WorldWideScience

Sample records for conical di-jet correlations

  1. Di-jet conical correlations associated with heavy quark jets in anti-de sitter space/conformal field theory correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2009-03-13

    We show that far zone Mach and diffusion wake "holograms" produced by supersonic strings in anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence do not lead to observable conical angular correlations in the strict N_{c}-->infinity supergravity limit if Cooper-Frye hadronization is assumed. However, a special nonequilibrium "neck" zone near the jet is shown to produce an apparent sonic boom azimuthal angle distribution that is roughly independent of the heavy quark's velocity. Our results indicate that a measurement of the dependence of the away-side correlations on the velocity of associated identified heavy quark jets at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN LHC will provide a direct test of the nonperturbative dynamics involved in the coupling between jets and the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma implied by AdS/CFT correspondence.

  2. Di-Jet Conical Correlations Associated with Heavy Quark Jets in anti-de Sitter Space/Conformal Field Theory Correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    We show that far zone Mach and diffusion wake 'holograms' produced by supersonic strings in anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence do not lead to observable conical angular correlations in the strict N c →∞ supergravity limit if Cooper-Frye hadronization is assumed. However, a special nonequilibrium 'neck' zone near the jet is shown to produce an apparent sonic boom azimuthal angle distribution that is roughly independent of the heavy quark's velocity. Our results indicate that a measurement of the dependence of the away-side correlations on the velocity of associated identified heavy quark jets at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN LHC will provide a direct test of the nonperturbative dynamics involved in the coupling between jets and the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma implied by AdS/CFT correspondence

  3. Di-jet production and angular correlations in DIS at NLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaliflian-Marian, J.

    2016-01-01

    Angular correlations are a sensitive probe of the dynamics of QCD at high energy. In particular azimuthal angular correlations between two hadrons produced in Deeply Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of a virtual photon on a hadron or nucleus offer the best environment in which to investigate high gluon density (gluon saturation) effects expected to arise at small x. Here we give a progress report on our derivation of Next to Leading Order (NLO) corrections to di-jet (di-hadron) production in DIS. (author)

  4. Di-jet Hadron Correlations in Central Au+Au Collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV at STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Nicholas; STAR Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Jets and their modifications due to partonic energy loss provide a powerful tool to study the properties of the QGP created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. For jets reconstructed with the anti-kT algorithm with resolution parameter R = 0.4 , previous measurements of the di-jet asymmetry AJ at STAR) indicate that the observed imbalance of an initial ``hard-core'' di-jet selection with pTconst > 2.0 GeV/c, pTlead > 20.0 GeV/c and pTsub > 10.0 GeV/c is restored to the balance of the pp reference when soft constituents are included. The lost energy recovered with soft constituents suggests soft gluon radiation by high pT partons. Jet-hadron correlations with respect to di-jets allow a differential assessment of the kinematic properties of the soft gluon radiation spectrum induced by partonic energy loss in the QGP. We present charged hadron correlations with respect to the di-jets found in the above AJ analysis, and compare to similar measurements using a jet trigger at RHIC.

  5. Experimental studies of di-jets in Au plus Au collisions using angular correlations with respect to back-to-back leading hadrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamczyk, L.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alakhverdyants, A. V.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E.; Barnovská, Zuzana; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Chung, Paul; Hajková, O.; Kapitán, Jan; Pachr, M.; Rusňák, Jan; Šumbera, Michal; Tlustý, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2013), 044903 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20841S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR * angular correlations * jet-medium interactions * heavy ion collisions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.881, year: 2013 http://prc.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v87/i4/e044903

  6. Di-jet production by double pomeron exchange in CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrow, M.G.

    1998-05-01

    We have studied events with a high-x F antiproton and two central jets with E T > 7 GeV in CDF, in p anti p collisions at √s = 1800 GeV. We find an excess of events with a rapidity gap at least 3.5 units wide in the proton direction, which we interpret as di-jet production in double pomeron exchange events

  7. Forward di-jet production in p+Pb collisions in the small-x improved TMD factorization framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameren, A. van [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Kotko, P. [Department of Physics, Penn State University,University Park, 16803 PA (United States); Kutak, K. [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Marquet, C. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique,CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,91128 Palaiseau (France); Petreska, E. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique,CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,91128 Palaiseau (France); Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE,Universidade de Santiago de Compostela,15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sapeta, S. [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,Geneva (Switzerland); The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-12-12

    We study the production of forward di-jets in proton-lead and proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Such configurations, with both jets produced in the forward direction, impose a dilute-dense asymmetry which allows to probe the gluon density of the lead or proton target at small longitudinal momentum fractions. Even though the jet momenta are always much bigger than the saturation scale of the target, Q{sub s}, the transverse momentum imbalance of the di-jet system may be either also much larger than Q{sub s}, or of the order Q{sub s}, implying that the small-x QCD dynamics involved is either linear or non-linear, respectively. The small-x improved TMD factorization framework deals with both situations in the same formalism. In the latter case, which corresponds to nearly back-to-back jets, we find that saturation effects induce a significant suppression of the forward di-jet azimuthal correlations in proton-lead versus proton-proton collisions.

  8. Forward di-jet production in p+Pb collisions in the small-x improved TMD factorization framework

    CERN Document Server

    van Hameren, A.; Kutak, K.; Marquet, C.; Petreska, E.; Sapeta, S.

    2016-01-01

    We study the production of forward di-jets in proton-lead and proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Such configurations, with both jets produced in the forward direction, impose a dilute-dense asymmetry which allows to probe the gluon density of the lead or proton target at small longitudinal momentum fractions. Even though the jet momenta are always much bigger than the saturation scale of the target, $Q_s$, the transverse momentum imbalance of the di-jet system may be either also much larger than $Q_s$, or of the order $Q_s$, implying that the small-$x$ QCD dynamics involved is either linear or non-linear, respectively. The small-$x$ improved TMD factorization framework deals with both situation in the same formalism. In the latter case, which corresponds to nearly back-to-back jets, we find that saturation effects induce a significant suppression of the forward di-jet azimuthal correlations in proton-lead versus proton-proton collisions.

  9. Forward di-jet production in dilute-dense collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petreska E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive a factorization formula for forward production of two jets in dilutedense collisions that is valid for an arbitrary value of the momentum imbalance of the jets, kt. This generalizes the transverse momentum dependent (TMD factorization formula that has been derived before by Dominguez et al. Their formula is valid only for small values of the transverse momentum of the small-x gluon from the target; it has kt dependent TMD gluon distributions, but on-shell hard matrix elements. We extend the TMD formula to all ranges of kt by including off-shell matrix elements. We also add finite Nc corrections. The new formula encompasses both, the TMD factorization for small kt on the order of the saturation scale, and the High Energy Factorization (HEF for large kt on the order of the momentum of the jets. The TMD and HEF factorizations can be derived from the Color Glass Condensate (CGC formula for forward di-jet production in the appropriate limits. We show explicitly the equivalence of HEF and CGC in the dilute target approximation.

  10. Origins of the di-jet asymmetry in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Milhano, José Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    The di-jet asymmetry --- the measure of the momentum imbalance in a di-jet system --- is a key jet quenching observable. Using the event generator \\jewel we show that the di-jet asymmetry is dominated by fluctuations both in proton-proton and in heavy ion collisions. We discuss how in proton-proton collisions the asymmetry is generated through recoil and out-of-cone radiation. In heavy ion collisions two additional sources contribute to the asymmetry, namely energy loss fluctuations and differences in path length. The latter is shown to be a sub-leading effect. We discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of this observable.

  11. Origins of the di-jet asymmetry in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhano, Jose Guilherme; Zapp, Korinna Christine [Universidade de Lisboa, CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-05-15

    The di-jet asymmetry - the measure of the momentum imbalance in a di-jet system - is a key jet quenching observable. Using the event generator Jewel we show that the di-jet asymmetry is dominated by fluctuations both in proton-proton and in heavy-ion collisions. We discuss how in proton-proton collisions the asymmetry is generated through recoil and out-of-cone radiation. In heavy-ion collisions two additional sources can contribute to the asymmetry, namely energy loss fluctuations and differences in path length. The latter is shown to be a sub-leading effect. We discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of this observable. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of the $b\\bar{b}$ di-jet cross section at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallecorsa, Sofia [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2007-01-01

    offline. Events with heavy quarks are selected online using the Secondary Vertex Trigger (SVT), which can measure in real time the impact parameter of the tracks, in particular those originated from the decay of long-lived particles. The SVT represents the key element for all the heavy flavor measurement performed by CDF, and this analysis describes one of the first cases in which the SVT trigger is used to study high pT physics. The total cross section is mesured together with the di-jet differential cross sections as a function of the highest energy jet ET and the di-jet invariant mass. The azimuthal angular correlation (Δφ) between the two jets is also measured. As expected this distribution proves that the largest contribution to b$\\bar{b}$ production is due to lowest order QCD diagrams, corresponding to a back to back configuration of the two b-jets (large Δφ values). The most interesting fact is, however, that the low Δφ region also results highly populated, suggesting an important role played by higher order production terms. To verify this conclusion, results are compared to Monte Carlo predictions at leading order and next to leading order QCD. When technical details are correctly taken into account, as the contribution of the underlying event for example, it is possible to conclude that the data are in agreement with a next to leading order model. Nevertheless the agreement is not perfect and the data present some excess with respect to theoretical predictions. This thesis describes the analysis steps in details as support to the PRL paper forseen to be published soon.

  13. Role of electronic correlations in photoionization of NO2 in the vicinity of the 2A1/2B2 conical intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambila, Danilo S; Harvey, Alex G; Houfek, Karel; Mašín, Zdeněk; Smirnova, Olga

    2017-08-02

    We present the first ab initio multi-channel photoionization calculations for NO 2 in the vicinity of the 2 A 1 / 2 B 2 conical intersection, for a range of nuclear geometries, using our newly developed set of tools based on the ab initio multichannel R-matrix method. Electronic correlation is included in both the neutral and the scattering states of the molecule via configuration interaction. Configuration mixing is especially important around conical intersections and avoided crossings, both pertinent for NO 2 , and manifests itself via significant variations in photoelectron angular distributions. The method allows for a balanced and accurate description of the photoionization/photorecombination for a number of different ionic channels in a wide range of photoelectron energies up to 100 eV. Proper account of electron correlations is crucial for interpreting time-resolved signals in photoelectron spectroscopy and high harmonic generation (HHG) from polyatomic molecules.

  14. Geometry of conics

    CERN Document Server

    Akopyan, A V

    2007-01-01

    The book is devoted to the properties of conics (plane curves of second degree) that can be formulated and proved using only elementary geometry. Starting with the well-known optical properties of conics, the authors move to less trivial results, both classical and contemporary. In particular, the chapter on projective properties of conics contains a detailed analysis of the polar correspondence, pencils of conics, and the Poncelet theorem. In the chapter on metric properties of conics the authors discuss, in particular, inscribed conics, normals to conics, and the Poncelet theorem for confoca

  15. Large-mass di-jet event recorded by the CMS detector (Run 2, 13 TeV)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This image shows a collision event with the largest-mass jet pair fulfilling all analysis requirements observed so far by the CMS detector in collision data collected in 2015. The mass of the di-jet system is 6.14 TeV. Both jets are reconstructed in the barrel region and have transverse momenta of about 3 TeV each.

  16. Measurement of Di-jet Cross-Sections in Photoproduction and Photon Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Bizot, J.C.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burke, Stephen; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Donovan, K.T.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Duprel, C.; Ebert, J.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Gorelov, I.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Griffiths, R.K.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haustein, V.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hilton, C.D.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Hoprich, W.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Krucker, D.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Kutuev, R.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemaitre, V.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstrom, M.; Lobo, G.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; McMahon, T.R.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, D.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Negri, I.; Newman, Paul R.; Nguyen, H.K.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Passaggio, S.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.I.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, M.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J.P.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitsky, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Villet, G.; von Dombrowski, S.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; West, L.R.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zini, P.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2000-01-01

    The production of hard di-jet events in photoproduction at HERA is dominatedby resolved photon processes in which a parton in the photon with momentumfraction x_gamma is scattered from a parton in the proton. These processes aresensitive to the quark and gluon content of the photon. The differential di-jetcross-section dsigma/dlog(x_gamma) is presented here, measured in taggedphotoproduction at HERA using data taken with the H1 detector, corresponding toan integrated luminosity of 7.2 pb^(-1). Using a restricted data sample at hightransverse jet energy, E_(T,jet)>6 GeV, the effective parton densityf_gamma,eff(x_gamma) = [q(x_gamma) + bar(q)(x_gamma) +9/4g(x_gamma)] in thephoton in leading order QCD is measured down to x_gamma=0.05 from which thegluon density in the photon is derived.

  17. From the CERN web: data analysis, di-jet asymmetry and more

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    This section highlights articles, blog posts and press releases published in the CERN web environment over the past weeks. This way, you won’t miss a thing...   Image: LHCb Collaboration.   Revolutionary improvement of data acquisition and analysis 14 October – LHCb Collaboration The procedure of data taking and analysis at hadron colliders is performed in two steps. In the first one, called by physicists “online”, the data are recorded by the detector, read-out by fast electronics and computers, and finally a selected fraction of events is stored on disks and magnetic tapes. The stored events are then analysed later in the so called “offline analysis”.  Continue to read…      New measurements of the momentum imbalance in the di-jet system, using a distribution parameter known as xJ. New ATLAS Results Presented at Quark Matter 2015 7 October - ...

  18. Large-mass di-jet event recorded by the CMS detector (Run 2, 13 TeV)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This image shows a collision event with the largest-mass jet pair fulfilling all analysis requirements observed so far by the CMS detector in proton-proton collision data collected in 2016. The mass of the di-jet system is 7.7 TeV. Both jets are reconstructed in the barrel region and each have transverse momenta of over 3 TeV.

  19. ATLAS di-jet event at 13 TeV - 21 May 2015 - Run 265573 Event 4417696

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of a proton-proton collision event recorded by ATLAS on 21 May 2015 at a collision energy of 13 TeV. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as arcs curving in the solenoidal magnetic field. The green, red and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the liquid argon and scintillating-tile calorimeters, clustered in a structure typical of a di-jet event. The most energetic jet has a transverse energy of about 45 GeV.

  20. Study of di-jet events in deep inelastic scattering from H1 experiment realized in HERA accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforge, B.

    1997-01-01

    During this PhD thesis, we concentrated studying electron-proton collision dynamics with a large rapidity gap without hadronic activity in the incoming proton direction. These events are interpreted as an electron-pomeron collision where the latter is 'emitted' by the proton. We studied the hadronic final state in an exclusive way studying di-jet production in the γ * -IP CM frame. Such a process is calculable with perturbative QCD theory. Using the H1 1994 data, we have proved the existence of such events and measured their production cross section as functions of the p 2 of jets, the fraction ξ IP of the IP longitudinal momentum carried by the two jets and Φ e,jet , the azimuthal angle between the electron and the most forward jet. We show that the results are in agreement with the structure function F 2 D(3) QCD analysis results and that s, the invariant mass of the colliding parton and the photon system, is favoured by the data to be the relevant perturbative scale for di-jet production. (author)

  1. Di-Jet Production in Photon-Photon colisions at $\\sqrt{s_{ee}}$ from 189 to 209 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Bloodworth, Ian J; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Büsser, K; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Caron, B; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Csilling, Akos; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallison, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Elfgren, E; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hauschildt, J; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Hensel, C; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Horváth, D; Howard, R; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J; Karapetian, G V; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klein, K; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kormos, L L; Krämer, T; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Krop, D; Krüger, K; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Layter, J G; Leins, A; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; MacPherson, A; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Marchant, T E; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Méndez-Lorenzo, P; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Moed, S; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Polok, J; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Rick, Hartmut; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Taylor, R J; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trefzger, T M; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vachon, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2003-01-01

    Di-jet producion is studied in collisions of quasi-real photons at e+e- centre- of-mass energies sqrt(s)ee from 189 to 209 GeV at LEP. The data were collected with the OPAL detector. Jets are reconstructed using an inclusive k_t clustering algorithm for all cross-section measurements presented. A cone jet algorithm is used in addition to study the different structure of the jets resulting from either of the algorithms. The inclusive di-jet cross-section is measured as a function of the mean transverse energy Etm(jet) of the two leading jets, and as a functiuon of the estimated fraction of the photon momentum carried by the parton entering the hard sub-process, xg, for different regions of Etm (jet). Angular distribution in di-jet events are measured and used to demonstrate the dominance of quark and gluon initiated processes in different regions of phase space. Furthermore the inclusive di-jet cross-section as a function of |eta(jet)| and |delta eta (jet)| is presented where eta(jet) is the jet pseudo-rapidit...

  2. Di-Jet Production in Photon-Photon Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}_{ee}$ = 161 and 172 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    Di-jet production is studied in collisions of quasi-real photons radiated by the LEP beams at e+e- centre-of-mass energies 161 and 172 GeV. The jets are reconstructed using a cone jet finding algorithm. The angular distributions of direct and double-resolved processes are measured and compared to the predictions of leading order and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD. The jet energy profiles are also studied. The inclusive two-jet cross-section is measured as a function of transverse energy and rapidity and compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations. The inclusive two-jet cross-section as a function of rapidity is compared to the prediction of the leading order Monte Carlo generators PYTHIA and PHOJET. The Monte Carlo predictions are calculated with different parametrisations of the parton distributions of the photon. The influence of the `underlying event' has been studied to reduce the model dependence of the predicted jet cross-sections from the Monte Carlo generators.

  3. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  4. Heat transfer behaviors in round tube with conical ring inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promvonge, P.

    2008-01-01

    To increase convection heat transfer in a uniform heat flux tube by a passive method, several conical rings used as turbulators are mounted over the test tube. The effects of the conical ring turbulator inserts on the heat transfer rate and friction factor are experimentally investigated in the present work. Conical rings with three different diameter ratios of the ring to tube diameter (d/D = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) are introduced in the tests, and for each ratio, the rings are placed with three different arrangements (converging conical ring, referred to as CR array, diverging conical ring, DR array and converging-diverging conical ring, CDR array). In the experiment, cold air at ambient condition for Reynolds numbers in a range of 6000-26,000 is passed through the uniform heat flux circular tube. It is found that the ring to tube diameter ratio and the ring arrays provide a significant effect on the thermal performance of the test tube. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of conical ring inserts leads to a higher heat transfer rate than that of the plain surface tube, and the DR array yields a better heat transfer than the others. The results are also correlated in the form of Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number, Prandtl number and diameter ratio. An augmentation of up to 197%, 333%, and 237% in Nusselt number is obtained in the turbulent flow for the CR, DR and CDR arrays, respectively, although the effect of using the conical ring causes a substantial increase in friction factor

  5. DE 1 and Viking observations associated with electron conical distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.; Weimer, D. R.; Andre, M.; Eliasson, L.

    1994-01-01

    Data from the electron detectors on board the Swedish Viking satellite launched during a period of low solar activity and from the Dynamic Explorer (DE) 1 satellite launched during active solar coditions have been examined for the occurrence and location of electron conical distributions and several conclusions can be drawn. First, we note that most of the best examples of electron conics observed by the V-3 experiment onboard Viking occurred in the afternoon sector in the range of magneitc local time 14 hours less than Magnetic Local Time (MLT) less than 18 hours, at midaltitudes in the range 10,000 km less than h less than 13,500 km, with few occurring in the nightside auroral region, a region poorly sampled at altitudes greater than 5000 km. For the Viking data there is an association of electron conics with upper hybrid waves. DE 1 observations made by the high-altitude plasma instrument (HAPI) indicate that electron conics were observed in the midmorning sector and the late evening sector, and as has been reported earlier, the correlation with upper hybird waves was good. The HAPI did not sample the afternoon sector. The electon conics observed on both satellites occurred in the presence of at least a modest (several kilovolts) potential difference beneath the satellite with a maximum energy that was usually, but not always, equal to or greater than the maximum energy of the electron conics. Two independent sets of observations by DE 1 suggest two distinct production mechanisms for electron conics. Examiniation of DE 1 electric field measurements from the plasma wave instrument during the observation of electron conics show simultaneous parallel oscillations in the frequency range of 0.2 Hz less than f less than 0.5 Hz during one and perhaps two of four events examined, and upper hybrid waves were observed on all four events. In addition, recent observations of '90-deg' electron conics associated with auroral kilometric radiation source regions suggest a

  6. I’m Discovering Conics and Designing Buildings with Conics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan KULOGLU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are three stages in this activity. At the first stage, it is provided that gifted students learn the subject of conic through discovery learning method. By this way, the formation of misconceptions that students frequently encounter in mathematics has been prevented. At the second stage, gifted students have been asked to draw the conical objects which they encounter in their daily life. Thus, it has contributed to the development of gifted students’ creativity. At the third stage, gifted students have been asked to design a buildings consisting of conics. Moreover, gifted students have been informed that the buildings which they have been asked to design, would be evaluated according to the criteria which set before. And then, the building design model has been done by gifted students.

  7. Characterizing conical refraction optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, C.; McDougall, C.; Rafailov, E.; McGloin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Conical refraction occurs when a beam of light travels through an appropriately cut biaxial crystal. By focussing the conically refracted beam through a high numerical aperture microscope objective, conical refraction optical tweezers can be created, allowing for particle manipulation in both Raman spots and in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings. We present a thorough quantification of the trapping properties of such a beam, focussing on the trap stiffness and how this varies with trap power and trapped particle location. We show that the lower Raman spot can be thought of as a single-beam optical gradient force trap, while radiation pressure dominates in the upper Raman spot, leading to optical levitation rather than trapping. Particles in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings experience a lower trap stiffness than particles in the lower Raman spot but benefit from rotational control.

  8. Understanding the Conics through Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Patricia; Pulido, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the production of a digital environment to foster the learning of conics through augmented reality. The name conic refers to curves obtained by the intersection of a plane with a right circular conical surface. The environment gives students the opportunity to interact with the cone and the plane as virtual objects in real…

  9. Conic surveillance evasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, J.; Olsder, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A surveillance-evasion differential game of degree with a detection zone in the shape of a two-dimensional cone is posed. The nature of the optimal strategies and the singular phenomena of the value function are described and correlated to subsets of the space of all possible parameter combinations,

  10. Study of di-jet events in deep inelastic scattering from H1 experiment realized in HERA accelerator; Etude des evenements a di-jets dans la diffusion profondement inelastique avec large intervalle de rapidite dans l`experience H1 aupres de l`accederateur Hera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforge, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee

    1997-05-21

    During this PhD thesis, we concentrated studying electron-proton collision dynamics with a large rapidity gap without hadronic activity in the incoming proton direction. These events are interpreted as an electron-pomeron collision where the latter is `emitted` by the proton. We studied the hadronic final state in an exclusive way studying di-jet production in the {gamma}{sup *}-IP CM frame. Such a process is calculable with perturbative QCD theory. Using the H1 1994 data, we have proved the existence of such events and measured their production cross section as functions of the p{sup 2} of jets, the fraction {xi}{sub IP} of the IP longitudinal momentum carried by the two jets and {Phi}{sub e,jet}, the azimuthal angle between the electron and the most forward jet. We show that the results are in agreement with the structure function F{sub 2}{sup D(3)}QCD analysis results and that s, the invariant mass of the colliding parton and the photon system, is favoured by the data to be the relevant perturbative scale for di-jet production. (author) 168 refs.

  11. Path integration in conical space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Akira; Junker, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Quantum mechanics in conical space is studied by the path integral method. It is shown that the curvature effect gives rise to an effective potential in the radial path integral. It is further shown that the radial path integral in conical space can be reduced to a form identical with that in flat space when the discrete angular momentum of each partial wave is replaced by a specific non-integral angular momentum. The effective potential is found proportional to the squared mean curvature of the conical surface embedded in Euclidean space. The path integral calculation is compatible with the Schrödinger equation modified with the Gaussian and the mean curvature. -- Highlights: ► We study quantum mechanics on a cone by the path integral approach. ► The path integral depends only on the metric and the curvature effect is built in. ► The approach is consistent with the Schrödinger equation modified by an effective potential. ► The effective potential is found to be of the “Jensen–Koppe” and “da Costa” type.

  12. Quasi-conical centrifugal ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, Yu.K.; Solov'ev, K.V.; Grigor'ev, D.V.; Flegontova, E.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new excellent ion trap that principally differs from the classic hyperbolic one by its action. The action is based on the axisymmetric electrostatic quasi-conical field with the following potential type: F=F 0 [ln r - r 2 /2+z 2 ], where r, z are cylindrical dimensionless coordinates. The radial potential run (f=ln r-r 2 /2), in this case, is exactly presented by the approximation function f a =ar 2 +b/r 2 +c. In addition, there are some ranges of r (for example, 0.6< r<0.35), in which the concurrence accuracy value is above 0.5%. The paper presents the theory of particles dynamics in the centrifugal trap. Basic correlation for resolution ratios and sensitivity values are developed. Recommendations on the centrifugal trap design implementation, including the recording system, are given

  13. CONICAL EQUIPOTENTIAL SUBSTRATE FOR LIQUID METAL SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Kubby , J.; Siegel , B.

    1986-01-01

    Morphological changes that occur at an ion bombarded surface as a result of erosion by sputtering can be utilized for the machining of cylindrically symmetric submicron structures. Such structuring has produced tungsten field emitters of conical configuration with variable cone half angle. A conical equipotential surface with an included half angle of 49.3° would be a useful emitter substrate for experiments designed to produce an equilibrium conical interface to a conducting fluid in an appl...

  14. Search for di-jet resonances with one or two jets identified as b-jets in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nishu, Nishu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Several models beyond the Standard Model predict heavy particles decaying to b jets. This poster presents the searches for resonances in the di-jet invariant mass spectrum with one or two jets identified as b-jets. The search is performed using proton–proton collisions data with a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector in the years 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider.

  15. Studies of $Z\\gamma$ electroweak production in association with a high-mass di-jet system in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Proceeding for the poster presentation at LHCP2017, Shanghai, China on the topic of "Studies of $Z\\gamma$ electroweak production in association with a high-mass di-jet system in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector" (ATL-PHYS-SLIDE-2017-266 https://cds.cern.ch/record/2265390) Deadline: 01/09/2017

  16. Leidenfrost phenomenon on conical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Caballero, S.; Escobar-Ortega, Y.; Pacheco-Vázquez, F.

    2016-09-01

    The Leidenfrost state is typically studied by placing droplets on flat or slightly curved surfaces. Here this phenomenon is investigated by depositing water in hot conical bowls. We found that this phase exists even for large amounts of liquid in very narrow cones without considerable effect of the confinement on the Leidenfrost transition temperature TL. At a fixed temperature, T >TL , the total evaporation time τ has a nonmonotonic dependence on the angle of confinement θ : for large volumes (˜20 ml) on flat surfaces (θ ˜0∘ ), vapor chimneys appear and accelerate the evaporation rate, their frequency diminishes as θ augments and becomes zero at a certain angle θc, at which τ reaches its maximum value; then, τ decreases again at larger angles because the vapor layer holding up the water becomes thinner due to the increase of hydrostatic pressure and because the geometry facilitates the vapor expulsion along the conical wall. For small volumes (˜1 ml), surface tension mainly determines the drop curvature and the lifetime is practically independent of θ . Different chimney regimes and oscillation patterns were observed and summarized in a phase diagram. Finally, we developed a simple model to decipher the shape adopted by the liquid volume and its evolution as a function of time, and the predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Soft tissue modelling with conical springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nadzeri; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza N; Subic, Aleksandar; Smith, Julian; Shirinzadeh, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for real-time modelling soft tissue deformation. It improves the traditional mass-spring model with conical springs to deal with nonlinear mechanical behaviours of soft tissues. A conical spring model is developed to predict soft tissue deformation with reference to deformation patterns. The model parameters are formulated according to tissue deformation patterns and the nonlinear behaviours of soft tissues are modelled with the stiffness variation of conical spring. Experimental results show that the proposed method can describe different tissue deformation patterns using one single equation and also exhibit the typical mechanical behaviours of soft tissues.

  18. LHC production of forward-center and forward-forward di-jets in the kt-factorization and transverse dependent unintegrated parton distribution frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, M.; Masouminia, M. R.; Aminzadeh Nik, R.; Hosseinkhani, H.; Olanj, N.

    2017-09-01

    The present work is devoted to study the high-energy QCD events, such as the di-jet productions from proton-proton inelastic collisions at the LHC in the forward-center and the forward-forward configurations. This provides us with much valuable case study, since such phenomena can provide a direct glimpse into the partonic behavior of a hadron in a dominant gluonic region. We use the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF) in the kt-factorization framework. The UPDF of Kimber et al. (KMR) and Martin et al. (MRW) are generated in the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO), using the Harland-Lang et al. (MMHT2014) PDF libraries. While working in the forward-center and the forward-forward rapidity sectors, one can probe the parton densities at very low longitudinal momentum fractions (x). Such a model computation can provide simpler analytic description of data with respect to existing formalisms such as perturbative QCD. The differential cross-section calculations are performed at the center of mass energy of 7 TeV corresponding to CMS collaboration measurement. It is shown that the gluonic jet productions are dominant and a good description of data as well as other theoretical attempts (i.e. KS-linear, KS-nonlinear and rcBK) is obtained. The uncertainty of the calculations is derived by manipulating the hard scale of the processes by a factor of two. This conclusion is achieved, due to the particular visualization of the angular ordering constraint (AOC), that is incorporated in the definition of these UPDF.

  19. Handbook on semidefinite, conic and polynomial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Anjos, Miguel F

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in the growing and mutually enriching areas of semidefinite optimization, conic optimization and polynomial optimization. It covers theory, algorithms, software and applications.

  20. Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....

  1. Covered by lines and Conic connected varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Massarenti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We study some properties of an embedded variety covered by lines and give a numerical criterion ensuring the existence of a singular conic through two of its general points. We show that our criterion is sharp. Conic-connected, covered by lines, QEL, LQEL, prime Fano, defective, and dual defective varieties are closely related. We study some relations between the above mentioned classes of objects using basic results by Ein and Zak.

  2. Watching Electrons at Conical Intersections and Funnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, David M.; Smith, Eric R.; Peters, William K.; Kitney, Katherine A.

    2009-06-01

    The electronic motion at conical intersections and funnels is probed after polarized excitation of aligned electronic wavepackets. The pulses have bandwidth sufficient to observe vibrations mainly through their effect on the electrons. Vibrational symmetry can be identified by the polarization anisotropy of vibrational quantum beats. The polarized transients show signatures of electronic wavepacket motion (due to the energy gaps) and of electron transfer between orbitals (due to the couplings) driven by the conical intersection. For a conical intersection in a four-fold symmetric symmetry silicon naphthalocyanine molecule, electronic motions on a 100 fs timescale are driven by couplings of 1 meV. In the lower symmetry free-base naphthalocyanine, the conical intersection may be missed or missing (conical funnel), and the motions are nearly as rapid, but electronic equilibration is incomplete for red-edge excitation. These experiments probe non-adiabatic electronic dynamics with near-zero nuclear momentum - the electronic motions are determined by the principal slopes of the conical intersection and the width of the vibrational wavepacket.

  3. High-energy resummation effects in the production of Mueller-Navelet di-jets at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudoue, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2016-01-01

    We study the production of two forward jets with a large interval of rapidity at hadron colliders, which was proposed by Mueller and Navelet as a possible test of the high energy dynamics of QCD, within a complete next-to-leading logarithm framework. We show that using the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie procedure to fix the renormalization scale leads to a very good description of the recent CMS data at the LHC for the azimuthal correlations of the jets. We show that the inclusion of next-to-leading order corrections to the jet vertex significantly reduces the importance of energy-momentum non-conservation which is inherent to the BFKL approach, for an asymmetric jet configuration. Finally, we argue that the double parton scattering contribution is negligible in the kinematics of actual CMS measurements. (authors)

  4. Experimental studies of di-jet survival and surface emission bias in Au plus Au collisions via angular correlations with respect to back-to-back leading hadrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, Petr; Chung, P.; Kapitán, Jan; Kouchpil, V.; Šumbera, Michal; Tlustý, David

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 6 (2011), 061901/1-061901/5 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : STAR Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.308, year: 2011

  5. Conical wavefronts in optics and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    A wide range of techniques in which the information is transferred by conical (nonspherical and nonplanar) wave fronts is considered. This is the first summary of papers published in the field of mesooptics and optical tomography. After the introduction into the new branch of modern optics - mesooptics -the properties of conical wavefronts are treated in detail. Some possible applications of mesooptics in science and technology are considered. The long history of mesooptics treated in the last chapter of this review lecture goes from the early stage of our Universe, gravitational lens, first publications in the last century and up-to-date innovations in optics, mesooptics and optical tomography. 3 refs

  6. Multiparticle angular correlations: a probe for the sQGP at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzmann, W G; Ajitanand, N N; Alexander, J M; Chung, P; Issah, M; Lacey, R A; Taranenko, A; Shevel, A

    2005-01-01

    A novel decomposition technique is used to extract the centrality dependence of di-jet properties and yields from azimuthal correlation functions obtained in Au+Au collisions at √s NN = 200 GeV. The width of the near-side jet shows very little dependence on centrality. In contrast, the away-side jet indicates substantial broadening as well as hints for for a local minimum at Δφ = π for central and mid-central events. The yield of jet-pairs (per trigger particle) slowly increases with centrality for both the near- and away-side jets. These observed features are compatible with several recent theoretical predictions of possible modifications of di-jet fragmentation by a strongly interacting medium. Several new experimental approaches, including the study of flavor permutation and higher order multi-particle correlations, that might help to distinguish between different theoretical scenarios are discussed

  7. Decomposition in conic optimization with partially separable structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yifan; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    Decomposition techniques for linear programming are difficult to extend to conic optimization problems with general nonpolyhedral convex cones because the conic inequalities introduce an additional nonlinear coupling between the variables. However in many applications the convex cones have...

  8. The plastic instability of clamped-clamped conical thin-walled pipe reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Ibrahim; Saleh, Ch.A.R.; Ragab, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    The analytical study for plastic deformation of clamped–clamped conical reducer pipe under internal pressure does not deduce a closed form expression for the pressure at plastic instability. The presented study employs finite element analysis (FEA) to estimate the internal pressure at instability for conical reducers made of different materials and having different dimensional configurations. Forty dimensional configurations, classified as medium type, and five types of materials have been included in the analysis using ABAQUS package. A correlation expression is derived by nonlinear regression to predict the instability pressure. The proposed expression is verified for other dimensional configurations out of the above used forty models and for other materials. Experiments have been conducted by pressurizing conical clamped-clamped reducers until bursting in order to verify the finite element models. Comparison of instability pressures, strains and deflections at specific points along the conical surface shows satisfactory agreement between analysis and experiments. - Highlights: • This study offers a parametric study of the plastic instability pressure of clamped-clamped conical reducers. • A closed form analytical expression for the instability pressure is derived by using nonlinear regression. • The finite element analysis is validated by conducting bursting tests.

  9. Conical : An extended module for computing a numerically satisfactory pair of solutions of the differential equation for conical functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Dunster (Mark); A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractConical functions appear in a large number of applications in physics and engineering. In this paper we describe an extension of our module Conical (Gil et al., 2012) for the computation of conical functions. Specifically, the module includes now a routine for computing the function

  10. Black hole thermodynamics with conical defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appels, Michael [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Kubiznák, David [Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-05-22

    Recently we have shown https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.131303 how to formulate a thermodynamic first law for a single (charged) accelerated black hole in AdS space by fixing the conical deficit angles present in the spacetime. Here we show how to generalise this result, formulating thermodynamics for black holes with varying conical deficits. We derive a new potential for the varying tension defects: the thermodynamic length, both for accelerating and static black holes. We discuss possible physical processes in which the tension of a string ending on a black hole might vary, and also map out the thermodynamic phase space of accelerating black holes and explore their critical phenomena.

  11. Time resolution measurements with an improved discriminator and conical scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGervey, J.D.; Vogel, J.; Sen, P.; Knox, C.

    1977-01-01

    A new constant fraction discriminator with improved stability and walk characteristics is described. The discriminator was used with RCA C31024 photomultiplier tubes to test scintillators of conical and cylindrical shapes. Conical scintillators of 2.54 cm base diameter, 1.0 cm top diameter, and 2.54 cm height gave a fwhm of 155 ps for 60 Co gamma rays; larger conical scintillators gave an improvement of 10-15% in fwhm over cylindrical scintillators of equal volume. (Auth.)

  12. Conical Double Frequency Emission by Femtosecond Laser Pulses from DKDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Peng, Zhang; Hong-Bing, Jiang; Shan-Chun, Tang; Qi-Huang, Gong

    2009-01-01

    Conical double frequency emission is investigated by femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 800 nm in a DKDP crystal. It is demonstrated that the sum frequency of incident wave and its scattering wave accounts for the conical double frequency emission. The gaps on the conical rings are observed and they are very sensitive to the propagation direction, and thus could be used to detect the small angle deviation of surface direction. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  13. Conical Refraction: new observations and a dual cone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovskii, G S; Carnegie, D J; Kalkandjiev, T K; Rafailov, E U

    2013-05-06

    We propose a paraxial dual-cone model of conical refraction involving the interference of two cones of light behind the exit face of the crystal. The supporting experiment is based on beam selecting elements breaking down the conically refracted beam into two separate hollow cones which are symmetrical with one another. The shape of these cones of light is a product of a 'competition' between the divergence caused by the conical refraction and the convergence due to the focusing by the lens. The developed mathematical description of the conical refraction demonstrates an excellent agreement with experiment.

  14. Switching Exciton Pulses Through Conical Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    Exciton pulses transport excitation and entanglement adiabatically through Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light atoms, which are set into directed motion by resonant dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we demonstrate the coherent splitting of such pulses as well as the spatial segregation of electronic excitation and atomic motion. Both mechanisms exploit local nonadiabatic effects at a conical intersection, turning them from a decoherence source into an asset. The intersection provides a sensitive knob controlling the propagation direction and coherence properties of exciton pulses. The fundamental ideas discussed here have general implications for excitons on a dynamic network.

  15. Conical differentiability for evolution variational inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarušek, Jiří; Krbec, Miroslav; Rao, Murali; Sokołowski, Jan

    The conical differentiability of solutions to the parabolic variational inequality with respect to the right-hand side is proved in the paper. From one side the result is based on the Lipschitz continuity in H {1}/{2},1 (Q) of solutions to the variational inequality with respect to the right-hand side. On the other side, in view of the polyhedricity of the convex cone K={v∈ H;v |Σ c⩾0,v |Σ d=0}, we prove new results on sensitivity analysis of parabolic variational inequalities. Therefore, we have a positive answer to the question raised by Fulbert Mignot (J. Funct. Anal. 22 (1976) 25-32).

  16. Conic coconuts : the pricing of contingent capital notes using conic finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madan, D.B.; Schoutens, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a fundamental model under which we will price contingent capital notes using conic finance techniques. The model is based on more realistic balance-sheet models recognizing the fact that asset and liabilities are both risky and have been treated differently taking into

  17. Enhancement of strong-field multiple ionization in the vicinity of the conical intersection in 1,3-cyclohexadiene ring opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Vladimir S.; Kim, Jaehee; Schorb, Sebastian; White, James; Cryan, James P.; Zipp, Lucas; Glownia, J. Michael; Broege, Douglas; Miyabe, Shungo; Tao, Hongli; Martinez, Todd; Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2013-01-01

    Nonradiative energy dissipation in electronically excited polyatomic molecules proceeds through conical intersections, loci of degeneracy between electronic states. We observe a marked enhancement of laser-induced double ionization in the vicinity of a conical intersection during a non-radiative transition. We measured double ionization by detecting the kinetic energy of ions released by laser-induced strong-field fragmentation during the ring-opening transition between 1,3-cyclohexadiene and 1,3,5-hexatriene. The enhancement of the double ionization correlates with the conical intersection between the HOMO and LUMO orbitals

  18. Two particle correlations: Saturation and issues with universality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Bowen; Yuan Feng

    2011-01-01

    We study the universality issue of the transverse momentum dependent parton distributions at small-x, by comparing the initial/final state interaction effects in di-jet correlation in pA collisions with those in deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering. We demonstrate the non-universality by performing an explicit calculation in a particular model where the multiple gauge boson exchange contributions are summed up to all orders. In addition, we generalize the model calculation to the CGC formalism, and find the non-universality for quark distributions in CGC.

  19. Indications of Conical Emission of Charged Hadrons at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Coserea, R. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.S.M.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Tlustý, David; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, P.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 5 (2009), 052302/1-052302/7 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : PARTICLE CORRELATIONS * QCD MATTER * CONICAL EMISSION Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 7.328, year: 2009

  20. Dirac operator on spaces with conical singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Dirac operator on compact spaces with conical singularities is studied via the separation of variables formula and the functional calculus of the Dirac Laplacian on the cone. A Bochner type vanishing theorem which gives topological obstructions to the existence of non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 in the singular case is proved. An index formula relating the index of the Dirac operator to the A-genus and Eta-invariant similar to that of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer is obtained. In an appendix, manifolds with boundary with non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 are studied, and several new results on constructing complete metrics with k greater than or equal to on them are obtained

  1. Hypervelocity jets from conical hollow-charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, P. M.; Martinez-Val, J. M.; Eliezer, S.; Piera, M.; Guillen, J.; Cobo, M. D.; Ogando, F.; Crisol, A.; Gonzalez, L.; Prieto, J.; Velarde, G.

    1997-01-01

    In this article the formation of jets by means of the implosion of conical targets is analyzed. This implosion might be induced by high intensity lasers or X rays. It is known of experiments with explosive and numeric simulations that the formation of jets depends critically on the aperture of the cone. It is found in these simulations that for a given collapsing speed an angle of the cone exists below which jet doesn't take place. This critical angle grows with the collapsing speed. The numerical simulations seem to indicate that the production of jets is related to the separation of the shock wave that takes place in the collapsing region. We will also analyze the mass and kinetic energy of the jets taken place as a function of the initial opening of the cone

  2. Conically scanning lidar error in complex terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Bingöl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Conically scanning lidars assume the flow to be homogeneous in order to deduce the horizontal wind speed. However, in mountainous or complex terrain this assumption is not valid implying a risk that the lidar will derive an erroneous wind speed. The magnitude of this error is measured by collocating a meteorological mast and a lidar at two Greek sites, one hilly and one mountainous. The maximum error for the sites investigated is of the order of 10 %. In order to predict the error for various wind directions the flows at both sites are simulated with the linearized flow model, WAsP Engineering 2.0. The measurement data are compared with the model predictions with good results for the hilly site, but with less success at the mountainous site. This is a deficiency of the flow model, but the methods presented in this paper can be used with any flow model.

  3. Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based

  4. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten [DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Herrada, Miguel A [E.S.I, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 (Spain); Shtern, Vladimir N, E-mail: mobr@dtu.dk [Shtern Research and Consulting, Houston, TX 77096 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H{sub w}, and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H{sub w} varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H{sub w}, the AMF effect dominates. As H{sub w} increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)

  5. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A; Shtern, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H w , and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H w varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H w , the AMF effect dominates. As H w increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)

  6. Search for 3rd Generation Vector Leptoquarks in the Di-tau Di-jet Channel in Proton Antiproton Collisions at square √s = 1.96 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, Stanley Scott [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    We search for third generation vector leptoquarks (V LQ3) produced in colliding p$\\bar{p}$ beams operating at √s = 1.96 TeV at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. We use 322 pb-1 of data to search for the V LQ3 signal in the di-tau plus di-jet channel. For the first time, the full matrix element is used in the Monte Carlo simulation of this signal. With no events observed in the signal region, we set a 95% C.L. upper limit on the V LQ3 pair production cross section of σ < 344fb, assuming Yang-Mills couplings and Br(V LQ3 → bτ) = 1, and a lower limit on the V LQ3 mass of mV LQ3 > 317 GeV=c2. If theoretical uncertainties on the cross section are applied in the least favorable manner the results are σ < 360fb and mV LQ3 > 294 GeV=c2. The Minimal coupling V LQ3 result is an upper limit on the cross section of σ < 493fb (σ < 610fb) and the lower limit on the mass is mV LQ3 > 251 GeV=c2 (mV LQ3 > 223 GeV=c2) for the nominal (1σ varied) theoretical expectation.

  7. Manufacture of conical springs with elastic medium technology improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurguzov, S. A.; Mikhailova, U. V.; Kalugina, O. B.

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the manufacturing technology improvement by using an elastic medium in the stamping tool forming space to improve the conical springs performance characteristics and reduce the costs of their production. Estimation technique of disk spring operational properties is developed by mathematical modeling of the compression process during the operation of a spring. A technique for optimizing the design parameters of a conical spring is developed, which ensures a minimum voltage value when operated in the edge of the spring opening.

  8. Initiation of Gaseous Detonation by Conical Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreault, Jimmy

    Initiation and stabilization of detonation by hypersonic conical projectiles launched into combustible gas mixtures is investigated. This phenomenon must be understood for the design and optimization of specific hypersonic propulsion devices, such as the oblique detonation wave engine and the ram accelerator. The criteria for detonation initiation by a projectile is also related to fundamental aspects of detonation research, such as the requirement for direct initiation of a detonation by a blast wave. Experimental results of this problem also offer useful references for validation of numerical and theoretical modeling. Projectiles with cone half angles varying from 15° to 60° were launched into stoichiometric mixtures of hydrogen/oxygen with 70% argon dilution at initial pressures between 10 and 200 kPa. The projectiles were launched from a combustion-driven gas gun at velocities up to 2.2 km/s (corresponding to 133% of the Chapman Jouguet velocity). Pictures of the flowfields generated by the projectiles were taken via Schlieren photography. Five combustion regimes were observed about the projectile ranging from prompt and delayed oblique detonation wave formation, combustion instabilities, a wave splitting, and an inert shock wave. Two types of transition from the prompt oblique detonation wave regime to the inert shock regime were observed. The first (the delayed oblique detonation wave regime) showed an inert shock attached to the tip of the projectile followed by a sharp kink at the onset of an oblique detonation wave; this regime occurred by decreasing the cone angle at high mixture pressures. The second (the combustion instabilities regime) exhibited large density gradients due to combustion ignition and quenching phenomena; this regime occurred by decreasing the mixture pressure at large cone angles. A number of theoretical models were considered to predict critical conditions for the initiation of oblique detonations. The Lee-Vasiljev model agreed

  9. Theoretical prediction of pullout strengths for dental and orthopaedic screws with conical profile and buttress threads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kao-Shang; Hou, Sheng-Mou; Lin, Shang-Chih

    2017-12-01

    The pullout strength of a screw is an indicator of how secure bone fragments are being held in place. Such bone-purchasing ability is sensitive to bone quality, thread design, and the pilot hole, and is often evaluated by experimental and numerical methods. Historically, there are some mathematical formulae to simulate the screw withdrawal from the synthetic bone. There are great variations in screw specifications. However, extensive investigation of the correlation between experimental and analytical results has not been reported in literature. Referring to the literature formulae, this study aims to evaluate the differences in the calculated pullout strengths. The pullout tests of the surgical screws are measured and the sawbone is used as the testing block. The absolute errors and correlation coefficients of the experimental and analytical results are calculated as the comparison baselines of the formulae. The absolute error of the dental, traumatic, and spinal groups are 21.7%, 95.5%, and 37.0%, respectively. For the screws with a conical profile and/or tiny threads, the calculated and measured results are not well correlated. The formulae are not accurate indicators of the pullout strengths of the screws where the design parameters are slightly varied. However, the experimental and numerical results are highly correlated for the cylindrical screws. The pullout strength of a conical screw is higher than that of its counterpart, but all formulae consistently predict the opposite results. In general, the bony purchase of the buttress threads is securer than that of the symmetric thread. An absolute error of up to 51.4% indicates the theoretical results cannot predict the actual value of the pullout strength. Only thread diameter, pitch, and depth are considered in the investigated formulae. The thread profile and shape should be formulated to modify the slippage mechanism at the bone-screw interfaces and simulate the strength change in the squeezed bones

  10. Biophysical basis for the geometry of conical stromatolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroff, Alexander P; Sim, Min Sub; Maslov, Andrey; Krupenin, Mikhail; Rothman, Daniel H; Bosak, Tanja

    2010-06-01

    Stromatolites may be Earth's oldest macroscopic fossils; however, it remains controversial what, if any, biological processes are recorded in their morphology. Although the biological interpretation of many stromatolite morphologies is confounded by the influence of sedimentation, conical stromatolites form in the absence of sedimentation and are, therefore, considered to be the most robust records of biophysical processes. A qualitative similarity between conical stromatolites and some modern microbial mats suggests a photosynthetic origin for ancient stromatolites. To better understand and interpret ancient fossils, we seek a quantitative relationship between the geometry of conical stromatolites and the biophysical processes that control their growth. We note that all modern conical stromatolites and many that formed in the last 2.8 billion years display a characteristic centimeter-scale spacing between neighboring structures. To understand this prominent-but hitherto uninterpreted-organization, we consider the role of diffusion in mediating competition between stromatolites. Having confirmed this model through laboratory experiments and field observation, we find that organization of a field of stromatolites is set by a diffusive time scale over which individual structures compete for nutrients, thus linking form to physiology. The centimeter-scale spacing between modern and ancient stromatolites corresponds to a rhythmically fluctuating metabolism with a period of approximately 20 hr. The correspondence between the observed spacing and the day length provides quantitative support for the photosynthetic origin of conical stromatolites throughout geologic time.

  11. Conical twist fields and null polygonal Wilson loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alvaredo, Olalla A.; Doyon, Benjamin; Fioravanti, Davide

    2018-06-01

    Using an extension of the concept of twist field in QFT to space-time (external) symmetries, we study conical twist fields in two-dimensional integrable QFT. These create conical singularities of arbitrary excess angle. We show that, upon appropriate identification between the excess angle and the number of sheets, they have the same conformal dimension as branch-point twist fields commonly used to represent partition functions on Riemann surfaces, and that both fields have closely related form factors. However, we show that conical twist fields are truly different from branch-point twist fields. They generate different operator product expansions (short distance expansions) and form factor expansions (large distance expansions). In fact, we verify in free field theories, by re-summing form factors, that the conical twist fields operator product expansions are correctly reproduced. We propose that conical twist fields are the correct fields in order to understand null polygonal Wilson loops/gluon scattering amplitudes of planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  12. Generation of fast multiply charged ions in conical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenko, V.V.; Chukbar, K.V.

    1990-01-01

    So-called conical targets, when the thermonuclear fuel is compressed and heated in a conical cavity in a heavy material (lead, gold, etc.) with the help of a spherical segment that is accelerated by a laser pulse or a beam of charged particles, are often employed in experimental studies of inertial-confinement fusion. In spite of the obvious advantages of such a scheme, one of which is a significant reduction of the required energy input compared with the complete spherical target, it also introduces additional effects into the process of cumulation of energy. In this paper the authors call attention to an effect observed in numerical calculations: the hydrodynamic heating of a small group of multiply charged heavy ions of the walls of the conical cavity up to high energies (T i approx-gt 100 keV). This effect ultimately occurs as a result of the high radiation losses of a multiply charged plasma

  13. Hole Feature on Conical Face Recognition for Turning Part Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, A. F.; Abu Mansor, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) is the bridge between CAD and CAM and pre-processing of the CAD data in the CAPP system is essential. For CNC turning part, conical faces of part model is inevitable to be recognised beside cylindrical and planar faces. As the sinus cosines of the cone radius structure differ according to different models, face identification in automatic feature recognition of the part model need special intention. This paper intends to focus hole on feature on conical faces that can be detected by CAD solid modeller ACIS via. SAT file. Detection algorithm of face topology were generated and compared. The study shows different faces setup for similar conical part models with different hole type features. Three types of holes were compared and different between merge faces and unmerge faces were studied.

  14. Probabilistic structural assessment of conical grouted joint using numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njomo-Wandji, Wilfried; Natarajan, Anand; Dimitrov, Nikolay

    2018-01-01

    Conical grouted joints have been proposed as a solution for the relative settlement observed between the sleeve and the pile on monopiles for wind turbines. In this paper, the influence of the design parameters such as steel wall thicknesses and conical angle on the failure modes associated...... to continual loadings are assessed based on finite element analysis. It is found that both the sleeve's and pile's wall thicknesses have a significant impact on the grouted joint health. Namely, the larger are the wall thicknesses, the more vulnerable the grout is with respect to fatigue and material...

  15. Wave-vector and polarization dependence of conical refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, A; Loiko, Yu V; Kalkandjiev, T K; Tomizawa, H; Mompart, J

    2013-02-25

    We experimentally address the wave-vector and polarization dependence of the internal conical refraction phenomenon by demonstrating that an input light beam of elliptical transverse profile refracts into two beams after passing along one of the optic axes of a biaxial crystal, i.e. it exhibits double refraction instead of refracting conically. Such double refraction is investigated by the independent rotation of a linear polarizer and a cylindrical lens. Expressions to describe the position and the intensity pattern of the refracted beams are presented and applied to predict the intensity pattern for an axicon beam propagating along the optic axis of a biaxial crystal.

  16. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (COSMIR) MC3E dataset used the Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer...

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (COSMIR) GCPEx dataset used the Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer...

  18. Wear Assessment of Conical Pick used in Coal Cutting Operation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dewangan, S.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej

    -, 11/2014 (2014), s. 1-6 ISSN 0723-2632 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : conical pick * wear * SEM * EDX Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.420, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00603-014-0680-z

  19. Conical Dispersion and Effective Zero Refractive Index in Photonic Quasicrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dong; M Chang; X. Huang; Z. Hang; Z. Zhong; W. Chen; Z. Huang; C. Chan; X. Huang; Z. Huang

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIt is recognized that for a certain class of periodic photonic crystals, conical dispersion can be related to a zero-refractive index. It is not obvious whether such a notion can be extended to a noncrystalline system. We show that certain photonic quasicrystalline approximants have

  20. Thermokinetics of heterogeneous droplet nucleation on conically textured substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Sanat K; Das, Prasanta K; Maiti, Biswajit

    2015-11-28

    Within the framework of the classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation, a thermokinetic model is developed for line-tension-associated droplet nucleation on conical textures considering growth or shrinkage of the formed cluster due to both interfacial and peripheral monomer exchange and by considering different geometric configurations. Along with the principle of free energy extremization, Katz kinetic approach has been employed to study the effect of substrate conicity and wettability on the thermokinetics of heterogeneous water droplet nucleation. Not only the peripheral tension is found to have a considerable effect on the free energy barrier but also the substrate hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity are observed to switch over their roles between conical crest and trough for different growth rates of the droplet. Besides, the rate of nucleation increases and further promotes nucleation for negative peripheral tension as it diminishes the free energy barrier appreciably. Moreover, nucleation inhibition can be achievable for positive peripheral tension due to the enhancement of the free energy barrier. Analyzing all possible geometric configurations, the hydrophilic narrower conical cavity is found to be the most preferred nucleation site. These findings suggest a physical insight into the context of surface engineering for the promotion or the suppression of nucleation on real or engineered substrates.

  1. Polynomial modal analysis of lamellar diffraction gratings in conical mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamihaja, Manjakavola Honore; Granet, Gérard; Edee, Kofi; Raniriharinosy, Karyl

    2016-09-01

    An efficient numerical modal method for modeling a lamellar grating in conical mounting is presented. Within each region of the grating, the electromagnetic field is expanded onto Legendre polynomials, which allows us to enforce in an exact manner the boundary conditions that determine the eigensolutions. Our code is successfully validated by comparison with results obtained with the analytical modal method.

  2. Variable volume combustor with a conical liner support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Chrisophter Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-06-27

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a conical liner support supporting the liner.

  3. RECIPES FOR BUILDING THE DUAL OF CONIC OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Chaerani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Building the dual of the primal problem of Conic Optimization (CO isa very important step to make the ¯nding optimal solution. In many cases a givenproblem does not have the simple structure of CO problem (i.e., minimizing a linearfunction over an intersection between a±ne space and convex cones but there areseveral conic constraints and sometimes also equality constraints. In this paper wedeal with the question how to form the dual problem in such cases. We discuss theanswer by considering several conic constraints with or without equality constraints.The recipes for building the dual of such cases is formed in standard matrix forms,such that it can be used easily on the numerical experiment. Special attention isgiven to dual development of special classes of CO problems, i.e., conic quadraticand semide¯nite problems. In this paper, we also brie°y present some preliminariestheory on CO as an introduction to the main topic

  4. Parameter dependence of conic angle of nanofibres during electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhengping; Wu Xiangfa; Jiang Long; Gao Xueqin; Zhao Yong; Fong Hao

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the dependence of conic angle of nanofibres on the processing and material parameters during electrospinning. Solutions of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in dimethylformamide (DMF) with varied PAN concentrations were studied as the model systems, and they were electrospun into nanofibres at different high direct current (dc) voltages, flow rates and needle diameters. The dynamic and transient shear viscosities of the PAN/DMF solutions were characterized by a parallel-plate rheometer at varied shear rates. Rheological measurements showed that the PAN/DMF solutions behaved as Newtonian fluids at relatively low to medium shear rates, while the solutions with high PAN concentrations of 18 and 20 wt% exhibited a significant shear-thinning behaviour at high shear rates, especially in the case of transient shear mode. Experimental results indicated that at the electrostatic field of ∼80 kV m -1 and needle inner diameter of 0.48 mm (22 gauge), the conic angle of the nanofibre envelope decreased from ∼160° to ∼75° with an increase in PAN concentration from 12 to 20 wt%; at the PAN concentration of 16 wt%, the conic angle increased nonlinearly from ∼40° to ∼160° with an increase in electric field from 50 to 140 kV m -1 . In addition, experimental results showed that the needle inner diameter also noticeably influenced the conic angle. This study provided the experimental evidence useful for understanding the scaling properties of electrohydrodynamic jet motion for controllable electrospinning and process modelling.

  5. Smooth structures on pseudomanifolds with isolated conical singularities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Somberg, P.; Vanžura, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2013), s. 33-54 ISSN 0251-4184 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conical pseudomanifold * symplectic form * Poisson structure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40306-013-0009-0#

  6. Analysis of the conical piezoelectric acoustic emission transducer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červená, Olga; Hora, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 13-24 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/06/1689 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission * conical transducer * FEM Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  7. Performance Optimization of a Conical Dielectric Elastomer Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongjing Cao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs are known as ‘artificial muscles’ due to their large actuation strain, high energy density and self-sensing capability. The conical configuration has been widely adopted in DEA applications such as bio-inspired locomotion and micropumps for its good compactness, ease for fabrication and large actuation stroke. However, the conical protrusion of the DEA membrane is characterized by inhomogeneous stresses, which complicate their design. In this work, we present an analytical model-based optimization for conical DEAs with the three biasing elements: (I linear compression spring; (II biasing mass; and (III antagonistic double-cone DEA. The optimization is to find the maximum stroke and work output of a conical DEA by tuning its geometry (inner disk to outer frame radius ratio a/b and pre-stretch ratio. The results show that (a for all three cases, stroke and work output are maximum for a pre-stretch ratio of 1 × 1 for the Parker silicone elastomer, which suggests the stretch caused by out-of-plane deformation is sufficient for this specific elastomer. (b Stroke maximization is obtained for a lower a/b ratio while a larger a/b ratio is required to maximize work output, but the optimal a/b ratio is less than 0.3 in all three cases. (c The double-cone configuration has the largest stroke while single cone with a biasing mass has the highest work output.

  8. Unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoarau, C. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, LEA UMR CNRS/Universite de Poitiers/ENSMA 6609, Teleport 2, 1 Av. Clement Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France); Boree, J. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, LEA UMR CNRS/Universite de Poitiers/ENSMA 6609, Teleport 2, 1 Av. Clement Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)], E-mail: jacques.boree@lea.ensma.fr; Laumonier, J.; Gervais, Y. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, LEA UMR CNRS/Universite de Poitiers/ENSMA 6609, Teleport 2, 1 Av. Clement Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)

    2008-06-15

    The spatio-temporal properties of the unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex are studied in this paper by combining 2 component LDV measurements and multi-point pressure measurements using off-set microphones. The model body has sharp edges. Detailed LDV measurements are presented and discussed in the vortex region. The fluctuating velocities are the signature of both an unsteady behaviour of the organised vortical structure interacting with the wall and of finer scale turbulence carried by the unsteady flow. A spectral analysis of the fluctuating pressure under the vortex core is used to analyse the link between the temporal and spatial scales of the unsteady aerodynamics and the wall pressure field. We show that the conical vortex is a guide for the velocity perturbations and that their hydrodynamic pressure footprint is transported at the measured mean axial velocity in a local reference frame aligned with the vortex core. Two distinct peaks of coherence can then be associated with perturbations having (i) a length scale of the order of the full length of the conical structure; (ii) a length scale of the order of the width of the structure. These perturbations may correspond to a global meandering of the structure (low frequency contribution) and to large scale perturbations generated during the rolling-up of the unsteady vortex sheet. Notably, the energy containing higher frequency parts of the PSD are only weakly correlated when distant sensors are considered. The three distinct contributions extracted here have a significant impact as far as Cp' is concerned and should be transmitted in very different ways by the car structure because the frequency and length scale range is very distinct.

  9. Unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoarau, C.; Boree, J.; Laumonier, J.; Gervais, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The spatio-temporal properties of the unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex are studied in this paper by combining 2 component LDV measurements and multi-point pressure measurements using off-set microphones. The model body has sharp edges. Detailed LDV measurements are presented and discussed in the vortex region. The fluctuating velocities are the signature of both an unsteady behaviour of the organised vortical structure interacting with the wall and of finer scale turbulence carried by the unsteady flow. A spectral analysis of the fluctuating pressure under the vortex core is used to analyse the link between the temporal and spatial scales of the unsteady aerodynamics and the wall pressure field. We show that the conical vortex is a guide for the velocity perturbations and that their hydrodynamic pressure footprint is transported at the measured mean axial velocity in a local reference frame aligned with the vortex core. Two distinct peaks of coherence can then be associated with perturbations having (i) a length scale of the order of the full length of the conical structure; (ii) a length scale of the order of the width of the structure. These perturbations may correspond to a global meandering of the structure (low frequency contribution) and to large scale perturbations generated during the rolling-up of the unsteady vortex sheet. Notably, the energy containing higher frequency parts of the PSD are only weakly correlated when distant sensors are considered. The three distinct contributions extracted here have a significant impact as far as Cp' is concerned and should be transmitted in very different ways by the car structure because the frequency and length scale range is very distinct

  10. Optimization of the Conical Angle Design in Conical Implant-Abutment Connections: A Pilot Study Based on the Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kuang-Ta; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Huang, Chang-Hung; Kao, Hung-Chan; Hsu, Ming-Lun

    2018-02-01

    Conical implant-abutment connections are popular for their excellent connection stability, which is attributable to frictional resistance in the connection. However, conical angles, the inherent design parameter of conical connections, exert opposing effects on 2 influencing factors of the connection stability: frictional resistance and abutment rigidity. This pilot study employed an optimization approach through the finite element method to obtain an optimal conical angle for the highest connection stability in an Ankylos-based conical connection system. A nonlinear 3-dimensional finite element parametric model was developed according to the geometry of the Ankylos system (conical half angle = 5.7°) by using the ANSYS 11.0 software. Optimization algorithms were conducted to obtain the optimal conical half angle and achieve the minimal value of maximum von Mises stress in the abutment, which represents the highest connection stability. The optimal conical half angle obtained was 10.1°. Compared with the original design (5.7°), the optimal design demonstrated an increased rigidity of abutment (36.4%) and implant (25.5%), a decreased microgap at the implant-abutment interface (62.3%), a decreased contact pressure (37.9%) with a more uniform stress distribution in the connection, and a decreased stress in the cortical bone (4.5%). In conclusion, the methodology of design optimization to determine the optimal conical angle of the Ankylos-based system is feasible. Because of the heterogeneity of different systems, more studies should be conducted to define the optimal conical angle in various conical connection designs.

  11. Production of ion beam by conical pinched electron beam diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Some properties of the ion beam produced by pinched electron beam diode having conical shape electrodes and organic insulator anode was studied. Ion energy is about 200keV and the peak diode current is about 30 kA. At 11cm from the diode apex, not the geometrical focus point, concentrated ion beam was obtained. Its density is more than 500A/cm 2 . The mean ion current density within the radius of 1.6cm around the axis from conical diode is two or three times that from an usual pinched electron beam diode with flat parallel electrodes of same dimension and impedance under the same conditions. (author)

  12. Self-Propulsion Of Catalytic Conical Micro-Swimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallino, Giacomo; Gallaire, Francois; Lauga, Eric; Michelin, Sebastien

    2017-11-01

    Self-propelled artificial micro-motors have attracted much attention both as fundamental examples of active matter and for their potential biomedical applications (e.g. drug delivery, cell sorting). A popular design exploits the catalytic decomposition of a fuel (e.g. hydrogen peroxide) on the active surface of the motor to produce oxygen bubbles that propel the swimmer, effectively converting chemical energy into swimming motion. We focus here on a conical shape swimmer with chemically-active inner surfaces. Using numerical simulations of the chemical problem and viscous hydrodynamics, we analyze the formation, growth and motion of the bubbles inside the micro-motor and the resulting swimming motion. Our results shed light on the fundamental hydrodynamics of the propulsion of conical swimmers and may help to improve the efficiency of these machines. G.G. aknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Fundation.

  13. Anisotropic Exchange Interaction in the Conical Magnetic Phase of Erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.

    1974-01-01

    From a general two ion spin Hamiltonian, an expression is deduced for the energies of spin waves propagating in a hexagonal solid in which the magnetic moments are ordered in a conical or helical structure. The spin wave dispersion relation in the c direction of Er in its conical magnetic phase...... at 4.5K, which has been studied by Nicklow et al (1971) is reanalysed. In this analysis an alternative kind of anisotropic coupling between the total angular moments (Ji and Jj) on the sites i and j is introduced which is proportional to the following combination of Racah operators: O2, -2(Ji), O2, -2......(Jj), expressed with respect to a coordinate system with the z axis along the c direction. The resulting anisotropy (both the constant and the q dependent part) is reduced by an order of magnitude in comparison with that deduced by Nicklow et al (1971). The constant anisotropy is found to be equal...

  14. Helico-conical beams for generating optical twisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Daria, Vincent Ricardo Mancao

    2010-01-01

    charge is increased, the area where destructive interference at the centre increases thereby enlarging the light ring. The propagation along the optical axis follows a conical ray of light where the concentration of high intensities is maintained at the outskirts of the conical beam where constructive...... with an apodized helical phase front at the outskirts and linearly scaled towards no phase singularity at the centre of the beam. At the focal volume, we show that our beam fonms an intensity distribution that can be accurately described as an "optical twister" as it propagates along the optical axis. Unlike LG...... beams, an optical twister can have minimal changes in radius but with a scalable DAM. Furthenmore, we characterize the DAM in tenms of its capacity to introduce spiral motion on particles trapped along its orbit. We also show that our "optical twister" maintains a high concentration of photons...

  15. Direct determination of the resonance properties of metallic conical nanoantennas

    KAUST Repository

    Tuccio, Salvatore; Razzari, Luca; Alabastri, Alessandro; Toma, Andrea; Liberale, Carlo; De Angelis, Francesco De; Candeloro, Patrizio; Das, Gobind; Giugni, Andrea; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple method that is able to predict the resonant frequencies of a metallic conical nanoantenna. The alculation is based on an integral relation that takes into account the dependence of the effective refractive index of the plasmonic mode on the cone radius. Numerical simulations retrieving the near field properties of nanocones with different lengths are also performed for comparison. The fine agreement between the two approaches demonstrates the validity of our method. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  16. High efficiency conical scanner for earth resources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. C.; Dumas, H. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a six-arm conical scanner which was selected to provide a continuous line-of-sight scan. Two versions of the instrument are considered. The two versions differ in their weight. The weight of the heavy version is 600 lbs. A light weight design which employs beryllium and aluminum optical components weighs only 350 lbs. A multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter are to be incorporated into the design. Questions of instrument performance are also discussed.

  17. Mixed-Integer Conic Linear Programming: Challenges and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The novel DCCs for MISOCO may be used in branch- and-cut algorithms when solving MISOCO problems. The experimental software CICLO was developed to...perform limited, but rigorous computational experiments. The CICLO solver utilizes continuous SOCO solvers, MOSEK, CPLES or SeDuMi, builds on the open...submitted Fall 2013. Software: 1. CICLO : Integer conic linear optimization package. Authors: J.C. Góez, T.K. Ralphs, Y. Fu, and T. Terlaky

  18. Radially Polarized Conical Beam from an Embedded Etched Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaidji , D.; Spajer , M.; Marthouret , N.; Grosjean , T.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; We propose a method for producing a conical beam based on the lateral refraction of the TM01 mode from a two-mode fiber after chemical etching of the cladding, and for controlling its radial polarization. The whole power of the guided mode is transferred to the refracted beam with low diffraction. Polarization control by a series of azimuthal detectors and a stress controller affords the transmission of a stabilized radial polarization through an optical fiber. A solid...

  19. The Poisson equation in axisymmetric domains with conical points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkemzi, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the application of the Fourier-finite-element method (FFEM) for the resolution of the Derichlet problem for the Poisson equation -Δu-circumflex = f-circumflex in axisymmetric domains Ω-circumflex subset of R 3 with conical points on the rotation axis. The FFEM combines the approximate Fourier method with respect to one space direction with the finite element method for the approximate calculation of the Fourier coefficients of the solution. Here, the influence of the conical points on the regularity of the Fourier coefficients of the solution is analyzed and the asymptotic behaviour of the coefficients near the conical points is described by some singularity functions and treated numerically by mesh grading in the two-dimensional meridian of Ω-circumflex. It is proved that for f-circumflex in L 2 (Ω-circumflex), the rate of convergence of the combined approximations in the Sobolev space W 2 1 (Ω-circumflex) is of the order O(h + N -1 ), where h and N represent, respectively, the parameters of the finite-element- and the Fourier-approximation, with h → 0 and n → ∞. (author)

  20. Experiments on active precision isolation with a smart conical adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Li, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Tzou, H. S.

    2016-07-01

    Based on a conical shell adaptor, an active vibration isolator for vibration control of precision payload is designed and tested in this study. Flexible piezoelectric sensors and actuators are bonded on the adaptor surface for active vibration monitoring and control. The mathematical model of a piezoelectric laminated conical shell is derived and then optimal design of the actuators is performed for the first axial vibration mode of the isolation system. A scaled conical adaptor is manufactured with four MFC actuators laminating on its outer surface. Active vibration isolation efficiency is then evaluated on a vibration shaker. The control model is built in Matlab/Simulink and programmed into the dSPACE control board. Experimental results show that, the proposed active isolator is effective in vibration suppression of payloads with the negative velocity feedback control. In contrast, the amplitude responses increase with positive feedback control. Furthermore, the amplitude responses increases when time delay is added into the control signals, and gets the maximum when the delay is close to one quarter of one cycle time.

  1. On the efficiency of conical targets for laser thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovskij, A.V.; Korobkin, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    Advantages and drawbacks of conical targets (CT) for laser fusion (LF) are discussed. Possibility of the laser power reduction, laser pulse lengthening and neutron yield increase are analyzed for an ideal conical target with absolutely rigid and heat-proof walls as compared to a spherical target of the same mass. A simple theory is suggested which makes it possible to take into account an effect of walls on the fusion process in the conical target with gaseous fuel and heavy shell. Energy losses due to wall deformations and heat conduction are estimated. An influence of these effects on the neutron yield is estimated. CT used in the LF experiments are found to have serious drawbacks in comparison with spherical ones. These drawbacks are connected with the effect of walls on the processes taking place in CT. Analysis of CT, for which the effect of walls is not significant, points up some definite advantages of CT as compared with spherical one. These advantages are the possibility of laser pulse lengthening and laser power reduction in comparison with the irradiation of a sphere of an equal mass. These two positive qualities are connected with the fact that CT has large linear dimensions [ru

  2. Conical refraction in a degenerated two-crystal cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, V

    2016-01-01

    When a collimated light beam is passed consequently along the optic axes of two identical biaxial crystals, the conical refraction produces in the focal image plane a specific light pattern consisting of a ring and a central spot. The ring is formed due to the additive action of two crystals, while the spot results from the reversed conical refraction in such a degenerated cascade arrangement. The relative intensity of these two components depends on the azimuth angle between the orientations of the crystals about the beam axis. It is shown that this dependence arises due to the interference of pairs of waves produced by conical refraction in two crystals. If a part of these waves is blocked by polarization selection of beam components, the dependence of the light pattern on the azimuth angle vanishes. In this case, the outgoing light profile consists of a ring and a central spot with fixed intensities so that the total beam power is divided equally between these two components. Depending on the applied polarization, the central spot appears either as a restored input beam or a charge-two optical vortex. The results of numerical simulations of the effect are in a very good agreement with the experimental observations. (paper)

  3. Ultrafast X-Ray Spectroscopy of Conical Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Simon P.; Chergui, Majed; Stolow, Albert; Schuurman, Michael S.

    2018-06-01

    Ongoing developments in ultrafast x-ray sources offer powerful new means of probing the complex nonadiabatically coupled structural and electronic dynamics of photoexcited molecules. These non-Born-Oppenheimer effects are governed by general electronic degeneracies termed conical intersections, which play a key role, analogous to that of a transition state, in the electronic-nuclear dynamics of excited molecules. Using high-level ab initio quantum dynamics simulations, we studied time-resolved x-ray absorption (TRXAS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (TRXPS) of the prototypical unsaturated organic chromophore, ethylene, following excitation to its S2(π π*) state. The TRXAS, in particular, is highly sensitive to all aspects of the ensuing dynamics. These x-ray spectroscopies provide a clear signature of the wave packet dynamics near conical intersections, related to charge localization effects driven by the nuclear dynamics. Given the ubiquity of charge localization in excited state dynamics, we believe that ultrafast x-ray spectroscopies offer a unique and powerful route to the direct observation of dynamics around conical intersections.

  4. Generation of attosecond electron packets via conical surface plasmon electron acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, S. R.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for the generation of high kinetic energy attosecond electron packets via magnetostatic and aperture filtering of conical surface plasmon (SP) accelerated electrons. The conical SP waves are excited by coupling an ultrafast radially polarized laser beam to a conical silica lens coated with an Ag film. Electromagnetic and particle tracking models are employed to characterize the ultrafast electron packets. PMID:26764129

  5. Generalized probabilistic theories and conic extensions of polytopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Samuel; Massar, Serge; Patra, Manas K.; Tiwary, Hans Raj

    2015-01-01

    Generalized probabilistic theories (GPT) provide a general framework that includes classical and quantum theories. It is described by a cone C and its dual C*. We show that whether some one-way communication complexity problems can be solved within a GPT is equivalent to the recently introduced cone factorization of the corresponding communication matrix M. We also prove an analogue of Holevo's theorem: when the cone C is contained in {{{R}}n}, the classical capacity of the channel realized by sending GPT states and measuring them is bounded by log n. Polytopes and optimising functions over polytopes arise in many areas of discrete mathematics. A conic extension of a polytope is the intersection of a cone C with an affine subspace whose projection onto the original space yields the desired polytope. Extensions of polytopes can sometimes be much simpler geometric objects than the polytope itself. The existence of a conic extension of a polytope is equivalent to that of a cone factorization of the slack matrix of the polytope, on the same cone. We show that all 0/1 polytopes whose vertices can be recognized by a polynomial size circuit, which includes as a special case the travelling salesman polytope and many other polytopes from combinatorial optimization, have small conic extension complexity when the cone is the completely positive cone. Using recent exponential lower bounds on the linear extension complexity of polytopes, this provides an exponential gap between the communication complexity of GPT based on the completely positive cone and classical communication complexity, and a conjectured exponential gap with quantum communication complexity. Our work thus relates the communication complexity of generalizations of quantum theory to questions of mainstream interest in the area of combinatorial optimization.

  6. Generalized probabilistic theories and conic extensions of polytopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Samuel; Massar, Serge; Patra, Manas K; Tiwary, Hans Raj

    2015-01-01

    Generalized probabilistic theories (GPT) provide a general framework that includes classical and quantum theories. It is described by a cone C and its dual C*. We show that whether some one-way communication complexity problems can be solved within a GPT is equivalent to the recently introduced cone factorization of the corresponding communication matrix M. We also prove an analogue of Holevo's theorem: when the cone C is contained in R n , the classical capacity of the channel realized by sending GPT states and measuring them is bounded by logn. Polytopes and optimising functions over polytopes arise in many areas of discrete mathematics. A conic extension of a polytope is the intersection of a cone C with an affine subspace whose projection onto the original space yields the desired polytope. Extensions of polytopes can sometimes be much simpler geometric objects than the polytope itself. The existence of a conic extension of a polytope is equivalent to that of a cone factorization of the slack matrix of the polytope, on the same cone. We show that all 0/1 polytopes whose vertices can be recognized by a polynomial size circuit, which includes as a special case the travelling salesman polytope and many other polytopes from combinatorial optimization, have small conic extension complexity when the cone is the completely positive cone. Using recent exponential lower bounds on the linear extension complexity of polytopes, this provides an exponential gap between the communication complexity of GPT based on the completely positive cone and classical communication complexity, and a conjectured exponential gap with quantum communication complexity. Our work thus relates the communication complexity of generalizations of quantum theory to questions of mainstream interest in the area of combinatorial optimization. (paper)

  7. Design of spheromak injector using conical accelerator for large helical device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, J.; Yamada, H.; Yasui, K.; Kato, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T. [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Optimization of CT injector for LHD has been carried out and conical electrode for adiabatic CT compression is adopted in the design. Point-model of CT acceleration in a co-axial electrode is solved to optimize the electrode geometry and the power supplies. Large acceleration efficiency of 34% is to be obtained with 3.2 m long conical accelerator and 40 kV - 42 kJ power supply. The operation scenario of a CT injector named SPICA mk. I (SPheromak Injector using Conical Accelerator) consisting of 0.8 m conical accelerator is discussed based on this design. (author)

  8. Elaboration of the technology of forming a conical product of sheet metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matysiak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a general knowledge about spinning draw pieces of sheets, one of multi-operational processes of spinning a sheet metal conical product without machining. The objective of the work was to elaborate both the technology of forming conical products of sheet metal and execution of technological tests as well as to determine the technological parameters for the process of spinning a conical insert. As a result of the investigations, the products with improved mechanical properties, stricter execution tolerance and low roughness have been obtained. The series of 200 prototype conical inserts for the shipbuilding industry have been made.

  9. Conical pinched electron beam diode for intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Yoshiro

    1982-01-01

    For the purpose of improvement of the pinched electron beam diode, the production of an ion beam by a diode with electrodes in a conical shape was studied at low voltage operation (--200 kV). The ion beam is emitted from a small region of the diode apex. The mean ion beam current density near the axis at 12 cm from the diode apex is two or three times that from an usual flat parallel diode with the same dimension and impedance. The brightness and the power brightness at the otigin are 450 MA/cm 2 sr and 0.12 TW/cm 2 sr respectively. (author)

  10. Conical flow near singular rays. [shock generation in ideal gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahalak, G. I.; Myers, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The steady flow of an ideal gas past a conical body is investigated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions, with particular emphasis on the flow near the singular ray occurring in linearized theory. The first-order problem governing the flow in this region is formulated, leading to the equation of Kuo, and an approximate solution is obtained in the case of compressive flow behind the main front. This solution is compared with the results of previous investigations with a view to assessing the applicability of the Lighthill-Whitham theories.

  11. Radially polarized conical beam from an embedded etched fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaidji, Djamel; Spajer, Michel; Marthouret, Nadège; Grosjean, Thierry

    2009-06-15

    We propose a method for producing a conical beam based on the lateral refraction of the TM(01) mode from a two-mode fiber after chemical etching of the cladding, and for controlling its radial polarization. The whole power of the guided mode is transferred to the refracted beam with low diffraction. Polarization control by a series of azimuthal detectors and a stress controller affords the transmission of a stabilized radial polarization through an optical fiber. A solid component usable for many applications has been obtained.

  12. Interference of conically scattered light in surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Aaron; Vollmer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal films are a well studied phenomena when excited using prism coupled geometries such as the Kretschmann attenuated total reflection configuration. Here we describe a novel interference pattern in the conically scattered light emanating from such a configuration when illuminated by a focused beam. We observe conditions indicating only self-interference of scattered surface plasmon polaritions without any contributions from specular reflection. The spatial evolution of this field is described in the context of Fourier optics and has applications in highly sensitive surface plasmon based biosensing.

  13. Simple atom trap in a conical hollow mirror: Numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. A.; Lee, K. I.; Nha, H.; Noh, H. R.; Yoo, S. H.; Jhe, W

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the trap dynamic in a conical hollow (axicon) mirror system. Atom's trajectory is ring shaped if we move the coil (magnetic field) axis off the mirror axis and if we overlap these two axes trap cloud is ball shaped and it is consistent with experiment. We also make a simple comparison between 6-beam MOT and axicon MOT in the ball shaped case, and it shows that at low velocity limit the axicon MOT and typical 6-beam MOT have nearly same trap properties. The axicon trap may be useful as precooled atom source for many other atomic physics experiments such as cold atomic beam, atom funnel, and atom waveguide.

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of underwater conical shock wave focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, H.; Hosseini, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2017), s. 685-690 ISSN 0938-1287 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Underwater shock wave focusing * multichannel * electrohydraulic discharge * conical shock wave reflection * medical application Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Applied mechanics Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00193-016-0703-7

  15. Photonic bandgap narrowing in conical hollow core Bragg fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Yildirim, Adem; Kanik, Mehmet [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bayindir, Mehmet, E-mail: bayindir@nano.org.tr [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-08-18

    We report the photonic bandgap engineering of Bragg fibers by controlling the thickness profile of the fiber during the thermal drawing. Conical hollow core Bragg fibers were produced by thermal drawing under a rapidly alternating load, which was applied by introducing steep changes to the fiber drawing speed. In conventional cylindrical Bragg fibers, light is guided by omnidirectional reflections from interior dielectric mirrors with a single quarter wave stack period. In conical fibers, the diameter reduction introduced a gradient of the quarter wave stack period along the length of the fiber. Therefore, the light guided within the fiber encountered slightly smaller dielectric layer thicknesses at each reflection, resulting in a progressive blueshift of the reflectance spectrum. As the reflectance spectrum shifts, longer wavelengths of the initial bandgap cease to be omnidirectionally reflected and exit through the cladding, which narrows the photonic bandgap. A narrow transmission bandwidth is particularly desirable in hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensing schemes, where broadband light is coupled to the fiber and the analyte vapor is introduced into the hollow core to measure infrared absorption. We carried out sensing simulations using the absorption spectrum of isopropyl alcohol vapor to demonstrate the importance of narrow bandgap fibers in chemical sensing applications.

  16. Numerical Study of Motion of Falling Conical Graupel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Chih-Che; Wang, Pao K.; Hashino, Tempei

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the attitudes of freely-falling conical graupel with a realistic range of densities are investigated numerically by solving the transient Navier-Stokes equations and the body dynamics equations representing the 6-degrees-of-freedom motion. This framework allows us to determine the position and orientation of the graupel in response to the hydrodynamic force of the flow fields. The results show more significant horizontal movements than those cases with a fixed bulk density of ice assumed in our previous study. This is because the real graupel particles possess the density less than the bulk density of ice, which, in turn, leads to a relatively small mass and a relatively small set of moments of inertia. We demonstrate that, with the six degrees of freedom considered together, when Reynolds number is small, a typical damped oscillation occurs, whereas when Reynolds number is high, amplifying oscillation may occur which leads to more complicated and unpredictable flying attitudes such as tumbling. The drag coefficients obtained in the present study agree with the previous studies and can be approximated by that of spheres of the same Reynolds numbers. We also show that conical graupel can perform significant horizontal translations which can be on the order of 1 km in 1 h.

  17. Fatigue induced changes in conical implant-abutment connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kai; Wiest, Wolfram; Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Dittmann, Jonas; Rack, Alexander; Maier, Dominik; Thomann, Ralf; Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Kohal, Ralf Joachim; Zabler, Simon; Nelson, Katja

    2015-11-01

    Based on the current lack of data and understanding of the wear behavior of dental two-piece implants, this study aims for evaluating the microgap formation and wear pattern of different implants in the course of cyclic loading. Several implant systems with different conical implant-abutment interfaces were purchased. The implants were first evaluated using synchrotron X-ray high-resolution radiography (SRX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The implant-abutment assemblies were then subjected to cyclic loading at 98N and their microgap was evaluated after 100,000, 200,000 and 1 million cycles using SRX, synchrotron micro-tomography (μCT). Wear mechanisms of the implant-abutment connection (IAC) after 200,000 cycles and 1 million cycles were further characterized using SEM. All implants exhibit a microgap between the implant and abutment prior to loading. The gap size increased with cyclic loading with its changes being significantly higher within the first 200,000 cycles. Wear was seen in all implants regardless of their interface design. The wear pattern comprised adhesive wear and fretting. Wear behavior changed when a different mounting medium was used (brass vs. polymer). A micromotion of the abutment during cyclic loading can induce wear and wear particles in conical dental implant systems. This feature accompanied with the formation of a microgap at the IAC is highly relevant for the longevity of the implants. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of abutment materials on the implant-abutment joint stability in internal conical connection type implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jae-Young; Yang, Dong-Seok; Huh, Jung-Bo; Heo, Jae-Chan; Yun, Mi-Jung; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the influence of abutment materials on the stability of the implant-abutment joint in internal conical connection type implant systems. Internal conical connection type implants, cement-retained abutments, and tungsten carbide-coated abutment screws were used. The abutments were fabricated with commercially pure grade 3 titanium (group T3), commercially pure grade 4 titanium (group T4), or Ti-6Al-4V (group TA) (n=5, each). In order to assess the amount of settlement after abutment fixation, a 30-Ncm tightening torque was applied, then the change in length before and after tightening the abutment screw was measured, and the preload exerted was recorded. The compressive bending strength was measured under the ISO14801 conditions. In order to determine whether there were significant changes in settlement, preload, and compressive bending strength before and after abutment fixation depending on abutment materials, one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post-hoc test was performed. Group TA exhibited the smallest mean change in the combined length of the implant and abutment before and after fixation, and no difference was observed between groups T3 and T4 (P>.05). Group TA exhibited the highest preload and compressive bending strength values, followed by T4, then T3 (Pabutment material can influence the stability of the interface in internal conical connection type implant systems. The strength of the abutment material was inversely correlated with settlement, and positively correlated with compressive bending strength. Preload was inversely proportional to the frictional coefficient of the abutment material.

  19. ''Electron Conic'' Signatures observed in the nightside auroral zone and over the polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menietti, J.D.; Burch, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary search of the Dynamics Explorer 1 high-altitude plasma instrument data base has yielded examples of ''electron conic'' signatures. The three example passes show an association with regions of downward electron acceleration and upward ion beams, but this is not true of all the electron conic events. The electron conic signatures are clearly discernible on energy-flux-versus-time color spectrograms as pairs of discrete vertical bands which are symmetric about a pitch angle of approximately 180 0 . One of the examples is a polar cap pass with electron conic signatures observed at invariant latitudes from 84 0 to 75 0 . The other two cases are nightside auroral zone passes in which the regions of detectable electron conics are spatially more confined, covering only about 1 0 in invariant latitude. The conic signatures have been found at energies that range from 50 eV 0 is larger than expected for a loss cone feature. If the electrons conserve the first adiabatic invariant in a dipole magnetic field, and in some cases a parallel electric field, the mirroring altitude varies between about 500 km and 8000 km, which is above the atmospheric loss region. For this reason, and in analogy with the formation of ion conics, we suggest that the conic signatures are produced by heating of the electrons perpendicular to the magnetic field

  20. Supersymmetric Conical Defects: Towards a string theoretic description of black hole formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, V.; de Boer, J.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Ross, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    Conical defects, or point particles, in $AdS_3$ are one of the simplest non-trivial gravitating systems, and are particularly interesting because black holes can form from their collision. We embed the BPS conical defects of three dimensions into the N=4b supergravity in six dimensions, which arises

  1. A new design equation for drained stability of conical slopes in cohesive-frictional soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonchai Ukritchon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available New plasticity solutions to the drained stability of conical slopes in homogeneous cohesive-frictional soils were investigated by axisymmetric finite element limit analysis. Three parameters were studied, i.e. excavated height ratios, slope inclination angles, and soil friction angles. The influences of these parameters on the stability factor and predicted failure mechanism of conical slopes were discussed. A new design equation developed from a nonlinear regression of the lower bound solution was proposed for drained stability analyses of a conical slope in practice. Numerical examples were given to demonstrate a practical application of the proposed equation to stability evaluations of conical slopes with both associated and non-associated flow rules. Keywords: Limit analysis, Slope stability, Conical slope, Unsupported excavation, Cohesive-frictional soils

  2. Investigation of fusion gain in fast ignition with conical targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Tabatabaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast ignition is a new scheme for inertial confinement fusion (ICF. In this scheme, at first the interaction of ultraintense laser beam with the hohlraum wall surrounding a capsule containing deuterium-tritium (D-T fuel causes implosion and compression of fuel to high density and then laser produced protons penetrate in the compressed fuel and deposit their energy in it as the ignition hot spot is created. In this paper, following the energy gain of spherical target and considering relationship of the burn fraction to burn duration, we have obtained the energy gain of conical targets characterized by the angle β, and found a hemispherical capsule (β=π/2 has a gain as high as 96% of that of the whole spherical capsule. The results obtained in this study are qualitatively consistent with Atzeni et al.'s studies of simulations.

  3. Analysis of turbulent conical diffuser flow using second moment closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adane, K.K.; Tachie, M.F.; Ormiston, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    A commercial CFD code, CFX-TASCflow, is used to predict a turbulent conical diffuser flow. The computation was performed using a low-Reynolds number k-ω model, a low-Reynolds number k-ω based non-linear algebraic Reynolds stress model, and a second moment closure with a wall-function. The experimental data of Kassab are used to validate the numerical results. The results show that all the turbulence models reproduce the static pressure coefficient distribution reasonably well. The low Reynolds number k-ω models give better prediction of the friction velocity than the second moment closure. The models also predict the Reynolds shear stress reasonably well but fail to reproduce the correct level of the turbulent kinetic energy. (author)

  4. The mechanical response of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal to conical indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, S.A.S.; Biswas, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    Blocks of 3Y-TZP were indented with conical diamond indenters. Indentation caused tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation in a subsurface. Of the cracks generated in the subsurface, radial and lateral cracks can be accounted for by a continuum model of the indented subsurface, built using a combination of the Boussinesq and blister stress fields. Additional ring, median and cone cracks were also observed. It is hypothesized that the latter are motivated by the reduction in blister strength or residual energy brought about by the material damage caused by the phase transformation. This damage reduces the load bearing capacity of the material progressively with increasing normal load. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Thermal design of AOTV heatshields for a conical drag brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented from an on-going study of the thermal performance of thermal protection systems for a conical drag brake type AOTV. Three types of heatshield are considered: rigid ceramic insulation, flexible ceramic blankets, and ceramic cloths. The results for the rigid insulation apply to other types of AOTV as well. Charts are presented in parametric form so that they may be applied to a variety of missions and vehicle configurations. The parameters considered include: braking maneuver heat flux and total heat load, heatshield material and thickness, heatshield thermal mass and conductivity, absorptivity and emissivity of surfaces, thermal mass of support structure, and radiation transmission through thin heatshields. Results of temperature calculations presented show trends with and sensitivities to these parameters. The emphasis is on providing information that will be useful in estimating the minimum required mass of these heatshield materials.

  6. Design and Manufacture of Conical Shell Structures Using Prepreg Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimova, Regina; Burau, Florian; Degenhardt, Richard; Siebert, Mark; Castro, Saullo G. P.

    2016-06-01

    The design and manufacture of unstiffened composite conical structures is very challenging, as the variation of the fiber orientations, lay-up and the geometry of the ply pieces have a significant influence on the thickness imperfections and ply angle deviations imprinted to the final part. This paper deals with the manufacture of laminated composite cones through the prepeg/autoclave process. The cones are designed to undergo repetitive buckling tests without accumulating permanent damage. The aim is to define a process that allows the control of fiber angle deviations and the removal of thickness imperfections generated from gaps and overlaps between ply pieces. Ultrasonic scan measurements are used to proof the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Straight, conic and circular fringes in single interferogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Interferometry is an important part of optics courses taught at the undergraduate level in universities throughout the world. It is used to explain to students the wave nature of light and is also used to measure parameters like length, refractive index, thickness of test samples and wavelength of light source, etc. The shape of interference fringes (linear, conic or circular) gives vital information about the interfering wavefronts and is used for firsthand visual inspection in optical shop testing and other applications of scientific and engineering importance. The present work describes a simple laboratory technique to generate fringes with different shapes in a single interferogram. This is achieved by using our diffraction-Lloyd mirror interferometer where two portions of the diffracted field are superimposed to generate the interference fringes. The technique is quite helpful in explaining the role of source orientation on the shape of interference fringes to students. (paper)

  8. Conical Refraction Bottle Beams for Entrapment of Absorbing Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseling, Michael; Alpmann, Christina; Schnelle, Jens; Meissner, Robert; Denz, Cornelia

    2018-03-22

    Conical refraction (CR) optical bottle beams for photophoretic trapping of airborne absorbing droplets are introduced and experimentally demonstrated. CR describes the circular split-up of unpolarised light propagating along an optical axis in a biaxial crystal. The diverging and converging cones lend themselves to the construction of optical bottle beams with flexible entry points. The interaction of single inkjet droplets with an open or partly open bottle beam is shown implementing high-speed video microscopy in a dual-view configuration. Perpendicular image planes are visualized on a single camera chip to characterize the integral three-dimensional movement dynamics of droplets. We demonstrate how a partly opened optical bottle transversely confines liquid objects. Furthermore we observe and analyse transverse oscillations of absorbing droplets as they hit the inner walls and simultaneously measure both transverse and axial velocity components.

  9. Performance of cylindrical-conical cyclones with different geometrical configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.A.M. Santana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of a study of the influence of geometric characteristics on the performance of reverse-flow cylindrical-conical cyclones. After studying the behavior of the pressure drop in previous work (Arnosti et al., 1998, here performance in terms of collection efficiency in the removal of particulate material is addressed. The independent variables considered in this study were inlet gas velocity (three velocities and the following dimensions of the cyclone: the cylindrical section (three heights and internal height of the gas exit duct (three heights. The tests were performed using an 3³ experimental design. Analysis of the results for overall efficiency was carried out using response surfaces and the statistical parameters were estimated from linear regression.

  10. Thermodynamical description of stationary, asymptotically flat solutions with conical singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdeiro, Carlos; Rebelo, Carmen; Radu, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    We examine the thermodynamical properties of a number of asymptotically flat, stationary (but not static) solutions having conical singularities, with both connected and nonconnected event horizons, using the thermodynamical description recently proposed in [C. Herdeiro, B. Kleihaus, J. Kunz, and E. Radu, Phys. Rev. D 81, 064013 (2010).]. The examples considered are the double-Kerr solution, the black ring rotating in either S 2 or S 1 , and the black Saturn, where the balance condition is not imposed for the latter two solutions. We show that not only the Bekenstein-Hawking area law is recovered from the thermodynamical description, but also the thermodynamical angular momentum is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner angular momentum. We also analyze the thermodynamical stability and show that, for all these solutions, either the isothermal moment of inertia or the specific heat at constant angular momentum is negative, at any point in parameter space. Therefore, all these solutions are thermodynamically unstable in the grand canonical ensemble.

  11. Conical refraction of elastic waves in absorbing crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshits, V. I.; Lyubimov, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    The absorption-induced acoustic-axis splitting in a viscoelastic crystal with an arbitrary anisotropy is considered. It is shown that after “switching on” absorption, the linear vector polarization field in the vicinity of the initial degeneracy point having an orientation singularity with the Poincaré index n = ±1/2, transforms to a planar distribution of ellipses with two singularities n = ±1/4 corresponding to new axes. The local geometry of the slowness surface of elastic waves is studied in the vicinity of new degeneracy points and a self-intersection line connecting them. The absorption-induced transformation of the classical picture of conical refraction is studied. The ellipticity of waves at the edge of the self-intersection wedge in a narrow interval of propagation directions drastically changes from circular at the wedge ends to linear in the middle of the wedge. For the wave normal directed to an arbitrary point of this wedge, during movement of the displacement vector over the corresponding polarization ellipse, the wave ray velocity s runs over the same cone describing refraction in a crystal without absorption. In this case, the end of the vector moves along a universal ellipse whose plane is orthogonal to the acoustic axis for zero absorption. The areal velocity of this movement differs from the angular velocity of the displacement vector on the polarization ellipse only by a constant factor, being delayed by π/2 in phase. When the wave normal is localized at the edge of the wedge in its central region, the movement of vector s along the universal ellipse becomes drastically nonuniform and the refraction transforms from conical to wedge-like.

  12. Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based on the mean gas temperature and the concentration of CO, O 2, NO, and HC at the flame early region of reaction. The investigation covered the influence of the nozzle cone angle, the jet exit velocity and the jet equivalence ratio. The stability results show that the flames with cone are more stable than those without cone. For conical stabilized flames, the stability results exhibit three different sensitivity regions between the jet velocity and equivalence ratio. The inflame measurements prove that the flame stability could be attributed to the triple flame structure at the flame leading edge. The data show that the triple flame structure is influenced by cone angle, the jet velocity and the equivalence ratio. The flame is believed to be controlled by the recirculation flow inside the cone. Increasing the cone angle induced higher air entrainment to the reaction zone as depicted by a higher O 2 concentration within the flame leading edge. Increasing the jet velocity to a certain limit enhances the intensity of combustion at the flame leading edge, while excessive increase in jet velocity reduces this intensity. At a fixed jet velocity the higher the equivalence ratio, the higher the amount of fuel diffused and engulfed to the reaction zone, the more delay of the combustion completion and the higher the emission concentrations of the flame. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  13. High-latitude Conic Current Sheets in the Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabarova, Olga V.; Obridko, Vladimir N.; Kharshiladze, Alexander F. [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN), Moscow (Russian Federation); Malova, Helmi V. [Scobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kislov, Roman A.; Zelenyi, Lev M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK PAN), Warsaw (Poland); Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken’ichi [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University (Japan); Sokół, Justyna M.; Grzedzielski, Stan [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK), Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-02-10

    We provide observational evidence for the existence of large-scale cylindrical (or conic-like) current sheets (CCSs) at high heliolatitudes. Long-lived CCSs were detected by Ulysses during its passages over the South Solar Pole in 1994 and 2007. The characteristic scale of these tornado-like structures is several times less than a typical width of coronal holes within which the CCSs are observed. CCS crossings are characterized by a dramatic decrease in the solar wind speed and plasma beta typical for predicted profiles of CCSs. Ulysses crossed the same CCS at different heliolatitudes at 2–3 au several times in 1994, as the CCS was declined from the rotation axis and corotated with the Sun. In 2007, a CCS was detected directly over the South Pole, and its structure was strongly highlighted by the interaction with comet McNaught. Restorations of solar coronal magnetic field lines reveal the occurrence of conic-like magnetic separators over the solar poles in both 1994 and 2007. Such separators exist only during solar minima. Interplanetary scintillation data analysis confirms the presence of long-lived low-speed regions surrounded by the typical polar high-speed solar wind in solar minima. Energetic particle flux enhancements up to several MeV/ nuc are observed at edges of the CCSs. We built simple MHD models of a CCS to illustrate its key features. The CCSs may be formed as a result of nonaxiality of the solar rotation axis and magnetic axis, as predicted by the Fisk–Parker hybrid heliospheric magnetic field model in the modification of Burger and coworkers.

  14. Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous wave, conically scanning LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Mikkelsen, Torben; Courtney, Michael

    averaging is done in two steps: 1) the weighted averaging of the wind speed in the probe volume of the laser beam; 2) the averaging of the wind speeds occurring on the circular path described by the conically scanning lidar. Therefore the standard deviation measured by a lidar resolves only the turbulence...... of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar. First, the wind speed standard deviation measured by such a lidar gives on average 80% of the standard deviation measured by a cup anemometer. This difference is due to the spatial averaging inherently made by a cw conically scanning lidar. The spatial...

  15. Experimental study of CF4 conical theta pinch plasma expanding into vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrow, P.D.; Nasiruddin, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Langmuir probe, photodiode, and optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) measurements have been made on a pulsed CF 4 conical theta pinch plasma. A cloud of CF 4 gas was puffed into a conical theta pinch coil, converted to plasma, and propelled into the vacuum region ahead of the expanding gas cloud. At a position 67 cm away from the conical theta pinch coil, the plasma arrived in separate packets that were about 20 μs in duration. The average drift velocity of these packets corresponded to an energy of about 3 eV. The OMA measurements showed that the second packet contained neutral atomic fluorine as well as charged particles

  16. Analysis of spatial dispersion characteristics of improved conical sprays; Kairyo kasajo funmu no kukan bunsansei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, W; Murakami, A; Hama, J [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan); Obokata, T [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The macro-characteristics of conical and improved conical sprays were analyzed using laser sheet and high speed camera. The injection pressure was 14.7, 24.5 or 34.3 MPa and the chamber pressure was 0.098, 0.98 or 1.96 MPa, where the amount of injected fuel was 28.5 mg per cycle, and the injection frequency was 8.3 Hz. As a result, at atmospheric pressure, both of the conical spray and improved conical spray have a conical pattern, but at high chamber pressure, the sprays become three dimensional. The penetration of the improved conical spray was about 25% stronger than that of the conical spray. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Križan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressing chamber improves the quality of the final briquettes. The conicalness of the pressing chamber has a significanteffect on the final briquette quality and on the construction of briquetting machines. The experimental findings presented here show the importance of this parameter in the briquetting process.

  18. Convergence of shock waves between conical and parabolic boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanuka, D.; Zinowits, H. E.; Antonov, O.; Efimov, S.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2016-07-15

    Convergence of shock waves, generated by underwater electrical explosions of cylindrical wire arrays, between either parabolic or conical bounding walls is investigated. A high-current pulse with a peak of ∼550 kA and rise time of ∼300 ns was applied for the wire array explosion. Strong self-emission from an optical fiber placed at the origin of the implosion was used for estimating the time of flight of the shock wave. 2D hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper showed that the pressure obtained in the vicinity of the implosion is ∼7 times higher in the case of parabolic walls. However, comparison with a spherical wire array explosion showed that the pressure in the implosion vicinity in that case is higher than the pressure in the current experiment with parabolic bounding walls because of strong shock wave reflections from the walls. It is shown that this drawback of the bounding walls can be significantly minimized by optimization of the wire array geometry.

  19. The fastest drop climbing on a wet conical fibre

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    We use high-speed video imaging to study the capillary-driven motion of a micro-droplet along the outside of a pre-wetted conical fiber. The cones are fabricated on a glass-puller with tip diameters as small as 1 μm, an order of magnitude smaller than in previous studies. The liquid is fed through the hollow fiber accumulating at the fiber tip to form droplets. The droplets are initially attached to the opening as they grow in size before detaching and traveling up the cone. This detachment can produce a transient oscillation of high frequency. The spatial variation of the capillary pressure drives the droplets towards the wider side of the cone. Various liquids were used to change the surface tension by a factor of 3.5 and viscosity by a factor of 1500. Within each droplet size and viscous-dissipation regime, the data for climbing speeds collapse on a single curve. Droplets traveling with and against gravity allow us to pinpoint the absolute strength of the driving capillary pressure and viscous stresses and thereby determine the prefactors in the dimensionless relationships. The motions are consistent with earlier results obtained from much larger cones. Translation velocities up to 270 mm/s were observed and overall the velocities follow capillary-viscous scaling, whereas the speed of the fastest droplets is limited by inertia following their emergence at the cone tip.

  20. Conical singularities in AdS space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Cristine Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, the study of conformal gauge theories from 10-D has been motivated by the AdS d+1 /CFT d correspondence, first conjectured by J. Maldacena. The aim of this work is to consider the d = 4 case by analysing the configuration of the N coincident D3 branes. In this context, the work shows that there is a duality between type IIB string theory in AdS 5 x S 5 and N = 4 SU(N) Super Yang-Mills Theory in the IR. The AdS 5 /CFT 4 correspondence brought also new approaches to the strong coupling problem in QCD. Nowadays, there is a whole line of works that focus on the low dimensional correspondence AdS 4 /CFT 3 , like the application to graphene and topological insulators, and the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, related with the entanglement entropy. In this work, we consider the vortex configuration solution to the AdS 4 and AdS 3 space-time. The most important motivation is to discuss the boundary theory resulting from these solutions. We have examined a straightforward approach to a holographic computation of the graphene and entanglement entropy in the presence of the conical singularity. After this analysis, we consider the scalar field in the bulk in the presence of this metrics and work out the compactification modes. Taking the holographic point of view, we study and discuss the resulting Green function. (author)

  1. Weakly nonlinear sloshing in a truncated circular conical tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilyuk, I P; Hermann, M; Lukovsky, I A; Solodun, O V; Timokha, A N

    2013-01-01

    Sloshing of an ideal incompressible liquid in a rigid truncated (tapered) conical tank is considered when the tank performs small-magnitude oscillatory motions with the forcing frequency close to the lowest natural sloshing frequency. The multimodal method, the non-conformal mapping technique and the Moiseev type asymptotics are employed to derive a finite-dimensional system of weakly nonlinear ordinary differential (modal) equations. This modal system is a generalization of that by Gavrilyuk et al 2005 Fluid Dyn. Res. 37 399–429. Using the derived modal equations, we classify the resonant steady-state wave regimes occurring due to horizontal harmonic tank excitations. The frequency ranges are detected where the ‘planar’ and/or ‘swirling’ steady-state sloshing are stable as well as a range in which all steady-state wave regimes are not stable and irregular (chaotic) liquid motions occur is established. The results on the frequency ranges are qualitatively supported by experiments by Matta E 2002 PhD Thesis Politecnico di Torino, Torino. (paper)

  2. The fastest drop climbing on a wet conical fibre

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2013-05-21

    We use high-speed video imaging to study the capillary-driven motion of a micro-droplet along the outside of a pre-wetted conical fiber. The cones are fabricated on a glass-puller with tip diameters as small as 1 μm, an order of magnitude smaller than in previous studies. The liquid is fed through the hollow fiber accumulating at the fiber tip to form droplets. The droplets are initially attached to the opening as they grow in size before detaching and traveling up the cone. This detachment can produce a transient oscillation of high frequency. The spatial variation of the capillary pressure drives the droplets towards the wider side of the cone. Various liquids were used to change the surface tension by a factor of 3.5 and viscosity by a factor of 1500. Within each droplet size and viscous-dissipation regime, the data for climbing speeds collapse on a single curve. Droplets traveling with and against gravity allow us to pinpoint the absolute strength of the driving capillary pressure and viscous stresses and thereby determine the prefactors in the dimensionless relationships. The motions are consistent with earlier results obtained from much larger cones. Translation velocities up to 270 mm/s were observed and overall the velocities follow capillary-viscous scaling, whereas the speed of the fastest droplets is limited by inertia following their emergence at the cone tip.

  3. Separability of diagonal symmetric states: a quadratic conic optimization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Tura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the separability problem in mixtures of Dicke states i.e., the separability of the so-called Diagonal Symmetric (DS states. First, we show that separability in the case of DS in $C^d\\otimes C^d$ (symmetric qudits can be reformulated as a quadratic conic optimization problem. This connection allows us to exchange concepts and ideas between quantum information and this field of mathematics. For instance, copositive matrices can be understood as indecomposable entanglement witnesses for DS states. As a consequence, we show that positivity of the partial transposition (PPT is sufficient and necessary for separability of DS states for $d \\leq 4$. Furthermore, for $d \\geq 5$, we provide analytic examples of PPT-entangled states. Second, we develop new sufficient separability conditions beyond the PPT criterion for bipartite DS states. Finally, we focus on $N$-partite DS qubits, where PPT is known to be necessary and sufficient for separability. In this case, we present a family of almost DS states that are PPT with respect to each partition but nevertheless entangled.

  4. Numerical optimization of conical flow waveriders including detailed viscous effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowcutt, Kevin G.; Anderson, John D., Jr.; Capriotti, Diego

    1987-01-01

    A family of optimized hypersonic waveriders is generated and studied wherein detailed viscous effects are included within the optimization process itself. This is in contrast to previous optimized waverider work, wherein purely inviscid flow is used to obtain the waverider shapes. For the present waveriders, the undersurface is a streamsurface of an inviscid conical flowfield, the upper surface is a streamsurface of the inviscid flow over a tapered cylinder (calculated by the axisymmetric method of characteristics), and the viscous effects are treated by integral solutions of the boundary layer equations. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow is included within the viscous calculations. The optimization is carried out using a nonlinear simplex method. The resulting family of viscous hypersonic waveriders yields predicted high values of lift/drag, high enough to break the L/D barrier based on experience with other hypersonic configurations. Moreover, the numerical optimization process for the viscous waveriders results in distinctly different shapes compared to previous work with inviscid-designed waveriders. Also, the fine details of the viscous solution, such as how the shear stress is distributed over the surface, and the location of transition, are crucial to the details of the resulting waverider geometry. Finally, the moment coefficient variations and heat transfer distributions associated with the viscous optimized waveriders are studied.

  5. Optical trapping using cascade conical refraction of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, D P; Ballantine, K E; Phelan, C F; Lunney, J G; Donegan, J F

    2012-09-10

    Cascade conical refraction occurs when a beam of light travels through two or more biaxial crystals arranged in series. The output beam can be altered by varying the relative azimuthal orientation of the two biaxial crystals. For two identical crystals, in general the output beam comprises a ring beam with a spot at its centre. The relative intensities of the spot and ring can be controlled by varying the azimuthal angle between the refracted cones formed in each crystal. We have used this beam arrangement to trap one microsphere within the central spot and a second microsphere on the ring. Using linearly polarized light, we can rotate the microsphere on the ring with respect to the central sphere. Finally, using a half wave-plate between the two crystals, we can create a unique beam profile that has two intensity peaks on the ring, and thereby trap two microspheres on diametrically opposite points on the ring and rotate them around the central sphere. Such a versatile optical trap should find application in optical trapping setups.

  6. Bioinspired conical copper wire with gradient wettability for continuous and efficient fog collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Xiao, Kai; Yao, Xi; Bai, Hao; Jiang, Lei

    2013-11-06

    Inspired by the efficient fog collection on cactus spines, conical copper wires with gradient wettability are fabricated through gradient electrochemical corrosion and subsequent gradient chemical modification. These dual-gradient copper wires' fog-collection ability is demonstrated to be higher than that of conical copper wires with pure hydrophobic surfaces or pure hydrophilic surfaces, and the underlying mechanism is also analyzed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Automatic fitting of conical envelopes to free-form surfaces for flank CNC machining

    OpenAIRE

    Bo P.; Bartoň M.; Pottmann H.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm to detect patches of free-form surfaces that can be well approximated by envelopes of a rotational cone under a rigid body motion. These conical envelopes are a preferable choice from the manufacturing point of view as they are, by-definition, manufacturable by computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining using the efficient flank (peripheral) method with standard conical tools. Our geometric approach exploits multi-valued vector fields that consist of vectors in...

  8. Free vibration of symmetric angle ply truncated conical shells under different boundary conditions using spline method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, K. K.; Aziz, Z. A.; Javed, Saira; Yaacob, Y. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Pullepu, Babuji [S R M University, Chennai (India)

    2015-05-15

    Free vibration of symmetric angle-ply laminated truncated conical shell is analyzed to determine the effects of frequency parameter and angular frequencies under different boundary condition, ply angles, different material properties and other parameters. The governing equations of motion for truncated conical shell are obtained in terms of displacement functions. The displacement functions are approximated by cubic and quintic splines resulting into a generalized eigenvalue problem. The parametric studies have been made and discussed.

  9. Derivation of Conditions for the Normal Gain Behavior of Conical Horns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Yeng Tan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Monotonically increasing gain-versus-frequency pattern is in general expected to be a characteristic of aperture antennas that include the smooth-wall conical horn. While optimum gain conical horns do naturally exhibit this behavior, nonoptimum horns need to meet certain criterion: a minimum axial length for given aperture diameter, or, alternatively, a maximum aperture diameter for the given axial length. In this paper, approximate expressions are derived to determine these parameters.

  10. Performance of conical abutment (Morse Taper) connection implants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christian M; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Lai, Jim Yuan; Brito, Carlos; Döring, Hendrik; Nonhoff, Jörg

    2014-02-01

    In this systematic review, we aimed to compare conical versus nonconical implant-abutment connection systems in terms of their in vitro and in vivo performances. An electronic search was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Medline databases with the logical operators: "dental implant" AND "dental abutment" AND ("conical" OR "taper" OR "cone"). Names of the most common conical implant-abutment connection systems were used as additional key words to detect further data. The search was limited to articles published up to November 2012. Recent publications were also searched manually in order to find any relevant studies that might have been missed using the search criteria noted above. Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. As the data and methods, as well as types of implants used was so heterogeneous, this mitigated against the performance of meta-analysis. In vitro studies indicated that conical and nonconical abutments showed sufficient resistance to maximal bending forces and fatigue loading. However, conical abutments showed superiority in terms of seal performance, microgap formation, torque maintenance, and abutment stability. In vivo studies (human and animal) indicated that conical and nonconical systems are comparable in terms of implant success and survival rates with less marginal bone loss around conical connection implants in most cases. This review indicates that implant systems using a conical implant-abutment connection, provides better results in terms of abutment fit, stability, and seal performance. These design features could lead to improvements over time versus nonconical connection systems. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Free vibration of symmetric angle ply truncated conical shells under different boundary conditions using spline method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K. K.; Aziz, Z. A.; Javed, Saira; Yaacob, Y.; Pullepu, Babuji

    2015-01-01

    Free vibration of symmetric angle-ply laminated truncated conical shell is analyzed to determine the effects of frequency parameter and angular frequencies under different boundary condition, ply angles, different material properties and other parameters. The governing equations of motion for truncated conical shell are obtained in terms of displacement functions. The displacement functions are approximated by cubic and quintic splines resulting into a generalized eigenvalue problem. The parametric studies have been made and discussed.

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on conical holed enhancing substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yao; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Zuo, Qi; Shi, Cai-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based on conical holed glass substrates deposited with silver colloids was reported for the first time. It combines the advantages of both dry SERS assays based on plane films deposited with silver colloids and wet SERS assays utilizing cuvettes or capillary tubes. Compared with plane glass substrates deposited with silver colloids, the conical holed glass substrates deposited with silver colloids exhibited five-to ten-folds of increase in the rate of signal enhancement, due to the internal multiple reflections of both the excitation laser beam and the Raman scattering photons within conical holes. The application of conical holed glass substrates could also yield significantly stronger and more reproducible SERS signals than SERS assays utilizing capillary tubes to sample the mixture of silver colloids and the solution of the analyte of interest. The conical holed glass substrates in combination with the multiplicative effects model for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MEM SERS ) achieved quite sensitive and precise quantification of 6-mercaptopurine in complex plasma samples with an average relative prediction error of about 4% and a limit of detection of about 0.02 μM using a portable i-Raman 785H spectrometer. It is reasonable to expect that SERS technique based on conical holed enhancing substrates in combination with MEM SERS model can be developed and extended to other application areas such as drug detection, environmental monitoring, and clinic analysis, etc. - Highlights: • A novel conical holed SERS enhancing substrate was designed and manufactured. • The optimal conical holed glass substrates can produce stronger SERS signal. • The novel substrates can overcome the shortcomings of both dry and wet methods. • The novel substrates coupled with MEM SERS can realize quantitative SERS assays

  13. Substituent effects on dynamics at conical intersections: Allene and methyl allenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neville, Simon P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wang, Yanmei [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Stolow, Albert, E-mail: albert.stolow@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Schuurman, Michael S., E-mail: michael.schuurman@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2016-01-07

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical study on the ultrafast excited state dynamics of allene and a series of its methylated analogues (1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene) in order to elucidate the conical intersection mediated dynamics that give rise to ultrafast relaxation to the ground electronic state. We use femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) to probe the coupled electronic-vibrational dynamics following UV excitation at 200 nm (6.2 eV). Ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulations are employed to determine the mechanistic details of two competing dynamical pathways to the ground electronic state. In all molecules, these pathways are found to involve as follows: (i) twisting about the central allenic C–C–C axis followed by pyramidalization at one of the terminal carbon atoms and (ii) bending of allene moiety. Importantly, the AIMS trajectory data were used for ab initio simulations of the TRPES, permitting direct comparison with experiment. For each molecule, the decay of the TRPES signal is characterized by short (30 fs, 52 fs, 23 fs) and long (1.8 ps, 3.5 ps, [306 fs, 18 ps]) time constants for 1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene, respectively. However, AIMS simulations show that these time constants are only loosely related to the evolution of electronic character and actually more closely correlate to large amplitude motions on the electronic excited state, modulating the instantaneous vertical ionization potentials. Furthermore, the fully substituted tetramethylallene is observed to undergo qualitatively different dynamics, as displacements involving the relatively massive methyl groups impede direct access to the conical intersections which give rise to the ultrafast relaxation dynamics observed in the other species. These results show that the branching between the “twisting” and “bending” pathways can be modified via the selective methylation of the terminal

  14. The influence of initial pressure on the characteristics of conical bubble sonoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Shoujie, E-mail: heshouj@hbu.edu.cn [Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Ha, Jing [Institute of Science, Hebei Agriculture University, Baoding 071001 (China); Duan, Pingguang [Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2015-12-18

    Based on a conical bubble U-tube, conical bubble sonoluminescence was investigated by using pure water as the working medium. Intense cavitation luminescence can be obtained. With the decrease in initial pressure inside the bubble, the intensity and duration of light emission increased. The spectrum is mainly composed of the spectral bands of H{sub 2}O at the initial pressure of 1000 Pa. With the decrease in initial pressure, a broad continuum background spectrum that is well fitted by blackbody radiation can be detected, on which several spectral bands emitted by water molecules are superimposed. A higher temperature inside the bubble can be obtained with the decrease in initial pressure. Moreover, the intensity of the continuum background spectrum becomes more dominant compared with that of H{sub 2}O emission bands. Finally, we conclude that blackbody radiation and molecular emission contribute to luminescence of conical bubble cavitation. Moreover, the initial pressure inside the conical bubble significantly affects the emission mechanism of conical bubble sonoluminescence. - Highlights: • The spectra and light pulses of CBL are investigated in pure water. • The continuum background spectrum becomes more dominant with decrease of initial pressure. • The mechanism of CBL depends on the initial pressure of bubble. • Blackbody radiation and molecular emission contribute to luminescence of conical bubble cavitation.

  15. Kinetic study of heavy metal ions removal by ion exchange in batch conical air spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Zewail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spouted bed contactor is a hybrid of fixed and fluidized bed contactors, which retains the advantages of each with good hydrodynamic conditions. The aim of the present study is to investigate the performance of a batch conical air spouted vessel for heavy metal removal by strong cation exchange resins (AMBERJET 1200 Na. The effect of various parameters such as type of heavy metal ions (Ni+2 and Pb+2, contact time, superficial air velocity and initial heavy metal ion concentration on % heavy metal ion removal has been investigated. It has been found that under optimum conditions 98% and 99% removal of Ni+2 and Pb+2 were achieved respectively. Several kinetic models were used to test the experimental data and to examine the controlling mechanism of the sorption process. The present results of Ni+2 and Pb+2 well fit pseudo second order kinetic model with a high correlation coefficient. Both film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion contribute to the ion exchange process. The present study revealed that spouted bed vessel may provide an effective alternative for conducting ion exchange reactions.

  16. Modification of polyimide wetting properties by laser ablated conical microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Least, Brandon T.; Willis, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Laser texturing of Kapton ® HN polyimide was performed by low-fluence ablation using a pulsed, frequency tripled (349 nm) Nd:YLF laser. The laser was scanned in two dimensions in order to generate texture over a large area. The laser overlap percentage and fluence were varied and the resulting texture was studied. The texture features were inspected by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS), while the static contact angle of de-ionized water was measured by a contact angle goniometer. Rounded bump features were formed at all fluences, which decreased in areal density with fluence and number of laser pulses. Conical microstructures or “cones” were also formed at most fluences. Cones were larger than the bumps and thus had lower areal density, which increased as a function of the number of laser pulses. The polyimide was hydrophilic before texturing, with a contact angle of approximately 76°. For most of the experimental conditions the contact angle increased as a result of texturing, with the contact angle exceeding 90° for some textured surfaces, and reaching values as high as 118°. In general, the surfaces with significant increases in contact angle had high density of texture features, either bumps or cones. The surfaces that experienced a decrease in contact angle generally had low density of texture features. The increase in contact angle from a wetting (θ 90°) cannot be explained by texturing alone. EDS measurements indicate that textured regions had higher carbon content than the untextured regions due to depletion of oxygen species. The increase in carbon content relative to the oxygen content increased the native contact angle of the surface, causing the transition from hydrophilic to hydrophobic behavior. The contact angle of a textured surface increased as the relative spacing of features (diameter to spacing) decreased.

  17. Conical diffraction as a versatile building block to implement new imaging modalities for superresolution in fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallet, Clément; Caron, Julien; Oddos, Stephane; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Moisan, Lionel; Sirat, Gabriel Y.; Braitbart, Philippe O.; Shorte, Spencer L.

    2014-08-01

    We present a new technology for super-resolution fluorescence imaging, based on conical diffraction. Conical diffraction is a linear, singular phenomenon taking place when a polarized beam is diffracted through a biaxial crystal. The illumination patterns generated by conical diffraction are more compact than the classical Gaussian beam; we use them to generate a super-resolution imaging modality. Conical Diffraction Microscopy (CODIM) resolution enhancement can be achieved with any type of objective on any kind of sample preparation and standard fluorophores. Conical diffraction can be used in multiple fashion to create new and disruptive technologies for super-resolution microscopy. This paper will focus on the first one that has been implemented and give a glimpse at what the future of microscopy using conical diffraction could be.

  18. Randomized intubation with polyurethane or conical cuffs to prevent pneumonia in ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippart, François; Gaudry, Stéphane; Quinquis, Laurent; Lau, Nicolas; Ouanes, Islem; Touati, Samia; Nguyen, Jean Claude; Branger, Catherine; Faibis, Frédéric; Mastouri, Maha; Forceville, Xavier; Abroug, Fekri; Ricard, Jean Damien; Grabar, Sophie; Misset, Benoît

    2015-03-15

    The occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is linked to the aspiration of contaminated pharyngeal secretions around the endotracheal tube. Tubes with cuffs made of polyurethane rather than polyvinyl chloride or with a conical rather than a cylindrical shape increase tracheal sealing. To test whether using polyurethane and/or conical cuffs reduces tracheal colonization and VAP in patients with acute respiratory failure. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, open-label, randomized study in four parallel groups in four intensive care units between 2010 and 2012. A cohort of 621 patients with expected ventilation longer than 2 days was included at intubation with a cuff composed of cylindrical polyvinyl chloride (n = 148), cylindrical polyurethane (n = 143), conical polyvinyl chloride (n = 150), or conical polyurethane (n = 162). We used Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests to compare times to events. After excluding 17 patients who secondarily refused participation or had met an exclusion criterion, 604 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Cumulative tracheal colonization greater than 10(3) cfu/ml at Day 2 was as follows (median [interquartile range]): cylindrical polyvinyl chloride, 0.66 (0.58-0.74); cylindrical polyurethane, 0.61 (0.53-0.70); conical polyvinyl chloride, 0.67 (0.60-0.76); and conical polyurethane, 0.62 (0.55-0.70) (P = 0.55). VAP developed in 77 patients (14.4%), and postextubational stridor developed in 28 patients (6.4%) (P = 0.20 and 0.28 between groups, respectively). Among patients requiring mechanical ventilation, polyurethane and/or conically shaped cuffs were not superior to conventional cuffs in preventing tracheal colonization and VAP. Clinical trial registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01114022).

  19. Displacement of screw-retained single crowns into implants with conical internal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Burak; Seidt, Jeremy D; McGlumphy, Edwin A; Clelland, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Internal conical implant-abutment connections without platforms may lead to axial displacement of crowns during screw tightening. This displacement may affect proximal contacts, incisal edge position, or occlusion. This study aimed to measure the displacement of screw-retained single crowns into an implant in three dimensions during screw tightening by hand or via torque driver. A stereolithic acrylic resin cast was created using computed tomography data from a patient missing the maxillary right central incisor. A 4.0- × 11-mm implant was placed in the edentulous site. Five porcelain-fused-to-metal single crowns were made using "cast-to" abutments. Crowns were tried on the stereolithic model, representing the patient, and hand tightened. The spatial relationship of crowns to the model after hand tightening was determined using three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC), an optical measurement technique. The crowns were then tightened using a torque driver to 20 Ncm and the relative crown positions were again recorded. Testing was repeated three times for each crown, and displacement of the crowns was compared between the hand-tightened and torqued states. Commercial image correlation software was used to analyze the data. Mean vertical and horizontal crown displacement values were calculated after torqueing. The interproximal contacts were evaluated before and after torquing using an 8-μm aluminum foil shim. There were vertical and horizontal differences in crown positions between hand tightening and torqueing. Although these were small in magnitude, detectable displacements occurred in both apical and facial directions. After hand tightening, the 8-μm shim could be dragged without tearing. However, after torque tightening, the interproximal contacts were too tight and the 8-μm shim could not be dragged without tearing. Differences between hand tightening and torque tightening should be taken into consideration during laboratory and clinical

  20. Displacement of screw-retained splinted and nonsplinted restorations into implants with conical internal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Burak; Seidt, Jeremy D; Clelland, Nancy L

    2014-01-01

    Variable abutment displacement could potentially affect proximal contacts, incisal edge position, or occlusion of implant-supported prostheses. This study aimed to measure and compare displacements of splinted and nonsplinted restorations into implants featuring internal conical connections as screws were tightened by hand or by torque driver. A stereolithic resin model was printed using computed tomography data from a patient missing mandibular left first and second molars. Two 5.0 × 11-mm implants were placed in the edentulous site using a surgical guide. Two sets (splinted and nonsplinted) of gold screw-retained prostheses were made indirectly to fit the implants in the stereolithic model representing the patient. The axial position of the crowns relative to a fixed location on the model was recorded following hand tightening using the three-dimensional image correlation technique and image correlation software. A pair of high-resolution digital cameras provided a synchronized view of the model during the experiment. Relative crown positions were again recorded after tightening with a torque driver to 25 Ncm. Testing was repeated randomly three times for each set of crowns. Displacement data after torque tightening were compared using a factorial analysis of variance with JMP 9.0 software (SAS) followed by a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test (α = .05). Interproximal contacts were evaluated using an 8-μm tin foil shim after tightening by hand and torque driver. Displacements for splinted and nonsplinted restorations differed only in a buccal direction. The nonsplinted crowns displaced significantly more than splinted crowns. Discernible differences were observed for the tin foil shim when dragged through proximal contacts following hand versus torque tightening. Differences between screw tightening by hand or torque driver should be taken into consideration during laboratory and clinical adjustments to prevent esthetic and functional complications.

  1. "Conical Hut": A Basic Form of House Types in Timor Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. R.; Lim, Y. L.; Wang, M. H.; Chen, C. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. As visiting East Timor in 2012 and Timor Island in 2014, we found the "Pair- House Type" widely spread over Timor Island. Uma Lulik (holy house), accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder's bed, and Uma Tidor (house for sleep), containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the "conical hut". Seven ethnic groups, Atoni, Weimua, Makassae, Mambai, Bunaq, Kemak and Bekais, have built "conical huts" for the use of Uma Lulik. People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. "Conical Hut" may be regarded as the basic form of the house types adopted by the seven ethnic groups. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of "conical hut", which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The "conical huts" contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present the diversification that each conical hut has

  2. "Conical Hut": A Basic Form of House Types in Timor Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. As visiting East Timor in 2012 and Timor Island in 2014, we found the “Pair- House Type” widely spread over Timor Island. Uma Lulik (holy house, accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder’s bed, and Uma Tidor (house for sleep, containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the “conical hut”. Seven ethnic groups, Atoni, Weimua, Makassae, Mambai, Bunaq, Kemak and Bekais, have built “conical huts” for the use of Uma Lulik. People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. “Conical Hut” may be regarded as the basic form of the house types adopted by the seven ethnic groups. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of “conical hut”, which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The “conical huts” contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present

  3. Conical Perspective Image of an Architectural Object Close to Human Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwierzynska, Jolanta

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a method of computer aided constructing conical perspective of an architectural object, which is close to human perception. The conical perspective considered in the paper is a central projection onto a projection surface being a conical rotary surface or a fragment of it. Whereas, the centre of projection is a stationary point or a point moving on a circular path. The graphical mapping results of the perspective representation is realized directly on an unrolled flat projection surface. The projective relation between a range of points on a line and the perspective image of the same range of points received on a cylindrical projection surface permitted to derive formulas for drawing perspective. Next, the analytical algorithms for drawing perspective image of a straight line passing through any two points were formulated. It enabled drawing a perspective wireframe image of a given 3D object. The use of the moving view point as well as the application of the changeable base elements of perspective as the variables in the algorithms enable drawing conical perspective from different viewing positions. Due to this fact, the perspective drawing method is universal. The algorithms are formulated and tested in Mathcad Professional software, but can be implemented in AutoCAD and majority of computer graphical packages, which makes drawing a perspective image more efficient and easier. The presented conical perspective representation, and the convenient method of its mapping directly on the flat unrolled surface can find application for numerous advertisement and art presentations.

  4. Separation and extension of cover inequalities for second-order conic knapsack constraints with GUBs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atamtürk, Alper; Muller, Laurent Flindt; Pisinger, David

    We consider the second-order conic equivalent of the classic knapsack polytope where the variables are subject to generalized upper bound constraints. We describe and compare a number of separation and extension algorithms which make use of the extra structure implied by the generalized upper bound...... constraints in order to strengthen the second-order conic equivalent of the classic cover cuts. We show that determining whether a cover can be extended with a variable is NP-hard. Computational experiments are performed comparing the proposed separation and extension algorithms. These experiments show...

  5. Numerical Calculation for Whirling Motion of a Centrifugal Blood Pump with Conical Spiral Groove Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemaru, Daichi; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Whirling motion of a pump impeller was calculated for the centrifugal blood pump with Conical Spiral Groove Bearings to get a criterion for the instability of impeller whirling motion. The motion of the centrifugal blood pump impeller was calculated based on a spring damping model, and unsteady flow in the pump was computed using the commercial CFD package ANSYS CFX. Also the whirling motion of rotating impeller was measured using two displacement sensors fixed to the blood pump casing. The numerical calculations were done for the blood pump impeller with conical spiral groove bearings, and impeller whirling motion was evaluated.

  6. Spectral and spatial characteristics of third-harmonic generation in conical light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, V.E.; Shchemeljov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Generation of resonance-enhanced third harmonic in Bessel and other conical beams is analyzed from a simple picture, where the fundamental light field is decomposed into elementary configurations of crossed plain-wave sub-beams. We show that the overall harmonic output can be derived as a superposition of all partial harmonic components driven by elementary configurations of the fundamental field. Good agreement with experimental observations has been obtained in simulation of spectral and spatial characteristics of the generated third harmonic. Some peculiarities of harmonic generation in conical light fields are discussed

  7. Influence of Test Section Geometry on the Blast Environment in an Explosively Driven Conical Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-30

    ARL-TR-8335•MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Influence of Test Section Geometry on theBlast Environment in an Explosively DrivenConical Shock...ARL-TR-8335•MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Influence of Test Section Geometry on theBlast Environment in an Explosively DrivenConical Shock...TITLE AND SUBTITLE    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER  5b. GRANT NUMBER  5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S)    5d.  PROJECT  NUMBER  5e. TASK NUMBER  5f

  8. Practical conic sections the geometric properties of ellipses, parabolas and hyperbolas

    CERN Document Server

    Downs, J W

    2010-01-01

    Illustrated with interesting examples from everyday life, this text shows how to create ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas and presents fascinating historical background on their ancient origins. The text starts with a discussion of techniques for generating the conic curves, showing how to create accurate depictions of large or small conic curves and describing their reflective properties, from light in telescopes to sound in microphones and amplifiers. It further defines the role of curves in the construction of auditoriums, antennas, lamps, and numerous other design applications. Only a ba

  9. Power of the Poincaré group: elucidating the hidden symmetries in focal conic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gareth P; Chen, Bryan Gin-Ge; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A; Kamien, Randall D

    2010-06-25

    Focal conic domains are typically the "smoking gun" by which smectic liquid crystalline phases are identified. The geometry of the equally spaced smectic layers is highly generic but, at the same time, difficult to work with. In this Letter we develop an approach to the study of focal sets in smectics which exploits a hidden Poincaré symmetry revealed only by viewing the smectic layers as projections from one-higher dimension. We use this perspective to shed light upon several classic focal conic textures, including the concentric cyclides of Dupin, polygonal textures, and tilt-grain boundaries.

  10. Power of the Poincare Group: Elucidating the Hidden Symmetries in Focal Conic Domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Gareth P.; Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A.; Kamien, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    Focal conic domains are typically the 'smoking gun' by which smectic liquid crystalline phases are identified. The geometry of the equally spaced smectic layers is highly generic but, at the same time, difficult to work with. In this Letter we develop an approach to the study of focal sets in smectics which exploits a hidden Poincare symmetry revealed only by viewing the smectic layers as projections from one-higher dimension. We use this perspective to shed light upon several classic focal conic textures, including the concentric cyclides of Dupin, polygonal textures, and tilt-grain boundaries.

  11. A new approach to evaluate the response functions for conical and cylindrical collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigante, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach to the evaluation of the conical collimator response function is shown. The basic collimator formulae are reviewed. The collimator response function has been found in a very easy way. An approximate solution has been introduced. Studying the response of a measuring system, the use of this approximation strongly reduces the complexity of the relations to be used; therefore it would provide a useful starting point for a Monte Carlo calculation. The errors introduced are less than 10%. Approximate relations that allow the evaluation of the response of conical and cylindrical collimators to plane and line sources are also given. (orig.)

  12. Free-breathing pediatric chest MRI: Performance of self-navigated golden-angle ordered conical ultrashort echo time acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Evan J; Cheng, Joseph Y; Haldipur, Anshul; Carl, Michael; Vasanawala, Shreyas S

    2018-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and performance of conical k-space trajectory free-breathing ultrashort echo time (UTE) chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) versus four-dimensional (4D) flow and effects of 50% data subsampling and soft-gated motion correction. Thirty-two consecutive children who underwent both 4D flow and UTE ferumoxytol-enhanced chest MR (mean age: 5.4 years, range: 6 days to 15.7 years) in one 3T exam were recruited. From UTE k-space data, three image sets were reconstructed: 1) one with all data, 2) one using the first 50% of data, and 3) a final set with soft-gating motion correction, leveraging the signal magnitude immediately after each excitation. Two radiologists in blinded fashion independently scored image quality of anatomical landmarks on a 5-point scale. Ratings were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum, Wilcoxon signed-ranks, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Interobserver agreement was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). For fully sampled UTE, mean scores for all structures were ≥4 (good-excellent). Full UTE surpassed 4D flow for lungs and airways (P 93% scans for all techniques (P = 0.27). Interobserver agreement was excellent for combined scores (ICC = 0.83). High-quality free-breathing conical UTE chest MR is feasible, surpassing 4D flow for lungs and airways, with equivalent PA visualization. Data subsampling only mildly degraded images, favoring lesser scan times. Soft-gating motion correction overall did not improve image quality. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:200-209. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Effective spectral densities for system-environment dynamics at conical intersections: S{sub 2}-S{sub 1} conical intersection in pyrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinazzo, Rocco [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20122 Milan (Italy); Hughes, Keith H. [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Martelli, Fausto [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20122 Milan (Italy); Departement de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Burghardt, Irene, E-mail: irene.burghardt@ens.fr [Departement de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2010-11-25

    Graphical abstract: The effect of high-dimensional environments on conical intersections can be described by hierarchies of approximate spectral densities, which translate to truncated effective-mode chains in the time domain. Abstract: A recently developed effective-mode representation is employed to characterize the influence of a multi-dimensional environment on the S{sub 2}-S{sub 1} conical intersection in pyrazine, taken as a paradigm case of high-dimensional dynamics at a conical intersection. We consider a simplified model by which four modes are strongly coupled to the electronic subsystem while a number of weakly coupled tuning modes, inducing energy gap fluctuations, are sampled from a spectral density. The latter is approximated by a series of simplified spectral densities which can be cast into a continued-fraction form, as previously demonstrated in Hughes et al. (K.H. Hughes, C.D. Christ, I. Burghardt, J. Chem. Phys. 131 (2009) 124108). In the time domain, the hierarchy of spectral densities translates to truncated effective-mode chains with a Markovian or quasi-Markovian (Rubin type) closure. A sequential deconvolution procedure is employed to generate this chain representation. The implications for the ultrafast dynamics and its representation in terms of reduced-dimensional models are discussed.

  14. WebQuest on Conic Sections as a Learning Tool for Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, Aytac; Ada, Tuba

    2012-01-01

    WebQuests incorporate technology with educational concepts through integrating online resources with student-centred and activity-based learning. In this study, we describe and evaluate a WebQuest based on conic sections, which we have used with a group of prospective mathematics teachers. The WebQuest entitled: "Creating a Carpet Design Using…

  15. Bio-inspired multistructured conical copper wires for highly efficient liquid manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianbin; Meng, Qingan; Chen, Ming; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Lei

    2014-09-23

    Animal hairs are typical structured conical fibers ubiquitous in natural system that enable the manipulation of low viscosity liquid in a well-controlled manner, which serves as the fundamental structure in Chinese brush for ink delivery in a controllable manner. Here, drawing inspiration from these structure, we developed a dynamic electrochemical method that enables fabricating the anisotropic multiscale structured conical copper wire (SCCW) with controllable conicity and surface morphology. The as-prepared SCCW exhibits a unique ability for manipulating liquid with significantly high efficiency, and over 428 times greater than its own volume of liquid could be therefore operated. We propose that the boundary condition of the dynamic liquid balance behavior on conical fibers, namely, steady holding of liquid droplet at the tip region of the SCCW, makes it an excellent fibrous medium to manipulate liquid. Moreover, we demonstrate that the titling angle of the SCCW can also affect its efficiency of liquid manipulation by virtue of its mechanical rigidity, which is hardly realized by flexible natural hairs. We envision that the bio-inspired SCCW could give inspiration in designing materials and devices to manipulate liquid in a more controllable way and with high efficiency.

  16. Soft Computing Technique and Conventional Controller for Conical Tank Level Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharsana Vijayan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many process industries the control of liquid level is mandatory. But the control of nonlinear process is difficult. Many process industries use conical tanks because of its non linear shape contributes better drainage for solid mixtures, slurries and viscous liquids. So, control of conical tank level is a challenging task due to its non-linearity and continually varying cross-section. This is due to relationship between controlled variable level and manipulated variable flow rate, which has a square root relationship. The main objective is to execute the suitable controller for conical tank system to maintain the desired level. System identification of the non-linear process is done using black box modelling and found to be first order plus dead time (FOPDT model. In this paper it is proposed to obtain the mathematical modelling of a conical tank system and to study the system using block diagram after that soft computing technique like fuzzy and conventional controller is also used for the comparison.

  17. Conical square function estimates in UMD Banach spaces and applications to H?-functional calculi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hytönen, T.; Van Neerven, J.; Portal, P.

    2008-01-01

    We study conical square function estimates for Banach-valued functions and introduce a vector-valued analogue of the Coifman-Meyer-Stein tent spaces. Following recent work of Auscher-M(c)Intosh-Russ, the tent spaces in turn are used to construct a scale of vector-valued Hardy spaces associated with

  18. The index of Fourier integral operators on manifolds with conical singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaikinskii, Vladimir E; Sternin, B Yu; Schulze, B-W

    2001-01-01

    We describe homogeneous canonical transformations of the cotangent bundle of a manifold with conical singular points and compute the index of an elliptic Fourier integral operator obtained by the quantization of such a transformation. The answer involves the index of an elliptic Fourier integral operator on a smooth manifold and the residues of the conormal symbol

  19. On the bound states of Schrodinger operators with -interactions on conical surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lotoreichik, Vladimir; Ourmieres-Bonafos, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2016), s. 999-1028 ISSN 0360-5302 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : conical and hyperconical surfaces * delta-interaction * existence of bound states * Schrodinger operator * spectral asymptotics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2016

  20. CBLIB 2014: a benchmark library for conic mixed-integer and continuous optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik Alsing

    2016-01-01

    The Conic Benchmark Library is an ongoing community-driven project aiming to challenge commercial and open source solvers on mainstream cone support. In this paper, 121 mixed-integer and continuous second-order cone problem instances have been selected from 11 categories as representative...

  1. Conic Sections and the Discovery of a Novel Curve Using Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Amal

    2013-01-01

    We began by observing a variety of properties related to the tangent and normal lines of three conic sections: a parabola, an ellipse, and a hyperbola. Some of these properties include specific relationships between the x- and y-intercepts of the tangent and normal lines. Using these properties, we were able to form several differential equations.…

  2. Non-linear buckling of an FGM truncated conical shell surrounded by an elastic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofiyev, A.H.; Kuruoglu, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the non-linear buckling of the truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) surrounded by an elastic medium has been studied using the large deformation theory with von Karman–Donnell-type of kinematic non-linearity. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type) is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. The FGM properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction. The fundamental relations, the modified Donnell type non-linear stability and compatibility equations of the FGM truncated conical shell resting on the Pasternak-type elastic foundation are derived. By using the Superposition and Galerkin methods, the non-linear stability equations for the FGM truncated conical shell is solved. Finally, influences of variations of Winkler foundation stiffness and shear subgrade modulus of the foundation, compositional profiles and shell characteristics on the dimensionless critical non-linear axial load are investigated. The present results are compared with the available data for a special case. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear buckling of FGM conical shell surrounded by elastic medium is studied. • Pasternak foundation model is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. • Nonlinear basic equations are derived. • Problem is solved by using Superposition and Galerkin methods. • Influences of various parameters on the nonlinear critical load are investigated

  3. Dispersion of near-infrared laser energy through radicular dentine when using plain or conical tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Christine Yi Jia; George, Roy; Walsh, Laurence J

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of tip design on patterns of laser energy dispersion through the dentine of tooth roots when using near-infrared diode lasers. Diode laser emissions of 810 or 940 nm were used in combination with optical fiber tips with either conventional plain ends or conical ends, to irradiate tooth roots of oval or round cross-sectional shapes. The lasers were operated in continuous wave mode at 0.5 W for 5 s with the distal end of the fiber tip placed in the apical or coronal third of the root canal at preset positions. Laser light exiting through the roots and apical foramen was imaged, and the extent of lateral spread calculated. There was a significant difference in infrared light exiting the root canal apex between plain and conical fiber tips for both laser wavelengths, with more forward transmission of laser energy through the apex for plain tips. For both laser wavelengths, there were no significant differences in emission patterns when the variable of canal shape was used and all other variables were kept the same (plain vs conical tip, tip position). To ensure optimal treatment effect and to prevent the risks of inadvertent laser effects on the adjacent periapical tissues, it is important to have a good understanding of laser transmission characteristics of the root canal and root dentine. Importantly, it is also essential to understand transmission characteristics of plain and conical fibers tips.

  4. Optical vault: a reconfigurable bottle beam based on conical refraction of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, A; Shvedov, V; Hnatovsky, C; Loiko, Yu V; Mompart, J; Krolikowski, W

    2013-11-04

    We employ conical refraction of light in a biaxial crystal to create an optical bottle for photophoretic trapping and manipulation of particles in gaseous media. We show that by only varying the polarization state of the input light beam the optical bottle can be opened and closed in order to load and unload particles in a highly controllable manner.

  5. Wave function continuity and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction at conical intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Garrett A; Levine, Benjamin G

    2016-05-14

    We demonstrate that though exact in principle, the expansion of the total molecular wave function as a sum over adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) vibronic states makes inclusion of the second-derivative nonadiabatic energy term near conical intersections practically problematic. In order to construct a well-behaved molecular wave function that has density at a conical intersection, the individual BO vibronic states in the summation must be discontinuous. When the second-derivative nonadiabatic terms are added to the Hamiltonian, singularities in the diagonal BO corrections (DBOCs) of the individual BO states arise from these discontinuities. In contrast to the well-known singularities in the first-derivative couplings at conical intersections, these singularities are non-integrable, resulting in undefined DBOC matrix elements. Though these singularities suggest that the exact molecular wave function may not have density at the conical intersection point, there is no physical basis for this constraint. Instead, the singularities are artifacts of the chosen basis of discontinuous functions. We also demonstrate that continuity of the total molecular wave function does not require continuity of the individual adiabatic nuclear wave functions. We classify nonadiabatic molecular dynamics methods according to the constraints placed on wave function continuity and analyze their formal properties. Based on our analysis, it is recommended that the DBOC be neglected when employing mixed quantum-classical methods and certain approximate quantum dynamical methods in the adiabatic representation.

  6. Conical pitch angle distributions of very-low energy ion fluxes observed by ISEE 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, J.L.; Baugher, C.R.; Chappell, C.R.; Shelley, E.G.; Young, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of low-energy ionospheric ions by the plasma composition experiment abroad ISEE 1 often show conical pitch angle distributions, that is, peak fluxes between 0 0 and 90 0 to the directions parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field. Frequently, all three primary ionospheric ion species (H + , He + , and O + ) simultaneously exhibit conical distributions with peak fluxes at essentially the same pitch angle. A distinction is made here between unidirectional, or streaming, distributions, in which ions are traveling essentially from only one hemisphere, and symmetrical distributions, in which significant fluxes are observed traveling from both hemispheres. The orbital coverage for this survey was largely restricted to the night sector, approximately 2100--0600 LT, and moderate geomagnetic latitudes of 20 0 --40 0 . Also, lack of complete pitch angle coverage at all times may have reduced detection for conics with small cone angles. However, we may conclude that the unidirectional conical distributions observed in the northern hemisphere are always observed to be traveling from the northern hemisphere and that they exhibit the following characteristics relative to the symmetric distributions, in that they (1) are typically observed on higher L shells (that is, higher geomagnetic latitudes or larger geocentric distances or both), (2) tend to have significantly larger cone angles, and (3), are associated with higher magnetic activity levels

  7. Discharge Coefficient Measurements for Flow Through Compound-Angle Conical Holes with Cross-Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Taslim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion-shaped film holes with compound angles are currently being investigated for high temperature gas turbine airfoil film cooling. An accurate prediction of the coolant blowing rate through these film holes is essential in determining the film effectiveness. Therefore, the discharge coefficients associated with these film holes for a range of hole pressure ratios is essential in designing airfoil cooling circuits. Most of the available discharge coefficient data in open literature has been for cylindrical holes. The main objective of this experimental investigation was to measure the discharge coefficients for subsonic as well as supersonic pressure ratios through a single conical-diffusion hole. The conical hole has an exit-to-inlet area ratio of 4, a nominal flow length-to-inlet diameter ratio of 4, and an angle with respect to the exit plane (inclination angle of 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60°. Measurements were performed with and without a cross-flow. For the cases with a cross-flow, discharge coefficients were measured for each of the hole geometries and 5 angles between the projected conical hole axis and the cross-flow direction of 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180°. Results are compared with available data in open literature for cylindrical film holes as well as limited data for conical film holes.

  8. Flow structures in large-angle conical diffusers measured by PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Nielsen, L.; Nielsen, N.F.

    2004-01-01

    Flow in two different conical diffusers with large opening angles (30° and 18°) have been measured with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measurements were done in a cross section just after the exit of the diffuser. The Reynolds number was 100000 based on upstream diameter...

  9. Nonadiabatic Eigenfunctions Can Have Amplitude, Signed Conical Nodes, or Signed Higher Order Nodes at a Conical Intersection with Circular Symmetry (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    marked by black rings on the potential energy surfaces. In some sense, only about half of the zero point energy is available to each of the two...wheel at the bottom. The conical intersection at q1 = q2 = 0 and E = 0 is submerged below the zero-point energy of Ezp = 181 cm −1 ( black curve). The...J. Chem. Phys. 123, 044102 (2005)]. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 128, 109902. (49) Clinton, W. L.; Rice , B. Reformulation of the Jahn-Teller Theorem. J

  10. Highly stabilized partially premixed flames of propane in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2018-01-11

    Partially premixed turbulent flames with non-homogeneous jet of propane were generated in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner in order to investigate the effect of the coflow on the stability and flame structure. The flame stability is first mapped and then high-speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, SPIV, plus OH planar laser-induced fluorescence, OH-PLIF, measurements were conducted on a subset of four flames. The jet equivalence ratio Φ = 2, Jet exit Reynolds number Re = 10,000, and degree of premixing are kept constant for the selected flames, while the coflow velocity, Uc, is progressively changed from 0 to 15 m/s. The results showed that the flame is stable between two extinction limits of mixture inhomogeneity, and the optimum stability is obtained at certain degree of mixture inhomogeneity. Increasing Φ, increases the span between these two extinction limits, while these limits converge to a single point (corresponding to optimum mixture inhomogeneity) with increasing Re. Regardless the value of Φ, increasing the coflow velocity improves the flame stability. The correlation between recessed distance of the burner tubes and the fluctuation of the mixture fraction, Δξ, shows that at Δξ around 40% of the flammability limits leads to optimum flame stability. The time averaged SPIV results show that the coflow induces a big annular recirculation zone surrounds the jet flames. The size and the location of this zone is seen to be sensitive to Uc. However, the instantaneous images show the existence of a small vortical structure close to the shear layer, where the flame resides there in the case of no-coflow. These small vertical structures are seen playing a vital role in the flame structure, and increasing the flame corrugation close to the nozzle exit. Increasing the coflow velocity expands the central jet at the expense of the jet velocity, and drags the flame in the early flame regions towards the recirculation zone, where the flame tracks

  11. Numerical method of applying shadow theory to all regions of multilayered dielectric gratings in conical mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hideaki; Asai, Masamitsu; Matsumoto, Keiji; Yamakita, Jiro

    2016-11-01

    Nakayama's shadow theory first discussed the diffraction by a perfectly conducting grating in a planar mounting. In the theory, a new formulation by use of a scattering factor was proposed. This paper focuses on the middle regions of a multilayered dielectric grating placed in conical mounting. Applying the shadow theory to the matrix eigenvalues method, we compose new transformation and improved propagation matrices of the shadow theory for conical mounting. Using these matrices and scattering factors, being the basic quantity of diffraction amplitudes, we formulate a new description of three-dimensional scattering fields which is available even for cases where the eigenvalues are degenerate in any region. Some numerical examples are given for cases where the eigenvalues are degenerate in the middle regions.

  12. Born-Infeld determinantal gravity and the taming of the conical singularity in 3-dimensional spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fiorini, Franco, E-mail: franco@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-08-30

    In the context of Born-Infeld determinantal gravity formulated in an n-dimensional spacetime with absolute parallelism, we found an exact 3-dimensional vacuum circular symmetric solution without cosmological constant consisting in a rotating spacetime with non-singular behavior. The space behaves at infinity as the conical geometry typical of 3-dimensional General Relativity without cosmological constant. However, the solution has no conical singularity because the space ends at a minimal circle that no freely falling particle can ever reach in a finite proper time. The space is curved, but no divergences happen since the curvature invariants vanish at both asymptotic limits. Remarkably, this very mechanism also forbids the existence of closed timelike curves in such a spacetime.

  13. Born-Infeld determinantal gravity and the taming of the conical singularity in 3-dimensional spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2010-01-01

    In the context of Born-Infeld determinantal gravity formulated in an n-dimensional spacetime with absolute parallelism, we found an exact 3-dimensional vacuum circular symmetric solution without cosmological constant consisting in a rotating spacetime with non-singular behavior. The space behaves at infinity as the conical geometry typical of 3-dimensional General Relativity without cosmological constant. However, the solution has no conical singularity because the space ends at a minimal circle that no freely falling particle can ever reach in a finite proper time. The space is curved, but no divergences happen since the curvature invariants vanish at both asymptotic limits. Remarkably, this very mechanism also forbids the existence of closed timelike curves in such a spacetime.

  14. The spectra of conical bubble sonoluminescence in 1,2-propanediol and glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shoujie; Jing Ha; Li Xuechen; Li Qing; Dong Lifang; Wang, Long

    2007-01-01

    A conical bubble straight tube apparatus was set up to study sonoluminescence. The spectra of conical bubble sonoluminescence for 1,2-propanediol and glycol were detected. The results show that the luminescence is intense, and the spectra consist of a broad background on which five clear sequences of Swan bands and three sequences of the B 2 Σ + → X 2 Σ + transition of CN are superimposed. A band assigned to the A 2 Δ → X 2 Π transition of CH was also measured and the vibrational and rotational structures of Swan bands could be resolved. The origin of the C* 2 and C 2 H* is discussed. Finally, the achieved molecular vibrational temperature is estimated to be about 5400 ± 350 K

  15. ANALYSIS OF RIBBONING ON CONICAL YARN PACKAGE WOUND BY OPENEND SPINNING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul FETTAHOV

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Ribboning , one of the common faults in yarn packages, is mathematically analysed. If yarn is repeatly laid on top of or along the same path as the previously wound yarn, this duplication of yarn path on the package creates a defect known as ribboning. The number of turns of package (n per double traverse of yarn guide is calculated in two different way One is calculated the length of a coil on the package and total length of yarn in a double traverse; the other is considered transmission rate between drum and conical yarn package The result of two different approach is similar and the probable diameter of conical yarn package which ribboning is occurred is calculated and used on Schalafhorst-Autocore OE spinning machines.

  16. Numerical analysis for the flow field past a two-staged conical orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, You Gon

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the paper was to measure the pressure drop and to investigate the recirculation region of the conical orifices used in Kwang-yang Iron and Steel Company. The flow field with water used as a working fluid was the turbulent flow for Reynolds number of 2x10 4 . The effective parameters for the pressure drop and the recirculation region were the conical orifice's inclined angle (θ) against the wall, the interval(L) between orifices, the relative angle of rotation(α) of the orifices, the shape of the orifice's hole(circle, rectangle, triangle) having the same area. It was found that the shape of the orifice's hold affected the pressure drop and the flow field a lot. But the other parameters did not make much differences to the pressure drop. The PISO algorithm with FLUENT code was employed

  17. Emission performance and combustion efficiency of a conical fluidized-bed combustor firing various biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permchart, W.; Kouprianov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study on combustion of three distinct biomass fuels (sawdust, rice husk and pre-dried sugar cane bagasse) in a single fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) with a conical bed using silica sand as the inert bed material. Temperature, CO, NO and O 2 concentrations along the combustor height as well as in flue (stack) gas were measured in the experimental tests. The effects of fuel properties and operating conditions (load and excess air) on these variables were investigated. Both CO and NO axial profiles were found to have a maximum whose location divides conventionally the combustor volume into formation (lower) and reduction (upper) regions for these pollutants. Based on CO emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash, the combustion efficiency of the conical FBC was quantified for the selected biomass fuels fired under different operating conditions. (Author)

  18. Thermal response of an aeroassisted orbital-transfer vehicle with a conical drag brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    As an aeroassisted orbital-transfer vehicle (AOTV) goes through an aerobraking maneuver, a significant amount of heat is generated. In this paper, the thermal response of a specific AOTV to this aerobrake heating is examined. The vehicle has a 70 deg, conical drag-brake heat shield attached to a cylindrical body which contains the payload. The heat shield is made of silica fabric. The heat-shield thickness is varied from that of a thin cloth to a 1.5-cm blanket. The fabric thickness, the radiation absorptivity of the vehicle surface materials, and radiation from the wake are all significant parameters in the thermal response to the heating produced by the braking maneuver. The maximum temperatures occur in the vicinity of the interface between the body and the conical heat shield.

  19. Thermal Response of an Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle with a Conical Drag Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    As an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) goes through an aerobraking maneuver a significant amount of heat is generated. In this paper, the thermal response of a specific AOTV to this aerobrake heating is examined. The vehicle has a 70-deg, Conical drag-brake heat shield attached to a cylindrical body which contains the payload. The heat shield is made of ceramic fabric its thickness is varied from that of a thin cloth to a 1.5-cm blanket. The fabric thickness, the radiation absorptivity of the vehicle surface materials, and radiation from the wake are all significant parameters in the thermal response to the heating produced by the braking maneuver. The maximum temperatures occur In the vicinity of the interface between the body and the conical heat shield.

  20. High-Efficiency Fog Collector: Water Unidirectional Transport on Heterogeneous Rough Conical Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Lin, Yucai; Zhang, Miaoxin; Shi, Weiwei; Zheng, Yongmei

    2016-12-27

    An artificial periodic roughness-gradient conical copper wire (PCCW) can be fabricated by inspiration from cactus spines and wet spider silks. PCCW can harvest fog on periodic points of the conical surface from air and transports the drops for a long distance without external force, which is attributed to dynamic as-released energy generated from drop deformation in drop coalescence, in addition to both gradients of geometric curve (inducing Laplace pressure) and periodic roughness (inducing surface energy difference). It is found that the ability of fog collection can be related to various tilt-angle wires, thus a fog collector with an array system of PCCWs is further designed to achieve a continuous process of efficient water collection. As a result, the effect of water collection on PCCWs is better than previous results. These findings are significant to develop and design materials with water collection and water transport for promising application in fogwater systems to ease the water crisis.

  1. Conical Refraction of Elastic Waves by Anisotropic Metamaterials and Application for Parallel Translation of Elastic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young Kwan; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young

    2017-08-30

    Conical refraction, which is quite well-known in electromagnetic waves, has not been explored well in elastic waves due to the lack of proper natural elastic media. Here, we propose and design a unique anisotropic elastic metamaterial slab that realizes conical refraction for horizontally incident longitudinal or transverse waves; the single-mode wave is split into two oblique coupled longitudinal-shear waves. As an interesting application, we carried out an experiment of parallel translation of an incident elastic wave system through the anisotropic metamaterial slab. The parallel translation can be useful for ultrasonic non-destructive testing of a system hidden by obstacles. While the parallel translation resembles light refraction through a parallel plate without angle deviation between entry and exit beams, this wave behavior cannot be achieved without the engineered metamaterial because an elastic wave incident upon a dissimilar medium is always split at different refraction angles into two different modes, longitudinal and shear.

  2. Theoretical interpretation of upstreaming electrons and elevated conics on auroral field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Schriver, D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent VIKING satellite observations in the auroral zone have shown the association of elevated ion conics (conics with a low energy cutoff above zero) with upward streaming electrons in the presence of low frequency electric field fluctuations. A self-consistent particle simulation was developed which assumed the presence of a steady state electric field on auroral zone field lines capable of accelerating ions up the magnetic field lines. Results from this study show that a low frequency ion-ion two stream instability can be excited. This low frequency instability creates a fluctuating electric field which heats the ions oblique to the magnetic field forming distributions similar to the elevated ion comics. The ion-ion waves also interact resonantly with electrons and accelerates them in the direction of the ion beam

  3. The universe of conics from the ancient Greeks to 21st century developments

    CERN Document Server

    Glaeser, Georg; Odehnal, Boris

    2016-01-01

    This text presents the classical theory of conics in a modern form. It includes many novel results that are not easily accessible elsewhere. The approach combines synthetic and analytic methods to derive projective, affine and metrical properties, covering both Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. With more than two thousand years of history, conic sections play a fundamental role in numerous fields of mathematics and physics, with applications to mechanical engineering, architecture, astronomy, design and computer graphics. This text will be invaluable to undergraduate mathematics students, those in adjacent fields of study, and anyone with an interest in classical geometry. Augmented with more than three hundred fifty figures and photographs, this innovative text will enhance your understanding of projective geometry, linear algebra, mechanics, and differential geometry, with careful exposition and many illustrative exercises. Authors Hellmuth Stachel, born 1942, got his PhD and habilitation in geometry ...

  4. BALL KINEMATICS IN FINE POLISHING BETWEEN MISALIGNED DISKS IN CONIC OPENINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Shchetnikovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers ball kinematics in polishing between misaligned disks rotating with equal angular velocity; one of these disks has conic openings. Analytical dependences have been obtained for calculation of an angular velocity and ball sliding speed in the conic opening. It has been revealed that at a constant contact of a ball with elastic coating of a flat disk and absence of vibrations in the technological system an instantaneous axis of ball rotation does not change its position in the moving ball. It has been ascertained that when a ball is in contact with a flat disk having elastic coating with grooves changes in the position of ball rotation instantaneous axis have a regular character and do not depend on vibrations in the technological system.

  5. Interaction of a conical shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, S. L.; Gai, S. L.

    The paper reports an investigation on the interaction of an incident conical shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. Although a conical shock theoretically creates a hyperbolic shock trace on the flat plate, the line joining all the experimental interaction origins takes a different form due to varying upstream influence. The existence of strong pressure gradients in the spanwise direction after the shock leads to the boundary-layer twist. A model based on the upstream influence of the shock when combined with McCabe's secondary-flow theory showed separation to occur at an external flow deflection of 11.8 deg. The oil flow measurements however show this to occur at 9.2 deg. This discrepancy is of the same order as that found by McCabe. Detailed data involving Schlieren and shadowgraph photography, surface-flow visualization, and surface-pressure measurements are presented.

  6. Geometrical pinning of magnetic vortices induced by a deficit angle on a surface: Anisotropic spins on a conic space background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura-Melo, W.A.; Pereira, A.R.; Mol, L.A.S.; Pires, A.S.T.

    2007-01-01

    We study magnetic vortex-like excitations lying on a conic space background. Two types of them are obtained. Their energies appear to be linearly dependent on the conical aperture parameter, besides of being logarithmically divergent with the sample size. In addition, we realize a geometrical-like pinning of the vortex, say, it is energetically favorable for it to nucleate around the conical apex. We also study the problem of two vortices on the cone and obtain an interesting effect on such a geometry: excitations of the same charge, then repealing each other, may nucleate around the apex for suitable cone apertures. We also pay attention to the problem of the vortex pair and how its dissociation temperature depends upon conical geometry

  7. The flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Zayed, M.F.; Samy, M.; Roberts, William L.; Mansour, Mohy S.

    2015-01-01

    The stability limits, the stabilization mechanism, and the flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed methane flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with air co-flow have been investigated and presented in this work

  8. Graphical Derivatives and Stability Analysis for Parameterized Equilibria with Conic Constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mordukhovich, B. S.; Outrata, Jiří; Ramírez, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 687-704 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Variational analysis and optimization * Parameterized equilibria * Conic constraints * Sensitivity and stability analysis * Solution maps * Graphical derivatives * Normal and tangent cones Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/outrata-0449259.pdf

  9. Inverse truss design as a conic mathematical program with equilibrium constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočvara, Michal; Outrata, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2017), s. 1329-1350 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : conic optimization * truss topology optimization * mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.781, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/kocvara-0477818.pdf

  10. Loads experiments study on two-story RC box and truncated conical walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asega, H.; Iizuka, S.; Kurihara, I.; Kubo, T.

    1987-01-01

    The failure modes of the two specimens were the sliding shear failure. The two specimens showed almost equal deformation at the maximum shear strength. The ratio of the flexural deformation in the deformation of the truncated conical was larger than that of the box wall. The ratio of the shear deformation in the deformation of the two-story RC box wall was larger than that of the flexural deformation. (orig./HP)

  11. Conical refraction and formation of multiring focal image with Laguerre-Gauss light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Viktor

    2011-08-01

    For a light beam focused through a biaxial crystal along one of its optical axes, the effect of internal conical refraction in the crystal leads to the formation in the focal image plane of two bright rings separated by a dark ring. It is shown that, with circularly polarized Laguerre-Gauss LG(0)(ℓ) beams entering the crystal, this classical double-ring pattern is transformed into a multiring one consisting of ℓ+2 bright rings. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Electro-optical study of nanoscale Al-Si-truncated conical photodetector with subwavelength aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelits, Matityahu; Mandelbaum, Yaakov; Chelly, Avraham; Karsenty, Avi

    2017-10-01

    A type of silicon photodiode has been designed and simulated to probe the optical near field and detect evanescent waves. These waves convey subwavelength resolution. This photodiode consists of a truncated conical shaped, silicon Schottky diode having a subwavelength aperture of 150 nm. Electrical and electro-optical simulations have been conducted. These results are promising toward the fabrication of a new generation of photodetector devices.

  13. Radial-firing optical fiber tip containing conical-shaped air-pocket for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ryu, Yong-Tak; Son, Dong Hoon; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Han, Won-Taek

    2015-08-10

    We report a novel radial-firing optical fiber tip containing a conical-shaped air-pocket fabricated by deforming a hollow optical fiber using electric arc-discharge process. The hollow optical fiber was fusion spliced with a conventional optical fiber, simultaneously deforming into the intagliated conical-shaped region along the longitudinal fiber-axis of the fiber due to the gradual collapse of the cavity of the hollow optical fiber. Then the distal-end of the hollow optical fiber was sealed by the additional arc-discharge in order to obstruct the inflow of an external bio-substance or liquid to the inner air surface during the surgical operations, resulting in the formation of encased air-pocket in the silica glass fiber. Due to the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the conical-shaped air surface, the laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) was deflected to the circumferential direction up to 87 degree with respect to the fiber-axis.

  14. Torsional Vibrations of a Conic Shaft with Opposite Tapers Carrying Arbitrary Concentrated Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the exact solution for free torsional vibrations of a linearly tapered circular shaft carrying a number of concentrated elements. First of all, the equation of motion for free torsional vibration of a conic shaft is transformed into a Bessel equation, and, based on which, the exact displacement function in terms of Bessel functions is obtained. Next, the equations for compatibility of deformations and equilibrium of torsional moments at each attaching point (including the shaft ends between the concentrated elements and the conic shaft with positive and negative tapers are derived. From the last equations, a characteristic equation of the form is obtained. Then, the natural frequencies of the torsional shaft are determined from the determinant equation , and, corresponding to each natural frequency, the column vector for the integration constants, , is obtained from the equation . Substitution of the last integration constants into the associated displacement functions gives the corresponding mode shape of the entire conic shaft. To confirm the reliability of the presented theory, all numerical results obtained from the exact method are compared with those obtained from the conventional finite element method (FEM and good agreement is achieved.

  15. Conical evaporator and liquid-return wick model for vapor anode, multi-tube AMTEC cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed, 2-D thermal-hydraulic model for conical and flat evaporators and the liquid sodium return artery in PX-type AMTEC cells was developed, which predicts incipient dryout at the evaporator wick surface. Results obtained at fixed hot and cold side temperatures showed that the flat evaporator provided a slightly lower vapor pressure, but reached the capillary limit at higher temperature. The loss of performance due to partial recondensation over up to 20% of the wick surface of the deep conical evaporators was offset by the larger surface area available for evaporation, providing a slightly higher vapor pressure. Model results matched the PX-3A cell's experimental data of electrical power output, but the predicted temperature of the cell's conical evaporator was consistently ~50 K above measurements. A preliminary analysis indicated that sodium vapor leakage in the cell (through microcracks in the BASE tubes' walls or brazes) may explain the difference between predicted and measured evaporator temperatures in PX-3A. .

  16. Energy-flux characterization of conical and space-time coupled wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Couairon, A.; Faccio, D.; Trapani, P. Di

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of energy density flux as a characterization tool for the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses with spatiotemporal coupling. In contrast with calculations for the Poynting vector, those for energy density flux are derived in the local frame moving at the velocity of the envelope of the wave packet under examination and do not need knowledge of the magnetic field. We show that the energy flux defined from a paraxial propagation equation follows specific geometrical connections with the phase front of the optical wave packet, which demonstrates that the knowledge of the phase fronts amounts to the measurement of the energy flux. We perform a detailed numerical study of the energy density flux in the particular case of conical waves, with special attention paid to stationary-envelope conical waves (X or O waves). A full characterization of linear conical waves is given in terms of their energy flux. We extend the definition of this concept to the case of nonlinear propagation in Kerr media with nonlinear losses.

  17. Fabrication of hydrogel-coated single conical nanochannels exhibiting controllable ion rectification characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Huacheng; Yang, Zhe; Zhou, Jianjun; Wen, Liping; Li, Lin; Jiang, Lei

    2015-03-07

    Heterogeneous nanochannel materials that endow new functionalities different to the intrinsic properties of two original nanoporous materials have wide potential applications in nanofluidics, energy conversion, and biosensors. Herein, we report novel, interesting hydrogel-composited nanochannel devices with regulatable ion rectification characteristics. The heterogeneous nanochannel devices were constructed by selectively coating the tip side, base side, or both sides of a single conical nanochannel membrane with thin agar hydrogel layers. The tunable ion current rectification of the nanochannels in the three different coating states was systematically demonstrated by current-voltage (I-V) curves. The asymmetric ionic transport property of the conical nanochannel was further strengthened in the tip-coating state and weakened in the base-coating state, whereas the conical nanochannel showed nearly symmetric ionic transport in the dual-coating state. Repeated experiments presented insight into the good stability and reversibility of the three coating states of the hydrogel-nanochannel-integrated systems. This work, as an example, may provide a new strategy to further design and develop multifunctional gel-nanochannel heterogeneous smart porous nanomaterials.

  18. A truncated conical beam model for analysis of the vibration of rat whiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenyi; Kan, Qianhua; Kergrene, Kenan; Kang, Guozheng; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-08-09

    A truncated conical beam model is developed to study the vibration behaviour of a rat whisker. Translational and rotational springs are introduced to better represent the constraint conditions at the base of the whiskers in a living rat. Dimensional analysis shows that the natural frequency of a truncated conical beam with generic spring constraints at its ends is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass density. Under all the combinations of the classical free, pinned, sliding or fixed boundary conditions of a truncated conical beam, it is proved that the natural frequency can be expressed as f = α(rb/L(2))E/ρ and the frequency coefficient α only depends on the ratio of the radii at the two ends of the beam. The natural frequencies of a representative rat whisker are predicted for two typical situations: freely whisking in air and the tip touching an object. Our numerical results show that there exists a window where the natural frequencies of a rat whisker are very sensitive to the change of the rotational constraint at the base. This finding is also confirmed by the numerical results of 18 whiskers with their data available from literature. It can be concluded that the natural frequencies of a rat whisker can be adjusted within a wide range through manipulating the constraints of the follicle on the rat base by a behaving animal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An assessment of a conical horn waveguide to represent the human eardrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Taylor N.; Schnetzer, Lucia; Brister, Eileen; Yates, Charles W.; Withnell, Robert H.

    2018-05-01

    This study examined a model of the acoustic input impedance of the ear that includes a waveguide model of the eardrum. The eardrum was modeled as a lossless conical-horn with rigid walls. The ear canal was modeled as a one-dimensional lossy transmission line. The output impedance of the eardrum, the middle ear, and the cochlea, was modeled as a circuit analog. The model was fit to acoustic input impedance data from human ears using a nonlinear least-squares fit. The impact of a conical-horn shape for the eardrum was quantified by comparison with the eardrum modeled as a near-flat surface. The model provided a good match to the data over the frequency range examined. A conical-horn model of the human eardrum provided gain at high frequencies, most notably above 1–2 kHz, with a broader middle-ear frequency response. This finding may suggest that eardrum shape plays an important role in sound transmission to the cochlea.

  20. Analysis of solar water heater with parabolic dish concentrator and conical absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, G.; Kumar, P.; Anwar, M.; Mohanraj, T.

    2017-06-01

    This research focuses on developing novel technique for a solar water heating system. The novel solar system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, conical absorber and water heater. In this system, the conical absorber tube directly absorbs solar radiation from the sun and the parabolic dish concentrator reflects the solar radiations towards the conical absorber tube from all directions, therefore both radiations would significantly improve the thermal collector efficiency. The working fluid water is stored at the bottom of the absorber tubes. The absorber tubes get heated and increases the temperature of the working fluid inside of the absorber tube and causes the working fluid to partially evaporate. The partially vaporized working fluid moves in the upward direction due to buoyancy effect and enters the heat exchanger. When fresh water passes through the heat exchanger, temperature of the vapour decreases through heat exchange. This leads to condensation of the vapour and forms liquid phase. The working fluid returns to the bottom of the collector absorber tube by gravity. Hence, this will continue as a cyclic process inside the system. The proposed investigation shows an improvement of collector efficiency, enhanced heat transfer and a quality water heating system.

  1. Super-Cavitating Flow Around Two-Dimensional Conical, Spherical, Disc and Stepped Disc Cavitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooraj, S.; Chandrasekharan, Vaishakh; Robson, Rony S.; Bhanu Prakash, S.

    2017-08-01

    A super-cavitating object is a high speed submerged object that is designed to initiate a cavitation bubble at the nose which extends past the aft end of the object, substantially reducing the skin friction drag that would be present if the sides of the object were in contact with the liquid in which the object is submerged. By reducing the drag force the thermal energy consumption to move faster can also be minimised. The super-cavitation behavioural changes with respect to Cavitators of various geometries have been studied by varying the inlet velocity. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis has been carried out by applying k-ε turbulence model. The variation of drag coefficient, cavity length with respect to cavitation number and inlet velocity are analyzed. Results showed conical Cavitator with wedge angle of 30° has lesser drag coefficient and cavity length when compared to conical Cavitators with wedge angles 45° and 60°, spherical, disc and stepped disc Cavitators. Conical cavitator 60° and disc cavitator have the maximum cavity length but with higher drag coefficient. Also there is significant variation of supercavitation effect observed between inlet velocities of 32 m/s to 40 m/s.

  2. The Expanding Bipolar Conic Shell of the Symbiotic Star AG Peg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Jae; Hyung, Siek

    2018-06-01

    Symbiotic stars are the most interesting since some systems are believed to host the most massive white dwarf, like SN Ia progenitors. Most recently, Lee and Hyung (2018, LH18) proposed a bipolar conic shell structure for the observed high expansion Hα and Hβ line profiles and other double peak lines observed in 1998 September (phase φ = 10.24): the physical conditions for the white dwarf luminosity and the ionized HII zone, responsible for double Gaussian optical lines including Balmer and Lyman line fluxes, were taken from the P-I model with gas density, nH = 109.85 cm-3 , while the column density for the scattering neutral zone was derived from the broader line components based on the result by Monte Carlo simulations. In this investigation, we examined whether the expanding shells of the bipolar conical geometry as proposed by LH18 would be able to form the other Hα and Hβ line profiles observed in other phases, φ = 11.56 and 11.98 (in 2001 August and 2002 August). We look into the kinematical property of the bipolar conic shell structure responsible for the HII and HI zones and then we discuss the secular variation of the broad line feature and the origin of the bipolar cone, i.e., part of a common envelope formed through the mass inflows from the giant star.

  3. Matrix analysis of the asymmetrical bending of conical shell-beams and their singular assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiedrzynski, A.; Coppens, L.

    1979-01-01

    As an alternative to refined finite element methodology a new method has been derived to investigate in much detail the linear static behaviour of singular assemblies of moderately thick conical shells of revolution submitted to non-axisymmetrical loads at their ends (an assembly of conical sections is said to be singular when the geometrical discontinuities are deformable, i.e. not stiffened by diaphragms). A detailed preliminary study has shown that the currently adopted simplifying assumptions in shell theories for moderate thickness lead to unconsistencies at any departure from axisymmetric loading. Therefore, FLUEGGE's general shell theory has been applied to a conical section, yielding a set of mixed first order differential equations in terms of displacements and conjuguated stress resultants well suited for a matrix formalism. The numerical integration is based on a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and provides an 8 x 8 mixed matrix. This matrix contains complete information on the distribution of the displacements (exhibiting the warping and ovalization of the cross-section) and of the stress resultants along the meridian; also the stiffness coefficients proceed from it. (orig.)

  4. Influence of abutment materials on the implant-abutment joint stability in internal conical connection type implant systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Jae-Young; Yang, Dong-Seok; Huh, Jung-Bo; Heo, Jae-Chan; Yun, Mi-Jung; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the influence of abutment materials on the stability of the implant-abutment joint in internal conical connection type implant systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS Internal conical connection type implants, cement-retained abutments, and tungsten carbide-coated abutment screws were used. The abutments were fabricated with commercially pure grade 3 titanium (group T3), commercially pure grade 4 titanium (group T4), or Ti-6Al-4V (group TA) (n=5, each). In order to assess ...

  5. Analytical and experimental position stability of the abutment in different dental implant systems with a conical implant?abutment connection

    OpenAIRE

    Semper-Hogg, Wiebke; Kraft, Silvan; Stiller, Sebastian; Mehrhof, Juergen; Nelson, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Position stability of the abutment should be investigated in four implant systems with a conical implant?abutment connection. Materials and methods Previously developed formulas and an established experimental setup were used to determine the position stability of the abutment in the four implant systems with a conical implant?abutment connection and different positional index designs: The theoretical rotational freedom was calculated by using the dimensions of one randomly selecte...

  6. Two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy at a conical intersection: A two-mode pyrazine model with dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, Matthieu; Egorova, Dassia

    2016-12-20

    The multi-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of ultrafast nuclear dynamics at conical intersections (CI) is an emerging field of investigation, which profits also from the recent extension of the techniques to the UV domain. We present a detailed computational study of oscillatory signatures in two-dimensional (2D) photon-echo spectroscopy (also known as 2D electronic spectroscopy, 2DES) for the two-mode pyrazine model with dissipation. Conventional 2D signals as well as the resulting beating maps are considered. Although of a reduced character, the model captures quite well all the main signatures of the excited-state dynamics of the molecule. Due to the ultrafast relaxation via the CI and no excited-state absorption from the low-lying dark state, the oscillatory components of the signal are found to be predominantly determined by the ground state bleach contribution. They reflect, therefore, the ground-state vibrational coherence induced in the Raman active mode. Beating maps provide a way to experimentally differentiate between ground state bleach and stimulated emission oscillatory components. The ultrafast decay of the latter constitutes a clear indirect signature of the CI. In the considered model, because of the sign properties of the involved transition dipole moments, the dominance of the ground-state coherence leads to anti-correlated oscillations of cross peaks located at symmetric positions with respect to the main diagonal.

  7. An investigation of the Performance of a Conical Solar Water Heater in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaliche, Nessreen; Ayhan, Teoman; Fathallah, Raouf

    2017-11-01

    Domestic water heater corresponds to 25% of the house energy consumption and can play an important role to reduce energy house expenses. Solar energy offers a preferred renewable energy resource because of its economic and environmental advantages. It is considered the best alternative to reduce domestic water heater energy consumption cost. Converting solar energy into heat can be considered among the simplest used systems. Solar thermal conversion is more efficient than solar electrical direct conversion method. Solar water heater systems are particularly easy to use and to repair. The integrated conical solar collector water heater (ICSCWH) is so far the easiest among water heating systems. The ICSCWH converts directly and efficiently the solar flux into heat. In order to expand the utilization of ICSCWH systems, many design modifications have been examined and analyzed. This study provides an experimental investigation and mathematical simulation of an ICSCWH system equipped with a glass cover resulting in the increase of the maximum absorption. Integrating the cone-shaped heat collector with an aluminum spiral pipe flow system may enhance the efficiency of the proposed system. In order to maximize the solar radiation of the system, the solar water heater has been designed in a conical shape, which removes the need to change its orientation toward the sun to receive the maximum sun radiation during the day. In this system, the heating of water has been obtained using the spiral pipe flow without the use of the solar cells and mirrors in order to reduce the total cost. The storage water tank of this system is coupled with a conical solar collector. Based on the above design, the solar water heater has been fabricated and tested. In addition, an analytical modeling approach aiming to predict the flow rate within the conical integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) and its efficiency, was developed. Modeling through a numerical simulation approach

  8. Conical Magnetic Bearings Developed for Active Stall Control in Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Kascak, Albert F.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Buccieri, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Active stall control is a current research area at the NASA Glenn Research Center that offers a great benefit in specific fuel consumption by allowing the gas turbine to operate beyond the onset of stall. Magnetic bearings are being investigated as a new method to perform active stall control. This enabling global aviation safety technology would result in improved fuel efficiency and decreased carbon dioxide emissions, as well as improve safety and reliability by eliminating oil-related delays and failures of engine components, which account for 40 percent of the commercial aircraft departure delays. Active stall control works by perturbing the flow in front of the compressor stage such that it cancels the pressure wave, which causes the compressor to go into stall. Radial magnetic bearings are able to whirl the shaft so that variations in blade tip leakage would flow upstream causing a perturbation wave that could cancel the rotating stall cell. Axial or thrust magnetic bearings cannot be used to cancel the surge mode in the compressor because they have a very low bandwidth and thus cannot modulate at a high enough frequency. Frequency response is limited because the thrust runner cannot be laminated. To improve the bandwidth of magnetic thrust bearings, researchers must use laminations to suppress the eddy currents. A conical magnetic bearing can be laminated, resulting in increased bandwidth in the axial direction. In addition, this design can produce both radial and thrust force in a single bearing, simplifying the installation. The proposed solution combines the radial and thrust bearing into one design that can be laminated--a conical magnetic bearing. The new conical magnetic bearing test rig, funded by a Glenn fiscal year 2002 Director's Discretionary Fund, was needed because none of the existing rigs has an axial degree of freedom. The rotor bearing configuration will simulate that of the main shaft on a gas turbine engine. One conical magnetic bearing

  9. An investigation of the Performance of a Conical Solar Water Heater in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaaliche Nessreen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water heater corresponds to 25% of the house energy consumption and can play an important role to reduce energy house expenses. Solar energy offers a preferred renewable energy resource because of its economic and environmental advantages. It is considered the best alternative to reduce domestic water heater energy consumption cost. Converting solar energy into heat can be considered among the simplest used systems. Solar thermal conversion is more efficient than solar electrical direct conversion method. Solar water heater systems are particularly easy to use and to repair. The integrated conical solar collector water heater (ICSCWH is so far the easiest among water heating systems. The ICSCWH converts directly and efficiently the solar flux into heat. In order to expand the utilization of ICSCWH systems, many design modifications have been examined and analyzed. This study provides an experimental investigation and mathematical simulation of an ICSCWH system equipped with a glass cover resulting in the increase of the maximum absorption. Integrating the cone-shaped heat collector with an aluminum spiral pipe flow system may enhance the efficiency of the proposed system. In order to maximize the solar radiation of the system, the solar water heater has been designed in a conical shape, which removes the need to change its orientation toward the sun to receive the maximum sun radiation during the day. In this system, the heating of water has been obtained using the spiral pipe flow without the use of the solar cells and mirrors in order to reduce the total cost. The storage water tank of this system is coupled with a conical solar collector. Based on the above design, the solar water heater has been fabricated and tested. In addition, an analytical modeling approach aiming to predict the flow rate within the conical integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH and its efficiency, was developed. Modeling through a numerical

  10. STABLE CONIC-HELICAL ORBITS OF PLANETS AROUND BINARY STARS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oks, E. [Physics Department, 206 Allison Lab., Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2015-05-10

    Studies of planets in binary star systems are especially important because it was estimated that about half of binary stars are capable of supporting habitable terrestrial planets within stable orbital ranges. One-planet binary star systems (OBSS) have a limited analogy to objects studied in atomic/molecular physics: one-electron Rydberg quasimolecules (ORQ). Specifically, ORQ, consisting of two fully stripped ions of the nuclear charges Z and Z′ plus one highly excited electron, are encountered in various plasmas containing more than one kind of ion. Classical analytical studies of ORQ resulted in the discovery of classical stable electronic orbits with the shape of a helix on the surface of a cone. In the present paper we show that despite several important distinctions between OBSS and ORQ, it is possible for OBSS to have stable planetary orbits in the shape of a helix on a conical surface, whose axis of symmetry coincides with the interstellar axis; the stability is not affected by the rotation of the stars. Further, we demonstrate that the eccentricity of the stars’ orbits does not affect the stability of the helical planetary motion if the center of symmetry of the helix is relatively close to the star of the larger mass. We also show that if the center of symmetry of the conic-helical planetary orbit is relatively close to the star of the smaller mass, a sufficiently large eccentricity of stars’ orbits can switch the planetary motion to the unstable mode and the planet would escape the system. We demonstrate that such planets are transitable for the overwhelming majority of inclinations of plane of the stars’ orbits (i.e., the projections of the planet and the adjacent start on the plane of the sky coincide once in a while). This means that conic-helical planetary orbits at binary stars can be detected photometrically. We consider, as an example, Kepler-16 binary stars to provide illustrative numerical data on the possible parameters and the

  11. Jet evolution in a dense medium: event-by-event fluctuations and multi-particle correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo, Miguel A.; Iancu, Edmond

    2017-01-01

    We study the gluon distribution produced via successive medium-induced branchings by an energetic jet propagating through a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma. We show that under suitable approximations, the jet evolution is a Markovian stochastic process, which is exactly solvable. For this process, we construct exact analytic solutions for all the n-point correlation functions describing the gluon distribution in the space of energy [M. A. Escobedo, E. Iancu, Event-by-event fluctuations in the medium-induced jet evolution, JHEP 05 (2016) 008. arXiv: (arXiv:1601.03629), doi: (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2016)008), M. A. Escobedo, E. Iancu, Multi-particle correlations and KNO scaling in the medium-induced jet evolution, JHEP 12 (2016) 104. arXiv: (arXiv:1609.06104), doi: (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2016)104)]. Using these results, we study the event-by-event distribution of the energy lost by the jet at large angles and of the multiplicities of the soft particles which carry this energy. We find that the event-by-event fluctuations are huge: the standard deviation in the energy loss is parametrically as large as its mean value [M. A. Escobedo, E. Iancu, Event-by-event fluctuations in the medium-induced jet evolution, JHEP 05 (2016) 008. arXiv: (arXiv:1601.03629), doi: (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2016)008)]. This has important consequences for the phenomenology of di-jet asymmetry in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC: it implies that the fluctuations in the branching process can contribute to the measured asymmetry on an equal footing with the geometry of the di-jet event (i.e. as the difference between the in-medium path lengths of the two jets). We compute the higher moments of the multiplicity distribution and identify a remarkable regularity known as Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling [M. A. Escobedo, E. Iancu, Multi-particle correlations and KNO scaling in the medium-induced jet evolution, JHEP 12 (2016) 104. arXiv: (arXiv:1609.06104), doi: (http

  12. Jet evolution in a dense medium: event-by-event fluctuations and multi-particle correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Miguel A.; Iancu, Edmond

    2017-11-01

    We study the gluon distribution produced via successive medium-induced branchings by an energetic jet propagating through a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma. We show that under suitable approximations, the jet evolution is a Markovian stochastic process, which is exactly solvable. For this process, we construct exact analytic solutions for all the n-point correlation functions describing the gluon distribution in the space of energy [M. A. Escobedo, E. Iancu, Event-by-event fluctuations in the medium-induced jet evolution, JHEP 05 (2016) 008. arXiv:arxiv:arXiv:1601.03629, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2016)008, M. A. Escobedo, E. Iancu, Multi-particle correlations and KNO scaling in the medium-induced jet evolution, JHEP 12 (2016) 104. arXiv:arxiv:arXiv:1609.06104, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2016)104]. Using these results, we study the event-by-event distribution of the energy lost by the jet at large angles and of the multiplicities of the soft particles which carry this energy. We find that the event-by-event fluctuations are huge: the standard deviation in the energy loss is parametrically as large as its mean value [M. A. Escobedo, E. Iancu, Event-by-event fluctuations in the medium-induced jet evolution, JHEP 05 (2016) 008. arXiv:arxiv:arXiv:1601.03629, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2016)008]. This has important consequences for the phenomenology of di-jet asymmetry in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC: it implies that the fluctuations in the branching process can contribute to the measured asymmetry on an equal footing with the geometry of the di-jet event (i.e. as the difference between the in-medium path lengths of the two jets). We compute the higher moments of the multiplicity distribution and identify a remarkable regularity known as Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling [M. A. Escobedo, E. Iancu, Multi-particle correlations and KNO scaling in the medium-induced jet evolution, JHEP 12 (2016) 104. arXiv:arxiv:arXiv:1609.06104, doi

  13. Association of waist circumference, body mass index and conicity index with cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Alborzi, Fatemeh; Salehi, Maryam; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2012-09-01

    In menopause, changes in body fat distribution lead to increasing risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the association of adiposity using the conicity index (CI), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia). The sample of this cross-sectional study was collected from June to October 2010 and 165 consecutive menopausal women who had attended the Health and Treatment Centre and Endocrine Research Centre of Firoozgar Hospital in Tehran, Iran were assessed. Age, weight, height, WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR), CI and fat mass were measured. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), fasting blood glucose, insulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were also determined. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Results showed that BMI was positively and significantly associated with SBP (r = 0.21; p = 0.009). WC was positively and significantly correlated with SBP (r = 0.26; p = 0.02) and DBP (r = 0.16; p = 0.05). WHR was also significantly and positively associated with SBP (r = 0.29; p = 0.001). Age and WC were associated with CI quartiles at the 0.05 significance level. The correlation of CI quartiles with SBP and weight were at the 0.01 significance level. We showed a significant association of WC with SBP and DBP, and that BMI could be an important determining factor of SBP. For assessing the association between CI and cardiovascular risk factors, future studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.

  14. Spheroidal and conical shapes of ferrofluid-filled capsules in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischnewski, Christian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the deformation of soft spherical elastic capsules filled with a ferrofluid in external uniform magnetic fields at fixed volume by a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. We develop a numerical iterative solution strategy based on nonlinear elastic shape equations to calculate the stretched capsule shape numerically and a coupled finite element and boundary element method to solve the corresponding magnetostatic problem and employ analytical linear response theory, approximative energy minimization, and slender-body theory. The observed deformation behavior is qualitatively similar to the deformation of ferrofluid droplets in uniform magnetic fields. Homogeneous magnetic fields elongate the capsule and a discontinuous shape transition from a spheroidal shape to a conical shape takes place at a critical field strength. We investigate how capsule elasticity modifies this hysteretic shape transition. We show that conical capsule shapes are possible but involve diverging stretch factors at the tips, which gives rise to rupture for real capsule materials. In a slender-body approximation we find that the critical susceptibility above which conical shapes occur for ferrofluid capsules is the same as for droplets. At small fields capsules remain spheroidal and we characterize the deformation of spheroidal capsules both analytically and numerically. Finally, we determine whether wrinkling of a spheroidal capsule occurs during elongation in a magnetic field and how it modifies the stretching behavior. We find the nontrivial dependence between the extent of the wrinkled region and capsule elongation. Our results can be helpful in quantitatively determining capsule or ferrofluid material properties from magnetic deformation experiments. All results also apply to elastic capsules filled with a dielectric liquid in an external uniform electric field.

  15. Three-dimensional free vibration of functionally graded truncated conical shells subjected to thermal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, P., E-mail: p_malekz@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fiouz, A.R.; Sobhrouyan, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) free vibration analysis of the functionally graded (FG) truncated conical shells subjected to thermal environment is presented. The material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent and graded in the radius direction, which can vary according to a simple power law distribution. The initial thermal stresses are obtained accurately by solving the thermoelastic equilibrium equations and by considering the two-dimensional axisymmetric temperature distribution in the shell. The differential quadrature method (DQM) as an efficient and accurate numerical tool is adopted to solve the thermal and thermo-mechanical governing equations. For this purpose, a mapping technique is employed to transform the cross section of the shell into the computational domain of DQM. The convergence behavior of the method is numerically demonstrated and comparison studies with the available solutions in the literature are performed. The effects of temperature dependence of material properties, geometrical parameters, material graded index, thermal and mechanical boundary conditions on the frequency parameters of the FG truncated conical shells are carried out. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D free vibration analysis of the functionally graded truncated conical shells is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two-dimensional axisymmetric temperature distribution in the shell is assumed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial thermal stresses due to thermal environment are evaluated accurately and included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Representing the effects of different parameters on the non-dimensional frequencies.

  16. Inversion of the conical Radon transform with vertices on a surface of revolution arising in an application of a Compton camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sunghwan

    2017-01-01

    A Compton camera has been introduced for use in single photon emission computed tomography to improve the low efficiency of a conventional gamma camera. In general, a Compton camera brings about the conical Radon transform. Here we consider a conical Radon transform with the vertices on a rotation symmetric set with respect to a coordinate axis. We show that this conical Radon transform can be decomposed into two transforms: the spherical sectional transform and the weighted fan beam transform. After finding inversion formulas for these two transforms, we provide an inversion formula for the conical Radon transform. (paper)

  17. Axial force imparted by a conical radiofrequency magneto-plasma thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, C.; Takahashi, K.; Boswell, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    Direct thrust measurements of a low pressure (∼0.133 Pa) conical radiofrequency (rf at 13.56 MHz) argon plasma source show a total axial force of about 5 mN for an effective rf power of 650 W and a maximum magnetic field of 0.018 T, of which a measured value of 2.5 mN is imparted by the magnetic nozzle. A simplified model of thrust including contributions from the electron pressure and from the magnetic field pressure is developed. The magnetic nozzle is modelled as a ''physical'' nozzle of increasing cross-sectional area.

  18. Separation and Extension of Cover Inequalities for Conic Quadratic Knapsack Constraints with Generalized Upper Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atamtürk, Alper; Muller, Laurent Flindt; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by addressing probabilistic 0-1 programs we study the conic quadratic knapsack polytope with generalized upper bound (GUB) constraints. In particular, we investigate separating and extending GUB cover inequalities. We show that, unlike in the linear case, determining whether a cover can...... be extended with a single variable is NP-hard. We describe and compare a number of exact and heuristic separation and extension algorithms which make use of the structure of the constraints. Computational experiments are performed for comparing the proposed separation and extension algorithms...

  19. LEPINOCONUS CHIOCCHINII GEN. N., N. SP., A CONICAL AGGLUTINATED FORAMINIFERA FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS OF ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERZIKA CRUZ-ABAD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new conical agglutinated foraminifer, Lepinoconus chiocchinii gen n., n. sp. from the lower Campanian shallow-water platform deposits of the Lepini Mountains (central Apennines, Italy, is described. It has a pseudo-keriothecal wall structure, uniserial arrangement of the adult chambers and multiple apertures. The exoskeleton is constituted by beams (main and intercalary continuous from one chamber to the next, while the endoskeleton bears pillars. The new taxon is included in the Coskinolinidae family. Lepinoconus chiocchinii gen. n., n. sp. is known from southern Italy, Greece and Albania.

  20. Charging a Capacitor from an External Fluctuating Potential using a Single Conical Nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Vicente; Ramirez, Patricio; Cervera, Javier; Nasir, Saima; Ali, Mubarak; Ensinger, Wolfgang; Mafe, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    We explore the electrical rectification of large amplitude fluctuating signals by an asymmetric nanostructure operating in aqueous solution. We show experimentally and theoretically that a load capacitor can be charged to voltages close to 1 V within a few minutes by converting zero time-average potentials of amplitudes in the range 0.5–3 V into average net currents using a single conical nanopore. This process suggests that significant energy conversion and storage from an electrically fluctuating environment is feasible with a nanoscale pore immersed in a liquid electrolyte solution, a system characteristic of bioelectronics interfaces, electrochemical cells, and nanoporous membranes. PMID:25830563

  1. On Implementing a Homogeneous Interior-Point Algorithm for Nonsymmetric Conic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Anders; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Hansen, Per Christian

    Based on earlier work by Nesterov, an implementation of a homogeneous infeasible-start interior-point algorithm for solving nonsymmetric conic optimization problems is presented. Starting each iteration from (the vicinity of) the central path, the method computes (nearly) primal-dual symmetric...... approximate tangent directions followed by a purely primal centering procedure to locate the next central primal-dual point. Features of the algorithm include that it makes use only of the primal barrier function, that it is able to detect infeasibilities in the problem and that no phase-I method is needed...

  2. The Power of Poincar\\'e: Elucidating the Hidden Symmetries in Focal Conic Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Gareth P.; Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A.; Kamien, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    Focal conic domains are typically the "smoking gun" by which smectic liquid crystalline phases are identified. The geometry of the equally-spaced smectic layers is highly generic but, at the same time, difficult to work with. In this Letter we develop an approach to the study of focal sets in smectics which exploits a hidden Poincar\\'e symmetry revealed only by viewing the smectic layers as projections from one-higher dimension. We use this perspective to shed light upon several classic focal...

  3. Study the Possibility for Manufacturing a Conical Pipe Thread by Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Evsyukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of operating oil wells showed that the weak point of tubing is a connecting thread.Currently, the pipe thread of the specified class is made using the technology of cutting. The process of cutting a thread leads to waste metal chips and cutting fibers. Therefore the idea arose to make a thread by the method of pressure shaping.The aim was to study the possibility for full filling of the threaded matrix profile.The study was conducted by means of mathematical modeling in the software complex DEFORM. The impact of technological and geometrical factors on the process of form change was in detail analyzed. Thus, a work-piece material was specified to be continuous, isotropic, homogeneous, viscous-plastic and a tool material was set as a hard one. The friction was speci-fied according to Prandtl-Siebel law with the friction factor of 0.3. The thread profile has been replaced by the annular grooves of the similar profile. The task was considered to be axisymmetric.Scientific novelty of received results consists in revealed regularities of the plastic de-formation process of the work-piece when forming a profile of the conical thread on the pipe in the process of its expansion with a conical punch.The simulation allowed us to obtain information about the stress-strain state of the work-piece and tool, about the nature of the metal flow during deformation, and about the strength parameters of the process.In particular, it was found that the work-piece metal is displaced along the pipe axis both in punch movement direction and in the opposite one. Thus, a mechanical end burr is formed. The article shows that to remove a mechanical end burr requires insertion of extra limit stop housing. The article also analyses distribution of stresses arising in the matrix at the final moment of deformation. It was proved that the highest stresses occur in the hollows of the threaded part of matrix. Thus, their absolute value does not exceed 470 MPa that

  4. Population branching in the conical intersection of the retinal chromophore revealed by multipulse ultrafast optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgrablić, Goran; Novello, Anna Maria; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2012-01-18

    The branching ratio of the excited-state population at the conical intersection between the S(1) and S(0) energy surfaces (Φ(CI)) of a protonated Schiff base of all-trans retinal in protic and aprotic solvents was studied by multipulse ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. In particular, pump-dump-probe experiments allowed to isolate the S(1) reactive state and to measure the photoisomerization time constant with unprecedented precision. Starting from these results, we demonstrate that the polarity of the solvent is the key factor influencing the Φ(CI) and the photoisomerization yield. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Optimal Allocation of Static Var Compensator via Mixed Integer Conic Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaohu [ORNL; Shi, Di [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Wang, Zhiwei [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Huang, Junhui [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Wang, Xu [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2017-01-01

    Shunt FACTS devices, such as, a Static Var Compensator (SVC), are capable of providing local reactive power compensation. They are widely used in the network to reduce the real power loss and improve the voltage profile. This paper proposes a planning model based on mixed integer conic programming (MICP) to optimally allocate SVCs in the transmission network considering load uncertainty. The load uncertainties are represented by a number of scenarios. Reformulation and linearization techniques are utilized to transform the original non-convex model into a convex second order cone programming (SOCP) model. Numerical case studies based on the IEEE 30-bus system demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed planning model.

  6. The Development and Numerical Analysis of the Conical Radiator Extrusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalczyk J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a newly developed method for single-operation extrusion of conical radiators. This is the author’s radiator manufacturing method being the subject of a patent application. The proposed method enables the manufacture of radiators either with or without an inner opening and with an integral plate. Selected results of numerical computations made within Forge®3D, a finite element method (FEM-based software program, were presented during the analysis of the process. A comparative analysis of the proposed manufacturing method using the double-sided extrusion method was also made.

  7. Scalar Green's functions in an Euclidean space with a conical-type line singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, M.E.X.; Linet, B.

    1994-01-01

    In an Euclidean space with a conical-type line singularity, we determine the Green's function for a charged massive scalar field interacting with a magnetic flux running through the line singularity. We give an integral expression of the Green's function and a local form in the neighbourhood of the point source, where it is the sum of the usual Green's function in Euclidean space and a regular term. As an application, we derive the vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the massless case for an arbitrary magnetic flux. (orig.)

  8. Multi-particle correlations and KNO scaling in the medium-induced jet evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo, Miguel A.; Iancu, Edmond [Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CNRS, CEA,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-12-20

    We study the gluon distribution produced via successive medium-induced branchings by an energetic jet propagating through a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma. We show that under suitable approximations the evolution of the jet can be described as a classical stochastic process, which is exactly solvable. For this process, we construct exact analytic solutions for all the n-point correlation functions (the n-body densities in the space of energy). The corresponding results for the one-point and the two-point functions were already known, but those for the higher-point functions are new. These results demonstrate strong correlations associated with the existence of common ancestors in the branching process. By integrating these n-point functions over the gluon energies, we deduce the mean gluon multiplicity 〈N〉 as well as the higher moments 〈N{sup p}〉 with p≥2. We find that the multiplicities of the soft gluons are parametrically large and show a remarkable regularity, known as Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling: the reduced moments 〈N{sup p}〉/〈N〉{sup p} are pure numbers, independent of any of the physical parameters of the problem. We recognize a special negative binomial distribution which is characterized by large statistical fluctuations. These predictions can be tested in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC, via event-by-event measurements of the di-jet asymmetry.

  9. Conical angles of ligands - compounds of elements of the 6(16) and 7(17) groups. Levelling effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imyanitov, N.S.

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of development of a unified system of electron and steric effects of ligand conical angles of 176 compounds R 2 X and RHal, where X=O, S, Se, Te; Hal=F, Cl, Br, I; R=H, Hal (only in the case of R 2 X), Alk or Ar, were calculated. A levelling effect of large X and Hal was pointed out: in the beginning of steric series the conical angles are determined by dimensions of X and Hal and not by R ones. Similar levelled values of conical angles for previously considered ligands on the basis of N, P, As, Sb, Bi, C, Si, Ge, Sn were also calculated

  10. Observation of Biological Tissues Using Common Path Optical Coherence Tomography with Gold Coated Conical Tip Lens Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, K; Sugiyama, J; Totsuka, M; Imanaka, S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a high lateral resolution common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography(OCT) system with the use of a chemically etched single mode fiber. In our experiments, single mode optical fiber for 1310nm was used for preparing the tapered tips. Our system used a conical microlens that was chemically etched by selective chemical etching technique using an etching solution of buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF). From experimental results, we verified that our proposed optical coherence tomography system could operate as a common-path Fourier domain OCT system and conical tip lens fiber was very useful for a high lateral resolution common-path Fourier domain OCT system. Furthermore, we could observe a surface of paramecium bursaria and symbiotic chlorella in the paramecium bursaria using gold coated conical-tip fiber in the water.

  11. Conical Stream of the Two-Sided Jets in NGC 4261 over the Range of 103–109 Schwarzschild Radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Nakahara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the jet width profile of of the nearby ( ∼ 30 Mpc AGN NGC 4261 for both the approaching jet and the counter jet at radial distances ranging from ∼ 10 3 – 10 9 Schwarzschild radius ( R S from the central engine. Our Very Large Array (VLA and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA observations reveal that the jets maintain a conical structure on both sides over the range 10 3 – 10 9 R S without any structural transition (i.e., parabolic to conical like in the approaching jet in M87. Thus, NGC 4261 will provide a unique opportunity to examine the conical jet hypothesis in blazars, while it may require some additional consideration on the acceleration and collimation process in AGN jets.

  12. Toward a general theory of conical intersections in systems of identical nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Sean P.; Mead, C. Alden

    1987-02-01

    It has been shown previously that the Herzberg-Longuet-Higgins sign change produced in Born-Oppenheimer electronic wave functions when the nuclei traverse a closed path around a conical intersection has implications for the symmetry of wave functions under permutations of identical nuclei. For systems of three or four identical nuclei, there are special features present which have facilitated the detailed analysis. The present paper reports progress toward a general theory for systems of n nuclei. For n=3 or 4, the two key functions which locate conical intersections and define compensating phase factors can conveniently be defined so as to transform under permutations according to a two-dimensional irreducible representation of the permutation group. Since such representations do not exist for n>4, we have chosen to develop a formalism in terms of lab-fixed electronic basis functions, and we show how to define the two key functions in principle. The functions so defined both turn out to be totally symmetric under permutations. We show how they can be used to define compensating phase factors so that all modified electronic wave functions are either totally symmetric or totally antisymmetric under permutations. A detailed analysis is made to cyclic permutations in the neighborhood of Dnh symmetry, which can be extended by continuity arguments to more general configurations, and criteria are obtained for sign changes. There is a qualitative discussion of the treatment of more general permutations.

  13. Conical surface textures formed by ion bombarding 2% Be-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.K.G.

    1991-01-01

    A homogeneous, micrometer-sized conical surface texture forms on 2% Be-Cu alloy which is bombarded with an argon beam produced by a Kaufman ion source. The dimensions of the features that form depend strongly on argon energy (from 250 to 1500 eV); argon fluence (10 19 to 10 20 ions cm -2 ); and argon flux (0.1 to 1 mA cm -2 ). The texture morphology depends less strongly on the background ambient (Mo versus graphite), earlier alloy heat treatments and the temperature during bombardment (100 o C and 450 o C). As the texture matures with increasing fluence, the number of large features increases at the expense of the number of small features. The observed relationship between texture formation and ion flux suggests that the evolution of these features is not adequately described by theories predicting that the mature conical side-wall angle is related to the angle of the maximum sputtering yield. These textured surfaces can be coated with other metals for a variety of possible applications including pulsed power Li + beam anodes; cold cathode field emission devices; optical absorbers and catalysis supports. (author)

  14. Angle dependent focal spot size of a conical X-ray target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed Raza, Hamid; Jin Kim, Hyun; Nam Kim, Hyun; Oh Cho, Sung

    2015-01-01

    Misaligned phantoms may severely affect the focal spot calculations. A method is proposed to determine the geometry of the X-ray target and the position of the image radiograph around the X-ray target to get a relatively smaller focal spot size. Results reveal that the focal spot size is not always isotropic around the target but it decreases as the point of observation shifts radially away from the center line of the conical X-ray target. This research will help in producing high quality X-ray images in multi-directions by properly aligning the phantoms and the radiograph tallies. - Highlights: • Misaligned phantoms may severely affect the focal spot calculations. • The aim of this research is to analyze systematically the angle dependent behavior of the focal spot size around a conical shaped X-ray target. • A general purpose Monte Carlo (MCNP5) computer code is used to achieve a relatively small focal spot size. • Angular distribution of the X-ray focal spot size mainly depends on the angular orientation of the phantom and its aligned FIR tally. • This research will help in producing high quality X-ray images in multi-directions

  15. Design and implementation of a novel conical electrode for fast anodic bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chii-Rong; Chang, Long-Yin; Wu, Jim-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Anodic bonding is a frequently used nonintermediate wafer-bonding technique for use in MEMS. However, it has a minimum bonding time for a 4 in silicon/glass wafer that is generally limited to the order of several minutes because of the gas-trapping problem that occurs in the bonded interface when a conventional bonding electrode is used. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a novel conical bonding electrode, which shortens the bonding time and solves the gas-trapping problem of the bonded interface. The 4 in silicon/glass wafers fitted with the proposed electrode exhibited a bonding ratio of 99.89% and an average bonding strength of around 15 MPa, which was attained within 15 s, at a bonding voltage of 900 V and a bonding temperature of 400 °C. A comprehensive series of experiments was performed to validate the excellent bonding performance of the proposed conical electrode. (paper)

  16. Large-eddy simulation of shallow turbulent wakes behind a conical island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouro, Pablo; Wilson, Catherine A. M. E.; Evans, Paul; Angeloudis, Athanasios

    2017-12-01

    Large-Eddy Simulations (LESs) and experiments were employed to study the influence of water depth on the hydrodynamics in the wake of a conical island for emergent, shallow, and deeply submerged conditions. The Reynolds numbers based on the island's base diameter for these conditions range from 6500 to 8125. LES results from the two shallower conditions were validated against experimental measurements from an open channel flume and captured the characteristic flow structures around the cone, including the attached recirculation region, vortex shedding, and separated shear layers. The wake was impacted by the transition from emergent to shallow submerged flow conditions with more subtle changes in time-averaged velocity and instantaneous flow structures when the submergence increases further. Despite differences in the breakdown of the separated shear layers, vortex shedding, and the upward flow region on the leeward face (once the cone's apex is submerged), similar flow structures to cylinder flow were observed. These include an arch vortex tilted in the downstream direction and von Karman vortices in the far-wake. Spectra of velocity time series and the drag coefficient indicated that the vortex shedding was constrained by the overtopping flow layer, and thus the shedding frequency decreased as the cone's apex became submerged. Finally, the generalised flow structures in the wake of a submerged conical body are outlined.

  17. The use of a conical lens to find the refractive index of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguiano-Morales, Marcelino; Salas Peimbert, Didia P; Trujillo-Schiaffino, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the basic idea is to determine the refractive index of liquids unknown using a conical lens. The measurement of the refractive index of liquids is an important work in engineering and science since is one of the most important optical parameter. The adulteration problem is increasing day by day; therefore it is necessary to implement new and simple devices for measure the refractive index of several materials. There is a great variety of interferometric methods that may be used for determining the refractive index. However, these methods either need sophisticated equipment or have low accuracy. Our system consists of a conical lens coupled to a cylindrical container with a liquid whose composition can be changed easily or adulterated. The diameter of the emergent beam of the container is associated to the specific index of refraction of each substance. Any adulteration of the liquid will be reflected in the diameter of the beam, which will be detected by a charge-coupled device (CCD). Our hypothesis is supported by developed mathematical calculations and numerical simulations.

  18. A theoretical model for predicting the Peak Cutting Force of conical picks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Kuidong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the PCF (Peak Cutting Force of conical pick in rock cutting process, a theoretical model is established based on elastic fracture mechanics theory. The vertical fracture model of rock cutting fragment is also established based on the maximum tensile criterion. The relation between vertical fracture angle and associated parameters (cutting parameter  and ratio B of rock compressive strength to tensile strength is obtained by numerical analysis method and polynomial regression method, and the correctness of rock vertical fracture model is verified through experiments. Linear regression coefficient between the PCF of prediction and experiments is 0.81, and significance level less than 0.05 shows that the model for predicting the PCF is correct and reliable. A comparative analysis between the PCF obtained from this model and Evans model reveals that the result of this prediction model is more reliable and accurate. The results of this work could provide some guidance for studying the rock cutting theory of conical pick and designing the cutting mechanism.

  19. Room-temperature growth of a carbon nanofiber on the tip of conical carbon protrusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanemura, Masaki; Okita, T.; Yamauchi, H.; Tanemura, S.; Morishima, R.

    2004-01-01

    Glassy carbon was Ar + -ion bombarded with a simultaneous Mo supply under ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a microprotrusion fabrication system that consists of a differentially pumped ion gun and a seed-material supply source. Conical protrusions were formed by sputtering with a seed supply, and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grew on the tips even at room temperature. The length of CNFs reached up to ∼10 μm, and their diameter was almost uniform (50 nm) in the growth direction. The short CNFs aligned in the ion beam direction, whereas the long ones were non-aligned. The CNF growth on a glassy carbon surface was ascribed to the enhanced surface texturing and to the massive redeposition of C atoms onto cones, both of which are specific to the oblique ion bombardment: The former would lead to an increase in the number of possible nucleation sites for the CNF growth, and the C atoms arising from the latter process would migrate toward the conical tips, thus forming CNFs

  20. Correction for the twist and the conical defects of a sagittaly bent crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer, J L

    1999-01-01

    The symmetrical bending of the focusing crystal of a double X-ray monochromator is a difficult problem. Indeed, the slope due to the curvature is usually three orders of magnitude higher than the accepted slope error (typically, the Darwin width of the crystal). In these conditions, even a low parasitic slope error induced by the bending process may lead to quite a strong intensity decrease. When the bending moment is applied, the main parasitic distortions which may appear are typically the anticlastic curvature, the inhomogeneous sagittal curvature, the conical shape and the twist. On the D2AM beamline at the ESRF, a program called CHKC2 has been developed to correct on-line the latter two distortions: the conical shape and the twist. On this beamline the X-ray beam, which has been collimated by a grazing angle mirror, is monochromatized first by a flat silicon crystal, and then diffracted by the sagittaly curved crystal. A fluorescent screen gives an image of this diffracted beam. The CHKC2 program records...

  1. [Analysis of Cr in soil by LIBS based on conical spatial confinement of plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Zeng; Yao, Ming-Yin; Chen, Tian-Bing; Li, Wen-Bing; Zheng, Mei-Lan; Xu, Xue-Hong; Tu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Mu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The present study is to improve the sensitivity of detection and reduce the limit of detection in detecting heavy metal of soil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The Cr element of national standard soil was regarded as the research object. In the experiment, a conical cavity with small diameter end of 20 mm and large diameter end of 45 mm respectively was installed below the focusing lens near the experiment sample to mainly confine the signal transmitted by plasma and to some extent to confine the plasma itself in the LIBS setup. In detecting Cr I 425.44 nm, the beast delay time gained from experiment is 1.3 micros, and the relative standard deviation is below 10%. Compared with the setup of non-spatial confinement, the spectral intensity of Cr in the soil sample was enhanced more than 7%. Calibration curve was established in the Cr concentration range from 60 to 400 microg x g(-1). Under the condition of spatial confinement, the liner regression coefficient and the limit of detection were 0.997 71 and 18.85 microg x g(-1) respectively, however, the regression coefficient and the limit of detection were 0.991 22 and 36.99 microg x g(-1) without spatial confinement. So, this shows that conical spatial confinement can/improve the sensitivity of detection and enhance the spectral intensity. And it is a good auxiliary function in detecting Cr in the soil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  2. Effect of Location of Delamination on Free Vibration of Cross-Ply Conical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Dey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Location of delamination is a triggering parameter for structural instability of laminated composites. In this paper, a finite element method is employed to determine the effects of location of delamination on free vibration characteristics of graphite-epoxy cross-ply composite pre-twisted shallow conical shells. The generalized dynamic equilibrium equation is derived from Lagrange's equation of motion neglecting Coriolis effect for moderate rotational speeds. The formulation is exercised by using an eight noded isoparametric plate bending element based on Mindlin's theory. Multi-point constraint algorithm is utilized to ensure the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The standard eigen value problem is solved by applying the QR iteration algorithm. Finite element codes are developed to obtain the numerical results concerning the effects of location of delamination, twist angle and rotational speed on the natural frequencies of cross-ply composite shallow conical shells. The mode shapes are also depicted for a typical laminate configuration. Numerical results obtained from parametric studies of both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply laminates are the first known non-dimensional natural frequencies for the type of analyses carried out here.

  3. Parametric instability analysis of truncated conical shells using the Haar wavelet method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qiyi; Cao, Qingjie

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the Haar wavelet method is employed to analyze the parametric instability of truncated conical shells under static and time dependent periodic axial loads. The present work is based on the Love first-approximation theory for classical thin shells. The displacement field is expressed as the Haar wavelet series in the axial direction and trigonometric functions in the circumferential direction. Then the partial differential equations are reduced into a system of coupled Mathieu-type ordinary differential equations describing dynamic instability behavior of the shell. Using Bolotin's method, the first-order and second-order approximations of principal instability regions are determined. The correctness of present method is examined by comparing the results with those in the literature and very good agreement is observed. The difference between the first-order and second-order approximations of principal instability regions for tensile and compressive loads is also investigated. Finally, numerical results are presented to bring out the influences of various parameters like static load factors, boundary conditions and shell geometrical characteristics on the domains of parametric instability of conical shells.

  4. Noise characteristics and flow field of an impinging jet on a conical obstacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin; Xie, Junlong; Shu, Shuiming; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: hustxjl@163.com [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2017-12-15

    The noise characteristics and flow field of a low-speed impinging jet on a conical obstacle have been numerically simulated using the kinetic energy transport subgrid-scale model of the large-eddy simulation method. Noise measurement is carried out to validate the proposed simulation method. The effects of the impinging distance on the development, separation and diffusion of vortices on the back of the conical obstacle are investigated. The jet structure is better preserved and the vorticity value becomes larger as the impinging distance increases. Simulation results of the noise spectrums and overall sound pressure level (OASPL) agree well with the experimental data. The noise spectrums are analyzed and combined with simulation results for the flow field. When the impinging distance is small, the main acoustic sources with the broadband characteristic consist of the dipole source produced by pressure fluctuation on the surface of the obstacle, and the quadrupole source produced by vortices. As the impinging distance increases, the quadrupole source becomes the major acoustic source with low-frequency characteristics. In addition, the OASPL of the impinging jet is obtained at different impinging distances. (paper)

  5. The effectiveness of the jammer signal characteristics on conical-scan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahingil, Mehmet C.; Aslan, Murat Ş.

    2015-05-01

    Being passive systems and due to their proliferation to many regions in the world, the infrared (IR) guided missiles constitute probably the most dangerous threats for the aircraft platforms. Early generation surface-to-air and air-to-air IRguided missiles use reticle-based seekers. One of the IR countermeasure (IRCM) techniques for protecting aircraft platforms against these type of threats is to use a modulated jamming signal. Optimizing the parameters of the modulation is the most important issue for an effective protection. If the required characteristic is not satisfied, jamming may not be successful for protecting the aircraft. There are several parameters to define the jammer signal (modulation) characteristic. Optimizing them requires a good understanding of threat seekers' operating principles. In the present paper, we consider protection of a helicopter platform against conical-scan reticle based seeker systems and investigate the effect of the jammer signal modulation parameters on jamming performance via extensive batch simulations. The simulations are performed in a MATLAB-coded simulator which models reticle-based conical-scan seeker, aircraft radiation, aircraft motion and jammer system on the aircraft. The results show that if the properties of the jammer signal are similar to those of the reticle-modulated signal in the missile, the jamming can be successful. Otherwise, applied jamming may not deceive the threat seeker.

  6. Conical geometry for sagittal focusing as applied to X rays from synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J.

    1993-06-01

    The authors describe a method for simultaneously focusing and monochromatization of X rays from a fan of radiation having up to 15 mrad divergence in one dimension. This geometry is well suited to synchrotron radiation sources at magnifications of one-fifth to two and is efficient for X-ray energies between 3 and 40 keV (0.48 and 6.4 fJ). The method uses crystals bent to part of a cone for sagittal focusing and allows for the collection of a larger divergence with less mixing of the horizontal into the vertical divergence than is possible with X-ray mirrors. They describe the geometry required to achieve the highest efficiency when a conical crystal follows a flat crystal in a nondispersive two-crystal monochromator. At a magnification of one-third, the geometry is identical to a cylindrical focusing design described previously. A simple theoretical calculation is shown to agree well with ray-tracing results. Minimum aberrations are observed at magnifications near one. Applications of the conical focusing geometry to existing and future synchrotron radiation facilities are discussed

  7. Quantum dynamics through conical intersections in macrosystems: Combining effective modes and time-dependent Hartree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, Mathias; Gindensperger, Etienne; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2008-01-01

    We address the nonadiabatic quantum dynamics of (macro)systems involving a vast number of nuclear degrees of freedom (modes) in the presence of conical intersections. The macrosystem is first decomposed into a system part carrying a few, strongly coupled modes, and an environment, comprising the remaining modes. By successively transforming the modes of the environment, a hierarchy of effective Hamiltonians for the environment can be constructed. Each effective Hamiltonian depends on a reduced number of effective modes, which carry cumulative effects. The environment is described by a few effective modes augmented by a residual environment. In practice, the effective modes can be added to the system's modes and the quantum dynamics of the entire macrosystem can be accurately calculated on a limited time-interval. For longer times, however, the residual environment plays a role. We investigate the possibility to treat fully quantum mechanically the system plus a few effective environmental modes, augmented by the dynamics of the residual environment treated by the time-dependent Hartree (TDH) approximation. While the TDH approximation is known to fail to correctly reproduce the dynamics in the presence of conical intersections, it is shown that its use on top of the effective-mode formalism leads to much better results. Two numerical examples are presented and discussed; one of them is known to be a critical case for the TDH approximation

  8. Bi2212 HTS Tubular Bulk with Conical Shape for Current Lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, H; Mito, T; Yamada, Y; Watanabe, M; Ohkubo, J; Heller, R

    2006-01-01

    Current leads using HTS material have been developed for application in a large scale superconducting magnet system. Tokai University and NIFS have developed Bi2212 tubular bulk which was prepared by a diffusion process. 8 kA of maximum transport current was achieved by a tubular bulk with a cylindrical shape. The maximum current was estimated to be 2 kA at 50 K for this tubular bulk. A current lead can be designed with this bulk the warm end of the HTS part being at 50 K and the cold end at 4.2 K. Under this condition, the cross section of the cold end of the bulk can be reduced. This type of HTS bulk has a great potential for flexible design since the Bi2212 layer can be reacted on the surface of any shapes of substrate. If a conical shaped HTS bulk was made, it could be an advantage for heat leakage to the cold end. To confirm this effect, we have made two types of conical bulk. The transport current of the specimen exceeds 7 kA at 4.2 K and 4 kA of stable current flow was achieved with a warm end temperature of 50 K

  9. Conical surface textures formed by ion bombarding 2% Be Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.K.G.

    1990-01-01

    A homogeneous, micrometer-sized conical surface texture forms on 2% Be-Cu alloy which is bombarded with an argon beam produced by a Kaufman ion source. The dimensions of the features that form strongly depend on: (1) argon energy (from 250 to 1500 eV), (2) fluence (10 19 to 10 20 ions/cm 2 ), and (3) flux (0.1 to 1 mA/cm 2 ). The texture morphology depends less strongly on the background ambient (Mo vs graphite), earlier alloy heat treatments and the temperature during bombardment (100 degree C and 450 degree C). As the texture matures with increasing fluence, the number of large features increases at the expense of the number of small features. The observed relationship between texture formation and ion flux suggests that the evolution of these features is not adequately described by theories predicting that the mature conical sidewall angle is related to the angle of the maximum sputtering yield. These textured surfaces can be coated with other metals for a variety of possible applications including: (1) pulsed power Li+ beam anodes, (2) cold cathode field emission devices, (3) optical absorbers and (4) catalysis supports. 18 refs., 5 figs

  10. Quantum friction of pseudorotation in Jahn-Teller system: Passage through conical intersection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pae, Kaja, E-mail: kaja.pae@gmail.com; Hizhnyakov, Vladimir [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-08-14

    A theoretical study of the relaxation of an excited impurity center with strong E × e-type Jahn-Teller effect, caused by the emission of phonons to the bulk, is presented. The dependence of the passing the system through the conical intersection of the potential surface on the momentum of the pseudorotation is figured out. An analytical description of the quantum states of the conical intersection (Slonczewski resonances) is given. It is found that for realistic vibronic interactions with phonons, the characteristic time of the energy loss is several tenths of mean periods of phonons, i.e., it is in the picosecond range. It is also found that there is a finite probability of the speeding-up of the pseudorotation of the system at the intermediate stage of relaxation. In particular, this probability increases close to the Slonczewski resonances. During the relaxation, the system may change the direction of the pseudomoment; the probability of such a change also increases near the resonances.

  11. Optimal placement of capacitors in a radial network using conic and mixed integer linear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabr, R.A. [Electrical, Computer and Communication Engineering Department, Notre Dame University, P.O. Box: 72, Zouk Mikhael, Zouk Mosbeh (Lebanon)

    2008-06-15

    This paper considers the problem of optimally placing fixed and switched type capacitors in a radial distribution network. The aim of this problem is to minimize the costs associated with capacitor banks, peak power, and energy losses whilst satisfying a pre-specified set of physical and technical constraints. The proposed solution is obtained using a two-phase approach. In phase-I, the problem is formulated as a conic program in which all nodes are candidates for placement of capacitor banks whose sizes are considered as continuous variables. A global solution of the phase-I problem is obtained using an interior-point based conic programming solver. Phase-II seeks a practical optimal solution by considering capacitor sizes as discrete variables. The problem in this phase is formulated as a mixed integer linear program based on minimizing the L1-norm of deviations from the phase-I state variable values. The solution to the phase-II problem is obtained using a mixed integer linear programming solver. The proposed method is validated via extensive comparisons with previously published results. (author)

  12. Superfocusing modes of surface plasmon polaritons in conical geometry based on the quasi-separation of variables approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kazuyoshi; Otomo, Akira; Syouji, Atsushi; Takahara, Junichi; Suzuki, Koji; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Analytic solutions to the superfocusing modes of surface plasmon polaritons in a conical geometry are theoretically studied using an ingenious method called the quasi-separation of variables. This method can be used to look for fundamental solutions to the wave equation for a field that must satisfy boundary conditions at all points on the continuous surface of tapered geometries. The set of differential equations exclusively separated from the wave equation can be consistently solved in combination with perturbation methods. This paper presents the zeroth-order perturbation solution of conical superfocusing modes with azimuthal symmetry and graphically represents them in electric field-line patterns

  13. Relationship of upflowing ion beams and conics around the dayside cusp/cleft region to the interplanetary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Miyake

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The dayside cusp/cleft region is known as a major source of upflowing ionospheric ions to the magnetosphere. Since the ions are supposed to be energized by an input of energy from the dayside magnetospheric boundary region, we examined the possible influence of the interplanetary conditions on dayside ion beams and conics observed by the polar-orbiting Exos-D (Akebono satellite. We found that both the solar wind velocity and density, as well as IMF By and Bz , affect the occurrence frequency of ion conics. The energy of ion conics also depends on the solar wind velocity, IMF By and Bz . The ion beams around the local noon are not significantly controlled by the interplanetary conditions. The results reveal that ion convection, as well as the energy source, is important to understand the production of dayside ion conics while that of ion beams basically reflects the intensity of local field-aligned currents.Key words. Ionosphere (particle acceleration – magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; magnetosphere ionosphere interaction

  14. Crystallinity, Surface Morphology, and Photoelectrochemical Effects in Conical InP and InN Nanowires Grown on Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2016-08-24

    The growth conditions of two types of indium-based III-V nanowires, InP and InN, are tailored such that instead of yielding conventional wire-type morphologies, single-crystal conical structures are formed with an enlarged diameter either near the base or near the tip. By using indium droplets as a growth catalyst, combined with an excess indium supply during growth, "ice cream cone" type structures are formed with a nanowire "cone" and an indium-based "ice cream" droplet on top for both InP and InN. Surface polycrystallinity and annihilation of the catalyst tip of the conical InP nanowires are observed when the indium supply is turned off during the growth process. This growth design technique is extended to create single-crystal InN nanowires with the same morphology. Conical InN nanowires with an enlarged base are obtained through the use of an excess combined Au-In growth catalyst. Electrochemical studies of the InP nanowires on silicon demonstrate a reduction photocurrent as a proof of photovolatic behavior and provide insight as to how the observed surface polycrystallinity and the resulting interface affect these device-level properties. Additionally, a photovoltage is induced in both types of conical InN nanowires on silicon, which is not replicated in epitaxial InN thin films.

  15. Marginal bone levels at single tooth implants with a conical fixture design. The influence of surface macro- and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, M R

    1998-04-01

    The concept of a conical implant design to accommodate single tooth replacement, has previously been shown to result in excessive bone loss, around the machined titanium conical collar, usually down to the 1st thread. This unusually aggressive loss of bone was shown to occur within a short period of time, post loading, with greater than 3 mm of bone loss occurring within the 1st 6 months to 1 year. The influence of implant design, surface texture and microleakage have all been highlighted as a potential cause. A modification of the surface structure, both at the macroscopic and microscopic level, as well as an altered fixture-abutment interface design has resulted in the maintenance of marginal bone around a single tooth titanium implant with a similar conical design. The radiographic follow-up of 33 implants loaded for up to 4 years, has revealed, by comparison, a most favourable maintenance of marginal bone around the conical collar, with a mean marginal bone loss of 0.32 mm mesially and 0.34 mm distally for the whole group. The cumulative mean marginal bone loss mesially and distally is 0.42 mm and 0.40 mm from 1 to 2 years, 0.54 mm and 0.43 mm from 2 to 3 years, 0.51 mm and 0.24 mm from 3 to 4 years, and 0.62 mm and 0.60 mm for implants past their 4 year recall.

  16. AUTOJOM, Quadratic Equation Coefficient for Conic Volume, Parallelepipeds, Wedges, Pyramids. JOMREAD, Check of 3-D Geometry Structure from Quadratic Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Nature of physical problem solved: AUTOJOM is a computer program that will generate the coefficients of any quadratic equation used to define conic volumes and also the coefficients of the planes needed to define parallelepipeds, wedges, and pyramids. JOMREAD is a computer code to check any 3D geometry composed of and constructed with quadratic surfaces

  17. SECOND-ORDER VARIATIONAL ANALYSIS IN CONIC PROGRAMMING WITH APPLICATIONS TO OPTIMALITY AND STABILITY

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mordukhovich, B. S.; Outrata, Jiří; Ramírez, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2015), s. 76-101 ISSN 1052-6234 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Grant - others:Australian Research Council(AU) DP-110102011; USA National Science Foundation(US) DMS-1007132; Australian Reseach Council(AU) DP-12092508; Portuguese Foundation of Science and Technologies(PT) MAT/11109; FONDECYT Project(CL) 1110888; Universidad de Chile(CL) BASAL Project Centro de Modelamiento Matematico Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : variational analysis * second-order theory * conic programming * generalized differentiation * optimality conditions * isolated calmness * tilt stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/outrata-0439413.pdf

  18. Maximizing ion current rectification in a bipolar conical nanopore fluidic diode using optimum junction location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar Pal

    2016-10-12

    The ion current rectification has been obtained as a function of the location of a heterojunction in a bipolar conical nanopore fluidic diode for different parameters to determine the junction location for maximum ion current rectification using numerical simulations. Forward current peaks for a specific location of the junction and reverse current decreases with the junction location due to a change in ion enrichment/depletion in the pore. The optimum location of the heterojunction shifts towards the tip with base/tip diameter and surface charge density, and towards the base with the electrolyte concentration. The optimum location of the heterojunction has been approximated by an equation as a function of pore length, base/tip diameter, surface charge density and electrolyte concentration. The study is useful to design a rectifier with maximum ion current rectification for practical purposes.

  19. Optimization and performance evaluation of a conical mirror based fluorescence molecular tomography imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    We performed numerical simulations and phantom experiments with a conical mirror based fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging system to optimize its performance. With phantom experiments, we have compared three measurement modes in FMT: the whole surface measurement mode, the transmission mode, and the reflection mode. Our results indicated that the whole surface measurement mode performed the best. Then, we applied two different neutral density (ND) filters to improve the measurement's dynamic range. The benefits from ND filters are not as much as predicted. Finally, with numerical simulations, we have compared two laser excitation patterns: line and point. With the same excitation position number, we found that the line laser excitation had slightly better FMT reconstruction results than the point laser excitation. In the future, we will implement Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations to calculate multiple reflection photons, and create a look-up table accordingly for calibration.

  20. Theoretical analysis of supercontinuum and coloured conical emission produced during ultrashort laser pulse interaction with gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semak, V V; Shneider, M N

    2014-01-01

    We use a conceptually new approach to theoretical modelling of self-focusing in which we integrated diffractive and geometrical optics in order to explain and predict emission of white light and coloured rings observed in ultrashort laser pulse interaction. In our approach, laser beam propagation is described by blending the solution of the linear Maxwell's equation and a correction term that represents nonlinear field perturbation expressed in terms of paraxial ray-optics (eikonal) equation. No attempt is made to create an appearance of exhaustive treatment via use of complex mathematical models. Rather, emphasis is placed on elegance of the formulations leading to fundamental understanding of the underlying physics and, eventually, to an accurate practical numerical model capable of simulating white light generation and conical emission of coloured rings produced around the filament. (paper)

  1. Time dependent response of low velocity impact induced composite conical shells under multiple delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sudip; Karmakar, Amit

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the time dependent response of multiple delaminated angle-ply composite pretwisted conical shells subjected to low velocity normal impact. The finite element formulation is based on Mindlin's theory incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation. An eight-noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed to satisfy the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. A multipoint constraint algorithm is incorporated which leads to asymmetric stiffness matrices. The modified Hertzian contact law which accounts for permanent indentation is utilized to compute the contact force, and the time dependent equations are solved by Newmark's time integration algorithm. Parametric studies are conducted with respect to triggering parameters like laminate configuration, location of delamination, angle of twist, velocity of impactor, and impactor's displacement for centrally impacted shells.

  2. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical θ-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, T. E., E-mail: tweber@lanl.gov; Intrator, T. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Smith, R. J. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation is shown to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. This approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical θ-pinch, resulting in a ∼350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densities and higher temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.

  3. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical θ-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.

    2015-04-01

    Injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation is shown to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. This approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical θ-pinch, resulting in a ˜350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densities and higher temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.

  4. Conical light scattering in strontium barium niobate crystals related to an intrinsic composition inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastwoeste, K; Sander, U; Imlau, M

    2007-01-01

    Conical light scattering is uncovered in poly- and mono-domain, nominally pure and Eu-doped strontium barium niobate (SBN) crystals over a wide temperature regime. The appearance of two scattering cones, a scattering line and a corona is observed and can be explained comprehensively within the Ewald sphere concept. Photorefraction, scattering from domain boundaries or from growth striations can be excluded from explaining the origin of the scattering. It is shown that the temperature-persistent scattering process is related to a growth-induced seeding rod, i.e. a composition inhomogeneity primarily localized at the centre of the SBN sample. The rod is directed parallel to the c axis and yields a refractive-index inhomogeneity with spatial frequencies on the micro-scale

  5. Levitation Performance of Two Opposed Permanent Magnet Pole-Pair Separated Conical Bearingless Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter; Jansen, Ralph; Dever, Timothy; Nagorny, Aleksandr; Loparo, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In standard motor applications, rotor suspension with traditional mechanical bearings represents the most economical solution. However, in certain high performance applications, rotor suspension without contacting bearings is either required or highly beneficial. Examples include applications requiring very high speed or extreme environment operation, or with limited access for maintenance. This paper expands upon a novel bearingless motor concept, in which two motors with opposing conical air-gaps are used to achieve full five-axis levitation and rotation of the rotor. Force in this motor is created by deliberately leaving the motor s pole-pairs unconnected, which allows the creation of different d-axis flux in each pole pair. This flux imbalance is used to create lateral force. This approach is different than previous bearingless motor designs, which require separate windings for levitation and rotation. This paper examines the predicted and achieved suspension performance of a fully levitated prototype bearingless system.

  6. Novel methodology for wide-ranged multistage morphing waverider based on conical theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jun; Ding, Feng; Xia, Zhixun

    2017-11-01

    This study proposes the wide-ranged multistage morphing waverider design method. The flow field structure and aerodynamic characteristics of multistage waveriders are also analyzed. In this method, the multistage waverider is generated in the same conical flowfield, which contains a free-stream surface and different compression-stream surfaces. The obtained results show that the introduction of the multistage waverider design method can solve the problem of aerodynamic performance deterioration in the off-design state and allow the vehicle to always maintain the optimal flight state. The multistage waverider design method, combined with transfiguration flight strategy, can lead to greater design flexibility and the optimization of hypersonic wide-ranged waverider vehicles.

  7. Computing closest saddle node bifurcations in a radial system via conic programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabr, R.A. [Electrical, Computer and Communication Engineering Department, Notre Dame University, P.O. Box 72, Zouk Mikhael, Zouk Mosbeh (Lebanon); Pal, B.C. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2BT (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    This paper considers the problem of computing the loading limits in a radial system which are (i) locally closest to current operating load powers and (ii) at which saddle node bifurcation occurs. The procedure is based on a known technique which requires iterating between two computational steps until convergence. In essence, step 1 produces a vector normal to the real and/or reactive load solution space boundary, whereas step 2 computes the bifurcation point along that vector. The paper shows that each of the above computational steps can be formulated as a second-order cone program for which polynomial time interior-point methods and efficient implementations exist. The proposed conic programming approach is used to compute the closest bifurcation points and the corresponding worst case load power margins of eleven different distribution systems. The approach is validated graphically and the existence of multiple load power margins is investigated. (author)

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Confining Stress on Hard Rock Fragmentation Using a Conical Pick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibing; Wang, Shaofeng; Wang, Shanyong

    2018-01-01

    High geostress is a prominent condition in deep excavations and affects the cuttability of deep hard rock. This study aims to determine the influence of confining stress on hard rock fragmentation as applied by a conical pick. Using a true triaxial test apparatus, static and coupled static and dynamic loadings from pick forces were applied to end faces of cubic rock specimens to break them under biaxial, uniaxial and stress-free confining stress conditions. The cuttability indices (peak pick force, insertion depth and disturbance duration), failure patterns and fragment sizes were measured and compared to estimate the effects of confining stress. The results show that the rock cuttabilities decreased in order from rock breakages under stress-free conditions to uniaxial confining stress and then to biaxial confining stress. Under biaxial confining stress, only flake-shaped fragments were stripped from the rock surfaces under the requirements of large pick forces or disturbance durations. As the level of uniaxial confining stress increased, the peak pick force and the insertion depth initially increased and then decreased, and the failure patterns varied from splitting to partial splitting and then to rock bursts with decreasing average fragment sizes. Rock bursts will occur under elastic compression via ultra-high uniaxial confining stresses. There are two critical uniaxial confining stress levels, namely stress values at which peak pick forces begin to decrease and improve rock cuttability, and those at which rock bursts initially occur and cutting safety decreases. In particular, hard rock is easiest to split safely and efficiently under stress-free conditions. Moreover, coupled static preloading and dynamic disturbance can increase the efficiency of rock fragmentation with increasing preloading levels and disturbance amplitudes. The concluding remarks confirm hard rock cuttability using conical pick, which can improve the applicability of mechanical excavation in

  9. Evaluation of the properties of tyre pyrolysis oils obtained in a conical spouted bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.; Lopez, G.; Amutio, M.; Mkhize, N.M.; Danon, B.; Gryp, P. van der; Görgens, J.F.; Bilbao, J.; Olazar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Waste truck tyre valorization by fast pyrolysis has been performed in a conical spouted bed reactor in the 425–575 °C range. The tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) yield was found to decrease with increasing temperature whilst the yield of gas increased. The effect of temperature on TPO properties has been studied in order to establish the best possible valorization route. FTIR and chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of some undesired compounds with sulphur, nitrogen or oxygen functionalities (benzotiatholes, nitriles and carboxylic acids amongst others) and an increase of TPO aromaticity with increasing temperature. The carbon and sulphur content and the heating value of the TPO increased with temperature. The simulated distillation showed that approximately 70% of the TPOs produced at 425 and 475 °C correspond to diesel range, whereas that TPO obtained at 575 °C is between diesel and gasoline range. The properties of the TPOs evidenced their potential to substitute conventional fuels. However, some of them need to be improved, i.e., by reduction of the sulphur, nitrogen and aromatic content. Additionally, the TPO obtained at 425 and 475 °C could be an important source of limonene and that at 575 °C of xylenes, although current removal methods present some limitations. - Highlights: • The conical spouted bed reactor is suitable for truck tyre fast pyrolysis. • The highest oil yields are attained between 425 and 475 °C (≈58 wt %). • Tyre oil is a mixture of water, aromatic, aliphatic and heteroaromatic compounds. • Limonene is the major compound with a maximum yield of 13.30 wt % at 475 °C. • 425 and 475 °C oils share similarities with diesel and 575 °C one with gasoline.

  10. Analysis of the Numerical Modelling of Turbulence in the Conical Reverse-Flow Cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Jakštonienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the numerical modelling of the swirling fluid flow in the Stairmand cyclone (conical reverse-flow – CRF with tangential inlet (equipment for separating solid particles from the gaseous fluid flow. A review of experimental and theoretical papers is conducted introducing three-dimen­sional differential equations for transfer processes. The numerical modelling of the Stairmand cyclone the height of which is 0.75 m, diameter – 0.17 m, the height of a cylindrical part – 0.290 m, a conical part – 0,39 m and an inlet area is 0,085×0,032 m is presented. When governing three-dimensional fluid flow, transfer equations Navje-Stokes and Reynolds are solved using the finite volume method in a body-fitted co-ordinate system using standard k– e and RNG k– e model of turbulence. Modelling is realised for inlet velocity 4.64, 9.0 and 14.8 m/s (flow rate was 0.0112, 0.0245 and 0.0388 m3/s. The results obtained from the numerical tests have demonstrated that the RNG k– e model of turbulence yields a reasonably good prediction for highly swirling flows in cyclones: the presented numerical results (tangential and radial velocity profiles are compared with numerical and experimental data obtained by other authors. The mean relative error of ± 7,5% is found. Keywords: cyclone, solid particles, numerical modelling, turbulence, one-phase flow.DOI: 10.3846/mla.2010.085

  11. Dispersive O+ conics observed in the plasma-sheet boundary layer with CRRES/LOMICS during a magnetic storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wüest

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available We present initial results from the Low-energy magnetospheric ion composition sensor (LOMICS on the Combined release and radiation effects satellite (CRRES together with electron, magnetic field, and electric field wave data. LOMICS measures all important magnetospheric ion species (H+, He++, He+, O++, O+ simultaneously in the energy range 60 eV to 45 keV, as well as their pitch-angle distributions, within the time resolution afforded by the spacecraft spin period of 30 s. During the geomagnetic storm of 9 July 1991, over a period of 42 min (0734 UT to 0816 UT the LOMICS ion mass spectrometer observed an apparent O+ conic flowing away from the southern hemisphere with a bulk velocity that decreased exponentially with time from 300 km/s to 50 km/s, while its temperature also decreased exponentially from 700 to 5 eV. At the onset of the O+ conic, intense low-frequency electromagnetic wave activity and strong pitch-angle scattering were also observed. At the time of the observations the CRRES spacecraft was inbound at L~7.5 near dusk, magnetic local time (MLT, and at a magnetic latitude of –23°. Our analysis using several CRRES instruments suggests that the spacecraft was skimming along the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL when the upward-flowing ion conic arrived. The conic appears to have evolved in time, both slowing and cooling, due to wave-particle interactions. We are unable to conclude whether the conic was causally associated with spatial structures of the PSBL or the central plasma sheet.

  12. Calculation of plastic deformation of a conical shell with the transformation of inner surface into outer one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Uvarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of plastic deformation of a conical shell with the transformation of internal surface into outer one was developed with a use of the kinematic method. The shell material was assumed to be perfectly plastic. The theory of thin shells and the kinematic theorem of limit equilibrium were utilized in this work. Both geometric and physical nonlinearities were taken into account. Dependences for calculating radius of curvature of the intensive deformation zones, value of chain ring deformation and values of the deforming force as a function of axial displacement were determined. Analysis showed the possibility of using a conical shell to absorb energy with high efficiency. Obtained results could be used for calculation and selection of optimal parameters of the energy-absorbing elements in shock absorbers.

  13. Coupled-mode theory and Fano resonances in guided-mode resonant gratings: the conical diffraction mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Dmitry A; Doskolovich, Leonid L; Soifer, Victor A

    2017-01-23

    We study resonances of guided-mode resonant gratings in conical mounting. By developing 2D time-dependent coupled-mode theory we obtain simple approximations of the transmission and reflection coefficients. Being functions of the incident light's frequency and in-plane wave vector components, the obtained approximations can be considered as multi-variable generalizations of the Fano line shape. We show that the approximations are in good agreement with the rigorously calculated transmission and reflection spectra. We use the developed theory to investigate angular tolerances of the considered structures and to obtain mode excitation conditions. In particular, we obtain the cross-polarization mode excitation conditions in the case of conical mounting.

  14. Inverted-conical light guide for crosstalk reduction in tightly-packed scintillator matrix and MAPMT assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Y.-Y.; Chen, P.; Huang, J.-J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the Inverted-Conical light guide designed for optical crosstalk reduction in the scintillator-MAPMT assemblies. The research was motivated by the 30% crosstalk observed in UFFO X-ray telescope, UBAT, during the preliminary calibration with MAPMTs of 64 2.88 × 2.88 mm2...... pixels and identically gridded YSO crystal matrices. We began the study with the energy and crosstalk calibrations of the detector, then we constructed a GEANT4 simulation with the customized metallic film model as the MAPMT photocathode. The simulation reproduced more than 70% of the crosstalk...... and explained it as a consequence of the total reflection produced by the photocathode. The result indicated that the crosstalk mechanism could be a common case in most of the contact-assembled scintillation detectors. The concept of the Inverted-Conical light guide was to suppress the total reflection...

  15. Monitoring conical intersections in the ring opening of furan by attosecond stimulated X-ray Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Hua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attosecond X-ray pulses are short enough to capture snapshots of molecules undergoing nonadiabatic electron and nuclear dynamics at conical intersections (CoIns. We show that a stimulated Raman probe induced by a combination of an attosecond and a femtosecond pulse has a unique temporal and spectral resolution for probing the nonadiabatic dynamics and detecting the ultrafast (∼4.5 fs passage through a CoIn. This is demonstrated by a multiconfigurational self-consistent-field study of the dynamics and spectroscopy of the furan ring-opening reaction. Trajectories generated by surface hopping simulations were used to predict Attosecond Stimulated X-ray Raman Spectroscopy signals at reactant and product structures as well as representative snapshots along the conical intersection seam. The signals are highly sensitive to the changes in nonadiabatically coupled electronic structure and geometry.

  16. Pitting and Repair of the Space Shuttle's Inconel(Registered TradeMark) Honeycomb Conical Seal Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.; Gentz, Steven J.; Miller, James B.; MacKay, Rebecca A.; Bright, Mark L.

    2006-01-01

    During return to flight servicing of the rudder speed brake (RSB) for each Space Shuttle Orbiter, inspectors discovered numerous small pits on the surface of the #4 right hand side honeycomb panel that covers the rudder speed brake actuators. Shortly after detection of the problem, concurrent investigations were initiated to determine the extent of damage, the root cause, and to develop a repair plan, since fabrication of a replacement panel is impractical for cost, schedule, and sourcing considerations. This paper describes the approach, findings, conclusions and recommendations associated with the investigation of the conical seal pitting. It documents the cause and contributing factors of the pitting, the means used to isolate each contributor, and the supporting evidence for the primary cause of the pitting. Finally, the selection, development and verification of the repair procedure used to restore the conical seal panel is described with supporting process and metallurgical rationale for selection.

  17. FEM simulation of a friction testing method based on combined forward conical can-backward straight can extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakamura, T; Bay, Niels

    1998-01-01

    A new friction testing method based on combined forward conical can-backward straight can extrusion is proposed in order to evaluate friction characteristics in severe metal forming operations. By this method the friction coefficient along the conical punch surface is determined knowing...... the friction coefficient along the die wall. The latter is determined by a combined forward and backward can extrusion of straight cans. Calibration curves determining the relationship between punch travel, can heights, and friction coefficient for the two rests are calculated based on a rigid-plastic FEM...... analysis. Experimental friction tests are carried out in a mechanical press with aluminium alloy A6061 as the workpiece material and different kinds of lubricants. They confirm that the theoretical analysis results irt reasonable values for the friction coefficient....

  18. Effect of the mixing fields on the stability and structure of turbulent partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.; Senosy, Mohamed S.; Zayed, Mohamed F.; Juddoo, Mrinal; Masri, Assaad R.

    2016-01-01

    of partially premixed methane flames. The mixing field in a concentric flow conical nozzle (CFCN) burner with well-controlled mechanism of the mixing is investigated using Rayleigh scattering technique. The flame stability, structure and flow field of some

  19. Conical scan impact study. Volume 2: Small local user data processing facility. [multispectral band scanner design alternatives for earth resources data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D. H.; Chase, P. E.; Dye, J.; Fahline, W. C.; Johnson, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of a conical scan versus a linear scan multispectral scanner (MSS) instrument on a small local-user data processing facility was studied. User data requirements were examined to determine the unique system rquirements for a low cost ground system (LCGS) compatible with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system. Candidate concepts were defined for the LCGS and preliminary designs were developed for selected concepts. The impact of a conical scan MSS versus a linear scan MSS was evaluated for the selected concepts. It was concluded that there are valid user requirements for the LCGS and, as a result of these requirements, the impact of the conical scanner is minimal, although some new hardware development for the LCGS is necessary to handle conical scan data.

  20. Theoretical analysis of the conical premixed flame response to upstream velocity disturbances considering flame speed development effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazaleh Esmaeelzade; Mohammad Reza Khani; Rouzbeh Riazi; Mohammad Hossein Sabour

    2017-01-01

    The effect of upstream velocity perturbations on the response of a premixed flame was investigated in terms of the flame transfer function dependency on excitation frequency. In this study, the assumption of constant flame speed was extended and the effect of flame speed development was considered; i.e., the flame speed would grow with the time after ignition or with the distance from a flame-holder. In the present study, the kinematics of a conical flame was investigated by linearization of ...

  1. Theoretical analysis of the conical premixed flame response to upstream velocity disturbances considering flame speed development effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Esmaeelzade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of upstream velocity perturbations on the response of a premixed flame was investigated in terms of the flame transfer function dependency on excitation frequency. In this study, the assumption of constant flame speed was extended and the effect of flame speed development was considered; i.e., the flame speed would grow with the time after ignition or with the distance from a flame-holder. In the present study, the kinematics of a conical flame was investigated by linearization of the front tracking equation of flame to uniform and convected fluctuations of the flow velocity and the response was compared with that of a V-shaped flame and the experimental data in the previous studies. The results show that the effect of flame speed development could influence a decreasing gain and increase the phase of the flame response to the uniform velocity oscillations in low and moderate frequencies. Comparing the variations in the gain of flame response upon normalized frequency, show that a conical flame has lower values than the V-flame. In other words, these flames might be less susceptible to combustion instabilities than the V-flames. Furthermore, the variations in phase of the V-flames responses, which show a quasi-linear behavior with normalized frequency, have higher values than the saturated behavior in phase of the conical flame responses. Also, considering that the flame speed development induces an increase in the gain and phase of the conical flame response to the convected velocity oscillations in certain frequencies; because the developed flame front has longer length in comparison to the flame front in constant flame speed model. Therefore, the flame length may be longer than convective wavelength and the heat release would be generated in different points of the flame; consequently the flow oscillations might exert a stronger impact on the unsteady heat release fluctuations.

  2. Stimulated Raman signals at conical intersections: Ab initio surface hopping simulation protocol with direct propagation of the nuclear wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewski, Markus, E-mail: mkowalew@uci.edu; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings.

  3. The Influence of Torque Tightening on the Position Stability of the Abutment in Conical Implant-Abutment Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Wiebke Semper; Zulauf, Kris; Mehrhof, Jürgen; Nelson, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The influence of repeated system-specific torque tightening on the position stability of the abutment after de- and reassembly of the implant components was evaluated in six dental implant systems with a conical implant-abutment connection. An established experimental setup was used in this study. Rotation, vertical displacement, and canting moments of the abutment were observed; they depended on the implant system (P = .001, P abutment screw does not eliminate changes in position of the abutment.

  4. Stimulated Raman signals at conical intersections: Ab initio surface hopping simulation protocol with direct propagation of the nuclear wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings

  5. Evaluation of soil thermal potential under Tunisian climate using a new conic basket geothermal heat exchanger: Energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughanmi, Hassen; Lazaar, Mariem; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Guizani, Amenallah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Conic geothermal basket heat exchanger (CBGHE) is experimentally investigated. • Charging and discharging processes of CBGHE are evaluated. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of CBGHE are performed. • High and stable performance of surface geothermal energy in Tunisia is established. - Abstract: Geothermal heat exchangers system composed of two conic baskets serially connected is designed and realized. Both heat exchangers are made in polyethylene high-density material and have a length of 3 m each one. They will be used for greenhouse cooling and heating through a geothermal heat pump. Its conical geometry is selected to reduce the operation cost and the exploited area, compared to vertical and horizontal geothermal heat exchangers often used. It also assures the maximum of heat exchange with the soil. The aim of this study is to determine the thermal performance of one Conic Basket Geothermal Heat Exchanger (CBGHE), buried at 3 m deep, in the exploitation of the soil thermal potential, in summer. A rate of heat exchange with the soil is determined and the global heat exchange of the CBGHE is assessed. Its energy and exergy efficiencies are also evaluated using both first and second law of thermodynamic. Results show that the specific heat exchange ranges between 20 W m"−"1 and 50 W m"−"1. Maximal energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the CBGHE, equal to 62% and 37% respectively, are reached for a mass flow rate of 0.1 kg s"−"1. For this value of mass flow rate, the overall heat exchange coefficient is of 52 W m"−"2 K"−"1.

  6. Application of conical 90-degree reflectors for solving the problem of mirror alignment in terahertz-range lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radionov, V P; Kiselev, V K [A.Ya. Usikov Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Khar' kov (Ukraine)

    2014-10-29

    We report a study of the conical mirrors with an apex angle of 90° in the resonator of the gas-discharge HCN laser with the radiation wavelength of 337 μm (0.89 THz). Experimental results have shown that such mirrors do not require precise alignment. This makes it possible to improve the radiation stability, significantly simplify the construction of laser and reduce the complexity of its maintenance. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  7. On functionally-graded crashworthy shape of conical structures for multiple load cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Tong; Li, Yinfeng; Kang, Hehe; Sun, Guangyong; Li, Qing; Fang, Jianguang

    2017-01-01

    Many studies on energy absorbers have been focused on tapered tubes because they have significant advantages in crashworthiness and provide a desired constant load-deflection response. However, few studies have been reported on tapered tubes with nonlinearly- variable diameters along the longitudinal direction. This paper presents thin-walled Functionally graded tapered tube (FGTT) with a diameter varying nonlinearly subject to axial (0°) and oblique (10°, 20°, 30°) impacts. To explore the advantages of FGTT, conventional Straight/Conical circular tube (SCT/CCT) with the same mass are compared; and FGTTs with a gradient exponent n > 1 are found to be preferable to others in terms of energy absorption capacity under small impact angles. Then, crashworthiness analyses of different crushing distances are conducted and it is found that under a large impact angle (e.g. 20°, 30°), FGTT with a short crushing distance (e.g. 40mm) have a higher mean crashing force than long crushing distance (e.g. 120 mm), especially for n > 1. In addition, the effect of geometric parameters, such as the gradient exponent n and diameter range ΔD between top (incident) and bottom (distal) diameters of FGTTs, are also studied and it is found that the FGTT with ΔD = 40 mm and n > 1 exhibits better crashworthiness than the others under small impact angles (0°, 10°). This paper demonstrates that such FGTT structures have a certain potential to be an energy absorber.

  8. Combustion of peanut and tamarind shells in a conical fluidized-bed combustor: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprianov, Vladimir I; Arromdee, Porametr

    2013-07-01

    Combustion of peanut and tamarind shells was studied in the conical fluidized-bed combustor using alumina sand as the bed material to prevent bed agglomeration. Morphological, thermogravimetric and kinetic characteristics were investigated to compare thermal and combustion reactivity between the biomass fuels. The thermogravimetric kinetics of the biomasses was fitted using the Coats-Redfern method. Experimental tests on the combustor were performed at 60 and 45 kg/h fuel feed rates, with excess air within 20-80%. Temperature and gas concentrations were measured along radial and axial directions in the reactor and at stack. The axial temperature and gas concentration profiles inside the combustor exhibited sensible effects of fuel properties and operating conditions on combustion and emission performance. High (≈ 99%) combustion efficiency and acceptable levels of CO, CxHy, and NO emissions are achievable when firing peanut shells at excess air of about 40%, whereas 60% is more preferable for burning tamarind shells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conical Euler solution for a highly-swept delta wing undergoing wing-rock motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Modifications to an unsteady conical Euler code for the free-to-roll analysis of highly-swept delta wings are described. The modifications involve the addition of the rolling rigid-body equation of motion for its simultaneous time-integration with the governing flow equations. The flow solver utilized in the Euler code includes a multistage Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme which uses a finite-volume spatial discretization on an unstructured mesh made up of triangles. Steady and unsteady results are presented for a 75 deg swept delta wing at a freestream Mach number of 1.2 and an angle of attack of 30 deg. The unsteady results consist of forced harmonic and free-to-roll calculations. The free-to-roll case exhibits a wing rock response produced by unsteady aerodynamics consistent with the aerodynamics of the forced harmonic results. Similarities are shown with a wing-rock time history from a low-speed wind tunnel test.

  10. Method of Retention Control for Compromised Periodontal Bone Support Abutment of Conical Crown Retained Denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Hsiang Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Conical crown-retained dentures (CCRD show a higher survival rate and greater patient satisfaction than transitional removable partial dentures during long-term follow-up. However, unsustainable denture retention force on supporting abutments after initial delivery and loss retention are frequently seen in long-term follow-up of clinical cases. The main causes are insufficient information concerning denture retention designs and the retention-tolerance of the supporting abutments. Monitoring by dental technicians of the quality of dental prostheses is critical. This case report describes an optimal method for CCRD construction that determines and distributes an optimal denture retention force on the supporting abutments to allow the patient to easily remove the denture while ensuring that the CCRD remains in place during physiologic activities. Oral rehabilitation with CCRD should consider the condition of the abutment periodontal support, the interarch occlusal relationship, supplemental fatigue of the terminal abutment, and patient's estimated bite force. The effects of friction on the abutment's inner crown were based on an optimal a angle. The dental laboratory used these measurements to fabricate a CCRD using a Koni-Meter to adjust the retention of the inner crown. This method protects the abutments and reduces the wear between the inner and outer crowns. The CCRD achieved good esthetic results and physiologic functions. Periodic long-term follow-up of the patient and CCRD after initial placement is recommended.

  11. Magnetic insulation regimes in high-current diodes and transmission lines of conical configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, O.I.; Voronin, V.S.; Lebedev, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    Steady states of the electron current in a high-voltage diode and of the transmission line of conical configuration at emission current restriction by the space are considered on the basis of the self-consistant kinetic description in connection with the prospects of controlled thermonuclear synthesis. Proceeding from the magnetic self-insulation principle solved are the problems of controling the emission electron current in the double-electron geometry to prevent it from being present on the anode in the line regime and to achieve its maximum focusing in the diode regime. The motion of plasma boundaries as well as the probable contribution of the ion component of the current were not taken into consideration. It is shown that the beam focusing on the system axis takes place at sufficiently strong currents. It is connected with the fact that some part of the full diode current runs on the cathode surface. The results were compared with existing approximate diode models and with the experimetal data on focusien of strong-current beams

  12. Fourier method for modeling slanted lamellar gratings of arbitrary end-surface shapes in conical mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lifeng

    2015-10-01

    An efficient modal method for numerically modeling slanted lamellar gratings of isotropic dielectric or metallic media in conical mounting is presented. No restrictions are imposed on the slant angle and the length of the lamellae. The end surface of the lamellae can be arbitrary, subject to certain restrictions. An oblique coordinate system that is adapted to the slanted lamella sidewalls allows the most efficient way of representing and manipulating the electromagnetic fields. A translational coordinate system that is based on the oblique Cartesian coordinate system adapts to the end-surface profile of the lamellae, so that the latter can be handled simply and easily. Moreover, two matrix eigenvalue problems of size 2N × 2N, one for each fundamental polarization of the electromagnetic fields in the periodic lamellar structure, where N is the matrix truncation number, are derived to replace the 4N × 4N eigenvalue problem that has been used in the literature. The core idea leading to this success is the polarization decomposition of the electromagnetic fields inside the periodic lamellar region when the fields are expressed in the oblique translational coordinate system.

  13. Thermal stability in a newly designed columnar-conical fluidized bed for combustion of rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozainee, M.; Salema, A.A.; Ngo, S.P.; Chye, G.B. [Malaysian Technological Univ., Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The effects of fluidizing and liquid propane gas (LPG) flow rates on thermal stability of a fluidized bed were examined. The aim of the study was to hybridize a columnar and conical fluidized bed (CCFB) in order to encourage the combustion of low-calorific fuels such as rice husks. Experiments were conducted to examine the thermal stability of the CCFB. Premixed primary air and liquid propane gas (LPG) was fed into the bed in order to verify its thermal stability. Temperature profiles of the combustor and bed were measured. The impact of the fluidizing velocity and LPG flow rate on the temperature profile was examined in order to analyze the influence of the fluidizing velocity and LPG rate on combustion rates. Results of the study showed that the combustion of the CCFB was sustained at a fluidizing velocity of 1.5 U{sub mf} and at an LPG flow rate of 8 liters per minute. Results of the study showed that fluidizing velocity played an important role on the thermal stability of the bed. It was concluded that the thermal stability of the combustor is sufficient for the CCFB. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Idealized digital models for conical reed instruments, with focus on the internal pressure waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergomard, J; Guillemain, P; Silva, F; Karkar, S

    2016-02-01

    Two models for the generation of self-oscillations of reed conical woodwinds are presented. The models use the fewest parameters (of either the resonator or the exciter), whose influence can be quickly explored. The formulation extends iterated maps obtained for lossless cylindrical pipes without reed dynamics. It uses spherical wave variables in idealized resonators, with one parameter more than for cylinders: the missing length of the cone. The mouthpiece volume equals that of the missing part of the cone, and is implemented as either a cylindrical pipe (first model) or a lumped element (second model). Only the first model adds a length parameter for the mouthpiece and leads to the solving of an implicit equation. For the second model, any shape of nonlinear characteristic can be directly considered. The complex characteristic impedance for spherical waves requires sampling times smaller than a round trip in the resonator. The convergence of the two models is shown when the length of the cylindrical mouthpiece tends to zero. The waveform is in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment. It is concluded that the oscillations of the positive episode of the mouthpiece pressure are related to the length of the missing part, not to the reed dynamics.

  15. On functionally-graded crashworthy shape of conical structures for multiple load cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Tong; Li, Yinfeng [Hunan University, Changsha (China); Kang, Hehe [Chongqing Changan Automobile Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China); Sun, Guangyong; Li, Qing [The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Fang, Jianguang [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2017-06-15

    Many studies on energy absorbers have been focused on tapered tubes because they have significant advantages in crashworthiness and provide a desired constant load-deflection response. However, few studies have been reported on tapered tubes with nonlinearly- variable diameters along the longitudinal direction. This paper presents thin-walled Functionally graded tapered tube (FGTT) with a diameter varying nonlinearly subject to axial (0°) and oblique (10°, 20°, 30°) impacts. To explore the advantages of FGTT, conventional Straight/Conical circular tube (SCT/CCT) with the same mass are compared; and FGTTs with a gradient exponent n > 1 are found to be preferable to others in terms of energy absorption capacity under small impact angles. Then, crashworthiness analyses of different crushing distances are conducted and it is found that under a large impact angle (e.g. 20°, 30°), FGTT with a short crushing distance (e.g. 40mm) have a higher mean crashing force than long crushing distance (e.g. 120 mm), especially for n > 1. In addition, the effect of geometric parameters, such as the gradient exponent n and diameter range ΔD between top (incident) and bottom (distal) diameters of FGTTs, are also studied and it is found that the FGTT with ΔD = 40 mm and n > 1 exhibits better crashworthiness than the others under small impact angles (0°, 10°). This paper demonstrates that such FGTT structures have a certain potential to be an energy absorber.

  16. Minimizing fouling at hydrogenated conical-tip carbon electrodes during dopamine detection in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shaneel; Miller, Anthony D; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Philip J; Wong, Danny K Y

    2014-03-04

    In this paper, physically small conical-tip carbon electrodes (∼2-5 μm diameter and ∼4 μm axial length) were hydrogenated to develop a probe capable of withstanding fouling during dopamine detection in vivo. Upon hydrogenation, the resultant hydrophobic sp(3) carbon surface deters adsorption of amphiphilic lipids, proteins, and peptides present in extracellular fluid and hence minimizes electrode fouling. These hydrogenated carbon electrodes showed a 35% decrease in sensitivity but little change in the limit of detection for dopamine over a 7-day incubation in a synthetic laboratory solution containing 1.0% (v/v) caproic acid (a lipid), 0.1% (w/v) bovine serum albumin and 0.01% (w/v) cytochrome C (both are proteins), and 0.002% (w/v) human fibrinopeptide B (a peptide). Subsequently, during dopamine detection in vivo, over 70% of the dopamine oxidation current remained after the first 30 min of a 60-min experiment, and at least 50% remained over the next half-period at the hydrogenated carbon electrodes. On the basis of these results, an initial average electrode surface fouling rate of 1.2% min(-1) was estimated, which gradually declined to 0.7% min(-1). These results support minimal fouling at hydrogenated carbon electrodes applied to dopamine detection in vivo.

  17. A DETAILED SPATIOKINEMATIC MODEL OF THE CONICAL OUTFLOW OF THE MULTIPOLAR PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 7026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A.; Steffen, W.; Richer, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    We present extensive, long-slit, high-resolution coverage of the complex planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7026. We acquired 10 spectra using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer at San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, Mexico, and each shows exquisite detail, revealing the intricate structure of this object. Incorporating these spectra into the three-dimensional visualization and kinematic program SHAPE and using Hubble Space Telescope images of NGC 7026, we have produced a detailed structural and kinematic model of this PN. NGC 7026 exhibits remarkable symmetry consisting of three lobe pairs and four sets of knots, all symmetrical about the nucleus and displaying a conical outflow. Comparing the three-dimensional structure of this nebula to recent XMM-Newton X-ray observations, we investigate the extended X-ray emission in relation to the nebular structure. We find that the X-ray emission, while confined to the closed, northern lobes of this PN, shows an abrupt termination in the middle of the southeast lobe, which our long slit data show to be open. This is where the shocked fast wind seems to be escaping the interior of the nebula and the X-ray emission rapidly cools in this region.

  18. An internal conical mandrel technique for fracture toughness measurements on nuclear fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainte Catherine, C.; Le Boulch, D.; Carassou, S. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DMN, Bldg 625 P, Gif-Sur-Yvette, F-91191 (France); Lemaignan, C. [CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, F-38054 (France); Ramasubramanian, N. [ECCATEC Inc., 92 Deburn Drive, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An understanding of the limiting stress level for crack initiation and propagation in a fuel cladding material is a fundamental requirement for the development of water reactor clad materials. Conventional tests, in use to evaluate fracture properties, are of limited help, because they are adapted from ASTM standards designed for thick materials, which differ significantly from fuel cladding geometry (small diameter thin-walled tubing). The Internal Conical Mandrel (ICM) test described here is designed to simulate the effect of fuel pellet diametrical increase on a cladding with an existing axial through-wall crack. It consists in forcing a cone, having a tapered increase in diameter, inside the Zircaloy cladding with an initial axial crack. The aim of this work is to quantify the crack initiation and propagation criteria for fuel cladding material. The crack propagation is monitored by a video system for obtaining crack extension {delta}a. A finite-element (FE) simulation of the ICM test is performed in order to derive J integrals. A node release technique is applied during the FE simulation for crack propagation and the J-resistance curves (J-{delta}a) are generated. This paper presents the test methodology, the J computation validation, and results for cold-worked stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding at 20 deg. and 300 deg. C and also for Al 7050-T7651 aluminum alloy tubing at 20 deg. C. (authors)

  19. [Atraumatic bone expansion: Interest of piezo-surgery, conicals expanders and immediate implantation combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraqui, O; Lakhssassi, N; Berrada, S; Merzouk, N

    2016-06-01

    The durability of dental implants depends on the presence of a 1mm coating bone sheath all around the fixture. Therefore, bone resorption represents a challenge for the practitioner. Bone expansion is a surgical technique that allows the management of horizontal bone atrophy. Cortical bone splitting allows for an enlargement of the residual crest by displacement of the vestibular bone flap. The immediate placement of implants secures the widening and allows for a 97% survival rate. However, bone expansion is hard to undertake in sites with high bone density. Furthermore, the use of traditional instruments increases patient's stress and the risk for an interruptive fracture during bone displacement. Non-traumatic bone expansion is one solution to this problem. The combination of piezo-surgery and conical expanders allows for a secured displacement of the selected bone flap as well as an immediate implant placement, avoiding the risk of slipping, overheating, or fracture, all within an undeniable operative comfort. Non-traumatic bone expansion is a reliable, reproducible, conservative, and economical in time and cost procedure. We describe our atraumatic bone expension and immediate implant placement technique in high bone density sites and illustrate it by a clinical case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Computational study on the effect of a conical spring on handling of buses at low speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Aravind

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Handling and ride characteristic are dependent to a large extent on the characteristic of a vehicle’s suspension system. This work explores the effect of the use of conical spring in place of conventional cylindrical profiled helical spring design in the handling of a bus at low speeds through full vehicle multi-body simulations. The bus was modelled using standard template available in ADAMSTM software package. The vehicle inertial properties were verified against properties in literature. The conventional spring characteristic (L from ADAMSTM database was taken as reference and compared it with a non-linear characteristic (NL based on literature data. The planned maneuover was to execute a right turn based on standard road dimension inputs from IRC 86:1983 at a constant speed of 30 km/hour with acceleration controlled by software module. Chassis displacements, displacements of spring were tracked to understand handling and ride quality. The variation of chassis displacements showed a significant improvement in ride characteristic of vehicle with most vibrations being damped in NL at time lower than the L characteristic suspension. All through the study, lateral acceleration was well within the rollover threshold and tire interaction forces did not exhibit any significant changes.

  1. Experimental study of internal conical refraction in a biaxial crystal with Laguerre–Gauss light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of internal conical refraction (CR) in a biaxial crystal was studied using Laguerre–Gauss light beams LG 0 ℓ with ℓ=1 and 2, while the lowest-order LG 0 0 beam was used as a reference. The transition from ordinary double refraction to CR was examined. It has been shown that double refraction of an LG 0 ℓ beam forms two focal spots containing ℓ dark stripes. These stripes evolve into ℓ+1 dark rings over an annular focal image when CR is established, and it results in a fine-structure of ℓ+2 bright focal rings with different intensities. In a sharp contrast to the lowest-order reference, the multiring focal structure has a distinct asymmetry with respect to the focal image plane. It has been shown that bright off-axis ‘hot spot’ can be formed on the far-field profiles of outgoing light beams when the biaxial crystal is slightly tilted, and a small angle between the propagation axis of the beam and the optic axis of the crystal arises. These off-axis light structures emerge as either a charge-one optical vortex or a zero-charge spot with annihilated vorticity. Polarization selection reveals J 1 or J 0 Bessel-like profiles of the corresponding ‘hot spots’, and a complex pattern of forked fringes in the dark region near the beam core. (paper)

  2. Interferometric characterization of the structured polarized light beam produced by the conical refraction phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Alba; Turpin, Alex; Iemmi, Claudio; Márquez, Andrés; Kalkandjiev, Todor K; Mompart, Jordi; Campos, Juan

    2015-07-13

    The interest on the conical refraction (CR) phenomenon in biaxial crystals has revived in the last years due to its prospective for generating structured polarized light beams, i.e. vector beams. While the intensity and the polarization structure of the CR beams are well known, an accurate experimental study of their phase structure has not been yet carried out. We investigate the phase structure of the CR rings by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer while applying the phase-shifting interferometric technique to measure the phase at the focal plane. In general the two beams interfering correspond to different states of polarization (SOP) which locally vary. To distinguish if there is an additional phase added to the geometrical one we have derived the appropriate theoretical expressions using the Jones matrix formalism. We demonstrate that the phase of the CR rings is equivalent to that one introduced by an azimuthally segmented polarizer with CR-like polarization distribution. Additionally, we obtain direct evidence that the Poggendorff dark ring is an annular singularity, with a π phase change between the inner and outer bright rings.

  3. Shrinking of bumps by drawing scintillating fibres through a hot conical tool

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues Cavalcante, Ana Barbara; Gavardi, Laura; Joram, Christian; Kristic, Robert; Pierschel, Gerhard; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb SciFi tracker will be based on scintillating fibres with a nominal diameter of 250 $\\mu$m. A small length fraction of these fibres shows millimetre-scale fluctuations of the diameter, also known as bumps and necks. In particular, bumps exceeding a diameter of about 350 $\\mu$m are problematic as they can distort the winding pattern of the fibre mats over more extended regions. We present a method to reduce the diameter of large bumps to a diameter of 350 $\\mu$m by locally heating and pulling the fibre through a conical tool. The method has been proven to work for bumps up to 450 – 500 $\\mu$m diameter. Larger bumps need to be treated manually by a cut-and-glue technique which relies on UV-curing instant glue. The bump shrinking and cut-and-glue processes were integrated in a fibre diameter scanner at CERN. The central scanning and bump shrinking of all fibres is expected to minimise bump related issues at the four mat winding centres of the SciFi project.

  4. On solution of Lame equations in axisymmetric domains with conical points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkemzi, Boniface

    2003-10-01

    Partial Fourier series expansion is applied to the Dirichlet problem for the Lame equations in axisymmetric domains Ω-circumflex is a subset of R 3 with conical points on the rotation axis. This leads to dimension reduction of the three-dimensional boundary value problem resulting to an infinite sequence of two-dimensional boundary value problems on the plane meridian domain Ω a is a subset of R + 2 of Ω-circumflex with solutions u n (n = 0,1,2, ...) being the Fourier coefficients of the solution u-circumflex of the 3D BVP. The asymptotic behavior of the Fourier coefficients u n (n = 0,1,2, ...) near the angular points of the meridian domain Ω a is fully described by singular vector-functions which are related to the zeros α n of some transcendental equations involving Legendre functions of the first kind. Equations which determine the values of α n are given and a numerical algorithm for the computation of α n is proposed with some plots of values obtained presented. The singular vector functions for the solution of the 3D BVP is obtained by Fourier synthesis. (author)

  5. A Novel Integrated Algorithm for Wind Vector Retrieval from Conically Scanning Scatterometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuetong Xie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lower efficiency and the larger wind direction error of traditional algorithms, a novel integrated wind retrieval algorithm is proposed for conically scanning scatterometers. The proposed algorithm has the dual advantages of less computational cost and higher wind direction retrieval accuracy by integrating the wind speed standard deviation (WSSD algorithm and the wind direction interval retrieval (DIR algorithm. It adopts wind speed standard deviation as a criterion for searching possible wind vector solutions and retrieving a potential wind direction interval based on the change rate of the wind speed standard deviation. Moreover, a modified three-step ambiguity removal method is designed to let more wind directions be selected in the process of nudging and filtering. The performance of the new algorithm is illustrated by retrieval experiments using 300 orbits of SeaWinds/QuikSCAT L2A data (backscatter coefficients at 25 km resolution and co-located buoy data. Experimental results indicate that the new algorithm can evidently enhance the wind direction retrieval accuracy, especially in the nadir region. In comparison with the SeaWinds L2B Version 2 25 km selected wind product (retrieved wind fields, an improvement of 5.1° in wind direction retrieval can be made by the new algorithm for that region.

  6. The Conical Singularity and Quantum Corrections to Entropy of Black Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that at the temperature different from the Hawking temperature there appears a conical singularity in the Euclidean classical solution of gravitational equations. The method of regularizing the cone by regular surface is used to determine the curvature tensors for such metrics. It allows to calculate the one-loop matter effective action and the corresponding one-loop quantum corrections to the entropy in the framework of the path integral approach of Gibbons and Hawking. The two-dimensional and four-dimensional cases are considered. The entropy of the Rindler space is shown to be divergent logarithmically in two dimensions and quadratically in four dimensions. It corresponds to the results obtained earlier. For the eternal 2D black hole we observe finite, dependent on the mass, correction to the entropy. The entropy of the 4D Schwarzschild black hole is shown to possess an additional (in comparison to the 4D Rindler space) logarithmically divergent correction which does not vanish in the limit of infinite mass of the black hole. We argue that infinities of the entropy in four dimensions are renormalized with the renormalization of the gravitational coupling. (author). 35 refs

  7. Building roof with conical holes containing PCM to reduce the cooling load: Numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alawadhi, Esam M.; Alqallaf, Hashem J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated a roof structure with cone frustum holes containing PCM. → Different types of PCM and geometries of the PCM are presented. → The results indicate that the heat flux at the indoor space is reduced by 39%. - Abstract: The thermal effectiveness of a building's roof with phase change material (PCM) is presented in this paper. The considered model consists of a concrete slab with vertical cone frustum holes filled with PCM. The objective of incorporating the PCM into the roof structure is to utilize its high latent heat of fusion to reduce the heat gain during the energy demanded peak hours, by absorbing the incoming energy through the melting process in the roof before it reaches the indoor space. The thermal effectiveness of the proposed roof-PCM system is determined by comparing the heat flux at the indoor surface to a roof without the PCM during typical working hours. A parametric study is conducted to assess the effects of the cone frustum geometry, and the kind of PCM used. The n-Eicosane shows the best performance among the examined PCMs, and the conical geometry of the PCM container is the best in term of thermal effectiveness. The results indicate that the heat flux at the indoor surface of the roof can be reduced up to 39% for a certain type of PCM and geometry of PCM cone frustum holes.

  8. Non-linear general instability of ring-stiffened conical shells under external hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C T F; Kubelt, C; McLaughlin, I; Etheridge, A; Turner, K; Paraskevaides, D; Little, A P F

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the experimental results for 15 ring-stiffened circular steel conical shells, which failed by non-linear general instability. The results of these investigations were compared with various theoretical analyses, including an ANSYS eigen buckling analysis and another ANSYS analysis; which involved a step-by-step method until collapse; where both material and geometrical nonlinearity were considered. The investigation also involved an analysis using BS5500 (PD 5500), together with the method of Ross of the University of Portsmouth. The ANSYS eigen buckling analysis tended to overestimate the predicted buckling pressures; whereas the ANSYS nonlinear results compared favourably with the experimental results. The PD5500 analysis was very time consuming and tended to grossly underestimate the experimental buckling pressures and in some cases, overestimate them. In contrast to PD5500 and ANSYS, the design charts of Ross of the University of Portsmouth were the easiest of all these methods to use and generally only slightly underestimated the experimental collapse pressures. The ANSYS analyses gave some excellent graphical displays.

  9. Physical modelling of tsunamis generated by three-dimensional deformable granular landslides on planar and conical island slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Brian C; Fritz, Hermann M

    2016-04-01

    Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcanic island collapses account for some of the most catastrophic events recorded, yet critically important field data related to the landslide motion and tsunami evolution remain lacking. Landslide-generated tsunami source and propagation scenarios are physically modelled in a three-dimensional tsunami wave basin. A unique pneumatic landslide tsunami generator was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The landslides were generated on a planar hill slope and divergent convex conical hill slope to study lateral hill slope effects on the wave characteristics. The leading wave crest amplitude generated on a planar hill slope is larger on average than the leading wave crest generated on a convex conical hill slope, whereas the leading wave trough and second wave crest amplitudes are smaller. Between 1% and 24% of the landslide kinetic energy is transferred into the wave train. Cobble landslides transfer on average 43% more kinetic energy into the wave train than corresponding gravel landslides. Predictive equations for the offshore propagating wave amplitudes, periods, celerities and lengths generated by landslides on planar and divergent convex conical hill slopes are derived, which allow an initial rapid tsunami hazard assessment.

  10. Inverted-conical light guide for crosstalk reduction in tightly-packed scintillator matrix and MAPMT assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.-Y., E-mail: gixd@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, C.R. [National Space Organization (NSPO), 8F., No. 9, Prosperity 1 s Rd., Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, P.; Huang, J.-J. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, M.A. [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, 1, Lienda, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, T.-C. [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nam, J.W. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, M.-Z., E-mail: mzwang@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Bogomolov, V. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 119234 (Russian Federation); Physics Department of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 119234 (Russian Federation); Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C. [National Space Institute, Astrophysics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens, Lyngby (Denmark); and others

    2015-01-21

    In this paper we present the Inverted-Conical light guide designed for optical crosstalk reduction in the scintillator-MAPMT assemblies. The research was motivated by the 30% crosstalk observed in UFFO X-ray telescope, UBAT, during the preliminary calibration with MAPMTs of 64 2.88×2.88 mm{sup 2} pixels and identically gridded YSO crystal matrices. We began the study with the energy and crosstalk calibrations of the detector, then we constructed a GEANT4 simulation with the customized metallic film model as the MAPMT photocathode. The simulation reproduced more than 70% of the crosstalk and explained it as a consequence of the total reflection produced by the photocathode. The result indicated that the crosstalk mechanism could be a common case in most of the contact-assembled scintillation detectors. The concept of the Inverted-Conical light guide was to suppress the total reflection by contracting the incident angle of the scintillation. We optimized the design in the simulation and fabricated a test sample. The test sample reduced 52% crosstalk with a loss of 6% signal yield. The idea of the Inverted-Conical light guide can be adapted by scintillation detectors multi-pixel, imaging-purpose scintillation detectors such as the ultra-fast GRB observatory UFFO-UBAT, whose performances are sensitive to responding time, image resolution, and geometrical modifications.

  11. Inverted-conical light guide for crosstalk reduction in tightly-packed scintillator matrix and MAPMT assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.-Y.; Chen, C.R.; Chen, P.; Huang, J.-J.; Huang, M.A.; Liu, T.-C.; Nam, J.W.; Wang, M.-Z.; Bogomolov, V.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the Inverted-Conical light guide designed for optical crosstalk reduction in the scintillator-MAPMT assemblies. The research was motivated by the 30% crosstalk observed in UFFO X-ray telescope, UBAT, during the preliminary calibration with MAPMTs of 64 2.88×2.88 mm 2 pixels and identically gridded YSO crystal matrices. We began the study with the energy and crosstalk calibrations of the detector, then we constructed a GEANT4 simulation with the customized metallic film model as the MAPMT photocathode. The simulation reproduced more than 70% of the crosstalk and explained it as a consequence of the total reflection produced by the photocathode. The result indicated that the crosstalk mechanism could be a common case in most of the contact-assembled scintillation detectors. The concept of the Inverted-Conical light guide was to suppress the total reflection by contracting the incident angle of the scintillation. We optimized the design in the simulation and fabricated a test sample. The test sample reduced 52% crosstalk with a loss of 6% signal yield. The idea of the Inverted-Conical light guide can be adapted by scintillation detectors multi-pixel, imaging-purpose scintillation detectors such as the ultra-fast GRB observatory UFFO-UBAT, whose performances are sensitive to responding time, image resolution, and geometrical modifications

  12. Comparative Studies on Thermal Performance of Conic Cut Twist Tape Inserts with SiO2 and TiO2 Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami D. Salman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison study on thermal performance conic cut twist tape inserts in laminar flow of nanofluids through a constant heat fluxed tube. Three tape configurations, namely, quadrant cut twisted tape (QCT, parabolic half cut twisted tape (PCT, and triangular cut twisted (VCT of twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth de = 0.5 cm were used with 1% and 2% volume concentration of SiO2/water and TiO2/water nanofluids. Typical twist tape with twist ratio of y = 2.93 was used for comparison. The results show that the heat transfer was enhanced by increasing of Reynolds number and nanoparticles concentration of nanofluid. The results have also revealed that the use of twist tape enhanced the heat transfer coefficient significantly and maximum heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the presence of triangular cut twist tape insert with 2% volume concentration of SiO2 nanofluid. Over the range investigated, the maximum thermal performance factor of 5.13 is found with the simultaneous use of the SiO2 nanofluid at 2% volume concentration VCT at Reynolds number of 220. Furthermore, new empirical correlations for Nusselt number, friction factor, and thermal performance factor are developed and reported.

  13. Effects of Different Cutting Patterns and Experimental Conditions on the Performance of a Conical Drag Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, Hanifi; Bilgin, Nuh; Balci, Cemal; Tumac, Deniz; Avunduk, Emre

    2017-06-01

    This study aims at determining the effects of single-, double-, and triple-spiral cutting patterns; the effects of tool cutting speeds on the experimental scale; and the effects of the method of yield estimation on cutting performance by performing a set of full-scale linear cutting tests with a conical cutting tool. The average and maximum normal, cutting and side forces; specific energy; yield; and coarseness index are measured and compared in each cutting pattern at a 25-mm line spacing, at varying depths of cut per revolution, and using two cutting speeds on five different rock samples. The results indicate that the optimum specific energy decreases by approximately 25% with an increasing number of spirals from the single- to the double-spiral cutting pattern for the hard rocks, whereas generally little effect was observed for the soft- and medium-strength rocks. The double-spiral cutting pattern appeared to be more effective than the single- or triple-spiral cutting pattern and had an advantage of lower side forces. The tool cutting speed had no apparent effect on the cutting performance. The estimation of the specific energy by the yield based on the theoretical swept area was not significantly different from that estimated by the yield based on the muck weighing, especially for the double- and triple-spiral cutting patterns and with the optimum ratio of line spacing to depth of cut per revolution. This study also demonstrated that the cutterhead and mechanical miner designs, semi-theoretical deterministic computer simulations and empirical performance predictions and optimization models should be based on realistic experimental simulations. Studies should be continued to obtain more reliable results by creating a larger database of laboratory tests and field performance records for mechanical miners using drag tools.

  14. Finite temperature fermion condensate, charge and current densities in a (2+1)-dimensional conical space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Bezerra de Mello, E.R. [Universidade Federal da Parai ba, Departamento de Fisica, 58.059-970, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Braganca, E. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Universidade Federal da Parai ba, Departamento de Fisica, 58.059-970, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Saharian, A.A. [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2016-06-15

    We evaluate the fermion condensate and the expectation values of the charge and current densities for a massive fermionic field in (2+1)-dimensional conical spacetime with a magnetic flux located at the cone apex. The consideration is done for both irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. The expectation values are decomposed into the vacuum expectation values and contributions coming from particles and antiparticles. All these contributions are periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. Related to the non-invariance of the model under the parity and time-reversal transformations, the fermion condensate and the charge density have indefinite parity with respect to the change of the signs of the magnetic flux and chemical potential. The expectation value of the radial current density vanishes. The azimuthal current density is the same for both the irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. It is an odd function of the magnetic flux and an even function of the chemical potential. The behavior of the expectation values in various asymptotic regions of the parameters are discussed in detail. In particular, we show that for points near the cone apex the vacuum parts dominate. For a massless field with zero chemical potential the fermion condensate and charge density vanish. Simple expressions are derived for the part in the total charge induced by the planar angle deficit and magnetic flux. Combining the results for separate irreducible representations, we also consider the fermion condensate, charge and current densities in parity and time-reversal symmetric models. Possible applications to graphitic nanocones are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Hot granules medium pressure forming process of AA7075 conical parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guojiang; Zhao, Changcai; Peng, Yaxin; Li, Ying

    2015-05-01

    High strength aluminum alloy plate has a low elongation at room temperature, which leads to the forming of its components need a high temperature. Liquid or gas is used as the pressure-transfer medium in the existing flexible mould forming process, the heat resistance of the medium and pressurizing device makes the application of aluminum alloy plate thermoforming restricted. To solve this problem, the existing medium is replaced by the heat-resisting solid granules and the general pressure equipments are applied. Based on the pressure-transfer performance test of the solid granules medium, the feasibility that the assumption of the extended Drucker-Prager linear model can be used in the finite element analysis is proved. The constitutive equation, the yield function and the theoretical forming limit diagram(FLD) of AA7075 sheet are established. Through the finite element numerical simulation of hot granules medium pressure forming(HGMF) process, not only the influence laws of the process parameters, such as forming temperature, the blank-holder gap and the diameter of the slab, on sheet metal forming performance are discussed, but also the broken area of the forming process is analyzed and predicted, which are coincided with the technological test. The conical part whose half cone angle is 15° and relative height H/d 0 is 0.57, is formed in one process at 250°C. The HGMF process solves the problems of loading and seal in the existing flexible mould forming process and provides a novel technology for thermoforming of light alloy plate, such as magnesium alloy, aluminium alloy and titanium alloy.

  16. Waste truck-tyre processing by flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.; Alvarez, J.; Amutio, M.; Mkhize, N.M.; Danon, B.; Gryp, P.; Görgens, J.F. van der; Bilbao, J.; Olazar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flash pyrolysis improves TPO and limonene yields vs. slow pyrolysis. • The most suitable temperature for TPO and limonene maximization was 475 °C. • Operating at 575 °C gas yields and char quality was enhanced. • Temperature showed a limited effect on sulphur distribution among products. - Abstract: The flash pyrolysis of waste truck-tyres was studied in a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR) operating in continuous regime. The influence of temperature on product distribution was analysed in the 425–575 °C range. A detailed characterization of the pyrolysis products was carried out in order to assess their most feasible application. Moreover, special attention was paid to the sulphur distribution among the products. The analysis of gaseous products was carried out using a micro-GC and the tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) by means of GC-FID using peak areas for quantification, with GC/MS for identification and elemental analysis. Finally, the char was subjected to elemental analysis and surface characterization. According to the results, 475 °C is an appropriate temperature for the pyrolysis of waste tyres, given that it ensures total devolatilisation of tyre rubber and a high TPO yield, 58.2 wt.%. Moreover, the quality of the oil is optimum at this temperature, especially in terms of high concentrations of valuable chemicals, such as limonene. An increase in temperature to 575 °C reduced the TPO yield to 53.9 wt.% and substantially changed its chemical composition by increasing the aromatic content. However, the quality of the recovered char was improved at high temperatures.

  17. Influence of Central Obesity Assessed by Conicity Index on Lung Age in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Usha; Jagadamba

    2017-04-01

    Central obesity is an emerging public health problem in young adults which compromises lung mechanics. Conicity Index (CI) is a simple anthropometric measure to assess central adiposity. The concept of lung age relates to a person's current lung function at which his/her lung function would be considered abnormal in relation to the present actual age. To determine the effect of central obesity by CI on lung age in young adults. A total of 319 young adults in the age group 18-25 years were recruited for this cross-sectional observational study. Written informed consent and Institutional Ethical Clearance (IEC) approval were obtained. Anthropometric parameters were measured and CI was calculated using the following formula: CI = Waist Circumference (WC) (m)/ [0.109 X√ {Bodyweight (kg)/ Height (m)}] where 0.109 is a constant. Spirometry was performed and all the lung volumes and capacities were obtained. There was a significant increase in mean values of CI in obese young adults compared to non obese (1.36±0.15 and 1.16±0.08, pobesity on lung age in young adults was compared using an independent t-test. Mean of lung age was significantly higher in centrally obese young adults compared to non obese 23.87±3.03 and 21.30±2.6, pobese young adults compared to non obese. Hence, lung age can be used as a potential psychological tool to show an individual with central obesity that there is premature aging of their lungs.

  18. High Thermal Rectifications Using Liquid Crystals Confined into a Conical Frustum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José Guilherme; Fumeron, Sébastien; Moraes, Fernando; Pereira, Erms

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, phononics, that studies thermal analogs of electronic devices, has become an important subject due to the need for better use of energy resources influenced by growing demand. On developing of these analogs, for example, thermal diodes, a successful route is the design of nanostructured materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes). However, these materials entail increased costs due to the use of complex techniques/equipments, while alternative cheaper materials present nearly comparable efficiency. In this work, we investigate how a thermal diode made by an alternative material (nematic liquid crystal), confined in a conical frustum capillary, can be optimized to achieve high rectifications. In such capillary tube, the thermotropic nematic liquid crystal 5CB produces an axially anisotropic defect called escaped radial disclination. With the molecular director field of such structure, we obtain the thermal conductivity tensor of the diode and solve the steady-state regime of Laplace and Fourier equations using the finite element method. We observed the anisotropy of the system with the non-linear temperature dependences of the molecular thermal conductivities that rectify the heat flux at rates up to 1266% at room temperature. Studying the sensitivity of the system with respect to shape and molecular and thermal aspects, we found that the improved thermal diode is suitable to be miniaturized and applied on well-determined areas, and it is robust against variations of the inward pumped heat flux. This work contributes to the usage of liquid crystals in non-display devices, having potential applications on controlling the heat flux through surfaces.

  19. Effect of the mixing fields on the stability and structure of turbulent partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.

    2016-10-22

    The mixing field is known to be one of the key parameters that affect the stability and structure of partially premixed flames. Data in these flames are now available covering the effects of turbulence, combustion system geometry, level of partially premixing and fuel type. However, quantitative analyses of the flame structure based on the mixing field are not yet available. The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive study of the effects of the mixing fields on the structure and stability of partially premixed methane flames. The mixing field in a concentric flow conical nozzle (CFCN) burner with well-controlled mechanism of the mixing is investigated using Rayleigh scattering technique. The flame stability, structure and flow field of some selected cases are presented using LIF of OH and PIV. The experimental data of the mixing field cover wide ranges of Reynolds number, equivalence ratio and mixing length. The data show that the mixing field is significantly affected by the mixing length and the ratio of the air-to-fuel velocities. The Reynolds number has a minimum effect on the mixing field in high turbulent flow regime and the stability is significantly affected by the turbulence level. The temporal fluctuations of the range of mixture fraction within the mixing field correlate with the flame stability. The highest point of stability occurs at recess distances where fluid mixtures near the jet exit plane are mostly within the flammability limits. This paper provides some correlations between the stability range in mixture fraction space and the turbulence level for different equivalence ratios.

  20. Design and Real Time Implementation of CDM-PI Control System in a Conical Tank Liquid Level Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhaba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on the design and real time implementation of Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM based PI (CDM-PI control system for a Conical Tank Liquid Level Process (CTLLP which exhibits severe static non-linear characteristics. By taking this static non-linearity into account, a Wiener Model (WM based CDM-PI control system is developed and implemented in real time operations. The performance of this control system for set point tracking and load disturbance rejection is studied. In addition, the performance is compared with other WM based PI controllers. Real time results clearly show that WM based CDM-PI control system outperforms over the others.

  1. Model-based calculations of off-axis ratio of conic beams for a dedicated 6 MV radiosurgery unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. N.; Ding, X.; Du, W.; Pino, R. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Because the small-radius photon beams shaped by cones in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) lack lateral electronic equilibrium and a detector's finite cross section, direct experimental measurement of dosimetric data for these beams can be subject to large uncertainties. As the dose calculation accuracy of a treatment planning system largely depends on how well the dosimetric data are measured during the machine's commissioning, there is a critical need for an independent method to validate measured results. Therefore, the authors studied the model-based calculation as an approach to validate measured off-axis ratios (OARs). Methods: The authors previously used a two-component analytical model to calculate central axis dose and associated dosimetric data (e.g., scatter factors and tissue-maximum ratio) in a water phantom and found excellent agreement between the calculated and the measured central axis doses for small 6 MV SRS conic beams. The model was based on that of Nizin and Mooij [''An approximation of central-axis absorbed dose in narrow photon beams,'' Med. Phys. 24, 1775-1780 (1997)] but was extended to account for apparent attenuation, spectral differences between broad and narrow beams, and the need for stricter scatter dose calculations for clinical beams. In this study, the authors applied Clarkson integration to this model to calculate OARs for conic beams. OARs were calculated for selected cones with radii from 0.2 to 1.0 cm. To allow comparisons, the authors also directly measured OARs using stereotactic diode (SFD), microchamber, and film dosimetry techniques. The calculated results were machine-specific and independent of direct measurement data for these beams. Results: For these conic beams, the calculated OARs were in excellent agreement with the data measured using an SFD. The discrepancies in radii and in 80%-20% penumbra were within 0.01 cm, respectively. Using SFD-measured OARs as the reference data, the

  2. Quantum Dynamics of Multi Harmonic Oscillators Described by Time Variant Conic Hamiltonian and their Use in Contemporary Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, Metin

    2010-01-01

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a system of quantum multi harmonic oscillators whose Hamiltonian is conic in positions and momenta with time variant coefficients. While it is simple, this system is useful for modeling the dynamics of a number of systems in contemporary sciences where the equations governing spatial or temporal changes are described by sets of ODEs. The dynamical causal models used readily in neuroscience can be indirectly described by these systems. In this work, we want to show that it is possible to describe these systems using quantum wave function type entities and expectations if the dynamic of the system is related to a set of ODEs.

  3. Exciplexes and conical intersections lead to fluorescence quenching in π-stacked dimers of 2-aminopurine with natural purine nucleobases†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, JingXin; Nguyen, Quynh L.; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent analogues of the natural DNA bases are useful in the study of nucleic acids’ structure and dynamics. 2-Aminopurine (2AP) is a widely used analogue with environmentally sensitive fluorescence behavior. The quantum yield of 2AP has been found to be significantly decreased when engaged in π-stacking interactions with the native bases. We present a theoretical study on fluorescence quenching mechanisms in dimers of 2AP π-stacked with adenine or guanine as in natural DNA. Relaxation pathways on the potential energy surfaces of the first excited states have been computed and reveal the importance of exciplexes and conical intersections in the fluorescence quenching process. PMID:23625036

  4. Enhancement of heat transfer rate with structural modification of double pipe heat exchanger by changing cylindrical form of tubes into conical form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, Mehran; Jafarmadar, Samad; Nasiri, Javid; Sadighi Dizaji, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved geometry is presented by changing tubes form into conical. • Enhancement of heat transfer rate is investigated. • Frictional characteristics for novel geometry are studied. • For a proper understanding of the subject, the exact physical interpretation is added. • The effect of flow, geometry and thermodynamic parameters is considered. - Abstract: In this paper, cylindrical tubes of a double pipe heat exchanger were changed into the conical tubes as an innovative design which causes improvement of thermal performance of heat exchanger without increment of its weight. Utilization of conical tube instead of cylindrical tube can impress both thermal and frictional characteristics of heat exchanger. Hence, the effect of conical tubes on Nusselt number, friction factor and thermal performance factor are evaluated in present research which was not covered already. Moreover, the effects of hydrodynamic, thermodynamic and geometrical characteristics are analyzed. All said parameters are numerically investigated for nine different combinations of flow direction and conical tubes geometry. The results of simulations of the said configurations are presented to compare the cases from different points of view and determine the most thermally efficient case. The results reveal modified geometry makes 63% increment in Nu number and 54% increment in heat transfer rate at optimum condition.

  5. Conical nano-structure arrays of Platinum cathode catalyst for enhanced cell performance in PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Aziz; Nath, Bhabesh Kumar; Chutia, Joyanti

    2015-01-01

    Conical nanostructure arrays of Pt (Platinum) as cathode catalyst are developed using a novel integrated plasma sputtering technique. The integration method involves successive deposition of Pt catalyst arrays one upon another maintaining a uniform time gap. Deposition by integrated approach results in the formation of dense arrays of Pt nanostructure as compared to continuous deposition. These high number density integrated arrays with low Pt loading of 0.10 mg cm −2 at the cathode provide enhanced performance compared to non-integrated cathode catalyst prepared by continuous deposition and standard commercial electrodes with Pt loadings of 1 mg cm −2 . The performance is compared on the basis of polarization curve measurements and the calculated power density values. PEM fuel cell with dual integrated cathode showed an improved power density of 0.90 W cm −2 , which is higher than continuously deposited cathode catalyst with maximum power density of 0.67 W cm −2 for the same Pt loading of 0.10 mg cm −2 . - Highlights: • Conical nanostructures with high number density are prepared by a novel integrated deposition technique. • Electrode with such catalyst shows maximum performance of 0.9 W cm −2 . • Integrated catalyst performs better than continuously prepared nanostructure catalyst.

  6. Electronic states and optical properties of single donor in GaN conical quantum dot with spherical edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aouami, A.; Feddi, E.; El-Yadri, M.; Aghoutane, N.; Dujardin, F.; Duque, C. A.; Phuc, Huynh Vinh

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical investigation of quantum confinement effects on the electron and single donor states in GaN conical quantum dot with spherical edge. In the framework of the effective mass approximation, the Schrödinger equations of electron and donor have been solved analytically in an infinite potential barrier model. Our calculations show that the energies of electron and donor impurity are affected by the two characteristic parameters of the structure which are the angle Ω and the radial dimension R. We show that, despite the fact that the reduction of the two parameters Ω and R leads to the same confinement effects, the energy remains very sensitive to the variation of the radial part than the variation of the angular part. The analysis of the photoionization cross-section corresponding to optical transitions between the conduction band and the first donor energy level shows clearly that the reduction of the radius R causes a shift in resonance peaks towards the high energies. On the other hand, the optical transitions between 1 s - 1 p , 1 p - 1 d and 1 p - 2 s show that the increment of the conical aperture Ω (or reduction of R) implies a displacement of the excitation energy to higher energies.

  7. Geometry Effect Investigation on a Conical Chamber with Porous Media Boundary Condition Using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Bindar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to introduce the method for optimizing the geometry of the unit process. The comprehensive unit process performances are generated by a CFD engine. The CFD engine can simulate the unit process performances at what ever conditions. Both design geometry and operating variables weree used on the CFD simulation. The burden on a simplified process was taken out from CFD simulation. A complex geometry of a unit process is represented by a secondary reformer. A secondary reformer has a conical volume as a space to undergo the combustion reaction before entering the catalyst bed. This complexity is added by the boundary of the porous solid surface as the top surface of catalyst bed. The spread angle affect the flow pattern in side the conical volume having a porous solid surface as a base. The spread angle above 65o results the disappearing of the recirculation flow. The inlet distance from the porous solid surface also can exhibit different characteristics of recirculation flow. The closer the distance to the porous solid surface, the stronger the recirculation is. The inlet velocity values have no significant effect on the flow pattern. The introduction of a solid volume inside the geometry creates the distortion of the flow pattern. In the application, the inserted solid volume is equivalent to a burner. It means that the use of the burner inherently produces some problems of the flow distribution

  8. Thermoelectrically induced nonlinear free vibration analysis of piezo laminated composite conical shell panel with random fiber orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Achchhe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the free vibration response of piezo laminated composite geometrically nonlinear conical shell panel subjected to a thermo-electrical loading. The temperature field is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the shell surface and through the shell thickness and the electric field is assumed to be the transverse component E2 only. The material properties are assumed to be independent of the temperature and the electric field. The basic formulation is based on higher order shear deformation plate theory (HSDT with von-Karman nonlinearity. A C0 nonlinear finite element method based on direct iterative approach is outlined and applied to solve nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problem. Parametric studies are carried out to examine the effect of amplitude ratios, stacking sequences, cone angles, piezoelectric layers, applied voltages, circumferential length to thickness ratios, change in temperatures and support boundary conditions on the nonlinear natural frequency of laminated conical shell panels. The present outlined approach has been validated with those available results in the literature.

  9. Effect of perforation on flow past a conic cylinder at Re = 100: vortex-shedding pattern and force history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. M.; Zhong, X. F.; Wu, Y. X.

    2017-09-01

    The flow past a circular-section cylinder with a conic shroud perforated with four holes at the peak was simulated numerically at Re=100 , considering two factors, viz. the angle of attack and the diameter of the holes. The effects of the perforated conic shroud on the vortex shedding pattern in the near wake was mainly investigated, as well as the time history of the drag and lift forces. In the investigated parameter space, three flow regimes were generally identified, corresponding to weak, moderate, and strong disturbance effects. In regime I, the wake can mainly be described by alternately shedding Kármán or Kármán-like vortices. In regime II, the spanwise vortices are obviously disturbed along the span due to the appearance of additional vorticity components and their interactions with the spanwise vortices, but still shed in synchronization along the spanwise direction. In regime III, the typical Kármán vortices partially or totally disappear, and some new vortex shedding patterns appear, such as Ω -type, obliquely shedding, and crossed spanwise vortices with opposite sign. Corresponding to these complex vortex shedding patterns in the near wake, the fluid forces no longer oscillate regularly at a single vortex shedding frequency, but rather with a lower modulation frequency and multiple amplitudes. An overview of these flow regimes is presented.

  10. Disorder effects in two-dimensional Fermi systems with conical spectrum: exact results for the density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nersesyan, A.A.; Tsvelik, A.M.; Wenger, F.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of weak non-magnetic disorder on the single-particle density of states ρ(ω) of two-dimensional electron systems with a conical spectrum is studied. We use a non-perturbative approach, based on the replica trick with subsequent mapping of the effective action onto a one-dimensional model of interacting fermions, the latter being treated by abelian and non-abelian bosonization methods. Specifically, we consider a weakly disordered p- or d-wave superconductor, in which case the problem reduces to a model of (2+1)-dimensional massless Dirac fermions coupled to random, static, generally non-abelian gauge fields. It is shown that the density of states of a two-dimensional p- or d-wave superconductor, averaged over randomness, follows a non-trivial power-law behavior near the Fermi energy: ρ(ω) similar vertical stroke ωvertical stroke α . The exponent α>0 is exactly calculated for several types of disorder. We demonstrate that the property ρ(0) = 0 is a direct consequence of a continuous symmetry of the effective fermionic model, whose breakdown is forbidden in two dimensions. As a counter example, we also discuss another model with a conical spectrum - a two-dimensional orbital antiferromagnet, where static disorder leads to a finite ρ(0) due to the breakdown of a discrete (particle-hole) symmetry. ((orig.))

  11. Dynamics and control of the vortex flow behind a slender conical forebody by a pair of plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xuanshi; Long, Yuexiao; Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Feng; Luo, Shijun

    2018-02-01

    Detailed particle-image-velocimetry (PIV) and surface pressure measurements are presented to study the vortex flow behind a slender conical forebody at high angles of attack. The results confirm the existence of two randomly appearing mirror imaged asymmetric bi-stable states of the separation vortices, giving rise to large side force and moment. A pair of carefully designed dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators mounted near the apex and on both sides of the conical body are used to manipulate the vortex flow and thus provide control of the side forces on the body without using flaps. By making use of a duty-cycle actuation scheme that alternately actuates the port and starboard plasma actuators and optimizing the duty-cycle frequency, the present work demonstrates the feasibility of achieving a nearly perfect linear proportional control of the side force and moment in response to the duty-cycle ratio. Phase-locked PIV and surface pressure measurements are used to study the unsteady dynamic evolution of the flow within one duty-cycle actuation to reveal the flow control mechanism. It is found that under the duty-cycle actuation with the optimized frequency, the vortex flow essentially follows the plasma actuation by alternating between the two bi-stable states controlled directly by the duty-cycle ratio.

  12. Rayleigh-Love model of longitudinal vibrations of conical and exponential rods: Exact solutions and numerical simulation by the method of lines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available of conical surface of the rod is described by equation ( ) ( )pr x k x x kx= ? = , where px is coordinate of the pole of the cone, px x x= ? , then ( ) 2 2S x k xpi= , ( ) 4 4 2pI x k xpi= and equation (2) is rewritten as follows: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2... rod in accordance with the classi- cal theory, and 2 k c ? ?? = is the wavenumber of the conical rod which has dimension 1m? . Introducing new dimensionless variable z x?= , considering new function ( ) zV z U ? ? ? = ? ?? ? ( )W z z...

  13. Polar conic current sheets as sources and channels of energetic particles in the high-latitude heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Malova, Helmi; Kislov, Roman; Zelenyi, Lev; Obridko, Vladimir; Kharshiladze, Alexander; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Sokół, Justyna; Grzedzielski, Stan; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Malandraki, Olga

    2017-04-01

    The existence of a large-scale magnetically separated conic region inside the polar coronal hole has been predicted by the Fisk-Parker hybrid heliospheric magnetic field model in the modification of Burger and co-workers (Burger et al., ApJ, 2008). Recently, long-lived conic (or cylindrical) current sheets (CCSs) have been found from Ulysses observations at high heliolatitudes (Khabarova et al., ApJ, 2017). The characteristic scale of these structures is several times lesser than the typical width of coronal holes, and the CCSs can be observed at 2-3 AU for several months. CCS crossings in 1994 and 2007 are characterized by sharp decreases in the solar wind speed and plasma beta typical for predicted profiles of CCSs. In 2007, a CCS was detected directly over the South Pole and strongly highlighted by the interaction with comet McNaught. The finding is confirmed by restorations of solar coronal magnetic field lines that reveal the occurrence of conic-like magnetic separators over the solar poles both in 1994 and 2007. Interplanetary scintillation data analysis also confirms the existence of long-lived low-speed regions surrounded by the typical polar high-speed solar wind in solar minima. The occurrence of long-lived CCSs in the high-latitude solar wind could shed light on how energetic particles reach high latitudes. Energetic particle enhancements up to tens MeV were observed by Ulysses at edges of CCSs both in 1994 and 2007. In 1994 this effect was clearer, probably due to technical reasons. Accelerated particles could be produced either by magnetic reconnection at the edges of a CCS in the solar corona or in the solar wind. We discuss the role of high-latitude CCSs in propagation of energetic particles in the heliosphere and revisit previous studies of energetic particle enhancements at high heliolatitudes. We also suggest that the existence of a CCS can modify the distribution of the solar wind as a function of heliolatitude and consequently impact ionization

  14. Computation of a numerically satisfactory pair of solutions of the differential equation for conical functions of non-negative integer orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Dunster (Mark); A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of computing satisfactory pair of solutions of the differential equation for Legendre functions of non-negative integer order $\\mu$ and degree $-\\frac12+i\\tau$, where $\\tau$ is a non-negative real parameter. Solutions of this equation are the conical functions

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of bending strength of spinal pedicle screws, including cylindrical, conical, dual core and double dual core designs using numerical simulations and mechanical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaritsakul, Yongyut; Chao, Ching-Kong; Lin, Jinn

    2014-09-01

    Pedicle screws are used for treating several types of spinal injuries. Although several commercial versions are presently available, they are mostly either fully cylindrical or fully conical. In this study, the bending strengths of seven types of commercial pedicle screws and a newly designed double dual core screw were evaluated by finite element analyses and biomechanical tests. All the screws had an outer diameter of 7 mm, and the biomechanical test consisted of a cantilever bending test in which a vertical point load was applied using a level arm of 45 mm. The boundary and loading conditions of the biomechanical tests were applied to the model used for the finite element analyses. The results showed that only the conical screws with fixed outer diameter and the new double dual core screw could withstand 1,000,000 cycles of a 50-500 N cyclic load. The new screw, however, exhibited lower stiffness than the conical screw, indicating that it could afford patients more flexible movements. Moreover, the new screw produced a level of stability comparable to that of the conical screw, and it was also significantly stronger than the other screws. The finite element analysis further revealed that the point of maximum tensile stress in the screw model was comparable to the point at which fracture occurred during the fatigue test. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New Geometry of Worm Face Gear Drives with Conical and Cylindrical Worms: Generation, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    New geometry of face worm gear drives with conical and cylindrical worms is proposed. The generation of the face worm-gear is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) instead of application of a hob applied at present. The generation of a conjugated worm is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) as well. The bearing contact of the gear drive is localized and is oriented longitudinally. A predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors for reduction of noise and vibration is provided. The stress analysis of the gear drive is performed using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The contacting model is automatically generated. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical examples.

  17. Approximating a free-field blast environment in the test section of an explosively driven conical shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents experimental data on incident overpressures and the corresponding impulses obtained in the test section of an explosively driven 10° (full angle) conical shock tube. Due to the shock tube's steel walls approximating the boundary conditions seen by a spherical sector cut out of a detonating sphere of energetic material, a 5.3-g pentolite shock tube driver charge produces peak overpressures corresponding to a free-field detonation from an 816-g sphere of pentolite. The four test section geometries investigated in this paper (open air, cylindrical, 10° inscribed square frustum, and 10° circumscribed square frustum) provide a variety of different time histories for the incident overpressures and impulses, with a circumscribed square frustum yielding the best approximation of the estimated blast environment that would have been produced by a free-field detonation.

  18. SU-F-T-28: Evaluation of BEBIG HDR Co-60 After-Loading System for Skin Cancer Treatment Using Conical Surface Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W Y [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Meigooni, A S [Department of Radiation Therapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Han, D [Departemt of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the possibility of utilizing the BEBIG HDR 60Co remote after-loading system for malignant skin surface treatment using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique. Methods: First TG-43 parameters of BEBIG-Co-60 and Nucletron Ir-192-mHDR-V2 brachytherapy sources were simulated using MCNP6 code to benchmark the sources against the literature. Second a conical tungsten-alloy with 3-cm diameter of Planning-Target-Volume (PTV) at surface for use with a single stepping HDR source is designed. The HDR source is modeled parallel to treatment plane at the center of the conical applicator with a source surface distance (SSD) of 1.5-cm and a removable plastic end-cap with a 1-mm thickness. Third, MC calculated dose distributions from HDR Co-60 for conical surface applicator were compared with the simulated data using HDR Ir-192 source. The initial calculations were made with the same conical surface applicator (standard-applicator) dimensions as the ones used with the Ir-192 system. Fourth, the applicator wall-thickness for the Co-60 system was increased (doubled) to diminish leakage dose to levels received when using the Ir-192 system. With this geometry, percentage depth dose (PDD), and relative 2D-dose profiles in transverse/coronal planes were normalized at 3-mm prescription-depth evaluated along the central axis. Results: PDD for Ir-192 and Co-60 were similar with standard and thick-walled applicator. 2D-relative dose distribution of Co-60, inside the standard-conical-applicator, generated higher penumbra (7.6%). For thick-walled applicator, it created smaller penumbra (<4%) compared to Ir-192 source in the standard-conicalapplicator. Dose leakage outside of thick-walled applicator with Co-60 source was approximately equal (≤3%) with standard applicator using Ir-192 source. Conclusion: Skin cancer treatment with equal quality can be performed with Co-60 source and thick-walled conical applicators instead of Ir-192 with standard applicators. These conical

  19. Critical Damage Analysis of WC-Co Tip of Conical Pick due to Coal Excavation in Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Dewangan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available WC-Co based tools are widely used in the field of coal and rock excavation because of their unique combination of strength, hardness, and resistance to abrasive wear. Conical pick is one of the coal cutting tools. The tip of the pick is made of WC-Co material. As coal and rock are heterogeneous elements, they pose various constraints during excavation. As a result the tools wear out during the process. Other parameters like cutting techniques, tool orientation, and environmental conditions also affect the tool significantly. The wearing phenomenon greatly reduces the service life of the tools and thereby cuts down the production rate. To prevent such wearing process, it is important to investigate the different wear mechanisms in WC-Co. Simultaneously, there has to be an ongoing endeavour for the development of better quality WC-Co. This paper focuses on different wear mechanisms in a conical pick which has been used in a continuous miner machine for coal cutting. The worn out surface has been observed by using FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy and EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The mechanisms, namely, coal/rock intermixing, cracking and crushing of WC grains, and adhesion of rock particles, have been predominantly investigated in this study. A little indication of corrosive decay in the WC grain has also been reported. The EDS has detected material concentration in a selected area or point of the worn-out surface. The spectrograph confirms the presence of coal/rock materials. Elements such as W, C, Ca, K, O, and Co have been mainly found in different concentrations at different positions.

  20. Evaluation of the dose distribution of dynamic conical conformal therapy using a C-arm mounted accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Keiichi; Aoki, Yukimasa; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2001-01-01

    Conformal radiation therapy, which is widely utilized in Japan as a standard, highly precise technique has limited advantage in dose confinement because of its coplanar beam entry. An improved form of conformal therapy is delivered by a linac mounted on a C-arm rotatable gantry. The linac head was designed to move along the C-arm with a maximum angle of 60 degrees. Simultaneous rotation of the gantry creates a Dynamic Conical irradiation technique. Dynamic Conical Conformal Therapy (Dyconic Therapy) was developed by combining the technique with continuous MLC motion based on beam's eye views of the target volume. Dose distributions were measured in a phantom using film densitometry and compared with conventional conformal radiation therapy. The measurements showed that the dose distribution conformed to the target shape identified by CT. In addition, the dose distribution for a cancer patient was evaluated through the use of DVHs generated by a treatment planning system. These measurements showed that the dose distribution along the patient's long axis conformed to the shape of the target volume. DVH analysis, however, did not indicate superiority of the present technique over the conventional technique. Angulation of the C-arm gantry allowed the primary beam to strike a larger area of the therapy room. This necessitated adding shielding to the walls and ceiling of the treatment room. It was confirmed that the leakage radiation was reduced to a negligible level by adding an iron plate 20 cm thick to several places on the side walls, by adding an iron plate 9 cm thick to several places on the ceiling, and by increasing the thickness of the concrete ceiling from 70 to 140 cm. The possible usefulness of Dyconic Therapy was confirmed. (author)

  1. Conical expansion of the outer subventricular zone and the role of neocortical folding in evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eLewitus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a basic rule to mammalian neocortical expansion: as it expands, so does it fold. The degree to which it folds, however, cannot strictly be attributed to its expansion. Across species, cortical volume does not keep pace with cortical surface area, but rather folds appear more rapidly than expected. As a result, larger brains quickly become disproportionately more convoluted than smaller brains. Both the absence (lissencephaly and presence (gyrencephaly of cortical folds is observed in all mammalian orders and, while there is likely some phylogenetic signature to the evolutionary appearance of gyri and sulci, there are undoubtedly universal trends to the acquisition of folds in an expanding neocortex. Whether these trends are governed by conical expansion of neocortical germinal zones, the distribution of cortical connectivity, or a combination of growth- and connectivity-driven forces remains an open question. But the importance of cortical folding for evolution of the uniquely mammalian neocortex, as well as for the incidence of neuropathologies in humans, is undisputed. In this hypothesis and theory article, we will summarize the development of cortical folds in the neocortex, consider the relative influence of growth- versus connectivity-driven forces for the acquisition of cortical folds between and within species, assess the genetic, cell-biological, and mechanistic implications for neocortical expansion, and discuss the significance of these implications for human evolution, development, and disease. We will argue that evolutionary increases in the density of neuron production, achieved via maintenance of a basal proliferative niche in the neocortical germinal zones, drive the conical migration of neurons towards the cortical surface and ultimately lead to the establishment of cortical folds in large-brained mammal species.

  2. Highly stabilized partially premixed flames of propane in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Senosy, M.S.; Zayed, M.F.; Roberts, William L.; Mansour, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    . Regardless the value of Φ, increasing the coflow velocity improves the flame stability. The correlation between recessed distance of the burner tubes and the fluctuation of the mixture fraction, Δξ, shows that at Δξ around 40% of the flammability limits leads

  3. Update on the di-jet mass spectrum in W+2jet events at CDF

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 CDF reported an excess of events with respect to SM background expectations in the W + 2 jet final state, potentially consistent with a resonance in the dijet invariant mass spectrum in the neighborhood of 145 GeV/c^2. Here, we report on updated CDF results for this channel using the full Run II data set and incorporating improvements in the techniques used to model SM background contributions. In addition, we report on searches performed in orthogonal final states where one might also expect to observe contributions from a non-SM production mechanism if this was in fact the explanation for the previously observed excess in the W + 2 jet final state.

  4. Avoided crossings, conical intersections, and low-lying excited states with a single reference method: the restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, David

    2012-08-28

    The restricted active space spin-flip CI (RASCI-SF) performance is tested in the electronic structure computation of the ground and the lowest electronically excited states in the presence of near-degeneracies. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by analyzing the avoided crossing between the ionic and neutral singlet states of LiF along the molecular dissociation. The two potential energy surfaces (PESs) are explored by means of the energies of computed adiabatic and approximated diabatic states, dipole moments, and natural orbital electronic occupancies of both states. The RASCI-SF methodology is also used to study the ground and first excited singlet surface crossing involved in the double bond isomerization of ethylene, as a model case. The two-dimensional PESs of the ground (S(0)) and excited (S(1)) states are calculated for the complete configuration space of torsion and pyramidalization molecular distortions. The parameters that define the state energetics in the vicinity of the S(0)/S(1) conical intersection region are compared to complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) results. These examples show that it is possible to describe strongly correlated electronic states using a single reference methodology without the need to expand the wavefunction to high levels of collective excitations. Finally, RASCI is also examined in the electronic structure characterization of the ground and 2(1)A(g)(-), 1(1)B(u)(+), 1(1)B(u)(-), and 1(3)B(u)(-) states of all-trans polyenes with two to seven double bonds and beyond. Transition energies are compared to configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), CASSCF, and its second-order perturbation correction calculations, and to experimental data. The capability of RASCI-SF to describe the nature and properties of each electronic state is discussed in detail. This example is also used to expose the properties of different truncations of the RASCI wavefunction and to

  5. Vertical microbial community variability of carbonate-based cones may provide insight into ancient conical stromatolite formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, James; Daille, Leslie; Trivedi, Christopher; Bojanowski, Caitlin; Nunn, Heather; Stamps, Blake; Johnson, Hope; Stevenson, Bradley; Berelson, Will; Corsetti, Frank; Spear, John

    2016-04-01

    Stromatolite morphogenesis is poorly understood, and the process by which microbial mats become mineralized is a primary question in microbialite formation. Ancient conical stromatolites are primarily carbonate-based whereas the few modern analogues in hot springs are either non-mineralized or mineralized by silica. A team from the 2015 International GeoBiology Course investigated carbonate-rich microbial cones from near Little Hot Creek (LHC), Long Valley Caldera, California, to investigate how conical stromatolites might form in a hot spring carbonate system. The cones rise up from a layered microbial mat on the east side of a 45° C pool with very low flow that is super-saturated with respect to CaCO3. Cone structures are 8-30 mm in height, are rigid and do not deform when removed from the pool. Morphological characterization through environmental scanning electronic microscopy revealed that the cone structure is maintained by a matrix of intertwining microbial filaments around carbonate grains. This matrix gives rise to cone-filaments that are arranged vertically or horizontally, and provides further stability to the cone. Preliminary 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated variability of community composition between different vertical levels of the cone. The cone tip had comparatively greater abundance of filamentous cyanobacteria including Leptolingbya, Phormidium and Isosphaera and fewer heterotrophs (e.g. Chloroflexi) compared to the cone bottom. This supports the hypothesis that cone formation may depend on the differential abundance of the microbial community and their potential functional roles. Metagenomic analyses of the cones revealed potential genes related to chemotaxis and motility. Specifically, a genomic bin identified as a member of the genus Isosphaera contained an hmp chemotaxis operon implicated in gliding motility in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. Isosphaera is a Planctomycete shown to have phototactic capabilities, and may play a role in

  6. Physical Modeling of Tsunamis Generated By 3D Deformable Landslides in Various Scenarios From Fjords to Conical Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, B. C.; Fritz, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcano flank collapse can be particularly devastative in the near field region due to locally high wave amplitudes and runup. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1963 Vajont reservoir, 1980 Spirit Lake, 2002 Stromboli and 2010 Haiti demonstrate the danger of tsunamis generated by landslides or volcano flank collapses. Unfortunately critical field data from these events is lacking. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. Two different materials are used to simulate landslides to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down a 2H:1V slope. The landslide is launched from the sliding box and continues to accelerate by gravitational forces up to velocities of 5 m/s. The landslide Froude number at impact with the water is in the range 1 conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are

  7. A comparative study of methods for describing non-adiabatic coupling: diabatic representation of the 1Sigma +/1Pi HOH and HHO conical intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbyn, Abigail J.; Knowles, Peter J.

    A number of established techniques for obtaining diabatic electronic states in small molecules are critically compared for the example of the X and B states in the water molecule, which contribute to the two lowest-energy conical intersections. Integration of the coupling matrix elements and analysis of configuration mixing coefficients both produce reliable diabatic states globally. Methods relying on diagonalization of dipole moment and angular momentum operators are shown to fail in large regions of coordinate space. However, the use of transition angular momentum matrix elements involving the A state, which is degenerate with B at the conical intersections, is successful globally, provided that an appropriate choice of coordinates is made. Long range damping of non-adiabatic coupling to give correct asymptotic mixing angles also is investigated.

  8. Comparative Performance of a Non-recessed Hole-entry Hybrid/Hydrostatic Conical Journal Bearing Compensated with Capillary and Orifice Restrictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Khakse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the theoretical study of comparison of capillary and orifice compensated non-recess hole-entry hydrostatic/ hybrid conical journal bearing. Modified Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the clearance space of conical journal and bearing has been solved using FEM, Newton-Raphson method and Gauss elimination method. Spherical coordinate system has been employed to obtain the results. The results have been computed for uniform distribution of holes in the circumferential direction with the range of restrictor design parameter C ̅_s2 = 0.02 - 0.1. The numerically simulated result shows, the use of orifice restrictor is to increase bearing stiffness, threshold speed and maximum pressure compared to capillary restrictor for applied radial load.

  9. Shape of Multireference, Equation-of-Motion Coupled-Cluster, and Density Functional Theory Potential Energy Surfaces at a Conical Intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozem, Samer; Melaccio, Federico; Valentini, Alessio; Filatov, Michael; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Ferré, Nicolas; Frutos, Luis Manuel; Angeli, Celestino; Krylov, Anna I; Granovsky, Alexander A; Lindh, Roland; Olivucci, Massimo

    2014-08-12

    We report and characterize ground-state and excited-state potential energy profiles using a variety of electronic structure methods along a loop lying on the branching plane associated with a conical intersection (CI) of a reduced retinal model, the penta-2,4-dieniminium cation (PSB3). Whereas the performance of the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster, density functional theory, and multireference methods had been tested along the excited- and ground-state paths of PSB3 in our earlier work, the ability of these methods to correctly describe the potential energy surface shape along a CI branching plane has not yet been investigated. This is the focus of the present contribution. We find, in agreement with earlier studies by others, that standard time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) does not yield the correct two-dimensional (i.e., conical) crossing along the branching plane but rather a one-dimensional (i.e., linear) crossing along the same plane. The same type of behavior is found for SS-CASPT2(IPEA=0), SS-CASPT2(IPEA=0.25), spin-projected SF-TDDFT, EOM-SF-CCSD, and, finally, for the reference MRCISD+Q method. In contrast, we found that MRCISD, CASSCF, MS-CASPT2(IPEA=0), MS-CASPT2(IPEA=0.25), XMCQDPT2, QD-NEVPT2, non-spin-projected SF-TDDFT, and SI-SA-REKS yield the expected conical crossing. To assess the effect of the different crossing topologies (i.e., linear or conical) on the PSB3 photoisomerization efficiency, we discuss the results of 100 semiclassical trajectories computed by CASSCF and SS-CASPT2(IPEA=0.25) for a PSB3 derivative. We show that for the same initial conditions, the two methods yield similar dynamics leading to isomerization quantum yields that differ by only a few percent.

  10. Geometric phase effects in low-energy dynamics near conical intersections: A study of the multidimensional linear vibronic coupling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Ryabinkin, Ilya G.; Izmaylov, Artur F.

    2013-01-01

    In molecular systems containing conical intersections (CIs), a nontrivial geometric phase (GP) appears in the nuclear and electronic wave functions in the adiabatic representation. We study GP effects in nuclear dynamics of an N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling (LVC) model. The main impact of GP on low-energy nuclear dynamics is reduction of population transfer between the local minima of the LVC lower energy surface. For the LVC model, we proposed an isometric coordinate transformation that confines non-adiabatic effects within a two-dimensional subsystem interacting with an N − 2 dimensional environment. Since environmental modes do not couple electronic states, all GP effects originate from nuclear dynamics within the subsystem. We explored when the GP affects nuclear dynamics of the isolated subsystem, and how the subsystem-environment interaction can interfere with GP effects. Comparing quantum dynamics with and without GP allowed us to devise simple rules to determine significance of the GP for nuclear dynamics in this model

  11. Optical profilometer using laser based conical triangulation for inspection of inner geometry of corroded pipes in cylindrical coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschinelli, Pedro D. V.; Melo, João. Ricardo C.; Albertazzi, Armando; Santos, João. M. C.; Camerini, Claudio S.

    2013-04-01

    An axis-symmetrical optical laser triangulation system was developed by the authors to measure the inner geometry of long pipes used in the oil industry. It has a special optical configuration able to acquire shape information of the inner geometry of a section of a pipe from a single image frame. A collimated laser beam is pointed to the tip of a 45° conical mirror. The laser light is reflected in such a way that a radial light sheet is formed and intercepts the inner geometry and forms a bright laser line on a section of the inspected pipe. A camera acquires the image of the laser line through a wide angle lens. An odometer-based triggering system is used to shot the camera to acquire a set of equally spaced images at high speed while the device is moved along the pipe's axis. Image processing is done in real-time (between images acquisitions) thanks to the use of parallel computing technology. The measured geometry is analyzed to identify corrosion damages. The measured geometry and results are graphically presented using virtual reality techniques and devices as 3D glasses and head-mounted displays. The paper describes the measurement principles, calibration strategies, laboratory evaluation of the developed device, as well as, a practical example of a corroded pipe used in an industrial gas production plant.

  12. Dr John Nottingham's 1854 Landmark Treatise on Conical Cornea Considered in the Context of the Current Knowledge of Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokul, Akilesh; Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles N J

    2016-05-01

    John Nottingham has been widely credited with the first accurate description of keratoconus in his treatise on conical cornea, published in 1854. Contained within the 270-page treatise are accounts and theories of keratoconus postulated by authors such as Scarpa, von Carion, von Ammon, and Mackenzie, synthesized by Nottingham in a treatise containing his own original observations. Nottingham's work delves deeply into keratoconus, with coverage reminiscent of a modern review, albeit in a far less succinct manner. He extensively describes the epidemiology, clinical presentation, underlying cause, and treatment of keratoconus. However, the concepts put forth are limited largely by the contemporary lack of understanding of the underlying anatomy and physiology of the eye, and the observations, by technological limitations. He postulates a similar treatment algorithm to that used today; optical devices being the management option of choice in the mild stages with surgery being a last resort. None of the surgical methods discussed are used in the modern era, but he does make reference to the possible efficacy of corneal transplantation. Nottingham's treatise was published over 160 years ago, yet his ideas and observations are surprisingly accurate. It is very possible that he was the first person to publish an accurate, comprehensive description of keratoconus.

  13. An analysis of the shielding gas flow from a coaxial conical nozzle during high power CO2 laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancona, Antonio; Sibillano, Teresa; Lugara, Pietro Mario; Gonnella, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Giuseppe; Maffione, Donato

    2006-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study on the role of the nitrogen gas stream, exiting from a conventional conical nozzle tip during a laser welding process, has been carried out. A mathematical model has been used, based on the Navier-Stokes equations which express fundamental conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy for a compressible fluid. Numerical simulations of the gas stream colliding onto a plane surface have been performed showing the effects of variations of inlet gas pressure, nozzle exit diameter and standoff distance on the density and Mach number contours, axis pressure of the gas jet and plate pressure produced on the workpiece surface. Laser welding experiments have been performed on carbon and stainless steel specimens, by varying the process parameters in the same range as in the simulations and keeping constant the incident power and the travel speed. Two different gas stream regimes were found, namely sonic and subsonic, which were experimentally verified to produce cutting and welding conditions, respectively. Weld performances have been evaluated in terms of bead width, penetration depth and melted area. Nozzle standoff distance was found to have a negligible influence, while the exit diameter and the flow rate significantly affect the weld results. The numerical predictions allowed an explanation of the experimental results yielding useful suggestions for enhancing the weld quality, acting simply on the shielding gas parameters

  14. Management of environmental aspects as well as impacts in a company of tubes, sized tubes and conicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Batista de Sousa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the application of the Management Method of Environment Impacts and Aspects - MMEIA( GAIA - in a industrial company of medium size. The research is charactarized as exploratory, with a qualitative approach as well as quantitative that is done by a case in a industry that makes tubes, small tubes and conicals paper and sized paper. The data were colected by visits to industry, with the verification of its produtive process, research and documents analysis, interviews non structured with the managers and workers of the company as well as a questionnaire application referent to MMEIA (GAIA method aspects. The results of this mthod application are satisfactory about the observed aspects, although the company presents some questions that still can be improved in its produtice process. One can conclude the at the end of this study the organization started the people sensibilization as well as to the processes improvement, searching ways of developing its activiteies focalized on the environmental development and on the sustentability.

  15. Generation of ultra-fast cumulative water jets by sub-microsecond underwater electrical explosion of conical wire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, D.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Gleizer, S.; Gruzinsky, K.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-12-15

    The results of experiments with underwater electrical explosion of modified conical arrays of copper and aluminum wires are presented. A pulsed generator producing a 550 kA-amplitude current with a 400 ns rise time was used in the explosion of the arrays. The array explosion generates water flows converging at the axis of the cone. This flow generates a fast-moving water jet with a velocity exceeding 1.8 × 10{sup 5 }cm/s, which was observed being ejected from the surface of the water covering the array. The positions of the water jet were measured by multiple-exposure fast framing imaging. In experiments, the apex angle of the array, the thickness of the water layer above the arrays, or the material of the wires was altered, which changed the resulting velocities and shapes of the emitted jets. A model that considers the converging stationary flow of a slightly compressible fluid is suggested. The velocities and shapes of the jets obtained by this model agree well with the experimentally measured jet velocities.

  16. Multi-kernel deconvolution for contrast improvement in a full field imaging system with engineered PSFs using conical diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enguita, Jose M.; Álvarez, Ignacio; González, Rafael C.; Cancelas, Jose A.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of restoration of a high-resolution image from several degraded versions of the same scene (deconvolution) has been receiving attention in the last years in fields such as optics and computer vision. Deconvolution methods are usually based on sets of images taken with small (sub-pixel) displacements or slightly different focus. Techniques based on sets of images obtained with different point-spread-functions (PSFs) engineered by an optical system are less popular and mostly restricted to microscopic systems, where a spot of light is projected onto the sample under investigation, which is then scanned point-by-point. In this paper, we use the effect of conical diffraction to shape the PSFs in a full-field macroscopic imaging system. We describe a series of simulations and real experiments that help to evaluate the possibilities of the system, showing the enhancement in image contrast even at frequencies that are strongly filtered by the lens transfer function or when sampling near the Nyquist frequency. Although results are preliminary and there is room to optimize the prototype, the idea shows promise to overcome the limitations of the image sensor technology in many fields, such as forensics, medical, satellite, or scientific imaging.

  17. Influence of light-induced conical intersection on the photodissociation dynamics of D2(+) starting from individual vibrational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Gábor J; Csehi, András; Vibók, Ágnes; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2014-12-26

    Previous works have shown that dressing of diatomic molecules by standing or by running laser waves gives rise to the appearance of so-called light-induced conical intersections (LICIs). Because of the strong nonadiabatic couplings, the existence of such LICIs may significantly change the dynamical properties of a molecular system. In our former paper (J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 8528), the photodissociation dynamics of the D(2)(+) molecule were studied in the LICI framework starting the initial vibrational nuclear wave packet from the superposition of all the vibrational states initially produced by ionizing D(2). The present work complements our previous investigation by letting the initial nuclear wave packets start from different individual vibrational levels of D(2)(+), in particular, above the energy of the LICI. The kinetic energy release spectra, the total dissociation probabilities, and the angular distributions of the photofragments are calculated and discussed. An interesting phenomenon has been found in the spectra of the photofragments. Applying the light-induced adiabatic picture supported by LICI, explanations are given for the unexpected structure of the spectra.

  18. Mean Characteristics of Conical Vortices Above Roof Eaves of Low–Rise Cubic Buildings Using Particle Image Velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gamboa–Marrufo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating low pressures near the edges of flat roofs are often caused when the wind impinges on one corner of the building so that conical vortices form above the diagonal roof edges. In turbulent flow, these vortices vary in position and strength and the underlying surface pressures fluctuate accordingly. A preliminary approach to the study of the mechanism linking instantaneous roof edge pressures with the wind vortical structures involves the evaluation of mean characteristics and positions of the latter. However the flow examination has so far been severely limited by the restriction of available anemometers to single–point sampling. In this experimental study, a 200mm cube has been used to model a building with a flat square roof set at an angle of 45° to the oncoming flow direction, and a Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to capture instantaneous two–dimensional velocity vector images of entire flow cross–sections, both normal to the vortex axis and in planes parallel to that axis. The se vector maps were used to estimate the mean characteristics of the vortices and appropriate observation–plane directions to measure wind velocities in the study of the instantaneous problem.

  19. Experimental conical-head abutment screws on the microbial leakage through the implant-abutment interface: an in vitro analysis using target-specific DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Murillo S; do Nascimento, Cássio; Dos Santos, Carla G P; Pires, Isabela M; Pedrazzi, Vinícius

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to identify and quantify up to 38 microbial species from human saliva penetrating through the implant-abutment interface in two different implant connections, external hexagon and tri-channel internal connection, both with conventional flat-head or experimental conical-head abutment screws. Forty-eight two-part implants with external hexagon (EH; n = 24) or tri-channel internal (TI; n = 24) connections were investigated. Abutments were attached to implants with conventional flat-head or experimental conical-head screws. After saliva incubation, Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization was used to identify and quantify up to 38 bacterial colonizing the internal parts of the implants. Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Bonferroni's post-tests for multiple comparisons was used for statistical analysis. Twenty-four of thirty-eight species, including putative periodontal pathogens, were found colonizing the inner surfaces of both EH and TI implants. Peptostreptococcus anaerobios (P = 0.003), Prevotella melaninogenica (P abutment screws have impacted the microbial leakage through the implant-abutment interface. Implants attached with experimental conical-head abutment screws showed lower counts of microorganisms when compared with conventional flat-head screws. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cascade conical refraction for annular pumping of a vortex Nd:YAG laser and selective excitation of low- and high-order Laguerre–Gaussian modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongxiao; Wang, Zhongyang; Chen, Sanbin; Shirakwa, Akira; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Li, Jianlang

    2018-05-01

    We proposed an efficient and vortex Nd:YAG laser for selective lasing of low- and high-order vortex modes, in which multiple-ring pump light was originated from cascaded conical refraction of multiple biaxial crystals. In our proof of concept demonstration, we used two-crystal cascade conical refraction to generate two-ring pump light; the mutual intensity ratio and relative separation of the inner ring and outer ring were controlled by rotating the second biaxial crystal and by moving the imaging lens, respectively. As a result, we obtained selective excitation of Laguerre–Gaussian (LG01 and LG03) vortex modes in the end-pump Nd:YAG laser. For LG01-mode output, the laser power reached 439 mW with 52.5% slope efficiency; for LG03-mode output, the laser power reached 160 mW with 41.3% slope efficiency. Our results revealed that the multiple-ring pumping technique based on cascaded conical refraction would pave the way for realization of the efficient and switchable excitation of low- and high-order LG modes in an end-pumped solid-state laser.

  1. Research on Free Vibration Frequency Characteristics of Rotating Functionally Graded Material Truncated Conical Shells with Eccentric Functionally Graded Material Stringer and Ring Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Van Dung

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research work, an exact analytical solution for frequency characteristics of the free vibration of rotating functionally graded material (FGM truncated conical shells reinforced by eccentric FGM stringers and rings has been investigated by the displacement function method. Material properties of shell and stiffeners are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution. The change of spacing between stringers is considered. Using the Donnell shell theory, Leckhnisky smeared stiffeners technique and taking into account the influences of centrifugal force and Coriolis acceleration the governing equations are derived. For stiffened FGM conical shells, it is difficult that free vibration equations are a couple set of three variable coefficient partial differential equations. By suitable transformations and applying Galerkin method, this difficulty is overcome in the paper. The sixth order polynomial equation for w is obtained and it is used to analyze the frequency characteristics of rotating ES-FGM conical shells. Effects of stiffener, geometrics parameters, cone angle, vibration modes and rotating speed on frequency characteristics of the shell forward and backward wave are discussed in detail. The present approach proves to be reliable and accurate by comparing with published results available in the literature.

  2. Study of particle movement in conical fluidized beds using the tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penkalla, H. J.; Gyarmati, E.; Nickel, H.

    1976-01-15

    In the work reported here, a method is described which enables the path and speed of the particles during fluidization to be measured using a tracer particle technique. Using statistical methods, it is then possible to determine the path-time diagram, the rate of circulation of the particles, the transport capacity, the extent of mixing and the relative residence time of the particles in a given zone of the bed. Measurements were made at room temperature in a 3'' model fluidized bed as a first step in evaluating the feasibility of the test method. Criteria for the type of coating, the growth rate of the coatings and the coating potential of the coating as were correlated with the relative dwell time of the particles and the dwell-time spectrum of the coating gases in a given part of the bed. It was therefore necessary to know the streaming behavior of the fluidizing gas, and so such an analysis was first carried out.

  3. Superadditive correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.G.; Heumann, J.M.; Lapedes, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The fact that correlation does not imply causation is well known. Correlation between variables at two sites does not imply that the two sites directly interact, because, e.g., correlation between distant sites may be induced by chaining of correlation between a set of intervening, directly interacting sites. Such 'noncausal correlation' is well understood in statistical physics: an example is long-range order in spin systems, where spins which have only short-range direct interactions, e.g., the Ising model, display correlation at a distance. It is less well recognized that such long-range 'noncausal' correlations can in fact be stronger than the magnitude of any causal correlation induced by direct interactions. We call this phenomenon superadditive correlation (SAC). We demonstrate this counterintuitive phenomenon by explicit examples in (i) a model spin system and (ii) a model continuous variable system, where both models are such that two variables have multiple intervening pathways of indirect interaction. We apply the technique known as decimation to explain SAC as an additive, constructive interference phenomenon between the multiple pathways of indirect interaction. We also explain the effect using a definition of the collective mode describing the intervening spin variables. Finally, we show that the SAC effect is mirrored in information theory, and is true for mutual information measures in addition to correlation measures. Generic complex systems typically exhibit multiple pathways of indirect interaction, making SAC a potentially widespread phenomenon. This affects, e.g., attempts to deduce interactions by examination of correlations, as well as, e.g., hierarchical approximation methods for multivariate probability distributions, which introduce parameters based on successive orders of correlation. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  4. Conical quarl swirl stabilized non-premixed flames: flame and flow field interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    The flame-flow field interaction is studied in non-premixed methane swirl flames stabilized in quartz quarl via simultaneous measurements of the flow field using a stereo PIV and OH-PLIF at 5 KHz repetition rate. Under the same swirl intensity, two flames with different fuel jet velocity were investigated. The time-averaged flow field shows a unique flow pattern at the quarl exit, where two recirculation vortices are formed; a strong recirculation zone formed far from the quarl exit and a larger recirculation zone extending inside the quarl. However, the instantaneous images show that, the flow pattern near the quarl exit plays a vital role in the spatial location and structure of the reaction zone. In the low fuel jet velocity flame, a pair of vortical structures, located precisely at the corners of the quarl exit, cause the flame to roll up into the central region of low speed flow, where the flame sheet then tracks the axial velocity fluctuations. The vorticity field reveals a vortical structure surrounding the reaction zones, which reside on a layer of low compressive strain adjacent to that vortical structure. In the high fuel jet velocity flame, initially a laminar flame sheet resides at the inner shear layer of the main jet, along the interface between incoming fresh gas and high temperature recirculating gas. Further downstream, vortex breakdown alters the flame sheet path toward the central flame region. The lower reaction zones show good correlation to the regions of maximum vorticity and track the regions of low compressive strain associated with the inner shear layer of the jet flow. In both flames the reactions zones conform the passage of the large structure while remaining inside the low speed regions or at the inner shear layer.

  5. Displacement comparison of CAD-CAM titanium and zirconia abutments to implants with different conical connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Burak; Hashemzadeh, Shervin; Seidt, Jeremy D; Clelland, Nancy L

    2018-04-01

    To compare the displacements of CAD-CAM zirconia and titanium abutments into different internal connection systems after torquing. OsseoSpeed EV and OsseoSpeed TX implants (n=10) were placed in resin blocks. Zirconia and titanium abutments (n=5) were first hand tightened and then tightened to the recommended torque (20Ncm for TX and 25Ncm for EV). Displacements of abutments between screw tightening by hand and torque driver was measured using three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) technique. Displacements were measured in U (front/back), V (into/outward), W (right/left) directions and 3-dimensionally (3D). ANOVA with restricted maximum likelihood estimation method was used to analyze the data. Bonferroni-corrected t tests was used to determine the statistical differences (α=0.05). 3D displacement of zirconia and titanium abutments was significantly greater in OsseoSpeed EV implant (PDisplacement of zirconia and titanium abutments was not significantly different within implant systems, 3D (P≥0.386) and in each direction (P≥0.382). In U and V directions, zirconia and titanium abutments displaced significantly more towards negative in OsseoSpeed EV implant (Pdisplaced significantly more in V direction compared to the U and W (P≤0.005), and within the Osseospeed EV system, abutment displacements were significantly different amongst directions and displacements in V were the greatest (Pdisplaced more in the implant that required higher torque values to tighten the abutment. The amount of displacement in both systems was clinically small. Abutment material did not affect the magnitude of displacement. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conical quarl swirl stabilized non-premixed flames: flame and flow field interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2017-09-19

    The flame-flow field interaction is studied in non-premixed methane swirl flames stabilized in quartz quarl via simultaneous measurements of the flow field using a stereo PIV and OH-PLIF at 5 KHz repetition rate. Under the same swirl intensity, two flames with different fuel jet velocity were investigated. The time-averaged flow field shows a unique flow pattern at the quarl exit, where two recirculation vortices are formed; a strong recirculation zone formed far from the quarl exit and a larger recirculation zone extending inside the quarl. However, the instantaneous images show that, the flow pattern near the quarl exit plays a vital role in the spatial location and structure of the reaction zone. In the low fuel jet velocity flame, a pair of vortical structures, located precisely at the corners of the quarl exit, cause the flame to roll up into the central region of low speed flow, where the flame sheet then tracks the axial velocity fluctuations. The vorticity field reveals a vortical structure surrounding the reaction zones, which reside on a layer of low compressive strain adjacent to that vortical structure. In the high fuel jet velocity flame, initially a laminar flame sheet resides at the inner shear layer of the main jet, along the interface between incoming fresh gas and high temperature recirculating gas. Further downstream, vortex breakdown alters the flame sheet path toward the central flame region. The lower reaction zones show good correlation to the regions of maximum vorticity and track the regions of low compressive strain associated with the inner shear layer of the jet flow. In both flames the reactions zones conform the passage of the large structure while remaining inside the low speed regions or at the inner shear layer.

  7. Multi-particle correlation studies in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Markus

    2016-07-01

    This thesis has developed a new 2+1 particle correlation method and applied it for the first time to data from ALICE. The 2+1 particle correlations use trigger particles which are back-to-back in azimuth as proxies for di-jets. The associated particle yield was analyzed for both trigger particles in multiple centrality classes. This makes it possible to further study quenching effects in the Quark-Gluon Plasma. The measured 2+1 particle yield contains many different yield components which are described in this thesis in detail. Compared to 1+1 correlations the 2+1 correlations contain an additional form of background from uncorrelated trigger particles. A background subtraction technique was developed with the help of a toy event generator and HIJING simulations. It has been applied to the correlation measurement to extract the correlated signal. The full 2+1 particle correlation measurement was done separately for HIJING and ALICE events. The analysis of MC events from the HIJING generator makes it possible to study the biases of the method and to verify the background subtraction technique. No bias has been found in the measurement of the peak yield for any centrality. Consequently the I{sub CP} was found to be at unity which is the expected result in the absence of medium effects. A difference has been found between the associated particle yield of the two trigger particles. The trigger 2 associated particle yield is larger than the trigger 1 associated particle yield, thus R{sub T1T2} is biased below unity. The 2+1 correlations have been measured in ALICE in Pb-Pb and pp collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV. In the I{sub CP} a significant enhancement over unity was measured at low associated transverse momenta p{sub T,assoc} for both trigger particles. Considering the I{sub CP} is at unity for HIJING events, this indicates that the associated particles of both triggers were affected by stronger medium effects in the 0-7.5% most central Pb-Pb events compared to

  8. The flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2015-08-29

    The stability limits, the stabilization mechanism, and the flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed methane flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with air co-flow have been investigated and presented in this work. The stability map of partial premixed flames illustrates that the flames are stable between two extinction limits. A low extinction limit when partial premixed flames approach non-premixed flame conditions, and a high extinction limit, with the partial premixed flames approach fully premixed flame conditions. These two limits showed that the most stable flame conditions are achieved at a certain degree of partial premixed. The stability is improved by adding air co-flow. As the air co-flow velocity increases the most stable flames are those that approach fully premixed. The turbulent flow field of three flames at 0, 5, 10 m/s co-flow velocity are investigated using Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) in order to explore the improvement of the flame stability due to the use of air co-flow. The three flames are all at a jet equivalence ratio (Φj) of 2, fixed level of partial premixing and jet Reynolds number (Rej) of 10,000. The use of co-flow results in the formation of two vortices at the cone exit. These vortices act like stabilization anchors for the flames to the nozzle tip. With these vortices in the flow field, the reaction zone shifts toward the reduced turbulence intensity at the nozzle rim of the cone. Interesting information about the structure of the flow field with and without co-flow are identified and reported in this work.

  9. Dynamic mapping of conical intersection seams: A general method for incorporating the geometric phase in adiabatic dynamics in polyatomic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changjian; Malbon, Christopher L; Yarkony, David R; Guo, Hua

    2017-07-28

    The incorporation of the geometric phase in single-state adiabatic dynamics near a conical intersection (CI) seam has so far been restricted to molecular systems with high symmetry or simple model Hamiltonians. This is due to the fact that the ab initio determined derivative coupling (DC) in a multi-dimensional space is not curl-free, thus making its line integral path dependent. In a recent work [C. L. Malbon et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 234111 (2016)], we proposed a new and general approach based on an ab initio determined diabatic representation consisting of only two electronic states, in which the DC is completely removable, so that its line integral is path independent in the simply connected domains that exclude the CI seam. Then with the CIs included, the line integral of the single-valued DC can be used to construct the complex geometry-dependent phase needed to exactly eliminate the double-valued character of the real-valued adiabatic electronic wavefunction. This geometry-dependent phase gives rise to a vector potential which, when included in the adiabatic representation, rigorously accounts for the geometric phase in a system with an arbitrary locus of the CI seam and an arbitrary number of internal coordinates. In this work, we demonstrate this approach in a three-dimensional treatment of the tunneling facilitated dissociation of the S 1 state of phenol, which is affected by a C s symmetry allowed but otherwise accidental seam of CI. Here, since the space is three-dimensional rather than two-dimensional, the seam is a curve rather than a point. The nodal structure of the ground state vibronic wavefunction is shown to map out the seam of CI.

  10. The integrated place of tracheobronchial stents in the multidisciplinary management of large post-pneumonectomy fistulas: our experience using a novel customised conical self-expandable metallic stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutau, Hervé; Breen, David Patrick; Gomez, Carine; Thomas, Pascal Alexandre; Vergnon, Jean-Michel

    2011-02-01

    Stump dehiscence after pneumonectomy is a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients treated for non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Surgical repair remains the treatment of choice but can be postponed or contraindicated. Bronchoscopic techniques may be an option with curative intent or as a bridge towards definitive surgery. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and the outcome of a new customised covered conical self-expandable metallic stent in the management of large bronchopleural fistulas complicating pneumonectomies. A case series using chart review of non-operable patients presenting with large bronchopleural fistulas (>6mm) post-pneumonectomies as a definitive treatment with curative intent for non-small-cell lung carcinomas and requiring the use of a dedicated conical shaped stent in two tertiary referral centres. Seven patients presenting large post-pneumonectomy fistulas (between 6 and 12 mm) were included. Cessation of the air leak and clinical improvement was achieved in all the patients after stent placement. Stent-related complications (two migrations and one stent rupture) were successfully managed using bronchoscopic techniques in two patients and surgery in one. Mortality, mainly related to overwhelming sepsis, was 57%. Delayed definitive surgery was achieved successfully in three patients (43%). This case series assesses the short-term clinical efficacy of a new customised covered conical self-expandable metallic stent in the multidisciplinary management of large bronchopleural fistulas complicating pneumonectomies in patients deemed non-operable. Long-term benefits are jeopardised by infectious complications. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  12. Asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the first boundary-value problem for strongly hyperbolic systems near a conical point at the boundary of the domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Nguyen M

    1999-01-01

    An existence and uniqueness theorem for generalized solutions of the first initial-boundary-value problem for strongly hyperbolic systems in bounded domains is established. The question of estimates in Sobolev spaces of the derivatives with respect to time of the generalized solution is discussed. It is shown that the smoothness of generalized solutions with respect to time is independent of the structure of the boundary of the domain but depends on the coefficients of the right-hand side. Results on the smoothness of the generalized solution and its asymptotic behaviour in a neighbourhood of a conical boundary point are also obtained

  13. GO Shaping of Omnidirectional Dual-Reflector Antennas with Arbitrary Main-Beam Direction in Elevation Plane by Connecting Conic Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Penchel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses an alternative geometrical optics (GO technique to synthesize omnidirectional dual-reflector antennas with uniform aperture phase distribution together with an arbitrary main-beam direction for the antenna radiation pattern. Sub- and main reflectors are bodies of revolution generated by shaped curves defined by local conic sections consecutively concatenated. The shaping formulation is derived for configurations like ADC (axis-displaced Cassegrain and ADE (axis-displaced ellipse omnidirectional antennas. As case studies, two configurations fed by a TEM coaxial horn are designed and analyzed by a hybrid technique based on mode matching and method of moments in order to validate the GO shaping procedure.

  14. An Experimental Study Of The Stability Of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles In Cylindrical, Annular, Obround and Conical Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhaliwal, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a summary of experiments that were performed by Fauske and Associates on the stability of vessel-spanning bubbles. The report by Fauske and Associates, An Experimental Study of the Stability of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles in Cylindrical, Annular, Obround and Conical Containers, is included in Appendix A. Results from the experiments confirm that the gravity yield parameter, Y G , correctly includes container size and can be applied to full-scale containers to predict the possibility of the formation of a stable vessel spanning bubble. The results also indicate that a vessel spanning bubble will likely form inside the STSC for KE, KW, and Settler sludges if the shear strengths of these sludges exceed 1820, 2080, and 2120 Pa, respectively. A passive mechanism installed in the STSC is effective at disrupting a rising sludge plug and preventing the sludge from plugging the vent filter or being forced out of the container. The Sludge Treatment Project for Engineered Container and Settler Sludge (EC/ST) Disposition Subproject is being conducted in two phases. Phase 1 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the radioactive sludge currently stored in the K West (KW) Basin into Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and transport the STSCs to T-Plant for interim storage. Phase 2 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the sludge from interim storage, treat and package sludge for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The STSC is a cylindrical container; similar to previously used large diameter containers. A STSC (Figure 1) with a diameter of 58 inches will be used to transport KE and KW originating sludge (located in Engineered Containers 210, 220, 240, 250, and 260) to T-Plant. A STSC with an annulus (Figure 2) will be used to transport Settler Tank sludge, located in Engineered Container 230. An obround small canister design was previously considered to retrieve sludge from the basin. The obround design was selected in

  15. SU-E-T-370: Measurement of Conical Cone Output Factors for the Varian Edge Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Wang, S; Zhong, H; Wen, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of detector type, SSD/depth, and intermediate reference on conical cone output factor (OF) measurements for the Varian Edge linac. Methods: OF's for 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 mm diameter cones relative to 10cmx10cm field were measured for the 6X FFF and 10X FFF energies, with jaws set to 5cmx5cm. Measurements were performed with an Edge diode (0.8mmx0.8mmx0.03mm WxLxT), stereotatic diode SFD, photon diode, CC01 and pinpoint chambers (2mm diameter for both). 95cm SSD/5cm depth were used in a water tank. For the measurement with diodes, OF's were cross-referred to CC13 ion chamber measurements with 3cmx3cm field, as recommended, to help mitigate the energy variation in diode response with field size. Results were compared to the representative data from Varian measured with Edge detector. With SFD, OF's at 98.5cm SSD/1.5cm depth and 90cm SSD/10cm depth were also measured. Results: OF's measured with the Edge detector matched within 1.3% (max diff) with the representative data from Varian. For the SFD, OF's matched within 1.3% for the 4, 5 and 17.5 mm cones and within 3.7% for the other cones. OF's with photon diode were within 1.3% except for the 4 and 5 mm cones where they were 8.1% and 3.7%, respectively. OF's for the CC01 and pinpoint chamber deviated up to 36% and 44%, respectively for the 4 mm cone. OF's after intermediate reference with 3cmx3cm field changed by 3.7% for SFD, 0.8% for photon diode, and 0.6% for Edge detector. OF's at 98.5cm SSD/1.5cm depth were 10.8% higher than that at 95cm SSD/5cm depth, and OF's at 90cm SSD/1.5cm depth were 7.5% lower. Conclusion: OF's measured with the Edge detector appear to be reliable. CC01 and pinpoint chambers do not appear suitable for measuring the small cone OF's. SSD/depth affects OF measurements significantly

  16. Post irradiation conical keratosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestey, J.P.; Hunter, J.A.A.; Mallet, R.B.; Rodger, A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have recently seen 3 patients affected by a widespread eruption of minute keratoses confined to areas of irradiated skin with clinical and histologial features of which they have been unable to find previous literary descriptions. A fourth patient with similar clinical and histopathological features occurring after exposure only to actinic irradiation is described. (author)

  17. Post irradiation conical keratosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestey, J.P.; Hunter, J.A.A. (Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)); Mallet, R.B. (Westminster Hospital, London (UK)); Rodger, A. (Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK))

    1989-03-01

    The authors have recently seen 3 patients affected by a widespread eruption of minute keratoses confined to areas of irradiated skin with clinical and histologial features of which they have been unable to find previous literary descriptions. A fourth patient with similar clinical and histopathological features occurring after exposure only to actinic irradiation is described. (author).

  18. Studying the errors in the estimation of the variation of energy by the "patched-conics" model in the three-dimensional swing-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Rodolfo Batista; Prado, Antonio Fernando Bertachini de Almeida; Sukhanov, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The swing-by maneuver is a technique used to change the energy of a spacecraft by using a close approach in a celestial body. This procedure was used many times in real missions. Usually, the first approach to design this type of mission is based on the "patched-conics" model, which splits the maneuver into three "two-body dynamics." This approach causes an error in the estimation of the energy variations, which depends on the geometry of the maneuver and the system of primaries considered. Therefore, the goal of the present paper is to study the errors caused by this approximation. The comparison of the results are made with the trajectories obtained using the more realistic restricted three-body problem, assumed here to be the "real values" for the maneuver. The results shown here describe the effects of each parameter involved in the swing-by. Some examples using bodies in the solar system are used in this part of the paper. The study is then generalized to cover different mass parameters, and its influence is analyzed to give an idea of the amount of the error expected for a given system of primaries. The results presented here may help in estimating errors in the preliminary mission analysis using the "patched-conics" approach.

  19. 3D Numerical Simulation versus Experimental Assessment of Pressure Pulsations Using a Passive Method for Swirling Flow Control in Conical Diffusers of Hydraulic Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANASA, C.; MUNTEAN, S.; CIOCAN, T.; SUSAN-RESIGA, R. F.

    2016-11-01

    The hydraulic turbines operated at partial discharge (especially hydraulic turbines with fixed blades, i.e. Francis turbine), developing a swirling flow in the conical diffuser of draft tube. As a result, the helical vortex breakdown, also known in the literature as “precessing vortex rope” is developed. A passive method to mitigate the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope in the draft tube cone of hydraulic turbines is presented in this paper. The method involves the development of a progressive and controlled throttling (shutter), of the flow cross section at the bottom of the conical diffuser. The adjustable cross section is made on the basis of the shutter-opening of circular diaphragms, while maintaining in all positions the circular cross-sectional shape, centred on the axis of the turbine. The stagnant region and the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope are mitigated when it is controlled with the turbine operating regime. Consequently, the severe flow deceleration and corresponding central stagnant are diminished with an efficient mitigation of the precessing helical vortex. Four cases (one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm), are numerically and experimentally investigated, respectively. The present paper focuses on a 3D turbulent swirling flow simulation in order to evaluate the control method. Numerical results are compared against measured pressure recovery coefficient and Fourier spectra. The results prove the vortex rope mitigation and its associated pressure pulsations when employing the diaphragm.

  20. Surface dose characterisation of the Varian Ir-192 HDR conical surface applicator set with a vertically orientated source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchauer, Konrad; Henke, Guido; Schiefer, Hans; Plasswilm, Ludwig [Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    Conical surface applicators with an Ir-192 high-dose-rate brachytherapy source are a common modality for the treatment of non-melanomatous skin cancer with high tumour control rates. Surface dose characterisation of the Varian Varisource GammaMed+ IX afterloader vertical type surface applicators is performed two dimensionally using high-resolution film dosimetry. The focus of this study was to determine if Varian surface applicators with a vertical source suffer from the dose distribution irregularities reported for comparable applicators. Our goal was to evaluate if the irregularities found affected treatment and dose output verification procedures. Ionisation chamber-based verification of applicator output was established according to guidelines provided by the manufacturer. For additional measurement of surface dose Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimetry was used. The term ''therapeutic dose'' was defined as 85 % of the prescribed dose level. For the 10 different applicator inserts evaluated, cold spots were observed. Mean cold spot size was 2.0 mm x 3.6 mm (± 0.6 mm). The cold spots were dosimetrically well below 85 % of the prescribed dose. The cold spot was situated 2.2 mm (1.4-2.7 mm) unilaterally from the central axis and caused general asymmetry in the dose profiles intersecting the cold spot area. A source tilt of approximately 8 (± 1 ) was determined for the source used for irradiation. A central underdosed area exceeding 15 % of the prescribed dose has not been previously reported. Source tilt was observed and found to affect clinical use and possibly treatment outcome in applicators using a vertically arranged source. Surface applicators with a vertically orientated source were subject to dose irregularities that could impact on chamber-based applicator output verification procedures. We recommend film dosimetry-backed applicator commissioning to avoid systematic errors. (orig.) [German] Konische Oberflaechenapplikatoren sind ein

  1. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  2. SU-F-T-577: Comparison of Small Field Dosimetry Measurements in Fields Shaped with Conical Applicators On Two Different Accelerating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, B; McEwen, M [National Research Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Belec, J; Vandervoort, E [Ottawa Hospital General Campus, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Christiansen, E [Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate small field dosimetry measurements and associated uncertainties when conical applicators are used to shape treatment fields from two different accelerating systems. Methods: Output factor measurements are made in water in beams from the CyberKnife radiosurgery system, which uses conical applicators to shape fields from a (flattening filter-free) 6 MV beam, and in a 6 MV beam from the Elekta Precise linear accelerator (with flattening filter) with BrainLab external conical applicators fitted to shape the field. The measurements use various detectors: (i) an Exradin A16 ion chamber, (ii) two Exradin W1 plastic scintillation detectors, (iii) a Sun Nuclear Edge diode, and (iv) two PTW microDiamond synthetic diamond detectors. Profiles are used for accurate detector positioning and to specify field size (FWHM). Output factor measurements are corrected with detector specific correction factors taken from the literature where available and/or from Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc code system. Results: Differences in measurements of up to 1.7% are observed with a given detector type in the same beam (i.e., intra-detector variability). Corrected results from different detectors in the same beam (inter-detector differences) show deviations up to 3 %. Combining data for all detectors and comparing results from the two accelerators results in a 5.9% maximum difference for the smallest field sizes (FWHM=5.2–5.6 mm), well outside the combined uncertainties (∼1% for the smallest beams) and/or differences among detectors. This suggests that the FWHM of a measured profile is not a good specifier to compare results from different small fields with the same nominal energy. Conclusion: Large differences in results for both intra-detector variability and inter-detector differences suggest potentially high uncertainties in detector-specific correction factors. Differences between the results measured in circular fields from different accelerating

  3. CURVAS PARALELAS EXPLÍCITAS DE LAS CURVAS CÓNICAS NO DEGENERADAS PARA EL TORNEADO CNC DE LENTES Y ESPEJOS ASFÉRICO-CÓNICOS EXPLICIT PARALLEL CURVES OF NON-DEGENERATE CONIC CURVES FOR THE TURNED CNC OF ASPHERIC-CONIC LENSES AND MIRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el método para obtener, en coordenadas cartesianas, las líneas curvas paralelas de las curvas cónicas no degeneradas, por métodos analíticos y numéricos. Se define el offset como una función paralela a la función original a una distancia r. El offset de una cónica es importante para los procesos de fabricación de mecanismos, lentes, espejos y moldes; especialmente en el torneado con control numérico computarizado (CNC de superficies de revolución con secciones cónicas, usando buriles de diamante con punta de radio r. También se presenta una técnica refinada usando interpolación circular segmentaria para construir numéricamente el offset de una parábola, que también puede usarse como modelo para determinar el offset de la elipse y de la hipérbola.This paper presents the method to obtain, in Cartesian coordinates, the parallel curve lines of non-degenerate conical curves, by analytical and numerical methods. Offset is defined as parallel function to the original function to a distance r. Offset of a conic is important for the manufacturing processes of mechanisms, lenses, mirrors, and molds; especially in the turning with computerized numerical control (CNC of surfaces of revolution with conical sections, using diamond tools of radio r. Also a refined tip technique using segmental circular interpolation to numerically construct the parabola offset is presented, that also can be used as model to determine offsets of ellipse and hyperbola.

  4. Geometric phase effects in excited state dynamics through a conical intersection in large molecules: N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaru; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate geometric phase (GP) effects in nonadiabatic transitions through a conical intersection (CI) in an N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling (ND-LVC) model. This model allows for the coordinate transformation encompassing all nonadiabatic effects within a two-dimensional (2D) subsystem, while the other N - 2 dimensions form a system of uncoupled harmonic oscillators identical for both electronic states and coupled bi-linearly with the subsystem coordinates. The 2D subsystem governs ultra-fast nonadiabatic dynamics through the CI and provides a convenient model for studying GP effects. Parameters of the original ND-LVC model define the Hamiltonian of the transformed 2D subsystem and thus influence GP effects directly. Our analysis reveals what values of ND-LVC parameters can introduce symmetry breaking in the 2D subsystem that diminishes GP effects.

  5. Ab initio multiple spawning on laser-dressed states: a study of 1,3-cyclohexadiene photoisomerization via light-induced conical intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehee; Tao, Hongli; Martinez, Todd J.; Bucksbaum, Phil

    2015-08-01

    We extend the ab initio multiple spawning method to include both field-free and field-induced nonadiabatic transitions. We apply this method to describe ultrafast pump-probe experiments of the photoinduced ring-opening of gas phase 1,3-cyclohexadiene. In the absence of a control field, nonadiabatic transitions mediated by a conical intersection (CoIn) lead to rapid ground state recovery with both 1,3-cyclohexadiene and ring-opened hexatriene products. However, application of a control field within the first 200 fs after photoexcitation results in suppression of the hexatriene product. We demonstrate that this is a consequence of population dumping prior to reaching the CoIn and further interpret this in terms of light-induced CoIns created by the control field.

  6. Longitudinally Controlled Modification of Cylindrical and Conical Track-Etched Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Pores Using an Electrochemically Assisted Click Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coceancigh, Herman; Tran-Ba, Khanh-Hoa; Columbia University, New York, NY; Siepser, Natasha; Baker, Lane A.; Ito, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Here in this study, the longitudinally controlled modification of the inner surfaces of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched pores was explored using an electrochemically assisted Cu(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction. Cylindrical or conical PET track-etched pores were first decorated with ethynyl groups via the amidation of surface -COOH groups, filled with a solution containing Cu(II) and azide-tagged fluorescent dye, and then sandwiched between comb-shaped and planar gold electrodes. Cu(I) was produced at the comb-shaped working electrode by the reduction of Cu(II); it diffused along the pores toward the other electrode and catalyzed CuAAC between an azide-tagged fluorescent dye and a pore-tethered ethynyl group. The modification efficiency of cylindrical pores (ca. 1 μm in diameter) was assessed from planar and cross-sectional fluorescence microscope images of modified membranes. Planar images showed that pore modification took place only above the teeth of the comb-shaped electrode with a higher reaction yield for longer Cu(II) reduction times. Cross-sectional images revealed micrometer-scale gradient modification along the pore axis, which reflected a Cu(I) concentration profile within the pores, as supported by finite-element computer simulations. The reported approach was applicable to the asymmetric modification of cylindrical pores with two different fluorescent dyes in the opposite directions and also for the selective visualization of the tip and base openings of conical pores (ca. 3.5 μm in base diameter and ca. 1 μm in tip diameter). Lastly, the method based on electrochemically assisted CuAAC provides a controlled means to fabricate asymmetrically modified nanoporous membranes and, in the future, will be applicable for chemical separations and the development of sequential catalytic reactors.

  7. Dynamic Electron Correlation Effects on the Ground State Potential Energy Surface of a Retinal Chromophore Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozem, Samer; Huntress, Mark; Schapiro, Igor; Lindh, Roland; Granovsky, Alexander A; Angeli, Celestino; Olivucci, Massimo

    2012-11-13

    The ground state potential energy surface of the retinal chromophore of visual pigments (e.g., bovine rhodopsin) features a low-lying conical intersection surrounded by regions with variable charge-transfer and diradical electronic structures. This implies that dynamic electron correlation may have a large effect on the shape of the force fields driving its reactivity. To investigate this effect, we focus on mapping the potential energy for three paths located along the ground state CASSCF potential energy surface of the penta-2,4-dieniminium cation taken as a minimal model of the retinal chromophore. The first path spans the bond length alternation coordinate and intercepts a conical intersection point. The other two are minimum energy paths along two distinct but kinetically competitive thermal isomerization coordinates. We show that the effect of introducing the missing dynamic electron correlation variationally (with MRCISD) and perturbatively (with the CASPT2, NEVPT2, and XMCQDPT2 methods) leads, invariably, to a stabilization of the regions with charge transfer character and to a significant reshaping of the reference CASSCF potential energy surface and suggesting a change in the dominating isomerization mechanism. The possible impact of such a correction on the photoisomerization of the retinal chromophore is discussed.

  8. Measurement of inclusive and DiJet D{sup *}-meson photoproduction at the H1-experiment at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, K.

    2009-03-15

    In the present analysis the production mechanism of charm quarks in electron proton scattering at the HERA collider is investigated using 30.68 pb{sup -1}, 68.23 pb{sup -1} and 93.39 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the H1 experiment. Events containing charm quarks are detected by the reconstruction of D{sup *} mesons in the kinematic domain of photoproduction. For the first time D{sup *} mesons are selected on the basis of the third level of the H1 Fast Track Trigger. Compared to the previous analysis the phase space studied was extended significantly and the data statistics increased by a factor of eight. The investigated kinematic region covers photons of virtuality of Q{sup 2}<2 GeV{sup 2} and photon-proton center-of-mass energies in the range of 1004 GeV and p{sub t}>3 GeV, are studied in the pseudorapidity range of vertical stroke {eta} vertical stroke <1.5, where one of the selected jets is associated with the D{sup *} meson. The investigation of two hard partons, by means of the jets, results in an improved understanding of the production mechanism of charm quarks. This measurement demonstrates that resolved photon processes play an important role in the photoproduction of charm quarks. Single and double differential cross sections of both event samples are compared to predictions of perturbative QCD in leading and next to leading order. (orig.)

  9. Correlated binomial models and correlation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisakado, Masato; Kitsukawa, Kenji; Mori, Shintaro

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a general method to construct correlated binomial distributions by imposing several consistent relations on the joint probability function. We obtain self-consistency relations for the conditional correlations and conditional probabilities. The beta-binomial distribution is derived by a strong symmetric assumption on the conditional correlations. Our derivation clarifies the 'correlation' structure of the beta-binomial distribution. It is also possible to study the correlation structures of other probability distributions of exchangeable (homogeneous) correlated Bernoulli random variables. We study some distribution functions and discuss their behaviours in terms of their correlation structures

  10. Bacterial colonization of the implant-abutment interface of conical connection with an internal octagon: an in vitro study using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, A; Beltramini, G A; Bolzoni, A; Cura, F; Palmieri, A; Scarano, A; Ottria, L; Giannì, A B

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial leakage at the implant-abutment connection of a two-piece implant system is considered the main cause of peri-implantitis. Prevention of bacterial leakage at the implant-abutment connection is mandatory for reducing inflammation process around implant neck and achieving bone stability. Micro-cavities at implant-abutment connection level can favour bacterial leakage, even in modern two-piece implant systems. The conical connection with an internal octagon (CCIO) is considered to be more stable mechanically and allows a more tight link between implant and abutment. As P. gingivalis and T. forsythia penetration might have clinical relevance, it was the purpose of this investigation to evaluate molecular leakage of these two bacteria in a new two-implant system with an internal conical implant-abutment connection with internal octagon (Shiner XT, FMD Falappa Medical Devices S.p.A. Rome, Italy). To verify the ability of the implant in protecting the internal space from the external environment, the passage of genetically modified Escherichia c oli across implant-abutment interface was evaluated. Four Shiner XT implants (FMD, Falappa Medical Devices®, Rome, Italy) were immerged in a bacterial culture for 24 h and bacteria amount was measured inside implant-abutment interface with Real-time PCR. Bacteria were detected inside all studied implants, with a median percentage of 6% for P. gingivalis and 5% for T. forsythia. Other comparable studies about the tightness of the tested implant system reported similar results. The gap size at the implant-abutment connection of CCIOs was measured by other authors discovering a gap size of 1–2μm of the AstraTech system and of 4μm for the Ankylos system. Bacterial leakage along implant-abutment connection of cylindrical and tapered implants, Shiner XT, (FMD Falappa Medical Devices S.p.A. Rome, Italy) showed better results compared to other implants. Additional studies are needed to explore the relationship in terms of

  11. Stability and delayed fragmentation of highly charged C60 trapped in a conic-electrode electrostatic ion resonator (ConeTrap)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.; Wei, B.; Bourgey, A.; Bredy, R.; Chen, L.; Kerleroux, M.; Martin, S.; Montagne, G.; Salmoun, A.; Terpend-Ordaciere, B.

    2007-01-01

    We employed a conic-electrode electrostatic ion resonator (ConeTrap) to store the recoil ions (C 60 r+ ) resulting from collision between 56keV Ar 8+ ions and C 60 in order to study their stability over a long time range (several milliseconds). The originality of our method, based on the trapping of a single ion to preserve the detection in coincidence of all the products of the collision, is presented in detail. Our results show that C 60 ions produced in such collisions are stable in the considered observation time. By employing the ConeTrap as a secondary mass spectrometer in order to let the ions oscillate only for a single period, we have been able to observe delayed evaporation of cold C 60 3+ ions 20μs after the collision. We interpret quantitatively the relative yields of daughter ions with a cascade model in which the transition rates are estimated via the commonly used Arrhenius law, taking into account the contribution of the radiative decay

  12. On the effects from the simultaneous occurrence of the critical Casimir and dispersion forces between conical colloid particle and a thick plate immersed in nonpolar critical fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchev Galin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we study the interplay between the van der Waals (vdWF and critical Casimir forces (CCF, as well as the total force (TF between a conical colloid particle and a thick planar slab. We do that using general scaling arguments and mean-field type calculations utilizing the so-called “surface integration approach”, a generalization of the well known Derjaguin approximation. Its usage in the present research, requires knowledge on the forces between two parallel slabs, confining in between some fluctuating fluid medium characterized by its temperature T and chemical potential μ. The surfaces of the colloid particle and the slab are assumed coated by thin layers exerting strong preference to the liquid phase of a simple fluid, or one of the components of a binary mixture, modeled by strong adsorbing local surface potentials, ensuring the so-called (+,+ boundary conditions. On the other hand, the core region of the slab and the particle, influence the fluid by long-ranged competing dispersion potentials. We demonstrate that for a suitable set of colloid-fluid, slab-fluid, and fluid-fluid coupling parameters the competition between the effects due to the coatings and the core regions of the objects, result, when one changes T or μ, in sign change of the Casimir force (CF and the TF acting between the colloid and the slab. Such an effect can provide a strategy for solving problems with handling, feeding, trapping and fixing of microparts in nanotechnology.

  13. An analysis of the shielding gas flow from a coaxial conical nozzle during high power CO{sub 2} laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancona, Antonio [CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory LIT3, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Sibillano, Teresa [CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory LIT3, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita Degli Studi di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Lugara, Pietro Mario [CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory LIT3, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita Degli Studi di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gonnella, Giuseppe [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita Degli Studi di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Gestionale, Politecnico di Bari, via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Centro di Eccellenza in Meccanica Computazionale, Politecnico di Bari, via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Maffione, Donato [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Gestionale, Politecnico di Bari, via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Centro di Eccellenza in Meccanica Computazionale, Politecnico di Bari, via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy)

    2006-02-07

    An experimental and theoretical study on the role of the nitrogen gas stream, exiting from a conventional conical nozzle tip during a laser welding process, has been carried out. A mathematical model has been used, based on the Navier-Stokes equations which express fundamental conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy for a compressible fluid. Numerical simulations of the gas stream colliding onto a plane surface have been performed showing the effects of variations of inlet gas pressure, nozzle exit diameter and standoff distance on the density and Mach number contours, axis pressure of the gas jet and plate pressure produced on the workpiece surface. Laser welding experiments have been performed on carbon and stainless steel specimens, by varying the process parameters in the same range as in the simulations and keeping constant the incident power and the travel speed. Two different gas stream regimes were found, namely sonic and subsonic, which were experimentally verified to produce cutting and welding conditions, respectively. Weld performances have been evaluated in terms of bead width, penetration depth and melted area. Nozzle standoff distance was found to have a negligible influence, while the exit diameter and the flow rate significantly affect the weld results. The numerical predictions allowed an explanation of the experimental results yielding useful suggestions for enhancing the weld quality, acting simply on the shielding gas parameters.

  14. Glytube: a conical tube and parafilm M-based method as a simplified device to artificially blood-feed the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Costa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue virus, requires a blood meal to produce eggs. Although live animals are still the main blood source for laboratory colonies, many artificial feeders are available. These feeders are also the best method for experimental oral infection of Ae. aegypti with Dengue viruses. However, most of them are expensive or laborious to construct. Based on principle of Rutledge-type feeder, a conventional conical tube, glycerol and Parafilm-M were used to develop a simple in-house feeder device. The blood feeding efficiency of this apparatus was compared to a live blood source, mice, and no significant differences (p = 0.1189 were observed between artificial-fed (51.3% of engorgement and mice-fed groups (40.6%. Thus, an easy to assemble and cost-effective artificial feeder, designated "Glytube" was developed in this report. This simple and efficient feeding device can be built with common laboratory materials for research on Ae. aegypti.

  15. Roads leading to roam. Role of triple fragmentation and of conical intersections in photochemical reactions: experiments and theory on methyl formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Po-Yu; Chao, Meng-Hsuan; Kasai, Toshio; Lin, King-Chuen; Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2014-02-21

    The exploration of alternative roads that open to molecules with sufficient energy to yield different products permits prediction and eventually control of the outcomes of chemical reactions. Advanced imaging techniques for monitoring laser-induced photodissociation are here combined with dynamical simulations, involving ample sets of classical trajectories generated on a quantum chemical potential energy surface. Methyl formate, HCOOCH3, is photodissociated at energies near the triple fragmentation threshold into H, CO and OCH3. Images of velocity and rotational distributions of CO exhibit signatures of alternative routes, such as those recently designated as transition-state vs. roaming-mediated. Furthermore, a demonstration of the triple fragmentation route is given, and also confirmed by H-atom product imaging and FTIR time-resolved spectra of the intermediate HCO radical. In addition, the relevance of nonadiabatic transitions promoted by a conical intersection is clarified by simulations as the privileged "reactivity funnel" of organic photochemistry, whereby the outcomes of molecular photoexcitation are delivered to electronic ground states.

  16. PIC simulations of conical magnetically insulated transmission line with LTD generator: Transition from self-limited to load-limited flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laqun; Wang, Huihui; Guo, Fan; Zou, Wenkang; Liu, Dagang

    2017-04-01

    Based on the 3-dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code CHIPIC3D, with a new circuit boundary algorithm we developed, a conical magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) with a 1.0-MV linear transformer driver (LTD) is explored numerically. The values of switch jitter time of LTD are critical parameters for the system, which are difficult to be measured experimentally. In this paper, these values are obtained by comparing the PIC results with experimental data of large diode-gap MITL. By decreasing the diode gap, we find that all PIC results agree well with experimental data only if MITL works on self-limited flow no matter how large the diode gap is. However, when the diode gap decreases to a threshold, the self-limited flow would transfer to a load-limited flow. In this situation, PIC results no longer agree with experimental data anymore due to the anode plasma expansion in the diode load. This disagreement is used to estimate the plasma expansion speed.

  17. Conical Intersections, charge localization, and photoisomerization pathway selection in a minimal model of a degenerate monomethine dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Seth; McKenzie, Ross H.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a minimal model Hamiltonian for the electronic structure of a monomethine dye, in order to describe the photoisomerization of such dyes. The model describes interactions between three diabatic electronic states, each of which can be associated with a valence bond structure. Monomethine dyes are characterized by a charge-transfer resonance; the indeterminacy of the single-double bonding structure dictated by the resonance is reflected in a duality of photoisomerization pathways corresponding to the different methine bonds. The possible multiplicity of decay channels complicates mechanistic models of the effect of the environment on fluorescent quantum yields, as well as coherent control strategies. We examine the extent and topology of intersection seams between the electronic states of the dye and how they relate to charge localization and selection between different decay pathways. We find that intersections between the S 1 and S 0 surfaces only occur for large twist angles. In contrast, S 2 /S 1 intersections can occur near the Franck-Condon region. When the molecule has left-right symmetry, all intersections are associated with con- or disrotations and never with single bond twists. For asymmetric molecules (i.e., where the bridge couples more strongly to one end) the S 2 and S 1 surfaces bias torsion about different bonds. Charge localization and torsion pathway biasing are correlated. We relate our observations with several recent experimental and theoretical results, which have been obtained for dyes with similar structure.

  18. Microbial Communities and Their Predicted Metabolic Functions in Growth Laminae of a Unique Large Conical Mat from Lake Untersee, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunmin Koo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report the distribution of microbial taxa and their predicted metabolic functions observed in the top (U1, middle (U2, and inner (U3 decadal growth laminae of a unique large conical microbial mat from perennially ice-covered Lake Untersee of East Antarctica, using NextGen sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and bioinformatics tools. The results showed that the U1 lamina was dominated by cyanobacteria, specifically Phormidium sp., Leptolyngbya sp., and Pseudanabaena sp. The U2 and U3 laminae had high abundances of Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Closely related taxa within each abundant bacterial taxon found in each lamina were further differentiated at the highest taxonomic resolution using the oligotyping method. PICRUSt analysis, which determines predicted KEGG functional categories from the gene contents and abundances among microbial communities, revealed a high number of sequences belonging to carbon fixation, energy metabolism, cyanophycin, chlorophyll, and photosynthesis proteins in the U1 lamina. The functional predictions of the microbial communities in U2 and U3 represented signal transduction, membrane transport, zinc transport and amino acid-, carbohydrate-, and arsenic- metabolisms. The Nearest Sequenced Taxon Index (NSTI values processed through PICRUSt were 0.10, 0.13, and 0.11 for U1, U2, and U3 laminae, respectively. These values indicated a close correspondence with the reference microbial genome database, implying high confidence in the predicted metabolic functions of the microbial communities in each lamina. The distribution of microbial taxa observed in each lamina and their predicted metabolic functions provides additional insight into the complex microbial ecosystem at Lake Untersee, and lays the foundation for studies that will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique mat structures and their evolutionary significance.

  19. Effects of different abutment material and surgical insertion torque on the marginal adaptation of an internal conical interface: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farronato, Davide; Pieroni, Stefano; Mangano, Francesco Guido; Briguglio, Francesco; Re, Dino

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the marginal adaptation at implant-abutment connection of an implant featuring a conical (45° taper) internal hexagonal abutment with a connection depth of 2.5mm, comparing the performance of two identical abutments of different material (titanium grade-4 and Co-Cr-alloy). Twenty implants (3.75 mm×15 mm) were connected to non-matching abutments (5.5 mm×10 mm) of two different materials (titanium grade-4: n=10; Co-Cr-alloy: n=10). The specimens were separately embedded in epoxylite resin, inside copper cylinders, and submerged without covering the most coronal portion (5 mm) of the fixture. Five specimens per group were stressed simulating a surgical 100 Ncm insertion torque, while the others had no torque simulation. All specimens were subjected to a non-axial static load (100 N) in a universal testing machine, under an angle of 30° with respect to the implant axis. Once 100 N load was reached, low shrinkage self-curing resin was injected inside the cylinders, and load was maintained until complete resin polymerization. Specimens were cut and analyzed with optical and scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) to evaluate the marginal adaptation at the implant-abutment connection. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA (p=0.02). None of the 20 samples failed. The implant-abutment connection was able to guarantee a good optical seal; SEM analysis confirmed the absence of microgaps. Within the limits of this study (small sample size, limited time) the marginal adaptation of the implant-abutment connection was not affected by the abutment material nor by the application of surgical insertion torque. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Orthogonalization of correlated states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme for orthogonalizing correlated states while preserving the diagonal matrix elements of the Hamiltonian is developed. Conventional perturbation theory can be used with the orthonormal correlated basis obtained from this scheme. Advantages of using orthonormal correlated states in calculations of the response function and correlation energy are discussed

  1. Geometric correlations and multifractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amritkar, R.E.

    1991-07-01

    There are many situations where the usual statistical methods are not adequate to characterize correlations in the system. To characterize such situations we introduce mutual correlation dimensions which describe geometric correlations in the system. These dimensions allow us to distinguish between variables which are perfectly correlated with or without a phase lag, variables which are uncorrelated and variables which are partially correlated. We demonstrate the utility of our formalism by considering two examples from dynamical systems. The first example is about the loss of memory in chaotic signals and describes auto-correlations while the second example is about synchronization of chaotic signals and describes cross-correlations. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  2. Photon correlation holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Dinesh N; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ezawa, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Yoko; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2011-01-17

    Unconventional holography called photon correlation holography is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Using photon correlation, i.e. intensity correlation or fourth order correlation of optical field, a 3-D image of the object recorded in a hologram is reconstructed stochastically with illumination through a random phase screen. Two different schemes for realizing photon correlation holography are examined by numerical simulations, and the experiment was performed for one of the reconstruction schemes suitable for the experimental proof of the principle. The technique of photon correlation holography provides a new insight into how the information is embedded in the spatial as well as temporal correlation of photons in the stochastic pseudo thermal light.

  3. Hadron correlations from recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Quark recombination is a successful model to describe the hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma. Jet-like dihadron correlations measured at RHIC provide a challenge for this picture. We discuss how correlations between hadrons can arise from correlations between partons before hadronization. An enhancement of correlations through the recombination process, similar to the enhancement of elliptic flow is found. Hot spots from completely or partially quenched jets are a likely source of such parton correlations.

  4. Sensibilidade e especificidade do índice de conicidade como discriminador do risco coronariano de adultos em Salvador, Brasil Sensitivity and specificity of the conicity index as a coronary risk predictor among adults in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No início da década de 90, foi proposto o índice de conicidade para avaliação da distribuição da gordura corporal, com base nas medidas de peso, estatura e circunferência da cintura. Este estudo teve como objetivo selecionar através da sensibilidade e especificidade os melhores pontos de corte para o índice de conicidade como discriminador de risco coronariano elevado. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, com amostra composta por 968 adultos de 30-74 anos de idade, sendo 391 (40,4% do sexo masculino. A análise foi feita por curva Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC para identificar a sensibilidade e especificidade do melhor ponto de corte do índice de conicidade como discriminador de risco coronariano elevado. Verificou-se também a significância estatística da área sob a curva ROC entre o índice de conicidade e risco coronariano elevado. Foi utilizado intervalo de confiança (IC a 95%. RESULTADOS: A área total sob a curva ROC entre o índice de conicidade e risco coronariano foi de 0,80, IC 95% (0,74-0,85 para homens e 0,75, IC 95% (0,70-0,80 para mulheres. Os melhores pontos de corte para discriminar o risco coronariano elevado foram, para homens e mulheres, respectivamente, 1,25 (sensibilidade de 73,91% e especificidade de 74,92% e 1,18 (sensibilidade de 73.39% e especificidade de 61,15%. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados encontrados neste estudo sugerem que o índice de conicidade deve ser comparado aos demais indicadores antropométricos de obesidade e pode vir a ser utilizado para discriminar risco coronariano elevado.OBJECTIVE: In the early nineties, the conicity index was proposed for the assessment of body fat distribution based on weight, height and waist circumference measurements. The goal of this study was to identify the sensitivity, specificity and the best cut-off point for the conicity index as a predictor of high coronary risk. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study whose population comprised 968

  5. General correlation and partial correlation analysis in finding interactions: with Spearman rank correlation and proportion correlation as correlation measures

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang; Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Between-taxon interactions can be detected by calculating the sampling data of taxon sample type. In present study, Spearman rank correlation and proportion correlation are chosen as the general correlation measures, and their partial correlations are calculated and compared. The results show that for Spearman rank correlation measure, in all predicted candidate direct interactions by partial correlation, about 16.77% (x, 0-45.4%) of them are not successfully detected by Spearman rank correla...

  6. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  7. Pairing correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, C.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    There are many similarities between the properties of nucleons in nuclei and electrons in metals. In addition to the properties explainable in terms of independent particle motion, there are many important co-operative effects suggesting correlated motion. Pairing correlation which leads to superconductivity in metals and several important properties in nuclei , is an exmple of such correlations. An attempt has been made to review the effects of pairing correlations in nuclei. Recent indications of reduction in pairing correlations at high angular momenta is discussed. A comparision between pairing correlations in the cases of nuclei and electrons in metals is attempted. (author). 20 refs., 10 figs

  8. Fracture toughness correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, Kim

    1986-09-01

    In this study existing fracture parameter correlations are reviewed. Their applicability and reliability are discussed in detail. A new K IC -CVN-correlation, based on a theoretical brittle fracture model, is presented

  9. Angular correlation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An outline of the theory of angular correlations is presented, and the difference between the modern density matrix method and the traditional wave function method is stressed. Comments are offered on particular angular correlation theoretical techniques. A brief discussion is given of recent studies of gamma ray angular correlations of reaction products recoiling with high velocity into vacuum. Two methods for optimization to obtain the most accurate expansion coefficients of the correlation are discussed. (1 figure, 53 references) (U.S.)

  10. Teager Correlation Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Hamila, R.; Gabbouj, M.

    1998-01-01

    A new correlation function called the Teager correlation function is introduced in this paper. The connection between this function, the Teager energy operator and the conventional correlation function is established. Two applications are presented. The first is the minimization of the Teager error...... norm and the second one is the use of the instantaneous Teager correlation function for simultaneous estimation of TDOA and FDOA (Time and Frequency Difference of Arrivals)....

  11. Correlation in photodetachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Electron correlation plays a major role in all aspects of the photodetachment of an electron from a negative ion. Photodetachment measurements are well suited to investigate the relatively short range forces associated with correlation due to the absence of the long range Coulomb interaction. Measurements of electron affinities, asymmetry parameters and cross sections are described to illustrate the influence of correlation on photodetachment

  12. Transonic Aerodynamic Loading Characteristics of a Wing-Body-Tail Combination Having a 52.5 deg. Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 3 With Conical Wing Camber and Body Indentation for a Design Mach Number of Square Root of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetti, Marlowe D.; Re, Richard J.; Igoe, William B.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and body indentation according to the supersonic area rule on the aerodynamic wing loading characteristics of a wing-body-tail configuration at transonic speeds. The wing aspect ratio was 3, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord-line sweepback was 52.5 deg. with 3-percent-thick airfoil sections. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 and at angles of attack from 0 deg. to 14 deg., with Reynolds numbers based on mean aerodynamic chord varying from 7 x 10(exp 6) to 8 x 10(exp 6). Conical camber delayed wing-tip stall and reduced the severity of the accompanying longitudinal instability but did not appreciably affect the spanwise load distribution at angles of attack below tip stall. Body indentation reduced the transonic chordwise center-of-pressure travel from about 8 percent to 5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.

  13. Quantum perfect correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Masanao

    2006-01-01

    The notion of perfect correlations between arbitrary observables, or more generally arbitrary POVMs, is introduced in the standard formulation of quantum mechanics, and characterized by several well-established statistical conditions. The transitivity of perfect correlations is proved to generally hold, and applied to a simple articulation for the failure of Hardy's nonlocality proof for maximally entangled states. The notion of perfect correlations between observables and POVMs is used for defining the notion of a precise measurement of a given observable in a given state. A longstanding misconception on the correlation made by the measuring interaction is resolved in the light of the new theory of quantum perfect correlations

  14. Correlations in Werner States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunlong; Li Nan

    2008-01-01

    Werner states are paradigmatic examples of quantum states and play an innovative role in quantum information theory. In investigating the correlating capability of Werner states, we find the curious phenomenon that quantum correlations, as quantified by the entanglement of formation, may exceed the total correlations, as measured by the quantum mutual information. Consequently, though the entanglement of formation is so widely used in quantifying entanglement, it cannot be interpreted as a consistent measure of quantum correlations per se if we accept the folklore that total correlations are measured (or rather upper bounded) by the quantum mutual information.

  15. Correlation in atomic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation due to the Coulomb interactions between electrons in many-electron targets colliding with charged particles is formulated, and various approximate probability amplitudes are evaluated. In the limit that the electron-electron, 1/r/sub i//sub j/, correlation interactions are ignored or approximated by central potentials, the independent-electron approximation is obtained. Two types of correlations, or corrections to the independent-electron approximation due to 1/r/sub i//sub j/ terms, are identified: namely, static and scattering correlation. Static correlation is that contained in the asymptotic, e.g., bound-state, wave functions. Scattering correlation, arising from correlation in the scattering operator, is new and is considered in some detail. Expressions for a scattering correlation amplitude, static correlation or rearrangement amplitude, and independent-electron or direct amplitude are derived at high collision velocity and compared. At high velocities the direct and rearrangement amplitudes dominate. At very high velocities, ν, the rearrangement amplitude falls off less rapidly with ν than the direct amplitude which, however, is dominant as electron-electron correlation tends to zero. Comparisons with experimental observations are discussed

  16. Correlation in photodetachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, D.J.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1991-01-01

    Electron correlation plays a major role in all aspects of the photodetachment of an electron from a negative ion. Photodetachment measurements are well suited to investigate the relatively short range forces associated with correlation due to the absence of the long range Coulomb interaction. Measurements of electron affinities, asymmetry parameters and cross sections are described to illustrate the influence of correlation on photodetachment. 25 refs., 4 figs

  17. Intercorporate Security Event Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Kovalev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Security controls are prone to false positives and false negatives which can lead to unwanted reputation losses for the bank. The reputational database within the security operations center (SOC and intercorporate correlation of security events are offered as a solution to increase attack detection fidelity. The theses introduce the definition and structure of the reputation, architectures of reputational exchange and the place of intercorporate correlation in overall SOC correlation analysis.

  18. RHIC Data Correlation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michnoff, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Hoff, L.; MacKay, W.; Satogata, T.

    1999-01-01

    A requirement for RHIC data plotting software and physics analysis is the correlation of data from all accelerator data gathering systems. Data correlation provides the capability for a user to request a plot of multiple data channels vs. time, and to make meaningful time-correlated data comparisons. The task of data correlation for RHIC requires careful consideration because data acquisition triggers are generated from various asynchronous sources including events from the RHIC Event Link, events from the two Beam Sync Links, and other unrelated clocks. In order to correlate data from asynchronous acquisition systems a common time reference is required. The RHIC data correlation methodology will allow all RHIC data to be converted to a common wall clock time, while still preserving native acquisition trigger information. A data correlation task force team, composed of the authors of this paper, has been formed to develop data correlation design details and provide guidelines for software developers. The overall data correlation methodology will be presented in this paper

  19. Learning efficient correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.; Marden, Jason R.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm which guarantees that the agents' collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  20. Learning efficient correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.

    2014-12-15

    The majority of distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm which guarantees that the agents\\' collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  1. Particle Correlations at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kress, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Particle correlations are extensively studied to obtain information about the dynamics of hadron production. From 1989 to 2000 the four LEP collaborations recorded more than 16 million hadronic Z0 decays and several thousand W+W- events. In Z0 decays, two-particle correlations were analysed in detail to study Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations for various particle species. In fully-hadronic W+W- decays, particle correlations were used to study whether the two W bosons decay independently. A review of selected results is presented.

  2. Correlation diagram approach to the dissociative ionization mechanisms of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momigny, J.; Wankenne, H.; Krier, C.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic survey is made of the dissociation processes from the ground state and from the electronically excited states of CH 3 OH + . Most metastable processes occurring in the mass spectrum of CD 3 OH are studied also, including measurement of the kinetic energy release and appearance potentials. It is shown that if ionic species such as CH 2 OH + , CH 2 O + and HCO + are present in the mass spectrum of CH 3 OH, the isomers CH 3 O + , HCOH + and COH + are also present. The precursors of these ions having been identified by the metastable processes, correlation diagrams are used to show that, from the first ionization potential of CH 3 OH to 14 eV, the only exception being CH 3 O + which results from an electronically spin-forbidden predissociation, the fragment ions can be considered to result from adiabatic decay of the ground state of CH 3 OH + . The potential barriers involved in these adiabatic processes result either from conical intersection or from avoided-crossing between the ground state of CH 3 OH + and the electronically excited states occurring up to 14 eV. At higher energies, many non-adiabatic processes occur; for example, the appearance of CD 2 O + and the electronically excited states of HCO + and COH + ions. It is shown additionally that kinetic energy releases observed in the collision-induced processes CH 3 OH + → CH 2 OH + + H and CH 2 OH + → HCO + + H 2 are in good agreement with the mechanistic approach via the correlation diagram for the appearance of the non-collision-induced ion processes. (orig.)

  3. Bose-Einstein correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewski, Kacper

    2000-01-01

    The effect of Bose-Einstein correlations on multiplicity distributions of identical pions is discussed. It is found that these correlations affect significantly the observed multiplicity distributions, but Einstein's condensation is unlikely to be achieved, unless 'cold spots', i.e. regions, where groups of pions with very small relative momenta are produced, occur in high energy heavy-ion collisions

  4. Low Offset AC Correlator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This patent describes a low offset AC correlator avoids DC offset and low frequency noise by frequency operating the correlation signal so that low...noise, low level AC amplification can be substituted for DC amplification. Subsequently, the high level AC signal is demodulated to a DC level. (Author)

  5. Correlates of Academic Procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Norman A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated concurrent correlates of academic procrastination in Israeli college preparatory students (n=113). Procrastination in one course of study was found to be moderately correlated with procrastination in another but not to procrastination in routine tasks of daily living. Procrastination was weakly related to emotional upset about it and…

  6. Long sequence correlation coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1994-09-01

    A long sequence correlation coprocessor (LSCC) accelerates the bitwise correlation of arbitrarily long digital sequences by calculating in parallel the correlation score for 16, for example, adjacent bit alignments between two binary sequences. The LSCC integrated circuit is incorporated into a computer system with memory storage buffers and a separate general purpose computer processor which serves as its controller. Each of the LSCC's set of sequential counters simultaneously tallies a separate correlation coefficient. During each LSCC clock cycle, computer enable logic associated with each counter compares one bit of a first sequence with one bit of a second sequence to increment the counter if the bits are the same. A shift register assures that the same bit of the first sequence is simultaneously compared to different bits of the second sequence to simultaneously calculate the correlation coefficient by the different counters to represent different alignments of the two sequences.

  7. Quantum correlation games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Azhar; Weigert, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to play games quantum mechanically is proposed. We consider two players who perform measurements in an EPR-type setting. The payoff relations are defined as functions of correlations, i.e. without reference to classical or quantum mechanics. Classical bi-matrix games are reproduced if the input states are classical and perfectly anti-correlated, that is, for a classical correlation game. However, for a quantum correlation game, with an entangled singlet state as input, qualitatively different solutions are obtained. For example, the Prisoners' Dilemma acquires a Nash equilibrium if both players apply a mixed strategy. It appears to be conceptually impossible to reproduce the properties of quantum correlation games within the framework of classical games

  8. Recent tests of QCD with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Callea, Giuseppe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A summary of the recent ATLAS results in Quantum Chromodynamics is given, covering a number of areas that reflect the work of the collaboration on the Bose-Einstein correlations in multi-particle events, the inclusive jet production, the measurements of jet substructure quantities in di-jet events and the photon-photon scattering exclusive processes.

  9. Pair correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi

    2009-01-01

    Except for the closed shell nuclei, almost all nuclei are in the superconducting state at their ground states. This well-known pair correlation in nuclei causes various interesting phenomena. It is especially to be noted that the pair correlation becomes weak in the excited states of nuclei with high angular momentum, which leads to the pair phase transition to the normal state in the high spin limit. On the other hand, the pair correlation becomes stronger in the nuclei with lower nucleon density than in those with normal density. In the region of neutron halo or skin state of unstable nuclei, this phenomenon is expected to be further enhanced to be observed compared to the ground state of stable nuclei. An overview of those interesting aspects caused via the pair correlation is presented here in the sections titled 'pair correlations in ground states', pair correlations in high spin states' and 'pair correlations in unstable nuclei' focusing on the high spin state. (S. Funahashi)

  10. Studii cu privire la soluţii de fundaţii utilizând plăci subţiri conice şi poliedrice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Tirtea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental studies have been performed in order to determine the possibility of using thin plates as foundation solutions for frame structures. It was studied three types of solutions regarding the realization of isolated footing under columns using two types of thin plates: a Conical plates with the top upward (element E1, respectively the top downward (element E2; b Trunk of pyramid type of polyhedral plates (element E3. These two types of thin plates have been considered for the following reasons: favorable stress distribution in the foundation soil; the stresses that occur within the thin plate are mainly compressive, which leads to a significant reduction of foundation reinforcement; reduced consumption of concrete and reinforcement.

  11. Determining partial differential cross sections for low-energy electron photodetachment involving conical intersections using the solution of a Lippmann-Schwinger equation constructed with standard electronic structure techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungsuk; Yarkony, David R

    2011-05-07

    A method for obtaining partial differential cross sections for low energy electron photodetachment in which the electronic states of the residual molecule are strongly coupled by conical intersections is reported. The method is based on the iterative solution to a Lippmann-Schwinger equation, using a zeroth order Hamiltonian consisting of the bound nonadiabatically coupled residual molecule and a free electron. The solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation involves only standard electronic structure techniques and a standard three-dimensional free particle Green's function quadrature for which fast techniques exist. The transition dipole moment for electron photodetachment, is a sum of matrix elements each involving one nonorthogonal orbital obtained from the solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. An expression for the electron photodetachment transition dipole matrix element in terms of Dyson orbitals, which does not make the usual orthogonality assumptions, is derived.

  12. Comparison of acoustic data from a 102 mm conic nozzle as measured in the RAE 24-foot wind tunnel and the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, A., Jr.; Mckie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative program between the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), England, and the NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to compare acoustic measurements made in the RAE 24-foot wind tunnel and in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The acoustic measurements were made in both facilities using the same 102 mm conical nozzle supplied by the RAE. The nozzle was tested by each organization using its respective jet test rig. The mounting hardware and nozzle exit conditions were matched as closely as possible. The data from each wind tunnel were independently analyzed by the respective organization. The results from these tests show good agreement. In both facilities, interference with acoustic measurement is evident at angles in the forward quadrant.

  13. Particle correlations at ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erazmus, B.; Lednicky, R.; Lyuboshitz, V.; Martin, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Pluta, J.; Sinyukov, Yu.; Stavinsky, A.; Werner, K

    1998-12-31

    The ability of the ALICE detector for determination of the space-time characteristics of particle production in heavy-ion collisions at LHC from measurements of the correlation functions of identical and non-identical particles at small relative velocities is discussed. The possibility to use the correlations of non-identical particles for a direct determination of the delays in emission of various particle species at time scales as small as 10{sup -23} s is demonstrated. The influence of the multi-boson effects on pion multiplicities, single-pion spectra and two-pion correlation functions is discussed. (author) 63 refs.

  14. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  15. Interelement correlations in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of 25 elements in 4 plant species (Citrus aurantia, Brassica oleracea, Lycopersicon esculentum and Pinus strobus) were linearly correlated. For some element pairs (Ce-Fe, Ce-Ni, Ce-Sb, Ce-Sc, Ce-Zn, Fe-Sb, Fe-Sc, Fe-U, Fe-Zn, K-Cd, La-U, Ni-Sb, Sc-U and Sc-Zn) a high positive correlation coefficient (r = +1) was found. The element pairs Ca-Mg, Hg-U, Ni-Sr and Sr-Zn show a significant negative correlation (r = -1). Plants seem to process some constant interelement relations, independent of plant species. (orig.)

  16. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  17. Entropic Nonsignaling Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Rafael; Budroni, Costantino

    2016-06-17

    We introduce the concept of entropic nonsignaling correlations, i.e., entropies arising from probabilistic theories that are compatible with the fact that we cannot transmit information instantaneously. We characterize and show the relevance of these entropic correlations in a variety of different scenarios, ranging from typical Bell experiments to more refined descriptions such as bilocality and information causality. In particular, we apply the framework to derive the first entropic inequality testing genuine tripartite nonlocality in quantum systems of arbitrary dimension and also prove the first known monogamy relation for entropic Bell inequalities. Further, within the context of complex Bell networks, we show that entropic nonlocal correlations can be activated.

  18. Hadronic Correlations and Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker

    2008-10-09

    We will provide a review of some of the physics which can be addressed by studying fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions. We will discuss Lattice QCD results on fluctuations and correlations and will put them into context with observables which have been measured in heavy-ion collisions. Special attention will be given to the QCD critical point and the first order co-existence region, and we will discuss how the measurement of fluctuations and correlations can help in an experimental search for non-trivial structures in the QCD phase diagram.

  19. Extractable Work from Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Perarnau-Llobet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  20. Multibin Correlations: A Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.; Zalewski, K.

    2011-01-01

    A recently proposed method of studying the long-range correlations in multiparticle production is described. It is explained how it can be used in practice to uncover the mechanisms of particle production in high energy collisions. (authors)

  1. Principles of correlation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of the various applications which have been made of correlation techniques in the field of nuclear physics, in particular for absolute counting. Whereas in most cases the usual coincidence method will be preferable for its simplicity, correlation counting may be the only possible approach in such cases where the two radiations of the cascade cannot be well separated or when there is a longliving intermediate state. The measurement of half-lives and of count rates of spurious pulses is also briefly discussed. The various experimental situations lead to different ways the correlation method is best applied (covariance technique with one or with two detectors, application of correlation functions, etc.). Formulae are given for some simple model cases, neglecting dead-time corrections

  2. Emerging Correlation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Gbur, Gregory J.; Polyanskii, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting the state-of-the-art of correlation optics and showing synergetics between the theoretical background and experimental techniques.......This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting the state-of-the-art of correlation optics and showing synergetics between the theoretical background and experimental techniques....

  3. Galaxy correlations and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fall, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Correlations in the distribution of galaxies provide some important clues about the structure and evolution of the Universe on scales larger than individual galaxies. In recent years much effort has been devoted to estimating and interpreting galaxy correlations. This is a review of these efforts. It is meant to provide both an introductory overview of the subject and a critical assessment of some recent developments

  4. Exponential smoothing weighted correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, F.; Di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.

    2012-06-01

    In many practical applications, correlation matrices might be affected by the "curse of dimensionality" and by an excessive sensitiveness to outliers and remote observations. These shortcomings can cause problems of statistical robustness especially accentuated when a system of dynamic correlations over a running window is concerned. These drawbacks can be partially mitigated by assigning a structure of weights to observational events. In this paper, we discuss Pearson's ρ and Kendall's τ correlation matrices, weighted with an exponential smoothing, computed on moving windows using a data-set of daily returns for 300 NYSE highly capitalized companies in the period between 2001 and 2003. Criteria for jointly determining optimal weights together with the optimal length of the running window are proposed. We find that the exponential smoothing can provide more robust and reliable dynamic measures and we discuss that a careful choice of the parameters can reduce the autocorrelation of dynamic correlations whilst keeping significance and robustness of the measure. Weighted correlations are found to be smoother and recovering faster from market turbulence than their unweighted counterparts, helping also to discriminate more effectively genuine from spurious correlations.

  5. Structure correlation and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buergi, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    The main goal of crystal and molecular structure determination is to provide a starting point for understanding the physical, chemical and biological properties of matter. At present, results from nearly 300000 crystal structure studies are available in computer-readable form. Structure correlation attempts to extract knowledge and understanding from this body of information, which is not available from its parts. This article reviews some typical examples: libraries of prototypal molecular dimensions, mappings of chemical reaction pathways, correlations between structure on one hand and energy, reaction rate, catalytic activity or magnetism on the other. The knowledge gained from structure-correlation studies, together with quantum-chemical and other modeling techniques, provides conceptual and practical tools for designing molecules and materials with tailor-made properties. (orig.)

  6. Pair Correlation Function Integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar; O'Connell, John P.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for extending radial distribution functions obtained from molecular simulations of pure and mixed molecular fluids to arbitrary distances. The method allows total correlation function integrals to be reliably calculated from simulations of relatively small systems. The long......-distance behavior of radial distribution functions is determined by requiring that the corresponding direct correlation functions follow certain approximations at long distances. We have briefly described the method and tested its performance in previous communications [R. Wedberg, J. P. O’Connell, G. H. Peters......, and J. Abildskov, Mol. Simul. 36, 1243 (2010); Fluid Phase Equilib. 302, 32 (2011)], but describe here its theoretical basis more thoroughly and derive long-distance approximations for the direct correlation functions. We describe the numerical implementation of the method in detail, and report...

  7. Correlation of the leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finucane, F; Luan, J; Wareham, N

    2009-01-01

    (M/I) from hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp studies in 1,226 EGIR RISC participants. RESULTS: The LAR was highly correlated with HOMA-S in men (r = -0.58, p = 4.5 x 10(-33) and r = -0.65, p = 1.1 x 10(-66) within the Ely and EGIR RISC study cohorts, respectively) and in women (r = -0.51, p = 2.8 x...... 10(-36) and r = -0.61, p = 2.5 x 10(-73)). The LAR was also strongly correlated with the clamp M/I value (r = -0.52, p = 4.5 x 10(-38) and r = -0.47, p = 6.6 x 10(-40) in men and women, respectively), similar to correlations between HOMA-S and the M/I value. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The leptin...

  8. Correlated diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Alexander; Glaister, Jeffrey; Cameron, Andrew; Haider, Masoom

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the male population. Fortunately, the prognosis is excellent if detected at an early stage. Hence, the detection and localization of prostate cancer is crucial for diagnosis, as well as treatment via targeted focal therapy. New imaging techniques can potentially be invaluable tools for improving prostate cancer detection and localization. In this study, we introduce a new form of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging called correlated diffusion imaging, where the tissue being imaged is characterized by the joint correlation of diffusion signal attenuation across multiple gradient pulse strengths and timings. By taking into account signal attenuation at different water diffusion motion sensitivities, correlated diffusion imaging can provide improved delineation between cancerous tissue and healthy tissue when compared to existing diffusion imaging modalities. Quantitative evaluation using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, tissue class separability analysis, and visual assessment by an expert radiologist were performed to study correlated diffusion imaging for the task of prostate cancer diagnosis. These results are compared with that obtained using T2-weighted imaging and standard diffusion imaging (via the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)). Experimental results suggest that correlated diffusion imaging provide improved delineation between healthy and cancerous tissue and may have potential as a diagnostic tool for cancer detection and localization in the prostate gland. A new form of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging called correlated diffusion imaging (CDI) was developed for the purpose of aiding radiologists in cancer detection and localization in the prostate gland. Preliminary results show CDI shows considerable promise as a diagnostic aid for radiologists in the detection and localization of prostate cancer

  9. Betting Against Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Frazzini, Andrea; Gormsen, Niels Joachim

    We test whether the low-risk effect is driven by (a) leverage constraints and thus risk should be measured using beta vs. (b) behavioral effects and thus risk should be measured by idiosyncratic risk. Beta depends on volatility and correlation, where only volatility is related to idiosyncratic risk....... Hence, the new factor betting against correlation (BAC) is particularly suited to differentiating between leverage constraints vs. lottery explanations. BAC produces strong performance in the US and internationally, supporting leverage constraint theories. Similarly, we construct the new factor SMAX...

  10. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  11. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In §2, we recall the definition of elliptic flow and explain the mechanism producing ..... Taking this effect into account, one is led to revise significantly the values of the ... non-flow correlations, one can show under very general assumptions that ...

  12. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  13. Multiplicities and Correlations at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisyan, E.K.G.

    2002-01-01

    A brief review on recent charge multiplicity and correlation measurements at LEP is given. The measurements of un biased gluon jet multiplicity are discussed. Recent results on charged particle Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations at LEP1 are reported. New results on two-particle correlations of neutral pions are given. Correlations of more than two particles (high-order correlations) obtained using different methods are performed. Recent Bose-Einstein correlation measurements at LEP2 are discussed. (author)

  14. Multiplicities and correlations at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E

    2002-01-01

    A brief review on recent charge multiplicity and correlation measurements at LEP is given. The measurements of unbiased gluon jet multiplicity are discussed. Recent results on charged particle Bose- Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations at LEP1. are reported. New results on two-particle correlations of neutral pions are given. Correlations of more than two particles (high-order correlations) obtained using different methods are performed. Recent Bose-Einstein correlation measurements at LEP2 are discussed. (13 refs).

  15. Correlates of minimal dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  16. Strain Induced Adatom Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to sup...

  17. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the metmast and Nacelle Windspeed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are identical with the data used for the Risø-I-3246(EN) po......) power curve report. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1] and the wind and yaw correlation is analyzed in accordance to Ref. [2]....

  18. Clinicohistopathological correlation of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shrestha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic infectious granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It is a spectral disease which is classified into five groups according to Ridley and Jopling based on clinical, histological, microbiological and immunological criteria. Adequate clinical information combined with bacilloscopy and histopathology is helpful not only in classification of different types of leprosy but also useful for management of the cases.METHOD: 50 cases of leprosy were examined and clinical data was recorded. Slit skin smears were stained with Ziehl Neelsen stain. Skin biopsy was stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin stain and Fite Farraco stain was performed to demonstrate acid fast bacilli. All patients were classified according to Ridley & Jopling classification. Clinico-histopathological correlation was done. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 16.0.RESULTS: Most common histological type of leprosy was tuberculoid leprosy seen in 19(38% cases followed by indeterminate leprosy. Overall clinico-histopathological correlation was seen in 39.58%. The correlation was highest in indeterminate and histoid leprosy (100% followed by lepromatous leprosy (66.66 %% and tuberculoid leprosy (50%. Slit skin smear showed bacilli in 12 out of 48 cases (25% while biopsy showed bacilli in 16 out of 48 cases (33.3%.CONCLUSION: In the present study, clinical diagnosis did not correlate with histopathological diagnosis significantly (p value=0.04159. The study emphasizes the role of histopathological and bacilloscopic examination to aid the clinical diagnosis for accurate typing of leprosy cases then better management of the patient.

  19. Perturbed angular correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabris, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The electric quadrupolar interaction in some hafnium complexes, measured at the metal nucleus level is studied. For that purpose, the technique of γ-γ perturbed angular correlation is used: the frequencies of quadrupolar interaction are compared with some hafnium α-hydroxicarboxilates, namely glycolate, lactate, mandelate and benzylate; the influence of the temperature on the quadrupolar coupling on the hafnium tetramandelate is studied; finally, the effects associated with the capture of thermal neutrons by hafnium tetramandelate are examined locally at the nuclear level. The first group of results shows significant differences in a series of complexes derived from glycolic acid. On the other hand, the substitution of the protons in hafnium tetramandelate structure by some alkaline cations permits to verify a correlation between the variations in the quadrupolar coupling and the electronegativities of the substituent elements. Measurements at high temperatures show that this complex is thermally stable at 100 and 150 0 C. It is possible to see the appearance of two distinct sites for the probe nucleus, after heating the sample at 100 0 C for prolonged time. This fact is attributed to a probable interconversion among the postulated structural isomers for the octacoordinated compounds. Finally, measurements of angular correlation on the irradiated complex show that there is an effective destruction of the target molecule by neutron capture [pt

  20. RELAP-7 Closure Correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Berry, R. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, R. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andrs, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansel, J. E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sharpe, J. P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johns, Russell C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL’s modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5’s and TRACE’s capabilities and extends their analysis capabilities for all reactor system simulation scenarios. The RELAP-7 code utilizes the well-posed 7-equation two-phase flow model for compressible two-phase flow. Closure models used in the TRACE code has been reviewed and selected to reflect the progress made during the past decades and provide a basis for the colure correlations implemented in the RELAP-7 code. This document provides a summary on the closure correlations that are currently implemented in the RELAP-7 code. The closure correlations include sub-grid models that describe interactions between the fluids and the flow channel, and interactions between the two phases.

  1. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  2. Neural Correlates of Gratitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Ryan Fox

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gratitude is an important aspect of human sociality, and is valued by religions and moral philosophies. It has been established that gratitude leads to benefits for both mental health and interpersonal relationships. It is thus important to elucidate the neurobiological correlates of gratitude, which are only now beginning to be investigated. To this end, we conducted an experiment during which we induced gratitude in participants while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. We hypothesized that gratitude ratings would correlate with activity in brain regions associated with moral cognition, value judgment and theory of mind. The stimuli used to elicit gratitude were drawn from stories of survivors of the Holocaust, as many survivors report being sheltered by strangers or receiving lifesaving food and clothing, and having strong feelings of gratitude for such gifts. The participants were asked to place themselves in the context of the Holocaust and imagine what their own experience would feel like if they received such gifts. For each gift, they rated how grateful they felt. The results revealed that ratings of gratitude correlated with brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, in support of our hypotheses. The results provide a window into the brain circuitry for moral cognition and positive emotion that accompanies the experience of benefitting from the goodwill of others.

  3. Neural correlates of hate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir Zeki

    Full Text Available In this work, we address an important but unexplored topic, namely the neural correlates of hate. In a block-design fMRI study, we scanned 17 normal human subjects while they viewed the face of a person they hated and also faces of acquaintances for whom they had neutral feelings. A hate score was obtained for the object of hate for each subject and this was used as a covariate in a between-subject random effects analysis. Viewing a hated face resulted in increased activity in the medial frontal gyrus, right putamen, bilaterally in premotor cortex, in the frontal pole and bilaterally in the medial insula. We also found three areas where activation correlated linearly with the declared level of hatred, the right insula, right premotor cortex and the right fronto-medial gyrus. One area of deactivation was found in the right superior frontal gyrus. The study thus shows that there is a unique pattern of activity in the brain in the context of hate. Though distinct from the pattern of activity that correlates with romantic love, this pattern nevertheless shares two areas with the latter, namely the putamen and the insula.

  4. Neural correlates of gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glenn R; Kaplan, Jonas; Damasio, Hanna; Damasio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Gratitude is an important aspect of human sociality, and is valued by religions and moral philosophies. It has been established that gratitude leads to benefits for both mental health and interpersonal relationships. It is thus important to elucidate the neurobiological correlates of gratitude, which are only now beginning to be investigated. To this end, we conducted an experiment during which we induced gratitude in participants while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. We hypothesized that gratitude ratings would correlate with activity in brain regions associated with moral cognition, value judgment and theory of mind. The stimuli used to elicit gratitude were drawn from stories of survivors of the Holocaust, as many survivors report being sheltered by strangers or receiving lifesaving food and clothing, and having strong feelings of gratitude for such gifts. The participants were asked to place themselves in the context of the Holocaust and imagine what their own experience would feel like if they received such gifts. For each gift, they rated how grateful they felt. The results revealed that ratings of gratitude correlated with brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, in support of our hypotheses. The results provide a window into the brain circuitry for moral cognition and positive emotion that accompanies the experience of benefitting from the goodwill of others.

  5. Wavelet Correlation Coefficient of 'strongly correlated' financial time series

    OpenAIRE

    Razdan, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use wavelet concepts to show that correlation coefficient between two financial data's is not constant but varies with scale from high correlation value to strongly anti-correlation value This studies is important because correlation coefficient is used to quantify degree of independence between two variables. In econophysics correlation coefficient forms important input to evolve hierarchial tree and minimum spanning tree of financial data.

  6. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  7. The isotope correlation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Schoof, S.

    1983-01-01

    The ESARDA working group on Isotopic Correlation Techniques, ICT and Reprocessing Input Analysis performed an Isotope Correlation Experiment, ICE with the aim to check the feasibility of the new technique. Ten input batches of the reprocessing of the KWO fuel at the WAK plant were analysed by 4 laboratories. All information to compare ICT with the gravimetric and volumetric methods was available. ICT combined with simplified reactor physics calculation was included. The main objectives of the statistical data evaluation were detection of outliers, the estimation of random errors and of systematic errors of the measurements performed by the 4 laboratories. Different methods for outlier detection, analysis of variances, Grubbs' analysis for the constant-bias model and Jaech's non-constant-bias model were applied. Some of the results of the statistical analysis may seem inconsistent which is due to the following reasons. For the statistical evaluations isotope abundance data (weight percent) as well as nuclear concentration data (atoms/initial metal atoms) were subjected to different outlier criteria before being used for further statistical evaluations. None of the four data evaluation groups performed a complete statistical data analysis which would render possible a comparison of the different methods applied since no commonly agreed statistical evaluation procedure existed. The results prove that ICT is as accurate as conventional techniques which have to rely on costly mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. The potential of outlier detection by ICT on the basis of the results from a single laboratory is as good as outlier detection by costly interlaboratory comparison. The application of fission product or Cm-244 correlations would be more timely than remeasurements at safeguards laboratories

  8. Bootstrapped Deattenuated Correlation: Nonnormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Veprinsky, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Correlation attenuation due to measurement error and a corresponding correction, the deattenuated correlation, have been known for over a century. Nevertheless, the deattenuated correlation remains underutilized. A few studies in recent years have investigated factors affecting the deattenuated correlation, and a couple of them provide alternative…

  9. Strain induced adatom correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to superstructures is tried. Corresponding adatom configurations from Monte Carlo simulations are shown.

  10. Pairing correlations around scission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappe, H.J.; Fadeev, S.

    2001-01-01

    To describe pairing correlations in a fissioning system one commonly projects the BCS wave function separately onto good particle numbers in each fragment in the exit channel, but only onto the total number of particles in the parent system. We propose to interpolate between these limiting situations by the generator-coordinate method with the particle-number difference between the nascent fragments as the generator coordinate. Model calculations are presented for the Hill-Wheeler-box potential with a δ-function diaphragm to mimic scission

  11. Integration of uniform design and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to the robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system under different wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method, integrating the uniform design (UD) of experiments and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), to solve the problem of a robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system. Based on the new nonlinear creep model derived from combining Hertz contact theory, Kalker's linear theory and a heuristic nonlinear creep model, the modeling and dynamic analysis of a 24 degree-of-freedom railway vehicle system were investigated. The Lyapunov indirect method was used to examine the effects of suspension parameters, wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii on critical hunting speeds. Generally, the critical hunting speeds of a vehicle system resulting from worn wheels with different wheel rolling radii are lower than those of a vehicle system having original wheels without different wheel rolling radii. Because of worn wheels, the critical hunting speed of a running railway vehicle substantially declines over the long term. For safety reasons, it is necessary to design the suspension system parameters to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the sensitive of wheel noises. By applying UD and QPSO, the nominal-the-best signal-to-noise ratio of the system was increased from -48.17 to -34.05 dB. The rate of improvement was 29.31%. This study has demonstrated that the integration of UD and QPSO can successfully reveal the optimal solution of suspension parameters for solving the robust design problem of a railway vehicle suspension system.

  12. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Wing-Body Combination having a 52.5 deg Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 3 with Conical Camber and Designed for a Mach Number of the Square Root of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, William B.; Re, Richard J.; Cassetti, Marlowe

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and supersonic body indentation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-body configuration at transonic speeds. Wing aspect ratio was 3.0, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord line sweepback was 52.5 deg with airfoil sections of 0.03 thickness ratio. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at various Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 at angles of attack from -4 deg to 14 deg. The cambered-wing configuration achieved higher lift-drag ratios than a similar plane-wing configuration. The camber also reduced the effects of wing-tip flow separation on the aerodynamic characteristics. In general, no stability or trim changes below wing-tip flow separation resulted from the use of camber. The use of supersonic body indentation improved the lift-drag ratios at Mach numbers from 0.96 to 1.05.

  13. An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of a Canard Control on the Lift, Drag, and Pitching Moment of an Aspect-Ratio 2.0 Triangular Wing Incorporating a Form of Conical Camber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menees, Gene P.; Boyd, John W.

    1959-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation to determine the effect of a canard control on the lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics of an aspect-ratio-2.0 triangular wing incorporating a form of conical camber are presented. The canard had a triangular plan form of aspect ratio 2.0 and was mounted in the extended chord plane of the wing. The ratio of the area of the exposed canard panels to the total wing area was 6.9 percent, and the ratio of the total areas was 12.9 percent. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 2.22 through an angle-of-attack range from -6 deg to +18 deg with the canard on, and with the canard off. To provide a basis for comparison, the canard was also tested with a symmetrical wing having the same plan form, aspect ratio, and thickness distribution as the cambered wing. The results of the investigation showed that at the high subsonic speeds the gain in maximum lift-drag ratio achieved by camber was considerably reduced by the addition of a canard. At the supersonic speeds, the addition of the canard did not change the effect of camber on the maximum lift-drag ratios.

  14. Grayscale Optical Correlator Workbench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, Jay; Zhou, Hanying; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2006-01-01

    Grayscale Optical Correlator Workbench (GOCWB) is a computer program for use in automatic target recognition (ATR). GOCWB performs ATR with an accurate simulation of a hardware grayscale optical correlator (GOC). This simulation is performed to test filters that are created in GOCWB. Thus, GOCWB can be used as a stand-alone ATR software tool or in combination with GOC hardware for building (target training), testing, and optimization of filters. The software is divided into three main parts, denoted filter, testing, and training. The training part is used for assembling training images as input to a filter. The filter part is used for combining training images into a filter and optimizing that filter. The testing part is used for testing new filters and for general simulation of GOC output. The current version of GOCWB relies on the mathematical software tools from MATLAB binaries for performing matrix operations and fast Fourier transforms. Optimization of filters is based on an algorithm, known as OT-MACH, in which variables specified by the user are parameterized and the best filter is selected on the basis of an average result for correct identification of targets in multiple test images.

  15. Hexagonalization of correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Thiago [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - University Estadual Paulista,ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Komatsu, Shota [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-01-30

    We propose a nonperturbative framework to study general correlation functions of single-trace operators in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at large N. The basic strategy is to decompose them into fundamental building blocks called the hexagon form factors, which were introduced earlier to study structure constants using integrability. The decomposition is akin to a triangulation of a Riemann surface, and we thus call it hexagonalization. We propose a set of rules to glue the hexagons together based on symmetry, which naturally incorporate the dependence on the conformal and the R-symmetry cross ratios. Our method is conceptually different from the conventional operator product expansion and automatically takes into account multi-trace operators exchanged in OPE channels. To illustrate the idea in simple set-ups, we compute four-point functions of BPS operators of arbitrary lengths and correlation functions of one Konishi operator and three short BPS operators, all at one loop. In all cases, the results are in perfect agreement with the perturbative data. We also suggest that our method can be a useful tool to study conformal integrals, and show it explicitly for the case of ladder integrals.

  16. Cluster-cluster correlations and constraints on the correlation hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.; Gott, J. R., III

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that galaxies cluster around clusters at least as strongly as they cluster around galaxies imposes constraints on the hierarchy of correlation amplitudes in hierachical clustering models. The distributions which saturate these constraints are the Rayleigh-Levy random walk fractals proposed by Mandelbrot; for these fractal distributions cluster-cluster correlations are all identically equal to galaxy-galaxy correlations. If correlation amplitudes exceed the constraints, as is observed, then cluster-cluster correlations must exceed galaxy-galaxy correlations, as is observed.

  17. Spin-flip configuration interaction singles with exact spin-projection: Theory and applications to strongly correlated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi

    2015-10-14

    Spin-flip approaches capture static correlation with the same computational scaling as the ordinary single reference methods. Here, we extend spin-flip configuration interaction singles (SFCIS) by projecting out intrinsic spin-contamination to make it spin-complete, rather than by explicitly complementing it with spin-coupled configurations. We give a general formalism of spin-projection for SFCIS, applicable to any spin states. The proposed method is viewed as a natural unification of SFCIS and spin-projected CIS to achieve a better qualitative accuracy at a low computational cost. While our wave function ansatz is more compact than previously proposed spin-complete SF approaches, it successfully offers more general static correlation beyond biradicals without sacrificing good quantum numbers. It is also shown that our method is invariant with respect to open-shell orbital rotations, due to the uniqueness of spin-projection. We will report benchmark calculations to demonstrate its qualitative performance on strongly correlated systems, including conical intersections that appear both in ground-excited and excited-excited degeneracies.

  18. Paths correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang

    2015-09-15

    Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions.

  19. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  20. Packing force data correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiman, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables