Two analytical procedures have been developed for the determination of total chromium (TCr) and its highly toxic species, i.e. Cr(VI) in water samples using the following methods: inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-IDMS) and high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell isotope dilution mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-DRC-IDMS). Spectral interferences, predominantly occurring in chromium determination, were removed using a dynamic reaction cell (DRC). The presented procedures facilitate the quantification of trace amounts - below 1 µg L(-1) of TCr and individual Cr species - in various water matrices including drinking water and still bottled water with different mineral composition. Special attention has been paid to the adequate preparation of isotopically enriched (53)Cr(VI) standard solution in order to avoid artifacts in chromium speciation. Both procedures were fully validated as well as establishing the traceability and estimation of the uncertainty of measurement were carried out. Application of all of the above mentioned elements and of the isotope dilution technique, which provides the highest quality of metrological traceability, allowed to obtain reliable and high quality results of chromium determination in water samples. Additionally, the comparison of two methods: HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS and HPLC/ICP-DRC-IDMS for Cr(VI) determination, was submitted basing on the validation parameters. As a result, the lower values for these parameters were obtained using the second method.

  8. The use of ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS techniques for uranium analysis in real-life swipe samples for safeguards purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Rafael C.B.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Carvalho, Elita F.U., E-mail: rcbpestana@gmail.com, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abreu Junior, Cassio H. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Environmental swipe sampling for safeguards purposes is a powerful tool to detect undeclared materials and activities, and has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency since 1997. This work describes the utilization of the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for determining uranium isotopic ratios in a real-life swipe samples collected in a conversion plant at IPEN/CNEN, Brazil. Uncertainties were estimated by following the International Organization for Standardization - Guide to the Expression of Uncertainties in Measurement (ISO GUM), with a confidence level of 95%. The major uncertainties percentage for n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) ratio for ICP-MS was 3% and for LA-ICP-MS was 30% The values of uranium isotopic ratios obtained for each technique demonstrate the viability of these analytical techniques as an alternative tool for uranium analysis in swipe samples for safeguards purposes. (author)

  9. Calibration and correction of LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS analyses for element contents and isotopic ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS have been the techniques of choice for achieving accurate and precise element content and isotopic ratio, the state-of-the-art technique combines the advantages of low detection limits with high spatial resolution, however, the analysis accuracy and precision are restricted by many factors, such as sensitivity drift, elemental/isotopic fractionation, matrix effects, interferences and the lack of sufficiently matrix-matched reference materials. Thus, rigorous and suitable calibration and correction methods are needed to obtain quantitative data. This review systematically summarized and evaluated the interference correction, quantitative calculation and sensitivity correction strategies in order to provide the analysts with suitable calibration and correction strategies according to the sample types and the analyzed elements. The functions and features of data reduction software ICPMSDataCal were also outlined, which can provide real-time and on-line data reduction of element content and isotopic ratios analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS.

  10. Application of ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS for diagnosis and therapy of a severe intoxication with hexavalent chromium and inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitland, Peter; Blohm, Martin; Breuer, Christian; Brinkert, Florian; Achilles, Eike Gert; Pukite, Ieva; Köster, Helmut Dietrich

    2017-05-01

    ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS were applied for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in a severe intoxication with a liquid containing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and inorganic arsenic (iAs). In this rare case a liver transplantation of was considered as the only chance of survival. We developed and applied methods for the determination of Cr(VI) in erythrocytes and total chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) in blood, plasma, urine and liver tissue by ICP-MS. Exposure to iAs was diagnosed by determination of iAs species and their metabolites in urine by anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS. Three days after ingestion of the liquid the total Cr concentrations were 2180 and 1070μg/L in whole blood and plasma, respectively, and 4540μg/L Cr(VI) in erythrocytes. The arsenic concentration in blood was 206μg/L. The urinary As species concentrations were <0.5, 109, 115, 154 and 126μg/L for arsenobetaine, As(III), As(V), methylarsonate (V) and dimethylarsinate (V), respectively. Total Cr and As concentrations in the explanted liver were 11.7 and 0.9mg/kg, respectively. Further analytical results of this case study are tabulated and provide valuable data for physicians and toxicologists. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. ICP-AES法测定不锈钢中铌%Determination of Nb in stainless steel by ICP-AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The sample was dissolved in a mixed acid with hydrochloric,nitric and a small amount of hydrofluoric acid,and tartaric acid complexing niobium,boric acid complexing excess fluorine ion. Niobium in stainless steel was determined by ICP⁃AES. According to a thorough condition test,the coexistent elements of stainless steel don′t interfere with the measurement of niobium,so this method doesn′t need a calibration base on matrix matching. The standard samples of stainless steel with Nb were analyzed by the method. The values of RSD are less than 2%,and the relative error is less than 2%,which verifies the precision and accuracy of the method.%  采用盐硝混酸加少量氢氟酸溶解样品,酒石酸络合铌,硼酸络合过量的氟离子,用ICP-AES测定不锈钢中铌。系统的条件试验证明,不锈钢中的共存元素不干扰铌的测定,故校准曲线不必进行基体匹配。通过对标准物质的多次重复测定,方法的相对标准偏差小于2%,相对误差也小于2%,证明方法的精密度和准确度均佳。

  12. Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment and Conservation Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed partnership to support a Gulf Coast Landscape Conservation Liaison will provide much needed coordination across multiple programs and partnerships to...

  13. NPScape Metric GIS Data - Conservation Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape conservation status metrics are calculated using data from the USGS Gap Analysis Program (PAD-US), World Protected Areas Database (WDPA), and National Marine...

  14. Determination of phosphorus in small amounts of protein samples by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J Sabine; Boulyga, Sergei F; Pickhardt, Carola; Becker, J; Buddrus, Stefan; Przybylski, Michael

    2003-02-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used for phosphorus determination in protein samples. A small amount of solid protein sample (down to 1 micro g) or digest (1-10 micro L) protein solution was denatured in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide by closed-microvessel microwave digestion. Phosphorus determination was performed with an optimized analytical method using a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS) and quadrupole-based ICP-MS (ICP-QMS). For quality control of phosphorus determination a certified reference material (CRM), single cell proteins (BCR 273) with a high phosphorus content of 26.8+/-0.4 mg g(-1), was analyzed. For studies on phosphorus determination in proteins while reducing the sample amount as low as possible the homogeneity of CRM BCR 273 was investigated. Relative standard deviation and measurement accuracy in ICP-QMS was within 2%, 3.5%, 11% and 12% when using CRM BCR 273 sample weights of 40 mg, 5 mg, 1 mg and 0.3 mg, respectively. The lowest possible sample weight for an accurate phosphorus analysis in protein samples by ICP-MS is discussed. The analytical method developed was applied for the analysis of homogeneous protein samples in very low amounts [1-100 micro g of solid protein sample, e.g. beta-casein or down to 1 micro L of protein or digest in solution (e.g., tau protein)]. A further reduction of the diluted protein solution volume was achieved by the application of flow injection in ICP-SFMS, which is discussed with reference to real protein digests after protein separation using 2D gel electrophoresis.The detection limits for phosphorus in biological samples were determined by ICP-SFMS down to the ng g(-1) level. The present work discusses the figure of merit for the determination of phosphorus in a small amount of protein sample with ICP-SFMS in comparison to ICP-QMS.

  15. Mulberry trees conserved soil and protected water quality in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin; Wan, Pan; Xiong, Xing-Zheng; Ou, Yang; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Jingchun; Zhou, Hao; Xu, Qiao; Chen, Guohui; Xili, Yuanzi; Nie, Jiasheng

    2016-03-01

    China's Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) was designed to restore perennial plant cover on sloping land in western China, in part to protect the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this study, we examined use of white mulberry (Morus alba L.) in the SLCP to protect water quality and conserve soil. We established nine runoff monitoring plots divided among three categories (vegetable farming, fallow control, and mulberry plantation) on a bank of the Liangtan River situated at the western margin of the TGR. The land had been used previously by farmers for growing vegetables. We found that soil loss and surface water runoff were lowest in the mulberry plots and highest in the vegetable plots. We used inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to assess the concentration of selected heavy metal pollution indicators (Zn, Hg, As, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Cu) in the monitoring plot soils at the beginning of the experiment in May 2009. The heavy metals were assessed again at the end of the experiment in October 2012, and we found that the concentrations of these pollutants had been reduced in all fallow and mulberry plots, and to the greatest extent in the mulberry plots. We found that levels of Hg, Pb, and Cu increased in the vegetable plots. For these reasons, we conclude that riparian mulberry plantations are useful for reducing rapid runoff of storm water, conserving soil, and sequestering heavy metal pollutants in the TGR region.

  16. Laser ablation ICP-MS screening of corals for diagenetically affected areas applied to Tahiti corals from the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorne, Ed C.; Felis, Thomas; James, Rachael H.; Thomas, Alex

    2011-03-01

    Fossil corals are unique archives of past seasonal climate variability, providing vital information about seasonal climate phenomena such as ENSO and monsoons. However, submarine diagenetic processes can potentially obscure the original climate signals and lead to false interpretations. Here we demonstrate the potential of laser ablation ICP-MS to rapidly detect secondary aragonite precipitates in fossil Porites colonies recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 310 from submerged deglacial reefs off Tahiti. High resolution (100 μm) measurements of coralline B/Ca, Mg/Ca, S/Ca, and U/Ca ratios are used to distinguish areas of pristine skeleton from those afflicted with secondary aragonite. Measurements of coralline Sr/Ca, U/Ca and oxygen isotope ratios, from areas identified as pristine, reveal that the seasonal range of sea surface temperature in the tropical south Pacific during the last deglaciation (14.7 and 11 ka) was similar to that of today.

  17. Lyme disease and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  18. Development, optimisation, and application of ICP-SFMS methods for the measurement of isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuerup, S

    2000-07-01

    The measurement of isotopic composition and isotope ratios in biological and environmental samples requires sensitive, precise, and accurate analytical techniques. The analytical techniques used are traditionally based on mass spectrometry, among these techniques is the ICP-SFMS technique, which became commercially available in the mid 1990s. This technique is characterised by high sensitivity, low background, and the ability to separate analyte signals from spectral interferences. These features are beneficial for the measurement of isotope ratios and enable the measurement of isotope ratios of elements, which it has not previously been possible to measure due to either spectral interferences or poor sensitivity. The overall purpose of the project was to investigate the potential of the single detector ICP-SFMS technique for the measurement of isotope ratios in biological and environmental samples. One part of the work has focused on the fundamental aspects of the ICP-SFMS technique with special emphasize on the features important to the measurement of isotope ratios, while another part has focused on the development, optimisation and application of specific methods for the measurement of isotope ratios of elements of nutritional interest and radionuclides. The fundamental aspects of the ICP-SFMS technique were investigated theoretically and experimentally by the measurement of isotope ratios applying different experimental conditions. It was demonstrated that isotope ratios could be measured reliably using ICP-SFMS by educated choice of acquisition parameters, scanning mode, mass discrimination correction, and by eliminating the influence of detector dead time. Applying the knowledge gained through the fundamental study, ICP-SFMS methods for the measurement of isotope ratios of calcium, zinc, molybdenum and iron in human samples and a method for the measurement of plutonium isotope ratios and ultratrace levels of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples

  19. Water use patterns and conservation in households of Wei River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fully understanding patterns of water use and water conservation among different consumer groups will help in implementing more effective water conservation programs worldwide. Consequently, we investigated water use patterns, water conservation practices, attitudes, and hindrances to water conserva

  20. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Air Force Plant 38, Porter, New York, RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    break through the cement surface which surrounds the pad. 3.2.3 Laboratory Program All samples were split in the field and the split portions were...and specific capacity (3) Present and projected groundwater development and use (4) Corrosion, incrustation , well interference, and similar...AND/ORl PLUGS _ .ANO_L FNo _ __ ,______ ENTONIT-E. L F- No CEMENT -LF, No. ________SECURITY CAP (Y OR NJ _ _, WELL DEVELOPMENT (Y Oi N) t__ J LOCATION