WorldWideScience

Sample records for congestion pricing

  1. Making the Traffic Operations Case for Congestion Pricing: Operational Impacts of Congestion Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    delay, based on hours spent in traffic in a year, grew by 22% as the national average of hours spent in delay grew from 36 hours to 44 hours. Peak delay per traveler grew one-third in medium-size urban areas over the 10 year period. The traffic engineering community has developed an arsenal of integrated tools to mitigate the impacts of congestion on freeway throughput and performance, including pricing of capacity to manage demand for travel. Congestion pricing is a strategy which dynamically matches demand with available capacity. A congestion price is a user fee equal to the added cost imposed on other travelers as a result of the last traveler's entry into the highway network. The concept is based on the idea that motorists should pay for the additional congestion they create when entering a congested road. The concept calls for fees to vary according to the level of congestion with the price mechanism applied to make travelers more fully aware of the congestion externality they impose on other travelers and the system itself. The operational rationales for the institution of pricing strategies are to improve the efficiency of operations in a corridor and/or to better manage congestion. To this end, the objectives of this project were to: (1) Better understand and quantify the impacts of congestion pricing strategies on traffic operations through the study of actual projects, and (2) Better understand and quantify the impacts of congestion pricing strategies on traffic operations through the use of modeling and other analytical methods. Specifically, the project was to identify credible analytical procedures that FHWA can use to quantify the impacts of various congestion pricing strategies on traffic flow (throughput) and congestion.

  2. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  3. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  4. Day-Ahead Congestion Management in Distribution Systems through Household Demand Response and Distribution Congestion Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weijia; Wu, Qiuwei; Wen, Fushuan

    2014-01-01

    into balancing power might challenge the operation of electric distribution systems and cause congestions. This paper presents a distribution congestion price (DCP) based market mechanism to alleviate possible distribution system congestions. By employing the loca- tional marginal pricing (LMP) model...... is proposed. Finally, a practical Danish 60kV/10.5kV distribution system is employed as the test case to verify the proposed method for mitigating congestion....

  5. Mathematical principles of road congestion pricing | Pienaar | ORiON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper briefly considers the objectives of road congestion pricing and identies prereq-uisites to the successful application of such a pricing scheme. The paper is divided into two sections. In the rst section, a mathematical analysis of the constituents of an optimal road congestion price is oered. The eliminated inefficiency ...

  6. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429

  7. Slot allocation on congested motorways : An alternative to congestion pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    1999-01-01

    With respect to the prevailing congestion problems in the more urbanised regions of the European Union, transportation planners and policymakers are facing a dilemma. Supply-side measures, i.e. increasing the capacities, might shorten the congestion duration, especially if bottlenecks can be

  8. Mathematical principles of road congestion pricing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    route during the morning peak hour: cost and demand functions. the same at all traffic levels. Although car running costs rise with increases in travel time in congested urban travel conditions, they are usually regarded by road users as being.

  9. Optimal Tradable Credits Scheme and Congestion Pricing with the Efficiency Analysis to Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We allow for three traffic scenarios: the tradable credits scheme, congestion pricing, and no traffic measure. The utility functions of different modes (car, bus, and bicycle are developed by considering the income’s impact on travelers’ behaviors. Their purpose is to analyze the demand distribution of different modes. A social optimization model is built aiming at maximizing the social welfare. The optimal tradable credits scheme (distribution of credits, credits charging, and the credit price, congestion pricing fees, bus frequency, and bus fare are obtained by solving the model. Mode choice behavior under the tradable credits scheme is also studied. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the model’s availability and explore the effects of the three schemes on traffic system’s performance. Results show congestion pricing would earn more social welfare than the other traffic measures. However, tradable credits scheme will give travelers more consumer surplus than congestion pricing. Travelers’ consumer surplus with congestion pricing is the minimum, which injures the travelers’ benefits. Tradable credits scheme is considered the best scenario by comparing the three scenarios’ efficiency.

  10. Demonstration of Market-Based Real-Time Electricity Pricing on a Congested Feeder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; le Ray, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Congestion management can delay grid reinforcements needed due to the growth of distributed technologies like photovoltaics and electric vehicles. This paper presents a method of congestion management for low voltage feeders using indirect control from the smart grid demonstration EcoGrid EU, where...... prices to 1900 houses, with a virtual feeder of 28 houses receiving congestion pricing. Simulations are used to calculate the cost from using this congestion management method, while demonstration results indicate that congestion can be managed successfully....

  11. Research on Congestion Pricing in Multimode Traffic considering Delay and Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongna Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of urbanization and automation has resulted in serious urban traffic congestion and air pollution problems in many Chinese cities recently. As a traffic demand management strategy, congestion pricing is acknowledged to be effective in alleviating the traffic congestion and improving the efficiency of traffic system. This paper proposes an urban traffic congestion pricing model based on the consideration of transportation network efficiency and environment effects. First, the congestion pricing problem under multimode (i.e., car mode and bus mode urban traffic network condition is investigated. Second, a traffic congestion pricing model based on bilevel programming is formulated for a dual-mode urban transportation network, in which the delay and emission of vehicles are considered. Third, an improved mathematical algorithm combining successive average method with the genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the bilevel programming problem. Finally, a numerical experiment based on a hypothetical network is performed to validate the proposed congestion pricing model and algorithm.

  12. Research on urban road congestion pricing strategy considering carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Peng, Z.; Wang, K.; Song, X.; Yao, B.; Feng, T.

    2015-01-01

    Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. In this paper, a bi-level programming model considering carbon dioxide emission is proposed to mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon dioxide

  13. Directional Congestion and Regime Switching in a Long Memory Model for Electricity Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Nielsen, Morten Ø.

    The functioning of electricity markets has experienced increasing complexityas a result of deregulation in recent years. Consequently this affects the multilateral price behaviour across regions with physical exchange of power. It has been documented elsewhere that features such aslong memory...... and regime switching reflecting congestion and non-congestion periods are empirically relevant and hence are features that need to be taken into account when modeling price behavior. In the present paper we further elaborate on the co-existence of long memory and regime switches by focusing on the effect...... that the direction of possible congestion episodes has on the price dynamics. Under non-congestion prices are identical. The direction of possible congestion is identified by the region with excess demand of power through the sign of price differences and hence three different states can be considered: Non...

  14. Contemporary approaches to congestion pricing : lessons learned from the national evaluation of congestion pricing strategies at six sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This document represents the final report of the national evaluation of congestion reduction strategies at six sites that received federal funding under the Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) and Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) programs. The ...

  15. Airlines' strategic interactions and airport pricing in a dynamic bottleneck model of congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva Montalva, H.E.; Verhoef, E.T.; van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes efficient pricing at a congested airport dominated by a single firm. Unlike much of the previous literature, we combine a dynamic bottleneck model of congestion and a vertical structure model that explicitly considers the role of airlines and passengers. We show that a

  16. Reducing congestion and funding transportation using road pricing in Europe and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Congestion pricing use has been limited in the United States because of political, institutional, and public acceptance concerns. The Federal Highway Administration, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and National Coo...

  17. Is congestion pricing a first-best strategy in transport policy? A critical review of arguments

    OpenAIRE

    R H M Emmerink; P Nijkamp; P Rietveld

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the arguments used in the literature pro and contra congestion pricing are analysed. Although it is a first-best instrument in theory, it is argued that the assumptions needed to arrive at this conclusion oversimplify reality. In practice, congestion pricing is a second-best instrument with some advantages over other second-best instruments, but it will also give rise to numerous problems, as discussed in the paper. These problems will be illustrated with the Dutch attempts to ...

  18. Research on Urban Road Congestion Pricing Strategy Considering Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitian Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. In this paper, a bi-level programming model considering carbon dioxide emission is proposed to mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The objective function of the upper level model is to minimize the sum of travel costs and the carbon dioxide emissions costs. The lower level is a multi-modal transportation network equilibrium model. To solve the model, the method of successive averages (MSA and the shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA are introduced. The proposed method and algorithm are tested through the numerical example. The results show that the proposed congestion pricing strategy can mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon emissions effectively.

  19. Financial and technical feasibility of dynamic congestion pricing as a revenue generation source in Indiana : exploiting the availability of real-time information and dynamic pricing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    "Highway stakeholders continue to support research studies that address critical issues of the current era, including congestion mitigation and revenue generation. A mechanism that addresses both concerns is congestion pricing which establishes a dir...

  20. Political and Public Acceptability of Congestion Pricing: Ideology and Self-Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsman, Bjorn; Quigley, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the "stated preferences" of households generally report public and political opposition by urban commuters to congestion pricing. It is thought that this opposition inhibits or precludes tolls and pricing systems that would enhance efficiency in the use of scarce roadways. This paper analyzes the only case in which road…

  1. Nonlinear road pricing for congestion and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Under nonlinear road pricing (or tolling), the price charged is not strictly proportional to the distance travelled inside a tolling area, the generalized travel cost is not link-wise additive, and finding a user equilibrium distribution is typically...

  2. Computation of spot prices and congestion costs in large interconnected power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerji, R.; Jordan, G.A.; Clayton, R.; Haringa, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Foremost among the new paradigms for the US utility industry is the ''poolco'' concept proposed by Prof. William W. Hogan of Harvard University. This concept uses a central pool or power exchange in which physical power is traded based on spot prices or market clearing prices. The rapid and accurate calculation of these ''spot'' prices and associated congestion costs for large interconnected power systems is the central tenet upon which the poolco concept is based. The market clearing price would be the same throughout the system if there were no system losses and transmission limitations did not exist. System losses cause small differences in market clearing prices as the cost of supplying a MW at various load buses includes the cost of losses. Transmission limits may cause large differences in market clearing prices between regions as low cost generation is blocked by the transmission constraints from serving certain loads. In models currently in use in the electric power industry spot price calculations range from ''bubble diagram'' type contract path models to full electrical representation such as GE-MAPS. The modeling aspects of the full electrical representation are included in the Appendix. The problem with the bubble diagram representation is that these models are liable to produce unacceptably large errors in the calculation of spot prices and congestion costs. The subtleties of the calculation of spot prices and congestion costs are illustrated in this paper

  3. Pricing methodologies for congestion management in a deregulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key factors involved in the pricing of energy identified till now are network security, reliability, transmission losses allocation, technical, and social issues. This bibliographical survey was an attempt towards summarizing the recognized works and publications oriented towards pricing of electricity market. The purpose of ...

  4. The sequential price of anarchy for atomic congestion games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jasper; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Liu, Tie-Yan; Qi, Qi; Ye, Yinyu

    2014-01-01

    In situations without central coordination, the price of anarchy relates the quality of any Nash equilibrium to the quality of a global optimum. Instead of assuming that all players choose their actions simultaneously, we consider games where players choose their actions sequentially. The sequential

  5. The sequential price of anarchy for atomic congestion games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jasper; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    2014-01-01

    In situations without central coordination, the price of anarchy relates the quality of any Nash equilibrium to the quality of a global optimum. Instead of assuming that all players choose their actions simultaneously, here we consider games where players choose their actions sequentially. The

  6. Pricing methodologies for congestion management in a deregulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    new facilities into the existing system and the long term firm transactions. ... view. The probabilistic approach has been applied in [73-77] to OPF to compute the locational marginal pricing. ... smaller and provides a reduced incentive for investment when installed reserves are above the target. .... contingencies," IEEE Trans.

  7. The Physics of Traffic Congestion and Road Pricing in Transportation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, David

    2010-03-01

    This presentation develops congestion theory and congestion pricing theory from its micro- foundations, the interaction of two or more vehicles. Using game theory, with a two- player game it is shown that the emergence of congestion depends on the players' relative valuations of early arrival, late arrival, and journey delay. Congestion pricing can be used as a cooperation mechanism to minimize total costs (if returned to the players). The analysis is then extended to the case of the three- player game, which illustrates congestion as a negative externality imposed on players who do not themselves contribute to it. A multi-agent model of travelers competing to utilize a roadway in time and space is presented. To realize the spillover effect among travelers, N-player games are constructed in which the strategy set includes N+1 strategies. We solve the N-player game (for N = 7) and find Nash equilibria if they exist. This model is compared to the bottleneck model. The results of numerical simulation show that the two models yield identical results in terms of lowest total costs and marginal costs when a social optimum exists. Moving from temporal dynamics to spatial complexity, using consistent agent- based techniques, we model the decision-making processes of users and infrastructure owner/operators to explore the welfare consequence of price competition, capacity choice, and product differentiation on congested transportation networks. Component models include: (1) An agent-based travel demand model wherein each traveler has learning capabilities and unique characteristics (e.g. value of time); (2) Econometric facility provision cost models; and (3) Representations of road authorities making pricing and capacity decisions. Different from small-network equilibrium models in prior literature, this agent- based model is applicable to pricing and investment analyses on large complex networks. The subsequent economic analysis focuses on the source, evolution

  8. Locating of Series FACTS Devices for Multi-Objective Congestion Management Using Components of Nodal Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Moradi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Congestion and overloading for lines are the main problems in the exploitation of power grids. The consequences of these problems in deregulated systems can be mentioned as sudden jumps in prices in some parts of the power system, lead to an increase in market power and reduction of competition in it. FACTS devices are efficient, powerful and economical tools in controlling power flows through transmission lines that play a fundamental role in congestion management. However, after removing congestion, power systems due to targeting security restrictions may be managed with a lower voltage or transient stability rather than before removing. Thus, power system stability should be considered within the construction of congestion management. In this paper, a multi-objective structure is presented for congestion management that simultaneously optimizes goals such as total operating cost, voltage and transient security. In order to achieve the desired goals, locating and sizing of series FACTS devices are done with using components of nodal prices and the newly developed grey wolf optimizer (GWO algorithm, respectively. In order to evaluate reliability of mentioned approaches, a simulation is done on the 39-bus New England network.

  9. Sustainable energy management in urban transport: The public's response of road congestion pricing in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunchornrat, Janthana; Pairintra, Rattanachai; Namprakai, Pichai

    2008-01-01

    Fuel consumption of vehicles is one of the most vigorously debated issues in Thailand. Concerns about the effect of emissions from the vehicles and a significant reliance on imported oil provide legitimate reasons for government action to manage fuel consumption. There are several different policy measures available to affect the fuel-efficient vehicles as well as reduce the amount of driving. This paper presents the major policy measure studies namely congestion pricing, etc. In congestion pricing measure, we conducted a survey of 400 samples in Bangkok area. The purpose of the survey was to inform respondents about a policy designed to reduce freeway congestion and to estimate respondent support for this policy. After receiving extensive information about the policy, respondents were polled on whether they would support, i.e., vote for any or all of these options. The results of the congestion fee survey suggest that 22% of commuting motorists in Bangkok will support congestion fees on the freeways of the region. Public acceptance is substantially enhanced by promising to return at least some of the revenues in the form of reductions in other taxes. (author)

  10. Social Optimality of Cordon Area Congestion Pricing in an Monocentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harya S Dillon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Kemacetan lalu lintas merupakan epidemi global yang telah melumpuhkan banyak kota. Dari sudut pandang ekonomi mikro, kemacetan dapat dipandang sebagai eksternalitas negatif dimana diperlukan bea Pigovian sebagai solusi atas ekuilibrium yang kurang optimal tersebut. Eksternalitas ini dirasakan dalam bentuk tundaan perjalanan dan pembangunan kota yang rakus lahan. Meskipun teori mengenai ketepatgunaan bea kemacetan (congestion pricing telah mapan sejak akhir 1970-an, penerapan dan implementasi kebijakan tertunda oleh kendala teknologi. Salah satu bentuk implementasi bayaran kemacetan yang sering dijumpai adalah bea lintas-kordon (cordon charging, dimana penglaju yang masuk ke wilayah pusat dibebani sejumlah biaya. Ketepatgunaan dari bea lintas-kordon telah dikaji secara empiris dan juga dengan simulasi numerik, namun penjelasan teoretis belum dilakukan secara tuntas. Penulis mengembangkan model kota monosentris untuk meneliti dampak kebijakan bea lintas-kordon pada kepadatan kota dan permintaan akan lahan kota (equilibrium rent. Bea lintas-kordon akan menaikkan harga lahan di pusat kota dan memperbesar gradien kurva tawaran-sewa (bid-rent curve. Namun yang lebih penting untuk diperhatikan adalah bahwa besaran ini ditentukan oleh parameter kordon. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa daya manfaat kebijakan ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh pilihan parameter kordon yang dibuat perencana.Kata kunci. kemacetan, bea lintas-kordon, kota monosentris, struktur kotaAbstract. Traffic congestion is a global epidemic that at time has put cities to a state of paralysis. From a microeconomics point of view, congestion can be approached as a negative externality that merits a Pigovian tax to correct the suboptimal equilibrium. Externalities manifest in delays and wasteful urbanization. While the efficiency of congestion pricing has been well established since the late 1970s, policy adoption and implementation have been delayed due to technological

  11. Agent-Based Model of Price Competition and Product Differentiation on Congested Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; David Levinson; Shanjiang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Using consistent agent-based techniques, this research models the decision-making processes of users and infrastructure owner/operators to explore the welfare consequence of price competition, capacity choice, and product differentiation on congested transportation networks. Component models include: (1) An agent-based travel demand model wherein each traveler has learning capabilities and unique characteristics (e.g. value of time); (2) Econometric facility provision cost models; and (3) Rep...

  12. FOUR-YEAR-OLD NAMSAN TUNNEL CONGESTION PRICING SCHEME IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsoo SON, Ph. D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the congestion pricing scheme at Namsan #1 and #3 tunnels in downtown Seoul four years after its implementation. The effectiveness of the scheme was measured by the changes of various traffic impacts. The traffic volume of the two tunnels was reduced by up to 25% for the first month. After that time, the traffic volume started to increase again and then exceeded the previous volume level. However, average travel speed of the two tunnel corridors improved by up to 74%. The overall traffic volume of the four alternative routes was increased; nevertheless, their average travel speed increased as well. The number of carpool vehicles occupied by 3 or more persons including the driver during the peak periods was remarkably increased. Before the congestion fee charging, toll-charged vehicles amounted to 68.5% of the total traffic volume of the two tunnels, and then the share dropped to 29% afterwards. The empirical analysis results for the effectiveness of the congestion pricing scheme are very promising.

  13. Influence of TCSC on congestion and spot price in electricity market with bilateral contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Naresh; Mithulananthan, Nadarajah

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the effect of TCSC on congestion and spot price in deregulated electricity markets. The paper could also be considered as a comprehensive tutorial on the influence of TCSC in electricity market. A voluntary pool market, where the market participants can trade electricity either via a pool or through bilateral contracts is considered. The electricity market is modeled in an optimal power flow framework with the objective of maximizing the social welfare. In such formulation, the Lagrange operators associated with the equality constraints associated with real power balance give the spot prices of energy at each bus of the system. Studies are carried out with and without TCSC at peak and low loading conditions to capture the influence and to see the effectiveness of TCSC at different loading conditions. The paper further explores the effect of TCSC compensation level on the spot prices and the congestion under varying pool and bilateral loading conditions. A 5-bus test system is used for numerical studies and to showcase the influence of TCSC in an electricity market environment. (author)

  14. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing through Quadratic Programming for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2015-01-01

    ) calculates dynamic tariffs and publishes them to the aggregators, who make the optimal energy plans for the flexible demands. The DLMP through QP instead of linear programing as studied in previous literatures solves the multiple solution issue of the ag- gregator optimization which may cause......This paper presents the distribution locational mar- ginal pricing (DLMP) method through quadratic programming (QP) designed to alleviate the congestion that might occur in a distribution network with high penetration of flexible demands. In the DLMP method, the distribution system operator (DSO...

  15. Consumption, price asymmetries, transmission congestion and market power in the Norwegian electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood

    2011-07-01

    The results from this dissertation add to the ongoing debate in Norway if NordPool spot should shift from zonal price scheme to the nodal price scheme. Academically, the individual papers provide a number of theoretical frameworks that are helpful in analyzing electricity markets around the world. The PhD dissertation investigates price determination process in the Norwegian electricity market and evaluates if the market works at perfectly competitive level or producers exercise market power to drive prices away from their marginal cost of production. Using aggregate hourly electricity supply and demand data, the empirical analysis carried out in this dissertation leads to the following conclusions. 1. Market power at the generation level is not a major problem for the Norwegian electricity market. On average, when we consider the events of binding transmission capacity as exogenous, the average markup in economic terms is small and has not exceeded one percent. 2. Producers can use the information on available transmission capacity between different price areas in Norway and restrict their output to induce transmission congestion in their price area to exercise market power. Average markup during such instances has remained high at 20 percent. 3. Transmission capacity in Norway is not being optimally utilized as import capacity remains at its lowest level during the hours when southern Norway is generally a net importer of electricity, when compared to the rest of the hours of the day. 4. A segment of electricity retailers in the Norwegian electricity market exercises its market power by controlling the pass-through of price changes in the wholesale market to the retail market for variable price contract consumers. The pass-through is asymmetric, whereby cost increase is transmitted completely and quickly when compared to the case of cost decrease. 5.The Daylight saving time (Summer time) policy is helpful in ensuring energy efficiency. It results in electricity

  16. The dynamics of urban traffic congestion and the price of parking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; de Palma, André

    2013-01-01

    We consider commuting in a congested urban area. While an efficient time-varying toll may eliminate queuing, a toll may not be politically feasible. We study the benefit of a substitute: a parking fee at the workplace. An optimal time-varying parking fee is charged at zero rate when there is queu...

  17. The asymptotic price of anarchy for k-uniform congestion games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jasper; Kern, Walter; Steenhuisen, Berend; Uetz, Marc; Solis-Oba, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    We consider the atomic version of congestion games with affine cost functions, and analyze the quality of worst case Nash equilibria when the strategy spaces of the players are the set of bases of a k-uniform matroid. In this setting, for some parameter k, each player is to choose k out of a finite

  18. Evaluating the effects of urban congestion pricing: Geographical accessibility versus social surplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, T.; Verhoef, E.T.; van Wee, G.P.; van Amelsfort, D.

    2011-01-01

    In urbanised areas around the world, road pricing policies are considered more and more frequently, the aim often being to alleviate (some of the) external traffic-related costs. To assess the effects of a proposed road pricing measure, several evaluation measures can be used, coming from different

  19. Evaluating the effects of urban congestion pricing : geographical accessibility versus social surplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, Taede; Verhoef, Erik; van Wee, Bert; van Amelsfort, Dirk; van Wee, G.P

    2011-01-01

    In urbanised areas around the world, road pricing policies are considered more and more frequently, the aim often being to alleviate (some of the) external traffic-related costs. To assess the effects of a proposed road pricing measure, several evaluation measures can be used, coming from different

  20. Urban partnership agreement and congestion reduction demonstration programs : lessons learned on congestion pricing from the Seattle and Atlanta household travel behavior surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents lessons learned from household traveler surveys administered in Seattle and Atlanta as part of the evaluation of the Urban Partnership Agreement and Congestion Reduction Demonstration Programs. The surveys use a two-stage panel su...

  1. On revenue recycling and the welfare effects of second-best congestion pricing in a monocentric city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tikoudis, I.; Verhoef, E.T.; van Ommeren, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines congestion taxes in a monocentric city with pre-existing labor taxation. When road toll revenue is used to finance labor tax cuts, 35% of the optimal road tax in our numerical model does not reflect marginal external congestion costs, but rather functions as a Ramsey-Mirrlees

  2. Congestion levies; Congestieheffingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.T. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit en Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-02-20

    Traffic jams or congestion can be controlled by means of Pigouvian levies. Congestion costs comprise both time losses as scheduling costs. Because a part of those costs are external costs, the free market output is not Pareto-efficient, and therefore levies are required to recover the efficiency. With some restrictions, road-pricing for the western part of the Netherlands is considered to be a feasible option

  3. A Trial-and-Error Method with Autonomous Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Traffic Counts for Cordon-Based Congestion Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a practical trial-and-error method to solve the optimal toll design problem of cordon-based pricing, where only the traffic counts autonomously collected on the entry links of the pricing cordon are needed. With the fast development and adoption of vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I facilities, it is very convenient to autonomously collect these data. Two practical properties of the cordon-based pricing are further considered in this article: the toll charge on each entry of one pricing cordon is identical; the total inbound flow to one cordon should be restricted in order to maintain the traffic conditions within the cordon area. Then, the stochastic user equilibrium (SUE with asymmetric link travel time functions is used to assess each feasible toll pattern. Based on a variational inequality (VI model for the optimal toll pattern, this study proposes a theoretically convergent trial-and-error method for the addressed problem, where only traffic counts data are needed. Finally, the proposed method is verified based on a numerical network example.

  4. Congestion management in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.

    2002-01-01

    The challenges facing Alberta regarding electricity market design and congestion management were described. The electricity market in the province consists of a central power pool, an open access transmission network, and a single pool price, unlike many other jurisdictions in North America which have adopted a location margin price (LMP) design with significant price differences between various locations within the power network. Alberta's transmission network is regulated and provides carrier functions. Power moves freely throughout Alberta's power pool network with no congestion, therefore the common pool price signals market participants throughout the entire network with no segregation into zones. Alberta is currently at a cross road in choosing between a single pool price model or a nodal price model. In the first instance, the province would have to strengthen the transmission network to maintain the market at a reasonable size. The alternative would permit Alberta to use market-based techniques to deal with the evolution of many smaller markets in the province, but these would be very small by North American standards and their ability to compete would be questionable

  5. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i......We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely...... and is indistinguishable from that of a generalized version of the classical Vickrey bottleneck model, based on exogenous trip-timing preferences, but optimal policies differ: the Vickrey model will misstate the benefits of a capacity increase, it will underpredict the benefits of congestion pricing, and pricing may make...

  6. Internet Congestion Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Rusmin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet congestion occurs when resource demands exceeds the network capacity. But, it is not the only reason. Congestion can happen on some users because some others user has higher sending rate. Then some users with lower sending rate will experience congestion. This partial congestion is caused by inexactly feedback. At this moment congestion are solved by the involvement of two controlling mechanisms. These mechanisms are flow/congestion control in the TCP source and Active Queue Management (AQM in the router. AQM will provide feedback to the source a kind of indication for the occurrence of the congestion in the router, whereas the source will adapt the sending rate appropriate with the feedback. These mechanisms are not enough to solve internet congestion problem completely. Therefore, this paper will explain internet congestion causes, weakness, and congestion control technique that researchers have been developed. To describe congestion system mechanisms and responses, the system will be simulated by Matlab.

  7. Road pricing with complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Van Dender, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The rationale for congestion charges is that by internalising the marginal external congestion cost, they restore efficiency in the transport market. In the canonical model underlying this view, congestion is a static phenomenon, users are taken to be homogenous, there is no travel time risk......, and a highly stylised model of congestion is used. The simple analysis also ignores that real pricing schemes are only rough approximations to ideal systems and that inefficiencies in related markets potentially affect the case for congestion charges. The canonical model tends to understate the marginal...... external congestion cost because it ignores user heterogeneity and trip timing inefficiencies. With respect to the relevance of interactions between congestion and congestion charges and tax distortions and distributional concerns, recent insights point out that there is no general case for modifying...

  8. Price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The price terms in wheeling contracts very substantially, reflecting the differing conditions affecting the parties contracting for the service. These terms differ in the manner in which rates are calculated, the formulas used, and the philosophy underlying the accord. For example, and EEI study found that firm wheeling rates ranged from 20 cents to $1.612 per kilowatt per month. Nonfirm rates ranged from .15 mills to 5.25 mills per kilowatt-hour. The focus in this chapter is on cost-based rates, reflecting the fact that the vast majority of existing contracts are based on rate designs reflecting embedded costs. This situation may change in the future, but, for now, this fact can't be ignored

  9. Internet congestion control

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Subir

    2015-01-01

    Internet Congestion Control provides a description of some of the most important topics in the area of congestion control in computer networks, with special emphasis on the analytical modeling of congestion control algorithms. The field of congestion control has seen many notable advances in recent years and the purpose of this book, which is targeted towards the advanced and intermediate reader, is to inform about the most important developments in this area. The book should enable the reader to gain a good understanding of the application of congestion control theory to a number of applic

  10. London-type congestion tax with revenue-recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihiro Kidokoro

    2005-01-01

    Road pricing in London attracts a great deal of interest. A challenging aspect of the London scheme is that congestion tax revenue is used to upgrade public transit networks. Although Parry and Bento (2001) show that the total social surplus would increase if congestion tax revenues are used to cut labor taxes, political difficulties exist in implementing revenue-recycling between congestion taxes and labor taxes. Given such political difficulties, the London scheme seems to be very attractiv...

  11. Economics : pricing, demand, and economic efficiency : a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The Congestion Pricing Primer Series is part of : FHWAs outreach efforts to introduce the various : aspects of congestion pricing to decision-makers and : transportation professionals in the United States. The : primers are intended to lay out the...

  12. Efficiency of equilibria in uniform matroid congestion games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jasper; Klimm, Max; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Network routing games, and more generally congestion games play a central role in algorithmic game theory, comparable to the role of the traveling salesman problem in combinatorial optimization. It is known that the price of anarchy is independent of the network topology for non-atomic congestion

  13. Auctions for Congestion Management in Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, R.M.; de Weerdt, M.M.; de Vries, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Large controllable loads, such as electric vehicles, are increasingly penetrating electricity distribution feeders. To avoid local congestion, their consumption behaviour must be steered, for which a real-time price propagated down from the transmission system does not suffice, as it does not

  14. 434 Urban Traffic Congestion and Its Attendant Health Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Keywords: Congestion, Effects, Health, Road Traffic, and Road Users. ..... of transport problems that can be identified are: bad roads, fuel problem (high fuel price .... Cities.www.ghanaweb.com/ghanahomepage/news archive.

  15. Congestion with incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of random delays during a repeatedly occurring demand peak in a congested facility, such as an airport or an urban road. Congestion is described in the form of a dynamic queue using the Vickrey bottleneck model and assuming Nash equilibrium in departure times. Ever...

  16. Research on Urban Road Traffic Congestion Charging Based on Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sun

    Traffic congestion is a major problem which bothers our urban traffic sustainable development at present. Congestion charging is an effective measure to alleviate urban traffic congestion. The paper first probes into several key issues such as the goal, the pricing, the scope, the method and the redistribution of congestion charging from theoretical angle. Then it introduces congestion charging practice in Singapore and London and draws conclusion and suggestion that traffic congestion charging should take scientific plan, support of public, public transportation development as the premise.

  17. Efficiency and profit in the NYISO transmission congestion contract market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadsell, Lester; Shawky, Hany A.

    2009-11-15

    Evidence of speculator profit and TCC price less than congestion charges suggests that additional competition in the TCC auction should be encouraged as a way to increase efficiency and lower the price of this ''insurance'' for hedgers. (author)

  18. Electricity transmission congestion costs: A review of recent reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2003-10-01

    Recently, independent system operators (ISOs) and others have published reports on the costs of transmission congestion. The magnitude of congestion costs cited in these reports has contributed to the national discussion on the current state of U.S. electricity transmission system and whether it provides an adequate platform for competition in wholesale electricity markets. This report reviews reports of congestion costs and begins to assess their implications for the current national discussion on the importance of the U.S. electricity transmission system for enabling competitive wholesale electricity markets. As a guiding principle, we posit that a more robust electricity system could reduce congestion costs; and thereby, (1) facilitate more vibrant and fair competition in wholesale electricity markets, and (2) enable consumers to seek out the lowest prices for electricity. Yet, examining the details suggests that, sometimes, there will be trade-offs between these goals. Therefore, it is essential to understand who pays, how much, and how do they benefit in evaluating options (both transmission and non-transmission alternatives) to address transmission congestion. To describe the differences among published estimates of congestion costs, we develop and motivate three ways by which transmission congestion costs are calculated in restructured markets. The assessment demonstrates that published transmission congestion costs are not directly comparable because they have been developed to serve different purposes. More importantly, critical information needed to make them more comparable, for example in order to evaluate the impacts of options to relieve congestion, is sometimes not available.

  19. Desk Congest Desktop Congesting Software for Desktop Clutter Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon A. Adepoju

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The computer desktop environment is a working environment which can be likened unto a users desk in homes and offices. Often times the computer desktop get cluttered with files either as shortcuts used for quick links files stored temporarily to be accessed later or just being dumped there for no vivid reasons. However previous researches have shown that cluttered desktop affects users productivity and getting these files organized is a laborious task for most users. To be able to conveniently alleviate the effect clutters have on users performances and productivity there is need for third party software that will help get the desktop environment organized in a logical and efficient manner. It is to this end that desktop decongesting software is being designed and implemented to help curb clutter problems which existing tools have only partially addressed. The system is designed using Visual Basic .Net and it proves to be effective in tackling desktop congestion problem.

  20. Congestion management in a market environment. 2. CIGRE/PES Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    With the opening of electricity markets and changes in the power flows, the issue of available transmission capacity is of more and more importance. Market orientated answers and real-time solutions are implemented or under consideration; diligent management of existing assets and timely investment decisions to increase capacity and to improve the management systems are fundamental. This Symposium discusses the congestion management issue for internal and cross border exchanges, covering six subject areas: international Practices for Congestion Management, tariffs and Pricing, operations for Congestion, information Technology Issues, experiences with Congestion Management, tools for Congestion Management. (author)

  1. A Vector Autoregressive Model for Electricity Prices Subject to Long Memory and Regime Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Nielsen, Frank; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    2007-01-01

    A regime dependent VAR model is suggested that allows long memory (fractional integration) in each of the regime states as well as the possibility of fractional cointegra- tion. The model is relevant in describing the price dynamics of electricity prices where the transmission of power is subject...... to occasional congestion periods. For a system of bilat- eral prices non-congestion means that electricity prices are identical whereas congestion makes prices depart. Hence, the joint price dynamics implies switching between essen- tially a univariate price process under non-congestion and a bivariate price...

  2. Port pricing : principles, structure and models

    OpenAIRE

    Meersman, Hilde; Strandenes, Siri Pettersen; Van de Voorde, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    Price level and price transparency are input to shippers’ choice of supply chain and transport mode. In this paper, we analyse current port pricing structures in the light of the pricing literature and consider opportunities for improvement. We present a detailed overview of pricing criteria, who sets prices and who ultimately foots the bill for port-of-call charges, cargo-handling fees and congestion charges. Current port pricing practice is based on a rather linear structure and fails to in...

  3. Congestion, air pollution, and road safety in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shefer, Daniel [Department of Urban and Regional Economics and Transport, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    1993-06-01

    The continuous rapid growth in Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT), coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration process and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is paramount to initiate and implement programs which jointly treat traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. A host of market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can, and perhaps should, be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives which may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to thoroughly investigate these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the `socially optimal level of congestion` which will yield the highest net social benefit. 2 figs., 43 refs.

  4. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  5. Benefits from coordinating congestion management-The Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    We consider the possibility of improving the utilization of the capacity of the Nordic transmission grid, by improving on the methods for congestion management. We use a simplified model of the Nordic power market, and different load-scenarios are developed in order to illustrate the effects. By improving the coordination of the system operator function, we may achieve that the actual bottlenecks, both as regards to the location and capacity, form the basis for the definition of price areas. This may result in a better partition of the grid, not necessarily following the borders between the control areas of today's system operators. We also consider solving intra zonal bottlenecks 'directly', through the area prices and 'indirectly' by 'moving' internal capacity constraints to the borders between price areas. The examples illustrate that this 'indirect' congestion management may be costly, and result in larger price differences than necessary

  6. A duopoly model with heterogeneous congestion-sensitive customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes a model with multiple firms (providers), and two classes of customers. These customers classes are characterized by their attitude towards `congestion' (caused by other customers using the same resources); a firm is selected on the basis of both the prices charged by the firms,

  7. Risk management in electricity markets emphasizing transmission congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyzes transmission pricing, transmission congestion risks and their associated hedging instruments as well as mechanisms for stimulating investments in transmission expansion. An example of risk management in the case of a hydropower producer is included. After liberalization and restructuring of electricity markets, risk management has become important. In particular the thesis analyzes risks due to transmission congestion both in the short- and long-term (investments) for market players such as generators, loads, traders, independent system operators and merchant investors. The work is focused on the northeastern United States electricity markets and the Nordic electricity markets. The first part of the thesis reviews the literature related to the eight research papers in the thesis. This describes the risks that are relevant for an electricity market player and how these can be managed. Next, the basic ingredients of a competitive electricity market are described including the design of the system operator. The transmission pricing method is decisive for hedging against transmission congestion risks and there is an overview of transmission pricing models considering their similarities and differences. Depending on the transmission pricing method used, locational or area (zonal) pricing, the electricity market players can use financial transmission rights or Contracts for Differences, respectively. In the long-term it is important to create mechanisms for investments in transmission expansion and the thesis describes one possible approach and its potential problems. The second part comprises eight research papers. It presents empirical analyses of existing markets for transmission congestion derivatives, theoretical analyses of transmission congestion derivatives, modeling of merchant long-term financial transmission rights, theoretical analysis of the risks of the independent system operator in providing financial transmission rights, an analysis

  8. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  9. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    Electric power deregulation has proposed a major change to the regulated utility monopoly. The change manifests the main part of engineers' efforts to reshape three components of today's regulated monopoly: generation, distribution and transmission. In this open access deregulated power market, transmission network plays a major role, and transmission congestion is a major problem that requires further consideration especially when inter-zonal/intra-zonal scheme is implemented. Declaring that engineering studies and experience are the criteria to define zonal boundaries or defining a zone based on the fact that a zone is a densely interconnected area (lake) and paths connecting these densely interconnected areas are inter-zonal lines will render insufficient and fuzzy definitions. Moreover, a congestion problem formulation should take into consideration interactions between intra-zonal and inter-zonal flows and their effects on power systems. In this thesis, we introduce a procedure for minimizing the number of adjustments of preferred schedules to alleviate congestion and apply control schemes to minimize interactions between zones. In addition, we give the zone definition a certain criterion based on the Locational Marginal Price (LMP). This concept will be used to define congestion zonal boundaries and to decide whether any zone should be merged with another zone or split into new zones. The thesis presents a unified scheme that combines zonal and FTR schemes to manage congestion. This combined scheme is utilized with LMPs to define zonal boundaries more appropriately. The presented scheme gains the best features of the FTR scheme, which are providing financial certainty, maximizing the efficient use of the system and making users pay for the actual use of congested paths. LMPs may give an indication of the impact of wheeling transactions, and calculations of and comparisons of LMPs with and without wheeling transactions should be adequate criteria to approve

  10. Day-ahead tariffs for the alleviation of distribution grid congestion from electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    An economically efficient day-ahead tariff (DT) is proposed with the purpose of preventing the distribution grid congestion resulting from electric vehicle (EV) charging scheduled on a dayahead basis. The DT concept developed herein is derived from the locational marginal price (LMP), in particular...... the congestion cost component of the LMP. A step-wise congestion management structure has been developed whereby the distribution system operator (DSO) predicts congestion for the coming day and publishes DTs prior to the clearing of the day-ahead market. EV fleet operators (FOs) optimize their EV charging...... schedules with respect to the predicted day-ahead prices and the published DTs, thereby avoiding congestion while still minimizing the charging cost. A Danish 400V distribution network is used to carry out case studies to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed concept for the prevention...

  11. Dynamic Power Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes dynamic power tariff (DPT), a new concept for congestion management in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), and heat pumps (HPs). The DPT concept is proposed to overcome a drawback of the dynamic tariff (DT) method, i.e., DPT can replace...... the price sensitivity parameter in the DT method, which is relatively unrealistic in practice. Based on the control theory, a control model with two control loops, i.e., the power flow control and voltage control, is established to analyze the congestion management process by the DPT method. Furthermore...

  12. Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system...... loading curve prior to the application of the DT. Case studies were performed using a sample distribution network modelled on a network from the Danish island of Bornholm. A variety of price profiles were used to illustrate the efficacy of this approach. The case study results show that this approach...... is highly efficient at grid congestion prevention, and the precise level of congestion that can be alleviated is dependent on the price profile of the optimisation period in question....

  13. A dynamic feedback-control toll pricing methodology : a case study on Interstate 95 managed lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Recently, congestion pricing emerged as a cost-effective and efficient strategy to mitigate the congestion problem on freeways. This study develops a feedback-control based dynamic toll approach to formulate and solve for optimal tolls. The study com...

  14. On the Inefficiency of Equilibria in Linear Bottleneck Congestion Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Bart; Schäfer, Guido; Telelis, Orestis A.

    We study the inefficiency of equilibrium outcomes in bottleneck congestion games. These games model situations in which strategic players compete for a limited number of facilities. Each player allocates his weight to a (feasible) subset of the facilities with the goal to minimize the maximum (weight-dependent) latency that he experiences on any of these facilities. We derive upper and (asymptotically) matching lower bounds on the (strong) price of anarchy of linear bottleneck congestion games for a natural load balancing social cost objective (i.e., minimize the maximum latency of a facility). We restrict our studies to linear latency functions. Linear bottleneck congestion games still constitute a rich class of games and generalize, for example, load balancing games with identical or uniformly related machines with or without restricted assignments.

  15. Dynamic Subsidy Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic subsidy (DS) is a locational price paid by the distribution system operator (DSO) to its customers in order to shift energy consumption to designated hours and nodes. It is promising for demand side management and congestion management. This paper proposes a new DS method for congestion...... management in distribution networks, including the market mechanism, the mathematical formulation through a two-level optimization, and the method solving the optimization by tightening the constraints and linearization. Case studies were conducted with a one node system and the Bus 4 distribution network...... of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DS method for congestion management in distribution networks. Studies in this paper show that the DS method offers the customers a fair opportunity...

  16. Value pricing pilot program : lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This "Lessons Learned Report" provides a summary of projects sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Congestion and Value Pricing Pilot Programs from 1991 through 2006 and draws lessons from a sample of projects with the richest an...

  17. Congestion Management System Process Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    In January 1995, the Indianapolis Metropolitan Planning Organization with the help of an interagency Study Review Committee began the process of developing a Congestion Management System (CMS) Plan resulting in this report. This report documents the ...

  18. Congestion management through topological corrections: A case study of Central Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jinil; Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The integration of an increasing amount of renewable generation within Europe is posing operational challenges that require various balancing actions. System operators therefore need to rely increasingly on the active control of the transmission network. Transmission topology control is a fast and economical option to add flexibility to the transmission system. We model the current methodology for controlling congestion in the Central Western European (CWE) market and quantify the benefits of topology control. We also compare the results with a nodal pricing model. Our computational results suggest that topology control can significantly reduce congestion management costs under the current market coupling regime whereas the benefits of topology control are limited under nodal pricing. Topology control emerges as an attractive and implementable means of managing congestion as it provides a significant percentage of the cost savings that would be achieved by overhauling the existing European market design and shifting to a nodal pricing regime. - Highlights: • We present the congestion management model in the CWE region. • The benefits of topology control in the CWE region are quantified. • Topology control significantly reduce congestion under the current market coupling. • The benefits of topology control are limited under the nodal pricing regime. • Network topology control is a promising option for mitigating congestion in Europe.

  19. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    SUCIU Titus

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  20. Intermittent renewable generation and network congestion: an empirical analysis of Italian Power Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardian, Faddy; Concettini, Silvia; Creti, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The literature demonstrates the likely reduction of wholesale electricity prices due to a larger penetration of renewable energy sources (RES). When markets are organized as two or more inter-connected sub-markets within a larger power market the final impact of increasing RES production may be less straightforward given the presence of network constraints. We tests this phenomenon by analyzing the impact of RES production on the probability of congestion and on the size of congestion cost in Italy. Using a database with hourly observations for a five year period we estimate two econometric models on five zonal pairings: a multinomial logit model for the occurrence and direction of congestion and a three stage least square model for the size of congestion costs. The analysis suggests that the effect of a larger local wind and solar supply is to decrease the probability of suffering congestion in entry and to increase the probability of causing a congestion in exit compared to no congestion case. Increasing hydroelectric production has a similar effect. These results hold for both importing and exporting regions, but importing regions are less likely to cause congestion in exit, therefore the installation of new RES capacity in these zones may have a positive effects in terms of flow balance between regions. Concerning the cost level, a larger local RES supply seems to push the congestion cost towards negative values as it decreases the marginal cost for balancing the system. This is true for all zones in the case of explicit congestion cost, but it is only verified in importing regions in the case of implicit congestion cost. This result suggests that the increase of RES production should be promoted in importing zones, but the overall growth should be controlled in order to avoid congestion in the opposite direction. (authors)

  1. Prices and Price Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies price data and tries to unravel the underlying economic processes of why firms have chosen these prices. It focuses on three aspects of price setting. First, it studies whether the existence of a suggested price has a coordinating effect on the prices of firms.

  2. Nodal pricing in a coupled electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette; Cai, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a pricing model for an electricity market with a hybrid congestion management method, i.e. part of the system applies a nodal pricing scheme and the rest applies a zonal pricing scheme. The model clears the zonal and nodal pricing areas simultaneously. The nodal pricing area is affected by the changes in the zonal pricing area since it is directly connected to the zonal pricing area by commercial trading. The model is tested on a 13-node power system. Within the area t...

  3. Congestive index of portal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Ho; Kim, H. K.; Lee, S. C.; Han, S. H.; Han, K. H.; Chung, J. B.; Choi, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    In patients with portal hypertension, the blood flow volume is maintained despite decreased blood flow velocity due to enlargement of the vascular cross sectional area. Thus, the 'congestion index' of the portal vein, which is the ratio between the cross sectional area (cm2) and the blood flow velocity (cm/sec) determined by a Doppler ultrasonography, may be a sensitive index by which to assess portal hypertension. We performed Doppler ultrasonography on 24 normal subjects, 14 patients with biopsy proved chronic active hepatitis and 55 patients with liver cirrhosis in order to assess the diagnostic value of the congestion index. The cross sectional area of the portal vein was significantly enlarged and the mean blood flow velocity was significantly reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis compared with controls. However, the blood flow volume was no difference. The congestion index of the portal vein was significantly increased in patients with liver cirrhosis (0.113+0.035) compared with patients with chronic active hepatitis(0.078+0.029) (p<0.001) and controls (0.053+0.016) (p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and predictability of the congestion index for detection of patients with the cirrhosis of the liver were 76.4%, 100% and 100% respectively, when the normal range was set at mean+2SD. The results suggest that the congestion index of the portal vein may pla a significant role in diagnosis of portal hypertensive patients

  4. Review of Congestion Management Methods for Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing congestion management methods for distribution networks with high penetration of DERs documented in the recent research literatures. The congestion management methods for distribution networks reviewed can be grouped into two categories – market methods and direct...... control methods. The market methods consist of dynamic tariff, distribution capacity market, shadow price and flexible service market. The direct control methods are comprised of network reconfiguration, reactive power control and active power control. Based on the review of the existing methods...

  5. Air congestion delay: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Pamplona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.

  6. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  7. A vector autoregressive model for electricity prices subject to long memory and regime switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldrup, Niels; Nielsen, Frank S.; Nielsen, Morten Oerregaard

    2010-01-01

    A regime dependent VAR model is suggested that allows long memory (fractional integration) in each of the observed regime states as well as the possibility of fractional cointegration. The model is motivated by the dynamics of electricity prices where the transmission of power is subject to occasional congestion periods. For a system of bilateral prices non-congestion means that electricity prices are identical whereas congestion makes prices depart. Hence, the joint price dynamics implies switching between a univariate price process under non-congestion and a bivariate price process under congestion. At the same time, it is an empirical regularity that electricity prices tend to show a high degree of long memory, and thus that prices may be fractionally cointegrated. Analysis of Nord Pool data shows that even though the prices are identical under non-congestion, the prices are not, in general, fractionally cointegrated in the congestion state. Hence, in most cases price convergence is a property following from regime switching rather than a conventional error correction mechanism. Finally, the suggested model is shown to deliver forecasts that are more precise compared to competing models. (author)

  8. Framework for Traffic Congestion Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaki, J.F.W.; Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Hussein, S.E.; Saraya, S.F.; Areed, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic Congestion is a complex dilemma facing most major cities. It has undergone a lot of research since the early 80s in an attempt to predict traffic in the short-term. Recently, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) became an integral part of traffic research which helped in modeling and

  9. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located...

  10. Airport Pricing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  11. Congestion management in the European electricity market; Engpassmanagement im Europaeischen Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, Birgit

    2008-11-24

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on an assessment of methods of congestion management employed in Europe with respect to their effectiveness and identify possible reasons for the misallocation of cross-border transmission capacity. For this, generation structures of European countries and the resulting prices and load flows are analysed. Different power plants and bottlenecks in the transmission network currently cause structural price differences due to a low degree of integration of European electricity markets. By means of congestion management, the formation of a uniform electricity market will be created.

  12. Platform pricing in matching markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, M.; van Cayseele, P.; Willekens, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model of monopoly platform pricing accounting for two pertinent features of matching markets. 1) The trading process is characterized by search and matching frictions implying limits to positive cross-side network effects and the presence of own-side congestion.

  13. OPTIMAL CONGESTION CHARGES IN GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Joo MOON, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    Another maximization problem involves characterizing the second-best optimal solution. In this problem, it is assumed to impose the congestion toll only on a single highway link. This problem yields the second-best congestion toll different from the first-best one. This second-best optimal congestion toll has the structure to reflect its impact on other highway links exempt from the congestion charge program.

  14. Ramsey prices in the Italian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigerna, Simona; Bollino, Carlo Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we derive optimal zonal prices in the Italian day-ahead electricity market using estimation of a complete system of hourly demand in 2010–2011. In Italy, the hourly equilibrium price for all buyers is computed as a uniform average of supply zonal prices, resulting from market splitting due to line congestion. We model ex-ante individual bids expressed by heterogeneous consumers, which are distinguished by geographical zones. Using empirical estimations, we compute demand elasticity values and new zonal prices, according to a Ramsey optimal scheme. This is a new approach in the wholesale electricity market literature, as previous studies have discussed the relative merit of zonal prices, considering only the issue of line congestion. Our results show that the optimal pricing scheme can improve welfare in the day-ahead Italian electricity market, with respect to both the existing uniform price scheme and the proposal to charge the existing supply zonal prices to the demand side. - Highlights: • We model and estimate the demand of heterogeneous buyers in the electricity market. • Transmission line congestion creates welfare distortions in the market. • We derive optimal Ramsey prices in the Italian day-ahead electricity market. • We compare optimal prices with historical ones showing how to improve welfare.

  15. Signalling and obfuscation for congestion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareček, Jakub; Shorten, Robert; Yu, Jia Yuan

    2015-10-01

    We aim to reduce the social cost of congestion in many smart city applications. In our model of congestion, agents interact over limited resources after receiving signals from a central agent that observes the state of congestion in real time. Under natural models of agent populations, we develop new signalling schemes and show that by introducing a non-trivial amount of uncertainty in the signals, we reduce the social cost of congestion, i.e., improve social welfare. The signalling schemes are efficient in terms of both communication and computation, and are consistent with past observations of the congestion. Moreover, the resulting population dynamics converge under reasonable assumptions.

  16. Recent developments and current policy issues in road pricing in the US and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Robin

    2005-01-01

    The United States and Canada lag Europe and Singapore in implementing road pricing on a large scale. But the two countries have shown interest in tolling roads as a way to curb congestion and to generate revenues. The US is funding congestion pricing demonstration projects through its Value Pricing Pilot Program, and Canada has examined new ways to charge for road use and to finance road construction and maintenance. This paper reviews the current state of road pricing and funding...

  17. Three essays on access pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  18. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  19. Indirect control of DSRs for regulating power provision and solving local congestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Inducing a shift in the electricity consumption using a broadcasted dynamic price for the energy is often proposed as a resource for providing regulating power and it is becoming an increasing research focus for enabling higher penetration of renewable energy in the current power system. This paper...... with the CIGRE’ MV reference network with 346 electrically heated buildings as Demand Side Resources, DSRs. The dynamic hourly price of the regulating power provided by Nord Pool Spot market has been used as indirect control signal for the flexible demand....... shows how using indirect control (or control by price) without any precautions, might easily lead to congestions in nearly saturated distribution grids. An auto tuning local controller which acts on the price signal at distribution level is proposed for solving the congestion. Simulations are performed...

  20. Congestion management in a smart grid via shadow prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We consider a distribution grid interconnecting a number of consumers with flexible power consumption. Each consumer is under the jurisdiction of exactly one balancing responsible party (BRP), who buys energy at a day-ahead electricity market on behalf of the consumer. We illustrate how BRPs can...

  1. THE NEED FOR CONGESTION PRICING IN MEDELLIN: AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS A. GONZÁLEZ-CALDERÓN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una breve descripción de la congestión vehicular en Medellín, y la necesidad de implementar el sistema de peaje por congestión (PC desde una óptica económica. Se describe la restricción a la circulación vehicular del "Pico y Placa," mostrando que la medida es paliativa y que es necesaria la implementación del PC. Se realiza un análisis costo-beneficio para valorar los efectos de implementar una estrategia en forma hipotética de PC basado en datos de investigaciones. La mejor solución debida al PC es presentada y considerada como lo óptimo para lograr encontrar la tasa de congestión que maximiza el bienestar social. El principal hallazgo es que el beneficio neto de la implementación es positivo. Por lo tanto, se recomienda la implementación del PC para mejorar la eficiencia en el uso de la infraestructura vial en la ciudad basado en principios económicos. Finalmente, se presentan algunas recomendaciones para mejorar la movilidad en la ciudad.

  2. A Multilevel Congestion-Based Global Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Rakai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in nanometer nodes creates an elevated level of importance for low-congestion routing. At the same time, advances in mathematical programming have increased the power to solve complex problems, such as the routing problem. Hence, new routing methods need to be developed that can combine advanced mathematical programming and modeling techniques to provide low-congestion solutions. In this paper, a hierarchical mathematical programming-based global routing technique that considers congestion is proposed. The main contributions presented in this paper include (i implementation of congestion estimation based on actual routing solutions versus purely probabilistic techniques, (ii development of a congestion-based hierarchy for solving the global routing problem, and (iii generation of a robust framework for solving the routing problem using mathematical programming techniques. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed global router is capable of reducing congestion and overflow by as much as 36% compared to the state-of-the-art mathematical programming models.

  3. Road traffic congestion a concise guide

    CERN Document Server

    Falcocchio, John C

    2015-01-01

    This book on road traffic congestion in cities and suburbs describes congestion problems and shows how they can be relieved. The first part (Chapters 1 - 3) shows how congestion reflects transportation technologies and settlement patterns. The second part (Chapters 4 - 13) describes the causes, characteristics, and consequences of congestion. The third part (Chapters 14 - 23) presents various relief strategies - including supply adaptation and demand mitigation - for nonrecurring and recurring congestion. The last part (Chapter 24) gives general guidelines for congestion relief and provides a general outlook for the future. The book will be useful for a wide audience - including students, practitioners and researchers in a variety of professional endeavors: traffic engineers, transportation planners, public transport specialists, city planners, public administrators, and private enterprises that depend on transportation for their activities.  

  4. Transmission economic expansion and congestion relief : a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, H.; Trinh, L.H.; Moore, M. [ABB Consulting, Raleigh, NC (United States); Brown, L.; Patel, K. [SDG and E, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Transmission capacity additions have lagged behind load growth and generation expansion in the United States. This paper provided an economic analysis of various transmission upgrade options designed to address anticipated congestion of the electricity grid. A market-based transmission planning method was used to assess the economics of transmission expansion. The analysis accounted for the minimum costs of generation dispatch to satisfy transmission constraints, as well as a locational marginal price for each bus in the system. Marginal congestion costs for all major transmission facilities were monitored and recorded. Hourly simulations of load, generation, and transmission system interactions were conducted. Contract costs and economic measures were then calculated for each scenario run. A case study for the Sunrise Powerlink project was used to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. The study demonstrated that the Sunrise Powerlink project will eliminate significant congestion in California load centers. Results also showed that the analytical method provided critical information for decision-makers in weighing the costs with benefits for transmission projects. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Congestion management in liberalized market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on the survey conducted by WG C5.4 on congestion management. It describes market conditions and institutional arrangements in the 18 countries participating in the survey, and internal and cross-border congestion management. The interaction with the electricity market is discussed, considering allocation of transmission capacity, market schedule, congestion management tools and payment for the costs incurred. The survey shows that there is a tendency towards the use of market-based methods. (author)

  6. Transmission dispatch and congestion management in open market systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Risheng

    This thesis is located in the domain of electricity supply industry restructuring. It deals with emerging issues, whose understanding is essential to advancing knowledge of open access transmission theory and proceeds to develop approaches for solving the transmission dispatch and congestion management problem. An overview of current trends and experiences in utility restructuring and the main models for restructuring, as well as the classifications of system operators, is first presented. A fully unbundled competitive electricity market model, called the bilateral/multilateral trades model, is then developed. A survey of current research in transmission dispatch and congestion management is included with discussion of transmission capacity and ancillary services. A methodology for the power dispatch problem in a structure dominated by bilateral and multilateral transmission contracts is presented. Group structures are mathematically formulated and explored and three basic types of curtailment strategies proposed for use by market participants. A more complex model is then developed, which takes into account the co-existence of bilateral and multilateral contracts with pool type dynamic supplies and demands based on bids and market clearing prices. An integrated dispatch strategy to reconcile all three types of transactions (bilateral, multilateral and pool) is then developed. Prioritization of electricity transactions and related curtailment strategies are explored and a mechanism for coordination between market participants to achieve additional economic advantages is described. A theory of security based rescheduling is presented in order to investigate the security-related aspects of operation in an unbundled and deregulated system. The impact of post-contingency corrective capability on optimal rescheduling results has been identified and the advantage of incorporating post-contingency corrective rescheduling into the objective function demonstrated. Finally

  7. Congestion management in power systems. Long-term modeling framework and large-scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Joachim; Hagspiel, Simeon; Just, Lisa

    2015-06-15

    In liberalized power systems, generation and transmission services are unbundled, but remain tightly interlinked. Congestion management in the transmission network is of crucial importance for the efficiency of these inter-linkages. Different regulatory designs have been suggested, analyzed and followed, such as uniform zonal pricing with redispatch or nodal pricing. However, the literature has either focused on the short-term efficiency of congestion management or specific issues of timing investments. In contrast, this paper presents a generalized and flexible economic modeling framework based on a decomposed inter-temporal equilibrium model including generation, transmission, as well as their inter-linkages. Short and long-term effects of different congestion management designs can hence be analyzed. Specifically, we are able to identify and isolate implicit frictions and sources of inefficiencies in the different regulatory designs, and to provide a comparative analysis including a benchmark against a first-best welfare-optimal result. To demonstrate the applicability of our framework, we calibrate and numerically solve our model for a detailed representation of the Central Western European (CWE) region, consisting of 70 nodes and 174 power lines. Analyzing six different congestion management designs until 2030, we show that compared to the first-best benchmark, i.e., nodal pricing, inefficiencies of up to 4.6% arise. Inefficiencies are mainly driven by the approach of determining cross-border capacities as well as the coordination of transmission system operators' activities.

  8. Bisoprolol for congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Gustafsson, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: beta-Blockers are a cornerstone in the treatment of systolic heart failure treatment, but not all beta-blockers are effective or in this setting. Objective: To define the role of bisoprolol, a highly selective beta(1)-antagonist in congestive heart failure due to systolic dysfunction....... Methods: Using the keywords 'bisoprolol' and 'heart failure' PubMed and BIOSIS databases were searched for information regarding pharmacology and relevant randomised clinical trials. Supplementary publications were acquired by scrutinising reference lists of relevant papers. Additional information...... was obtained from the FDA website. Conclusion: Bisoprolol is an effective and well-tolerated first-line beta-blocker for patients with systolic heart failure. The knowledge is primarily based on study patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure from the three CIBIS trials Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  9. Rules for congestion management. Evaluation of available of capacity and possibilities for increased counter trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    In the Nordic electricity market, congestion is currently managed using two methods: a combination of price areas (market splitting) and counter-trade. In the planning phase (one day ahead) the main method employed is market splitting, although moving internal bottlenecks to the country border and domestic counter-trade are also used to some degree. Congestion is solved through counter- trade in the operating phase (during the day). In spring 2002, Nordel published a report with proposals for possible changes in Nordic congestion management. The main proposal was to introduce new price areas in the spot market and let the borders of price areas coincide with the physical borders of congestion in the transmission network to a greater degree. It was also proposed to increase the use of counter-trade. Based on feedback from Nordic market players, Nordel decided to carry on the work with congestion management in a new ad hoc group. The group's mandate was a Nordic harmonization of rules and practices for congestion management and a socio-economically efficient utilisation of the transmission grid capacity. Furthermore, the group was asked to investigate how to ensure optimal availability of capacity and to look into the possibilities of increasing usage of counter-trade. The ad hoc working group results are presented in this report. Among the conclusions drawn from the investigations are: 1) A limited increase of counter-trade in the planning phase is feasible for temporary congestion in order to reduce the area price risks for the market players, 2) Market participants should be consulted to get their views on whether and to what extent counter-trade should be increased taking benefits and costs into account. The extent of counter-trade could e.g. be decided as a percentage of NCT with intact grid, 3) Nordel should consider a practice where counter-trading is used to prevent reductions in cross-border capacity due to maintenance, 4) The use of counter-trade in

  10. Rules for congestion management. Evaluation of availability of capacity and possibilities for increased counter trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    In the Nordic electricity market, congestion is currently managed using two methods: a combination of price areas (market splitting) and counter-trade. In the planning phase (one day ahead) the main method employed is market splitting, although moving internal bottlenecks to the country border and domestic counter-trade are also used to some degree. Congestion is solved through counter- trade in the operating phase (during the day). In spring 2002, Nordel published a report with proposals for possible changes in Nordic congestion management. The main proposal was to introduce new price areas in the spot market and let the borders of price areas coincide with the physical borders of congestion in the transmission network to a greater degree. It was also proposed to increase the use of counter-trade. Based on feedback from Nordic market players, Nordel decided to carry on the work with congestion management in a new ad hoc group. The group's mandate was a Nordic harmonization of rules and practices for congestion management and a socio-economically efficient utilisation of the transmission grid capacity. Furthermore, the group was asked to investigate how to ensure optimal availability of capacity and to look into the possibilities of increasing usage of counter-trade. The ad hoc working group results are presented in this report. Among the conclusions drawn from the investigations are: 1) A limited increase of counter-trade in the planning phase is feasible for temporary congestion in order to reduce the area price risks for the market players, 2) Market participants should be consulted to get their views on whether and to what extent counter-trade should be increased taking benefits and costs into account. The extent of counter-trade could e.g. be decided as a percentage of NCT with intact grid, 3) Nordel should consider a practice where counter-trading is used to prevent reductions in cross-border capacity due to maintenance, 4) The use of counter-trade in

  11. Uncertainty Management of Dynamic Tariff Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic tariff (DT) method is designed for the distribution system operator (DSO) to alleviate congestions that might occur in a distribution network with high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs). Uncertainty management is required for the decentralized DT method because the DT...... is de- termined based on optimal day-ahead energy planning with forecasted parameters such as day-ahead energy prices and en- ergy needs which might be different from the parameters used by aggregators. The uncertainty management is to quantify and mitigate the risk of the congestion when employing...

  12. Rules for congestion management. Evaluation of availability of capacity and possibilities for increased counter trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    In the Nordic electricity market, congestion is currently managed using two methods: a combination of price areas (market splitting) and counter-trade. In the planning phase (one day ahead) the main method employed is market splitting, although moving internal bottlenecks to the country border and domestic counter-trade are also used to some degree. Congestion is solved through counter- trade in the operating phase (during the day). In spring 2002, Nordel published a report with proposals for possible changes in Nordic congestion management. The main proposal was to introduce new price areas in the spot market and let the borders of price areas coincide with the physical borders of congestion in the transmission network to a greater degree. It was also proposed to increase the use of counter-trade. Based on feedback from Nordic market players, Nordel decided to carry on the work with congestion management in a new ad hoc group. The group's mandate was a Nordic harmonization of rules and practices for congestion management and a socio-economically efficient utilisation of the transmission grid capacity. Furthermore, the group was asked to investigate how to ensure optimal availability of capacity and to look into the possibilities of increasing usage of counter-trade. The ad hoc working group results are presented in this report. Among the conclusions drawn from the investigations are: 1) A limited increase of counter-trade in the planning phase is feasible for temporary congestion in order to reduce the area price risks for the market players, 2) Market participants should be consulted to get their views on whether and to what extent counter-trade should be increased taking benefits and costs into account. The extent of counter-trade could e.g. be decided as a percentage of NCT with intact grid, 3) Nordel should consider a practice where counter-trading is used to prevent reductions in cross-border capacity due to maintenance, 4) The use of counter-trade in the

  13. Hybrid Pricing in a Coupled European Power Market with More Wind Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette; Cai, Hong; Panos, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    In the European market, the promotion of wind power leads to more network congestion. Zonal pricing (market coupling), which does not take the physical characteristics of transmission into account, is the most commonly used method to relieve congestion in Europe. Zonal pricing fails to provide adequate locational price signals regarding the energy resource scarcity and thus creates a large amount of unscheduled cross-border flows originating from wind-generated power, making the interconne...

  14. FPGA Congestion-Driven Placement Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente de, J.

    2005-07-01

    The routing congestion usually limits the complete proficiency of the FPGA logic resources. A key question can be formulated regarding the benefits of estimating the congestion at placement stage. In the last years, it is gaining acceptance the idea of a detailed placement taking into account congestion. In this paper, we resort to the Thermodynamic Simulated Annealing (TSA) algorithm to perform a congestion-driven placement refinement on the top of the common Bounding-Box pre optimized solution. The adaptive properties of TSA allow the search to preserve the solution quality of the pre optimized solution while improving other fine-grain objectives. Regarding the cost function two approaches have been considered. In the first one Expected Occupation (EO), a detailed probabilistic model to account for channel congestion is evaluated. We show that in spite of the minute detail of EO, the inherent uncertainty of this probabilistic model impedes to relieve congestion beyond the sole application of the Bounding-Box cost function. In the second approach we resort to the fast Rectilinear Steiner Regions algorithm to perform not an estimation but a measurement of the global routing congestion. This second strategy allows us to successfully reduce the requested channel width for a set of benchmark circuits with respect to the widespread Versatile Place and Route (VPR) tool. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Generator Rescheduling under Congested Power System with Wind Integrated Competitive Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhan Gope

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy like wind or solar energy creates a huge pressure to the system operator (SO to ensure the congestion free transmission network under deregulated power market. Congestion Management (CM with integration of wind farm in double auction electricity market are described in this work to minimize fuel cost, system losses and locational marginal price (LMP of the system. Location of Wind Farm (WF is identified based by using Bus sensitivity factor (BSF, which is also used for selection of load bus for double auction bidding (DAB. The impacts of wind farm in congested power system under deregulated environment have been investigated in this work. Modified 39-bus New England test system is used for demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach by using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP.

  16. Congested Aggregation via Newtonian Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Katy; Kim, Inwon; Yao, Yao

    2018-01-01

    We consider a congested aggregation model that describes the evolution of a density through the competing effects of nonlocal Newtonian attraction and a hard height constraint. This provides a counterpoint to existing literature on repulsive-attractive nonlocal interaction models, where the repulsive effects instead arise from an interaction kernel or the addition of diffusion. We formulate our model as the Wasserstein gradient flow of an interaction energy, with a penalization to enforce the constraint on the height of the density. From this perspective, the problem can be seen as a singular limit of the Keller-Segel equation with degenerate diffusion. Two key properties distinguish our problem from previous work on height constrained equations: nonconvexity of the interaction kernel (which places the model outside the scope of classical gradient flow theory) and nonlocal dependence of the velocity field on the density (which causes the problem to lack a comparison principle). To overcome these obstacles, we combine recent results on gradient flows of nonconvex energies with viscosity solution theory. We characterize the dynamics of patch solutions in terms of a Hele-Shaw type free boundary problem and, using this characterization, show that in two dimensions patch solutions converge to a characteristic function of a disk in the long-time limit, with an explicit rate on the decay of the energy. We believe that a key contribution of the present work is our blended approach, combining energy methods with viscosity solution theory.

  17. Policy implementation lessons from six road pricing cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.; Annema, J.A.; Wee, B. van

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of road pricing has been limited worldwide despite the notion that road pricing is generally considered to be a potentially effective measure to reduce externalities, in particular traffic congestion. By means of a content analysis of 106 scientific papers, this paper aims to

  18. Modeling truck traffic volume growth congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Modeling of the statewide transportation system is an important element in understanding issues and programming of funds to thwart potential congestion. As Alabama grows its manufacturing economy, the number of heavy vehicles traversing its highways ...

  19. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  20. Congestion and cascades in payment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Walter E.; Glass, Robert J.; Bech, Morten L.; Soramäki, Kimmo

    2007-10-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of the interbank payment system. The model incorporates an endogenous instruction arrival process, a scale-free topology of payments between banks, a fixed total liquidity which limits banks’ capacity to process arriving instructions, and a global market that distributes liquidity. We find that at low liquidity the system becomes congested and payment settlement loses correlation with payment instruction arrival, becoming coupled across the network. The onset of congestion is evidently related to the relative values of three characteristic times: the time for banks’ net position to return to 0, the time for a bank to exhaust its liquidity endowment, and the liquidity market relaxation time. In the congested regime settlement takes place in cascades having a characteristic length scale. A global liquidity market substantially attenuates congestion, requiring only a small fraction of the payment-induced liquidity flow to achieve strong beneficial effects.

  1. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli O Meltzer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eli O Meltzer1, Fernan Caballero2, Leonard M Fromer3, John H Krouse4, Glenis Scadding51Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; 2Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service, Centro Medico-Docente La Trinidad, Caracas, Venezuela; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 4Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; 5Department of Allergy and Rhinology, Royal National TNE Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1 diagnosis of the cause(s, (2 patient education and monitoring, (3 avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4 pharmacotherapy, and (5 immunotherapy

  2. Focus on renal congestion in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure.

  3. Rerouting algorithms solving the air traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacher, Ludovica; Flamini, Marta; Romano, Elpidio

    2017-06-01

    Congestion in the air traffic network is a problem with an increasing relevance for airlines costs as well as airspace safety. One of the major issue is the limited operative capacity of the air network. In this work an Autonomous Agent approach is proposed to solve in real time the problem of air traffic congestion. The air traffic infrastructures are modeled with a graph and are considered partitioned in different sectors. Each sector has its own decision agent dealing with the air traffic control involved in it. Each agent sector imposes a real time aircraft scheduling to respect both delay and capacity constrains. When a congestion is predicted, a new aircraft scheduling is computed. Congestion is solved when the capacity constrains are satisfied once again. This can be done by delaying on ground aircraft or/and rerouting aircraft and/or postponing the congestion. We have tested two different algorithms that calculate K feasible paths for each aircraft involved in the congestion. Some results are reported on North Italian air space.

  4. Evaluation of pulmonary congestion by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yoshida, Hideo; Watanabe, Shigeru; Nakamura, Mamoru

    1980-01-01

    Pulmonary congestion and pulmonary water distribution of lung fields were evaluated by computed tomography (CT) in 31 patients with congestive heart failure and 19 normal subjects in the supine position. In normal subjects, no difference was noted in the CT value between levels of intercostal spaces as well as between right and left lung fields. CT values were greater in posterior lung fields than in anterior lung fields. A significant increase of CT values at both anterior and posterior lung fields was shown in patients with congestive heart failure compared to normal subjects. In congestive heart failure, pulmonary CT values were correlated with various clinical parameters in the order of chest X-ray findings, NYHA functional classification, venous pressure, right heart catheter findings and circulation time. CT values were decreased with the improvement of parameters by medical treatment. Thus, the increase of pulmonary CT values in patients with congestive heart failure indicated the increase of pulmonary blood content and pulmonary tissue edema in a unit volume. This method was particularly useful for the evaluation of pulmonary congestion and pulmonary water distribution. (author)

  5. Congestion Tolling for Mixed Urban Freight and Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chaoda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the welfare effects of optimal tolling on urban traffic congestion, in a bottleneck model, with mixed freight and passenger users. The users’ marginal utility of time is considered to be varying with time. Under both no-toll equilibrium and socially optimal tolling, the users are found to sort their arrival time according to the increasing rates of marginal utility at the destination. The optimal toll that maximizes social welfare does not change each user's indirect utilit y relative to the no-toll equilibrium, but completely removes the queue, which also removes the barrier of freight carriers to accept congestion pricing by relating their marginal utilities directly to the toll. When the toll is equally rebated, the proposed social optimal tolling is a Pareto improvement relative to the no-toll equilibrium. Those more productive users also suffer more in both no-toll equilibrium and optimal tolling, which indicates that a differentiated redistribution of toll revenues could be an incentive to improve productivity.

  6. Price fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Diller, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to integrate the various strands of fair price research into a concise conceptual model. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed price fairness model is based on a review of the fair pricing literature, incorporating research reported in not only English but also German. Findings – The proposed fair price model depicts seven components of a fair price: distributive fairness, consistent behaviour, personal respect and regard for the partner, fair dea...

  7. Pricing by timing: innovating broadband data plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sangtae; Joe-Wong, Carlee; Sen, Soumya; Chiang, Mung

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Internet usage is doubling every year. Users are using more of high bandwidth data applications, and the heavy usage concentrates on several peak hours in a day, forcing ISPs to overprovision their networks accordingly. In order to remain profitable, ISPs have been using pricing as a congestion management tool. We review many of such pricing schemes in practice today and argue that they do not solve ISPs' problem of growing data traffic. We believe that dynamic, time-dependent usage pricing, which charges users based on when they access the Internet, can incentivize users to spread out their bandwidth consumption more evenly across different times of the day, thus helping ISPs to overcome the problem of peak congestion. Congestion pricing is not a new idea in itself, but the time for its implementation in data networks has finally arrived. Our key contribution lies in developing new analysis and a fully integrated system architecture, called TUBE (Time-dependent Usage-based Broadband price Engineering) that enables ISPs to implement the proposed TDP plan. The theory, simulation, and system implementation of TUBE system is further complemented with consumer surveys conducted in India and the US, along with preparations for a field trial that is currently underway.

  8. Electricity transmission pricing. How contracts must reflect costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuttleworth, G.

    1996-01-01

    Two basic structures of transmission systems are distinguished: transmission channels offered through an integrated electric utility and open access offered over an independent network. The first structure allows the application of 'top-down pricing', where transmission prices are derived from customer tariffs less avoidable generation costs. Transmission prices in the second structure must be derived from a 'bottom-up' analysis of transmission costs, including building capacity, marginal losses, and congestion. 5 refs

  9. Dynamic Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes h...... of dynamic pricing can lead to increased willingness of consumers to participate in DR programs which in turn improve the operation of liberalized electricity markets.......Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes...

  10. Locational price spreads and the pricing of contracts for difference. Evidence from the Nordic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marckhoff, Jan; Wimschulte, Jens

    2009-01-01

    In electricity markets, not only does the risk of substantial price variations over time exist, but so does the risk of price variations over space, as prices between locations can differ due to transmission congestion. To manage this risk, Contracts for Difference (CfDs), i.e., forwards on the spread between a particular area price and the (unconstrained) system price, were introduced at the Scandinavian electricity exchange Nord Pool at the end of 2000. We empirically investigate the pricing of these CfDs over the period 2001 through 2006 and find that CfD prices contain significant risk premia. Their sign and magnitude, however, differ substantially between areas and delivery periods, because areas are subject to transmission congestion to a varying extent. While the relation between risk premia and time-to-maturity is not uniform for CfDs, there is a negative relation for implied area and system forwards, which can be explained by the relative hedging demand of market participants. In addition, we find that risk premia of CfDs and implied area forwards vary systematically with the variance and skewness of the underlying spot prices. This confirms both implications of the Bessembinder and Lemmon [Bessembinder, H., Lemmon, M.L., 2002. Equilibrium pricing and optimal hedging in electricity forward markets. Journal of Finance, 57, 1347-1382] model. (author)

  11. Congestive Heart Failure and Central Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Scott A; Owens, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is among the most common causes of admission to hospitals in the United States, especially in those over age 65. Few data exist regarding the prevalence CHF of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) owing to congestive heart failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). Nevertheless, CSR is expected to be highly prevalent among those with CHF. Treatment should focus on the underlying mechanisms by which CHF increases loop gain and promotes unstable breathing. Few data are available to determine prevalence of CSR in the ICU, or how CSR might affect clinical management and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  13. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  14. Electricity market pricing, risk hedging and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu

    In this dissertation, we investigate the pricing, price risk hedging/arbitrage, and simplified system modeling for a centralized LMP-based electricity market. In an LMP-based market model, the full AC power flow model and the DC power flow model are most widely used to represent the transmission system. We investigate the differences of dispatching results, congestion pattern, and LMPs for the two power flow models. An appropriate LMP decomposition scheme to quantify the marginal costs of the congestion and real power losses is critical for the implementation of financial risk hedging markets. However, the traditional LMP decomposition heavily depends on the slack bus selection. In this dissertation we propose a slack-independent scheme to break LMP down into energy, congestion, and marginal loss components by analyzing the actual marginal cost of each bus at the optimal solution point. The physical and economic meanings of the marginal effect at each bus provide accurate price information for both congestion and losses, and thus the slack-dependency of the traditional scheme is eliminated. With electricity priced at the margin instead of the average value, the market operator typically collects more revenue from power sellers than that paid to power buyers. According to the LMP decomposition results, the revenue surplus is then divided into two parts: congestion charge surplus and marginal loss revenue surplus. We apply the LMP decomposition results to the financial tools, such as financial transmission right (FTR) and loss hedging right (LHR), which have been introduced to hedge against price risks associated to congestion and losses, to construct a full price risk hedging portfolio. The two-settlement market structure and the introduction of financial tools inevitably create market manipulation opportunities. We investigate several possible market manipulation behaviors by virtual bidding and propose a market monitor approach to identify and quantify such

  15. Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations

  16. Real time driver information for congestion management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Traffic demand in the U.S. has grown substantially over the past few years because of the increase in population and : urbanization in large cities. This causes traffic congestion to spread out over U.S. highways and arterials, and subsequently : lea...

  17. Measuring accessibility and congestion in Accra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Kofie, Richard Y.; Allotey, Albert N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on extensive gps-measurements, the paper addresses the level of intra-urban accessibility and provides indications of the level of congestion in Accra, Ghana. Traffic flows within the urban area are analyzed with respect to speed, time-of-day, direction, road type and land cover type. The s...... and less during off-peak hours. Delays are frequently found within the inner fringe areas. The paper discusses the methodological potentials and barriers for applying gps tracklog points for analysing traffic flows within an urban road network........ The speed information is extrapolated to cover the total mapped urban road net¬work with time- and direction-specific data. A series of time-distance maps are created using network analysis to illustrate the level of accessibility at different times of the day and at different directions relative...... to the city centre. Peak hour traffic speeds are compared with off-peak levels and theoretical free-flow estimations to provide an indica-tion of the level of congestion. It is found that the core areas are somewhat congested during the day period, while the fringe areas are more congested during peak hours...

  18. Mean Field Type Control with Congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achdou, Yves, E-mail: achdou@ljll.univ-paris-diderot.fr; Laurière, Mathieu [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, UMR 7598, UPMC, CNRS (France)

    2016-06-15

    We analyze some systems of partial differential equations arising in the theory of mean field type control with congestion effects. We look for weak solutions. Our main result is the existence and uniqueness of suitably defined weak solutions, which are characterized as the optima of two optimal control problems in duality.

  19. Update in cardiomyopathies and congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Heart Hospital, London, UK and Monaldi Hospital, Naples, Italy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This abstract book contains four reports and all abstracts presented to the Joint Meeting: Update in cardiomyopathies and congestive heart failure, 22-23 September 2011 - Naples, Italy, endorsed by the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases (WG 21 of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC.

  20. Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Anthony T. H.

    Land transportation remains one of the main contributors of noise and air pollution in urban areas. This is in addition to traffic congestion and accidents which result in the loss of productive activity. While there is a close relationship between traffic volumes and levels of noise and air pollution, transport authorities often assume that solving traffic congestion would reduce noise and air pollutant levels. Tight control over automobile ownership and use in Singapore has contributed in improving traffic flows, travel speeds and air quality. The adoption of internationally accepted standards on automobile emissions and gasoline have been effective in reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. Demand management measures have largely focused on controlling the source of traffic congestion, i.e. private automobile ownership and its use especially within the Central Business District during the day. This paper reviews and analyzes the effectiveness of two measures which are instrumental in controlling congestion and automobile ownership, i.e. road pricing and the vehicle quota scheme (VQS). While these measures have been successful in achieving desired objectives, it has also led to the spreading of traffic externalities to other roads in the network, loss in consumer welfare and rent seeking by automobile traders.

  1. How Congested Jakarta is? Perception of Jakarta’s Citizen on Traffic Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Halley Yudhistira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reveal the behavior and perception of Jakarta’s citizens on traffic congestion in Jakarta. Although this approach is somewhat well-developed in behavioral science, its utilization in urban economics study, is still limited. Detecting the traffic congestion and its cause mainly relies on physical (engineering methods, i.e V/C ratio. Here, we define the traffic congestion through two variables; ordinal traffic congestion perception and proportion of expected travel time to perceived travel time. Using a non-probabilistic sampling survey held in one of densest business district in Jakarta called Sudirman-Thamrin Golden Triangle Area; the estimation results show that travel behavior plays a major role in affecting travel time perceptions.

  2. The economic cost of traffic congestion in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Traffic congestion in the U.S. is bad and getting worse, and it is expensive. Appropriate solutions to this problem require appropriate information. A comprehensive and accurate analysis of congestion costs is a critical tool for planning and impleme...

  3. Statewide GIS mapping of recurring congestion corridors : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Recurring congestion occurs when travel demand reaches or exceeds the available roadway : capacity. This project developed an interactive geographic information system (GIS) map of the : recurring congestion corridors (labeled herein as hotspots) in ...

  4. Location matters: The impact of renewable power on transmission congestion and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Many governments offer subsidies for renewable power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the power sector. However, most support schemes for renewable power do not take into account that emissions depend on the location of renewable and conventional power plants within an electricity grid. I simulate optimal power flow in a test grid when 4 renewable power plants connect to the grid across 24 potential sites, amounting to over 10,000 configurations. Each configuration is associated with different levels of emissions and renewable power output. I find that emission reductions vary by a factor of 7 and that curtailment due to transmission congestion is more likely when renewable power plants are concentrated in an area of the grid with low demand. Large cost savings could be obtained by allowing subsidies for renewable power to vary across locations according to abatement potential or by replacing subsidies with a price on emissions. - Highlights: • Analyze the impact of renewable power plant location on congestion and emissions. • Simulate optimal power flow in a test grid for over 10,000 configurations. • Determine that emission reductions vary by a factor of 7. • Find that renewable power is curtailed due to transmission congestion. • Pricing emissions is most efficient since abatement potential varies across locations.

  5. Congestion control for vehicular delay tolerant network routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Oham, Chuka Finbars

    2014-01-01

    The Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network (VDTN) is a special and challenging type of the Delay Tolerant Network because of its high mobility, frequent disconnections and nodal congestion features. These challenging features make it prone to congestion which leads to a considerable amount of message drops in the network. To minimize the impact of congestion in the network, we designed and implemented the Congestion Aware Spray and Wait (CASaW) routing protocol. We varied the buffer sizes of the no...

  6. Access pricing on gas networks and capacity release markets: Lessons from North American and European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Percebois, J.

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of different access fee systems in North America and Europe in relation to normative prices is discussed. Among available alternatives the entry-exit pricing system as it is currently applied in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Italy and France, was judged to be the best solution to increased competition. Canadian and American experiences highlight the influence of the market power of shippers with regard to the efficacy of capping the market. Whether or not to cap the price on a capacity release market is a choice between the protection of shippers against market abuses and the promotion of secondary market liquidity, a choice that is linked to the level of congestion of a pipeline system. If there is much congestion, a price cap may be necessary; if there is little congestion, the need for market value given by an uncapped price may be more important than the market power of shippers. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Dynamic analysis of energy, environment and congestion effects of urban transport policy. Variabilisation of car taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dender, K Van [Center for Economic Studies (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    Road transport is an important cause of external costs. In general three types of external costs can be distinguished: congestion, air and noise pollution causing environment damage and health hazards, and road accidents. Policy measures aiming at the reduction of external costs mostly are limited to a specific cost-type. The lack of integration of policies causes inefficiencies, because external costs are strongly interlinked. In Ochelen and Proost, congestion, pollution and road accidents are treated as externalities. An optimal pricing and regulation policy for transport is calculated for Brussels in 2005. Regulation consists of prescriptions to car producers concerning the environmental characteristics of car-technology. Optimal prices charge transport users the social cost of their trips, with possibly a correction for the marginal cost of public funds. In a perfect pricing policy, prices would be differentiated according to conditions of congestion and pollution at each moment in time. The model is flexible enough to simulate the effects of more realistic policy packages. This flexibility has its cost in terms of degree of detail of the model. This paper deals with an extension of the Ochelen and Proost model, in two directions. The model is currently still a prototype. We concentrate on the main issues involved in making the model dynamic. The degree of detail therefore is rather limited. Magnitudes of policy effects must be interpreted carefully. We are more confident as to what concerns the directions of the effects. The paper first deals with the methodology of the model, calibration of the model and on the base case scenario, which serves as reference cases for the policy evaluation. (EG)

  8. Driving with a congestion assistant : mental workload and acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; Driel, C. J.G. van; Hof, T.; Arem, B. van; Hoedemaeker, M.

    2009-01-01

    New driver support systems are developed and introduced to the market at increasing speed. In conditions of traffic congestion drivers may be supported by a" Congestion Assistant", a system that combines the features of a Congestion Warning System (acoustic warning and gas pedal counterforce) and a

  9. Busy hour traffic congestion analysis in mobile macrocells | Ozovehe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, real live traffic data from integrated GSM/GPRS network was used for traffic congestion analysis. The analysis was carried out on 10 congesting cells using network management system (NMS) statistics data span for three years period. Correlation test showed that traffic channel (TCH) congestion depend only ...

  10. Road pricing as an impetus for environment-friendly travel behavior : Results from a stated adaptation experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, D.; Cools, M.; Moons, E.; Wets, G.; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P

    2009-01-01

    An important policy instrument for governments to modify travel behavior and manage the increasing travel demand is the introduction of a congestion pricing system. In this study, the influence of a detailed classification of activities is examined to assess likely traveler response to congestion

  11. Congestion rents and FTR evaluations in mixed-pool-bilateral systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Minghai; Gross, George

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of key metrics for congestion management, including the congestion rents and the financial transmission rights (FTR) payoffs, requires the efficient allocation of transmission services and the calculation of appropriate locational marginal prices (LMPs). This requirement is particularly acute when there are bilateral transactions coexisting with the centralized pool markets. We propose a new formulation for this purpose, which captures explicitly the contribution of the bilateral transactions to the social welfare. The proposed formulation effectively integrates the pool market and the bilateral transactions on a consistent basis and results in the more efficient allocation of the transmission resources than the conventional tool. We assess analytically the capabilities of the proposed formulation and solution and quantify the improvements in the evaluations over those done using the conventional approach. Such improvements are also illustrated using simulation results on a wide range of test systems including the IEEE 118-bus network. (author)

  12. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  13. Effective Road Model for Congestion Control in VANETs

    OpenAIRE

    Dongre, Manoj M.; Bawane, Narendra G.

    2016-01-01

    Congestion on the roads is a key problem to deal with, which wastes valuable time.. Due to high mobility rate and relative speed link failure occur very often. VANET is used to tackle the problem of congestion, and make decisions well in advance to avoid traffic congestion. In this paper we proposed a solution to detect and control the traffic congestion by using of both (V2V) and (V2I), as a result the drivers become aware of the location of congestion as well as way to avoid getting stuck i...

  14. Effective use of congestion in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echagüe, Juan; Cholvi, Vicent; Kowalski, Dariusz R.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a congestion-aware routing protocol that selects the paths according to the congestion of nodes in the network. The aim is twofold: on one hand, and in order to prevent the networks from collapsing, it provides a good tolerance to nodes' overloads; on the other hand, and in order to guarantee efficient communication, it also incentivize the routes to follow short paths. We analyze the performance of our proposed routing strategy by means of a series of experiments carried out by using simulations. We show that it provides a tolerance to collapse close to the optimal value. Furthermore, the average length of the paths behaves optimally up to the certain value of packet generation rate ρ and it grows in a linear fashion with the increase of ρ.

  15. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  16. Can complexity decrease in congestive heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sayan; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Banerjee, Santo; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Rondoni, Lamberto; Bhattacharya, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The complexity of a signal can be measured by the Recurrence period density entropy (RPDE) from the reconstructed phase space. We have chosen a window based RPDE method for the classification of signals, as RPDE is an average entropic measure of the whole phase space. We have observed the changes in the complexity in cardiac signals of normal healthy person (NHP) and congestive heart failure patients (CHFP). The results show that the cardiac dynamics of a healthy subject is more complex and random compare to the same for a heart failure patient, whose dynamics is more deterministic. We have constructed a general threshold to distinguish the border line between a healthy and a congestive heart failure dynamics. The results may be useful for wide range for physiological and biomedical analysis.

  17. Markets in real electric networks require reactive prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    Extending earlier seminal work, the author finds that locational spot price differences in an electric network provide the natural measure of the appropriate internodal transport charge. However, the problem of loop flow requires different economic intuition for interpreting the implications of spot pricing. The Direct Current model, which is the usual approximation for estimating spot prices, ignores reactive power effects; this approximation is best when thermal constraints create network congestion. However, when voltage constraints are problematic, the DC Load model is insufficient; a full AC Model is required to determine both real and reactive spot prices. 16 figs., 3 tabs., 22 refs

  18. Bridging the gap between theory and practice of transmission pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.; Felak, R.

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe some strategies for pricing transmission service. Traditionally, wheeling prices have been postage stamp rates based on the level of megawatt demand; a related approach would assign grid costs to customers based on their respective shares of overall megawatt-miles. Innovative regulators have recently approved transmission rates based on opportunity cost of foregone capacity and the incremental costs of additional capacity needed to enable delivery. Others determined prices designed to reflect short-run congestion costs on the grid. The authors assess these pricing approaches and their effects on the distribution of wealth and economic efficiency for both firm and interruptible services. 3 refs

  19. Battling gridlock : congestion fees are working in Europe and Asia, but its questionable if they will succeed in car-crazy North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevale, R. [Colleges Integrating Immigrants to Employment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Crawford, E.A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies

    2008-07-01

    This article described different traffic congestion schemes that cities around the world have adopted to ease traffic grid-lock. Congestion fees that discourage road use involve assigning a price to a road based on the demand for using that road. A weekday congestion fee which was imposed on drivers in the city of London in 2003 resulted in a 30 per cent drop in vehicular traffic in the city centre. The pricing structure was independent of vehicle type, distance travelled or time of day. The successful scheme is credited with an increase in cycling and public transit ridership as well as a decrease in accidents and air pollution without hindering business within the congestion zone. However, the effectiveness of congestion fees in North America is questionable. Although San Diego's high-occupancy toll lanes have helped reduce congestion and pollution because the revenue raised is invested in public transportation, objections have been raised regarding plans to implement congestion fees in San Francisco and New York city centres because doing so would prevent those with low incomes from driving in the city. London has responded to such challenges by putting all net revenues derived from the fees back into public transportation. Similar measures were taken in Stockholm, Sweden where massive improvements were made to its transit system prior to introducing congestion fees to avert criticism. In order for congestion fees to be effective and gain public approval, there should be clear objectives that include demand management, good transportation alternatives, revenues that go to public transit and a simple pricing system that uses proven technology. The cumulative annual cost of congestion in 9 urban centres in Canada ranged from $2.3 billion to $3.7 billion in 2002 according to Transport Canada. Analysts have cautioned that congestion schemes would be difficult to duplicate in North American cities that are highly dependent on automobiles. However, the authors

  20. Battling gridlock : congestion fees are working in Europe and Asia, but its questionable if they will succeed in car-crazy North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevale, R.; Crawford, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article described different traffic congestion schemes that cities around the world have adopted to ease traffic grid-lock. Congestion fees that discourage road use involve assigning a price to a road based on the demand for using that road. A weekday congestion fee which was imposed on drivers in the city of London in 2003 resulted in a 30 per cent drop in vehicular traffic in the city centre. The pricing structure was independent of vehicle type, distance travelled or time of day. The successful scheme is credited with an increase in cycling and public transit ridership as well as a decrease in accidents and air pollution without hindering business within the congestion zone. However, the effectiveness of congestion fees in North America is questionable. Although San Diego's high-occupancy toll lanes have helped reduce congestion and pollution because the revenue raised is invested in public transportation, objections have been raised regarding plans to implement congestion fees in San Francisco and New York city centres because doing so would prevent those with low incomes from driving in the city. London has responded to such challenges by putting all net revenues derived from the fees back into public transportation. Similar measures were taken in Stockholm, Sweden where massive improvements were made to its transit system prior to introducing congestion fees to avert criticism. In order for congestion fees to be effective and gain public approval, there should be clear objectives that include demand management, good transportation alternatives, revenues that go to public transit and a simple pricing system that uses proven technology. The cumulative annual cost of congestion in 9 urban centres in Canada ranged from $2.3 billion to $3.7 billion in 2002 according to Transport Canada. Analysts have cautioned that congestion schemes would be difficult to duplicate in North American cities that are highly dependent on automobiles. However, the authors

  1. FTR-option formulation and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmeshwaran, Vijay; Muthuraman, Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in electricity markets have advocated the use of Local Marginal Prices (LMP) for congestion management and pricing. From the perspective of market participants, the LMPs pose a risk since they are not known before a transaction on the grid is made. Financial transmission rights (FTR) are instruments that help market participants hedge this risk and are issuable in two flavors - obligations and options. While pricing obligations are much easier, pricing FTR options pose a significant challenge. In this paper we develop a computational method for pricing FTR options. We also discuss the problem of designing financial instrument sets that assure revenue adequacy for the issuer. We point out the difficulty in assuring revenue adequacy when FTR options are present and propose a scheme for overcoming the difficulty. The proposed pricing method can be used to compute prices of options and obligations in the primary market or as a reliable pricing tool to compute option prices in the secondary market. Finally using a test network we present and discuss numerical results. (author)

  2. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  3. Long-term congestion management by investment in gas-turbine generators : a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan, L.A.; Bhattacharya, K.

    2007-01-01

    Load management is one of the most important tasks in the operation of an electric power system. Transmission congestion occurs whenever the grid has one or more violations of the physical, operation, or policy constraints under which it normally operates. In a deregulated electricity market, the independent system operator (ISO) must ensure that contracted power transactions are carried out reliably. Several schemes of congestion management run the risk of increasing electricity prices due to the market power of local generators in congested areas. An alternative is to manage congestion through the installation of reserve gas turbine generators which can be brought online to the system within a short time. The use of gas turbines at different buses in the system can enhance the system in ways of transmission relief during emergency events. This paper proposed a framework for the evaluation of long-term investment by the ISO on gas-turbine generators as a tool for providing transmission congestion relief in the dispatch stage based on cost-benefit analysis. The objective of the framework is to optimally decide the locations and sizes of the generators at different buses in the network in order to minimize the total cost of investment of gas turbines and to minimize total system congestion. A bus-wise cost-benefit analysis was carried out by solving the DC optimal power flow (dc-OPF) model. The CIGRE 32-Bus system was used for the case study. It was shown that network overloading can be significantly reduced with the support of gas turbines at selected buses. The long-term decision of the investment on gas-turbine would depend on the opportunity cost of the gas-turbine with respect to the congestion problem. The gas turbines could also reduce the amount of unserved energy during peak load conditions. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  5. Essays in financial transmission rights pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Barry

    This work examines issues in the pricing of financial transmission rights in the PJM market region. The US federal government is advocating the creation of large-scale, not-for-profit regional transmission organizations to increase the efficiency of the transmission of electricity. As a non-profit entity, PJM needs to allocate excess revenues collected as congestion rents, and the participants in the transmission markets need to be able to hedge their exposure to congestion rents. For these purposes, PJM has developed an instrument known as the financial transmission right (FTR). This research, utilizing a new data set assembled by the author, looks at two aspects of the FTR market. The first chapter examines the problem of forecasting congestion in a transmission grid. In the PJM FTR system firms bid in a competitive auction for FTRs that cover a period of one month. The auctions take place in the middle of the previous month; therefore firms have to forecast congestion rents for the period two to six weeks after the auction. The common methods of forecasting congestion are either time-series models or full-information engineering studies. In this research, the author develops a forecasting system that is more economically grounded than a simple time-series model, but requires less information than an engineering model. This method is based upon the arbitrage-cost methodology, whereby congesting is calculated as the difference of two non-observable variables: the transmission price difference that would exist in the total absence of transmission capacity between two nodes, and the ability of the existing transmission to reduced that price difference. If the ability to reduce the price difference is greater than the price difference, then the cost of electricity at each node will be the same, and congestion rent will be zero. If transmission capacity limits are binding on the flow of power, then a price difference persists and congestion rents exist. Three

  6. A uniform price auction with locational price adjustments for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, R.; Mount, T.; Schulze, W.; Zimmerman, R.; Thomas, R.

    1999-01-01

    Competitive electricity markets which rely on centralized dispatch require a mechanism to solicit offers from competing generators. Ideally, such an auction mechanism, provides incentives to submit offers equal to the marginal cost of generation for each generator. Economic theory suggests that the Uniform Price auction is an appropriate institution. However, an efficient implementation of this auction in an electricity context requires that the offers used in the auction reflect the appropriate locational price adjustments for transmission losses and congestion. This paper describes a uniform price auction that incorporates locational price adjustments on a Web-based platform suitable for experimentation. Preliminary results show dramatically different price and revenue results when compared with a simple continuous Discriminative auction. (author)

  7. Gas prices and price process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewegen, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    On a conference (Gas for Europe in the 1990's) during the Gasexpo '91 the author held a speech of which the Dutch text is presented here. Attention is paid to the current European pricing methods (prices based on the costs of buying, transporting and distributing the natural gas and prices based on the market value, which is deducted from the prices of alternative fuels), and the transparency of the prices (lack of information on the way the prices are determined). Also attention is paid to the market signal transparency and gas-gas competition, which means a more or less free market of gas distribution. The risks of gas-to-gas competition for a long term price stability, investment policies and security of supply are discussed. Opposition against the Third Party Access (TPA), which is the program to implement gas-to-gas competition, is caused by the fear of natural gas companies for lower gas prices and lower profits. Finally attention is paid to government regulation and the activities of the European Commission (EC) in this matter. 1 fig., 6 ills., 1 tab

  8. Multiple stakeholders in road pricing: A game theoretic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohazulike, Anthony; Still, Georg J.; Kern, Walter; van Berkum, Eric C.; Hausken, Kjell; Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a game theoretic approach as an alternative to the standard multi-objective optimization models for road pricing. Assuming that various, partly conflicting traffic externalities (congestion, air pollution, noise, safety, etcetera) are represented by corresponding players acting on a

  9. Real-time control of power systems using nodal prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a novel control scheme for achieving optimal power balancing and congestion management in electrical power systems via nodal prices. We develop a dynamic controller that guarantees economically optimal steady-state operation while respecting all line flow constraints in

  10. Price-based control of electrical power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Negenborn, R.R.; Lukszo, Z.; Hellendorn, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we present the price-based control as a suitable approach to solve some of the challenging problems facing future, market-based power sys tems. On the example of economically optimal power balance and transmission network congestion control, we present how global objectives and

  11. The price of anarchy in series-parallel graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senster, P.; Van Heugten, T.; Ten Thije, O.

    2010-01-01

    Congestion games model self-interested agents competing for resources in communication networks. The price of anarchy quantifies the deterioration in performance in such games compared to the optimal solution. Recent research has shown that, when the social cost is defined as the maximum cost of all

  12. Road pricing policy process : The interplay between policy actors, the media and public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiç, O.

    2015-01-01

    Although road pricing policies are generally seen as an effective measure to deal with transport related problems (e.g. congestion), the number of implemented road pricing schemes is relatively limited. The thesis aims to gain insights into complex interplay between policy actors, media and public

  13. Tradable Driving Credits : car users' responses towards an innovative pricing measure in the Netherlands and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogterom, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Car traffic volumes continue to increase rapidly worldwide, leading to steadily rising levels of congestion and harmful emissions in many urbanised areas. Transport researchers have long been convinced of the power of pricing solutions to mitigate these problems. However, pricing initiatives have

  14. Charging versus rewarding : A comparison of road-pricing and rewarding peak avoidance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, Taede; Ben-Elia, Eran; Ettema, Dick; van Delden, Janet

    The aim of this paper is to compare two congestion management schemes road-pricing and peak avoidance rewarding and their impact on commuter behaviour, based on two studies that were conducted in the Netherlands. The road-pricing study is based on stated preference data, whereas the study involving

  15. Socioeconomic differences in public acceptability and car use adaptation towards urban road pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehlert, Tina; Kramer, Christiane; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2011-01-01

    Urban road pricing is regarded as an effective instrument to reduce traffic congestion and environmental-related problems in metropolitan areas. Whereas the overall impact of urban road pricing on car use adaptation and public acceptability is known, there are only inconsistent results concerning...

  16. Modeling transport pricing with multiple stakeholders. Working paper : Methodology and a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pricing measures (e.g., a kilometre charge or cordon toll) are used to improve the external effects of transportation (e.g., congestion or emissions). This working paper presents a planning model for pricing while taking the preferences and interactions of multiple stakeholders (e.g., governments or

  17. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  18. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  19. Freemium Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Julian; Wagner, Stefan; Claussen, Jörg

    Firms commonly run field experiments to improve their freemium pricing schemes. However, they often lack a framework for analysis that goes beyond directly measurable outcomes and focuses on longer term profit. We aim to fill this gap by structuring existing knowledge on freemium pricing...... into a stylized framework. We apply the proposed framework in the analysis of a field experiment that contrasts three variations of a freemium pricing scheme and comprises about 300,000 users of a software application. Our findings indicate that a reduction of free product features increases conversion as well...... as viral activity, but reduces usage – which is in line with the framework’s predictions. Additional back-of-the-envelope profit estimations suggest that managers were overly optimistic about positive externalities from usage and viral activity in their choice of pricing scheme, leading them to give too...

  20. Radiotherapy for hypersplenism from congestive splenomegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mu-Tai; Hsieh, Chang-Yo; Chang, Tung-Hao; Lin, Jao-Perng; Huang, Chia-Chun

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of splenic irradiation on the common hematological disorders of hypersplenism. From August 2002 to March 2003, five patients with hypersplenism due to congestive splenomegaly underwent splenic irradiation at the Department od Radiation Oncology, Changhua Chirstian Hospital, Taiwan. 3 were males and 2 were females aging from 38 to 66 years. All patients had history of liver cirrhosis. 4 patients underwent thee-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and received conventional radiotherapy with anterior-posterior parallel opposing fields. The followup-period ranged from 1 to 7 months. Thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly were found in all 5 patients by physical examination, hematological test, abdominal sonography and/or abdominal computed tomography. After radiotherapy, thrombocytopenia improved, but leukopenia and anemia did not. No complication due to radiotherapy was found during the follow-up period after splenic irradiation. 2 patients died of hepatocellular carcinoma with active bleeding. One patient died of renal failure due to end-stage renal disease. Based on our results, it seems that splenic irradiation might be effective in treating thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. Splenic irradiatin seems to be effective for thrombocytopenia, splenomegaly and splenic pain associated with hypersplenism from congenstive splenomegaly. This approach is non-invasive and may be an alternative treatment for splenectomy and splenic embolization for patients with hypersplenism due to congestive splenomegaly. The shortcoming of this study are small sample size, short period of follow-up and lack of randomization. A randomized control trial with more cases and further follow-up of hematological tests and splenic size estimation are warranted to evaluate long term improvement of congestive splenomegaly with thrombocytopeniaafter splenic irradiation

  1. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, J.

    2001-01-01

    The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

  2. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-01-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p max . This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic

  3. Transmission congestion management in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we mainly discuss how to optimize the arrangement to decrease the loss of each line when the power generation side of the system transmission congestion occurs in a safe and economical manner. We respectively set the adjust model if the transmission can be eliminated which can calculate the best scheme and safety margin model when transmission cannot be eliminated which is a multi-objective planning problem. We solve the two models on the condition of the load power demands are 982.4MW and 1052.8 MW by Lingo and get the optimal management scheme.

  4. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang E-mail: chenmoon110@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-07-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p{sub max}. This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic.

  5. Continuous integration congestion cost allocation based on sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.Q.; Wang, Y.N.

    2004-01-01

    Congestion cost allocation is a very important topic in congestion management. Allocation methods based on the Aumann-Shapley value use the discrete numerical integration method, which needs to solve the incremented OPF solution many times, and as such it is not suitable for practical application to large-scale systems. The optimal solution and its sensitivity change tendency during congestion removal using a DC optimal power flow (OPF) process is analysed. A simple continuous integration method based on the sensitivity is proposed for the congestion cost allocation. The proposed sensitivity analysis method needs a smaller computation time than the method based on using the quadratic method and inner point iteration. The proposed congestion cost allocation method uses a continuous integration method rather than discrete numerical integration. The method does not need to solve the incremented OPF solutions; which allows it use in large-scale systems. The method can also be used for AC OPF congestion management. (author)

  6. Identifying the Onset of Congestion Rapidly with Existing Traffic Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Coifman, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    From an operations standpoint, the most important task of a traffic surveillance system is determining reliably whether the facility is free flowing or congested. The second most important task is responding rapidly when the facility becomes congested. Other tasks, such as quantifying the magnitude of congestion, are desirable, but tertiary. To address the first two tasks, this paper presents a new approach for traffic surveillance using existing detectors. Rather than expending a considerabl...

  7. Congestion cost allocation method in a pool model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H.S.; Hur, D.; Park, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    The congestion cost caused by transmission capacities and voltage limit is an important issue in a competitive electricity market. To allocate the congestion cost equitably, the active constraints in a constrained dispatch and the sequence of these constraints should be considered. A multi-stage method is proposed which reflects the effects of both the active constraints and the sequence. In a multi-stage method, the types of congestion are analysed in order to consider the sequence, and the relationship between congestion and the active constraints is derived in a mathematical way. The case study shows that the proposed method can give more accurate and equitable signals to customers. (Author)

  8. Software-Defined Congestion Control Algorithm for IP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of computer networks, increase in the number of Internet users, and popularity of multimedia applications have exacerbated the congestion control problem. Congestion control is a key factor in ensuring network stability and robustness. When the underlying network and flow information are unknown, the transmission control protocol (TCP must increase or reduce the size of the congestion window to adjust to the changes of traffic in the Internet Protocol (IP network. However, it is possible that a software-defined approach can relieve the network congestion problem more efficiently. This approach has the characteristic of centralized control and can obtain a global topology for unified network management. In this paper, we propose a software-defined congestion control (SDCC algorithm for an IP network. We consider the difference between TCP and the user datagram protocol (UDP and propose a new method to judge node congestion. We initially apply the congestion control mechanism in the congested nodes and then optimize the link utilization to control network congestion.

  9. Crystal structures of three sterically congested disilanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothanda Rama Pichaandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the three sterically congested silanes, C24H38Si2 (1 (1,1,2,2-tetraisopropyl-1,2-diphenyldisilane, C24H34Br4Si2 (2 [1,1,2,2-tetrakis(2-bromopropan-2-yl-1,2-diphenyldisilane] and C32H38Si2 (3 (1,2-di-tert-butyl-1,1,2,2-tetraphenyldisilane, the Si—Si bond length is shortest in (1 and longest in (2, with (3 having an intermediate value, which parallels the increasing steric congestion. A comparison of the two isopropyl derivatives, (1 and 2, shows a significant increase in the Si—C(ipso distance with the introduction of bromine. Also, in the brominated compound 2, attractive intermolecular Br...Br interactions exist with Br...Br separations ca 0.52 Å shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii. In compound 2, one of the bromoisopropyl groups is rotationally disordered in an 0.8812 (9:0.1188 (9 ratio. Compound 3 exhibits `whole molecule' disorder in a 0.9645 (7:0.0355 (7 ratio with the Si—Si bonds in the two components making an angle of ca 66°.

  10. Green supply chain: Simulating road traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Muhammad Zulqarnain Hakim Abd; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Laailatul Hanim Mat Desa, Wan; Khalid, Ruzelan; Khalid Abduljabbar, Waleed; Ramli, Razamin

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing awareness of the consumers about environmental issues, businesses, households and governments increasingly want use green products and services which lead to green supply chain. This paper discusses a simulation study of a selected road traffic system that will contribute to the air pollution if in the congestion state. Road traffic congestion (RTC) can be caused by a temporary obstruction, a permanent capacity bottleneck in the network itself, and stochastic fluctuation in demand within a particular sector of the network, leading to spillback and queue propagation. A discrete-event simulation model is developed to represent the real traffic light control (TLC) system condition during peak hours. Certain performance measures such as average waiting time and queue length were measured using the simulation model. Existing system uses pre-set cycle time to control the light changes which is fixed time cycle. In this research, we test several other combination of pre-set cycle time with the objective to find the best system. In addition, we plan to use a combination of the pre-set cycle time and a proximity sensor which have the authority to manipulate the cycle time of the lights. The sensors work in such situation when the street seems to have less occupied vehicles, obviously it may not need a normal cycle for green light, and automatically change the cycle to street where vehicle is present.

  11. The effects of congestions tax on air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Burman, Lars; Forsberg, Bertil

    The "Stockholm Trial" involved a road pricing system to improve the air quality and reduce traffic congestion. The test period of the trial was January 3-July 31, 2006. Vehicles travelling into and out of the charge cordon were charged for every passage during weekdays. The amount due varied during the day and was highest during rush hours (20 SEK = 2.2 EUR, maximum 60 SEK per day). Based on measured and modelled changes in road traffic it was estimated that this system resulted in a 15% reduction in total road use within the charged cordon. Total traffic emissions in this area of NO x and PM10 fell by 8.5% and 13%, respectively. Air quality dispersion modelling was applied to assess the effect of the emission reductions on ambient concentrations and population exposure. For the situations with and without the trial, meteorological conditions and other emissions than from road traffic were kept the same. The calculations show that, with a permanent congestion tax system like the Stockholm Trial, the annual average NO x concentrations would be lower by up to 12% along the most densely trafficked streets. PM10 concentrations would be up to 7% lower. The limit values for both PM10 and NO 2 would still be exceeded along the most densely trafficked streets. The total population exposure of NO x in Greater Stockholm (35 × 35 km with 1.44 million people) is estimated to decrease with a rather modest 0.23 μg m -3. However, based on a long-term epidemiological study, that found an increased mortality risk of 8% per 10 μg m -3 NO x, it is estimated that 27 premature deaths would be avoided every year. According to life-table analysis this would correspond to 206 years of life gained over 10 years per 100 000 people following the trial if the effects on exposures would persist. The effect on mortality is attributed to road traffic emissions (likely vehicle exhaust particles); NO x is merely regarded as an indicator of traffic exposure. This is only the tip of the ice

  12. Strategic Generation with Conjectured Transmission Price Responses in a Mixed Transmission Pricing System. Part 2. Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wals, A.F.; Hobbs, B.F.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2004-05-01

    The conjectured transmission price response model presented in the first of this two-paper series considers the expectations of oligopolistic generators regarding how demands for transmission services affect the prices of those services. Here, the model is applied to northwest Europe, simulating a mixed transmission pricing system including export fees, a path-based auction system for between-country interfaces, and implicit congestion-based pricing of internal country constraints. The path-based system does not give credit for counterflows when calculating export capability. The application shows that this no-netting policy can exacerbate the economic inefficiencies caused by oligopolistic pricing by generators. The application also illustrates the effects of different generator conjectures regarding rival supply responses and transmission prices. If generators anticipate that their increased demand for transmission services will increase transmission prices, then competitive intensity diminishes and energy prices rise. In the example here, the effect of this anticipation is to double the price increase that results from oligopolistic (Cournot) competition among generators

  13. Market performance and bidders' bidding behavior in the New York Transmission Congestion Contract market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning

    2009-01-01

    Using publicly available bidder level bids data for Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs) and the realized awards of TCCs in the NYISO monthly reconfiguration auctions from June 2000 to December 2004, we examine both market performance and bidders' bidding behavior in the auctions. The data show significant under-pricing in the realized awards of TCCs. Theories suggest that under-pricing may arise from risk-aversion, monopsonistic market power or winner's curse. Our empirical analysis illustrates that all of the three effects play a role in the NYISO TCCs market. Both market performance and bidders' bidding strategies can be best explained by the theoretical model with asymmetric information and risk-averse bidders. (author)

  14. Marketplace pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    As discussed in this chapter, interest in marketplace pricing has been increasing in recent years, reflecting the societal trend toward substituting competition for regulation where appropriate. Competition is valuable because it encourages utilities to make efficient decisions with a minimum of regulatory intervention. It enhances efficiency through the incentive for innovation by the regulated companies and by increasing the likelihood they will come forward with proposals for better services, lower prices or both. Ultimately, consumers are beneficiaries. Marketplace pricing is emblematic of the view that the degree of regulation should reflect the degree of market power, that workably competitive markets should be allowed to operate with as little regulatory interference as possible. The Edison Electric Institute has made perhaps the most detailed proposal on marketplace pricing. It and others perceive numerous benefits from this method of pricing transmission services. Given the undeniable market power resulting from line ownership, FERC has emphasized the need to find a workably competitive market before approving such proposals. The ability to make this distinction without a full-blown antitrust review for every transaction is questionable, and FERC has yet to provide generic guidance. Finally, FERC's legal ability to depart from cost-based standards is questionable

  15. Carpooling and Driver Responses to Fuel Price Changes: Evidence from Traffic Flows in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio M. Bento; Jonathan E. Hughes; Daniel T. Kaffine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how drivers respond to fuel price changes has important implications for highway congestion, accidents, carbon policy, local air pollution and taxation. We examine the underexplored relationship between fuel prices and carpooling. Using a simple theoretical model we show that traffic flows in mainline lanes decrease when fuel prices increase. However in carpool (HOV) lanes, flow can either increase or decrease. Traffic flows in mainline lanes are shown to be more responsive to p...

  16. Internet pricing: una breve rassegna critica (Internet Pricing: A Short Critical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sardoni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article, some recent literature on Internet pricing is surveyed. The author looks at the topic by setting it in the more general framework of the analysis of activities that can be regarded as similar to Internet from the technological and economic point of view. In particular, attention is focused on the problem of the divergence between private and social costs when there occurs network congestion and the problem of efficient prices in activities characterized by the existence of peak-loads. The author argues that dealing with such issues in the context of Internet cannot be reduced to a straightforward application of traditional results of welfare economics and the literature on peak-load pricing. In a competitive market with similar features to the market for Internet services, it is well possible that there do not exist incentives that induce firms to adopt price systems such as to prevent and/or eliminate congestion. Further theoretical and analytical developments are then in order.  JEL Codes: L86, L11Keywords: Pricing

  17. The Effects of Average Revenue Regulation on Electricity Transmission Investment and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Isamu Matsukawa

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two- part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist fs expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occur...

  18. Electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity pricing in most countries, especially in the developing world, has been determined by traditional accounting criteria where it raises revenue requirements to cover the operating costs and a return on past and future capital investments in possible power systems. The use of economic principles to improve the total economic efficiency in the electricity industry is discussed. Basic marginal cost theory, long run marginal costing (LRMC) cost categories and rating periods, marginal capacity costs, marginal energy costs, consumer costs, short run marginal costing (SRMC), marginal cost of fuel, marginal cost of network losses, market clearing price, value of unserved energy and network quality of supply cost are discussed

  19. Managing congestion and intermittent renewable generation in liberalized electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Friedrich

    2013-02-27

    This dissertation focuses on selected aspects of network congestion arising in liberalized electricity markets and their management methods with a special weight placed on the integration of increased renewable generation in Europe and Germany. In a first step, the theoretical concepts of congestion management are introduced complemented by a review of current management regimes in selected countries. In the second step, the European approach of managing congestion on international as well as national transmission links is analyzed and the benefits of an integrated congestion management regime are quantified. It is concluded that benefits can be achieved by a closer cooperation of national transmission system operators (TSOs). Thirdly, the German congestion management regime is investigated and the impact of higher renewable generation up to 2020 on congestion management cost is determined. It is shown that a homogeneous and jointly development of generation and transmission infrastructure is a prerequisite for the application of congestion alleviation methods and once they diverge congestion management cost tend to increase substantially. Lastly, the impact of intermittent and uncertain wind generation on electricity markets is analyzed. A stochastic electricity market model is described, which replicates the daily subsequent clearing of reserve, day ahead, and intraday market typical for European countries, and numerical results are presented.

  20. Statewide planning scenario synthesis : transportation congestion measurement and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This study is a review of current practices in 13 states to: (1) measure traffic congestion and its costs; and (2) manage congestion with programs and techniques that do not involve the building of new highway capacity. In regard to the measures of c...

  1. Give or take? Rewards versus charges for a congested bottleneck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, J.; Verhoef, E.T.; Knockaert, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the possibilities to relieve traffic congestion using subsidies instead of Pigouvian taxes, as well as revenue-neutral combinations of rewards and taxes ('feebates'). The model considers a Vickrey-ADL model of bottleneck congestion with endogenous scheduling. With inelastic

  2. Management of congestive heart failure (CHF): a case report on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report on the management of Congestive Heart Failure is presented with emphasis on the use of DIGOXIN. Keywords: Congestive heart failure, Failing heart syndrome, Digoxin, Digoxin Toxicity. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. Exploring spatio-temporal patterns in traffic congestion data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels; Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    2017-01-01

    An efficient infrastructure is essential for economic development. However, economic growth has been closely connected to the increasing road transport. This increases traffic congestions significantly, and road network gets near or at its capacity limits. Hence, congestion has become a central...

  4. An Efficient Traffic Congestion Monitoring System on Internet of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc-Binh Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing intelligent transport systems (ITS do not fully consider and resolve accuracy, instantaneity, and compatibility challenges while resolving traffic congestion in Internet of Vehicles (IoV environments. This paper proposes a traffic congestion monitoring system, which includes data collection, segmented structure establishment, traffic-flow modelling, local segment traffic congestion prediction, and origin-destination traffic congestion service for drivers. Macroscopic model-based traffic-flow factors were formalized on the basis of the analysis results. Fuzzy rules-based local segment traffic congestion prediction was performed to determine the traffic congestion state. To enhance prediction efficiency, this paper presents a verification process for minimizing false predictions which is based on the Rankine-Hugoniot condition and an origin-destination traffic congestion service is also provided. To verify the feasibility of the proposed system, a prototype was implemented. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can effectively monitor traffic congestion in terms of accuracy and system response time.

  5. Management of Traffic Congestion in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilibald Premzl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of road vehicles is increasing, the benefits they affordhave been progressively diminished by external costs.Whereas traffic increases as we approach the centre, the roadand open space decreases. The greater specialisation allows thecity growth in size and in traffic attraction. In this way urbangrowth feeds itself !mer-urban transp011 facilities also becomemore extensive. Growth in size of the city generates greateramounts of traffic and can eventually give rise to agglomerationdiseconomies. Higher transport costs, offices and shops, attractedby the accessibility of central locations, gradually replaceresidential uses, people being forced to seek housing inthe suburbs. As the urban area expands and offices in the citycentre are built denser and highe1; traffic congestion increases.This may result in the fall in centra/land values, since accessibilitydiminishes with the saturation of transport network. Increasedpollution takes various forms as noise, smoke andovercrowded housing in the centre, urban decay in the transitionalzone as commercial development is anticipated.

  6. Stochastic Stability in Internet Router Congestion Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christine; Pyrga, Evangelia

    Congestion control at bottleneck routers on the internet is a long standing problem. Many policies have been proposed for effective ways to drop packets from the queues of these routers so that network endpoints will be inclined to share router capacity fairly and minimize the overflow of packets trying to enter the queues. We study just how effective some of these queuing policies are when each network endpoint is a self-interested player with no information about the other players’ actions or preferences. By employing the adaptive learning model of evolutionary game theory, we study policies such as Droptail, RED, and the greedy-flow-punishing policy proposed by Gao et al. [10] to find the stochastically stable states: the states of the system that will be reached in the long run.

  7. Xamoterol in severe congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangø, M; Lyngborg, K; Mehlsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Twelve patients in severe congestive heart failure were given placebo, 100 mg xamoterol (Corwin) twice daily and 200 mg xamoterol twice daily, respectively, in 3 two-week periods in a double-blind randomised study. At the end of each treatment period the patients were evaluated. No differences were...... found between placebo and xamoterol in the following parameters: New York Heart Association function group index, heart volume, body weight, exercise duration on bicycle and treadmill, heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest. However, during exercise we found significantly lower...... heart rate and rate-pressure product during xamoterol treatment. This reduction is probably indicating occupation of beta-adrenoreceptors with concomitant reduced oxygen consumption during exercise....

  8. Comparative Study on New AQM Mechanisms for Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna B B

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As usage of network goes increasing day by day, managing network traffic becomes a very difficult task. It is important to avoid high packet loss rates in the Internet. Congestion is the one of the major issue in the present networks. Congestion Control is one of the solutions adopted to solve the congestion issue and to control it. Numbers of queue management algorithms are proposed for congestion control and to reduce high packet loss rates. Active Queue Management (AQM is one such mechanism which provides better control over congestion. In this paper a study is made on recent load based AQM techniques that are proposed and its merits and shortfall is presented.

  9. Strategic Generation with Conjectured Transmission Price Responses in a Mixed Transmission Pricing System. Part 1. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2004-05-01

    The conjectured supply function (CSF) model calculates an oligopolistic equilibrium among competing generating companies (GenCos), presuming that GenCos anticipate that rival firms will react to price increases by expanding their sales at an assumed rate. The CSF model is generalized here to include each generator's conjectures concerning how the price of transmission services (point-to-point service and constrained interfaces) will be affected by the amount of those services that the generator demands. This generalization reflects the market reality that large producers will anticipate that they can favorably affect transmission prices by their actions. The model simulates oligopolistic competition among generators while simultaneously representing a mixed transmission pricing system. This mixed system includes fixed transmission tariffs, congestion-based pricing of physical transmission constraints (represented as a linearized dc load flow), and auctions of interface capacity in a path-based pricing system. Pricing inefficiencies, such as export fees and no credit for counterflows, can be simulated. The model is formulated as a linear mixed complementarity problem, which enables very large market models to be solved. In the second paper of this two-paper series, the capabilities of the model are illustrated with an application to northwest Europe, where transmission pricing is based on such a mixture of approaches

  10. The impact of a congestion assistant on traffic flow efficiency and safety in congested traffic caused by a lane drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Cornelie; van Arem, Bart

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulation study conducted to investigate the impact of a Congestion Assistant on traffic efficiency and traffic safety. The Congestion Assistant is an in-vehicle system in which an active pedal supports the driver when approaching

  11. Evaluating congestion management in the Dutch electricity transmission grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blijswijk, Martti J. van; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in electricity generation capacity in the Netherlands and a new connection policy, transmission system operator (TSO) TenneT expects a significant increase in congestion in the Dutch transmission grid. To manage this, the Dutch government implemented redispatching, a method which is argued in the literature to potentially impose large congestion costs upon the TSO. A quantitative model of the Dutch electricity system was developed in order to evaluate this method. The outcomes were compared to the performance of three alternative congestion management methods. Regardless of the method, congestion costs were found to be substantially lower than in previous studies. Because combined-cycle gas turbines are the marginal generation technology in almost all cases, the costs of up and down regulation do not differ much. Consequently, the redispatching costs for the TSO are expected to be relatively low, and the opportunities for abuse of market power appear to be limited. While all the evaluated methods are effective and economically efficient, they have significantly different welfare effects. Market splitting creates significantly larger welfare effects than the different varieties of redispatching. - Highlights: ► Congestion management was recently introduced in the Netherlands. ► We quantitatively evaluate the effects of its application. ► We compare this to other congestion management methods. ► Given the specific situation that the marginal cost curve of production is flat, congestion costs are expected to be low.

  12. Internet pricing: una breve rassegna critica (Internet Pricing: A Short Critical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sardoni

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, some recent literature on Internet pricing is surveyed. The author looks at the topic by setting it in the more general framework of the analysis of activities that can be regarded as similar to Internet from the technological and economic point of view. In particular, attention is focused on the problem of the divergence between private and social costs when there occurs network congestion and the problem of efficient prices in activities characterized by the existence of peak-loads. The author argues that dealing with such issues in the context of Internet cannot be reduced to a straightforward application of traditional results of welfare economics and the literature on peak-load pricing. In a competitive market with similar features to the market for Internet services, it is well possible that there do not exist incentives that induce firms to adopt price systems such as to prevent and/or eliminate congestion. Further theoretical and analytical developments are then in order.

  13. Congestion Management Strategies of Real-Time Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) will significantly challenge the power system operation and control due to their stochastic, intermittent, and fluctuation characteristics. This enhances the difficulty of congestion management of power systems in cross-border electricity...... are introduced with the congestion constraints complied. Pre-Contingency strategy is proposed as the advance preparation for the future congestion, and In-Day re-dispatch is used for regulation. Accordingly, the requirements on facilities considering telemetry and remote control in a fast manner are discussed...

  14. First-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Evangelista, David

    2018-04-30

    Mean-field games (MFGs) are models for large populations of competing rational agents that seek to optimize a suitable functional. In the case of congestion, this functional takes into account the difficulty of moving in high-density areas. Here, we study stationary MFGs with congestion with quadratic or power-like Hamiltonians. First, using explicit examples, we illustrate two main difficulties: the lack of classical solutions and the existence of areas with vanishing densities. Our main contribution is a new variational formulation for MFGs with congestion. With this formulation, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Finally, we consider applications to numerical methods.

  15. First-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Evangelista, David; Ferreira, Rita; Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Voskanyan, Vardan K.

    2018-01-01

    Mean-field games (MFGs) are models for large populations of competing rational agents that seek to optimize a suitable functional. In the case of congestion, this functional takes into account the difficulty of moving in high-density areas. Here, we study stationary MFGs with congestion with quadratic or power-like Hamiltonians. First, using explicit examples, we illustrate two main difficulties: the lack of classical solutions and the existence of areas with vanishing densities. Our main contribution is a new variational formulation for MFGs with congestion. With this formulation, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Finally, we consider applications to numerical methods.

  16. Dilated congestive cardiomyopathy in Doberman pinschers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy of Doberman Pinschers (DCDP) is a progressive disease often presenting with a history of episodic weakness and syncope, or with clinical signs of predominantly left-sided congestive heart failure. A systematic dissection and histomorphologic evaluation of the heart from 32 Doberman Pinschers with a clinical diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy revealed a highly specific location for the characteristic myocardial lesions. The lesions of DCDP were found only in the left ventricular free wall, and in 30 cases, the lesions were characterized by myofiber degeneration and atrophy, and replacement of myocardium by dense bundles of collagen and clusters of adipocytes. In the two remaining hearts, myofiber atrophy and degeneration were accompanied by collagen deposition, but not adipocytes. In stained longitudinal (base to apex) tissue sections of the left ventricle, the lesions of DCDP were usually apparent to the unaided eye; appearing as a central linear pale zone, aligned in the long axis of the ventricular free wall. The lesions did not contain inflammatory cell infiltrates and often involved >50% of ventricular wall

  17. Route Optimization for Offloading Congested Meter Fixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The Optimized Route Capability (ORC) concept proposed by the FAA facilitates traffic managers to identify and resolve arrival flight delays caused by bottlenecks formed at arrival meter fixes when there exists imbalance between arrival fixes and runways. ORC makes use of the prediction capability of existing automation tools, monitors the traffic delays based on these predictions, and searches the best reroutes upstream of the meter fixes based on the predictions and estimated arrival schedules when delays are over a predefined threshold. Initial implementation and evaluation of the ORC concept considered only reroutes available at the time arrival congestion was first predicted. This work extends previous work by introducing an additional dimension in reroute options such that ORC can find the best time to reroute and overcome the 'firstcome- first-reroute' phenomenon. To deal with the enlarged reroute solution space, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this problem. Experiments were conducted using the same traffic scenario used in previous work, when an arrival rush was created for one of the four arrival meter fixes at George Bush Intercontinental Houston Airport. Results showed the new approach further improved delay savings. The suggested route changes from the new approach were on average 30 minutes later than those using other approaches, and fewer numbers of reroutes were required. Fewer numbers of reroutes reduce operational complexity and later reroutes help decision makers deal with uncertain situations.

  18. Fair and efficient network congestion control based on minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuxi; Wang, Wen; Hu, Hanping; Deng, Zhaozhang

    2011-12-01

    Low link utility, RTT unfairness and unfairness of Multi-Bottleneck network are the existing problems in the present network congestion control algorithms at large. Through the analogy of network congestion control with the "El Farol Bar" problem, we establish a congestion control model based on minority game(MG), and then present a novel network congestion control algorithm based on the model. The result of simulations indicates that the proposed algorithm can make the achievements of link utility closing to 100%, zero packet lose rate, and small of queue size. Besides, the RTT unfairness and the unfairness of Multi-Bottleneck network can be solved, to achieve the max-min fairness in Multi-Bottleneck network, while efficiently weaken the "ping-pong" oscillation caused by the overall synchronization.

  19. Congested Link Inference Algorithms in Dynamic Routing IP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance descending of current congested link inference algorithms is obviously in dynamic routing IP network, such as the most classical algorithm CLINK. To overcome this problem, based on the assumptions of Markov property and time homogeneity, we build a kind of Variable Structure Discrete Dynamic Bayesian (VSDDB network simplified model of dynamic routing IP network. Under the simplified VSDDB model, based on the Bayesian Maximum A Posteriori (BMAP and Rest Bayesian Network Model (RBNM, we proposed an Improved CLINK (ICLINK algorithm. Considering the concurrent phenomenon of multiple link congestion usually happens, we also proposed algorithm CLILRS (Congested Link Inference algorithm based on Lagrangian Relaxation Subgradient to infer the set of congested links. We validated our results by the experiments of analogy, simulation, and actual Internet.

  20. Autonomous Congestion Control in Delay-Tolerant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott; Jennings, Esther; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights communication congestion control in delay-tolerant networks (DTNs). Large-scale future space exploration will offer complex communication challenges that may be best addressed by establishing a network infrastructure. However, current internet techniques for congestion control are not well suited for operation of a network over interplanetary distances. An alternative, delay-tolerant technique for congestion control in a delay-tolerant network is presented. A simple DTN was constructed and an experimental congestion control mechanism was applied. The mechanism appeared to be effective and each router was able to make its bundle acceptance decisions autonomously. Future research will examine more complex topologies and alternative bundle acceptance rules that might enhance performance.

  1. Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center vehicular and pedestrian traffic congestion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center of Tongass National Forest in Juneau, Alaska is experiencing vehicular and pedestrian congestion. This study was initiated by the United States Forest Service, Alaska Region, in cooperation with Western Federal L...

  2. Urban Partnership Agreement and Congestion Reduction Demonstration : National Evaluation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-21

    This report provides an analytical framework for evaluating six deployments under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) and Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) Programs. The six UPA/CRD sites...

  3. Developing Policy for Urban Autonomous Vehicles: Impact on Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An important problem for surface transport is road traffic congestion, which is ubiquitous and difficult to mitigate. Accordingly, a question for policymakers is the possible impact on congestion of autonomous vehicles. It seems likely that the main impact of vehicle automation will not be seen until driverless vehicles are sufficiently safe for use amid general traffic on urban streets. Shared use driverless vehicles could reduce the cost of taxis and a wider range of public transport vehicles could be economic. Individually owned autonomous vehicles would have the ability to travel unoccupied and may need to be regulated where this might add to congestion. It is possible that autonomous vehicles could provide mobility services at lower cost and wider scope, such that private car use in urban areas could decline and congestion reduce. City authorities should be alert to these possibilities in developing transport policy.

  4. Addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Saraiva de Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When considering hub-and-spoke networks with single allocation, the absence of alternative routes makes this kind of systems specially vulnerable to congestion effects. In order to improve the design of such networks, congestion costs must be addressed. This article deploys two different techniques for addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks: the Generalized Benders Decomposition and the Outer Approximation method. Both methods are able to solve large scale instances. Computational experiments show how the adoption of advanced solution strategies, such as Pareto-optimal cut generation on the Master Problem branch-and-bound tree, may be decisive. They also demonstrate that the solution effort is not only associated with the size of the instances, but also with their combination of the installation and congestion costs.

  5. A Novel Congestion Detection Scheme in TCP Over OBS Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han; Zhang, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel congestion detection scheme for high-bandwidth TCP flows over optical burst switching (OBS) networks, called statistical additive increase multiplicative decrease (SAIMD). SAIMD maintains and analyzes a number

  6. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lingyi Zhou; Yixin Dai

    2017-01-01

    Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and poli...

  7. CONGESTION AS A RESULT OF SCHOOL AND SHOPPING CENTER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Kumaat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of land use in public facilities such as shopping center and school gives an impact on transportation problem in Manado City, North Sulawesi.  To determine factors which have causal relationship with congestion  as a result of school and shopping center activity then it need to be assessed and studied.  Descriptive study with observational survey was used in this study. The study ran Structural Equation Modelling (SEM by using AMOS program. Estimated method was used to calculate sample size then found 300 repondents, comprised : visitors and mall managers, school visitors, parents, school managers, Public Works department, and urban planning department .The study yielded a statistically significant correlation between  school and shopping center activity with congestion s. The result  indicated that school activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. Shopping center activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. The closer proximity from school to shooping center will causes severe traffic congestion. The relationship between school facility with proximity was found in p value at  p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05 . The relationship between shopping center facility with proximity was found in p value at  p= 0,020 (p ≤ 0,05. While, the relationship between proximity with congestion was p= 0,008 (p ≤ 0,05. Monastery school and Mega Mall activity were affecting congestion because a closer proximity of two facilities. This indicates that the occurence of traffic congestion in Monastery School  may be dependent on existence of  Piere Tendean road link

  8. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Cárdenas-Benítez; Raúl Aquino-Santos; Pedro Magaña-Espinoza; José Aguilar-Velazco; Arthur Edwards-Block; Aldo Medina Cass

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO2 and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which ...

  9. Public Capital, Congestion and Private Production in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Lei Song

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an empirical investigation into the impact of public capital on the private sector’s economic activity in Australia. In particular, it is assumed that the contribution of public capital to private factor productivity is subject to congestion. New data sets of capital stocks and private output are constructed for the Australian economy. By estimating flexible functional forms of private sector production functions with congestion in public capital services, the paper shows that p...

  10. Coordination of Nordic system operators in the electric power market - profit from improved capacity utilization and a more flexible division into price zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2001-08-01

    This report evaluates the possible profits of establishing a common system operator function in the Nordic electric power market. The main focus is placed on how to deal with congestion in the transmission grid. To estimate possible profits from a better utilization of the resources in the Nordic grid, the authors have analyzed socio-economic profits for several load scenarios. A simplified model of the Nordic stock area was used in the calculations. The existence of two methods of dealing with congestion in the grid may lead to reduced capacity utilization and to greater price differences than necessary. The examples show that ''indirect'' congestion control may be very expensive and that considerable cost reduction can be achieved by improved exploitation of congestion. This implies that if the Nordic area is divided into price zones, it is advantageous to regard the grid as an entity independent of national borders and system operators and to let the real transmission limitations determine the price zoning

  11. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Monechi

    Full Text Available Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  12. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Servedio, Vito D P; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  13. Local empathy provides global minimization of congestion in communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Sandro; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2010-11-01

    We present a mechanism to avoid congestion in complex networks based on a local knowledge of traffic conditions and the ability of routers to self-coordinate their dynamical behavior. In particular, routers make use of local information about traffic conditions to either reject or accept information packets from their neighbors. We show that when nodes are only aware of their own congestion state they self-organize into a hierarchical configuration that delays remarkably the onset of congestion although leading to a sharp first-order-like congestion transition. We also consider the case when nodes are aware of the congestion state of their neighbors. In this case, we show that empathy between nodes is strongly beneficial to the overall performance of the system and it is possible to achieve larger values for the critical load together with a smooth, second-order-like, transition. Finally, we show how local empathy minimize the impact of congestion as much as global minimization. Therefore, here we present an outstanding example of how local dynamical rules can optimize the system’s functioning up to the levels reached using global knowledge.

  14. Stochastic congestion management in power markets using efficient scenario approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Amjady, Nima; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali

    2010-01-01

    Congestion management in electricity markets is traditionally performed using deterministic values of system parameters assuming a fixed network configuration. In this paper, a stochastic programming framework is proposed for congestion management considering the power system uncertainties comprising outage of generating units and transmission branches. The Forced Outage Rate of equipment is employed in the stochastic programming. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, possible scenarios of power system operating states are generated and a probability is assigned to each scenario. The performance of the ordinary as well as Lattice rank-1 and rank-2 Monte Carlo simulations is evaluated in the proposed congestion management framework. As a tradeoff between computation time and accuracy, scenario reduction based on the standard deviation of accepted scenarios is adopted. The stochastic congestion management solution is obtained by aggregating individual solutions of accepted scenarios. Congestion management using the proposed stochastic framework provides a more realistic solution compared with traditional deterministic solutions. Results of testing the proposed stochastic congestion management on the 24-bus reliability test system indicate the efficiency of the proposed framework.

  15. Congestion management considering voltage security of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima

    2009-01-01

    Congestion in a power network is turned up due to system operating limits. To relieve congestion in a deregulated power market, the system operator pays to market participants, GENCOs and DISCOs, to alter their active powers considering their bids. After performing congestion management, the network may be operated with a low security level because of hitting some flows their upper limit and some voltages their lower limit. In this paper, a novel congestion management method based on the voltage stability margin sensitivities is introduced. Using the proposed method, the system operator so alleviates the congestion that the network can more retain its security. The proposed method not only makes the system more secure after congestion management than other methods already presented for this purpose but also its cost of providing security is lower than the earlier methods. Test results of the proposed method along with the earlier ones on the New-England test system elaborate the efficiency of the proposed method from the viewpoint of providing a better voltage stability margin and voltage profile as well as a lower security cost. (author)

  16. A theory of traffic congestion at heavy bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S [Daimler AG, GR/ETI, HPC: G021, 71059 Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2008-05-30

    Spatiotemporal features and physics of vehicular traffic congestion occurring due to heavy highway bottlenecks caused for example by bad weather conditions or accidents are found based on simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. A model of a heavy bottleneck is presented. Under a continuous non-limited increase in bottleneck strength, i.e., when the average flow rate within a congested pattern allowed by the heavy bottleneck decreases continuously up to zero, the evolution of the traffic phases in congested traffic, synchronized flow and wide moving jams, is studied. It is found that at a small enough flow rate within the congested pattern, the pattern exhibits a non-regular structure: a pinch region of synchronized flow within the pattern disappears and appears randomly over time; wide moving jams upstream of the pinch region exhibit a complex non-regular dynamics in which the jams appear and disappear randomly. At greater bottleneck strengths, wide moving jams merge onto a mega-wide moving jam (mega-jam) within which low-speed patterns with a complex non-regular spatiotemporal dynamics occur. We show that when the bottleneck strength is great enough, only the mega-jam survives and synchronized flow remains only within its downstream front separating free flow and congested traffic. Theoretical results presented can explain why no sequence of wide moving jams can often be distinguished in non-homogeneous traffic congestion measured at very heavy bottlenecks caused by bad weather conditions or accidents.

  17. A theory of traffic congestion at heavy bottlenecks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal features and physics of vehicular traffic congestion occurring due to heavy highway bottlenecks caused for example by bad weather conditions or accidents are found based on simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. A model of a heavy bottleneck is presented. Under a continuous non-limited increase in bottleneck strength, i.e., when the average flow rate within a congested pattern allowed by the heavy bottleneck decreases continuously up to zero, the evolution of the traffic phases in congested traffic, synchronized flow and wide moving jams, is studied. It is found that at a small enough flow rate within the congested pattern, the pattern exhibits a non-regular structure: a pinch region of synchronized flow within the pattern disappears and appears randomly over time; wide moving jams upstream of the pinch region exhibit a complex non-regular dynamics in which the jams appear and disappear randomly. At greater bottleneck strengths, wide moving jams merge onto a mega-wide moving jam (mega-jam) within which low-speed patterns with a complex non-regular spatiotemporal dynamics occur. We show that when the bottleneck strength is great enough, only the mega-jam survives and synchronized flow remains only within its downstream front separating free flow and congested traffic. Theoretical results presented can explain why no sequence of wide moving jams can often be distinguished in non-homogeneous traffic congestion measured at very heavy bottlenecks caused by bad weather conditions or accidents

  18. A theory of traffic congestion at moving bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S [Daimler AG, GR/PTF, HPC: G021, 71059 Sindelfingen (Germany); Klenov, Sergey L, E-mail: boris.kerner@daimler.co [Department of Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-22

    The physics of traffic congestion occurring at a moving bottleneck on a multi-lane road is revealed based on the numerical analyses of vehicular traffic with a discrete stochastic traffic flow model in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. We find that there is a critical speed of a moving bottleneck at which traffic breakdown, i.e. a first-order phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow, occurs spontaneously at the moving bottleneck, if the flow rate upstream of the bottleneck is great enough. The greater the flow rate, the higher the critical speed of the moving bottleneck. A diagram of congested traffic patterns at the moving bottleneck is found, which shows regions in the flow-rate-moving-bottleneck-speed plane in which congested patterns emerge spontaneously or can be induced through large enough disturbances in an initial free flow. A comparison of features of traffic breakdown and resulting congested patterns at the moving bottleneck with known ones at an on-ramp (and other motionless) bottleneck is made. Nonlinear features of complex interactions and transformations of congested traffic patterns occurring at on- and off-ramp bottlenecks due to the existence of the moving bottleneck are found. The physics of the phenomenon of traffic congestion due to 'elephant racing' on a multi-lane road is revealed.

  19. A theory of traffic congestion at moving bottlenecks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L

    2010-01-01

    The physics of traffic congestion occurring at a moving bottleneck on a multi-lane road is revealed based on the numerical analyses of vehicular traffic with a discrete stochastic traffic flow model in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. We find that there is a critical speed of a moving bottleneck at which traffic breakdown, i.e. a first-order phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow, occurs spontaneously at the moving bottleneck, if the flow rate upstream of the bottleneck is great enough. The greater the flow rate, the higher the critical speed of the moving bottleneck. A diagram of congested traffic patterns at the moving bottleneck is found, which shows regions in the flow-rate-moving-bottleneck-speed plane in which congested patterns emerge spontaneously or can be induced through large enough disturbances in an initial free flow. A comparison of features of traffic breakdown and resulting congested patterns at the moving bottleneck with known ones at an on-ramp (and other motionless) bottleneck is made. Nonlinear features of complex interactions and transformations of congested traffic patterns occurring at on- and off-ramp bottlenecks due to the existence of the moving bottleneck are found. The physics of the phenomenon of traffic congestion due to 'elephant racing' on a multi-lane road is revealed.

  20. Congestion Quantification Using the National Performance Management Research Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia P. Sisiopiku

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of transportation system performance is a key element of any transportation operation and planning strategy. Estimation of dependable performance measures relies on analysis of large amounts of traffic data, which are often expensive and difficult to gather. National databases can assist in this regard, but challenges still remain with respect to data management, accuracy, storage, and use for performance monitoring. In an effort to address such challenges, this paper showcases a process that utilizes the National Performance Management Research Data Set (NPMRDS for generating performance measures for congestion monitoring applications in the Birmingham region. The capabilities of the relational database management system (RDBMS are employed to manage the large amounts of NPMRDS data. Powerful visual maps are developed using GIS software and used to illustrate congestion location, extent and severity. Travel time reliability indices are calculated and utilized to quantify congestion, and congestion intensity measures are developed and employed to rank and prioritize congested segments in the study area. The process for managing and using big traffic data described in the Birmingham case study is a great example that can be replicated by small and mid-size Metropolitan Planning Organizations to generate performance-based measures and monitor congestion in their jurisdictions.

  1. A NEW CONGESTION MANAGEMENT MECHANISM FOR NEXT GENERATION ROUTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED M. KADHUM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available While computer networks go towards dealing with varied traffic types with different service requirements, there is a necessity for modern network control mechanisms that can control the network traffic to meet the users' service requirements. Optimizing the network utilization by improving the network performance can help to accommodate more users and thus increase operators’ profits. Controlling the congestion at the gateway leads to better performance of the network. Sending congestion signal sooner can be of great benefit to the TCP connection. In this paper, we propose Fast Congestion Notification (FCN mechanism which is a new method for managing the gateway queues and fast sending of congestion signal to the sender. We tested our mechanism on Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN packets which have higher priority; we achieved good results in terms of faster congestion signal propagation and better network utilization. Our analysis and simulations results show that the use of FCN over TCP connections sharing one bottleneck can improve the throughput, having less loss, less delay time, and better network utilization.

  2. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  3. MARKET ECONOMICS PRICING PARTICULARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Parshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The price performs several economic functions: accounting, stimulation, distribution, demand and offer balancing, serving as production site rational choice criterion, information. Most important pricing principles are: price scientific and purpose-aimed substantiation, single pricing and price control process. Pricing process factors are external, internal, basic (independent on money-market, market-determined and controlling. Different pricing methods and models are to be examined, recommendations on practical application of those chosen are to be written.

  4. Transmission congestion and voltage profile management coordination in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin, H.Y.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a generalized active/reactive iterative coordination process between GENCOs and the Independent System Operator (ISO) for active (transmission congestion) and reactive (voltage profile) management in the day-ahead market. GENCOs apply priced-based unit commitment without transmission and voltage security constraints, schedule their units and submit their initial bids to the ISO. The ISO executes congestion and voltage profile management for eliminating transmission and voltage profile violations. If violations are not eliminated, the ISO minimizes the transmission and voltage profile violations and sends a signal via the Internet to GENCOs. GENCOs reschedule their units taking into account the ISO signals and submit modified bids to the ISO. The voltage problem is addressed and a linear model is formulated and used in the proposed method. The voltage problem is formulated as a linear programming with a block-angular structure and Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition is applied to generate several smaller problems for a faster and easier solution of large-scale power systems. Two 36 unit GENCOs are used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed generalized active/reactive coordination algorithm. (author)

  5. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing for Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruoyang; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method designed to alleviate congestion induced by electric vehicle (EV) loads in future power systems. In the proposed approach, the distribution system operator (DSO) determines distribution locational marginal...... shown that the socially optimal charging schedule can be implemented through a decentralized mechanism where loads respond autonomously to the posted DLMPs by maximizing their individual net surplus...

  6. Phasing in wind-power in Norway: Network congestion and crowding-out of hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsund, Finn R.; Singh, Balbir; Jensen, Trond; Larsen, Cato

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects on utilisation of existing hydropower in a region of investing in significant wind-power in the region within the present network. Policy simulations are conducted using a dynamic system-wide model that is calibrated to reflect the structure of the Nordic power market. This model is the one used by the Norwegian electricity regulator and large hydropower companies in Norway for scheduling of hydro and market analyses. Simulations are carried out for different inflow situations based on past observations going back 60 years. Introduction of wind-power leads to significant increase in network congestion in the region, lower hydropower production, higher level of storage, increased spillage of water, and considerably lower price level in the local region in question

  7. Hydropower planning coordinated with wind power in areas with congestion problems for trading on the spot and the regulating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Julija; Olsson, Magnus; Soeder, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a day-ahead planning algorithm for a multi-reservoir hydropower system coordinated with wind power is developed. Coordination applies to real situations, where wind power and hydropower are owned by different utilities, sharing the same transmission lines, though hydropower has priority for transmission capacity. Coordination is thus necessary to minimize wind energy curtailments during congestion situations. The planning algorithm accounts for the uncertainty of wind power forecasts and power market price uncertainty. Planning for the spot market and the regulating market is considered in the algorithm. The planning algorithm is applied to a case study and the results are summarized in the paper. (author)

  8. Flow-based market coupling. Stepping stone towards nodal pricing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Welle, A.J.

    2012-07-01

    For achieving one internal energy market for electricity by 2014, market coupling is deployed to integrate national markets into regional markets and ultimately one European electricity market. The extent to which markets can be coupled depends on the available transmission capacities between countries. Since interconnections are congested from time to time, congestion management methods are deployed to divide the scarce available transmission capacities over market participants. For further optimization of the use of available transmission capacities while maintaining current security of supply levels, flow-based market coupling (FBMC) will be implemented in the CWE region by 2013. Although this is an important step forward, important hurdles for efficient congestion management remain. Hence, flow based market coupling is compared to nodal pricing, which is often considered as the most optimal solution from theoretical perspective. In the context of decarbonised power systems it is concluded that advantages of nodal pricing are likely to exceed its disadvantages, warranting further development of FBMC in the direction of nodal pricing.

  9. Electricity transmission pricing: Tracing based point-of-connection tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhyankar, A.R.; Khaparde, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Point-of-connection (POC) scheme of transmission pricing in decentralized markets charges the participants a single rate per MW depending on their point-of-connection. Use of grossly aggregated postage stamp rates as POC charges fails to provide appropriate price signals. The POC tariff based on distribution of network sunk costs by employing conventional tracing assures recovery of sunk costs based on extent of use of network by participants. However, the POC tariff by this method does not accommodate economically efficient price signals which correspond to marginal costs. On the other hand, the POC tariff, if made proportional to marginal costs alone, fails to account for sunk costs and extent of use of network. This paper overcomes these lacunae by combining the above stated desired objectives under the recently proposed optimal tracing framework. Since real power tracing problem is amenable to multiple solutions, it is formulated as linearly constrained optimization problem. By employing this methodology, consideration of extent of network use and sunk cost recovery are guaranteed, while objective function is designed such that the spatial pattern of price signals closely follows the pattern of scaled locational marginal prices. The methodology is tested on IEEE 30 bus system, wherein average power flow pattern is established by running various simulation states on congested and un-congested network conditions. (author)

  10. Optimal Energy Management for the Integrated Power and Gas Systems via Real-time Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, KangAn; Ai, Xiaomeng; Wen, Jinyu

    2018-01-01

    This work proposed a bi-level formulation for energy management in the integrated power and natural gas system via real-time price signals. The upper-level problem minimizes the operational cost, in which dynamic electricity price and dynamic gas tariff are proposed. The lower level problem...... and P2Gs plants follow the system operator’s preferences such as wind power accommodation, mitigation of unsupplied load and relieving the network congestion....

  11. Optimal model of congestion management in deregulated environment of power sector with promotion of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, Yog Raj; Singh, Randhir

    2010-01-01

    In the competitive electricity market it becomes very much important to give special consideration for development of renewable energy sources (RESs) due to environmental and other social problems related with conventional generations. So this paper presents an optimal model of congestion management with special emphasis for promotion of RES in competitive electricity market. This paper presents a generalized optimal model of congestion management for deregulated power sector that dispatches the pool in combination with privately negotiated bilateral and multilateral contracts while maximizing social benefit. This model determines the locational marginal pricing (LMP) based on marginal cost theory. It also determines the size of non-firm transactions as well as pool demand and generations. Both firms as well as non-firm transactions are considered in this model. The proposed model has been applied to IEEE-30 bus test system with addition of some RES for analysis of the proposed model. The RES supplies its power to load either through the firm transaction or through power pool. The power from RES is not subjected to any curtailment in proposed model of congestion management. (author)

  12. CHOOSING CONGESTION PRICING POLICY: CORDON TOLLS VS. LINK-BASED TOLLS. (R831450)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Towards Scalable Distributed Framework for Urban Congestion Traffic Patterns Warehousing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boulmakoul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We put forward architecture of a framework for integration of data from moving objects related to urban transportation network. Most of this research refers to the GPS outdoor geolocation technology and uses distributed cloud infrastructure with big data NoSQL database. A network of intelligent mobile sensors, distributed on urban network, produces congestion traffic patterns. Congestion predictions are based on extended simulation model. This model provides traffic indicators calculations, which fuse with the GPS data for allowing estimation of traffic states across the whole network. The discovery process of congestion patterns uses semantic trajectories metamodel given in our previous works. The challenge of the proposed solution is to store patterns of traffic, which aims to ensure the surveillance and intelligent real-time control network to reduce congestion and avoid its consequences. The fusion of real-time data from GPS-enabled smartphones integrated with those provided by existing traffic systems improves traffic congestion knowledge, as well as generating new information for a soft operational control and providing intelligent added value for transportation systems deployment.

  14. A Novel Congestion Detection Scheme in TCP Over OBS Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2009-02-01

    This paper introduces a novel congestion detection scheme for high-bandwidth TCP flows over optical burst switching (OBS) networks, called statistical additive increase multiplicative decrease (SAIMD). SAIMD maintains and analyzes a number of previous round-trip time (RTTs) at the TCP senders in order to identify the confidence with which a packet loss event is due to network congestion. The confidence is derived by positioning short-term RTT in the spectrum of long-term historical RTTs. The derived confidence corresponding to the packet loss is then taken in the developed policy for TCP congestion window adjustment. We will show through extensive simulation that the proposed scheme can effectively solve the false congestion detection problem and significantly outperform the conventional TCP counterparts without losing fairness. The advantages gained in our scheme are at the expense of introducing more overhead in the SAIMD TCP senders. Based on the proposed congestion control algorithm, a throughput model is formulated, and is further verified by simulation results.

  15. Traffic Congestion Detection and Avoidance using Vehicular Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Narendrabhai Upadhyaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a serious problem in big cities. With the number of vehicles increasing rapidly, especially in cities whose economy is booming, the situation is getting even worse. Drivers, unaware of congestion ahead eventually join it and increase the severity of it. The ability of a driver to know the traffic conditions on the roads ahead enables him/her to seek alternate routes through which time and fuel can be saved. Due to recent advancements in vehicular technologies, vehicular communication has emerged. The objective of this work is to check feasibility of using infrastructure based vehicular communication for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. In this paper we propose a Signal Agent (SA and Car Agent(CAbased approach for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. We analyze performance of the proposed approach for two different road network scenarios using simulations: structured grid network (like Gandhinagar City of Gujarat, India and apart of typical city road network ( Tiwan city. With the proposed approach we get reduction of 10.05% in trip duration of vehicles, reduction of 10.08% in number of vehicles in entire traffic road network and 9.82% in heavy traffic area. In an accident scenario, about 72.63% vehicles changed their route due to awareness of congestion. Error in trip time estimation and vehicle count estimation is observed to be less than 1%.

  16. Traveler response to coexisting multiple pricing schemes results of elaborated mixture-amount experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khademi, E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Borgers, A.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Many academics and transportation planners seem convinced that pricing schemes may be one of the most effective policy instruments to change travelers' behavior, to minimize congestion and emissions, or to optimize system use otherwise. Consequently, much empirical work has been conducted, although

  17. Price-based optimal control of power flow in electrical energy transmission networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Bemporad, A.; Bicchi, A.; Buttazzo, G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a novel control scheme for achieving optimal power balancing and congestion control in electrical energy transmission networks via nodal prices. We develop an explicit controller that guarantees economically optimal steady-state operation while respecting all line flow

  18. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing for Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging through Chance Constrained Mixed-Integer Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method through chance constrained mixed-integer programming designed to alleviate the possible congestion in the future distribution network with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs). In order to represent the stochastic...

  19. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    -competitive (monopolistic) markets. We then introduce a regulated intermediate price above the oligopoly price and below the monopoly price. The effect in monopolies is more or less in line with standard intuition. As price falls volume increases and so does quality, such that overall efficiency is raised by 50%. However......We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non...

  20. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing... advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent butterfat, component prices, and advanced pricing factors shall be as follows. The prices and pricing factors described...

  1. Performance analysis of SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfield, David R.; Millsteed, Gregory K.; Zukerman, Moshe

    1994-04-01

    Congestion controls are a key factor in achieving the robust performance required of common channel signaling (CCS) networks in the face of partial network failures and extreme traffic loads, especially as networks become large and carry high traffic volume. The CCITT recommendations define a number of types of congestion control, and the parameters of the controls must be well set in order to ensure their efficacy under transient and sustained signalling network overload. The objective of this paper is to present a modeling approach to the determination of the network parameters that govern the performance of the SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload. Results of the investigation by simulation are presented and discussed.

  2. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Benítez, Néstor; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Magaña-Espinoza, Pedro; Aguilar-Velazco, José; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Medina Cass, Aldo

    2016-04-28

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO₂ and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  3. TCP Congestion Control for the Networks with Markovian Jump Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOMENI, H. R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of TCP congestion control for the class of communication networks with random parameters. The linear dynamic model of TCP New Reno in congestion avoidance mode is considered which contains round trip delays in both state and input. The randomness of link capacity, round trip time delay and the number of TCP sessions is modeled with a continuous-time finite state Markov process. An Active Queue Management (AQM technique is then used to adjust the queue level of the congested link to a predefined value. For this purpose, a dynamic output feedback controller with mode dependent parameters is synthesized to stochastically stabilize the TCP/AQM dynamics. The procedure of the control synthesis is implemented by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI. The results are tested within a simulation example and the effectiveness of the proposed design method is verified.

  4. Involvement of systemic venous congestion in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Gracia, J; Sánchez Marteles, M; Pérez Calvo, J I

    2017-04-01

    Systemic venous congestion has gained significant importance in the interpretation of the pathophysiology of acute heart failure, especially in the development of renal function impairment during exacerbations. In this study, we review the concept, clinical characterisation and identification of venous congestion. We update current knowledge on its importance in the pathophysiology of acute heart failure and its involvement in the prognosis. We pay special attention to the relationship between abdominal congestion, the pulmonary interstitium as filtering membrane, inflammatory phenomena and renal function impairment in acute heart failure. Lastly, we review decongestion as a new therapeutic objective and the measures available for its assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  5. Competitive Pricing by a Price Leader

    OpenAIRE

    Abhik Roy; Dominique M. Hanssens; Jagmohan S. Raju

    1994-01-01

    We examine the problem of pricing in a market where one brand acts as a price leader. We develop a procedure to estimate a leader's price rule, which is optimal given a sales target objective, and allows for the inclusion of demand forecasts. We illustrate our estimation procedure by calibrating this optimal price rule for both the leader and the follower using data on past sales and prices from the mid-size sedan segment of the U.S. automobile market. Our results suggest that a leader-follow...

  6. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from management accounting aspects to show out the role of the accounting system in the short term and long term pricing and transfer pricing decisions.

  7. Congestion estimation technique in the optical network unit registration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geunyong; Yoo, Hark; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Youngsun; Lim, Hyuk

    2016-07-01

    We present a congestion estimation technique (CET) to estimate the optical network unit (ONU) registration success ratio for the ONU registration process in passive optical networks. An optical line terminal (OLT) estimates the number of collided ONUs via the proposed scheme during the serial number state. The OLT can obtain congestion level among ONUs to be registered such that this information may be exploited to change the size of a quiet window to decrease the collision probability. We verified the efficiency of the proposed method through simulation and experimental results.

  8. Stem Cell Therapy for Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunduz E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHeart failure is a major cardiovascular health problem. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of congestive heart failure (CHF [1]. Cardiac transplantation remains the most effective long-term treatment option, however is limited primarily by donor availability, rejection and infections. Mechanical circulatory support has its own indications and limitations [2]. Therefore, there is a need to develop more effective therapeutic strategies.Recently, regenerative medicine has received considerable scientific attention in the cardiovascular arena. We report here our experience demonstrating the beneficial effects of cardiac stem cell therapy on left ventricular functions in a patient with Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL who developed CHF due to ischemic heart disease during the course of lymphoma treatment. Case reportA 58-year-old male with relapsed HL was referred to our bone marrow transplantation unit in October 2009. He was given 8 courses of combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine (ABVD between June 2008 and February 2009 and achieved complete remission. However, his disease relapsed 3 months after completing the last cycle of ABVD and he was decided to be treated with DHAP (cisplatin, cytarabine, dexamethasone followed autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT. After the completion of first course of DHAP regimen, he developed acute myocardial infarction (AMI and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG was performed. After his cardiac function stabilized, 3 additional courses of DHAP were given and he was referred to our centre for consideration of autologous SCT. Computed tomography scans obtained after chemotherapy confirmed complete remission. Stem cells were collected from peripheral blood after mobilization with 10 µg/kg/day granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF subcutaneously. Collection was started on the fifth day of G-CSF and performed for 3 consecutive days. Flow cytometric

  9. Delay-based virtual congestion control in multi-tenant datacenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Zhu, Danhong; Zhang, Dong

    2018-03-01

    With the evolution of cloud computing and virtualization, the congestion control of virtual datacenters has become the basic issue for multi-tenant datacenters transmission. Regarding to the friendly conflict of heterogeneous congestion control among multi-tenant, this paper proposes a delay-based virtual congestion control, which translates the multi-tenant heterogeneous congestion control into delay-based feedback uniformly by setting the hypervisor translation layer, modifying three-way handshake of explicit feedback and packet loss feedback and throttling receive window. The simulation results show that the delay-based virtual congestion control can effectively solve the unfairness of heterogeneous feedback congestion control algorithms.

  10. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  11. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    On April 1, 2005, Denmark changed the way references prices, a main determinant of reimbursements for pharmaceutical purchases, are calculated. The previous reference prices, which were based on average EU prices, were substituted to minimum domestic prices. Novel to the literature, we estimate...... the joint eects of this reform on prices and quantities. Prices decreased more than 26 percent due to the reform, which reduced patient and government expenditures by 3.0 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively, and producer revenues by 5.0 percent. The prices of expensive products decreased more than...

  12. One TV, One Price?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Imbs; Haroon Mumtaz; Morten O. Ravn; Hélène Rey

    2009-01-01

    We use a unique dataset on television prices across European countries and regions to investigate the sources of differences in price levels. Our findings are as follows: (i) Quality is a crucial determinant of price differences. Even in an integrated economic zone as Europe, rich economies tend to consume higher quality goods. This effect accounts for the lion’s share of international price dispersion. (ii) Sizable international price differentials subsist even for the same television sets. ...

  13. Value-based pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  14. Clinical outcome of ovarian vein embolization in pelvic congestion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), is a condition associated with ovarian vein (OV) incompetence among other causes. It is manifested by chronic pelvic pain with associated dyspareunia and dysmenorrhea. The diagnosis of PCS is often overlooked and the management can be difficult. Traditional therapy for ...

  15. A case of congestive heart failure induced by therapeutic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushigami, Motohiko; Suruda, Hidetoshi; Mizukoshi, Masato; Umemoto, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Setsuko; Yamamoto, Katsuhiro; Ueno, Yuji; Nishio, Ichiro; Masuyama, Yoshiaki

    1985-01-01

    Valvular insufficiency in radiation-induced heart disease is very rare. We described a patient, 53 years old woman, who developed congestive heart failure 2.5 years later following radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. The findings on examinations including cardiac catheterization revealed pericarditis with effusion, mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency and pulmonary infarction. (author)

  16. Case of congestive heart failure induced by therapeutic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushigami, Motohiko; Suruda, Hidetoshi; Mizukoshi, Masato; Umemoto, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Setsuko; Yamamoto, Katsuhiro; Ueno, Yuji; Nishio, Ichiro; Masuyama, Yoshiaki

    1985-02-01

    Valvular insufficiency in radiation-induced heart disease is very rare. We described a patient, 53 years old woman, who developed congestive heart failure 2.5 years later following radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. The findings on examinations including cardiac catheterization revealed pericarditis with effusion, mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency and pulmonary infarction. (author).

  17. Determinants of Traffic Congestion in the Metropolis of Douala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, urban agglomeration used as a proxy for traffic congestion has a negative effect on urban growth and economic growth. Based on the above results, it is recommended that a remedial infrastructural development plan and a sustainable polycentric land use pattern with alternative efficient mode of public ...

  18. Chest ultrasound and hidden lung congestion in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, Vincenzo; Enia, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Rocco; Torino, Claudia; Garozzo, Maurizio; Battaglia, Giovanni Giorgio; Marcantoni, Carmelita; Infantone, Lorena; Giordano, Guido; De Giorgi, Maria Loreta; Lupia, Mario; Bruzzese, Vincenzo; Zoccali, Carmine

    2012-09-01

    Chest ultrasound (US) is a non-invasive well-validated technique for estimating extravascular lung water (LW) in patients with heart diseases and in end-stage renal disease. We systematically applied this technique to the whole peritoneal dialysis (PD) population of five dialysis units. We studied the cross-sectional association between LW, echocardiographic parameters, clinical [pedal oedema, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class] and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) markers of volume status in 88 PD patients. Moderate to severe lung congestion was evident in 41 (46%) patients. Ejection fraction was the echocardiographic parameter with the strongest independent association with LW (r = -0.40 P = 0.002). Oedema did not associate with LW on univariate and multivariate analysis. NYHA class was slightly associated with LW (r = 0.21 P = 0.05). Among patients with severe lung congestion, only 27% had pedal oedema and the majority (57%) had no dyspnoea (NYHA Class I). Similarly, the prevalence of patients with BIA, evidence of volume excess was small (11%) and not significantly different (P = 0.79) from that observed in patients with mild or no congestion (9%). In PD patients, LW by chest US reveals moderate to severe lung congestion in a significant proportion of asymptomatic patients. Intervention studies are necessary to prove the usefulness of chest US for optimizing the control of fluid excess in PD patients.

  19. On the inefficiency of equilibria in linear bottleneck congestion games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Keijzer (Bart); G. Schäfer (Guido); O. Telelis (Orestis); S. Kontogiannis (Spyros); E. Koutsoupias (Elias); P.G. Spirakis (Paul)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the inefficiency of equilibrium outcomes in bottleneck congestion games. These games model situations in which strategic players compete for a limited number of facilities. Each player allocates his weight to a (feasible) subset of the facilities with the goal to minimize the

  20. Study and Analysis of Congestion Management in Hybrid Electric Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayed Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The congestion management system is a systematic approach, collaboratively developed and implemented throughout a metropolitan region that provides for the safe and effective management and operation of new and existing transportation facilities through the use of demand reduction and operational management strat­e­gies. In this paper we try to present some points which should be investigated in congestion management problems. We calculate different kinds of congestion problems which may be occurred in our network. Here, the hybrid model is used to solve problems in the electricity market to solve the congestion problem in the network and Benders techniques is used together with an optimal power flow (OPF. In fact, by using of Benders algorithm the problem is divided into two major and minor problems. Therefore, the major problem related to the economy sector and no network is included and the minor problem is to solve the network and examine the accuracy of the network. Benders algorithm has been tested on a standard network IEEE 24 bus and Matlab software is used to implement the algorithm.

  1. Embolization to treat pelvic congestion syndrome and vulval varicose veins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, C.J.M. van der; Kempen, J.A.L. van; Schultze Kool, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of embolization for treating the symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS). METHODS: Twenty-one women with PCS who were treated with embolization at Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre between 2003 and 2008 were sent a questionnaire about their symptoms

  2. Congestion management enhancing transient stability of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima

    2010-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, where market parties try to maximize their profits, it is necessary to keep an acceptable level of power system security to retain the continuity of electricity services to customers at a reasonable cost. Congestion in a power system is turned up due to network limits. After relieving congestion, the network may be operated with a reduced transient stability margin because of increasing the contribution of risky participants. In this paper, a novel congestion management method based on a new transient stability criterion is introduced. Using the sensitivity of corrected transient stability margin with respect to generations and demands, the proposed method so alleviates the congestion that the network can more retain its transient security compared with earlier methods. The proposed transient stability index is constructed considering the likelihood of credible faults. Indeed, market parties participate by their security-effective bids rather than raw bids. Results of testing the proposed method along with the earlier ones on the New-England test system elaborate the efficiency of the proposed method from the viewpoint of providing a better transient stability margin with a lower security cost. (author)

  3. Finding social optima in congestion games with positive externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, B.; Schäfer, G.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a variant of congestion games where every player i expresses for each resource e and player j a positive externality, i.e., a value for being on e together with player j. Rather than adopting a game-theoretic perspective, we take an optimization point of view and consider the problem of

  4. Congestion in a city with a central bottleneck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Palma, André de

    2010-01-01

    We consider dynamic congestion in an urban setting where trip origins are spatially distributed. All travelers must pass through a downtown bottleneck in order to reach their destination in the CBD. Each traveler chooses departure time to maximize general concave scheduling utility. At equilibriu...

  5. Advanced carrier sensing to resolve local channel congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Robert K.; Brakemeier, Achim; Leinmüller, Tim; Kargl, Frank; Schäfer, Günther

    Communication performance in VANETs under high channel load is significantly degraded due to packet collisions and messages drops, also referred to as local channel congestion. So far, research was focused on the control of transmit power and the limitation of the messages rate to mitigate the

  6. Modelling and experimental study for automated congestion driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urhahne, Joseph; Piastowski, P.; van der Voort, Mascha C.; Bebis, G; Boyle, R.; Parvin, B.; Koracin, D.; Pavlidis, I.; Feris, R.; McGraw, T.; Elendt, M.; Kopper, R.; Ragan, E.; Ye, Z.; Weber, G.

    2015-01-01

    Taking a collaborative approach in automated congestion driving with a Traffic Jam Assist system requires the driver to take over control in certain traffic situations. In order to warn the driver appropriately, warnings are issued (“pay attention” vs. “take action”) due to a control transition

  7. Cost recovery of congested infrastructure under market power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2017-01-01

    The Mohring–Harwitz (1962) theorem states that the degree of self-financing of congested infrastructure is equal to the elasticity of the capacity cost function in the optimum, so that under neutral scale economies exact self-financing applies. The theorem breaks down when the infrastructure is used

  8. Congestion in a city with a central bottleneck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Palma, André de

    2012-01-01

    We consider dynamic congestion in an urban setting where trip origins are spatially distributed. All travelers must pass through a downtown bottleneck in order to reach their destination in the CBD. Each traveler chooses departure time to maximize general concave scheduling utility. We find that,...

  9. Mitigation of airspace congestion impact on airline networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In recent years European airspace has become increasingly congested and airlines can now observe that en-route capacity constraints are the fastest growing source of flight delays. In 2010 this source of delay accounted for 19% of all flight delays in Europe and has been increasing with an average...

  10. Smart curtailment for congestion management in LV distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A. N.M.M.; Rahman, M. T.; Nguyen, P. H.; Bliek, F. W.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of distributed energy resources (DERs) leads to capacity challenges, i.e. network congestions, in the low-voltage (LV) distribution networks. A number of strategies are being widely studied to tackle the challenges with direct switching actions such as load shedding or power

  11. Accessibility, Congestion and Travel Delays in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, Dea Christine; Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Andreasen, Manja Hoppe

    2015-01-01

    on to present a review of research into travel speed levels and congestion in Dar es Salaam. A set of city-wide maps of accessibility and delay levels are constructed based on available speed data and road network data obtained from the OpenStreetMap project and the findings are discussed with respect...

  12. The social cost of congestion games by imposing variable delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Díaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe a new coordination mechanism for non-atomic congestion games that leads to a (selfish social cost which is arbitrarily close to the non-selfish optimal. This mechanism incurs no additional cost, in contrast to tolls that typically differ from the social cost as expressed in terms of delays.

  13. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    OpenAIRE

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  14. Long Island Transportation Plan to Manage Congestion: Framework for Developing and Evaluating Improvement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-20

    The Long Island Transportation Plan to Manage Congestion (LITP 2000) will establish an integrated, multi-modal transportation program of cost-effective strategies to manage congestion and improve the movement of people and goods in Nassau and Suffolk...

  15. Increased walking variability in elderly persons with congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Forman, D. E.; Ladin, Z.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Wei, J. Y.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of congestive heart failure on a person's ability to walk at a steady pace while ambulating at a self-determined rate. SETTING: Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, a primary and tertiary teaching hospital, and a social activity center for elderly adults living in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven elderly subjects (aged 70-93 years) with well compensated congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association class I or II), seven elderly subjects (aged 70-79 years) without congestive heart failure, and 10 healthy young adult subjects (aged 20-30 years). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects walked for 8 minutes on level ground at their own selected walking rate. Footswitches were used to measure the time between steps. Step rate (steps/minute) and step rate variability were calculated for the entire walking period, for 30 seconds during the first minute of the walk, for 30 seconds during the last minute of the walk, and for the 30-second period when each subject's step rate variability was minimal. Group means and 5% and 95% confidence intervals were computed. MAIN RESULTS: All measures of walking variability were significantly increased in the elderly subjects with congestive heart failure, intermediate in the elderly controls, and lowest in the young subjects. There was no overlap between the three groups using the minimal 30-second variability (elderly CHF vs elderly controls: P young: P < 0.001), and no overlap between elderly subjects with and without congestive heart failure when using the overall variability. For all four measures, there was no overlap in any of the confidence intervals, and all group means were significantly different (P < 0.05).

  16. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Locational Prices in Capacity Subscription Market Considering Transmission Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Babaeinejad Sarookolaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on one of the most effective type of capacity markets named Capacity Subscription (CS market which is predicted to be widely used in the upcoming smart grids. Despite variant researches done about the mechanism and structure of capacity markets, their performances have been rarely tested in the presence of network constraints. Considering this deficiency, we tried to propose a new method to determine capacity prices in the network considering the transmission line flow limitations named Local capacity Prices (LP. This method is quite new and has not been tried before in any other similar researches. The philosophy of the proposed method is to determine capacity prices considering each consumer share of total peak demand. The first advantage of LP is that the consumers who benefit from the transmission facilities and are the responsible for transmission congestions, pay higher capacity prices than those whom their needed electricity is prepared locally. The second advantage of LP is that consumers connected to the same bus do not have to pay same capacity price due to their different shares of total peak demand. For more clarification, two other different methods named Branches Flow limit as a Global Limit (BFGL and Locational Capacity Prices (LCP are proposed and compared to the LP method in order to show LP method efficiency. The numerical results obtained from case studies show that the LP method follows more justice market procedure which results in more efficient capacity prices in comparison to BFGL and LCP methods.

  18. Bottleneck congestion and distribution of work start times: The economics of staggered work hours revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Henderson (1981), a number of studies examined the effect of staggered work hours by analyzing models of work start time choice that consider the trade-off between negative congestion externalities and positive production externalities. However, these studies described traffic congestion using flow congestion models. This study develops a model of work start time choice with bottleneck congestion and discloses the intrinsic properties of the model. To this end, this ...

  19. Beaconing Performance in IEEE 802.11p Vehicular Networks: the Effect of Radio Channel Congestion

    OpenAIRE

    Librino, Francesco; Renda, Maria Elena; Santi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of the beaconing mechanism underlying active safety vehicular applications in presence of different levels of channel congestion. The importance of this study lies in the fact that channel congestion is considered a major factor influencing communication performance in vehicular networks, and that ours is the first investigation of the effects of congestion based on extensive, real-world measurements. The results of our study reveal that congestion has ...

  20. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  1. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    OpenAIRE

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  2. The effects of average revenue regulation on electricity transmission investment and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Isamu

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two-part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist's expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occurs, average revenue regulation is allocatively more efficient than a Coasian two-part tariff if the level of capacity under average revenue regulation is higher than that under a Coasian two-part tariff. (author)

  3. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970....214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific transportation system; and (2...

  4. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific FH; and (2) Have CMS coverage...

  5. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and non...

  6. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe and...

  7. Fair decentralized data-rate congestion control for V2V communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belagal Math, C.; Li, H.; Heemstra De Groot, S.M.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Channel congestion is one of the most critical issues in IEEE 802.11p-based vehicular ad hoc networks because congestion may lead to unreliability of applications. As a counter measure, the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI), proposes a mandatory Decentralized Congestion Control

  8. Application for Single Price Auction Model (SPA) in AC Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachi, Tsunehisa; Fukutome, Suguru; Chen, Luonan; Makino, Yoshinori; Koshimizu, Gentarou

    This paper aims to develop a single price auction model with AC transmission network, based on the principle of maximizing social surplus of electricity market. Specifically, we first formulate the auction market as a nonlinear optimization problem, which has almost the same form as the conventional optimal power flow problem, and then propose an algorithm to derive both market clearing price and trade volume of each player even for the case of market-splitting. As indicated in the paper, the proposed approach can be used not only for the price evaluation of auction or bidding market but also for analysis of bidding strategy, congestion effect and other constraints or factors. Several numerical examples are used to demonstrate effectiveness of our method.

  9. Next Generations of Road Pricing: Social Welfare Enhancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid M. Rouhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a broad overview of road pricing from a social welfare perspective. I first examine two common objectives of road pricing: congestion management and profit making. My goal is to provide a guideline explaining how to promote a social-welfare-enhancing road pricing scheme. To this end, we should: (i consider and improve public transportation systems by providing more environment-friendly transport options; (ii include tolling profits in our welfare analysis (as opposed to what economists suggest since residents are the real owners of roads not users, and since some users are from outside the region and so might not be excluded from analysis; and (iii search for a holistic approach that takes into account system-wide impacts, disutility to users who change their travel behavior (i.e., switch to public transportation, shift their travel, or do not travel at all, and the impacts on land use, employment, and residents.

  10. Valuation Struggles over Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    of creating political markets, and political prices, here understood as market distortion. This paper studies the ‘politics’ of pricing by following the adoption of the first feed-in tariff in France. Pricing as a way of achieving non-economic ends, such as climate mitigation, brings the values of several...... public goods into play, all the while prompting a translation of these values into a single price. Following the struggles over the pricing of wind power in the early 2000s, the study illustrates that rather than a pollution of the market sphere by that of politics, a politics of pricing can be observed...

  11. On the long run effects of market splitting: Why more price zones might decrease welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Veronika; Martin, Alexander; Weibelzahl, Martin; Zöttl, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    In liberalized electricity markets we observe different approaches to congestion management. While nodal pricing is implemented in Canada and some markets in the United States, European markets are split up into a limited number of price zones with uniform prices, in order to at least partially realize the benefits of regional price differentiation. Zonal boundaries often coincide with national borders, but some countries are also split into multiple zones. In this paper we shed light on possible negative welfare effects of market splitting that arise in a model where investment incentives in new generation capacity are taken into account if zones are misspecified. We show that standard approaches to configure price zones – on the basis of projected nodal price differences or congested transmission capacity – may fail to suggest reasonable zone specifications. Also an adjustment of Available Transfer Capacities (ATCs) between zones or a switch to flow-based market splitting does not ensure positive welfare effects. Our analysis suggests that a careful and detailed evaluation of the system is needed to ensure a reasonable zone configuration. - Highlights: •We analyze investment and production in energy only markets with market splitting. •Market splitting can lead to decreased welfare even for reasonably chosen zones. •We identify the reasons for the negative impact of introducing prices zones.

  12. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  13. Retail Price Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Retail Price Model is a tool to estimate the average retail electricity prices - under both competitive and regulated market structures - using power sector projections and assumptions from the Energy Information Administration.

  14. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  15. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  16. Assessment of congestive heart failure in chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksson, L.; Sundin, A.; Smedby, Oe.; Albrektsson, P.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of observer variations and film-screen quality on the diagnosis of congestive heart failure based on chest radiographs was studied in 27 patients. For each patient, two films were exposed, one with the Kodak Lanex Medium system and one with the Agfa MR 400 system. The films were presented to three observers who assessed the presence of congestive heart failure on a three-graded scale. The results showed no significant difference between the two systems but large systematic differences between the observers. There were also differences between the two ratings by the same observer that could not be explained by the film-screen factor. It is concluded that the choice between these two systems is of little importance in view of the interobserver and intraobserver variability that can exist within the same department. (orig.)

  17. Congestion-Aware Warehouse Flow Analysis and Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2015-12-18

    Generating realistic configurations of urban models is a vital part of the modeling process, especially if these models are used for evaluation and analysis. In this work, we address the problem of assigning objects to their storage locations inside a warehouse which has a great impact on the quality of operations within a warehouse. Existing storage policies aim to improve the efficiency by minimizing travel time or by classifying the items based on some features. We go beyond existing methods as we analyze warehouse layout network in an attempt to understand the factors that affect traffic within the warehouse. We use simulated annealing based sampling to assign items to their storage locations while reducing traffic congestion and enhancing the speed of order picking processes. The proposed method enables a range of applications including efficient storage assignment, warehouse reliability evaluation and traffic congestion estimation.

  18. Congestion Service Facilities Location Problem with Promise of Response Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many services, promise of specific response time is advertised as a commitment by the service providers for the customer satisfaction. Congestion on service facilities could delay the delivery of the services and hurts the overall satisfaction. In this paper, congestion service facilities location problem with promise of response time is studied, and a mixed integer nonlinear programming model is presented with budget constrained. The facilities are modeled as M/M/c queues. The decision variables of the model are the locations of the service facilities and the number of servers at each facility. The objective function is to maximize the demands served within specific response time promised by the service provider. To solve this problem, we propose an algorithm that combines greedy and genetic algorithms. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, a lot of computational experiments are tested. And the results demonstrate that response time has a significant impact on location decision.

  19. Congestion-Aware Warehouse Flow Analysis and Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2015-01-01

    Generating realistic configurations of urban models is a vital part of the modeling process, especially if these models are used for evaluation and analysis. In this work, we address the problem of assigning objects to their storage locations inside a warehouse which has a great impact on the quality of operations within a warehouse. Existing storage policies aim to improve the efficiency by minimizing travel time or by classifying the items based on some features. We go beyond existing methods as we analyze warehouse layout network in an attempt to understand the factors that affect traffic within the warehouse. We use simulated annealing based sampling to assign items to their storage locations while reducing traffic congestion and enhancing the speed of order picking processes. The proposed method enables a range of applications including efficient storage assignment, warehouse reliability evaluation and traffic congestion estimation.

  20. New Brunswick Market Design Committee : Congestion management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The restructuring of the New Brunswick wholesale power market comprises a number of issues that need to be resolved concerning transmission system related policy decisions and detailed design issues. The wholesale market structure, ownership structure, and means of preventing market power abuses all have an impact on the resolution of many of those issues. Some transmission related decisions regarding congestion management must be made, and they are examined in this document. The report includes a discussion of the issues related to congestion on the transmission system, a review of the decisions that remain to be made while proposing a number of alternatives, reviews decisions that other jurisdictions have made in somewhat similar circumstances. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative are identified. Several high level transmission tariff design issues requiring to be addressed later in greater detail are listed in this document. 1 tab

  1. NUKEM adjusts price definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the October-November 1994 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. During this period, there were five deals in the spot concentrates market, five deals in the medium and long-term market, one deal in the conversion market, and two deals in the enrichment market. Restricted prices strengthened while unrestricted prices held steady. Price re-definitions were also announced

  2. Delegating Pricing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Bhardwaj

    2001-01-01

    An outstanding problem in marketing is why some firms in a competitive market delegate pricing decisions to agents and other firms do not. This paper analyzes the impact of competition on the delegation decision and, in turn, the impact of delegation on prices and incentives. The theory builds on the simplest framework of competition in two dimensions: prices and (sales agents') effort. Specifically, we are interested in answering the following questions: (1) Does competition affect the price...

  3. Design and simulation of airport congestion control algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Simaiakis, Ioannis; Balakrishnan, Hamsa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic model of runway departures and a dynamic programming algorithm for their control at congested airports. Using a multi-variable state description that includes the capacity forecast, the runway system is modeled as a semi-Markov process. The paper then introduces a queuing system for modeling the controlled departure process that enables the efficient calculation of optimal pushback policies using decomposition techniques. The developed algorithm is simulated a...

  4. Alleviating Traffic Congestion in Manila, Appraisal of the Pasig Expressway

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; BAHER EL-HIFNAWI

    2002-01-01

    Travel in Metro Manila at present is characterized by high levels of congestion, slow travel speeds, long journey times and limited road capacity. The situation will be further exacerbated due to the expected growth in population and income and the subsequent increase in car ownership. Localized traffic management schemes are no longer sufficient to solve the problem. Solutions on the demand side curbing the demand for car ownership and use should be considered together with solutions on the ...

  5. Novel methods of utilizing Jitter for Network Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel paradigm for network congestion control. Instead of perpetual conflict as in TCP, a proof-of-concept first-ever protocol enabling inter-flow communication without infrastructure support thru a side channel constructed on generic FIFO queue behaviour is presented. This enables independent flows passing thru the same bottleneck queue to communicate and achieve fair capacity sharing and a stable equilibrium state in a rapid fashion.

  6. PELVIC CONGESTION SYNDROME. METHODS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT. LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vladimirovna Verezgova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic pain syndrome is not rare clinical condition without specific symptoms and usually affects multiparous women. Numerous controversies in the management such patients are still present in current publications.Different diagnostic modalities were and are now used to delineate of anatomy and physiology of pelvic venous system. The well-known and recently developed approaches to treat patients with  pelvic congestion syndrome are discussed in present overview of the scientific literature.

  7. Hopf bifurcation in an Internet congestion control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunguang; Chen Guanrong; Liao Xiaofeng; Yu Juebang

    2004-01-01

    We consider an Internet model with a single link accessed by a single source, which responds to congestion signals from the network, and study bifurcation of such a system. By choosing the gain parameter as a bifurcation parameter, we prove that Hopf bifurcation occurs. The stability of bifurcating periodic solutions and the direction of the Hopf bifurcation are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the theoretical analysis

  8. Managing congestion in distribution grids - Market design consideration. How heat pumps can deliver flexibility though well-designed markets and virtual power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg Rasmussen, L. [NEAS Energy, Aalborg (Denmark); Bang, C.; Togeby, M. [Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    Heat pumps can be used to reduce oil and natural gas consumption and can assist in the integration of increased amounts of wind power in the electricity system. The new electricity demand may increase the value of electricity generated by wind power. This can be the result even without any advanced control of the heat pumps. However, heat pumps can be controlled according to prices, and this can both reduce the energy cost for end-users and be beneficial for the energy system. Variable prices can reflect spot prices, and in the future, operation of heat pumps may also reflect more dynamic prices, for example by delivering regulating power. Regulating power prices can be attractive for the end-user because the variation is considerable and includes many low prices. Heat pumps (and also electric vehicles) may potentially create overloading of electricity lines. Distribution grids in particular may be challenged if a large number of these units draw electricity at the same time. This challenge can be amplified when heat pumps react to price signals. The economic optimisation of the heat pump operation may result in an increased correlation of their electricity demand. The price signal may lead to a loss of diversity in the on/off cycles of the control. In the future it is quite foreseeable that heat pumps could deliver regulating power, thereby assisting in the maintenance of the balance in an overall system with significant wind power. Thus another example of a potential problem would be if all heat pumps react to the same price signal at the same time (i.e. delivering down regulation by switching on), as this could also result in the overloading of local distribution networks. Seen in light of the focus on smart grid solutions, the ideal response to the above congestion examples would be to send a high distribution tariff for the relevant time to the areas where congestion is likely. This would solve the local problem, while at the same time allow the large majority

  9. Price competition on graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial

  10. Press point on prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilansky, J.L.

    2005-06-01

    This document presents information and statistical data on the prices of the crude oils, refining and petroleum products, at the date of the 28 June 2005: evolution of the barrel price, supply and demand, geo-policy, consumption, diesel and gasoline, prices at the service station. (A.L.B.)

  11. Price control and macromarketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kancir Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Price control at macro level is part of integral macro marketing strategic control system, or more precisely, part of social marketing mix control. Price impact is direct, if it is regarded in the context of needs satisfaction, and indirect, within the context of resource allocation. These two patterns of price impact define control mechanism structuring. Price control in sense of its direct impact at process of need satisfaction should comprise qualitative and quantitative level of needs satisfaction at a given price level and its structure, informational dimension of price and different disputable forms of corporate pricing policies. Control of price allocation function is based at objectives of macro marketing system management in the area of resource allocation and the role of price as allocator in contemporary market economies. Control process is founded, on one hand, at theoretical models of correlation between price and demand in different market structures, and on the other hand, at complex limits that price as allocator has, and which make whole control process even more complex because of reduction of the degree of determinism in functioning of contemporary economic systems. Control of price allocation function must be continuous and dynamic process if it is to provide for convergence with environmental changes and if it is to provide for placing control systems at micro marketing levels in the function of socially valid objectives.

  12. Simulating Price-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  13. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  14. Dynamic voltage stability constrained congestion management framework for deregulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Hakimi, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new congestion management method for electricity markets is proposed. ► The proposed method includes dynamic models of generators and loads. ► Dynamic voltage stability limits are properly modeled in the proposed method. ► The proposed method is compared with several other congestion management methods. ► It leads to a more robust power system with a lower congestion management cost. - Abstract: Congestion management is an important part of power system operation in today deregulated electricity markets. However, congestion management is traditionally performed based on static analysis tools, while these tools may not correctly capture dynamic voltage stability limits of a power system. In this paper, a new congestion management framework considering dynamic voltage stability boundary of power system is proposed. For this purpose, precise dynamic modeling of power system equipment, including generators and loads, is incorporated into the proposed congestion management framework. The proposed method alleviates congestion with a lower congestion management cost and more dynamic voltage stability margin, resulting in a more robust power system, compared with the previous congestion management methods. The validity of proposed congestion management framework is studied based on the New England 39-bus power system. The obtained results confirm the validity of the developed approach.

  15. Development of a Model for a Cordon Pricing Scheme Considering Environmental Equity: A Case Study of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Afandizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. Despite the positive effects of congestion pricing, its implementation has faced problems. This paper investigates the issue of environmental equity in cordon pricing and a park-and-ride scheme. Although pollution decreases inside the cordon by implementation of cordon pricing, air pollutants emission may increase in some links and in the whole network. Therefore, an increase in air emissions in the network means more emission outside the cordon. In fact, due to the implementation of this policy, air pollutants emission may transfer from inside to outside the cordon, creating a type of environmental inequity. To reduce this inequity, a bi-level optimization model with an equity constraint is developed. The proposed solution algorithm based on the second version of the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2 is applied to the city network in Tehran. The results revealed that it seems reasonable to consider environmental equity as an objective function in cordon pricing. In addition, we can create a sustainable situation for the transportation system by improving environmental inequity with a relatively low reduction in social welfare. Moreover, there are environmental inequity impacts in real networks, which should be considered in the cordon pricing scheme.

  16. Congestion management of electric distribution networks through market based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun

     EVs and HPs. Market-based congestion management methods are the focus of the thesis. They handle the potential congestion at the energy planning stage; therefore, the aggregators can optimally plan the energy consumption and have the least impact on the customers. After reviewing and identifying...... the shortcomings of the existing methods, the thesis fully studies and improves the dynamic tariff (DT) method, and proposes two  new market-based  congestion management methods,  namely the  dynamic subsidy (DS) method and the flexible demand swap method. The thesis improves the DT method from four aspects......Rapidly increasing share of intermittent renewable energy production poses a great challenge of the management and operation of the modern power systems. Deployment of a large number of flexible demands, such as electrical vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs), is believed to be a promising solution...

  17. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Cárdenas-Benítez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO2 and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  18. Green Eco-Driving Effects in Non-Congested Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Coloma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite technological advances in engines and fuels, the transportation sector is still one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gas (GHG. Driving patterns, including eco-driving techniques, are a complementary measure for saving GHG emissions. Most eco-driving studies so far have been conducted in large cities suffering chronic congestion problems. The aim of this research is therefore to analyse the potential of driver behaviour for reducing emissions in a small non-congested city. Driver performance parameters such as travel speeds, number of stops, revolutions per minute, and maximum acceleration-deceleration are also studied. The methodology is designed to measure the effect of both eco-driving and eco-routing under real traffic conditions. A campaign was carried out in the city of Caceres (Spain to collect data on various types of roads under different traffic conditions. This research concludes that eco-driving leads to CO2 savings on all routes and road types of 17% in gasoline engines and 21% in diesel, although travel times are increased by 7.5% on average. The shortest route is also the most ecological, regardless of the traffic volume and characteristics, implying that consumption in non-congested cities depends mainly on distance travelled rather than driving patterns in terms of number of stops, speed and acceleration.

  19. Transmission Congestion Management using a Wind Integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gope

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission congestion is a vital problem in the power system security and reliability sector. To ensure the stable operation of the system, a congestion free power network is desirable. In this paper, a new Congestion Management (CM technique, the Wind integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage (WCAES system is used to alleviate transmission congestion and to minimize congestion mitigation cost. The CM problem has been solved by using the Generator Sensitivity Factor (GSF and the Bus Sensitivity Factor (BSF. BSF is used for finding the optimal location of WCAES in the system. GSF with a Moth Flame Optimization (MFO algorithm is used for rescheduling the generators to alleviate congestion and to minimize congestion cost by improving security margin. The impact of the WCAES system is tested with a 39 bus system. To validate this approach, the same problem has been solved with a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm and the obtained results are compared with the ones from the MFO algorithm.

  20. Analyzing the effects of past prices on reference price formation

    OpenAIRE

    van Oest, R.D.; Paap, R.

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new reference price framework for brand choice. In this framework, we employ a Markov-switching process with an absorbing state to model unobserved price recall of households. Reference prices result from the prices households are able to remember. Our model can be used to learn how many prices observed in the past are used for reference price formation. Furthermore, we learn to what extent households have sufficient price knowledge to form an internal reference price...

  1. Effects of series compensation on spot price power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.B.; Wang Feng

    2005-01-01

    The operation of a deregulated power market becomes more complex as the generation scheduling is dependent on suppliers' and consumers' bids. With large number of transactions in the power market changing in time, it is more likely for some transmission lines to face congestion. Series compensation, such as TCSC, with its ability to directly control the power flow can be very helpful to improve the operation of transmission networks. The effects of TCSC on the operation of a spot price power market are studied in this paper using the modified IEEE 14-bus system. Optimal Power Flow incorporating TCSC is used to implement the spot price market. Linear bids are used to model suppliers' and consumers' bids. Issues of location and cost of TCSC are discussed. The effects of levels of TCSC compensation on wide range of system quantities are studied. The effects on the total social benefit, the spot prices, transmission congestion, total generation and consumption, benefit to individual supplier and consumer etc. are discussed. It is demonstrated that though use of TCSC makes the system more efficient and augments competition in the market, it is not easy to establish general relationships between the levels of compensation and various market quantities. Simulation studies like these can be used to assess the effects of TCSC in specific systems. (Author)

  2. Internet resource pricing models

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ke; He, Huan

    2013-01-01

    This brief guides the reader through three basic Internet resource pricing models using an Internet cost analysis. Addressing the evolution of service types, it presents several corresponding mechanisms which can ensure pricing implementation and resource allocation. The authors discuss utility optimization of network pricing methods in economics and underline two classes of pricing methods including system optimization and entities' strategic optimization. The brief closes with two examples of the newly proposed pricing strategy helping to solve the profit distribution problem brought by P2P

  3. Value-based pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  4. The Nordic electric power market. A study of the market characteristics, price factors and the competitive environment of the Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskikallio, J.; Lindholm, J.

    2003-06-01

    The market price of power depends on the balance between energy supply and demand. This balance depends on several external factors: the hydrological situation, temperature, time, fuel prices and exchange rates, transmission capacity and congestion, business cycles, other weather-related factors (wind, sun etc.) There are interdependencies between the factors, but the greatest price effects are caused by changes in the hydrological situation (affects energy supply) and temperature (affects mainly demand). Transmission capacity is normally sufficient, especially between Sweden and Finland. When congestion occurs, the price effects may be drastic, due to differences between the countries in the energy production mix. Price areas with several other bordering price areas (Oslo) have the lowest price level. The Helsinki area has the highest price level over time. Congestion is more frequent between southern Sweden and Norway, which accounts for a major part of the difference between the Helsinki area price and the system price. Market concentration is very high in separate price areas, but only moderate for the Nordic market as a whole. Congestion automatically leads to a highly concentrated sub-market. Further market concentration should be avoided, and congestion management should be improved in order to ensure a functioning market. Our findings also included the fact that although power producers have increased their profits since the deregulation of the market, there were no conclusive evidence of market power abuse. A continued trend toward higher profits may change the situation in the future, as the possibility to take advantage of market power already exists. Transmission System Operators (TSO's) have a crucial role for ensuring a functioning power market. As the actions of the TSO may have adverse effects, they should be continuously monitored and subject to much tighter scrutiny than 'ordinary' energy companies. Issues have arisen from the TSO's trading of

  5. 7 CFR 1131.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1131.53 Section 1131.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  6. 7 CFR 1005.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1005.53 Section 1005.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  7. 7 CFR 1124.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1124.53 Section 1124.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  8. 7 CFR 1126.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1126.53 Section 1126.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  9. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1030.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1030.53 Section 1030.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  11. 7 CFR 1033.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1033.53 Section 1033.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1001.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1001.53 Section 1001.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1007.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1007.53 Section 1007.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1006.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1006.53 Section 1006.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  15. Arbitrage Pricing, Capital Asset Pricing, and Agricultural Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Louise M. Arthur; Colin A. Carter; Fay Abizadeh

    1988-01-01

    A new asset pricing model, the arbitrage pricing theory, has been developed as an alternative to the capital asset pricing model. The arbitrage pricing theory model is used to analyze the relationship between risk and return for agricultural assets. The major conclusion is that the arbitrage pricing theory results support previous capital asset pricing model findings that the estimated risk associated with agricultural assets is low. This conclusion is more robust for the arbitrage pricing th...

  16. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  17. Nitrendipine binding in congestive heart failure due to myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, I.M.; Lee, S.L.; Dhalla, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    Depressed cardiac pump function is the hallmark of congestive heart failure, and it is suspected that decreased influx of Ca2+ into the cardiac cell is responsible for depressed contractile function. Since Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemmal membrane are considered to be an important route for the entry of Ca2+, we examined the status of Ca2+ receptors/channels in failing rat hearts after myocardial infarction of the left ventricular free wall. For this purpose, the left coronary artery was ligated and hearts were examined 4, 8, and 16 weeks later; sham-operated animals served as controls. Hemodynamic assessment revealed decreased total mechanical energy (left ventricular systolic pressure x heart rate), increased left ventricular diastolic pressure, and decreased positive and negative dP/dt in experimental animals at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Although accumulation of ascites in the abdominal cavity was evident at 4 weeks, other clinical signs of congestive heart failure in experimental rats were evident from the presence of lung congestion and cardiac dilatation at 8 and 16 weeks after induction of myocardial infarction. The density of Ca2+ receptors/channels in crude membranes, as assessed by [3H]nitrendipine binding assay, was found to be decreased in the uninfarcted experimental left ventricle at 8 and 16 weeks; however, no change in the affinity of nitrendipine was evident. A similar depression in the specific binding of another dihydropyridine compound, [3H]PN200-110, was also evident in failing hearts. Brain and skeletal muscle crude membrane preparations, unlike those of the right ventricle and liver, revealed a decrease in Ca2+ receptors/channels density in experimental animals at 16 weeks

  18. STS pricing policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  19. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  20. [Congestive cardiomyopathy in addiction to clobenzorex, an anorexigenic drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaert, P; Camblin, J; Graux, P; Anaye, B; Dutoit, A; Croccel, L

    1986-04-01

    Cardiac failure caused by high doses of amphetamine-like drugs is rare. We report a case of decompensated congestive cardiomyopathy occurring in a 29 year old woman addicted to clobenzorex (Dinintel). This patient had been taking 5 to 7 capsules per day for 5 years. No other cause of cardiac failure was detected. A rapid improvement was obtained by digitalis and diuretic therapy; no further episodes of cardiac failure were observed after one year. However, the drug could not be completely withdrawn and echocardiography has shown increasing left ventricular dilatation. The possible mechanisms of amphetamine induced myocardial toxicity are discussed and the analogy with the group of adrenergic cardiomyopathies is underlined.

  1. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... welfare improving when demand is elastic....... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  2. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... welfare improving when demand is elastic....... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  3. Marginal Congestion Cost on a Dynamic Expressway Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    a dynamic econometric model using unusually complete and accurate data from Danish motorways. We use the results to estimate the marginal external cost of adding a vehicle to a link's entry flow, finding it is highly influenced by the dynamic properties of the system of relationships between travel times......We formulate an empirical model of congestion for a series of sequential expressway links where queues may form and spill back. Its purpose is to disentangle the dynamic effect that a marginal vehicle has on the distribution of travel times experienced there and on connected links. We estimate...

  4. Pricing of new vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine targe...

  5. Land Prices and Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...

  6. Introduction to pricing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of pricing issues the proper pricing of transmission services is essential to efficient operation of the grid. Wheeling rights have little meaning if capacity on existing lines is scarce and there is no incentive to build new lines. Depending on the type of transmission pricing policies FERC adopts, the Commission may be able to encourage more voluntary wheeling service, and to influence decisions to build or upgrade the supply of facilities

  7. Cost and Price Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    described below which relies on questionnaires administered to subject matter experts in both cost analysis and price analysis to determine the value of...additional reports or data that the price analyst used in determining their final negotiated position. The cost analyst section of the questionnaire...an analysis at the individual element level rather than at a total price level to determine the major changes from the awarded contract to the new

  8. Research on Analysis Method of Traffic Congestion Mechanism Based on Improved Cell Transmission Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhao Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the spreading regularity of the initial traffic congestion, the improved cell transmission model (CTM is proposed to describe the evolution mechanism of traffic congestion in regional road grid. Ordinary cells and oriented cells are applied to render the crowd roads and their adjacent roads. Therefore the traffic flow could be simulated by these cells. Resorting to the proposed model, the duration of the initial traffic congestion could be predicted and the subsequent secondary congestion could be located. Accordingly, the spatial diffusion of traffic congestion could be estimated. At last, taking a road network region of Hangzhou city as an example, the simulation experiment is implemented to verify the proposed method by PARAMICS software. The result shows that the method could predict the duration of the initial congestion and estimate its spatial diffusion accurately.

  9. Price Elasticity of Demand and Capacity-Restraint Transit Fare Strategy: A Case Study of Bangkok Mass Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a chronic problem of Bangkok. Similar to other metropolises, the city perpetually seeks for alternatives to road travel. Mass rapid transit seems to be the only way out that is expected to mitigate traffic congestion in the city. However, without common fare system, travelers need to pay an initial entrance fee every time they enter each transit system. This excess cost tapers the demand and affects the efficient use of the system. This research investigates the influence of fare price on transit use which is measured by price elasticity of demand and proposes the optimum fare price if the common fare is used. The analysis is based on the findings from the stated preference survey techniques. Finally, the conclusion on fare level that encourage more patronage, maintain service quality and operator revenue is addressed.

  10. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  11. Are internet prices sticky?

    OpenAIRE

    Lünnemann, Patrick; Wintr, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the behaviour of Internet prices. It compares price rigidities on the Internet and in traditional brick-and-mortar stores and provides a cross-country perspective. The data set covers a broad range of items typically sold over the Internet. It includes more than 5 million daily price quotes downloaded from price comparison web sites in France, Germany, Italy, the UK and the US. The following results emerge from our analysis. First, and contrary to the recent findings for co...

  12. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  13. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  14. Alternative pricing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in competitive market forces and growing recognition of the deficiencies in current practices, FERC and others are exploring alternatives to embedded cost pricing. A number of these alternatives are discussed in this chapter. Marketplace pricing, discussed briefly here, is the subject of the next chapter. Obviously, the pricing formula may combine several of these methodologies. One utility of which the authors are aware is seeking a price equal to the sum of embedded costs, opportunity costs, line losses, value of service, FERC's percentage adder formula and a contract service charge

  15. Pricing in M/M/1 queues when cost of waiting in queue differs from cost of waiting in service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görkem Sarıyer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Service providers can adjust the entrance price to the state of the demand in real life service systems where the customers' decision to receive the service, is based on this price, state of demand and other system parameters. We analyzed service provider's short and long term pricing problems in unobservable M/M/1 queues having the rational customers, where, for customers, the unit cost of waiting in the queue is higher than unit cost of waiting in the service. We showed that waiting in the queue has a clear negative effect on customers’ utilities, hence the service provider's price values. We also showed that, in the short term, monopolistic pricing is optimal for congested systems with high server utilization levels, whereas in the long term, market capturing pricing is more profitable.

  16. Determinants of contractor pricing strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Moses, O. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates pricing strategies used by major defense contractors. Two pricing strategies are identified and discussed: penetration, which calls for a relatively low initial price followed by little reduction in price over time, and skimming, which calls for a relatively high initial price coupled with greater reduction in price over time. It is argued that contractor pricing strategy will depend on features of the defense program under consideration and featur...

  17. Customizing Prices in Online Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Reinartz

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic pricing is the dynamic adjustment of prices to consumers depending on the value these customers attribute to a good. Underlying the concept of dynamic pricing is what marketers call price customization. Price customization is the charging of different prices to end consumers based on a discriminatory variable. Internet technology will serve as a great enabling tool for making dynamic pricing accessible to many industries.

  18. Imports, exports, and Alberta's transmission system impact on price fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.

    2002-01-01

    The roles, responsibilities and objectives of ESBI, a private for-profit company, appointed by the Alberta Government to be the Independent Transmission Administrator in the province, is sketched, prior to a discussion of price volatility in electricity, Alberta interconnections, intertie issues, the economic theory and the reality impact on prices. Given that imports and exports constitute a relatively small proportion of total generation or load in Alberta, price volatility is considered to have been only minimally affected by imports/exports. In contrast, transmission constraints, i.e. the limits on physical capacity of the existing transmission system to accommodate all desired transactions, have significant impact on imports/exports. Factors underlying constraints and price volatility such as uncertainty of generation dispatch, leading to reduced interest to invest, which in turn leads to scarce capacity for imports/exports, and the actions required to reduce uncertainty and address other issues such as congestion management, tariff design and the creation of regional transmission organizations, are also discussed to provide further clarification of the issues. It is suggested that these and other related issues need to be resolved to provide the clarity around transmission access and the tools required to manage price fluctuations

  19. Relating price strategies and price-setting practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This article addresses the relationship between price strategies and price-setting practices. The first derive from a normative tradition in the pricing literature and the latter from a descriptive tradition. Price strategies are visible in the market, whereas price-setting practices are

  20. Intranational Price Convergence and Price Stickiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Heebøll, Christian; Hansen, Niels Lynggaard

    2017-01-01

    We show that estimates of the half-life of deviations from LOOP are biased when not taking into account the precision when aggregating over types of goods. Using a comprehensive dataset with monthly price data for 124 homogeneous products across regions in Denmark over the period 1997–2010 we find...... a large positive aggregation bias. On average, we find that the half-life is 8.4 months when taking the bias into account compared to 28.7 months when applying the standard method. The heterogeneity in estimated half-life can be explained by price stickiness, distance between regions and whether the good...

  1. Impact Analysis of Land Use on Traffic Congestion Using Real-Time Traffic and POI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new method to describe, compare, and classify the traffic congestion points in Beijing, China, by using the online map data and further revealed the relationship between traffic congestion and land use. The data of the point of interest (POI and the real-time traffic was extracted from an electronic map of the area in the fourth ring road of Beijing. The POIs were quantified based on the architectural area of the land use; the congestion points were identified based on real-time traffic. Then, the cluster analysis using the attributes of congestion time was conducted to identify the main traffic congestion areas. The result of a linear regression analysis between the congestion time and the land use showed that the influence of the high proportion of commercial land use on the traffic congestion was significant. Also, we considered five types of land use through performing a linear regression analysis between the congestion time and the ratio of four types of land use. The results showed that the reasonable ratio of land use types could efficiently reduce congestion time. This study makes contributions to the policy-making of urban land use.

  2. Congestion control in wireless links based on selective delivery of erroneous packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew; Reiter, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, congestion control in packet networks is performed by reducing the transmission rate when congestion is detected, in order to cut down the traffic that overwhelms the capacity of the network. However, if the bottleneck is a wireless link, congestion is often cumulated because...... the performance of the proposed mechanism against traditional congestion control with a simulation study. The results show that the proposed approach can improve the overall performance both by increasing the throughput over the wireless and improving the video quality in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR...

  3. Sheehan's Syndrome Presenting with Early Postpartum Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yi Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a young woman with Sheehan's syndrome who presented with ventricular arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. The patient was admitted because of postpartum hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock; a massive blood transfusion was required to restore blood volume. After initial stabilization, the patient developed acute respiratory distress and congestive heart failure accompanied by hemodynamic instability 2 weeks after delivery. Episodes of ventricular tachycardia of the torsade de pointes type and a prolonged QT interval were noted on baseline electrocardiogram. A low cortisol level was found incidentally, which led to the suspicion of hypopituitarism. The diagnosis was later supported by laboratory findings of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. After administration of corticosteroids and thyroxine, the patient's clinical condition improved dramatically. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging scan 32 days after delivery revealed a diminished and flattened pituitary gland with prominent intrasellar cerebrospinal fluid loculation, which was compatible with the clinical diagnosis of empty sella with panhypopituitarism. The syndrome of acute anterior pituitary necrosis secondary to postpartum hemorrhage and shock was first described by Sheehan in 1939. Although the occurrence of Sheehan's syndrome is now rare, it should still be considered in any woman with a history of peripartum hemorrhage who develops manifestations of pituitary hormone deficiency. Appropriate hormone replacement therapy is essential and always results in dramatic clinical improvement.

  4. Adaptive mechanism-based congestion control for networked systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C. L. Philip

    2013-03-01

    In order to assure the communication quality in network systems with heavy traffic and limited bandwidth, a new ATRED (adaptive thresholds random early detection) congestion control algorithm is proposed for the congestion avoidance and resource management of network systems. Different to the traditional AQM (active queue management) algorithms, the control parameters of ATRED are not configured statically, but dynamically adjusted by the adaptive mechanism. By integrating with the adaptive strategy, ATRED alleviates the tuning difficulty of RED (random early detection) and shows a better control on the queue management, and achieve a more robust performance than RED under varying network conditions. Furthermore, a dynamic transmission control protocol-AQM control system using ATRED controller is introduced for the systematic analysis. It is proved that the stability of the network system can be guaranteed when the adaptive mechanism is finely designed. Simulation studies show the proposed ATRED algorithm achieves a good performance in varying network environments, which is superior to the RED and Gentle-RED algorithm, and providing more reliable service under varying network conditions.

  5. Congestion patterns of electric vehicles with limited battery capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect. A mathematical programming model is proposed for the path-based SUE traffic assignment where the path cost is the sum of the corresponding link costs and a path specific out-of-energy penalty. We then apply the convergent Lagrangian dual method to transform the original problem into a concave maximization problem and develop a customized gradient projection algorithm to solve it. A column generation procedure is incorporated to generate the path set. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and the solution algorithm. PMID:29543875

  6. Optimal topology to minimizing congestion in connected communication complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyoussef, M.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    In this paper, a new model of the interdependent complex network is proposed, based on two assumptions that (i) the capacity of a node depends on its degree, and (ii) the traffic load depends on the distribution of the links in the network. Based on these assumptions, the presented model proposes a method of connection not based on the node having a higher degree but on the region containing hubs. It is found that the final network exhibits two kinds of degree distribution behavior, depending on the kind and the way of the connection. This study reveals a direct relation between network structure and traffic flow. It is found that pc the point of transition between the free flow and the congested phase depends on the network structure and the degree distribution. Moreover, this new model provides an improvement in the traffic compared to the results found in a single network. The same behavior of degree distribution found in a BA network and observed in the real world is obtained; except for this model, the transition point between the free phase and congested phase is much higher than the one observed in a network of BA, for both static and dynamic protocols.

  7. Natriuretic Peptides as Biomarkers for Congestive States: The Cardiorenal Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Koratala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestion represents the primary reason for hospitalization of patients with heart failure and is associated with adverse outcomes. Fluid overload has been shown to be inadequately addressed in a significant subset of these patients in part due to lack of robust, reliable, and readily available biomarkers for objective assessment and monitoring of therapy. Natriuretic peptides have long been used in this setting, often in conjunction with other assessment tools such as imaging studies. Patients presenting with concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction represent a unique population with regard to congestion in that the interactions between the heart and the kidney can affect the utility and performance of biomarkers of fluid overload. Herein, we provide an overview of the currently available evidence on the utility of natriuretic peptides in these patients and discuss the clinical conundrum associated with their use in the setting of renal dysfunction. We highlight the potential divergence in the role of natriuretic peptides for assessment of volume status in a subset of patients with renal dysfunction who receive renal replacement therapy and call for future research to elucidate the utility of the biomarkers in this setting.

  8. Mechanisms and management of diuretic resistance in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyne, L K M

    2003-05-01

    Diuretic drugs are used almost universally in patients with congestive heart failure, most frequently the potent loop diuretics. Despite their unproven effect on survival, their indisputable efficacy in relieving congestive symptoms makes them first line therapy for most patients. In the treatment of more advanced stages of heart failure diuretics may fail to control salt and water retention despite the use of appropriate doses. Diuretic resistance may be caused by decreased renal function and reduced and delayed peak concentrations of loop diuretics in the tubular fluid, but it can also be observed in the absence of these pharmacokinetic abnormalities. When the effect of a short acting diuretic has worn off, postdiuretic salt retention will occur during the rest of the day. Chronic treatment with a loop diuretic results in compensatory hypertrophy of epithelial cells downstream from the thick ascending limb and consequently its diuretic effect will be blunted. Strategies to overcome diuretic resistance include restriction of sodium intake, changes in dose, changes in timing, and combination diuretic therapy.

  9. Error and Congestion Resilient Video Streaming over Broadband Wireless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Al-Jobouri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, error resilience is achieved by adaptive, application-layer rateless channel coding, which is used to protect H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec data-partitioned videos. A packetization strategy is an effective tool to control error rates and, in the paper, source-coded data partitioning serves to allocate smaller packets to more important compressed video data. The scheme for doing this is applied to real-time streaming across a broadband wireless link. The advantages of rateless code rate adaptivity are then demonstrated in the paper. Because the data partitions of a video slice are each assigned to different network packets, in congestion-prone wireless networks the increased number of packets per slice and their size disparity may increase the packet loss rate from buffer overflows. As a form of congestion resilience, this paper recommends packet-size dependent scheduling as a relatively simple way of alleviating the buffer-overflow problem arising from data-partitioned packets. The paper also contributes an analysis of data partitioning and packet sizes as a prelude to considering scheduling regimes. The combination of adaptive channel coding and prioritized packetization for error resilience with packet-size dependent packet scheduling results in a robust streaming scheme specialized for broadband wireless and real-time streaming applications such as video conferencing, video telephony, and telemedicine.

  10. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyi Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and policy-related factors—might influence public acceptance of the policy. In this paper, we found both a direct and moderating causal relationship between smog awareness and public acceptance. Based on a sample of 574 valid questionnaires in Beijing and Shanghai in 2016, an ordered logistic regression modeling approach was used to delineate the causality between smog awareness and public acceptance. We found that both smog concerns, such as perceived smog risk, and willingness to pay (WTP were both directly and indirectly positively correlated with public acceptance. These findings imply that policymakers should increase policy fairness with environmental-oriented policy design and should express potential policy effectiveness of the smog controlling policy to citizens to increase their acceptance level.

  11. Congestion patterns of electric vehicles with limited battery capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wentao; Ramezani, Mohsen; An, Kun; Kim, Inhi

    2018-01-01

    The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect. A mathematical programming model is proposed for the path-based SUE traffic assignment where the path cost is the sum of the corresponding link costs and a path specific out-of-energy penalty. We then apply the convergent Lagrangian dual method to transform the original problem into a concave maximization problem and develop a customized gradient projection algorithm to solve it. A column generation procedure is incorporated to generate the path set. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and the solution algorithm.

  12. Improving UDP/IP Transmission Without Increasing Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Datagram Retransmission (DGR) is a computer program that, within certain limits, ensures the reception of each datagram transmitted under the User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol. [User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is considered unreliable because it does not involve a reliability-ensuring connection-initiation dialogue between sender and receiver. UDP is well suited to issuing of many small messages to many different receivers.] Unlike prior software for ensuring reception of UDP datagrams, DGR does not contribute to network congestion by retransmitting data more frequently as an ever-increasing number of messages and acknowledgements is lost. Instead, DGR does just the opposite: DGR includes an adaptive timeout-interval- computing component that provides maximum opportunity for reception of acknowledgements, minimizing retransmission. By monitoring changes in the rate at which message-transmission transactions are completed, DGR detects changes in the level of congestion and responds by imposing varying degrees of delay on the transmission of new messages. In addition, DGR maximizes throughput by not waiting for acknowledgement of a message before sending the next message. All DGR communication is asynchronous, to maximize efficient utilization of network connections. DGR manages multiple concurrent datagram transmission and acknowledgement conversations.

  13. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for groceries. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with results of reference price research. This is the first study to examine price knowledge before, during, and after store visit, thus enabling a study...... of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  14. Assessing Asset Pricing Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. de Groot (Wilma)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOne of the most important challenges in the field of asset pricing is to understand anomalies: empirical patterns in asset returns that cannot be explained by standard asset pricing models. Currently, there is no consensus in the academic literature on the underlying causes of

  15. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  16. Essays on asset pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazliben, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation consists of three chapters that represent separate papers in the area of asset pricing. The first chapter studies investors optimal asset allocation problem in which mean reversion in stock prices is captured by explicitly modeling transitory and permanent shocks. The second chapter

  17. Pricing transmission services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaden, E.

    1995-01-01

    The price structure for transmission of electric power through the main lines in Sweden is analyzed. After deregulation of the electricity market, the main transmission lines are owned by a separate national company, with no interests from the power producers. Comparisons are made to ideal marginal price structures. 6 refs

  18. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  19. Petroleum: Price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), some political leaders and financiers have mainly attributed the price spike of oil in 2008 - followed by a just as spectacular drop in prices - to the speculative moves made by financial investors on the futures market instead of to market fundamentals

  20. Price responsive load programs: U.S. experience in creating markets for peak demand reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Miriam L.; Michelman, Thomas; Rosenberg, Mitchell

    2003-01-01

    Demand response programs use a variety of pricing mechanisms to induce end-use customers to reduce demand at specified periods. U.S. distribution utilities, regional market operators, and their regulators have implemented demand response programs with the objectives of improving electric system reliability, avoiding price spikes, and relieving local transmission congestion. This paper reviews the design and performance of market-linked demand response programs operated in 2001 and 2002, focusing on the relationship between program design and customer participation and the development of accurate and feasible methods to measure demand response at the facility level

  1. Pricing Mechanism in Information Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinming; Wang, Huaqing

    2018-01-01

    We study three pricing mechanisms' performance and their effects on the participants in the data industry from the data supply chain perspective. A win-win pricing strategy for the players in the data supply chain is proposed. We obtain analytical solutions in each pricing mechanism, including the decentralized and centralized pricing, Nash Bargaining pricing, and revenue sharing mechanism.

  2. Price Formation by Bargaining and Posted Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kultti, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    We study markets with two types of agents. Sellers have an indivisible good for sale, and their reservation value is zero. Buyers are randomly matched with sellers, and they value the good at unity. Sellers may be matched with any positive number of buyers, and they may choose to determine the price

  3. How to Find the Price That's Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, John L.

    1981-01-01

    Five primary methods used by recreation and park agencies to establish a price are reviewed: (1) going-rate pricing; (2) demand oriented pricing; (3) variable cost pricing; (4) partial overhead pricing; and (5) average cost pricing. (CJ)

  4. Policy on energy pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, M. G.

    1977-10-15

    Some economic principles of energy pricing in a market type economy in which there is consumer sovereignty are discussed. Thus resources will be allocated via the production processes in line with the preferences of consumers as revealed by their purchases of goods and services. Prices play the crucial role of coordinating instruments in this allocative process. It is assumed that all the energy industries are in the public sector. The following topics are discussed: the specification of objectives for the energy sector; marginal cost pricing; problems associated with the measurement of marginal costs; some aspects of the environmental costs associated with energy production and use, and some issues related to time differentiated tariffs; the modification of prices to achieve financial targets; and the use of energy prices to achieve income distribution objectives.

  5. Oil prices and the stock prices of alternative energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Irene; Sadorsky, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Energy security issues coupled with increased concern over the natural environment are driving factors behind oil price movements. While it is widely accepted that rising oil prices are good for the financial performance of alternative energy companies, there has been relatively little statistical work done to measure just how sensitive the financial performance of alternative energy companies are to changes in oil prices. In this paper, a four variable vector autoregression model is developed and estimated in order to investigate the empirical relationship between alternative energy stock prices, technology stock prices, oil prices, and interest rates. Our results show technology stock prices and oil prices each individually Granger cause the stock prices of alternative energy companies. Simulation results show that a shock to technology stock prices has a larger impact on alternative energy stock prices than does a shock to oil prices. These results should be of use to investors, managers and policy makers. (author)

  6. Mind your pricing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; Simester, Duncan

    2003-09-01

    For most of the items they buy, consumers don't have an accurate sense of what the price should be. Ask them to guess how much a four-pack of 35-mm film costs, and you'll get a variety of wrong answers: Most people will underestimate; many will only shrug. Research shows that consumers' knowledge of the market is so far from perfect that it hardly deserves to be called knowledge at all. Yet people happily buy film and other products every day. Is this because they don't care what kind of deal they're getting? No. Remarkably, it's because they rely on retailers to tell them whether they're getting a good price. In subtle and not-so-subtle ways, retailers send signals to customers, telling them whether a given price is relatively high or low. In this article, the authors review several common pricing cues retailers use--"sale" signs, prices that end in 9, signpost items, and price-matching guarantees. They also offer some surprising facts about how--and how well--those cues work. For instance, the authors' tests with several mail-order catalogs reveal that including the word "sale" beside a price can increase demand by more than 50%. The practice of using a 9 at the end of a price to denote a bargain is so common, you'd think customers would be numb to it. Yet in a study the authors did involving a women's clothing catalog, they increased demand by a third just by changing the price of a dress from $34 to $39. Pricing cues are powerful tools for guiding customers' purchasing decisions, but they must be applied judiciously. Used inappropriately, the cues may breach customers' trust, reduce brand equity, and give rise to lawsuits.

  7. A Nodal Pricing Analysis of the Future German Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, O.; Hers, J.S.; Bartholomew Fisher, E.; Brunekreeft, G.; Hobbs, B.F.

    2009-05-01

    The electricity market in Germany is likely to undergo several significant structural changes over the years to come. Here one may think of Germany's ambitious renewable agenda, the disputed decommissioning of nuclear facilities, but also unbundling of TSO's as enforced by European regulation. This study is a scenario-based analysis of the impact of different realizations of known investment plans for transmission and generation capacity on the future German power market while accounting for internal congestion. For this analysis the static equilibrium model of the European electricity market COMPETES is deployed, including a 10-node representation of the German highvoltage grid. Results for the multi-node analysis indicate that price divergence and congestion are likely to arise in the German market as renewable additions affecting mainly the North of Germany, the debated decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the South, and the expected decommissioning of coal-fired facilities in Western Germany appear to render current investment plans for transmission capacity insufficient. The current system of singlezone pricing for the German market may therewith be compromised. However, transmission additions would not benefit all market parties, with producers in exporting regions and consumers in importing regions being the main beneficiaries. Vertical unbundling of German power companies could increase the incentive for constructing transmission lines if generation capacity would cause Germany to be a net-importing country. In case Germany remains a net-exporting country, the effects of vertical unbundling on cross-border capacity are less clear cut.

  8. Value based pricing: the least valued pricing strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenen, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Pricing has been one of the least researched topics in marketing, although within these pricing strategies: cost-plus pricing is considered as the leading pricing strategy worldwide. Why should companies use such an unprofitable strategy, where fighting for a higher market share due to low prices is more a rule than exception? VBP is one of the most underestimated strategies by organizations. The definition of VBP is: 'value pricing applies to products that have the potential of being differe...

  9. A resilience-oriented approach for quantitatively assessing recurrent spatial-temporal congestion on urban roads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Tang

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion brings not only delay and inconvenience, but other associated national concerns, such as greenhouse gases, air pollutants, road safety issues and risks. Identification, measurement, tracking, and control of urban recurrent congestion are vital for building a livable and smart community. A considerable amount of works has made contributions to tackle the problem. Several methods, such as time-based approaches and level of service, can be effective for characterizing congestion on urban streets. However, studies with systemic perspectives have been minor in congestion quantification. Resilience, on the other hand, is an emerging concept that focuses on comprehensive systemic performance and characterizes the ability of a system to cope with disturbance and to recover its functionality. In this paper, we symbolized recurrent congestion as internal disturbance and proposed a modified metric inspired by the well-applied "R4" resilience-triangle framework. We constructed the metric with generic dimensions from both resilience engineering and transport science to quantify recurrent congestion based on spatial-temporal traffic patterns and made the comparison with other two approaches in freeway and signal-controlled arterial cases. Results showed that the metric can effectively capture congestion patterns in the study area and provides a quantitative benchmark for comparison. Also, it suggested not only a good comparative performance in measuring strength of proposed metric, but also its capability of considering the discharging process in congestion. The sensitivity tests showed that proposed metric possesses robustness against parameter perturbation in Robustness Range (RR, but the number of identified congestion patterns can be influenced by the existence of ϵ. In addition, the Elasticity Threshold (ET and the spatial dimension of cell-based platform differ the congestion results significantly on both the detected number and

  10. 7 CFR 1124.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1124.50 Section 1124.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  11. 7 CFR 1030.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1030.50 Section 1030.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1000.53 Section 1000.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture..., component prices, and advanced pricing factors. (a) On or before the 5th day of the month, the market... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices and pricing factors for...

  13. Congestive heart failure as a determinant of postoperative delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Daniela; Luís, Clara; Veiga, Dalila; Silva, Hugo; Abelha, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) is a frequent post-surgical complication that is associated with increased mortality and poor patient outcomes. POD is a complex disorder with multiple risk factors such as pre-existing patient comorbidities and perioperative complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of POD and to identify risk factors for the development of POD in a post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). We enrolled 97 adult patients admitted to a PACU over a five-day period (start date September 6, 2010). Patient demographics and intraoperative and postoperative data were collected. Patients were followed for the development of delirium using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Descriptive analyses of variables were used to summarize data, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables; the chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used for comparisons. Univariate analysis was performed using simple binary logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The significance level for multiple comparisons was controlled by applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons and variables were deemed significant if p≤0.0025. Six percent of patients developed POD. These patients were older and more likely to have higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status (83 vs. 22% with ASA III/IV, p=0.004) as well as a higher frequency of congestive heart failure (50 vs. 3%, p=0.003) and a higher Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) score (33 vs. 6% with RCRI ≥2, p=0.039). The duration of anesthesia for patients with POD was also longer and they received a greater volume of crystalloids, colloids, and erythrocytes during surgery. Congestive heart disease was an independent risk factor for POD (OR 29.3, 95% CI 4.1-210.6; p<0.001). In addition, patients who developed POD had higher in-hospital mortality and longer PACU and hospital stays. Patients who developed POD had longer

  14. Steel: Price and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Steel prices remain at historically elevated levels. The rapid growth of steel production and demand in China is widely considered as a major cause of the increases in both steel prices and the prices of steelmaking inputs...

  15. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  16. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  17. Prospects for oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    1992-01-01

    The basic argument presented is that the oil price is set in an administrated market. The administration is undertaken by the controllers of excess capacity to produce crude oil. The extent to which the administrated price matches the market price is a function, first, of the strength and effectiveness of the market controller and, secondly, of the state of supply and demand and expectations in the market. Currently, the market is operating close to capacity, what limited excess capacity exists is located mainly in Saudi Arabia and the Saudi Arabians appear to be following a low price objective. While the Saudi Arabians pursue volume, the short term project, in the balance of a political upheaval, is that oil prices will remain below the $21 per barrel agreed in July 1990. There is a view that Saudi Arabia would take quick action to reverse a price collapse, but attention is drawn to previous miscalculations with respect to price collapse. Should political circumstances allow the return of Iraq to the oil market, then excess capacity within the Gulf members of OPEC will return and control will be much more difficult. (UK)

  18. Pricing of new vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  19. Prospects for oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caddy, P.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that the wave in oil prices which occurred in 1991, although appearing to suggest price instability, in fact shows the opposite. Steady oscillation between a low price level that leads to new customers and a high price that encourages customers to switch to alternatives is a sign of a stable market. This relative stability was achieved against the background of the political upheaval in the USSR and Eastern Europe and its unpredictable consequences. Such political uncertainties to one side, the difficulties of assessing demand trends in the light of the imponderables of the state of the world economy and the weather are stressed. Despite these problems, the view is expressed that correct reading of signals up the supply chain by producers should ensure continued relative price stability. This is not to say that prices will stay exactly the same, just that they will be bound within a trading range set by anticipated consumer and producer responses to the fluctuating prices. (UK)

  20. Asset Pricing - A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minqiang

    2010-01-01

    I first introduce the early-stage and modern classical asset pricing and portfolio theories. These include: the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the arbitrage pricing theory (APT), the consumption capital asset pricing model (CCAPM), the intertemporal capital asset pricing model (ICAPM), and some other important modern concepts and techniques. Finally, I discuss the most recent development during the last decade and the outlook in the field of asset pricing.

  1. Tracing based congestion management and impact of TCPS in competitive power market using MINLP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Chanana, S.

    2006-01-01

    Efficient, fair and secure operation of the competitive power markets are key factors in managing the challenges associated with congestion management. For the system operator, the selection of generators to reschedule their output for effective management of congestion is an important task. This study used a real power flow tracing based approach for selecting the most appropriate generators to reschedule the real power output based on real power flow contribution on a congested line. These generators can be effectively used to reschedule their generation for managing congestion. Using a mixed integer non-linear programming approach for reducing the transmission congestion cost in the system, the impact of Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter (TCPS) was also investigated and their optimal placement was obtained. The study was carried out on a 39-bus New England system for pool and mix of pool with bilateral and multilateral transactions and their impact on congestion cost. The paper presented the detailed mathematical formulation and modeling process used. It was concluded that for some transactions, the reduction in congestion cost is not very significant. Therefore, system operators should avoid such transactions during congestion to increase market efficiency. 26 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  2. Transvaginal ultrasound examination of women with and without pelvic venous congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halligan, Steve; Campbell, Deidre; Bartram, Clive I.; Rogers, Vera; El-Haddad, Cadria; Patel, Sujata; Beard, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To determine if transvaginal ultrasound, including power Doppler examination, can distinguish between women with and without pelvic congestion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six women with pelvic congestion were prospectively examined using transvaginal ultrasonography and standard uterine and ovarian measurements made. Additionally, planimetric measurements of each ovary were taken using an image analysis program to determine the cross-sectional area of ovarian stroma and follicles, if any. Power Doppler images of adnexal vessels were obtained and planimetric estimates of surface area calculated. A congestion score was assigned to each patient, based on vein number, diameter and morphology on grey-scale scanning. Identical measurements were obtained from 19 asymptomatic women and results compared. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between women with pelvic congestion and controls with respect to power Doppler or grey-scale images of adnexal vessels, or congestion score. However, women with pelvic congestion had significantly larger and multicystic ovaries when compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Transvaginal ultrasound measurements of adnexal vasculature, including power Doppler measurements, cannot reliably distinguish women with pelvic congestion from controls. However, ultrasound may remain useful for diagnosis of pelvic congestion, predominantly because it is able to visualize multi-cystic ovaries in these patients. Halligan, S. (2000).Clinical Radiology 55 , 954-958

  3. 23 CFR 973.214 - Indian lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.214 Indian lands congestion management system...

  4. 78 FR 67442 - Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...] Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway... Comment. SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing Interim Guidance on the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality.../environment/air_quality/cmaq/policy_and_guidance/2008_guidance/ guidance/. DATES: This Interim Guidance is...

  5. Chronic congestive heart failure is associated with a phenotypic shift of intramyocardial endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijianowski, M. M.; van Laar, M.; Bras, J.; Becker, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    There is evidence that patients with chronic congestive heart failure have endothelial cell-related abnormalities of the peripheral circulation and the coronary microvasculature. For that reason, we have studied the phenotypic expression of endothelial cells in hearts of patients with congestive

  6. Vehicle routing under time-dependent travel times: the impact of congestion avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Daily traffic congestions form major problems for businesses such as logistical service providers and distribution firms. They cause late arrivals at customers and additional hiring costs for the truck drivers. The additional costs of traffic congestions can be reduced by taking into account and

  7. Vehicle Routing with Traffic Congestion and Drivers' Driving and Working Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2010-01-01

    For the intensively studied vehicle routing problem (VRP), two real-life restrictions have received only minor attention in the VRP-literature: traffic congestion and driving hours regulations. Traffic congestion causes late arrivals at customers and long travel times resulting in large transport

  8. Problems of rapid digitalization in severe congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K O; Assmann, I; Fiehring, H

    1980-02-01

    The pharmacodynamic effects (changes of systolic time intervals, STI, reaction of pulmonary arterial pressure) of digitoxin were studied in 7 patients with severe congestive heart failure in comparison with the corresponding plasma level. STI indicated glycoside-dependent changes, i.e. shortening of LVETc and QS2c and normalization of prolonged PEPc, while ICT shortening was less observed. In 2 patients with cor pulmonale a pulmonary oedema occurred accompanied with prolonged LVETc. During the early period of glycoside-dependent recompensation no significant correlation between STI shortening and glycoside plasma level was observed. Because of the retarded normalization of the haemodynamics of the pulmonary circulation and because of possible side-effects, rapid digitalization has to be reconsidered.

  9. Approaching Incast Congestion with Multi-host Ethernet Controllers

    CERN Document Server

    Jereczek, Grzegorz Edmund; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The bursty many-to-one communication pattern, typical for data acquisition systems, but also present in datacenter networks, is particularly demanding for commodity TCP/IP and Ethernet technologies. We expand our study of building incast-resistant networks based on software switches running on commercial-off-the-shelf servers. In this paper we provide the estimates for costs and physical area required to build such a network. Our estimates indicate that our proposed design offers significant cost advantage over traditional solutions, but higher space utilisation. Next, we show how the latter can be improved with multi-host Ethernet controllers, as an alternative to typical network interface cards. This can also make software switching easier to adapt in datacenter as a solution for incast congestion. We confirm the capabilities for incast-avoidance by evaluating the performance of a reference platform.

  10. Approaching Incast Congestion with Multi-host Ethernet Controllers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)698154; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Malone, David; Walukiewicz, Miroslaw

    2017-01-01

    The bursty many-to-one communication pattern, typical for data acquisition systems, but also present in datacenter networks, is particularly demanding for commodity TCP/IP and Ethernet technologies. We expand our study of building incast-resistant networks based on software switches running on commercial-off-the-shelf servers. In this paper we provide the estimates for costs and physical area required to build such a network. Our estimates indicate that our proposed design offers significant cost advantage over traditional solutions, but higher space utilisation. Next, we show how the latter can be improved with multi-host Ethernet controllers, as an alternative to typical network interface cards. This can also make software switching easier to adapt in datacenter as a solution for incast congestion. We confirm the capabilities for incast-avoidance by evaluating the performance of a reference platform.

  11. Hemostatic biomarkers in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Falk, Torkel; Tidholm, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans is associated with abnormal hemostasis, and abnormalities in hemostatic biomarkers carry a poor prognosis. Alterations in hemostatic pathways can be involved in the pathogenesis of CHF in dogs, and microthrombosis in the myocardium could...... contribute to increased mortality. Hypothesis: That plasma concentration or activity of hemostatic biomarkers is altered in dogs with CHF and that these factors predict mortality. Animals: Thirty-four dogs with CHF caused by either dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 14) or degenerative valvular disease (CDVD......, n = 20) compared with 23 healthy age-matched control dogs were included in this study. Dogs with CHF were recruited from 2 referral cardiology clinics, and control dogs were owned by friends or colleagues of the investigators. Methods: Clinical examination and echocardiography were performed in all...

  12. Weighted congestion coefficient feedback in intelligent transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Chuanfei; Ma Xu; Wang Binghong

    2010-01-01

    In traffic systems, a reasonable information feedback can improve road capacity. In this Letter, we study dynamics of traffic flow with real-time information. And the influence of a feedback strategy named Weighted Congestion Coefficient Feedback Strategy (WCCFS) is introduced, based on a two-route scenario in which dynamic information can be generated and displayed on the board to guide road users to make a choice. Our model incorporates the effects of adaptability into the cellular automaton models of traffic flow and simulation results adopting this optimal information feedback strategy have demonstrated high efficiency in controlling spatial distribution of traffic patterns compared with the other three information feedback strategies, i.e., vehicle number and flux.

  13. Analysis of the algorithms for congestion management in computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szilágyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of the features of DS (Differentiated Services architecture, namely the queuing or congestion management. Packets can be placed into separate buffer queues, on the basis of the DS value. Several forwarding policies can be used to favor high priority packets in different ways. The major reason for queuing is that the router must hold the packet in its memory while the outgoing interface is busy with sending another packet. Our main goal is to compare the performance of the following queuing mechanisms: FIFO (First- In First-Out, CQ (Custom Queuing, PQ (Priority Queuing, WFQ (Weighted Fair Queuing, CBWFQ (Class Based Weighted Fair Queuing and LLQ (Low Latency Queuing.

  14. Price Competition on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan R. Soetevent

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand may occur. I show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs. I conjecture that this non-existence result holds...

  15. Price Competition on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pim Heijnen; Adriaan Soetevent

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. We derive an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. These graph models of price competition may lead to spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand. We show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs and conjecture that this non-existence result holds more general...

  16. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  17. Intravenous Milrinone in Treatment of Advanced Congestive Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewail, Aly M.; Nawar, Mohammad; Vrtovec, Bojan; Eastwood, Cathy; Kar, Biswajit; Delgado, Reynolds M.

    2003-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as milrinone can relieve symptoms and improve hemodynamics in patients with advanced congestive heart failure. We retrospectively evaluated the hemodynamic and clinical outcomes of long-term combination therapy with intravenous milrinone and oral β-blockers in 65 patients with severe congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association class IV function and ejection fraction milrinone. Oral medical therapy was maximized when possible. The mean duration of milrinone treatment in this combination-treatment group was 269 days (range, 14–1,026 days). Functional class improved from IV to II–III with milrinone therapy. Twenty-four such patients tolerated β-blocker up-titration and were successfully weaned from milrinone. Sixteen patients (31%) died while receiving combination therapy; one died of sudden cardiac death (on treatment day 116); the other 15 died of progressive heart failure or other complications. Hospital admissions during the previous 6 months and admissions within 6 months after milrinone initiation stayed the same. Meanwhile, the total number of hospital days decreased from 450 to 380 (a 15.6% reduction), and the mean length of stay decreased by 1.4 days (a 14.7% reduction). We conclude that 1) milrinone plus β-blocker combination therapy is an effective treatment for heart failure even with β-blocker up-titration, 2) weaning from milrinone may be possible once medications are maximized, 3) patients' functional status improves on the combination regimen, and 4) treatment-related sudden death is relatively infrequent during the combination regimen. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:109–13) PMID:12809251

  18. Analysis of the network capacities and possible congestion of the electricity transmission networks within the accession countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei; Hewicker, Cristian

    2005-01-01

    cross-border network constraints. Besides the technical parameters to describe production and main network characteristics, the main remaining input factors are costs/fuel prices and demand.The outputs of the PROSYM tool are generation quantities, costs, short-run marginal prices and flows. To calibrate the model and to check its accuracy, we have first performed simulations for the year 2003 (the reference year) where information on actual market prices and (physical) cross-border flows is available. Thereafter, we have run additional simulations for the years 2010 and 2020 to analyse the future development of generation, export and import patterns, and to assess the influence of new interconnector projects. Due to uncertainty about future development, we have additionally tested the sensitivity of our base case to changes in e.g. the rate of growth in generation capacity and demand, the future generation structure, or the development of fuel prices. With a view to the economic import and export potential, our investigations confirm the assumption that network constraints represent a major barrier to the free exchange of electricity within the IEM. Considering the frequency and severity of congestion, our calculations show major network constraints at the following borders: 1) From Central Eastern Europe (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia) to Germany, Austria and Hungary; 2) From Austria and Slovenia to Italy; 3) From Bulgaria and Serbia and Montenegro (respectively Macedonia) to Greece. Our results show, not unexpectedly, considerable differences in the net benefits of individual transmission capacity increases, due to differences in market value and/or investment costs. (Author)

  19. Nordic congestion's arrangement as a model for Europe? Physical constraints vs. economic incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.-M.; Pignon, V.

    2005-01-01

    Congestion on power grids seems a physical reality, a 'hard' fact easy to check. Our paper models a different idea: congestion signal may be distorted by transmission system operators (TSOs). Indeed, congestion signals are not physical data but 'home made' conventions directly set by the TSOs in charge of the security of the system. These security norms are not stable and invariable because lines capacity limits are not constant. TSOs, therefore, define the congestion signal on a variable, complex and non-transparent constraint and may manipulate it for monetary purposes or for other personal agenda. In Nordic countries the coexistence of two congestion management methods in a 'Light Handed Regulation' framework makes this opportunistic behaviour even more likely. (author)

  20. COALA: A Protocol for the Avoidance and Alleviation of Congestion in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandris, Dionisis; Tselikis, George; Anastasiadis, Eleftherios; Panaousis, Emmanouil; Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2017-10-31

    The occurrence of congestion has an extremely deleterious impact on the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This article presents a novel protocol, named COALA ( COngestion ALleviation and Avoidance ), which aims to act both proactively, in order to avoid the creation of congestion in WSNs, and reactively, so as to mitigate the diffusion of upcoming congestion through alternative path routing. Its operation is based on the utilization of an accumulative cost function, which considers both static and dynamic metrics in order to send data through the paths that are less probable to be congested. COALA is validated through simulation tests, which exhibit its ability to achieve remarkable reduction of loss ratios, transmission delays and energy dissipation. Moreover, the appropriate adjustment of the weighting of the accumulative cost function enables the algorithm to adapt to the performance criteria of individual case scenarios.

  1. COALA: A Protocol for the Avoidance and Alleviation of Congestion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisis Kandris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of congestion has an extremely deleterious impact on the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. This article presents a novel protocol, named COALA (COngestion ALleviation and Avoidance, which aims to act both proactively, in order to avoid the creation of congestion in WSNs, and reactively, so as to mitigate the diffusion of upcoming congestion through alternative path routing. Its operation is based on the utilization of an accumulative cost function, which considers both static and dynamic metrics in order to send data through the paths that are less probable to be congested. COALA is validated through simulation tests, which exhibit its ability to achieve remarkable reduction of loss ratios, transmission delays and energy dissipation. Moreover, the appropriate adjustment of the weighting of the accumulative cost function enables the algorithm to adapt to the performance criteria of individual case scenarios.

  2. Relationship Between Carbon Dioxide Levels and Reported Congestion and Headaches on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert; Wear, Mary; Young, Millennia; Cobel, Christopher; Mason, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Congestion is commonly reported during spaceflight, and most crewmembers have reported using medications for congestion during International Space Station (ISS) missions. Although congestion has been attributed to fluid shifts during spaceflight, fluid status reaches equilibrium during the first week after launch while congestion continues to be reported throughout long duration missions. Congestion complaints have anecdotally been reported in relation to ISS CO2 levels; this evaluation was undertaken to determine whether or not an association exists. METHODS: Reported headaches, congestion symptoms, and CO2 levels were obtained for ISS expeditions 2-31, and time-weighted means and single-point maxima were determined for 24-hour (24hr) and 7-day (7d) periods prior to each weekly private medical conference. Multiple imputation addressed missing data, and logistic regression modeled the relationship between probability of reported event of congestion or headache and CO2 levels, adjusted for possible confounding covariates. The first seven days of spaceflight were not included to control for fluid shifts. Data were evaluated to determine the concentration of CO2 required to maintain the risk of congestion below 1% to allow for direct comparison with a previously published evaluation of CO2 concentrations and headache. RESULTS: This study confirmed a previously identified significant association between CO2 and headache and also found a significant association between CO2 and congestion. For each 1-mm Hg increase in CO2, the odds of a crew member reporting congestion doubled. The average 7-day CO2 would need to be maintained below 1.5 mmHg to keep the risk of congestion below 1%. The predicted probability curves of ISS headache and congestion curves appear parallel when plotted against ppCO2 levels with congestion occurring at approximately 1mmHg lower than a headache would be reported. DISCUSSION: While the cause of congestion is multifactorial, this study showed

  3. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  4. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-Based Pricing, and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Noel

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines dynamic pricing behavior in retail gasoline markets for 19 Canadian cities over 574 weeks. I find three distinct retail pricing patterns: 1. cost-based pricing, 2. sticky pricing, and 3. steep, asymmetric retail price cycles that, while seldom documented empirically, resemble those of Maskin & Tirole[1988]. Using a Markov switching regression, I estimate the prevalence of patterns and the structural characteristics of the cycles. Retail price cycles prevail in over 40% of ...

  5. Uranium price reporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the systems for uranium price reporting currently available to the uranium industry. The report restricts itself to prices for U 3 O 8 natural uranium concentrates. Most purchases of natural uranium by utilities, and sales by producers, are conducted in this form. The bulk of uranium in electricity generation is enriched before use, and is converted to uranium hexafluoride, UF 6 , prior to enrichment. Some uranium is traded as UF 6 or as enriched uranium, particularly in the 'secondary' market. Prices for UF 6 and enriched uranium are not considered directly in this report. However, where transactions in UF 6 influence the reported price of U 3 O 8 this influence is taken into account. Unless otherwise indicated, the terms uranium and natural uranium used here refer exclusively to U 3 O 8 . (author)

  6. AKRO: Standard Prices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  7. Price of military uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given

  8. Pricing and Fee Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    Defines key terms and discusses things to consider when setting fees for a continuing education program. These include (1) the organization's philosophy and mission, (2) certain key variables, (3) pricing strategy options, and (4) the test of reasonableness. (CH)

  9. The price of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Davidson, M.D.; Wit, R.

    1998-06-01

    The market does not create a price for environmental pollution for the simple reason that there is no market for the environment. What can be done is to calculate shadow prices for environmental pollution, which is achieved by calculating the price that would arise if there would be a market for the environment. In applying this method, it generally proves to be necessary to base calculations on government environmental targets. Using available research data, the method is used to calculate shadow prices for a number of key pollutants. The present report is based on the CE studies 'Schaduwprijzen Prioriterings Methodiek (SPM)' (1997), commissioned by ICI Holland BV, and 'De prijs van Milieuvervuiling' (1997), commissioned by KNP BT Packaging

  10. Variable Pricing Feasibility Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) and Willard Bishop Consulting (Barrington, IL) to evaluate the practicality of using a variable pricing system within DeCA to maintain an average of 30 percent customer savings and lower appropriated fund costs...

  11. Market News Price Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Real-time price data collected by the Boston Market News Reporter. The NOAA Fisheries' "Fishery Market News" began operations in New York City on February 14, 1938....

  12. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    . With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...... financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives...

  13. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick E. Miller

    1993-01-01

    The average delivered price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood in 1991 was $56.39, an increase of 6.5 percent since 1990. Softwood roundwood averaged $58.24 and hardwoods, $50.48 per standard cord, up 2.8 and 7.9 percent, respectively. Chipped residue prices were $26.52 for softwood and $21.0l for hardwood per green ton. The expenditure for wood fiber in the Midsouth...

  14. Energy price risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.W.G.

    1998-01-01

    While long term, fixed price contracts for fuel procurement and export of excess power may lock in the economics of a CHP plant, these do not necessarily give the best pricing opportunities that may exist during the life of those contracts. A more prudent approach may be to vary the length of the contracts and markets are now developing in gas and electricity to assist in the management of such a portfolio. (Author)

  15. New product pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most uncertain elements in budget planning is estimating production costs of items that have heretofore only been produced in prototype configurations and quantities. This paper examines the design and development of a mathematical model which computes appropriate prices for new and unique products. The resulting model offers a producer a fair return on his investment and the consumer a fair purchase price

  16. Corporate debt pricing I.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilya, Gikhman

    2007-01-01

    In this article we discuss fundamentals of the debt securities pricing. We begin with a generalization of the present value concept. Though the present value is the base valuation method in the modern finance we will illustrate that this concept does not sufficiently accurate in producing instrument pricing. The incompleteness of the unique present value approach stems from variability of the interest rates. Admitting variability of the interest rates we define two present values one for buye...

  17. Oil price volatility and the asymmetric response of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of volatility in oil prices on the degree of asymmetry in the response of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases. Several time series measures of the asymmetry between the responses of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases and several measures of the oil price volatility are constructed. In all models, the degree of asymmetry in gasoline prices declines with an increase in oil price volatility. The results support the oligopolistic coordination theory as a likely explanation of the observed asymmetry and are not consistent with the standard search theory and the search theory with Bayesian updating. (author)

  18. Price Recall, Bertrand Paradox and Price Dispersion With Elastic Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the consequence of an imprecise recall of the price by the consumers in the Bertrand price competition model for a homogeneous good. It is shown that firms can exploit this weakness and charge prices above the competitive price. This markup increases for rougher recall of the

  19. Why do stumpage prices increase more than lumber prices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1998-01-01

    Every sawmiller who has been in business more than 5 years realizes that hardwood stumpage prices tend to increase faster than lumber prices, decreasing the margin between these two prices. Although increases in stumpage versus lumber prices are readily apparent, the reason for the decrease in the margin is not. Recent research findings indicate that the stumpage/...

  20. Analyzing the effects of past prices on reference price formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. van Oest (Rutger); R. Paap (Richard)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new reference price framework for brand choice. In this framework, we employ a Markov-switching process with an absorbing state to model unobserved price recall of households. Reference prices result from the prices households are able to remember. Our model can be used to

  1. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1976 Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Kent D.

    The 1976 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1976. The basic study, "Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes" (ED 123 996) presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. Indexes are presented for research and development,…

  2. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices : Utilizing Hourly Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Raviv (Eran); K.E. Bouwman (Kees); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual

  3. A duopoly model with heterogeneous congestion-sensitive customers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Timmer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper analyzes a model with two firms (providers), and two classes of customers. These customers classes are characterized by their attitude towards ‘congestion’ (caused by other customers using the same resources); a firm is selected on the basis of both the prices charged by the

  4. A duopoly model with heterogeneous congestion-sensitive customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Timmer, Judith B.

    This paper analyzes a model with two firms (providers), and two classes of customers. These customers classes are characterized by their attitude towards ‘congestion’ (caused by other customers using the same resources); a firm is selected on the basis of both the prices charged by the firms, and

  5. Estimating the commodity market price of risk for energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolos, Sergey P.; Ronn, Ehud I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the ''market price of risk'' (MPR) for energy commodities, the ratio of expected return to standard deviation. The MPR sign determines whether energy forward prices are upward- or downward-biased predictors of expected spot prices. We estimate MPRs using spot and futures prices, while accounting for the Samuelson effect. We find long-term MPRs generally positive and short-term negative, consistent with positive energy betas and hedging, respectively. In spot electricity markets, MPRs in Day-Ahead Prices agree with short-dated futures. Our results relate risk premia to informed hedging decisions, and futures prices to forecast/expected prices. (author)

  6. Output Price Risk, Material Input Price Risk, and Price Margins: Evidence from the US Catfish Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bouras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - To develop a conceptual model for analyzing the impact of output price risk and material input price risk on price margins. Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the combined effect of output price risk and material input risk on price margins, we use a series of comparative static analyses, GARCH models, and data ranging from 1990/01 to 2012/12. Findings - The theoretical results indicate that the impact of output price risk and the impact of material input price risk on price margins are ambiguous and, to a great extent, hinge on the correlation between output price and material input price. The empirical results show that whole frozen catfish price risk and live catfish price risk negatively affect the price margin for frozen catfish. The empirical results, however, indicate that the risk of the price of live catfish affects markedly the price margin for frozen whole catfish in contrast to the impact of the risk of the price of frozen whole catfish. Research implications/limitations - The empirical results have significant implications for managerial decision-making especially when crafting strategies for improving price margins. Accordingly, in order to beef up the price margin for frozen whole catfish, catfish processors may consider engaging in vertical integration. This paper has some limitations: first, it assumes that firms operate in competitive markets; second, it assumes that firms produce and sell a single product. Originality/value/contribution - Unlike earlier studies that focused solely on the effect of output price risk on price margins, this paper analyzes theoretically and empirically the impact of output price risk and material input price risk on price margins.

  7. Delivered Pricing, FOB Pricing, and Collusion in Spatial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paz Espinosa

    1992-01-01

    This article examines price discrimination and collusion in spatial markets. The problem is analyzed in the context of a repeated duopoly game. I conclude that the prevailing pricing systems depend on the structural elements of the market. Delivered pricing systems emerge in equilibrium in highly monopolistic and highly competitive industries, while FOB is used in intermediate market structures. The fact driving this result is that delivered pricing policies allow spatial price discrimination...

  8. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices: Utilizing Hourly Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Raviv, Eran; Bouwman, Kees E.; van Dijk, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in 'Energy Economics' , 2015, 50, 227-239. The daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual hours. This paper demonstrates that the disaggregated hourly prices contain useful predictive information for the daily average ...

  9. Energy markets and price relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergendahl, P.A.

    1986-10-01

    The aim of the report is to elucidate the way and extent of the dependence of the price of different energy species of one another and particularly of crude oil prices. Oil, coal and natural gas can substitute each other at many applications. The prices are dependent on mining, processing and transporting. Forecasting of prices and future trends are discussed

  10. THE PROBLEMS OF TRANSFER PRICING

    OpenAIRE

    Tursunova Nargiza

    2015-01-01

    Each item has a price, but not every company is able to independently set the price at which it wants to sell its goods. Firms need to have a streamlined method of setting prices for their goods, and their financial condition depends on it. When choosing a method of pricing, there must be considered and internal and external constraints. The paper discusses the stages of formation of prices in a continuous process of pricing, as well as methods of pricing, their advantages and disadvantages. ...

  11. Quantity precommitment and price matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    We revisit the question of whether price matching is anti-competitive in a capacity constrained duopoly setting. We show that the effect of price matching depends on capacity. Specifically, price matching has no effect when capacity is relatively low, but it benefits the firms when capacity...... is relatively high. Interestingly, when capacity is in an intermediate range, price matching benefits only the small firm but does not affect the large firm in any way. Therefore, one has to consider capacity seriously when evaluating if price matching is anti-competitive. If the firms choose their capacities...... simultaneously before pricing decisions, then the effect of price matching is either pro-competitive or ambiguous. We show that if the cost of capacity is high, then price matching can only (weakly) decrease the market price. On the other hand, if the cost of capacity is low, then the effect of price matching...

  12. Novel Congestion-Free Alternate Routing Path Scheme using Stackelberg Game Theory Model in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chitra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, wireless network technologies were designed for most of the applications. Congestion raised in the wireless network degrades the performance and reduces the throughput. Congestion-free network is quit essen- tial in the transport layer to prevent performance degradation in a wireless network. Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics and applied sciences that used in wireless network, political science, biology, computer science, philosophy and economics. e great challenges of wireless network are their congestion by various factors. E ective congestion-free alternate path routing is pretty essential to increase network performance. Stackelberg game theory model is currently employed as an e ective tool to design and formulate conges- tion issues in wireless networks. is work uses a Stackelberg game to design alternate path model to avoid congestion. In this game, leaders and followers are selected to select an alternate routing path. e correlated equilibrium is used in Stackelberg game for making better decision between non-cooperation and cooperation. Congestion was continuously monitored to increase the throughput in the network. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme could extensively improve the network performance by reducing congestion with the help of Stackelberg game and thereby enhance throughput.

  13. A NEW PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR CONGESTION CONTROL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAJME TANZADE PANAH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of various applications in the domain of wireless sensor networks, the tendency to use wireless sensors has gradually increased in different applications. On the other hand, diverse traffic with different priorities generated by these sensors requires providing adaptive quality of services based on users` needs. In this paper, a congestion control predictor model is proposed for wireless sensor networks, which considers parameters like network energy consumption, packet loss rate and percentage of delivered high and medium priority packets to the destination. This method consists of congestion prevention, congestion control, and energy control plans using shortest path selection algorithm. In the congestion prevention plan, congestion is prevented by investigating the queues length. In the congestion control plan, the congestion is controlled by reducing the transmission rate. Finally, the energy control plan aims to partially balance the energy of nodes to prevent network failures due to node energy outage. Simulation results indicated that the proposed method has a higher efficiency regarding the aforementioned parameters. In addition, comparisons with other well-known methods showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Multi-objective congestion management by modified augmented ε-constraint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima

    2011-01-01

    Congestion management is a vital part of power system operations in recent deregulated electricity markets. However, after relieving congestion, power systems may be operated with a reduced voltage or transient stability margin because of hitting security limits or increasing the contribution of risky participants. Therefore, power system stability margins should be considered within the congestion management framework. The multi-objective congestion management provides not only more security but also more flexibility than single-objective methods. In this paper, a multi-objective congestion management framework is presented while simultaneously optimizing the competing objective functions of congestion management cost, voltage security, and dynamic security. The proposed multi-objective framework, called modified augmented ε-constraint method, is based on the augmented ε-constraint technique hybridized by the weighting method. The proposed framework generates candidate solutions for the multi-objective problem including only efficient Pareto surface enhancing the competitiveness and economic effectiveness of the power market. Besides, the relative importance of the objective functions is explicitly modeled in the proposed framework. Results of testing the proposed multi-objective congestion management method on the New-England test system are presented and compared with those of the previous single objective and multi-objective techniques in detail. These comparisons confirm the efficiency of the developed method. (author)

  15. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  16. Diagnosis and management of nasal congestion: the role of intranasal corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nasal congestion is considered the most bothersome of allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms and can significantly impair ability to function at work, home, and school. Effective management of AR-related nasal congestion depends on accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Many individuals with AR and AR-related congestion remain undiagnosed and do not receive prescription medication. However, new tools intended to improve the diagnosis of nasal congestion have been developed and validated. Intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) are recommended as first-line therapy for patients with moderate-to-severe AR and also when nasal congestion is a prominent symptom. Double blind, randomized clinical trials have demonstrated greater efficacy of INSs versus placebo, antihistamines, or montelukast for relief of all nasal symptoms, especially congestion. Patient adherence to treatment also affects outcomes, and this may be influenced by patient preferences for the sensory attributes of an individual drug. Increased awareness of the effects of AR-related nasal congestion, the efficacy and safety of available pharmacotherapies, and barriers to adherence may improve clinical outcomes.

  17. Developments in Global Food Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Rayner; Emily Laing; Jamie Hall

    2011-01-01

    Global food prices have increased significantly since the early 2000s, reversing the long-run trend decline in relative food prices over previous decades. A range of supply disruptions in key food-producing countries have contributed to higher food prices, along with strong demand from developing countries as per capita incomes rise and consumption patterns change. Rising commodity prices are leading to higher headline consumer price inflation in many countries though, at this stage, core mea...

  18. Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Werner

    2012-01-01

    Price bubble arises when the price of an asset exceeds the asset's fundamental value, that is, the present value of future dividend payments. The important result of Santos and Woodford (1997) says that price bubbles cannot exist in equilibrium in the standard dynamic asset pricing model with rational agents as long as assets are in strictly positive supply and the present value of total future resources is finite. This paper explores the possibility of asset price bubbles when either one of ...

  19. A new casemix adjustment index for hospital mortality among patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, C A; Rohde, L E; Philbin, E A; Di Salvo, T G

    1998-10-01

    Comparative analysis of hospital outcomes requires reliable adjustment for casemix. Although congestive heart failure is one of the most common indications for hospitalization, congestive heart failure casemix adjustment has not been widely studied. The purposes of this study were (1) to describe and validate a new congestive heart failure-specific casemix adjustment index to predict in-hospital mortality and (2) to compare its performance to the Charlson comorbidity index. Data from all 4,608 admissions to the Massachusetts General Hospital from January 1990 to July 1996 with a principal ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis of congestive heart failure were evaluated. Massachusetts General Hospital patients were randomly divided in a derivation and a validation set. By logistic regression, odds ratios for in-hospital death were computed and weights were assigned to construct a new predictive index in the derivation set. The performance of the index was tested in an internal Massachusetts General Hospital validation set and in a non-Massachusetts General Hospital external validation set incorporating data from all 1995 New York state hospital discharges with a primary discharge diagnosis of congestive heart failure. Overall in-hospital mortality was 6.4%. Based on the new index, patients were assigned to six categories with incrementally increasing hospital mortality rates ranging from 0.5% to 31%. By logistic regression, "c" statistics of the congestive heart failure-specific index (0.83 and 0.78, derivation and validation set) were significantly superior to the Charlson index (0.66). Similar incrementally increasing hospital mortality rates were observed in the New York database with the congestive heart failure-specific index ("c" statistics 0.75). In an administrative database, this congestive heart failure-specific index may be a more adequate casemix adjustment tool to predict hospital mortality in patients hospitalized for congestive heart failure.

  20. The oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, P.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical analysis cannot, alone, provide an oil price forecast. So, one needs to understand the fundamental phenomena which control the past trends since the end of world war II After a first period during which oil, thanks to its abundance, was able to increase its market share at the expense of other energies, the first oil shock reflects the rarefaction of oil resource with the tilting of the US production curve from growth to decline. Since then, the new situation is that of a ''cohabitation'' between oil and the other energies with the oil price, extremely volatile, reflecting the trial and error adjustment of the market share left to the other energies. Such a context may explain the recent oil price surge but the analogy between the US oil situation at the time of the first shock and that existing today for the world outside Middle East suggest another possibility, that of a structural change with higher future oil prices. The authors examine these two possibilities, think that the oil price will reflect both as long as one or the other will not become proven, and conclude with a series of political recommendations. (authors)

  1. "Photographing money" task pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhongxiang

    2018-05-01

    "Photographing money" [1]is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The task pricing is reasonable, related to the success of the commodity inspection. First of all, we analyzed the position of the mission and the membership, and introduced the factor of membership density, considering the influence of the number of members around the mission on the pricing. Multivariate regression of task location and membership density using MATLAB to establish the mathematical model of task pricing. At the same time, we can see from the life experience that membership reputation and the intensity of the task will also affect the pricing, and the data of the task success point is more reliable. Therefore, the successful point of the task is selected, and its reputation, task density, membership density and Multiple regression of task positions, according to which a nhew task pricing program. Finally, an objective evaluation is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the established model and solution method, and the improved method is pointed out.

  2. 7 CFR 1033.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1033.50 Section 1033.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1005.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1005.50 Section 1005.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  4. 7 CFR 1001.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1001.50 Section 1001.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  5. 7 CFR 1006.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1006.50 Section 1006.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  6. 7 CFR 1126.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1126.50 Section 1126.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  7. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  8. 7 CFR 1131.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1131.50 Section 1131.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  9. 7 CFR 1007.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1007.50 Section 1007.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  10. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  11. Quick Link Selection Method by Using Pricing Strategy Based on User Equilibrium for Implementing an Effective Urban Travel Demand Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Afandizadeh Zargari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-stage model of optimization as a quick method to choose the best potential links for implementing urban travel demand management (UTDM strategy like road pricing. The model is optimized by minimizing the hidden cost of congestion based on user equilibrium (MHCCUE. It forecasts the exact amount of flows and tolls for links in user equilibrium condition to determine the hidden cost for each link to optimize the link selection based on the network congestion priority. The results show that not only the amount of total cost is decreased, but also the number of selected links for pricing is reduced as compared with the previous toll minimization methods. Moreover, as this model just uses the traffic assignment data for calculation, it could be considered as a quick and optimum solution for choosing the potential links.

  12. Impact Analysis of Land Use on Traffic Congestion Using Real-Time Traffic and POI

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tianqi; Sun, Lishan; Yao, Liya; Rong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a new method to describe, compare, and classify the traffic congestion points in Beijing, China, by using the online map data and further revealed the relationship between traffic congestion and land use. The data of the point of interest (POI) and the real-time traffic was extracted from an electronic map of the area in the fourth ring road of Beijing. The POIs were quantified based on the architectural area of the land use; the congestion points were identified based on ...

  13. On the Existence of Solutions for Stationary Mean-Field Games with Congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Evangelista, David

    2017-09-11

    Mean-field games (MFGs) are models of large populations of rational agents who seek to optimize an objective function that takes into account their location and the distribution of the remaining agents. Here, we consider stationary MFGs with congestion and prove the existence of stationary solutions. Because moving in congested areas is difficult, agents prefer to move in non-congested areas. As a consequence, the model becomes singular near the zero density. The existence of stationary solutions was previously obtained for MFGs with quadratic Hamiltonians thanks to a very particular identity. Here, we develop robust estimates that give the existence of a solution for general subquadratic Hamiltonians.

  14. On the Existence of Solutions for Stationary Mean-Field Games with Congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Evangelista, David; Gomes, Diogo A.

    2017-01-01

    Mean-field games (MFGs) are models of large populations of rational agents who seek to optimize an objective function that takes into account their location and the distribution of the remaining agents. Here, we consider stationary MFGs with congestion and prove the existence of stationary solutions. Because moving in congested areas is difficult, agents prefer to move in non-congested areas. As a consequence, the model becomes singular near the zero density. The existence of stationary solutions was previously obtained for MFGs with quadratic Hamiltonians thanks to a very particular identity. Here, we develop robust estimates that give the existence of a solution for general subquadratic Hamiltonians.

  15. End to end adaptive congestion control in TCP/IP networks

    CERN Document Server

    Houmkozlis, Christos N

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an adaptive control theory perspective on designing congestion controls for packet-switching networks. Relevant to a wide range of disciplines and industries, including the music industry, computers, image trading, and virtual groups, the text extensively discusses source oriented, or end to end, congestion control algorithms. The book empowers readers with clear understanding of the characteristics of packet-switching networks and their effects on system stability and performance. It provides schemes capable of controlling congestion and fairness and presents real-world app

  16. Congestion management of distribution networks with day-ahead dynamic grid tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    vehicles (EV) and heat pumps (HP), will be largely deployed in electrical distribution networks. Congestion management will be important in the future active distribution networks. In the IDE4L project, work package 5 is dedicated to develop different kinds of congestion management methods. Demand response...... (DR) is one of the important methods. In this report, as one task of work package 5, the day-ahead dynamic tariff (DADT) method for congestion management in distribution networks is presented. The dynamic tariff (DT) can motivate the flexible demands (EV and HP) to shift their energy consumption...

  17. An efficient statistical-based approach for road traffic congestion monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhafid, Zeroual

    2017-12-14

    In this paper, we propose an effective approach which has to detect traffic congestion. The detection strategy is based on the combinational use of piecewise switched linear traffic (PWSL) model with exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) chart. PWSL model describes traffic flow dynamics. Then, PWSL residuals are used as the input of EWMA chart to detect traffic congestions. The evaluation results of the developed approach using data from a portion of the I210-W highway in Califorina showed the efficiency of the PWSL-EWMA approach in in detecting traffic congestions.

  18. An efficient statistical-based approach for road traffic congestion monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhafid, Zeroual; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an effective approach which has to detect traffic congestion. The detection strategy is based on the combinational use of piecewise switched linear traffic (PWSL) model with exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) chart. PWSL model describes traffic flow dynamics. Then, PWSL residuals are used as the input of EWMA chart to detect traffic congestions. The evaluation results of the developed approach using data from a portion of the I210-W highway in Califorina showed the efficiency of the PWSL-EWMA approach in in detecting traffic congestions.

  19. Measurement of effective renal plasma flow in congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauxe, W.N.; Dubovsky, E.V.; Mantle, J.A.; Dustan, H.P.; Logic, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    In the management of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), it is often desirable to have precise knowledge of overall renal function, including the effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). It has long been recognized that ERPF is diminished in CHF. Since glomerular filtration rate is often decreased to a much lesser extent, other noninvasive procedures such as the measurement of creatinine clearances may not be entirely suitable. ERPF determination by the single plasma sampling (SPS) method affords a rapid, simple, noninvasive, and economical technique that is quite accurate and reproducible. A SPS method has been well-tested in patients following renal transplantation plus a wide variety of nephrological disorders. We have been concerned whether the SPS method would be valid in volume expanded patients. In 28 determinations of ERPF in patients with CHF, and in five patients who did not have CHF, we have found the SPS estimation of ERPF to yield results that are not clinically significantly different from those obtained by the detailed compartmental analysis method. The volumes of 131 I-orthoiodohippurate (OIH) distribution were found to be somewhat higher in CHF than in controls, but fractional rate constants were proportionately lower so that intercompartmental flow rates and OIH concentrations were not different from controls. Therefore, the SPS estimation of ERPF is valid in patients with CHF and may be useful in monitoring the renal effects of various hemodynamic and pharmacological interventions. (orig.)

  20. Decision support program for congestion management using demand side flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmat, Ayman; Pinson, Pierre; Usaola, Julio

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, Distribution System Operators (DSOs) have been mitigating distribution networks (DNs) contingencies by opting to grid reinforcements. However, this approach is not always cost and time efficient. Demand Side Flexibility (DSF) is one of the recent alternatives used in DNs cong...... effect is taken into consideration as well as the uncertain behavior of customers. Finally, the distribution grid of the Danish Bornholm Island is used to illustrate the merits of the DSP. The total cost incurred by the DSO is calculated and presented.......In the past decades, Distribution System Operators (DSOs) have been mitigating distribution networks (DNs) contingencies by opting to grid reinforcements. However, this approach is not always cost and time efficient. Demand Side Flexibility (DSF) is one of the recent alternatives used in DNs...... congestion management. Consequently, new market players such as aggregators are needed to handle DSF transaction between customers and DSOs. This paper proposes and models a decision support program (DSP) to optimize the total cost charged by the DSO for using DSF services. Moreover, the energy rebound...