Sample records for confined backward-facing step

  1. A Study of Laminar Backward-Facing Step Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, Lars; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The laminar flow for a backwards facing step is studied. This work was initially part of the work presented in. In that work low-Reynolds number effects was studied, and the plan was also to include laminar flow. However, it turned out that when the numerical predictions of the laminar flow (Re......= 118) was compared to the experiments of Restivo , we found a large discrepancy. We believe that there is something wrong in that experimental investigation. To support that conclusion, we present in this report prediction of other backward facing flow configurations, where we show that our predictions...

  2. The B009 data in the backward facing step experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoan, N.T.


    This report evaluates the B009 data of the back-ward facing step experiment which was one of a series of the experiments that were designed and conducted by Hofland and Booij (2004) and De Ruijter (2004). In this experiment, the flow field and the pressure field were measured (by PIV and pressure

  3. Vortex-acoustic lock-on in bluff-body and backward-facing step ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    studied for their combustion dynamics behaviour. These geometries are the confined bluff-body and the confined backward-facing steps. The data indicate regimes of flow-acoustic lock-on that signifies the onset of combustion instability, marked by the excitation of high-amplitude discrete tones of sound in the combustor.

  4. Computation of turbulent flows over backward-facing step (United States)

    Mansour, N. N.; Kim, J.; Moin, P.


    A numerical method for computing incompressible turbulent flows is presented. The method is tested by calculating laminar recirculating flows and is applied in conjunction with a modified Kappa-epsilon model to compute the flow over a backward-facing step. In the laminar regime, the computational results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The turbulent flow study shows that the reattachment length is underpredicted by the standard Kappa-epsilon model. The addition of a term to the standard model that accounts for the effects of rotation on turbulent flow improves the results in the recirculation region and increases the computed reattachment length.

  5. Turbulent atmospheric flow over a backward-facing step (United States)

    Kaul, U. K.; Frost, W.


    The phenomenon of atmospheric shear layer separation over a man-made structure such as a building (modeled as a backward-facing step) has been analyzed theoretically by (1) solving the two-dimensional equations of motion in the two variables, stream function and vorticity, and by (2) employing an approximate integral technique. Boundary conditions for the undisturbed flow are that of the turbulent atmospheric shear flow over a rough terrain. In the first approach a two-equation model of turbulence was used. In the second approach an approximate technique was utilized in an attempt to describe the details of the flow in the recirculation zone behind the step. The results predict velocity profiles in sufficient detail that the presence of the corner eddy in the region of negative surface pressure gradient is evident. The magnitude of the reversed flow velocity in the recirculation eddy has been found to agree with that found from experiments. Also, a surface eddy viscosity distribution has been an outgrowth of the method which realistically follows the magnitude of the surface pressure gradient distribution as found experimentally.

  6. Heat transfer behind the backward-facing step under the influence of longitudinal pressure gradient


    Bogatko Tatyana; Terekhov Viktor; Dyachenko Aleksey; Smulsky Yaroslav


    Results of an experimental and numerical study of the flow structure and turbulent heat transfer in a rectangular channel with longitudinal pressure gradient behind the backward-facing step. With the channel expansion the angle of rotation of the upper wall is 1.43; 2.86 and 4°, and with the channel convergence the rotation angle is 3; 5.7 and 7.6°. Experiments are carried out at Reynolds numbers, calculated on the step height and velocity in front of the backward-facing step, ReH = 4 000; 8 ...

  7. Vortex-acoustic lock-on in bluff-body and backward-facing step ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental data on acoustic pressure measurements obtained over a wide range of conditions is reported for two simple geometries that are commonly studied for their combustion dynamics behaviour. These geometries are the confined bluff-body and the confined backward-facing steps. The data indicate regimes of ...

  8. The Transitional Backward-Facing Step Flow in a Water Channel with Variable Expansion Geometry


    Tihon, J. (Jaroslav); Pěnkavová, V. (Věra); Havlica, J. (Jaromír); Šimčík, M. (Miroslav)


    The backward-facing step flow is investigated experimentally and numerically at moderate Reynolds numbers. The different channel expansion ratios (ER = 1.4, 2, 2.5, and 4) and inlet flow conditions (steady and pulsatile) are applied with the aim to analyze the structure and stability of the flow behind the step. The electrodiffusion technique is used to measure the wall shear rate along the experimental water channel. The direction sensitive sensors detect the near-wall extent of different fl...

  9. Three-component laser velocimeter surveys of the flow over a backward-facing step (United States)

    Kjelgaard, Scott O.


    A three-component laser velocimeter is used to investigate the flow over a backward-facing step. The backward-facing step had an expansion ratio of 2, a boundary layer height to step height ratio of 0.34 and a Reynolds number based on step height of 19,000. Results from three-component velocimeter surveys of the flow over the backward-facing step are presented with comparisons of the current experiment with previous experiments and computational results. The present results compared well with previous experiments with the exception of the reattachment length. The short reattachment length was due to the short length of the channel downstream. The measurement of the lateral velocity component showed that there is a mean flow in and out of the centerline plane as high as 7 percent of the freestream velocity. However, the shear stresses show no correlation between the lateral fluctuations and the longitudinal and vertical fluctuations, indicating that the flow is 2D in terms of the turbulence quantities.

  10. Dynamics of flow behind backward-facing step in a narrow channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba V.


    Full Text Available The results and their analysis from experiments obtained by TR-PIV are presented on the model of backward-facing step in a narrow channel. The recirculation zone is studied in details. Mean structures are evaluated from fluctuating velocity fields. Then dynamics of the flow is characterized with help of POD (BOD technique. Substantial differences in high energy dynamical structures behaviour within the back-flow region and further downstream behind the flow reattachment have been found.

  11. Dynamics of flow behind backward-facing step in a narrow channel (United States)

    Uruba, V.


    The results and their analysis from experiments obtained by TR-PIV are presented on the model of backward-facing step in a narrow channel. The recirculation zone is studied in details. Mean structures are evaluated from fluctuating velocity fields. Then dynamics of the flow is characterized with help of POD (BOD) technique. Substantial differences in high energy dynamical structures behaviour within the back-flow region and further downstream behind the flow reattachment have been found.

  12. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow over a backward-facing step (United States)

    Le, Hung; Moin, Parviz


    The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) to conduct a direct numerical simulation of turbulent backward facing step flow using inflow and outflow conditions; and (2) to provide data in the form of Reynolds stress budgets for Reynolds averaged modeling. The report presents the basic statistical data and comparisons with the concurrent experiments of Jovic and Driver and budgets of turbulent kinetic energy.

  13. Investigation of a reattaching turbulent shear layer Flow over a backward-facing step (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kline, S. J.; Johnston, J. P.


    The paper studies incompressible flow over a backward-facing step in order to investigate the flow characteristics in the separated shear layer, the reattachment zone, and the redeveloping boundary layer after reattachment. It is shown that turbulent intensities and shear stress reach maxima in the reattachment zone, followed by rapid decay near the surface after reattachment. In addition, it is found that downstream of reattachment, the flow returns very slowly to the structure of an ordinary turbulent boundary layer.

  14. Finite analytic numerical solution of two-dimensional channel flow over a backward-facing step (United States)

    Ho, K.-S.; Chen, C.-J.


    Laminar channel flow over a backward-facing step is investigated. The finite analytic (FA) method is used to obtain the numerical solution. The FA solutions predict the recirculation zone lengths and the recirculated mass flow rates for Reynolds numbers, Re, of 25, 50, 73, 125, 191 and 229 which correlate well with experimental measurements. The general flow patterns of the recirculation region flows for the Reynolds numbers considered in this study are similar to each other.

  15. Numerical simulation of 3D backward facing step flows at various Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louda Petr


    Full Text Available The work deals with the numerical simulation of 3D turbulent flow over backward facing step in a narrow channel. The mathematical model is based on the RANS equations with an explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EARSM. The numerical method uses implicit finite volume upwind discretization. While the eddy viscosity models fail in predicting complex 3D flows, the EARSM model is shown to provide results which agree well with experimental PIV data. The reference experimental data provide the 3D flow field. The simulations are compared with experiment for 3 values of Reynolds number.

  16. Least-squares finite element solutions for three-dimensional backward-facing step flow (United States)

    Jiang, Bo-Nan; Hou, Lin-Jun; Lin, Tsung-Liang


    Comprehensive numerical solutions of the steady state incompressible viscous flow over a three-dimensional backward-facing step up to Re equals 800 are presented. The results are obtained by the least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) which is based on the velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation. The computed model is of the same size as that of Armaly's experiment. Three-dimensional phenomena are observed even at low Reynolds number. The calculated values of the primary reattachment length are in good agreement with experimental results.

  17. Effect of the Backward-Facing Step Location on the Aerodynamics of a Morphing Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Mishriky


    Full Text Available Over the last decade, aircraft morphing technology has drawn a lot of attention in the aerospace community, because it is likely to improve the aerodynamic performance and the versatility of aircraft at different flight regimes. With the fast paced advancements in this field, a parallel stream of research is studying different materials and designs to develop reliable morphing skins. A promising candidate for a viable morphing skin is the sliding skin, where two or more rigid surfaces remain in contact and slide against each other during morphing. The overlapping between each two panels create a backward-facing step on the airfoil surface which has a critical effect on the aerodynamics of the wing. This paper presents a numerical study of the effect of employing a backward-facing step on the suction side of a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA 2412 airfoil at a high Reynolds number of 5.9 × 106. The effects of the step location on the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and critical angle of attack are studied to find a favorable location for the step along the chord-wise direction. Results showed that employing a step on the suction side of the NACA 2412 airfoil can adversely affect the aforementioned aerodynamic properties. A drop of 21.1% in value of the lift coefficient and an increase of 120.8% in the drag coefficient were observed in case of a step located at 25% of the chord length. However, these effects are mitigated by shifting the step location towards the trailing edge. Introducing a step on the airfoil caused the airfoil’s thickness to change, which in turn has affected the transition point of the viscous boundary layer from laminar to turbulent. The location of the step, prior or post the transition point, has a noteworthy effect on the pressure and shear stress distribution, and consequently on the values of the lift and drag coefficients.

  18. Experimental Feed-Forward Control of the Backwards-Facing Step Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, Nicolas


    In this study experimental control of an amplifier flow is investigated. A feed-forward algorithm is implemented to control the flow downstream a backward-facing step. Upstream and downstream data are extracted from real-time velocity fields to compute an ARMAX model used to effect actuation. This work, done at Reynolds number 430 investigates the practical feasibility of this approach which has shown great promise in a recent numerical study by Herv\\'e et al (2012). The linear nature of the regime is checked, 2D upstream perturbations are introduced, and the degree to which the flow can be controlled is quantified. The resulting actuation is able to effectively reduce downstream energy levels and fluctuations. The limitations of such an approach when applied to an experiment is also emphasized.

  19. User-Dependent CFD Predictions of a Backward-Facing Step Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lei; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Wang, Xiaoxue


    in CFD simulation. The predicted non-dimensional penetration lengths as a function of Reynolds number are diverse among different teams. Even when the same turbulence model or even the laminar model is used, the difference is still notable among the results from different users. We believe......The backward-facing step flow with an expansion ratio of 5 has been modelled by 19 teams without benchmark solution or experimental data. Different CFD codes, turbulence models, boundary conditions, numerical schemes and convergent criteria are adopted based on the participants’ own experience...... that it indicates the combined effects of multiple decisions based on users’ experience may cause significant difference in CFD “experiments”. This calls for a solid approach of CFD validation and uncertainty assessment in CFD “experiments”. A standard or guideline of using CFD and uncertainty assessment is needed...

  20. Numerical Study of Separated Flows in Backward Facing Step by Using Collocated Grid Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mustafa


    Full Text Available The effects of Reynolds number and the inlet height ratio on separated flow over backward facing step are investigated. The flow field is studied numerically with different inlet height ratio. The laminar flow field is analyzed numerically by solving the steady, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A collocated (non-staggered grid is used in the momentum equations, which discretized by finite volume method, SIMPLE algorithm is used to adjust the velocity field to satisfy the conservation of mass. The range of Reynolds number is (Re = 100 - 800. The results show that at low height ratio (h/H = 0.25 and high Reynolds number the flow separated along the top wall of the channel. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained. 

  1. A comparative study of computational solutions to flow over a backward-facing step (United States)

    Mizukami, M.; Georgiadis, N. J.; Cannon, M. R.


    A comparative study was conducted for computational fluid dynamic solutions to flow over a backward-facing step. This flow is a benchmark problem, with a simple geometry, but involves complicated flow physics such as free shear layers, reattaching flow, recirculation, and high turbulence intensities. Three Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solvers with k-epsilon turbulence models were used, each using a different solution algorithm: finite difference, finite element, and hybrid finite element - finite difference. Comparisons were made with existing experimental data. Results showed that velocity profiles and reattachment lengths were predicted reasonably well by all three methods, while the skin friction coefficients were more difficult to predict accurately. It was noted that, in general, selecting an appropriate solver for each problem to be considered is important.

  2. Turbulent flow past a backward-facing step - A critical evaluation of two-equation models (United States)

    Thangam, S.; Speziale, C. G.


    The ability of two-equation models to accurately predict separated flows is analyzed from a combined theoretical and computational standpoint. Turbulent flow past a backward facing step is chosen as a test case in an effort to resolve the variety of conflicting results that were published during the past decade concerning the performance of two-equation models. It is found that the errors in the reported predictions of the k-epsilon model have two major origins: (1) numerical problems arising from inadequate resolution, and (2) inaccurate predictions for normal Reynolds stress differences arising from the use of an isotropic eddy viscosity. Inadequacies in near wall modelling play a substantially smaller role. Detailed calculations are presented which strongly indicate the standard k-epsilon model - when modified with an independently calibrated anisotropic eddy viscosity - can yield surprisingly good predictions for the backstep problem.

  3. Investigation of Particle Sampling Bias in the Shear Flow Field Downstream of a Backward Facing Step (United States)

    Meyers, James F.; Kjelgaard, Scott O.; Hepner, Timothy E.


    The flow field about a backward facing step was investigated to determine the characteristics of particle sampling bias in the various flow phenomena. The investigation used the calculation of the velocity:data rate correlation coefficient as a measure of statistical dependence and thus the degree of velocity bias. While the investigation found negligible dependence within the free stream region, increased dependence was found within the boundary and shear layers. Full classic correction techniques over-compensated the data since the dependence was weak, even in the boundary layer and shear regions. The paper emphasizes the necessity to determine the degree of particle sampling bias for each measurement ensemble and not use generalized assumptions to correct the data. Further, it recommends the calculation of the velocity:data rate correlation coefficient become a standard statistical calculation in the analysis of all laser velocimeter data.

  4. Effects of Forward- and Backward-Facing Steps on the Crossflow Receptivity and Stability in Supersonic Boundary Layers (United States)

    Balakumar, P.; King, Rudolph A.; Eppink, Jenna L.


    The effects of forward- and backward-facing steps on the receptivity and stability of three-dimensional supersonic boundary layers over a swept wing with a blunt leading edge are numerically investigated for a freestream Mach number of 3 and a sweep angle of 30 degrees. The flow fields are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. The evolution of instability waves generated by surface roughness is simulated with and without the forward- and backward-facing steps. The separation bubble lengths are about 5-10 step heights for the forward-facing step and are about 10 for the backward-facing step. The linear stability calculations show very strong instability in the separated region with a large frequency domain. The simulation results show that the presence of backward-facing steps decreases the amplitude of the stationary crossflow vortices with longer spanwise wavelengths by about fifty percent and the presence of forward-facing steps does not modify the amplitudes noticeably across the steps. The waves with the shorter wavelengths grow substantially downstream of the step in agreement with the linear stability prediction.

  5. A Study of Low-Reynolds Number Effects in Backward-Facing Step Flow Using Large Eddy Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, Lars; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The flow in ventilated rooms is often not fully turbulent, but in some regions the flow can be laminar. Problems have been encountered when simulating this type of flow using RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) methods. Restivo carried out experiment on the flow after a backward-facing step......, with a large step....

  6. The impact of equivalence ratio oscillations on combustion dynamics in a backward-facing step combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murat Altay, H.; Speth, Raymond L.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    The combustion dynamics of propane-air flames are investigated in an atmospheric pressure, atmospheric inlet temperature, lean, premixed backward-facing step combustor. We modify the location of the fuel injector to examine the impact of equivalence ratio oscillations arriving at the flame on the combustion dynamics. Simultaneous pressure, velocity, heat-release rate and equivalence ratio measurements and high-speed video from the experiments are used to identify and characterize several distinct operating modes. When the fuel is injected far upstream from the step, the equivalence ratio arriving at the flame is steady and the combustion dynamics are controlled only by flame-vortex interactions. In this case, different dynamic regimes are observed depending on the operating parameters. When the fuel is injected close to the step, the equivalence ratio arriving at the flame exhibits oscillations. In the presence of equivalence ratio oscillations, the measured sound pressure level is significant across the entire range of lean mean equivalence ratios even if the equivalence ratio oscillations arriving at the flame are out-of-phase with the pressure oscillations. The combustion dynamics are governed primarily by the flame-vortex interactions, while the equivalence ratio oscillations have secondary effects. The equivalence ratio oscillations could generate variations in the combustion dynamics in each cycle under some operating conditions, destabilize the flame at the entire range of the lean equivalence ratios, and increase the value of the mean equivalence ratio at the lean blowout limit. (author)

  7. On characteristics of a non-reacting and a reacting turbulent flow over a backward facing step (BFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahi, Mina; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof


    The turbulent reacting flow over a backward facing step shares some essential characteristics of premixed combustion occurring in a typical gas turbine combustor, while it is a simpler configuration to observe and model. For this reason and to explore the characteristics of the turbulent flow, in

  8. Numerical Investigation of Transitional Flow over a Backward Facing Step Using a Low Reynolds Number k-ε Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, M.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In this paper it is investigated if it is possible to simulate and capture some of the low Reynolds number effects numerically using time averaged momentum equations and a low Reynolds number k-f model. The test case is the larninar to turbulent transitional flow over a backward facing step...

  9. Flame-vortex interaction driven combustion dynamics in a backward-facing step combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altay, H. Murat; Speth, Raymond L.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    The combustion dynamics of propane-hydrogen mixtures are investigated in an atmospheric pressure, lean, premixed backward-facing step combustor. We systematically vary the equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and fuel composition to determine the stability map of the combustor. Simultaneous pressure, velocity, heat release rate and equivalence ratio measurements and high-speed video from the experiments are used to identify and characterize several distinct operating modes. When fuel is injected far upstream from the step, the equivalence ratio entering the flame is temporally and spatially uniform, and the combustion dynamics are governed only by flame-vortex interactions. Four distinct dynamic regimes are observed depending on the operating parameters. At high but lean equivalence ratios, the flame is unstable and oscillates strongly as it is wrapped around the large unsteady wake vortex. At intermediate equivalence ratios, weakly oscillating quasi-stable flames are observed. Near the lean blowout limit, long stable flames extending from the corner of the step are formed. At atmospheric inlet temperature, the unstable mode resonates at the 1/4 wavemode of the combustor. As the inlet temperature is increased, the 5/4 wavemode of the combustor is excited at high but lean equivalence ratios, forming the high-frequency unstable flames. Higher hydrogen concentration in the fuel and higher inlet temperatures reduce the equivalence ratios at which the transitions between regimes are observed. We plot combustion dynamics maps or the response curves, that is the overall sound pressure level as a function of the equivalence ratio, for different operating conditions. We demonstrate that numerical results of strained premixed flames can be used to collapse the response curves describing the transitions among the dynamic modes onto a function of the heat release rate parameter alone, rather than a function dependent on the equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and fuel

  10. The Effect of Backward-Facing Step Height on Instability Growth and Breakdown in Swept Wing Boundary-Layer Transition (United States)

    Eppink, Jenna L.; Wlezien, Richard W.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan


    A low-speed experiment was performed on a swept at plate model with an imposed pressure gradient to determine the effect of a backward-facing step on transition in a stationary-cross flow dominated flow. Detailed hot-wire boundary-layer measurements were performed for three backward-facing step heights of approximately 36, 45, and 49% of the boundary-layer thickness at the step. These step heights correspond to a subcritical, nearly-critical, and critical case. Three leading-edge roughness configurations were tested to determine the effect of stationary-cross flow amplitude on transition. The step caused a local increase in amplitude of the stationary cross flow for the two larger step height cases, but farther downstream the amplitude decreased and remained below the baseline amplitude. The smallest step caused a slight local decrease in amplitude of the primary stationary cross flow mode, but the amplitude collapsed back to the baseline case far downstream of the step. The effect of the step on the amplitude of the primary cross flow mode increased with step height, however, the stationary cross flow amplitudes remained low and thus, stationary cross flow was not solely responsible for transition. Unsteady disturbances were present downstream of the step for all three step heights, and the amplitudes increased with increasing step height. The only exception is that the lower frequency (traveling crossflow-like) disturbance was not present in the lowest step height case. Positive and negative spikes in instantaneous velocity began to occur for the two larger step height cases and then grew in number and amplitude downstream of reattachment, eventually leading to transition. The number and amplitude of spikes varied depending on the step height and cross flow amplitude. Despite the low amplitude of the disturbances in the intermediate step height case, breakdown began to occur intermittently and the flow underwent a long transition region.

  11. Large-eddy simulation of a backward facing step flow using a least-squares spectral element method (United States)

    Chan, Daniel C.; Mittal, Rajat


    We report preliminary results obtained from the large eddy simulation of a backward facing step at a Reynolds number of 5100. The numerical platform is based on a high order Legendre spectral element spatial discretization and a least squares time integration scheme. A non-reflective outflow boundary condition is in place to minimize the effect of downstream influence. Smagorinsky model with Van Driest near wall damping is used for sub-grid scale modeling. Comparisons of mean velocity profiles and wall pressure show good agreement with benchmark data. More studies are needed to evaluate the sensitivity of this method on numerical parameters before it is applied to complex engineering problems.

  12. POD analysis of flow over a backward-facing step forced by right-angle-shaped plasma actuator. (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Huaxing


    This study aims to present flow control over the backward-facing step with specially designed right-angle-shaped plasma actuator and analyzed the influence of various scales of flow structures on the Reynolds stress through snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). 2D particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted on region (x/h = 0-2.25) and reattachment zone in the x-y plane over the backward-facing step at a Reynolds number of Re h  = 27,766 (based on step height [Formula: see text] and free stream velocity [Formula: see text]. The separated shear layer was excited by specially designed right-angle-shaped plasma actuator under the normalized excitation frequency St h  ≈ 0.345 along the 45° direction. The spatial distribution of each Reynolds stress component was reconstructed using an increasing number of POD modes. The POD analysis indicated that the flow dynamic downstream of the step was dominated by large-scale flow structures, which contributed to streamwise Reynolds stress and Reynolds shear stress. The intense Reynolds stress localized to a narrow strip within the shear layer was mainly affected by small-scale flow structures, which were responsible for the recovery of the Reynolds stress peak. With plasma excitation, a significant increase was obtained in the vertical Reynolds stress peak. Under the dimensionless frequencies St h  ≈ 0.345 and [Formula: see text] which are based on the step height and momentum thickness, the effectiveness of the flow control forced by the plasma actuator along the 45° direction was ordinary. Only the vertical Reynolds stress was significantly affected.

  13. Numerical simulations of three-dimensional laminar flow over a backward facing step; flow near side walls (United States)

    Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Arnone, Andrea


    This paper reports the results of numerical simulations of steady, laminar flow over a backward-facing step. The governing equations used in the simulations are the full 'compressible' Navier-Stokes equations, solutions to which were computed by using a cell-centered, finite volume discretization. The convection terms of the governing equations were discretized by using the Advection Upwind Splitting Method (AUSM), whereas the diffusion terms were discretized using central differencing formulas. The validity and accuracy of the numerical solutions were verified by comparing the results to existing experimental data for flow at identical Reynolds numbers in the same back step geometry. The paper focuses attention on the details of the flow field near the side wall of the geometry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaier MEHREZ


    Full Text Available The control of fluid mechanics and mass transfer in separated and reattaching flow over a backward-facing step by a local forcing, is studied using Large Eddy Simulation (LES.To control the flow, the local forcing is realized by a sinusoidal oscillating jet at the step edge. The Reynolds number is varied in the range 10000 ≤ Re≤ 50000 and the Schmidt number is fixed at 1.The found results show that the flow structure is modified and the local mass transfer is enhanced by the applied forcing. The observed changes depend on the Reynolds number and vary with the frequency and amplitude of the local forcing. For the all Reynolds numbers, the largest recirculation zone size reduction is obtained at the optimum forcing frequency St = 0.25. At this frequency the local mass transfer enhancement attains the maximum.

  15. A critical comparison of several low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence models for flow over a backward facing step (United States)

    Steffen, C. J., Jr.


    Turbulent backward-facing step flow was examined using four low turbulent Reynolds number k-epsilon models and one standard high Reynolds number technique. A tunnel configuration of 1:9 (step height: exit tunnel height) was used. The models tested include: the original Jones and Launder; Chien; Launder and Sharma; and the recent Shih and Lumley formulation. The experimental reference of Driver and Seegmiller was used to make detailed comparisons between reattachment length, velocity, pressure, turbulent kinetic energy, Reynolds shear stress, and skin friction predictions. The results indicated that the use of a wall function for the standard k-epsilon technique did not reduce the calculation accuracy for this separated flow when compared to the low turbulent Reynolds number techniques.

  16. Turbulent separated flow past a backward-facing step: A critical evaluation of two-equation turbulence models (United States)

    Thangam, S.; Speziale, C. G.


    The ability of two-equation models to accurately predict separated flows is analyzed from a combined theoretical and computational standpoint. Turbulent flow past a backward facing step is chosen as a test case in an effort to resolve the variety of conflicting results that were published during the past decade concerning the performance of two-equation models. It is found that the errors in the reported predictions of the k-epsilon model have two major origins: (1) numerical problems arising from inadequate resolution, and (2) inaccurate predictions for normal Reynolds stress differences arising from the use of an isotropic eddy viscosity. Inadequacies in near wall modelling play a substantially smaller role. Detailed calculations are presented which strongly indicate the standard k-epsilon model - when modified with an independently calibrated anisotropic eddy viscosity - can yield surprisingly good predictions for the backstep problem.

  17. Coherent structures in a boundary layer and shear layer of a turbulent backward-facing step flow (United States)

    Jovic, Srba; Browne, L. W. B.


    A wind tunnel experiment has been carried out at the NASA Ames Research Center to analyze the evolution of coherent structures from a boundary layer to a shear layer in a turbulent, backward-facing, step flow. A miniature X-wire/cold-wire probe has been used in conjunction with two arrays of cold wires, one aligned in the plane of main shear and the other in the spanwise direction of the flow, to detect and characterize delta-scale organized structures in the outer regions of the flow and to provide detailed information concerning these structures. Kinematic features of the events associated with the large scale structures were analyzed and topological pictures of the evolving flow, as well as the contributions to the Reynolds shear stress components are presented.

  18. Investigation of obstacle effect to improve conjugate heat transfer in backward facing step channel using fast simulation of incompressible flow (United States)

    Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Moazezi, Arash


    The current study investigates the conjugate heat transfer characteristics for laminar flow in backward facing step channel. All of the channel walls are insulated except the lower thick wall under a constant temperature. The upper wall includes a insulated obstacle perpendicular to flow direction. The effect of obstacle height and location on the fluid flow and heat transfer are numerically explored for the Reynolds number in the range of 10 ≤ Re ≤ 300. Incompressible Navier-Stokes and thermal energy equations are solved simultaneously in fluid region by the upwind compact finite difference scheme based on flux-difference splitting in conjunction with artificial compressibility method. In the thick wall, the energy equation is obtained by Laplace equation. A multi-block approach is used to perform parallel computing to reduce the CPU time. Each block is modeled separately by sharing boundary conditions with neighbors. The developed program for modeling was written in FORTRAN language with OpenMP API. The obtained results showed that using of the multi-block parallel computing method is a simple robust scheme with high performance and high-order accurate. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrated that the increment of Reynolds number and obstacle height as well as decrement of horizontal distance between the obstacle and the step improve the heat transfer.

  19. On the solution of fluid flow and heat transfer problem in a 2D channel with backward-facing step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Fomin


    Full Text Available The stable stationary solutions of the test problem of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a plane channel with the backward-facing step have been considered in the work for extremely high Reynolds numbers and expansion ratio of the stream $ER$. The problem has been solved by numerical integration of the 2D Navier–Stokes equations in ‘velocity-pressure’ formulation and the heat equation in the range of Reynolds number $500 \\leqslant \\mathrm{ Re} \\leqslant 3000$ and expansion ratio $1.43 \\leqslant ER \\leqslant 10$ for Prandtl number $\\mathrm{ Pr} = 0.71$. Validity of the results has been confirmed by comparing them with literature data. Detailed flow patterns, fields of stream overheating, and profiles of horizontal component of velocity and relative overheating of flow in the cross section of the channel have been presented. Complex behaviors of the coefficients of friction, hydrodynamic resistance and heat transfer (Nusselt number along the channel depending on the problem parameters have been analyzed.

  20. The Effect of Acoustic Forcing on Instabilities and Breakdown in Swept-Wing Flow over a Backward-Facing Step (United States)

    Eppink, Jenna L.; Shishkov, Olga; Wlezien, Richard W.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan


    Instability interaction and breakdown were experimentally investigated in the flow over a swept backward-facing step. Acoustic forcing was used to excite the Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) instability and to acquire phase-locked results. The phase-averaged results illustrate the complex nature of the interaction between the TS and stationary cross flow instabilities. The weak stationary cross flow disturbance causes a distortion of the TS wavefront. The breakdown process is characterized by large positive and negative spikes in velocity. The positive spikes occur near the same time and location as the positive part of the TS wave. Higher-order spectral analysis was used to further investigate the nonlinear interactions between the TS instability and the traveling cross flow disturbances. The results reveal that a likely cause for the generation of the spikes corresponds to nonlinear interactions between the TS, traveling cross flow, and stationary cross flow disturbances. The spikes begin at low amplitudes of the unsteady and steady disturbances (2-4% U (sub e) (i.e. boundary layer edge velocity)) but can achieve very large amplitudes (20-30 percent U (sub e) (i.e. boundary layer edge velocity)) that initiate an early, though highly intermittent, breakdown to turbulence.

  1. On the Role of Chemical Kinetics Modeling in the LES of Premixed Bluff Body and Backward-Facing Step Combustors

    KAUST Repository

    Chakroun, Nadim W.


    Recirculating flows in the wake of a bluff body, behind a sudden expansion or down-stream of a swirler, are pivotal for anchoring a flame and expanding the stability range. The size and structure of these recirculation zones and the accurate prediction of the length of these zones is a very important characteristic that computational simulations should have. Large eddy simulation (LES) techniques with an appropriate combustion model and reaction mechanism afford a balance between computational complexity and predictive accuracy. In this study, propane/air mixtures were simulated in a bluff-body stabilized combustor based on the Volvo test case and also in a backward-facing step combustor. The main goal is to investigate the role of the chemical mechanism and the accuracy of estimating the extinction strain rate on the prediction of important ow features such as recirculation zones. Two 2-step mechanisms were employed, one which gave reasonable extinction strain rates and another modi ed 2-step mechanism where it grossly over-predicted the values. This modified mechanism under-predicted recirculation zone lengths compared to the original mechanism and had worse agreement with experiments in both geometries. While the recirculation zone lengths predicted by both reduced mechanisms in the step combustor scale linearly with the extinction strain rate, the scaling curves do not match experimental results as none of the simpli ed mechanisms produce extinction strain rates that are consistent with those predicted by the comprehensive mechanisms. We conclude that it is very important that a chemical mechanism is able to correctly predict extinction strain rates if it is to be used in CFD simulations.

  2. Comparison of RANS and IDDES solutions for turbulent flow and heat transfer past a backward-facing step (United States)

    Smirnov, E. M.; Smirnovsky, A. A.; Schur, N. A.; Zaitsev, D. K.; Smirnov, P. E.


    Numerical simulations were carried out under conditions of the benchmark-quality experiments of Vogel&Eaton (1985), where nominally 2D fluid dynamics and heat transfer past a backward-facing step in a channel with expansion ratio of 1.25 was investigated at the Reynolds number of 28,000 (based on the step height and the upstream centreline velocity). Comparative computations were performed using an in-house finite-volume code SINF/Flag-S and the ANSYS Fluent, running the codes with same grids. Two approaches were used for turbulence modelling. First, the Menter SST turbulence model was used to perform refined 2D and 3D RANS steady-state computations. The 3D analysis was undertaken to evaluate influence of boundary layers developing on the sidewalls of the experimental channel. The data obtained has resulted in the conclusion that the side wall effects disturbing spanwise uniformity of wall friction and heated wall temperature in the test configuration were of the same order or less than the skin friction coefficient and the Stanton number measurement errors. Then, 3D time-dependent computations were carried out using the vortex-resolving IDDES method being a hybridization of RANS and LES. The IDDES results obtained with the two codes are in a satisfactory agreement, especially for the finer grid of 17.3 million cells. Comparing with the experimental data, the IDDES approach produces the best agreement for the wall friction, whereas the RANS solutions show superiority in predictions of the local Stanton number distribution.

  3. The structure of turbulence near a tall forest edge: the backward-facing step flow analogy revisited. (United States)

    Detto, Matteo; Katul, Gabriel G; Siqueira, Mario; Juang, Jehn-Yih; Stoy, Paul


    Flow disturbances near tall forest edges are receiving significant attention in diverse disciplines including ecology, forest management, meteorology, and fluid mechanics. Current theories suggest that near a forest edge, when the flow originates from a forest into a large clearing, the flow retains its forest canopy turbulence structure at the exit point. Here, we propose that this framework is not sufficiently general for dense forested edges and suggest that the flow shares several attributes with backward-facing step (BFS) flow. Similar analogies, such as rotor-like circulations, have been proposed by a number of investigators, though the consequences of such circulations on the primary terms in the mean momentum balance at the forest clearing edge have rarely been studied in the field. Using an array of three triaxial sonic anemometers positioned to measure horizontal and vertical gradients of the velocity statistics near a forest edge, we show that the flow structure is more consistent with an intermittent recirculation pattern, rather than a continuous rotor, whose genesis resembles the BFS flow. We also show that the lateral velocity variance, v'2, is the moment that adjusts most slowly with downwind distance as the flow exits from the forest into the clearing. Surprisingly, the longitudinal and vertical velocity variances (u'2 and w'2) at the forest edge were comparable in magnitude to their respective values at the center of a large grass-covered forest clearing, suggesting rapid adjustment at the edge. Discussions on how the forest edge modifies the spectra and co-spectra of momentum fluxes, effective mixing length, and static pressure are also presented.

  4. Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements of Transition Downstream of a Backward-Facing Step in a Swept-Wing Boundary Layer (United States)

    Eppink, Jenna L.; Yao, Chung-Sheng


    Stereo particle image velocimetry measurements were performed downstream of a backward-facing step in a stationary-cross flow dominated flow. The PIV measurements exhibit excellent quantitative and qualitative agreement with the previously acquired hotwire data. Instantaneous PIV snapshots reveal new information about the nature and cause of the \\spikes" that occurred prior to breakdown in both the hotwire and PIV data. The PIV snapshots show that the events occur simultaneously across multiple stationary cross flow wavelengths, indicating that this is not simply a local event, but is likely caused by the 2D Tollmien-Schlichting instability that is introduced by the step. While the TS instability is a 2D instability, it is also modulated in the spanwise direction due to interactions with the stationary cross flow, as are the other unsteady disturbances present. Because of this modulation, the "spike" events cause an instantaneous increase of the spanwise modulation of the streamwise and spanwise velocity initially caused by the stationary cross flow. Breakdown appears to be caused by this instantaneous modulation, possibly due to a high-frequency secondary instability similar to a traveling-cross flow breakdown scenario. These results further illuminate the respective roles of the stationary cross flow and unsteady disturbances in transition downstream of a backward-facing step.

  5. A critical comparison of several low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence models for flow over a backward-facing step (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.


    Turbulent backward-facing step flow was examined using four low turbulent Reynolds number k-epsilon models and one standard high Reynolds number technique. A tunnel configuration of 1:9 (step height: exit tunnel height) was used. The models tested include: the original Jones and Launder; Chien; Launder and Sharma; and the recent Shih and Lumley formulation. The experimental reference of Driver and Seegmiller was used to make detailed comparisons between reattachment length, velocity, pressure, turbulent kinetic energy, Reynolds shear stress, and skin friction predictions. The results indicated that the use of a wall function for the standard k-epsilon technique did not reduce the calculation accuracy for this separated flow when compared to the low turbulent Reynolds number techniques.

  6. Effects of expansion ratio on the calculation of parallel-walled backward-facing step flows - Comparison of four models of turbulence (United States)

    Sindir, M. M.


    This paper presents a numerical study of the effects of expansion ratio on two-dimensional separating and reattaching flows in plane backward-facing step geometries with parallel walls. Closure of the Reynolds equations was achieved by four different turbulence models: k-epsilon, 'modified' k-epsilon, algebraic stress, and 'modified' algebraic stress models. The k-epsilon model relates the Reynolds stresses to the mean rate of strain through the definition of an isotropic turbulent viscosity. The more advanced algebraic stress model calculates the stresses from implicit algebraic relationships containing the stresses themselves, the mean rate of strain, and the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. 'Modified' versions of the models employ a new dissipation rate equation whose production term was made more sensitive to streamwise curvature effects. A new nonequilibrium wall function treatment proposed by Chieng and Launder (1980) was also incorporated into each model.

  7. Time Resolved Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements of the Instabilities Downstream of a Backward-Facing Step in a Swept-Wing Boundary Layer (United States)

    Eppink, Jenna L.; Yao, Chung-Sheng


    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TRPIV) measurements are performed down-stream of a swept backward-facing step, with a height of 49% of the boundary-layer thickness. The results agree well qualitatively with previously reported hotwire measurements, though the amplitudes of the fluctuating components measured using TRPIV are higher. Nonetheless, the low-amplitude instabilities in the flow are fairly well resolved using TR- PIV. Proper orthogonal decomposition is used to study the development of the traveling cross flow and Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) instabilities downstream of the step and to study how they interact to form the large velocity spikes that ultimately lead to transition. A secondary mode within the traveling cross flow frequency band develops with a wavelength close to that of the stationary cross flow instability, so that at a certain point in the phase, it causes an increase in the spanwise modulation initially caused by the stationary cross flow mode. This increased modulation leads to an increase in the amplitude of the TS mode, which, itself, is highly modulated through interactions with the stationary cross flow. When the traveling cross flow and TS modes align in time and space, the large velocity spikes occur. Thus, these three instabilities, which are individually of low amplitude when the spikes start to occur (U'rms/Ue <0.03), interact and combine to cause a large flow disturbance that eventually leads to transition.

  8. A grid refinement study of two-dimensional transient flow over a backward-facing step using a spectral-element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torczynski, J.R.


    The two-dimensional transient flow over a backward-facing step is numerically simulated using the spectral-element computational fluid dynamics code NEKTON. The simulated geometry corresponds to that of Kaiktsis et al. (1991) and Armaly et al. (1983), and flow is examined at Reynolds numbers of 500 and 800. A systematic grid refinement study is performed by varying both the element size and the order of the polynomial representation within the elements. For both values of the Reynolds number, it is observed that low-resolution cases exhibit sustained chaotic temporal behavior but that high-resolution cases evolve toward asymptotically steady flow by a monotonic decay of the transient. The resolution required to obtain asymptotically steady behavior is seen to increase with Reynolds number. These results suggest that the recently reported transition to chaotic flow at Reynolds numbers around 700 is an artifact of inadequate spatial resolution. The cause of resolution-dependent temporal behavior of spectral-element methods is explored.

  9. A grid refinement study of two-dimensional transient flow over a backward-facing step using a spectral-element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torczynski, J.R.


    The two-dimensional transient flow over a backward-facing step is numerically simulated using the spectral-element computational fluid dynamics code NEKTON. The simulated geometry corresponds to that of Kaiktsis et al. (1991) and Armaly et al. (1983), and flow is examined at Reynolds numbers of 500 and 800. A systematic grid refinement study is performed by varying both the element size and the order of the polynomial representation within the elements. For both values of the Reynolds number, it is observed that low-resolution cases exhibit sustained chaotic temporal behavior but that high-resolution cases evolve toward asymptotically steady flow by a monotonic decay of the transient. The resolution required to obtain asymptotically steady behavior is seen to increase with Reynolds number. These results suggest that the recently reported transition to chaotic flow at Reynolds numbers around 700 is an artifact of inadequate spatial resolution. The cause of resolution-dependent temporal behavior of spectral-element methods is explored.

  10. Saturation of the response to stochastic forcing in two-dimensional backward-facing step flow: A self-consistent approximation (United States)

    Mantič-Lugo, Vladislav; Gallaire, François


    Selective noise amplifiers are characterized by large linear amplification to external perturbations in a particular frequency range despite their global linear stability. Applying a stochastic forcing with increasing amplitude, the response undergoes a strong nonlinear saturation when compared to the linear estimation. Building upon our previous work, we introduce a predictive model that describes this nonlinear dynamics, and we apply it to a canonical example of selective noise amplifiers: the backward-facing step flow. Rewriting conveniently the stochastic forcing and response in the frequency domain, the model consists in a mean flow equation coupled to the linear response to forcing at each frequency. This coupling is attained by the Reynolds stress, which is constructed by the integral in frequency of the independent responses. We generalize the model for a response to a white noise forcing δ -correlated in space and time restricting the flow dynamics to its most energetic patterns calculated from the optimal harmonic forcing and response of the flow. The model estimates accurately the response saturation when compared to direct numerical simulations, and it correctly approximates the structure of the response and the mean flow modification. It also shows that the response undergoes a selective process governed by the nonlinear gain, which promotes a response structure with an approximately single frequency and wavelength in the whole domain. These results suggest that the mean flow modification by the Reynolds stress is the key nonlinearity in the saturation process of the response to white noise.

  11. The Importance of Splat Events to the Spatiotemporal Structure of Near-Bed Fluid Velocity and Bed Load Motion Over Bed Forms: Laboratory Experiments Downstream of a Backward Facing Step (United States)

    Leary, K. C. P.; Schmeeckle, M. W.


    Flow separation/reattachment on the lee side of alluvial bed forms is known to produce a complex turbulence field, but the spatiotemporal details of the associated patterns of bed load sediment transported remain largely unknown. Here we report turbulence-resolving, simultaneous measurements of bed load motion and near-bed fluid velocity downstream of a backward facing step in a laboratory flume. Two synchronized high-speed video cameras simultaneously observed bed load motion and the motion of neutrally buoyant particles in a laser light sheet 6 mm above the bed at 250 frames/s downstream of a 3.8 cm backward facing step. Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) and Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) were used to characterize fluid turbulent patterns, while manual particle tracking techniques were used to characterize bed load transport. Octant analysis, conducted using ADV data, coupled with Markovian sequence probability analysis highlights differences in the flow near reattachment versus farther downstream. Near reattachment, three distinct flow patterns are apparent. Farther downstream we see the development of a dominant flow sequence. Localized, intermittent, high-magnitude transport events are more apparent near flow reattachment. These events are composed of streamwise and cross-stream fluxes of comparable magnitudes. Transport pattern and fluid velocity data are consistent with the existence of permeable "splat events," wherein a volume of fluid moves toward and impinges on the bed (sweep) causing a radial movement of fluid in all directions around the point of impingement (outward interaction). This is congruent with flow patterns, identified with octant analysis, proximal to flow reattachment.

  12. Meshless Solution of Incompressible Flow Over Backward-Facing Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mužík Juraj


    Full Text Available Article presents the use of the meshless method for numerical simulation of incompressible fluid flow. The article presents the implementation of the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin method (MLPG, with Navier-Stokes equation formulated using the local weighted residual principle. The trial function construction process is the most important part of the meshless method implementation. In this article the radial basis functions (RBF are used for the process of the trial functions construction.

  13. Shear-Layer Manipulation of Backward-Facing Step Flow with Forcing: A Numerical Study (United States)


    approximation. Algebraic multigrid algorithm is employed in conjunction with an im- plicit residual smoothing scheme. The solver is par- allelized using...with freestream flow and an increas- ing amalgamation of vortices due to a reinforced flapping motion excited by the forcing at a harmo- nized burst...periodic phenomena inher- ent in the shear layer have undergone increasing amalgamation in relation to the breakup of rolling structures and vortex

  14. Near-Wall Models in Large Eddy Simulations of Flow Behind a Backward-Facing Step (United States)

    Cabot, W.


    Accurate large eddy simulation (LES) of a wall-bounded flow generally requires a near-wall resolution comparable to that in direct numerical simulation (DNS). As much as 50% of the total grid points and computational costs are expended in the near-wall regions in a typical simulation. This limits LES to fairly low Reynolds numbers on current computers. To perform practical flow applications at realistically high Reynolds numbers, such as flow over an airfoil, it is desirable to replace very thin, near-wall regions in the LES with easily and inexpensively computed wall models to specify the near-wall boundary conditions.

  15. Model reduction on 2-D incompressible laminar flows: Application on the flow over a backward-facing step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouizi, Y; Favennec, Y; Girault, M; Petit, D [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques UMR CNRS 6608, ENSMA, Teleport 2, 1 avenue Clement Ader, B.P. 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Cedex (France)], E-mail:


    The computation of fluid mechanics problems usually leans on a discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations which has to be so fine that the dimensions of the linear systems to be solved are very high. As a direct consequence, the Central Processing Unit time needed to solve complex systems my become extremely large when accuracy is demanded. When coupling numerical modeling schemes to inversion or control problems, the size of linear systems to be solved has to be drastically reduced. Within this context, the identification method consists in identifying the components of a low-order matrix system. The identification process works as an inverse problem of parameter estimation. The test case shows the ability of the proposed method to reduced with accuracy a particular fluid mechanics problem.

  16. Stabilization and Suppression of a Diffusion Flame Behind a Step

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takahashi, Fumiaki


    Using a flow visualization technique, stabilization and suppression of a nonpremixed methane flame behind a backward-facing step in a wind tunnel have been studied by impulsively injecting a gaseous...

  17. First steps in investigating fast ion confinement on the HSX stellarator (United States)

    Schilling, E. M.; Likin, K. M.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Anderson, D. T.


    The Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX) is a Quasi-Helically Symmetric (QHS) stellarator that has been successfully optimized for improved neoclassical confinement, but fast ion confinement has not yet been investigated. Fast ion studies have been performed on similar experiments, such as the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) and the Compact Helical System (CHS), but not yet for a QHS geometry. A 20 kV, 0.5 MW, 1.2 ms beam system has been adapted for use on HSX to perform such a study. By calculating the charge exchange and electron/proton impact cross sections for an approximated HSX plasma, a beam attenuation of at least 15 % has been predicted. The density of beam ions has then been calculated together with a target ion density assuming some fast ion confinement, and a resulting D-D fusion rate has been predicted to produce no less than 1 ×106 neutrons/sec overall. Once the beam system is mounted onto HSX, this neutron flux will be measured by a neutron detector and a fast ion confinement time will be inferred. Currently, a test vacuum chamber with basic diagnostics is being constructed to verify the beam's published performance characteristics. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-93ER54222.

  18. Bounds for the minimum step number of knots confined to slabs in the simple cubic lattice (United States)

    Ishihara, K.; Scharein, R.; Diao, Y.; Arsuaga, J.; Vazquez, M.; Shimokawa, K.


    Volume confinement is a key determinant of the topology and geometry of a polymer. However, the direct relationship between the two is not fully understood. For instance, recent experimental studies have constructed P4 cosmids, i.e. P4 bacteriophages whose genome sequence and length have been artificially engineered and have shown that upon extraction their DNA knot distribution differs from that of wild-type bacteriophage P4. In particular, it was observed that the complexity of the knots decreases sharply with the length of the packed genome. This problem is the motivation of this paper. Here, a polymer is modeled as a self-avoiding polygon on the simple cubic lattice and the confining condition is such that the polygon is bounded between two parallel planes (i.e. bounded within a slab). We estimate the minimum length required for such a polygon to realize a knot type. Our numerical simulations show that in order to realize a prime knot (with up to ten crossings) in a 1-slab (i.e. a slab of height 1), one needs a polygon of length strictly longer than the minimum length needed to realize the same knot when there is no confining condition. In the case of the trefoil knot, we can in fact establish this result analytically by proving that the minimum length required to tie a trefoil in the 1-slab is 26, which is greater than 24, the known minimum length required to tie a trefoil without a confinement condition. Additionally, we find that in the 1-slab not all geometrical realizations of a given knot type are equivalent under BFACF moves. This suggests that in certain confined volumes, knowing the topology of a polymer is not enough to describe all its states.

  19. Numerical Simulation of a Turbulent Flow Over a Backward Facing Step With Heated Wall: Effect of Pulsating Velocity and Oscillating Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Kok, Jacobus B.W.


    An accurate prediction of the flow and the thermal boundary layer is required to properly simulate gas to wall heat transfer in a turbulent flow. This is studied with a view to application to gas turbine combustors. A typical gas turbine combustion chamber flow presents similarities with the

  20. Control of low-speed turbulent separated flow over a backward-facing ramp. Ph.D. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ. (United States)

    Lin, John C.


    The relative performance and flow phenomena associated with several devices for controlling turbulent separated flow were investigated at low speeds. Relative performance of the devices was examined for flow over a curved, backward-facing ramp in a wind tunnel, and the flow phenomena were examined in a water tunnel using dye-flow visualization. Surface static pressure measurements and oil-flow visualization results from the wind tunnel tests indicated that transverse grooves, longitudinal grooves, submerged vortex generators, vortex generator jets (VGJ's), Viets' fluidic flappers, elongated arches at positive angle of attack, and large-eddy breakup devices (LEBU's) at positive angle of attack placed near the baseline separation location reduce flow separation and increase pressure recovery. Spanwise cylinders reduce flow separation but decrease pressure recovery downstream. Riblets, passive porous surfaces, swept grooves, Helmholtz resonators, and arches and LEBU's with angle of attack less than or = 0 degrees had no significant effect in reducing the extent of the separation region. Wall-cooling computations indicated that separation delay on a partially-cooled ramp is nearly the same as on a fully-cooled ramp, while minimizing the frictional drag increase associated with the wall cooling process. Dry-flow visualization tests in the water tunnel indicated that wishbone vortex generators in the forward orientation shed horseshoe vortices; wishbone vortex generators oriented in the reverse direction and doublet vortex generators shed streamwise counterrotating vortices; a spanewise cylinder located near the wall and LEBU's at angle of attack = -10 degrees produced eddies or transverse vortices which rotated with the same sign as the mean vorticity in a turbulent boundary layer; and the most effective VGJ's produced streamwise co-rotating vortices. Comparative wind-tunnel test results indicated that transferring momentum from the outer region of a turbulent boundary

  1. Step-free GaN surfaces grown by confined-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (United States)

    Shelton, Christopher T.; Bryan, Isaac; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Sachet, Edward; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Lavrik, Nick; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Maria, Jon-Paul


    A two-step homoepitaxial growth process producing step-free surfaces on low dislocation density, Ga-polar ammonothermal GaN single crystals is described. Growth is conducted under very low supersaturation conditions where adatom incorporation occurs predominantly at step edges, and lateral growth is strongly preferred. The achievable step-free area is limited by the substrate dislocation density. For ammonothermal crystals with an average dislocation density of ˜1 × 104 cm-2, step-free mesas up to 200 × 200 μm2 in size are achieved. These remarkable surfaces create a unique opportunity to study the effect of steps on the properties and performance of semiconductor heterostructures.

  2. Step-free GaN surfaces grown by confined-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Shelton


    Full Text Available A two-step homoepitaxial growth process producing step-free surfaces on low dislocation density, Ga-polar ammonothermal GaN single crystals is described. Growth is conducted under very low supersaturation conditions where adatom incorporation occurs predominantly at step edges, and lateral growth is strongly preferred. The achievable step-free area is limited by the substrate dislocation density. For ammonothermal crystals with an average dislocation density of ∼1 × 104 cm−2, step-free mesas up to 200 × 200 μm2 in size are achieved. These remarkable surfaces create a unique opportunity to study the effect of steps on the properties and performance of semiconductor heterostructures.

  3. Study of the one dimensional electron gas arrays confined by steps in vicinal GaN/AlGaN heterointerfaces (United States)

    Li, Huijie; Zhao, Guijuan; Liu, Guipeng; Wei, Hongyuan; Jiao, Chunmei; Yang, Shaoyan; Wang, Lianshan; Zhu, Qinsheng


    One dimensional electron gas (1DEG) arrays in vicinal GaN/AlGaN heterostructures have been studied. The steps at the interface would lead to the lateral barriers and limit the electron movement perpendicular to such steps. Through a self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson approach, the electron energy levels and wave functions were calculated. It was found that when the total electron density was increased, the lateral barriers were lowered due to the screening effects by the electrons, and the electron gas became more two-dimension like. The calculated 1DEG densities were compared to the experimental values and good agreements were found. Moreover, we found that a higher doping density is more beneficial to form 1-D like electron gas arrays.

  4. A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: the South Aegean (Crete) as an analogue for confined marine basins. (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George


    This study combines bathymetric, geomorphological, geological data and oil spill predictions to model the impact of oil spills in two accident scenarios from offshore Crete, Eastern Mediterranean. The aim is to present a new three-step method of use by emergency teams and local authorities in the assessment of shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills. The three-step method comprises: (1) real-time analyses of bathymetric, geomorphological, geological and oceanographic data; (2) oil dispersion simulations under known wind and sea current conditions; and (3) the compilation of final hazard maps based on information from (1) and (2) and on shoreline susceptibility data. The results in this paper show that zones of high to very-high susceptibility around the island of Crete are related to: (a) offshore bathymetric features, including the presence of offshore scarps and seamounts; (b) shoreline geology, and (c) the presence near the shore of sedimentary basins filled with unconsolidated deposits of high permeability. Oil spills, under particular weather and oceanographic conditions, may quickly spread and reach the shoreline 5-96 h after the initial accident. As a corollary of this work, we present the South Aegean region around Crete as a valid case-study for confined marine basins, narrow seaways, or interior seas around island groups. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D


    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  6. Application of a fractional-step method to incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (United States)

    Kim, J.; Moin, P.


    A numerical method for computing three dimensional, time dependent incompressible flows is presented. The method is based on a fractional step, or time-splitting, scheme in conjunction with the approximate-factorization technique. The use of velocity boundary conditions for the intermediate velocity field leads to inconsistent numerical solutions. Appropriate boundary conditions for the intermediate velocity field are derived and tested. Numerical solutions for flow inside a driven cavity and over a backward-facing step are presented and compared with experimental data and other numerical results.

  7. Application of a fractional-step method to incompressible Navier-Stokes equation (United States)

    Kim, J.; Moin, P.


    A numerical method for computing three dimensional, time dependent incompressible flows is presented. The method is based on a fractional step, or time-splitting, scheme in conjunction with the approximate-factorization technique. The use of velocity boundary conditions for the intermediate velocity field leads to inconsistent numerical solutions. Appropriate boundary conditions for the intermediate velocity field are derived and tested. Numerical solutions for flow inside a driven cavity and over a backward-facing step are presented and compared with experimenal data and other numerical results.

  8. Magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)


    The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is a compact, high-magnetic-field tokamak capable of operating at density and magnetic field values similar to, or even encompassing, those of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and therefore provides a unique opportunity to explore physics issues that are directly relevant to ITER. During 2004 the experimental activities were focussed on fully exploiting the lower hybrid system (for generating and controlling the plasma current) and the electron cyclotron heating system (joint experiment with the Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Research Council, Milan). With all four gyrotrons in operation, full electron cyclotron power was achieved up to a record level of 1.5 MW. By simultaneously injecting lower hybrid waves, to tailor the plasma current radial profile, and electron cyclotron waves, to heat the plasma centre, good confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma density values ever achieved for this operation regime (n {approx}1.5X10{sup 20}m{sup -3}). Specific studies were devoted to optimising the coupling of lower hybrid waves to the plasma (by real-time control of the plasma position) and to generating current by electron cyclotron current drive. The new scanning CO{sub 2} interferometer (developed by the Reversed Field Experiment Consortium) for high spatial and time resolution (1 cm/50 {mu}s) density profile measurements was extensively used. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded and enabled observation of scattered signals associated with the Confinement background plasma dynamics. As for theoretical studies on the dynamics of turbulence in plasmas, the transition from Bohm-like scaling to gyro-Bohm scaling of the local plasma diffusivity was demonstrated on the basis of a generalised four wave model (joint collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the University of California at Irvine). The transition from weak to strong

  9. Fish mouths as engineering structures for vortical cross-step filtration. (United States)

    Sanderson, S Laurie; Roberts, Erin; Lineburg, Jillian; Brooks, Hannah


    Suspension-feeding fishes such as goldfish and whale sharks retain prey without clogging their oral filters, whereas clogging is a major expense in industrial crossflow filtration of beer, dairy foods and biotechnology products. Fishes' abilities to retain particles that are smaller than the pore size of the gill-raker filter, including extraction of particles despite large holes in the filter, also remain unexplained. Here we show that unexplored combinations of engineering structures (backward-facing steps forming d-type ribs on the porous surface of a cone) cause fluid dynamic phenomena distinct from current biological and industrial filter operations. This vortical cross-step filtration model prevents clogging and explains the transport of tiny concentrated particles to the oesophagus using a hydrodynamic tongue. Mass transfer caused by vortices along d-type ribs in crossflow is applicable to filter-feeding duck beak lamellae and whale baleen plates, as well as the fluid mechanics of ventilation at fish gill filaments.

  10. Confinement Aquaculture. Final Report. (United States)

    Delaplaine School District, AR.

    The Delaplaine Agriculture Department Confinement Project, begun in June 1988, conducted a confinement aquaculture program by comparing the growth of channel catfish raised in cages in a pond to channel catfish raised in cages in the Black River, Arkansas. The study developed technology that would decrease costs in the domestication of fish, using…

  11. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich


    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  12. Elastic membranes in confinement. (United States)

    Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H


    An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Mass gap without confinement (United States)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pravos, David; Subils, Javier G.


    We revisit a one-parameter family of three-dimensional gauge theories with known supergravity duals. We show that three infrared behaviors are possible. For generic values of the parameter, the theories exhibit a mass gap but no confinement, meaning no linear quark-antiquark potential; for one limiting value of the parameter the theory flows to an infrared fixed point; and for another limiting value it exhibits both a mass gap and confinement. Theories close to these limiting values exhibit quasi-conformal and quasi-confining dynamics, respectively. Eleven-dimensional supergravity provides a simple, geometric explanation of these features.

  14. Confinement for More Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipnusu, Wycliffe K.; Elsayed, Mohamed; Kossack, Wilhelm


    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy are employed to study the molecular dynamics and effective free volume of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in the bulk state and when confined in unidirectional nanopores with average diameters of 4, 6, and 8 nm. Enhanced α...

  15. Confinement at Large Nc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't


    A discussion is given of the confinement mechanism in terms of the Abelian projection scheme, for a general number Nc of colors. There is a difficulty in the Nc to infinity limit that requires a careful treatment, as the charges of the condensing magnetic monopoles tend to infinity. We suggest that

  16. Growing instead of confining (United States)

    Sun, Yang-Kook; Yoon, Chong Seung


    Confining sulfur in high-surface-area carbon is a widely adapted approach in Li-S batteries, but it often results in low sulfur utilization and low energy density. Now, controlled nucleation of discrete Li2S particles on a network of low-surface-area carbon fibres provides a possible solution to the endemic problems of Li-S batteries.

  17. Polymers under Cylindrical Confinement (United States)

    Russell, Thomas


    Anodized alumina oxide (AAO) membranes offer a unique platform to investigate polymers under confinement. AAO membranes have been prepared where the diameters of the nanopores in the membrane have been varied from 8 to 50 nm by varying the anodization conditions. Capillary force is sufficiently large to draw high molecular weight polymers into the membrane, producing either nanotubes or nanorods. Polymer solutions can also be used place a thin film on the walls of the nanopores, forming nanotubes. With pore diameters less than the radius of gyration, a quantitative understanding of perturbations to chain dynamics due to geometric constraints was examined. We found a weak molecular weight-dependent mobility of polymers confined within AAO nanopores having diameters smaller than the dimension of the chains in the bulk. The measured mobility of polymers in the confined geometry was much higher than the mobility of the unconfined chain. Rayleigh instabilities in thin polymer films confined within nanoporous alumina membranes were also found where periodic undulations on the film surface were found to increase with time, eventually bridging across the cylindrical nanopore, resulting in the formation of polymer nanorods with a periodic array of encapsulated holes. With microphase separated block copolymers, where the characteristic period of the BCP morphology is comparable to the pore diameter, significant deviations from the bulk morphology as revealed by electron tomography. Small angle neutron scattering was also used to investigate the influence of cylindrical confinement on the order-to-disordered transition. This work was done in collaboration with T. J. McCarthy (UMass), K. Shin (Seoul National University), H. Jinnai (Kyoto University), D. Chen, J. Chen, H. Xiang, T. Kim, and P. Dobriyal, and was supported by the DOE, NSF MRSEC, NSF CHM.

  18. Next Step for STEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Claire [CTSI; Bremner, Brenda [CTSI


    The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

  19. Inertial Confinement fusion targets (United States)

    Hendricks, C. D.


    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  20. Confinement for Active Objects


    Florian Kammuller


    In this paper, we provide a formal framework for the security of distributed active objects. Active objects com-municate asynchronously implementing method calls via futures. We base the formal framework on a security model that uses a semi-lattice to enable multi-lateral security crucial for distributed architectures. We further provide a security type system for the programming model ASPfun of functional active objects. Type safety and a confinement property are presented. ASPfun thus reali...

  1. Confinement Contains Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.


    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  2. Working under confinement (United States)

    Malgaretti, P.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Rubi, J. M.


    We analyze the performance of a Brownian ratchet in the presence of geometrical constraints. A two-state model that describes the kinetics of molecular motors is used to characterize the energetic cost when the motor proceeds under confinement, in the presence of an external force. We show that the presence of geometrical constraints has a strong effect on the performance of the motor. In particular, we show that it is possible to enhance the ratchet performance by a proper tuning of the parameters characterizing the environment. These results open the possibility of engineering entropically-optimized transport devices.

  3. Hadrosynthesis and Quark Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satz Helmut


    Full Text Available Multihadron production in high energy collisions, from e+e− annihilation to heavy ion interactions, shows remarkable thermal behaviour, specified by a universal “Hagedorn” temperature. We argue that this hadronic radiation is formed by tunnelling through the event horizon of colour confinement, i.e., that it is the QCD counterpart of Hawking-Unruh radiation from black holes. It is shown to be emitted at a universal temperature TH ≃ (σ/2π1/2, where σ denotes the string tension. Since the event horizon does not allow information transfer, the radiation is thermal “at birth”.

  4. Confinement and 4-manifolds

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    In this talk I will survey a connection between two very challenging problems, one in physics and one in math. The physics problem involves quantitative understanding of confinement in a system with least amount of supersymmetry that has been studied so far and that has a wide range of applications, from semi-realistic string models to qualitatively new examples of gauge-gravity duality. Surprisingly, the rich physics of this system translates into incredibly rich mathematics of the only remaining unsolved case of the Poincare conjecture.

  5. Polymer Conformation under Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Bollas


    Full Text Available The conformation of polymer chains under confinement is investigated in intercalated polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites. Hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide/sodium montmorillonite, PEO/Na+-MMT, hybrids were prepared utilizing melt intercalation with compositions where the polymer chains are mostly within the ~1 nm galleries of the inorganic material. The polymer chains are completely amorphous in all compositions even at temperatures where the bulk polymer is highly crystalline. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR is utilized to investigate the conformation of the polymer chains over a broad range of temperatures from below to much higher than the bulk polymer melting temperature. A systematic increase of the gauche conformation relatively to the trans is found with decreasing polymer content both for the C–C and the C–O bonds that exist along the PEO backbone indicating that the severe confinement and the proximity to the inorganic surfaces results in a more disordered state of the polymer.

  6. Diamond Ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, J; Mirkarimi, P B; Tringe, J W; Baker, S L; Wang, Y M; Kucheyev, S O; Teslich, N E; Wu, K J; Hamza, A V; Wild, C; Woerner, E; Koidl, P; Bruehne, K; Fecht, H


    Diamond has a unique combination of physical properties for the inertial confinement fusion ablator application, such as appropriate optical properties, high atomic density, high yield strength, and high thermal conductivity. Here, we present a feasible concept to fabricate diamond ablator shells. The fabrication of diamond capsules is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on silicon mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removing of the silicon mandrel by an etch process. We also discuss the pros and cons of coarse-grained optical quality and nanocrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond films for the ablator application.

  7. Degraded Confinement in Tokamak Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüller, F. C.


    After a review on the state of tokamak transport theory, the methodology to derive experimental results will be described. Examples of confinement in ohmic plasmas and the deterioration with additional heating will be given. Some examples of improved confinement modes will be discussed. Fluctuation

  8. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.


    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  9. Inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, L.; Condouris, R.; Kotowski, M.; Murphy, P.W. (eds.)


    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains seven articles that describe recent progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's ICF program. The Department of Energy recently initiated an effort to design a 1--2 MJ glass laser, the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). These articles span various aspects of a program which is aimed at moving forward toward such a facility by continuing to use the Nova laser to gain understanding of NIF-relevant target physics, by developing concepts for an NIF laser driver, and by envisioning a variety of applications for larger ICF facilities. This report discusses research on the following topics: Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen; A Maxwell Equation Solver in LASNEX for the Simulation of Moderately Intense Ultrashort Pulse Experiments; Measurements of Radial Heat-Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Plasmas; Laser-Seeded Modulation Growth on Directly Driven Foils; Stimulated Raman Scattering in Large-Aperture, High-Fluence Frequency-Conversion Crystals; Fission Product Hazard Reduction Using Inertial Fusion Energy; Use of Inertial Confinement Fusion for Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulations.

  10. PHOEBE - step by step manual (United States)

    Zasche, P.


    An easy step-by-step manual of PHOEBE is presented. It should serve as a starting point for the first time users of PHOEBE analyzing the eclipsing binary light curve. It is demonstrated on one particular detached system also with the downloadable data and the whole procedure is described easily till the final trustworthy fit is being reached.

  11. Improved mechanical stability of HKUST-1 in confined nanospace. (United States)

    Casco, M E; Fernández-Catalá, J; Martínez-Escandell, M; Rodríguez-Reinoso, F; Ramos-Fernández, E V; Silvestre-Albero, J


    One of the main concerns in the technological application of several metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) relates to their structural instability under pressure (after a conforming step). Here we report for the first time that mechanical instability can be highly improved via nucleation and growth of MOF nanocrystals in the confined nanospace of activated carbons.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei


    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  13. Confining Strings with Topological Term

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo Andrea


    We consider several aspects of `confining strings', recently proposed to describe the confining phase of gauge field theories. We perform the exact duality transformation that leads to the confining string action and show that it reduces to the Polyakov action in the semiclassical approximation. In 4D we introduce a `$\\theta$-term' and compute the low-energy effective action for the confining string in a derivative expansion. We find that the coefficient of the extrinsic curvature (stiffness) is negative, confirming previous proposals. In the absence of a $\\theta$-term, the effective string action is only a cut-off theory for finite values of the coupling e, whereas for generic values of $\\theta$, the action can be renormalized and to leading order we obtain the Nambu-Goto action plus a topological `spin' term that could stabilize the system.

  14. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement (United States)

    Roth, J. R.


    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  15. Impurities confined in quantum structures

    CERN Document Server

    Holtz, Per Olof


    The introduction of impurities, even in very small concentrations, in a semiconductor can change its optical and electrical properties entirely. This attribute of the semiconductor is utilized in the manifoldness of their applications. In this book, the progress on elucidating the physical properties of impurities confined in quantum structures are reviewed with an emphasis on the experimental aspects. The major results of various kinds of characterization, such as infrared spectroscopy, Raman measurements, luminescence characterization, perturbation spectroscopy and dynamical studies of the confined impurities are reviewed, but also the theoretical basis to calculate the electronic structure of the confined donors and acceptors are presented. This monograph also describes more specific aspects of the confined impurities such as the properties in the high doping regime and the effects of hydrogen passivation.

  16. Reatividade animal Confinement reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsiara Estanislau Maffei


    Full Text Available A reatividade é definida como a reação do animal quando contido num ambiente de contenção móvel. Ela é quantificada por meio do teste de reatividade animal em ambiente de contenção móvel - REATEST®. Este teste consiste num dispositivo eletrônico acoplado à balança e num software específico. O dispositivo capta a movimentação que o animal provoca na balança, durante 20 segundos e a envia para o software que a processa determinando a reatividade do animal numa escala contínua de pontos. Pontuações maiores são de animais mais reativos (mais agressivo. A reatividade foi criada com os objetivos de solucionar os problemas até então existentes na seleção para temperamento e de permitir estimação de parâmetros genéticos mais confiáveis. Ela é uma característica objetiva que tem grande variabilidade fenotípica e é de quantificação rápida, fácil e segura, além de poder ser quantificada em qualquer tipo de balança, o que permite maior aplicabilidade. Ela não interfere nas práticas de manejo das fazendas porque é quantificada no momento da pesagem dos animais. Sua herdabilidade na raça Nelore é de 0,39 ao ano e 0,23 ao sobreano e suas correlações genéticas com ganho de peso diário são de -0,28 do nascimento até desmama e de -0,49 do desmame até ano. Já suas correlações genéticas com desenvolvimento do perímetro escrotal do ano ao sobreano variam de -0,25 e -0,41.The confinement reactivity (CR has been used as a measure of temperament in Brazil and it is defined as the animal reaction when contained in the scale. It is quantified through the animal reactivity test - REATEST®. This test consists of an electronic device coupled to the scale and of specific software. The device captures the movement that the animal provokes in the scale, during 20 seconds and sends it for the software that processes this movement and determines the animal CR in a continuous scale of points. Higher punctuations belong to

  17. PREFACE: Water in confined geometries (United States)

    Rovere, Mauro


    The study of water confined in complex systems in solid or gel phases and/or in contact with macromolecules is relevant to many important processes ranging from industrial applications such as catalysis and soil chemistry, to biological processes such as protein folding or ionic transport in membranes. Thermodynamics, phase behaviour and the molecular mobility of water have been observed to change upon confinement depending on the properties of the substrate. In particular, polar substrates perturb the hydrogen bond network of water, inducing large changes in the properties upon freezing. Understanding how the connected random hydrogen bond network of bulk water is modified when water is confined in small cavities inside a substrate material is very important for studies of stability and the enzymatic activity of proteins, oil recovery or heterogeneous catalysis, where water-substrate interactions play a fundamental role. The modifications of the short-range order in the liquid depend on the nature of the water-substrate interaction, hydrophilic or hydrophobic, as well as on its spatial range and on the geometry of the substrate. Despite extensive study, both experimentally and by computer simulation, there remain a number of open problems. In the many experimental studies of confined water, those performed on water in Vycor are of particular interest for computer simulation and theoretical studies since Vycor is a porous silica glass characterized by a quite sharp distribution of pore sizes and a strong capability to absorb water. It can be considered as a good candidate for studying the general behaviour of water in hydrophilic nanopores. But there there have been a number of studies of water confined in more complex substrates, where the interpretation of experiments and computer simulation is more difficult, such as in zeolites or in aerogels or in contact with membranes. Of the many problems to consider we can mention the study of supercooled water. It is

  18. Sandpile model with tokamaklike enhanced confinement phenomenology. (United States)

    Chapman, S C; Dendy, R O; Hnat, B


    Confinement phenomenology characteristic of magnetically confined plasmas emerges naturally from a simple sandpile algorithm when the parameter controlling redistribution scale length is varied. Close analogs are found for enhanced confinement, edge pedestals, and edge localized modes (ELMs), and for the qualitative correlations between them. These results suggest that tokamak observations of avalanching transport are deeply linked to the existence of enhanced confinement and ELMs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the final report for the project 'Correlations in Confined Quantum Plasmas', NSF-DOE Partnership Grant DE FG02 07ER54946, 8/1/2007 - 7/30/2010. The research was performed in collaboration with a group at Christian Albrechts University (CAU), Kiel, Germany. That collaboration, almost 15 years old, was formalized during the past four years under this NSF-DOE Partnership Grant to support graduate students at the two institutions and to facilitate frequent exchange visits. The research was focused on exploring the frontiers of charged particle physics evolving from new experimental access to unusual states associated with confinement. Particular attention was paid to combined effects of quantum mechanics and confinement. A suite of analytical and numerical tools tailored to the specific inquiry has been developed and employed

  20. Knotted DNA in Nanofluidic Confinement (United States)

    Klotz, Alexander; Doyle, Patrick

    The behavior of topologically simple semiflexible polymers such as DNA has become well-understood in the last several years. Recently, several computational analyses have predicted that certain topological features of a polymer, such as the average size of pseudo-knots and the probability of knot formation, are enhanced by confinement. Here, we extend recent work on the stretching of knotted DNA and examine diffusion, relaxation, and chain statistics of topologically complex linear DNA molecules. Topological phenomena are studied both in the bulk and under nanofluidic confinement to examine the interplay between knotting and confinement in semiflexible polymers, as well as to provide a controlled experimental interrogation of the knotted region of the polymer.

  1. Polymers confined between two parallel plane walls (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Grassberger, Peter


    Single three-dimensional polymers confined to a slab, i.e., to the region between two parallel plane walls, are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. They are described by N-step walks on a simple cubic lattice confined to the region 1⩽z⩽D. The simulations cover both regions D≪RF and D≫RF (where RF˜Nν is the Flory radius, with ν≈0.587), as well as the cross-over region in between. Chain lengths are up to N=80 000, slab widths up to D=120. In order to test the analysis program and to check for finite size corrections, we actually studied three different models: (a) ordinary random walks (mimicking Θ polymers); (b) self-avoiding walks; and (c) Domb-Joyce walks with the self-repulsion tuned to the point where finite size corrections for free (unrestricted) chains are minimal. For the simulations we employ the pruned-enriched-Rosenbluth method with Markovian anticipation. In addition to the partition sum (which gives us a direct estimate of the forces exerted onto the walls), we measure the density profiles of monomers and of end points transverse to the slab, and the radial extent of the chain parallel to the walls. All scaling laws and some of the universal amplitude ratios are compared to theoretical predictions.

  2. Calculation of confined swirling jets (United States)

    Chen, C. P.


    Computations of a confined coaxial swirling jet are carried out using a standard two-equation (k-epsilon) model and two modifications of this model based on Richardson-number corrections of the length-scale (epsilon) governing equation. To avoid any uncertainty involved in the setting up of inlet boundary conditions, actual measurements are used at the inlet plane of this calculation domain. The results of the numerical investigation indicate that the k-epsilon model is inadequate for the predictions of confined swirling flows. Although marginal improvement of the flow predictions can be achieved by these two corrections, neither can be judged satisfactory.

  3. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of ...

  4. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct ...

  5. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  6. Unstable vortices do not confine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achúcarro, A.; Roo, M. de; Huiszoon, L.; Landshoff, P.V.


    Recently, a geometric model for the confinement of magnetic charges in the context of type II string compactifications was constructed. This model assumes the existence of stable magnetic vortices with quantized flux in the low energy theory. However, quantization of flux alone does not imply that

  7. Two flavor QCD and Confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.; Pica, Claudio


    We argue that the order of the chiral transition for N_f=2 is a sensitive probe of the QCD vacuum, in particular of the mechanism of color confinement. A strategy is developed to investigate the order of the transition by use of finite size scaling analysis. An in-depth numerical investigation...

  8. Linear algebra step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Kuldeep


    Linear algebra is a fundamental area of mathematics, and is arguably the most powerful mathematical tool ever developed. It is a core topic of study within fields as diverse as: business, economics, engineering, physics, computer science, ecology, sociology, demography and genetics. For an example of linear algebra at work, one needs to look no further than the Google search engine, which relies upon linear algebra to rank the results of a search with respect to relevance. The strength of the text is in the large number of examples and the step-by-step explanation of each topic as it is introduced. It is compiled in a way that allows distance learning, with explicit solutions to set problems freely available online. The miscellaneous exercises at the end of each chapter comprise questions from past exam papers from various universities, helping to reinforce the reader's confidence. Also included, generally at the beginning of sections, are short historicalbiographies of the leading players in the field of lin...

  9. Oxide-confined VCSELs fabricated with a simple self-aligned process flow (United States)

    Marigo-Lombart, L.; Calvez, S.; Arnoult, A.; Thienpont, H.; Panajotov, K.; Almuneau, G.


    We propose a simplified and easier fabrication process flow for the manufacturing of AlO x -confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on combining the oxidation step with a self-aligned process, allowing the mesa etching and two successive lift-off steps based on a single lithography step. The electro-optical confinement achieved by standard lateral oxidation enables a low threshold and a single mode behavior for the VCSEL. This simplified process can largely improve VCSEL manufacturing by reducing the processing time and costs compared to the standard VCSEL process.

  10. Physics of magnetic confinement fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F.


    Full Text Available Fusion is the energy source of the universe. The local conditions in the core of the Sun allow the transfer of mass into energy, which is finally released in the form of radiation. Technical fusion melts deuterons and tritons to helium releasing large amounts of energy per fusion process. Because of the conditions for fusion, which will be deduced, the fusion fuel is in the plasma state. Here we report on the confinement of fusion plasmas by magnetic fields. Different confinement concepts — tokamaks and stellarators — will be introduced and described. The first fusion reactor, ITER, and the most modern stellarator, Wendelstein 7-X, are under construction. Their basic features and objectives will be presented.

  11. Effect of turbulence intensity on cross-injection film cooling at a stepped or smooth endwall of a gas turbine vane passage. (United States)

    Wu, Pey-Shey; Tsai, Shen-Ta; Jhuo, Yue-Hua


    This study is concerned with a film cooling technique applicable to the protection of the endwalls of a gas turbine vane. In the experiments, cross-injection coolant flow from two-row, paired, inclined holes with nonintersecting centerlines was utilized. The test model is a scaled two-half vane. The levels of turbulence intensity used in the experiments are T.I. = 1.8%, 7%, and 12%. Other parameters considered in the film cooling experiments include three inlet Reynolds numbers (9.20 × 10(4), 1.24 × 10(5), and 1.50 × 10(5)), three blowing ratios (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0), and three endwall conditions (smooth endwall and stepped endwall with forward-facing or backward-facing step). Thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC) technique with steady-state heat transfer experiments was used to obtain the whole-field film cooling effectiveness. Results show that, at low turbulence intensity, increasing Reynolds number decreases the effectiveness in most of the vane passage. There is no monotonic trend of influence by Reynolds number at high turbulence intensity. The effect of blowing ratio on the effectiveness has opposite trends at low and high turbulence levels. Increasing turbulent intensity decreases the effectiveness, especially near the inlet of the vane passage. With a stepped endwall, turbulence intensity has only mild effect on the film cooling effectiveness.

  12. Confinement of color and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giacomo, A


    A natural explanation of confinement can be given in terms of symmetry. Since color symmetry is exact, the candidate symmetry is dual and related to homotopy,i.e., in (3+1)d, to magnetic charge conservation. A set of r abelian 'tHooft-like tensors (r = rank of the gauge group) can be defined and the dual charge is a violation of the corresponding Bianchi identities. It is shown that this is equivalently described by non-abelian Bianchi identities.

  13. Hydrodynamic behavior of tumor cells in a confined model microvessel (United States)

    Khan, Zeina S.; Vanapalli, Siva A.


    An important step in cancer metastasis is the hydrodynamic transport of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) through microvasculature. In vivo imaging studies in mice models show episodes of confined motion and trapping of tumor cells at microvessel bifurcations, suggesting that hydrodynamic phenomena are important processes regulating CTC dissemination. Our goal is to use microfluidics to understand the interplay between tumor cell rheology, confinement and fluid forces that may help to identify physical factors determining CTC transport. We use leukemia cells as model CTCs and mimic the in vivo setting by investigating their motion in a confined microchannel with an integrated microfluidic manometer to measure time variations in the excess pressure drop during cell motion. Using image analysis, variations in excess pressure drop, cell shape and cell velocity are simultaneously quantified. We find that the throughput of the technique is high enough ( 100 cells/min) to assess tumor cell heterogeneity. Therefore, in addition to measuring the hydrodynamic response of tumor cells in confined channels, our results indicate that the microfluidic manometer device could be used for rapid mechanical phenotyping of tumor cells.

  14. Effect of Aluminium Confinement on ANFO Detonation (United States)

    Short, Mark; Jackson, Scott; Kiyanda, Charles; Shinas, Mike; Hare, Steve; Briggs, Matt


    Detonations in confined non-ideal high explosives often have velocities below the confiner sound speed. The effect on detonation propagation of the resulting subsonic flow in the confiner (such as confiner stress waves traveling ahead of the main detonation front or upstream wall deflection into the HE) has yet to be fully understood. Previous work by Sharpe and Bdzil (J. Eng. Math, 2006) has shown that for subsonic confiner flow, there is no limiting thickness for which the detonation dynamics are uninfluenced by further increases in wall thickness. The critical parameters influencing detonation behavior are the wall thickness relative to the HE reaction zone size, and the difference in the detonation velocity and confiner sound speed. Additional possible outcomes of subsonic flow are that for increasing thickness, the confiner is increasingly deflected into the HE upstream of the detonation, and that for sufficiently thick confiners, the detonation speed could be driven up to the sound speed in the confiner. We report here on a further series of experiments in which a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) is detonated in aluminum confiners with varying HE charge diameter and confiner thickness, and compare the results with the outcomes suggested by Sharpe and Bdzil.

  15. Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Hollow Piers Behavior: Benefits of FRP Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Piero Lignola


    Full Text Available Reliable stress-strain behavior of concrete is necessary particularly when a member is subjected to combine bending and axial load and confinement effects should be accounted for. A unified theory for confinement of circular hollow sections is proposed herein, that can be extended to the case of solid and noncircular sections. The main aim of the model is to trace step-by-step the evolution of the three dimensional stresses in confined concrete and confining devices (i.e. FRP externally bonded jackets. The iterative model is able to estimate confinement effectiveness and to plot stress-strain relationships, which are different in the case of solid and hollow sections. Through the proposed improved model, a simplified closed form solution has been also derived to directly determine ultimate confined concrete properties and stress-strain curves. At present, theoretical results based on the proposed concrete circular hollow sections confinement model, in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data available in scientific literature, show that FRP jacketing can enhance the ultimate load and ductility significantly, also in the case of hollow concrete cross sections.

  16. Confined space fatalities in Virginia. (United States)

    Sahli, B P; Armstrong, C W


    To better understand the frequency and characteristics of occupational confined space fatalities in Virginia, we reviewed death certificates, workers' compensation files, a Virginia Occupational Safety and Health Administration listing, and medical examiner records for all 50 fatalities (41 accidents) reported during 1979 to 1986. All fatalities were identified in medical examiner records (50), more than in any other source. The majority of decedents were male craftsmen, operators, or laborers less than 50 years old (mean 38). Drug screens of the 43 decedents tested were negative, with the exception of 2 cases where blood alcohol was detected (greater than or equal to 0.06%). Approximately 5% of "at work" civilian deaths (excluding plane, train, and motor vehicle fatalities) were confined space related. Virginia resident death rates per million employees were highest for shipbuilding and repair facilities (23.2), local government (8.9), and manufacturing other than shipbuilding (5.4%). Multiple fatalities occurred in 4 (10%) of the accidents, with 3 involving 2 fatalities each, and 1 accident involving 7 fatalities. Three fatalities (6%) were rescuers. Fifty nonfatal injuries of rescuers were known to have occurred in these accidents, 15 of co-workers and 35 of community rescue personnel (firefighters and rescue squad members). Approximately half the accidents occurred during the fourth quarter of the year and on a Thursday or Friday, and about one third occurred at night. The leading accident type was atmospheric condition, most commonly oxygen deficiency (33%) or the presence of carbon monoxide (20%). In 6 (40%) of the 15 accidents involving atmospheric condition, the toxic gas or oxygen deficiency was absent in the confined space at the time of entry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Frictional properties of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N; Persson, Bo N J


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force...

  18. Weak polyelectrolytes in Confined Geometries (United States)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Rathee, Vikramjit S.; Sikora, Benjamin

    Crucial to the behavior of recently designed charge-rejection and mosaic membranes are the conformations of polyelectrolyte brushes and oligomeric grafts used to control the membranes' surface charge. The use of pH-tunable weak polyelectrolytes with associative interactions enables fine tuning of material transport properties. Here, we apply constant-pH molecular dynamics along with free energy sampling algorithms to understand the subtle tug-of-war between pH, salt concentrations, and solvation forces in confined systems, and determine how each of these effects alters transport within the system. We further discuss the implications of our findings for the design of electrolyte separation membranes.

  19. Liquid Spreading under Nanoscale Confinement (United States)

    Checco, Antonio


    Dynamic atomic force microscopy in the noncontact regime is used to study the morphology of a nonvolatile liquid (squalane) as it spreads along wettable nanostripes embedded in a nonwettable surface. Results show that the liquid profile depends on the amount of lateral confinement imposed by the nanostripes, and it is truncated at the microscopic contact line in good qualitative agreement with classical mesoscale hydrodynamics. However, the width of the contact line is found to be significantly larger than expected theoretically. This behavior may originate from small chemical inhomogeneity of the patterned stripes as well as from thermal fluctuations of the contact line.

  20. Magnetic confinement fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grad, H


    Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion offers probably the only relatively clean energy solution with completely inexhaustible fuel and unlimited power capacity. The scientific and technological problem consists in magnetically confining a hot, dense plasma (pressure several to hundreds of atmospheres, temperature 10/sup 8/ degrees or more) for an appreciable fraction of a second. The scientific and mathematical problem is to describe the behavior, such as confinement, stability, flow, compression, heating, energy transfer and diffusion of this medium in the presence of electromagnetic fields just as we now can for air or steam. Some of the extant theory consists of applications, routine or ingenious, of known mathematical structures in the theory of differential equations and in traditional analysis. Other applications of known mathematical structures offer surprises and new insights: the coordination between sub-supersonic and elliptic-hyperbolic is fractured; supersonic propagation goes upstream; etc. Other completely nonstandard mathematical structures with significant theory are being rapidly uncovered (and somewhat less rapidly understood) such as non-elliptic variational equations and new types of weak solutions. It is these new mathematical structures which one should expect to supply the foundation for the next generation's pure mathematics, if history is a guide. Despite the substantial effort over a period of some twenty years, there are still basic and important scintific and mathematical discoveries to be made, lying just beneath the surface.

  1. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.


    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the world’s largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  2. Liquefaction Mitigation Using Lateral Confinement Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Azzam


    Full Text Available The exploration of a series of shaking tests on circular model footing with and without cellular confinement constructed around the footing with variable depths and diameters under the effect of variable net bearing stress is studied. The effect of the confinement on the liquefaction time, final settlement, excess pore water pressure, and induced building acceleration were studied. The consequences showed that installing the cell with minimum diameter closer to footing and sufficient penetration depth significantly delayed the liquefaction time. It can be considered as an alternative technique to decrease both the lateral spreading and the final settlement below the foundation during the shaking. The results demonstrated that the cell reduced the excess pore water pressure within the confined zone and the pore water pressure migration outside the confined block where the liquefaction is induced. Moreover, the peak foundation acceleration of the confined footing soil system is reduced compared with the case of without cell confinement.

  3. Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles. (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng


    an increasingly important role in the controllable assembly of NPs. In this Account, we summarize our approaches and progress in fabricating spatially confined assemblies of NPs that allow for the positioning of NPs with high resolution and considerable throughput. The spatially selective assembly of NPs at the desired location can be achieved by various mechanisms, such as, a controlled dewetting process, electrostatically mediated assembly of particles, and confined deposition and growth of NPs. Three nanofabrication techniques used to produce prepatterns on a substrate are summarized: the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning technique, e-beam lithography (EBL), and nanoimprint lithography (NPL). The particle density, particle size, or interparticle distance in NP assemblies strongly depends on the geometric parameters of the template structure due to spatial confinement. In addition, with smart design template structures, multiplexed NPs can be assembled into a defined structure, thus demonstrating the structural and functional complexity required for highly integrated and multifunction applications.

  4. Quark Confinement and Force Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.


    Full Text Available String theory had to adopt a bi-scale approach in order to produce the weakness of gravity. Taking a bi-scale approach to particle physics along with a spin connection produces 1 the measured proton radius, 2 a resolution of the multiplicity of measured weak angle values 3 a correct theoretical value for the Z 0 4 a reason that h is a constant and 5 a “neutral current” source. The source of the “neutral current” provides 6 an alternate solution to quark confinement, 7 produces an effective r like potential, and 8 gives a reason for the observed but unexplained Regge trajectory like J M 2 behavior seen in quark composite particle spin families.

  5. Frictional properties of confined polymers. (United States)

    Sivebaek, I M; Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force. The friction decreases when the sliding distance is of the order of the molecular length indicating a strong influence of molecular alignment during run-in. The results of our calculations show good correlation with experimental work.

  6. Microfluidic step-emulsification in axisymmetric geometry. (United States)

    Chakraborty, I; Ricouvier, J; Yazhgur, P; Tabeling, P; Leshansky, A M


    Biphasic step-emulsification (Z. Li et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1023) is a promising microfluidic technique for high-throughput production of μm and sub-μm highly monodisperse droplets. The step-emulsifier consists of a shallow (Hele-Shaw) microchannel operating with two co-flowing immiscible liquids and an abrupt expansion (i.e., step) to a deep and wide reservoir. Under certain conditions the confined stream of the disperse phase, engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase, breaks into small highly monodisperse droplets at the step. Theoretical investigation of the corresponding hydrodynamics is complicated due to the complex geometry of the planar device, calling for numerical approaches. However, direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional surface-tension-dominated biphasic flows in confined geometries are computationally expensive. In the present paper we study a model problem of axisymmetric step-emulsification. This setup consists of a stable core-annular biphasic flow in a cylindrical capillary tube connected co-axially to a reservoir tube of a larger diameter through a sudden expansion mimicking the edge of the planar step-emulsifier. We demonstrate that the axisymmetric setup exhibits similar regimes of droplet generation to the planar device. A detailed parametric study of the underlying hydrodynamics is feasible via inexpensive (two dimensional) simulations owing to the axial symmetry. The phase diagram quantifying the different regimes of droplet generation in terms of governing dimensionless parameters is presented. We show that in qualitative agreement with experiments in planar devices, the size of the droplets generated in the step-emulsification regime is independent of the capillary number and almost insensitive to the viscosity ratio. These findings confirm that the step-emulsification regime is solely controlled by surface tension. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with in-house experiments with the axisymmetric

  7. Electrochemical mechanical micromachining based on confined etchant layer technique. (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Han, Lianhuan; Zhang, Jie; Jia, Jingchun; Zhao, Xuesen; Cao, Yongzhi; Hu, Zhenjiang; Yan, Yongda; Dong, Shen; Tian, Zhong-Qun; Tian, Zhao-Wu; Zhan, Dongping


    The confined etchant layertechnique (CELT) has been proved an effective electrochemical microfabrication method since its first publication at Faraday Discussions in 1992. Recently, we have developed CELT as an electrochemical mechanical micromachining (ECMM) method by replacing the cutting tool used in conventional mechanical machining with an electrode, which can perform lathing, planing and polishing. Through the coupling between the electrochemically induced chemical etching processes and mechanical motion, ECMM can also obtain a regular surface in one step. Taking advantage of CELT, machining tolerance and surface roughness can reach micro- or nano-meter scale.

  8. Is there action-at-a-distance linear confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, J.


    The possilibity of constructing an action-at-a-distance form of linear confinement is demonstrated. Using the Fokker--Wheeler--Feynman action principle, known from classical action-at-a-distance electrodynamics, with an action containing the relativistically invariant two-particle Heaviside step function, equations of motion and appropriate potentials exhibiting the linearity of their behavior are derived. The plausibility of the generators of motion describing dynamics with the linear potentials is verified on the simple circular-orbit model of a two-component system, and the expected energy spectrum in terms of semiclassical quantization is obtained.

  9. Degraded confinement and turbulence in tokamak experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüller, F. C.


    After a review on the state of tokamak transport theory, the methodology to derive experimental results will be described. Examples of confinement in ohmic plasmas and the deterioration with additional heating will be given. Some examples of improved confinement modes will be discussed. Fluctuation

  10. Degraded confinement and turbulence in tokamak experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.


    After a review on the state of tokamak transport theory, the methodology to derive experimental results will be described. Examples of confinement in ohmic plasmas and the deterioration with additional healing will be given. Some examples of improved confinement; modes will be discussed.

  11. Confinement of charge carriers in bilayer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.


    In this thesis we investigate the fundamental properties of electronic transport in bilayer graphene. We do this by confining electrons to narrow constrictions and small islands. Our key result is the fabrication and measurement of nanoscale devices that permit confinement with electric fields in

  12. Structure of polymer chains under confinement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single chain form factor was observed both for bulk and confined chains using the condition of zero average contrast. Our measurements on neutral polymer chains are in agreement with the theoretical predictions established by Daoud and de Gennes for chains confined in a cylindrical pore when the chains are entangled ...

  13. Polymer Dynamics under Cylindrical Nano-Confinement (United States)

    Winey, Karen; Tung, Wei-Shao; Riggleman, Robert


    Polymer melts under cylindrical confinement have previously been shown to exhibit chain conformations elongated parallel to the cylinder axis and compressed perpendicular to the cylinder. Further, simulations and theory found that the number of entanglements per chain decreases as the cylinder diameter decreases. This talk presents the local dynamics and polymer diffusion under cylindrical nanoconfinement using simulations and experiments. For the molecular dynamics simulations, an entangled polymer is confined by an amorphous cylindrical confinement. Local dynamics and local packing of monomers are affected by the cylindrical confinement and an anisotropic mean-squared displacement is observed with faster motion along the cylinder axes that increases with increasing confinement. Using elastic recoil detection experiments, polymer diffusion coefficients along cylindrical nanopores were measured for deuterated polystyrene diffusing into nanoporous membranes infiltrated with polystyrene. The tracer diffusion coefficient increased with decreasing pore size, although the increase is less pronounced than found in the simulations. Results will be discussed in terms of the reptation model.

  14. Fermion Superfluidity And Confining Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Galal, A A


    We study the pairing of Fermi systems with long-range, confining interparticle interactions. We solve the Cooper problem for a pair of fermions interacting via a regularized harmonic oscillator potential and determine the s-wave spectrum of bound states. Using a model of two interacting species of fermions, we calculate the ground state energy of the normal phase in the Hartree-Fock approximation and find that it is infrared (IR) divergent, due to a combination of the sharpness of the Fermi sea and the long-range nature of the interaction. We calculate the correlation energy in the normal phase using the random phase approximation (RPA) and demonstrate the cancellation of infrared divergences between the Hartree-Fock and RPA contributions. Introducing a variational wavefunction to study the superfluid phase, we solve the BCS equations using a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) analysis to determine the wave-function, excitation gap, and other parameters of the superfluid phase. We show that the system crosses over...

  15. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.


    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  16. Absence of reptation in highly confined polymers. (United States)

    Srivastava, S; Basu, J K


    We present results of mechanical stress relaxation measurements on polymers confined at the air-water interface in the form of a monolayer. Systematic measurements allow, to our knowledge, for the first time, observation of the scaling of the stress relaxation time of the highly confined polymers as a function of both surface concentration and molecular weight. The observed scaling is found to be very close to that expected for motion of unentangled polymer solutions with hydrodynamic interactions. Our experimental observations thus clearly rule out the possibility of entanglement and hence reptation as a mode of relaxation in such highly confined polymeric systems.

  17. Kinetics of Phase Separation in Confined Geometries (United States)

    Puri, Sanjay

    We review analytical and numerical results for the kinetics of phase separation in confined geometries. It is often the case that a confining surface has a preferential attraction for one of the components of a segregating mixture. The equilibrium surface morphology is either partially wet or completely wet, depending on the strength of the surface potential. The dynamical interplay of wetting and phase separation is referred to as surface-directed spinodal decomposition (SDSD), and is of considerable technological importance. We discuss the modeling of SDSD at both the microscopic and coarse-grained levels. We also present results for SDSD in both semi-infinite and confined geometries.

  18. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia


    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  19. On Computational Small Steps and Big Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Jacob

    rules in the small-step semantics cause the refocusing step of the syntactic correspondence to be inapplicable. Second, we propose two solutions to overcome this in-applicability: backtracking and rule generalization. Third, we show how these solutions affect the other transformations of the two...

  20. Step-Growth Polymerization. (United States)

    Stille, J. K.


    Following a comparison of chain-growth and step-growth polymerization, focuses on the latter process by describing requirements for high molecular weight, step-growth polymerization kinetics, synthesis and molecular weight distribution of some linear step-growth polymers, and three-dimensional network step-growth polymers. (JN)

  1. Electronic Quantum Confinement in Cylindrical Potential Well

    CERN Document Server

    Baltenkov, A S


    The effects of quantum confinement on the momentum distribution of electrons confined within a cylindrical potential well have been analyzed. The motivation is to understand specific features of the momentum distribution of electrons when the electron behavior is completely controlled by the parameters of a non-isotropic potential cavity. It is shown that studying the solutions of the wave equation for an electron confined in a cylindrical potential well offers the possibility to analyze the confinement behavior of an electron executing one- or two-dimensional motion in the three-dimensional space within the framework of the same mathematical model. Some low-lying electronic states with different symmetries have been considered and the corresponding wave functions have been calculated; the behavior of their nodes and their peak positions with respect to the parameters of the cylindrical well has been analyzed. Additionally, the momentum distributions of electrons in these states have been calculated. The limi...

  2. Plasma confinement system and methods for use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Sutherland, Derek


    A plasma confinement system is provided that includes a confinement chamber that includes one or more enclosures of respective helicity injectors. The one or more enclosures are coupled to ports at an outer radius of the confinement chamber. The system further includes one or more conductive coils aligned substantially parallel to the one or more enclosures and a further set of one or more conductive coils respectively surrounding portions of the one or more enclosures. Currents may be provided to the sets of conductive coils to energize a gas within the confinement chamber into a plasma. Further, a heat-exchange system is provided that includes an inner wall, an intermediate wall, an outer wall, and pipe sections configured to carry coolant through cavities formed by the walls.

  3. Anisotropic hydrodynamic function of dense confined colloids (United States)

    Nygârd, Kim; Buitenhuis, Johan; Kagias, Matias; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Zontone, Federico; Chushkin, Yuriy


    Dense colloidal dispersions exhibit complex wave-vector-dependent diffusion, which is controlled by both direct particle interactions and indirect nonadditive hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the solvent. In bulk the hydrodynamic interactions are probed routinely, but in confined geometries their studies have been hitherto hindered by additional complications due to confining walls. Here we solve this issue by combining high-energy x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray-scattering experiments on colloid-filled microfluidic channels to yield the confined fluid's hydrodynamic function in the short-time limit. Most importantly, we find the confined fluid to exhibit a strongly anisotropic hydrodynamic function, similar to its anisotropic structure factor. This observation is important in order to guide future theoretical research.

  4. Reorientational dynamics of water confined in zeolites. (United States)

    Fogarty, Aoife C; Coudert, François-Xavier; Boutin, Anne; Laage, Damien


    We present a detailed molecular-dynamics study of water reorientation and hydrogen-bond dynamics in a strong confinement situation, within the narrow pores of an all-silica Linde type A (LTA) zeolite. Two water loadings of the zeolite are compared with the bulk case. Water dynamics are retarded in this extreme hydrophobic confinement and the slowdown is more pronounced at higher water loading. We show that water reorientation proceeds mainly by large-amplitude angular jumps, whose mechanism is similar to that determined in the bulk. The slowdown upon hydrophobic confinement arises predominantly from an excluded-volume effect on the large fraction of water molecules lying at the interface with the zeolite matrix, with an additional minor contribution coming from a structuring effect induced by the confinement. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Group Velocity Engineering of Confined Ultrafast Magnons (United States)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Zakeri, Kh.; Ernst, A.; Qin, H. J.; Meng, Y.; Kirschner, J.


    Quantum confinement permits the existence of multiple terahertz magnon modes in atomically engineered ultrathin magnetic films and multilayers. By means of spin-polarized high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we report on the direct experimental detection of all exchange-dominated terahertz confined magnon modes in a 3 ML Co film. We demonstrate that, by tuning the structural and magnetic properties of the Co film, through its epitaxial growth on different surfaces, e.g., Ir(001), Cu(001), and Pt(111), one can achieve entirely different in-plane magnon dispersions, characterized by positive and negative group velocities. Our first-principles calculations show that spin-dependent many-body correlation effects in Co films play an important role in the determination of the energies of confined magnon modes. Our results suggest a pathway towards the engineering of the group velocity of confined ultrafast magnons.

  6. Frost damage of concrete subject to confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange


    When internal frost damage is observed in real concrete structures, the usual pattern is cracks with a preferred orientation parallel to the exposed surface. When exposing concrete with poor frost resistance to a standardised freeze/thaw test in the laboratory, the orientations of the resulting...... cracks are more or less random. The present study is an experimental study, which aims at investigating the influence of confinement during freeze/thaw action on the developed crack pattern. Confinement is established by mounting hose clamps on cylindrical test specimens, using similar test specimens...... without hose clamps as reference. The results show that confinement can change the outcome of a freeze/thaw test as regards extent of internal cracking, crack orientations, and amount of surface scaling. Thus it seems likely that the difference in confinement (and therefore also in stress state) can...

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of confined polymer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Johannes Henricus van


    This thesis considers confined polymer systems. These systems are of considerable interest, e.g., thin polymer films, chromotography of polymer solutions, drag reduction, enhanced oil recovery, stabilization of colloidal dispersions, lubrication and biolubrication. The method used to study these

  8. Aspects of Confinement in Low Dimensions (United States)

    Bhaseen, M. J.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    We briefly review some examples of confinement which arise in condensed matter physics. We focus on two instructive cases: the off-critical Ising model in a magnetic field, and an array of weakly coupled (extended) Hubbard chains in the Wigner crystal phase. In the appropriate regime, the elementary excitations in these 1 + 1 and quasi-one-dimensional systems are confined into `mesons'. Although the models are generically non-integrable, quantum mechanics and form-factor techniques yield valuable information.

  9. Experimental and analytical investigation of the lateral load response of confined masonry walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Okail


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of confined masonry walls subjected to lateral loads. Six full-scale wall assembles, consisting of a clay masonry panel, two confining columns and a tie beam, were tested under a combination of vertical load and monotonic pushover up to failure. Wall panels had various configurations, namely, solid and perforated walls with window and door openings, variable longitudinal and transverse reinforcement ratios for the confining elements and different brick types, namely, cored clay and solid concrete masonry units. Key experimental results showed that the walls in general experienced a shear failure at the end of the lightly reinforced confining elements after the failure of the diagonal struts formed in the brick wall due to transversal diagonal tension. Stepped bed joint cracks formed in the masonry panel either diagonally or around the perforations. A numerical model was built using the finite element method and was validated in light of the experimental results. The model showed acceptable correlation and was used to conduct a thorough parametric study on various design configurations. The conducted parametric study involved the assessment of the load/displacement response for walls with different aspect ratios, axial load ratios, number of confining elements as well as the size and orientation of perforations. It was found that the strength of the bricks and the number of confining elements play a significant role in increasing the walls’ ultimate resistance and displacement ductility.

  10. Confined Space Evaluation Student Manual, #19613

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, David Ezekiel [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered to be “confined” because their configuration hinders the activities of employees who must enter into, work in, and exit from them. In general, the permit-required confined spaces (PRCSs) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard requires that Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) evaluate the workplace to determine if any spaces are PRCSs. The standard specifies strict procedures for the evaluation and atmospheric testing of a space before and during an entry by workers. The OSHA PRCS standard provides for alternative (less stringent than full-permit) entry procedures in cases where the only hazard in a space is atmospheric and the hazard can be controlled by forced air. At LANL, all confined spaces or potential confined spaces on LANL-owned or -operated property must be identified and evaluated by a confined space evaluator accompanied by a knowledgeable person. This course provides the information needed by confined space evaluators to make judgements about whether a space is a confined space, and if so, whether the space will require a permit for entry.

  11. Methods for two-dimensional cell confinement. (United States)

    Le Berre, Maël; Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Ewa; Bonazzi, Daria; Lautenschlaeger, Franziska; Piel, Matthieu


    Protocols described in this chapter relate to a method to dynamically confine cells in two dimensions with various microenvironments. It can be used to impose on cells a given height, with an accuracy of less than 100 nm on large surfaces (cm(2)). The method is based on the gentle application of a modified glass coverslip onto a standard cell culture. Depending on the preparation, this confinement slide can impose on the cells a given geometry but also an environment of controlled stiffness, controlled adhesion, or a more complex environment. An advantage is that the method is compatible with most optical microscopy technologies and molecular biology protocols allowing advanced analysis of confined cells. In this chapter, we first explain the principle and issues of using these slides to confine cells in a controlled geometry and describe their fabrication. Finally, we discuss how the nature of the confinement slide can vary and provide an alternative method to confine cells with gels of controlled rigidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microsoft Office professional 2010 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce; Frye, Curtis


    Teach yourself exactly what you need to know about using Office Professional 2010-one step at a time! With STEP BY STEP, you build and practice new skills hands-on, at your own pace. Covering Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Excel, Access, Publisher, and OneNote, this book will help you learn the core features and capabilities needed to: Create attractive documents, publications, and spreadsheetsManage your e-mail, calendar, meetings, and communicationsPut your business data to workDevelop and deliver great presentationsOrganize your ideas and notes in one placeConnect, share, and accom

  13. Limits on rock strength under high confinement (United States)

    Renshaw, Carl E.; Schulson, Erland M.


    Understanding of deep earthquake source mechanisms requires knowledge of failure processes active under high confinement. Under low confinement the compressive strength of rock is well known to be limited by frictional sliding along stress-concentrating flaws. Under higher confinement strength is usually assumed limited by power-law creep associated with the movement of dislocations. In a review of existing experimental data, we find that when the confinement is high enough to suppress frictional sliding, rock strength increases as a power-law function only up to a critical normalized strain rate. Within the regime where frictional sliding is suppressed and the normalized strain rate is below the critical rate, both globally distributed ductile flow and localized brittle-like failure are observed. When frictional sliding is suppressed and the normalized strain rate is above the critical rate, failure is always localized in a brittle-like manner at a stress that is independent of the degree of confinement. Within the high-confinement, high-strain rate regime, the similarity in normalized failure strengths across a variety of rock types and minerals precludes both transformational faulting and dehydration embrittlement as strength-limiting mechanisms. The magnitude of the normalized failure strength corresponding to the transition to the high-confinement, high-strain rate regime and the observed weak dependence of failure strength on strain rate within this regime are consistent with a localized Peierls-type strength-limiting mechanism. At the highest strain rates the normalized strengths approach the theoretical limit for crystalline materials. Near-theoretical strengths have previously been observed only in nano- and micro-scale regions of materials that are effectively defect-free. Results are summarized in a new deformation mechanism map revealing that when confinement and strain rate are sufficient, strengths approaching the theoretical limit can be achieved in

  14. Topology of polymer chains under nanoscale confinement. (United States)

    Satarifard, Vahid; Heidari, Maziar; Mashaghi, Samaneh; Tans, Sander J; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza; Mashaghi, Alireza


    Spatial confinement limits the conformational space accessible to biomolecules but the implications for bimolecular topology are not yet known. Folded linear biopolymers can be seen as molecular circuits formed by intramolecular contacts. The pairwise arrangement of intra-chain contacts can be categorized as parallel, series or cross, and has been identified as a topological property. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the contact order distributions and topological circuits of short semi-flexible linear and ring polymer chains with a persistence length of lp under a spherical confinement of radius Rc. At low values of lp/Rc, the entropy of the linear chain leads to the formation of independent contacts along the chain and accordingly, increases the fraction of series topology with respect to other topologies. However, at high lp/Rc, the fraction of cross and parallel topologies are enhanced in the chain topological circuits with cross becoming predominant. At an intermediate confining regime, we identify a critical value of lp/Rc, at which all topological states have equal probability. Confinement thus equalizes the probability of more complex cross and parallel topologies to the level of the more simple, non-cooperative series topology. Moreover, our topology analysis reveals distinct behaviours for ring- and linear polymers under weak confinement; however, we find no difference between ring- and linear polymers under strong confinement. Under weak confinement, ring polymers adopt parallel and series topologies with equal likelihood, while linear polymers show a higher tendency for series arrangement. The radial distribution analysis of the topology reveals a non-uniform effect of confinement on the topology of polymer chains, thereby imposing more pronounced effects on the core region than on the confinement surface. Additionally, our results reveal that over a wide range of confining radii, loops arranged in parallel and cross topologies have

  15. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Bao, Xinhe


    Confined microenvironments formed in heterogeneous catalysts have recently been recognized as equally important as catalytically active sites. Understanding the fundamentals of confined catalysis has become an important topic in heterogeneous catalysis. Well-defined 2D space between a catalyst surface and a 2D material overlayer provides an ideal microenvironment to explore the confined catalysis experimentally and theoretically. Using density functional theory calculations, we reveal that adsorption of atoms and molecules on a Pt(111) surface always has been weakened under monolayer graphene, which is attributed to the geometric constraint and confinement field in the 2D space between the graphene overlayer and the Pt(111) surface. A similar result has been found on Pt(110) and Pt(100) surfaces covered with graphene. The microenvironment created by coating a catalyst surface with 2D material overlayer can be used to modulate surface reactivity, which has been illustrated by optimizing oxygen reduction reaction activity on Pt(111) covered by various 2D materials. We demonstrate a concept of confined catalysis under 2D cover based on a weak van der Waals interaction between 2D material overlayers and underlying catalyst surfaces. PMID:28533413

  16. Stiffness and Confinement Ratios of SMA Wire Jackets for Confining Concrete (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Youn, Heejung


    This article discusses the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets on the behavior of confined concrete. SMA wire jackets are an effective confining material to improve concrete behavior; for example, by increasing peak strength and failure strain. The stiffness and confinement ratios of fiber-reinforced polymer jackets have been extensively discussed and their effects are well known. However, assessment of the stiffness and confinement ratios of SMA wire jackets has not previously been conducted. In this study, we investigate the effects of the stiffness and confinement ratios of steel jackets, and then compare the results with those of SMA wire jackets. In general, the stiffness ratios of SMA wire jackets are relatively smaller than those of steel jackets, and most of them have lower stiffness ratios because the Young's moduli of the SMAs are relatively small. The active confining pressure of the SMA wires does not improve the lower stiffness-ratio effect since the amount of active confining pressure is not sufficiently large.

  17. Step by Step Microsoft Office Visio 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy


    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Visio 2003, the Microsoft Office business and technical diagramming program. With STEP BY STEP, you can take just the lessons you need, or work from cover to cover. Either way, you drive the instruction-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Produce computer network diagrams, organization charts, floor plans, and moreUse templates to create new diagrams and drawings quicklyAdd text, color, and 1-D and 2-D shapesInsert graphics and pictures, such as company logosConnect shapes to create a basic f

  18. Inhomogeneous dynamics in confined water nanodroplets (United States)

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; Woutersen, Sander; Bakker, Huib J.


    The effect of confinement on the dynamical properties of liquid water was studied by mid-infrared ultrafast pump–probe spectroscopy on HDO:D2O in reverse micelles. By preparing water-containing reverse micelles of different well defined sizes, we varied the degree of geometric confinement in water nanodroplets with radii ranging from 0.2 to 4.5 nm. We find that water molecules located near the interface confining the droplet exhibit slower vibrational energy relaxation and have a different spectral absorption than those located in the droplet core. As a result, we can measure the orientational dynamics of these different types of water with high selectivity. We observe that the water molecules in the core show similar orientational dynamics as bulk water and that the water layer solvating the interface is highly immobile. PMID:17028175

  19. Jet characteristics in confined swirling flow (United States)

    So, R. M. C.; Ahmed, S. A.; Mongia, H. C.


    Jets in confined swirling flow are investigated in a facility where the swirling flow in the tube is produced by a vane-type swirler. The jet is located centrally in the swirler, and the diameter ratio of the tube to the jet is about 14. Both the jet and the swirling flow are fully turbulent. Results show that the confined jet is highly dissipative in nature. Consequently, the flow in the tube does not resemble a free jet with axial pressure gradient. The presence of swirl increases the rate of dissipation and the jet decays even faster. A fairly isotropic turbulence field is observed in the confined swirling flow. However, the introduction of the jet does not significantly affect this behavior, and near isotropy of the turbulence field is again observed at about 30 jet diameters downstream.

  20. Confined space facilitates G-quadruplex formation (United States)

    Shrestha, Prakash; Jonchhe, Sagun; Emura, Tomoko; Hidaka, Kumi; Endo, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Mao, Hanbin


    Molecular simulations suggest that the stability of a folded macromolecule increases in a confined space due to entropic effects. However, due to the interactions between the confined molecular structure and the walls of the container, clear-cut experimental evidence for this prediction is lacking. Here, using DNA origami nanocages, we show the pure effect of confined space on the property of individual human telomeric DNA G-quadruplexes. We induce targeted mechanical unfolding of the G-quadruplex while leaving the nanocage unperturbed. We find that the mechanical and thermodynamic stabilities of the G-quadruplex inside the nanocage increase with decreasing cage size. Compared to the case of diluted or molecularly crowded buffer solutions, the G-quadruplex inside the nanocage is significantly more stable, showing a 100 times faster folding rate. Our findings suggest the possibility of co-replicational or co-transcriptional folding of G-quadruplex inside the polymerase machinery in cells.

  1. Transition metal catalysis in confined spaces. (United States)

    Leenders, Stefan H A M; Gramage-Doria, Rafael; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost N H


    Transition metal catalysis plays an important role in both industry and in academia where selectivity, activity and stability are crucial parameters to control. Next to changing the structure of the ligand, introducing a confined space as a second coordination sphere around a metal catalyst has recently been shown to be a viable method to induce new selectivity and activity in transition metal catalysis. In this review we focus on supramolecular strategies to encapsulate transition metal complexes with the aim of controlling the selectivity via the second coordination sphere. As we will discuss, catalyst confinement can result in selective processes that are impossible or difficult to achieve by traditional methods. We will describe the template-ligand approach as well as the host-guest approach to arrive at such supramolecular systems and discuss how the performance of the catalyst is enhanced by confining it in a molecular container.

  2. Density shock waves in confined microswimmers

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou


    Motile and driven particles confined in microfluidic channels exhibit interesting emergent behavior from propagating density bands to density shock waves. A deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for these emergent structures is relevant to a number of physical and biomedical applications. Here, we study the formation of density shock waves in the context of an idealized model of microswimmers confined in a narrow channel and subject to a uniform external flow. Interestingly, these density shock waves exhibit a transition from `subsonic' with compression at the back to `supersonic' with compression at the front of the population as the intensity of the external flow increases. This behavior is the result of a non-trivial interplay between hydrodynamic interactions and geometric confinement, and is confirmed by a novel quasilinear wave model that properly captures the dependence of the shock formation on the external flow. These findings can be used to guide the development of novel mechan...

  3. Confinement in Wendelstein 7-X limiter plasmas (United States)

    Hirsch, M.; Dinklage, A.; Alonso, A.; Fuchert, G.; Bozhenkov, S.; Höfel, U.; Andreeva, T.; Baldzuhn, J.; Beurskens, M.; Bosch, H.-S.; Beidler, C. D.; Biedermann, C.; Blanco, E.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Buttenschön, B.; Cappa, A.; Czarnecka, A.; Endler, M.; Estrada, T.; Fornal, T.; Geiger, J.; Grulke, O.; Harris, J. H.; Hartmann, D.; Jakubowski, M.; Klinger, T.; Knauer, J.; Kocsis, G.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krawczyk, N.; Krychowiak, M.; Kubkowska, M.; Ksiazek, I.; Langenberg, A.; Laqua, H. P.; Lazerson, S.; Maaßberg, H.; Marushchenko, N.; Marsen, S.; Moncada, V.; Moseev, D.; Naujoks, D.; Otte, M.; Pablant, N.; Pasch, E.; Pisano, F.; Rahbarnia, K.; Schröder, T.; Stange, T.; Stephey, L.; Szepesi, T.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Trimino Mora, H.; Thomsen, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Turkin, Yu.; Wauters, T.; Weir, G.; Wenzel, U.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R.; Wurden, G. A.; Zhang, D.; the W7-X Team


    Observations on confinement in the first experimental campaign on the optimized Stellarator Wendelstein 7-X are summarized. In this phase W7-X was equipped with five inboard limiters only and thus the discharge length restricted to avoid local overheating. Stationary plasmas are limited to low densities  <2-3 · 1019 m-3. With the available 4.3 MW ECR Heating core T e ~ 8 keV, T i ~ 1-2 keV are achieved routinely resulting in energy confinement time τ E between 80 ms to 150 ms. For these conditions the plasmas show characteristics of core electron root confinement with peaked T e-profiles and positive E r up to about half of the minor radius. Profiles and plasma currents respond to on- and off-axis heating and co- and counter ECCD respectively.

  4. Engineering of light confinement in strongly scattering disordered media. (United States)

    Riboli, Francesco; Caselli, Niccolò; Vignolini, Silvia; Intonti, Francesca; Vynck, Kevin; Barthelemy, Pierre; Gerardino, Annamaria; Balet, Laurent; Li, Lianhe H; Fiore, Andrea; Gurioli, Massimo; Wiersma, Diederik S


    Disordered photonic materials can diffuse and localize light through random multiple scattering, offering opportunities to study mesoscopic phenomena, control light-matter interactions, and provide new strategies for photonic applications. Light transport in such media is governed by photonic modes characterized by resonances with finite spectral width and spatial extent. Considerable steps have been made recently towards control over the transport using wavefront shaping techniques. The selective engineering of individual modes, however, has been addressed only theoretically. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the possibility to engineer the confinement and the mutual interaction of modes in a two-dimensional disordered photonic structure. The strong light confinement is achieved at the fabrication stage by an optimization of the structure, and an accurate and local tuning of the mode resonance frequencies is achieved via post-fabrication processes. To show the versatility of our technique, we selectively control the detuning between overlapping localized modes and observe both frequency crossing and anti-crossing behaviours, thereby paving the way for the creation of open transmission channels in strongly scattering media.

  5. A new model of gluon confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, M.; De Lorenci, V.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Elbaz, E. [Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire


    In this paper we present a model for the dynamics of a gauge field theory such that spin-one particles can be confined in a compact domain. We show that the property of confinement can be associated to the formation of a null surface identified to a horizon. This is due the presence of an effective geometry generated by the self-interaction of the gauge field that guides the wave propagation of the field. This phenomenon has a striking analog to the gravitational back hole in Einstein general theory of relativity, separating two domains of spacetime that can be trespassed only into one direction. (author) 4 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Molecular reactivity dynamics in a confined environment. (United States)

    Khatua, Munmun; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar


    Time evolution of various reactivity parameters viz. hardness, electrophilicity, chemical potential, polarizability, etc. in a confined environment has been studied through quantum fluid density functional theory formalism during time dependent processes such as proton-molecule collisions and molecule-field interaction. A Dirichlet type boundary condition has been incorporated to confine the systems. Responses in the reactivity parameters of the diatomic molecules, in the dynamical context, in ground state as well as in excited state, have been reported. Harmonic spectra are generated in the cases of the external laser field interacting with H2 and N2 molecules.

  7. Diabetes PSA (:60) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  8. Diabetes PSA (:30) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  9. Methane hydrate formation in confined nanospace can surpass nature. (United States)

    Casco, Mirian E; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; Ramírez-Cuesta, Anibal J; Rey, Fernando; Jordá, Jose L; Bansode, Atul; Urakawa, Atsushi; Peral, Inma; Martínez-Escandell, Manuel; Kaneko, Katsumi; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco


    Natural methane hydrates are believed to be the largest source of hydrocarbons on Earth. These structures are formed in specific locations such as deep-sea sediments and the permafrost based on demanding conditions of high pressure and low temperature. Here we report that, by taking advantage of the confinement effects on nanopore space, synthetic methane hydrates grow under mild conditions (3.5 MPa and 2 °C), with faster kinetics (within minutes) than nature, fully reversibly and with a nominal stoichiometry that mimics nature. The formation of the hydrate structures in nanospace and their similarity to natural hydrates is confirmed using inelastic neutron scattering experiments and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. These findings may be a step towards the application of a smart synthesis of methane hydrates in energy-demanding applications (for example, transportation).

  10. Confinement of light in a polarizable vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Khare


    Full Text Available We show that an electrically polarizable vacuum with space-dependent permeability ε(r = μ−1(rexp(−αr2 can confine light whose quanta acquire a mass through interaction with this vacuum.

  11. Modulus-Pressure Equation for Confined Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Gor, Gennady Y; Shen, Vincent K; Bernstein, Noam


    Ultrasonic experiments allow one to measure the elastic modulus of bulk solid or fluid samples. Recently such experiments have been carried out on fluid-saturated nanoporous glass to probe the modulus of a confined fluid. In our previous work [J. Chem. Phys., (2015) 143, 194506], using Monte Carlo simulations we showed that the elastic modulus $K$ of a fluid confined in a mesopore is a function of the pore size. Here we focus on modulus-pressure dependence $K(P)$, which is linear for bulk materials, a relation known as the Tait-Murnaghan equation. Using transition-matrix Monte Carlo simulations we calculated the elastic modulus of bulk argon as a function of pressure and argon confined in silica mesopores as a function of Laplace pressure. Our calculations show that while the elastic modulus is strongly affected by confinement and temperature, the slope of the modulus versus pressure is not. Moreover, the calculated slope is in a good agreement with the reference data for bulk argon and experimental data for ...

  12. Non-resonant Nanoscale Extreme Light Confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huber, Dale L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A wide spectrum of photonics activities Sandia is engaged in such as solid state lighting, photovoltaics, infrared imaging and sensing, quantum sources, rely on nanoscale or ultrasubwavelength light-matter interactions (LMI). The fundamental understanding in confining electromagnetic power and enhancing electric fields into ever smaller volumes is key to creating next generation devices for these programs. The prevailing view is that a resonant interaction (e.g. in microcavities or surface-plasmon polaritions) is necessary to achieve the necessary light confinement for absorption or emission enhancement. Here we propose new paradigm that is non-resonant and therefore broadband and can achieve light confinement and field enhancement in extremely small areas [~(λ/500)^2 ]. The proposal is based on a theoretical work[1] performed at Sandia. The paradigm structure consists of a periodic arrangement of connected small and large rectangular slits etched into a metal film named double-groove (DG) structure. The degree of electric field enhancement and power confinement can be controlled by the geometry of the structure. The key operational principle is attributed to quasistatic response of the metal electrons to the incoming electromagnetic field that enables non-resonant broadband behavior. For this exploratory LDRD we have fabricated some test double groove structures to enable verification of quasistatic electronic response in the mid IR through IR optical spectroscopy. We have addressed some processing challenges in DG structure fabrication to enable future design of complex sensor and detector geometries that can utilize its non-resonant field enhancement capabilities.].

  13. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.


    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  14. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films (United States)

    Vanya, P.; Sharman, J.; Elliott, J. A.


    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.

  15. Subwavelength light confinement with surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.


    In free space, the diffraction limit sets a lower bound to the size to which light can be confined. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are electromagnetic waves bound to the interface between a metal and a dielectric, allow the control of light on subwavelength length scales. This opens up a

  16. Structure of polymer chains under confinement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We observe by SANS the structure of neutral polystyrene and charged polystyrene sulphonate chains in semi-dilute solutions confined in a model nanoporous glass, Vycor. The size of the free chains in solution is always larger than the pore di- ameter, 70. The use of a suitable mixture of hydrogenated and ...

  17. Analysis of thermally-degrading, confined HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, M.L.; Schmitt, R.G.; Renlund, A.M.


    The response of a thermally-degrading, confined HMX pellet is analyzed using a Reactive Elastic-Plastic (REP) constitutive model which is founded on the collapse and growth of internal inclusions resulting from physical and chemical processes such as forced displacement, thermal expansion, and/or decomposition. Axial stress predictions compare adequately to data. Deficiencies in the model and future directions are discussed.

  18. Clusters of polyhedra in spherical confinement (United States)

    Teich, Erin G.; van Anders, Greg; Klotsa, Daphne; Dshemuchadse, Julia; Glotzer, Sharon C.


    Dense particle packing in a confining volume remains a rich, largely unexplored problem, despite applications in blood clotting, plasmonics, industrial packaging and transport, colloidal molecule design, and information storage. Here, we report densest found clusters of the Platonic solids in spherical confinement, for up to N=60 constituent polyhedral particles. We examine the interplay between anisotropic particle shape and isotropic 3D confinement. Densest clusters exhibit a wide variety of symmetry point groups and form in up to three layers at higher N. For many N values, icosahedra and dodecahedra form clusters that resemble sphere clusters. These common structures are layers of optimal spherical codes in most cases, a surprising fact given the significant faceting of the icosahedron and dodecahedron. We also investigate cluster density as a function of N for each particle shape. We find that, in contrast to what happens in bulk, polyhedra often pack less densely than spheres. We also find especially dense clusters at so-called magic numbers of constituent particles. Our results showcase the structural diversity and experimental utility of families of solutions to the packing in confinement problem. PMID:26811458

  19. Confined surface plasmons in gold photonic nanocavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netti, C.; Coyle, S.; Baumberg, J.J. [Southampton Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Ghanem, M.A.; Birkin, P.R.; Bartlett, P.N. [Southampton Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Whittaker, D.M. [Toshiba Research Europe Ltd., Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    A simple scheme to produce large-area colored metal surfaces by completely confining surface plasmons inside gold spherical nanocavities has been discovered. The negative nanocavity curvature localizes the electromagnetic fields into small volumes, which can be arranged non-periodically. (orig.)

  20. Spinal cord compression following traditional confinement massage. (United States)

    Sahathevan, R; Tan, H J; Abdullah, Suhail; Shahizon, A M M; Hamidon, B B; Raymond, A A


    We describe a case of tetraparesis in a 33-year-old woman following neck manipulation performed by a traditional confinement mid-wife. An MRI of the cervical spine revealed a fracture of the second cervical vertebra with atlanto-axial subluxation that resulted in cord compression.

  1. Capillary breakup of fluid threads within confinement (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Xue, Chundong; Chen, Xiaodong


    Fluid thread breakup is a widespread phenomenon in nature, industry, and daily life. Driven by surface tension (or capillarity) at low flow-rate condition, the breakup scenario is usually called capillary instability or Plateau-Rayleigh instability. Fluid thread deforms under confinement of ambient fluid to form a fluid neck. Thinning of the neck at low flow-rate condition is quasistatic until the interface becomes unstable and collapses to breakup. Underlying mechanisms and universalities of both the stable and unstable thinning remain, however, unclear and even contradictory. Here we conduct new numerical and experimental studies to show that confined interfaces are not only stabilized but also destabilized by capillarity at low flow-rate condition. Capillary stabilization is attributed to confinement-determined internal pressure that is higher than capillary pressure along the neck. Two origins of capillary destabilization are identified: one is confinement-induced gradient of capillary pressure along the interface; the other is the competition between local capillary pressure and internal pressure. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11402274, 11272321, and 11572334).

  2. Ultrafast chemistry in complex and confined systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Self-organized molecular assemblies play a crucial role in many natural and biological processes. Recent applications of ultrafast laser spectroscopy and computer simulations revealed that chemistry in a confined environment is fundamentally different from that in ordinary solutions. Many recent examples of slow dynamics ...

  3. Effects of high sound speed confiners on ANFO detonations (United States)

    Kiyanda, Charles; Jackson, Scott; Short, Mark


    The interaction between high explosive (HE) detonations and high sound speed confiners, where the confiner sound speed exceeds the HE's detonation speed, has not been thoroughly studied. The subsonic nature of the flow in the confiner allows stress waves to travel ahead of the main detonation front and influence the upstream HE state. The interaction between the detonation wave and the confiner is also no longer a local interaction, so that the confiner thickness now plays a significant role in the detonation dynamics. We report here on larger scale experiments in which a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) is detonated in aluminium confiners with varying charge diameter and confiner thickness. The results of these large-scale experiments are compared with previous large-scale ANFO experiments in cardboard, as well as smaller-scale aluminium confined ANFO experiments, to characterize the effects of confiner thickness.

  4. Confined Water: Structure, Dynamics, and Thermodynamics. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sudip; Kumar, Hemant; Dasgupta, Chandan; Maiti, Prabal K


    Understanding the properties of strongly confined water is important for a variety of applications such as fast flow and desalination devices, voltage generation, flow sensing, and nanofluidics. Confined water also plays an important role in many biological processes such as flow through ion channels. Water in the bulk exhibits many unusual properties that arise primarily from the presence of a network of hydrogen bonds. Strong confinement in structures such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) substantially modifies the structural, thermodynamic, and dynamic (both translational and orientational) properties of water by changing the structure of the hydrogen bond network. In this Account, we provide an overview of the behavior of water molecules confined inside CNTs and slit pores between graphene and graphene oxide (GO) sheets. Water molecules confined in narrow CNTs are arranged in a single file and exhibit solidlike ordering at room temperature due to strong hydrogen bonding between nearest-neighbor molecules. Although molecules constrained to move along a line are expected to exhibit single-file diffusion in contrast to normal Fickian diffusion, we show, from a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and analytic calculations, that water molecules confined in short and narrow CNTs with open ends exhibit Fickian diffusion because of their collective motion as a single unit due to strong hydrogen bonding. Confinement leads to strong anisotropy in the orientational relaxation of water molecules. The time scale of relaxation of the dipolar correlations of water molecules arranged in a single file becomes ultraslow, of the order of several nanoseconds, compared with the value of 2.5 ps for bulk water. In contrast, the relaxation of the vector that joins the two hydrogens in a water molecule is much faster, with a time scale of about 150 fs, which is about 10 times shorter than the corresponding time scale for bulk water. This is a rare example of confinement leading to

  5. Microsoft Office Word 2007 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce


    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create impressive documents with Word 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them!Apply styles and themes to your document for a polished lookAdd graphics and text effects-and see a live previewOrganize information with new SmartArt diagrams and chartsInsert references, footnotes, indexes, a table of contentsSend documents for review and manage revisionsTurn your ideas into blogs, Web pages, and moreYour all-in-one learning experience includes:Files for building sk

  6. Information on stepping motors (United States)

    Fongarland, G.


    The principles of the stepping motors which are often used in servomechanisms are reviewed. Variable reluctance as well as permanent magnet stepping motors are considered. Their operation is explained which includes permanent rotation, starting, stopping, and resonance effects. Several application examples, drawn from problems in automation, are outlined.

  7. Structural behavior of supercritical fluids under confinement (United States)

    Ghosh, Kanka; Krishnamurthy, C. V.


    The existence of the Frenkel line in the supercritical regime of a Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid shown through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations initially and later corroborated by experiments on argon opens up possibilities of understanding the structure and dynamics of supercritical fluids in general and of the Frenkel line in particular. The location of the Frenkel line, which demarcates two distinct physical states, liquidlike and gaslike within the supercritical regime, has been established through MD simulations of the velocity autocorrelation (VACF) and radial distribution function (RDF). We, in this article, explore the changes in the structural features of supercritical LJ fluid under partial confinement using atomistic walls. The study is carried out across the Frenkel line through a series of MD simulations considering a set of thermodynamics states in the supercritical regime (P =5000 bar, 240 K ≤T ≤1500 K ) of argon well above the critical point. Confinement is partial, with atomistic walls located normal to z and extending to "infinity" along the x and y directions. In the "liquidlike" regime of the supercritical phase, particles are found to be distributed in distinct layers along the z axis with layer spacing less than one atomic diameter and the lateral RDF showing amorphous-like structure for specific spacings (packing frustration) and non-amorphous-like structure for other spacings. Increasing the rigidity of the atomistic walls is found to lead to stronger layering and increased structural order. For confinement with reflective walls, layers are found to form with one atomic diameter spacing and the lateral RDF showing close-packed structure for the smaller confinements. Translational order parameter and excess entropy assessment confirms the ordering taking place for atomistic wall and reflective wall confinements. In the "gaslike" regime of the supercritical phase, particle distribution along the spacing and the lateral RDF exhibit features

  8. The rose petal effect and the role of advancing water contact angles for drop confinement (United States)

    Kofoed Mandsberg, Nikolaj; Taboryski, Rafael


    We studied the role of advancing water contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces that exhibited strong pinning effects as known in nature from rose petals. Textured surfaces were engineered in silicon by lithographical techniques. The textures were comprised of hexagonal microstructures superimposed with randomly distributed nanospikes and were coated with a hydrophobic fluorocarbon agent. A step in the advancing water contact angle bounding specific areas was obtained by engineering a corresponding topographic step in the hexagonal micro-texture. This enabled a surface texture design confining drops to areas with a lower advancing contact angle.

  9. Extra-dimensional confinement of quantum particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R


    A basic theoretical framework is developed in which elementary particles have a component of their wave function extending into higher spatial dimensions. This model postulates an extension of the Schrodinger equation to include a 4th and 5th spatial component. A higher-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator confining potential localizes particles into 3-d space, characterizing the brane tension which confines Standard Model particles to the sub-manifold. Quantum effects allow a non-zero probability for a particle's evanescent existence in the higher dimensions, and suggest an experimental test for the validity of this model via particles being temporarily excited into the first excited state of the extra-dimensional potential well, in which their probability of existing in 3-d space transiently drops to zero. Several consistency checks of the outcomes of this extra-dimensional model are included in this paper. Among the outcomes of this model are: a match with the quantum phenomenon of zitterbewegung; the pr...

  10. Compaction of granular material inside confined geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjy eMarks


    Full Text Available In both nature and the laboratory, loosely packed granular materials are often compacted inside confined geometries. Here, we explore such behaviour in a quasi-two dimensional geometry, where parallel rigid walls provide the confinement. We use the discrete element method to investigate the stress distribution developed within the granular packing as a result of compaction due to the displacement of a rigid piston. We observe that the stress within the packing increases exponentially with the length of accumulated grains, and show an extension to current analytic models which fits the measured stress. The micromechanical behaviour is studied for a range of system parameters, and the limitations of existing analytic models are described. In particular, we show the smallest sized systems which can be treated using existing models. Additionally, the effects of increasing piston rate, and variations of the initial packing fraction, are described.

  11. Influence of confining layers' heterogeneity on the barometric response functions in semi-confined aquifers (United States)

    Redaelli, Marco; Perulero Serrano, Raul


    It has been shown that Barometric Response Functions (BRFs) can provide a useful tool for detecting the occurrence of highly conducive bodies which span across aquifer confining layers and can potentially give rise to pathways for pollutant migration (Hussein et al 2013, Odling et al 2015). Analytical models employed to estimate BRFs from geological system properties assume homogeneity within the aquifer and its confining layer. These assumptions are rarely satisfied in practice. Our study focusses on the impact on predicted BRFs of heterogeneous distribution of high conductivity geomaterials within the confining layer. The work is grounded on a suite of three-dimensional, transient numerical computations of groundwater flow in a confining layer-aquifer system for i) a perfectly homogeneous two-layer setting where a single highly conducive block is fully penetrating the confining layer and ii) a heterogeneous two-layer system where hydraulic conductivity in the confining layer is modelled as a stochastic process. Our numerical results are interpreted through a comparison against those associated with an analytical model which assumes system homogeneity. Monitoring points located in the middle of the modelled aquifer domain, mimicking screened boreholes in field conditions, are used to extract water level records. The output is used to obtain the corresponding BRFs (in terms of gain and phase components) and compared vis-a-vis the selected analytical solution. The results show a wide variety of BRF responses, especially in the gain component, which vary from almost confined to unconfined scenarios. Our simulations show that the BRFs are a viable tool to improve understanding of the degree of spatial continuity within low permeability heterogeneous geological materials such as glacial till which is frequently found overlying water bearing units across the UK and other localities worldwide. As such, it has the potential to improve groundwater vulnerability assessment

  12. Scanning gate imaging in confined geometries


    Steinacher, R.; Kozikov, A. A.; Rössler, C.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.


    This article reports on tunable electron backscattering investigated with the biased tip of a scanning force microscope. Using a channel defined by a pair of Schottky gates, the branched electron flow of ballistic electrons injected from a quantum point contact is guided by potentials of a tunable height well below the Fermi energy. The transition from injection into an open two-dimensional electron gas to a strongly confined channel exhibits three experimentally distinct regimes: one in whic...

  13. Confinement in anti-de Sitter space (United States)

    Aharony, Ofer; Berkooz, Micha; Tong, David; Yankielowicz, Shimon


    Four dimensional gauge theories in anti-de Sitter space, including pure Yang-Mills theory, exhibit a quantum phase transition between a deconfined phase and a confined phase as the gauge coupling is varied. We explore various mechanisms by which this may occur, both in a fixed background and in the presence of gravity. We also make a number of observations on the dynamics of four dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories in anti-de Sitter space.

  14. A dynamical model for plasma confinement transitions (United States)

    Pilarczyk, Paweł; García, Luis; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Llerena, Irene


    A three-equation model describing the evolution of the turbulence level, averaged shear flow and sheared zonal flow is analyzed using topological properties of the asymptotic solutions. An exploration in parameter space is done, identifying the attractor sets, which are fixed points and limit cycles. Then a more detailed analysis of all Morse sets is conducted using topological-combinatorial computations. This model allows the description of different types of transitions to improved plasma confinement regimes.

  15. Rheology of Confined Non-Brownian Suspensions. (United States)

    Fornari, Walter; Brandt, Luca; Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Lopez, Cyan Umbert; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Picano, Francesco


    We study the rheology of confined suspensions of neutrally buoyant rigid monodisperse spheres in plane-Couette flow using direct numerical simulations. We find that if the width of the channel is a (small) integer multiple of the sphere diameter, the spheres self-organize into two-dimensional layers that slide on each other and the effective viscosity of the suspension is significantly reduced. Each two-dimensional layer is found to be structurally liquidlike but its dynamics is frozen in time.

  16. Engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement


    Fernández, R


    Nuclear power plants generate long-lived radioactive waste of high toxicity. The security assessment of repositories destined to definitive confinement of radioactive waste has been studied for several decades. Deep geological repositories are technically feasible and begin to be built by some pioneer countries. The scientific evaluation of interactions between the different engineered barriers is studied by laboratory experiments, natural analogues and modeling studies. The three methods are...

  17. The functionality-based application confinement model


    Schreuders, ZC; Payne, C.; Mcgill, T.


    This paper presents the functionality-based application confinement (FBAC) access control model. FBAC is an application-oriented access control model, intended to restrict processes to the behaviour that is authorised by end users, administrators, and processes, in order to limit the damage that can be caused by malicious code, due to software vulnerabilities or malware. FBAC is unique in its ability to limit applications to finely grained access control rules based on high-level easy-to-unde...

  18. Spectral confinement and current for atoms in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren


    e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B<3......e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B

  19. Radiolysis of confined water: molecular hydrogen formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotureau, P.; Renault, J.P.; Mialocq, J.C. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/DRECAM/SCM/URA 331 CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lebeau, B.; Patarin, J. [Laboratoire de Materiaux a Porosite Controlee, UMR CNRS 7016, ENSCMu-UHA, 3, Rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France)


    The formation of molecular hydrogen in the radiolysis of water confined in nanoscale pores of well-characterised porous silica glasses and mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41) is examined. The comparison of dihydrogen formation by irradiation of both materials, dry and hydrated, shows that a large part of the H{sub 2} comes from the surface of the material. The radiolytic yields, G(H{sub 2})=(3{+-}0.5) x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}, calculated using the total energy deposited in the material and the water, are only slightly affected by the degree of hydration of the material and by the pore size. These yields are also not modified by the presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers. This observation proves that the back reaction between H{sub 2} and HO{sup .} is inoperative in such confined environments. Furthermore, the large amount of H{sub 2} produced in the presence of different concentrated scavengers of the hydrated electron and its precursor suggests that these two species are far from being the only species responsible for the H{sub 2} formation. Our results show that the radiolytic phenomena that occur in water confined in nanoporous silica are dramatically different to those in bulk water, suggesting the need to investigate further the chemical reactivity in this type of environment. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Radiolysis of confined water: molecular hydrogen formation. (United States)

    Rotureau, P; Renault, J P; Lebeau, B; Patarin, J; Mialocq, J-C


    The formation of molecular hydrogen in the radiolysis of water confined in nanoscale pores of well-characterised porous silica glasses and mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41) is examined. The comparison of dihydrogen formation by irradiation of both materials, dry and hydrated, shows that a large part of the H2 comes from the surface of the material. The radiolytic yields, G(H2)=(3+/-0.5)x10(-7) mol J(-1), calculated using the total energy deposited in the material and the water, are only slightly affected by the degree of hydration of the material and by the pore size. These yields are also not modified by the presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers. This observation proves that the back reaction between H2 and HO(.) is inoperative in such confined environments. Furthermore, the large amount of H2 produced in the presence of different concentrated scavengers of the hydrated electron and its precursor suggests that these two species are far from being the only species responsible for the H2 formation. Our results show that the radiolytic phenomena that occur in water confined in nanoporous silica are dramatically different to those in bulk water, suggesting the need to investigate further the chemical reactivity in this type of environment.

  1. Chemical reactions confined within carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Miners, Scott A; Rance, Graham A; Khlobystov, Andrei N


    In this critical review, we survey the wide range of chemical reactions that have been confined within carbon nanotubes, particularly emphasising how the pairwise interactions between the catalysts, reactants, transition states and products of a particular molecular transformation with the host nanotube can be used to control the yields and distributions of products of chemical reactions. We demonstrate that nanoscale confinement within carbon nanotubes enables the control of catalyst activity, morphology and stability, influences the local concentration of reactants and products thus affecting equilibria, rates and selectivity, pre-arranges the reactants for desired reactions and alters the relative stability of isomeric products. We critically evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of the confinement of chemical reactions inside carbon nanotubes from a chemical perspective and describe how further developments in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes and the incorporation of multifunctionality are essential for the development of this ever-expanding field, ultimately leading to the effective control of the pathways of chemical reactions through the rational design of multi-functional carbon nanoreactors.

  2. Confined Tube Crimp Using Portable Hand Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Joseph James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pereyra, R. A. [LANL Retired; Archuleta, Jeffrey Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Isaac P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, A. M. [MST-16 Summer Student (2007); Allen, Ronald Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Page, R. L. [LANL Retired; Freer, Jerry Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dozhier, Nathan Gus [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The Lawrence Radiation Laboratory developed handheld tools that crimp a 1/16 inch OD tube, forming a leak tight seal1 (see Figure 1). The leak tight seal forms by confining the 1/16 inch OD tubing inside a die while applying crimp pressure. Under confined pressure, the tube walls weld at the crimp. The purpose of this study was to determine conditions for fabricating a leak tight tube weld. The equipment was used on a trial-and-error basis, changing the conditions after each attempt until successful welds were fabricated. To better confine the tube, the die faces were polished. Polishing removed a few thousandths of an inch from the die face, resulting in a tighter grip on the tubing wall. Using detergent in an ultrasonic bath, the tubing was cleaned. Also, the time under crimp pressure was increased to 30 seconds. With these modifications, acceptable cold welds were fabricated. After setting the conditions for an acceptable cold weld, the tube was TIG welded across the crimped face.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Maluf


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of cattle cross breeds ½ Aberdeen Angus x ½Nelore and Nelore confined submitted to immunocastration 218 male animals were used, feedlot, averaging 342 kg, divided into three experimental groups, T1: 117 steers ½ Angus x ½ Nelore no castrated (ANC, T2: 51 Nelore steers uncastrated (NNC and T3: 50 Nellore steers immunocastrated (NIC. The experiment lasted 144 days of confinement. The selection of animals for group formation was according to the individual weight, breed, sex condition and age. For immunocastration it wasused Bopriva® vaccine. The rating was finished according to the parameter used by the meatpacking industry ranging from 1 to 5. The experimental design was completely randomized in three groups. For the analyzes the variables studied statistics were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test both at the 5% level of significance. The results showed differences (p <0.01 at various features of productive performance and carcass between treatments. For slaughter weight, the ANC animals were higher (with 582.1 kg to Nelore, regardless of sexual condition, and the NNC were in turn heavier than the NIC, 527.4 and 503.7 respectively. Finally, it observed that the use of immunocastration in Nellore animals provided a decrease in productive performance of confined animals, but provided better finish carcass similar to crossbred (ANC.

  4. Water nanodroplets confined in zeolite pores. (United States)

    Coudert, François-Xavier; Cailliez, Fabien; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Fuchs, Alain H; Boutin, Anne


    We provide a comprehensive depiction of the behaviour of a nanodroplet of approximately equal to 20 water molecules confined in the pores of a series of 3D-connected isostructural zeolites with varying acidity, by means of molecular simulations. Both grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations using classical interatomic forcefields and first-principles Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics were used in order to characterise the behaviour of confined water by computing a range of properties, from thermodynamic quantities to electronic properties such as dipole moment, including structural and dynamical information. From the thermodynamic point of view, we have identified the all-silica zeolite as hydrophobic, and the cationic zeolites as hydrophilic; the condensation transition in the first case was demonstrated to be of first order. Furthermore, in-depth analysis of the dynamical and electronic properties of water showed that water in the hydrophobic zeolite behaves as a nanodroplet trying to close its hydrogen-bond network onto itself, with a few short-lived dangling OH groups, while water in hydrophilic zeolites "opens up" to form weak hydrogen bonds with the zeolite oxygen atoms. Finally, the dipole moment of confined water is studied and the contributions of water self-polarisation and the zeolite electric field are discussed.

  5. Dynamics of Hyperbranched Polymers under Confinement (United States)

    Androulaki, Krystallenia; Chrissopoulou, Kiriaki; Anastasiadis, Spiros H.; Prevosto, Daniele; Labardi, Massimiliano


    The effect of severe confinement on the dynamics of three different generations of hyperbranched polyesters (Boltorns) is investigated by Dielectric Spectroscopy. The polymers are intercalated within the galleries of natural Na+-MMT, thus, forming 1nm polymer films confined between solid walls. The Tg's of the polymers determined by DSC show a clear dependence on the generation whereas the transition is completely suppressed when all the polymer chains are intercalated. The dynamic investigation of the bulk polymers reveals two sub-Tg processes, with similar behavior for the three polymers with the segmental relaxation observed above the Tg of each. For the nanocomposites, where all polymers are severely confined, the dynamics show significant differences compared to that of the bulk polymers. The sub-Tg processes are similar for the three generations but significantly faster and with weaker temperature dependence than those in the bulk. The segmental process appears at temperatures below the bulk polymer Tg, it exhibits an Arrhenius temperature dependence and shows differences for the three generations. A slow process that appears at higher temperatures is due to interfacial polarization. Co-financed by the EU and Greek funds through the Operational Program ``Education and Lifelong Learning'' of the NSRF-Research Funding Program: THALES-Investing in knowledge society through the Eur. Social Fund (MIS 377278) and COST Action MP0902-COINAPO.

  6. Quantum Confinement at Polar Oxide Interfaces (United States)

    Gariglio, Stefano; Li, Danfeng; Wu, Zhenping; Liu, Wei; Fete, Alexandre; Boselli, Margherita; Lemal, Sebastien; Bristowe, Nicholas; Ghosez, Philippe; Gabay, Marc; Triscone, Jean-Marc

    The discovery of a two-dimensional electron liquid (2DEL), confined at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) has generated tremendous research interest. The 2DEL confinement lifts the degeneracy of Ti t2 g orbitals and promotes exotic physical properties. A previous study has demonstrated that a 2DEL is also observed when LAO is alloyed with STO (La,Al)1-x(Sr,Ti)xO3 (LASTO: x). The threshold thickness required for the onset of conductivity scales with x. We present here a study of superconductivity at the (LASTO:0.5)/STO interface. The thickness of the 2DEL, measured using perpendicular and parallel critical fields, is larger than the one at the LAO/STO interface. This change is due to a modification on the confining potential linked to a reduced charge transfer that is scaling as 1 / x . This scenario is also confirmed by a self-consistent Poisson-Schrödinger model and ab initio calculations. These compelling evidences support an intrinsic origin to the formation of the 2DEL in the LAO/STO system.

  7. Flu & You: Preventive Steps (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Preventive Steps Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... for infants should be vaccinated instead. Take everyday preventive actions to stop the spread of germs. Try ...

  8. Confined Turbulent Swirling Recirculating Flow Predictions. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Abujelala, M. T.


    Turbulent swirling flow, the STARPIC computer code, turbulence modeling of turbulent flows, the k-xi turbulence model and extensions, turbulence parameters deduction from swirling confined flow measurements, extension of the k-xi to confined swirling recirculating flows, and general predictions for confined turbulent swirling flow are discussed.

  9. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Redondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa. The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5. Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment.

  10. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description. (United States)

    Redondo, Cristina; Srougi, Victor; da Costa, José Batista; Baghdad, Mohammed; Velilla, Guillermo; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Bergerat, Sebastien; Garcia-Barreras, Silvia; Rozet, François; Ingels, Alexandre; Galiano, Marc; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Cathelineau, Xavier


    Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa). The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipament utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40ºC) to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1-5). Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  11. Energy confinement scaling from the international stellarator database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Murakami, M.; Dory, R.A.; Yamada, H.; Okamura, S.; Sano, F.; Obiki, T.


    An international stellarator database on global energy confinement is presented comprising data from the ATF, CHS and Heliotron E heliotron/torsatrons and the W7-A and W7-AS shearless stellarators. Regression expressions for the energy confinement time are given for the individual devices and the combined dataset. A comparison with tokamak L mode confinement is discussed on the basis of various scaling expressions. In order to make this database available to interested colleagues, the structure of the database and the parameter list are explained in detail. More recent confinement results incorporating data from enhanced confinement regimes such as H mode are reported elsewhere. (author).

  12. Generalized inflation and confinement phase transitions in the early universe. (United States)

    Patzelt, H.


    Giving up the restriction ɛ/p = const, the author shows that equations of state with ɛ-3p = Δ > 0 will be driven to the inflationary solution with ɛ = -p after sufficiently long times. Subsequently, he shows that confinement transitions may provide such an equation of state due to a change of degrees of freedom. Depending on the energy scale of the confinement transition inflation may occur during confinement. Numerical results for quark and subquark confinement are given. For QCD-confinement the transition time is too short, compared to the energy density, for a significant deviation of the scale factor to occur.

  13. Generalized inflation and confinement phase transitions in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, H. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Sektion Physik)


    Giving up the restriction {epsilon}/p=const, we show that equations of state with {epsilon}-3p={Delta}>0 will be driven to the inflationary solution with {epsilon}=-p after sufficiently long times. Subsequently, we show that confinement transitions may provide such an equation of state due to a change of degrees of freedom. Depending on the energy scale of the confinement transition inflation may occur during confinement. Numerical results for quark and subquark confinement are given. For QCD-confinement the transition time is too short, compared to the energy density, for a significant deviation of the scale factor to occur. (orig.).

  14. Effect of temperature on the viscoelastic properties of nano-confined liquid mixtures. (United States)

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon


    The behaviour of fluids confined in nanoscale gaps plays a central role in molecular science and nanofluidics, with applications ranging from biological function to multiscale printing, osmosis and filtration, lab-on-chip technology and friction reduction. Here atomic force microscopy is used to shear five different mixtures of hexadecane and squalane confined between the tip apex and atomically flat graphite. The shearing amplitudes are typically Squalane presents a higher effective affinity for the surface by forming a robust self-assembled layer in all mixtures. This results in a step-like change of the viscous and elastic response of the confined liquid as the confining pressure increases. In contrast, measurements in pure hexadecane show a continuous and linear increase in the apparent viscosity with pressure at all temperatures. This is interpreted as a more fragile interfacial layer and images show that it can be completely removed at high temperatures. Depending on the mixture composition, measurements can be strongly location-dependent which suggests molecular clustering and nanoscale phase separation at the interface.

  15. Improved energy confinement with nonlinear isotope effects in magnetically confined plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, J; Jenko, F


    The efficient production of electricity from nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasmas relies on a good confinement of the thermal energy. For more than thirty years, the observation that such confinement depends on the mass of the plasma isotope and its interaction with apparently unrelated plasma conditions has remained largely unexplained and it has become one of the main unsolved issues. By means of numerical studies based on the gyrokinetic theory, we quantitatively show how the plasma microturbulence depends on the isotope mass through nonlinear multiscale microturbulence effects involving the interplay between zonal flows, electromagnetic effects and the torque applied. This finding has crucial consequences for the design of future reactors since, in spite of the fact that they will be composed by multiple ion species, their extrapolation from present day experiments heavily relies on the knowledge obtained from a long experimental tradition based in single isotope plasmas.

  16. Confinement in a planar waveguide with porous silicon omnidirectional mirrors as confining walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xifre-Perez, E. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Electrica i Automatica, ETSE, Campus Sescelades, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avda. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Marsal, L.F. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Electrica i Automatica, ETSE, Campus Sescelades, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avda. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)]. E-mail:; Ferre-Borrull, J. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Electrica i Automatica, ETSE, Campus Sescelades, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avda. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Pallares, J. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Electrica i Automatica, ETSE, Campus Sescelades, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avda. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)


    We present the design and study of waveguide structures based on porous silicon where the light confinement is not due to the usual total reflection effect but to the use of photonic crystals (PCs) as confining walls. These PC are omnidirectional mirrors (OMs), consisting of the periodic repetition of two porous silicon layers with different refractive indices and thicknesses. They reflect the radiation for all angles of incidence within a frequency range called the omnidirectional band gap (OBG). We have followed the PC formalism to investigate the properties of the OM as a multimode waveguide: the number of modes within the band gap, their field spatial distribution and their confinement as a function of the frequency and the core thickness.

  17. Kinetic step-growth polymerization: A dissipative particle dynamics simulation study. (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Ni, Chun-Yan; Zhu, You-Liang; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Xue, Yao-Hong; Liu, Hong


    Kinetic step-growth polymerization is studied by dissipative particle dynamics coupled with our previously developed reaction algorithm on a coarse-grained level. The simulation result proves that this step-growth polymerization obeys the second-order reaction kinetics. We apply this algorithm to study the step-growth polymerization using the subunits with different flexibilities or within confinement. Good agreement of the number fraction distributions with the Flory distribution is obtained, implying that this algorithm is reasonable to describe such a kind of step-growth polymerization. This algorithm can further supply a convenient platform for simulating typical step-growth polymerization in reactive polymer systems.

  18. Spherical microwave confinement and ball lightning (United States)

    Robinson, William Richard

    This dissertation presents the results of research done on unconventional energy technologies from 1995 to 2009. The present civilization depends on an infrastructure that was constructed and is maintained almost entirely using concentrated fuels and ores, both of which will run out. Diffuse renewable energy sources rely on this same infrastructure, and hence face the same limitations. I first examined sonoluminescence directed toward fusion, but demonstrated theoretically that this is impossible. I next studied Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and developed methods for improving results, although these have not been implemented. In 2000, I began Spherical Microwave Confinement (SMC), which confines and heats plasma with microwaves in a spherical chamber. The reactor was designed and built to provide the data needed to investigate the possibility of achieving fusion conditions with microwave confinement. A second objective was to attempt to create ball lightning (BL). The reactor featured 20 magnetrons, which were driven by a capacitor bank and operated in a 0.2 s pulse mode at 2.45 GHz. These provided 20 kW to an icosahedral array of 20 antennas. Video of plasmas led to a redesign of the antennas to provide better coupling of the microwaves to the plasma. A second improvement was a grid at the base of the antennas, which provided corona electrons and an electric field to aid quick formation of plasmas. Although fusion conditions were never achieved and ball lightning not observed, experience gained from operating this basic, affordable system has been incorporated in a more sophisticated reactor design intended for future research. This would use magnets that were originally planned. The cusp geometry of the magnetic fields is suitable for electron cyclotron resonance in the same type of closed surface that in existing reactors has generated high-temperature plasmas. Should ball lightning be created, it could be a practical power source with nearly ideal

  19. Statistical Contact Model for Confined Molecules (United States)

    Santamaria, Ruben; de la Paz, Antonio Alvarez; Roskop, Luke; Adamowicz, Ludwik


    A theory that describes in a realistic form a system of atoms under the effects of temperature and confinement is presented. The theory departs from a Lagrangian of the Zwanzig type and contains the main ingredients for describing a system of atoms immersed in a heat bath that is also formed by atoms. The equations of motion are derived according to Lagrangian mechanics. The application of statistical mechanics to describe the bulk effects greatly reduces the complexity of the equations. The resultant equations of motion are of the Langevin type with the viscosity and the temperature of the heat reservoir able to influence the trajectories of the particles. The pressure effects are introduced mechanically by using a container with an atomic structure immersed in the heat bath. The relevant variables that determine the equation of state are included in the formulation. The theory is illustrated by the derivation of the equation of state for a system with 76 atoms confined inside of a 180-atom fullerene-like cage that is immersed in fluid forming the heat bath at a temperature of 350 K and with the friction coefficient of 3.0 {ps}^{-1}. The atoms are of the type believed to form the cores of the Uranus and Neptune planets. The dynamic and the static pressures of the confined system are varied in the 3-5 KBar and 2-30 MBar ranges, respectively. The formulation can be equally used to analyze chemical reactions under specific conditions of pressure and temperature, determine the structure of clusters with their corresponding equation of state, the conditions for hydrogen storage, etc. The theory is consistent with the principles of thermodynamics and it is intrinsically ergodic, of general use, and the first of this kind.

  20. Dynamics of Liquids Confined in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Marcella Cabrera

    to the understanding of the nature of the hydration in the GIC and can be applied towards the development and improvement of dental restorative materials. Furthermore, two manuscripts regarding water and protein dynamics in confinement probed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering are also included in the thesis, Paper 3...... and Paper 4. In Paper 3 we investigated why two chalk samples display vastly different water uptake, despite the fact that they are known to have similar pore volumes. In Paper 4 we investigated the dynamics of encapsulated Hepatitis B surface antigen in mesoporous silica SBA-15. My knowledge of liquids...

  1. Confining quark condensate model of the nucleon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Michael; Tandy, Peter


    We obtain a mean-field solution for the nucleon as a quark-meson soliton obtained from the action of the global color-symmetry model of QCD. All dynamics is generated from an effective interaction of quark currents. At the quark-meson level there are two novel features: (1) absolute confinement is produced from the space-time structure of the dynamical self-energy in the vacuum quark propagator; and (2) the related scalar meson field is an extended q-barq composite that couples nonlocally to quarks. The influence of these features upon the nucleon mass contributions and other nucleon properties is presented.

  2. The Gribov theory of quark confinement

    CERN Document Server


    V N Gribov, one of the founders of modern particle physics, shaped our understanding of QCD as the microscopic dynamics of hadrons. This volume collects his papers on quark confinement, showing the road he followed to arrive at the theory and formulating the theory itself. It begins with papers providing a beautiful physical explanation of asymptotic freedom based on the phenomenon of antiscreening and demonstrating the inconsistency of the standard perturbative treatment of the gluon fields (Gribov copies, Gribov horizon). It continues with papers presenting the Gribov theory according to whi

  3. Isolation and confinement - Considerations for colonization (United States)

    Akins, F. R.


    This paper discusses three types of isolation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, and social) that could adversely affect mankind in space. The literature dealing with laboratory and field experiments relevant to these areas is summarized and suggestions are given for dealing with these problems within the space colony community. Also, consideration is given to the potential effects of physical confinement and the need for usable space. Finally, a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed as a theoretical framework to understand and investigate mankind's psychological needs in space.

  4. Honeycomb optical lattices with harmonic confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Kusk Block; Nygaard, Nicolai


    We consider the fate of the Dirac points in the spectrum of a honeycomb optical lattice in the presence of a harmonic confining potential. By numerically solving the tight binding model, we calculate the density of states and find that the energy dependence can be understood from analytical...... arguments. In addition, we show that the density of states of the harmonically trapped lattice system can be understood by application of a local density approximation based on the density of states in the homogeneous lattice. The Dirac points are found to survive locally in the trap as evidenced...

  5. Magnetic confinement of repelling Bloch walls (United States)

    Magyari, E.; Thomas, H.


    In a ferromagnet with orthorhombic magneto-crystalline anisotropy, two repelling 180° domain walls (π kinks) can be pushed together to form a 360° domain wall (2π kink) by applying a magnetic field in the easy direction. We show that such a magnetically confined static 360° plane domain wall with Bloch-like structure, connecting two semi-infinite domains with parallel spin orientation, is linearly stable only below a critical strength Bc of the applied field. At B = Bc it becomes unstable with respect to a mode with spin component along the hard direction.

  6. Confinement of Reinforced-Concrete Columns with Non-Code Compliant Confining Reinforcement plus Supplemental Pen-Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Kristianto


    Full Text Available One of the important requirements for earthquake resistant building related to confinement is the use of seismic hooks in the hoop or confining reinforcement of reinforced-concrete column elements. However, installation of a confining reinforcement with a 135-degree hook is not easy. Therefore, in practice, many construction workers apply a confining reinforcement with a 90-degreehook (non-code compliant. Based on research and records of recent earthquakes in Indonesia, the use of a non-code compliant confining reinforcement for concrete columns produces structures with poor seismic performance. This paper presents a study that introduces an additional element that is expected to improve the effectiveness of concrete columns confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement. The additional element, named a pen-binder, is used to keep the non-code compliant confining reinforcement in place. The effectiveness of this element under pure axial concentric loading was investigatedcomprehensively.The specimens tested in this study were 18 concrete columns,with a cross-section of 170 mm x 170 mm and a height of 480 mm. The main test variables were the material type of the pen-binder, the angle of the hook, and the confining reinforcement configuration.The test results indicate that adding pen-binders can effectively improve the strength and ductility of the column specimens confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement

  7. Learning SQL in Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Garner


    Full Text Available Learning SQL is a common problem for many Computer Science (CS students, the steps involved are quite different to those mastered when learning procedural or object-oriented programming languages. The introduction of commercial products that include shortcuts into the learning environment can initially appear to benefit the student, however, transferring these skills to a textual environment can be difficult for many students. Computer Science students are required to build textual SQL queries because the demands of complex queries can quickly out grow the capabilities of graphical query builders available in many software packages. SQL in Steps (SiS is a graphical user interface centred around the textual translation of a query; this combination of a GUI and a clear representation of its textual meaning has the potential to improve the way in which users gain an understanding of SQL. SiS allows for an incremental and evolutionary development of queries by enabling students to build queries step by step until their goal is reached. A planned evaluation of SiS hopes to quantify the extent to which the introduction of such a user interface into the learning environment can improve the students' understanding of the language.

  8. Queen Mary Two Step


    Melin, Mats H.


    n/a Dance devised by Mats Melin in October 2007 whilst teaching Ceilidh dancing on board the cruise ship Queen Mary 2 crossing the Atlantic from Southampton to New York and back with the Ian Muir Sound from Prestwick. The segment of music featured is from Ian Muir Scottish Dance Band's recording of an Eva Three step.

  9. Nursing 'takes backward step'. (United States)

    Burton, Veronica


    No one should have any part in the government's plans for associate nurses - or 'nurses on the cheap', as they undoubtedly are. And the plan for nursing degree apprenticeships is a retrograde step. Was the fight for degree-entry nursing a waste of time?

  10. Confinement and the supercritical Pomeron in QCD (United States)

    White, Alan R.


    Deep-inelastic diffractive scaling violations have provided fundamental insight into the QCD Pomeron, suggesting a single-gluon inner structure rather than that of a perturbative two-gluon bound state. This paper derives a high-energy, transverse momentum cutoff, confining solution of QCD. The Pomeron, in a first approximation, is a single Reggeized gluon plus a ``wee-parton'' component that compensates for the color and particle properties of the gluon. This solution corresponds to a supercritical phase of Reggeon field theory. Beginning with the multi-Regge behavior of massive quark and gluon amplitudes, Reggeon unitarity is used to derive a Reggeon diagram description of a wide class of multi-Regge amplitudes, including those describing the formation and scattering of bound-state Regge poles. When quark and gluon masses are taken to zero, a logarithmic divergence is produced by helicity-flip Reggeon interactions containing the infrared quark triangle anomaly. With the gauge symmetry partially broken, this divergence selects the bound states and amplitudes of a confining theory. Both the Pomeron and hadrons have an anomalous color-parity wee-parton component. For the Pomeron the wee-parton component determines that it carries negative color charge parity and that the leading singularity is an isolated Regge pole.

  11. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  12. Nematode Locomotion in Unconfined and Confined Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy


    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode {\\it C. elegans} propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [PLoS ONE \\textbf{7}, e40121 (2012)] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature (PHC) model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness...

  13. Coronal Electron Confinement by Double Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Li, T C; Swisdak, M


    In observations of flare-heated electrons in the solar corona, a longstanding problem is the unexplained prolonged lifetime of the electrons compared to their transit time across the source. This suggests confinement. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, which explored the transport of pre-accelerated hot electrons through ambient cold plasma, showed that the formation of a highly localized electrostatic potential drop, in the form of a double layer (DL), significantly inhibited the transport of hot electrons (T.C. Li, J.F. Drake, and M. Swisdak, 2012, ApJ, 757, 20). The effectiveness of confinement by a DL is linked to the strength of the DL as defined by its potential drop. In this work, we investigate the scaling of the DL strength with the hot electron temperature by PIC simulations, and find a linear scaling. We demonstrate that the strength is limited by the formation of parallel shocks. Based on this, we analytically determine the maximum DL strength, and find also a linear scaling with the hot e...

  14. Quantum chromodynamics near the confinement limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, C.


    These nine lectures deal at an elementary level with the strong interaction between quarks and its implications for the structure of hadrons. Quarkonium systems are studied as a means for measuring the interquark interaction. This is presumably (part of) the answer a solution to QCD must yield, if it is indeed the correct theory of the strong interactions. Some elements of QCD are reviewed, and metaphors for QCD as a confining theory are introduced. The 1/N expansion is summarized as a way of guessing the consequences of QCD for hadron physics. Lattice gauge theory is developed as a means for going beyond perturbation theory in the solution of QCD. The correspondence between statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and field theory is made, and simple spin systems are formulated on the lattice. The lattice analog of local gauge invariance is developed, and analytic methods for solving lattice gauge theory are considered. The strong-coupling expansion indicates the existence of a confining phase, and the renormalization group provides a means for recovering the consequences of continuum field theory. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of lattice theories give evidence for the phase structure of gauge theories, yield an estimate for the string tension characterizing the interquark force, and provide an approximate description of the quarkonium potential in encouraging good agreement with what is known from experiment.

  15. Holographic quenches in a confined phase (United States)

    Myers, Robert C.; Rozali, Moshe; Way, Benson


    We investigate quenches of holographic theories in a confined phase, where the energy injected is insufficient to reach the deconfined phase. In such quenches, thermalization is not associated with gravitational collapse and the formation of a black hole. Nevertheless, we attempt to characterize the late-time state of this scenario. We check a number of notions of thermalization that do not require horizon formation, and find no evidence for thermalization, or even equilibration, for our chosen parameters and initial states. We find that the post-quench behaviour of both local and nonlocal observables exhibit oscillatory behaviour rather than decaying towards equilibrium. We generally find that the response of the nonlocal observables is smoother than that of the local ones. We discuss mechanisms which generate such smoothing, as well as ‘beats’ which appear in the time-dependence of the nonlocal operators for certain classes of quenches. When tuning the quench parameters such that the smoothing is ineffective, we are able to perform ‘entanglement spectroscopy, recovering the spectrum of the confined phase of the theory from the time dependence of the entanglement entropy, as well as other nonlocal observables.

  16. Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization of Cyclopentene Using a Ruthenium Catalyst Confined by a Branched Polymer Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Mugemana, Clement


    Multi-arm polystyrene stars functionalized with Grubbs-type catalysts in their cores were synthesized and used for the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of cyclopentene. The spatial confinement of the catalytic sites and the nanoscale phase separation between polystyrene and the growing polypentenamer chains lead to a dramatic inhibition of the ROMP termination and chain transfer steps. Consequently, cyclopentene polymerizations proceeded fast and with a high degree of conversion even in air. The Grubbs second generation catalyst was oxidatively inactivated under the same conditions. In contrast to conventional small-molecule catalysts, the ultimate degree of conversion of cyclopentene monomer and the polydispersity of the product polypentenamer are not affected by the temperature. This indicates that spatial confinement of the catalyst resulted in a significant change in the activation parameters for the alkene metathesis ring-opening.

  17. Mode-coupling glass transition in a fluid confined by a periodic potential. (United States)

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Sarika Maitra; Ramaswamy, Sriram


    We show that a fluid under strong spatially periodic confinement displays a glass transition within mode-coupling theory at a much lower density than the corresponding bulk system. We use fluctuating hydrodynamics, with confinement imposed through a periodic potential whose wavelength plays an important role in our treatment. To make the calculation tractable we implement a detailed calculation in one dimension. Although we do not expect simple 1d fluids to show a glass transition, our results are indicative of the behavior expected in higher dimensions. In a certain region of parameter space we observe a three-step relaxation reported recently in computer simulations [S. H. Krishnan, Ph.D. thesis, Indian Institute of Science (2005); Kim et al., Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics 189, 135 (2010)] and a glass-glass transition. We compare our results to those of Krakoviack [Phys. Rev. E 75, 031503 (2007)] and Lang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 125701 (2010)].

  18. Impurity confinement and transport in high confinement regimes without edge localized modes on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grierson, B. A., E-mail:; Nazikian, R. M.; Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Garofalo, A. M.; Belli, E. A.; Staebler, G. M.; Evans, T. E.; Smith, S. P.; Chrobak, C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); McKee, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53796 (United States); Orlov, D. M. [Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Chrystal, C. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)


    Impurity transport in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] is investigated in stationary high confinement (H-mode) regimes without edge localized modes (ELMs). In plasmas maintained by resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP), ELM-suppression, and QH-mode, the confinement time of fluorine (Z = 9) is equivalent to that in ELMing discharges with 40 Hz ELMs. For selected discharges with impurity injection, the impurity particle confinement time compared to the energy confinement time is in the range of τ{sub p}/τ{sub e}≈2−3. In QH-mode operation, the impurity confinement time is shown to be smaller for intense, coherent magnetic, and density fluctuations of the edge harmonic oscillation than weaker fluctuations. Transport coefficients are derived from the time evolution of the impurity density profile and compared to neoclassical and turbulent transport models NEO and TGLF. Neoclassical transport of fluorine is found to be small compared to the experimental values. In the ELMing and RMP ELM-suppressed plasma, the impurity transport is affected by the presence of tearing modes. For radii larger than the mode radius, the TGLF diffusion coefficient is smaller than the experimental value by a factor of 2–3, while the convective velocity is within error estimates. Low levels of diffusion are observed for radii smaller than the tearing mode radius. In the QH-mode plasma investigated, the TGLF diffusion coefficient is higher inside of ρ=0.4 and lower outside of 0.4 than the experiment, and the TGLF convective velocity is more negative by a factor of approximately 1.7.

  19. The Consequences of Surface Confinement on Free Radical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birtt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C., III


    Mass transport limitations impact the thermochemical processing of fossil and renewable energy resources, which involves the breakdown of cross-linked, macromolecular networks. To Investigate the molecular level details of the consequences of molecular confinement on high temperature (275-500°C) free-radical reaction pathways, we have been examining the pyrolysis of model compounds attached to the surface of non-porous silica nanoparticles through a thermally robust Si-O-Caryl, tetha. Pyrolysis of silica-immobilized diphenylalkanes and related ethers have been studied in detail and compared with the corresponding behavior in fluid phases. The diffusional constraints can lead to reduced rates of radical termination on the surface, and enhancement of neophyl-like rearrangements, cyclization-dehydrogenation pathways, and ipso- aromatic substitutions. Furthermore, studies of two-component surfaces have revealed the importance of a radical relay mechanism involving rapid serial hydrogen transfer steps resulting from the molecular pre-organization on the low fractal dimension silica surface. Key findings are reviewed in this paper, and the implications of these results for fuel processing are described.

  20. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt


    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating...... the exploratory phase of a program development process. In some specific niches it is also expected that our approach will benefit professional programmers....... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...

  1. Learning SQL in Steps


    Philip Garner; John Mariani


    Learning SQL is a common problem for many Computer Science (CS) students, the steps involved are quite different to those mastered when learning procedural or object-oriented programming languages. The introduction of commercial products that include shortcuts into the learning environment can initially appear to benefit the student, however, transferring these skills to a textual environment can be difficult for many students. Computer Science students are required to build textual SQL queri...

  2. Phenomenological sizes of confinement regions in baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.E.; Klimt, S.; Weise, W.; Rho, M.


    Standard order of magnitude estimates from QCD indicate that the radius of the quark-gluon core in the nucleon is ..lambda../sup -1//sub QCD/ > or approx. 1 fm. However, in work with the chiral bag model, we have found that the effective confinement size for low energy reactions can be as small as approx. = 1/2 fm or smaller. This shrinking of the effective confinement size has been attributed to the pressure of the pion cloud surrounding the quark core. The concept of confinement size is evidently subtle in light-quark systems, due to the chiral vacuum structure. This is indicated by the 'Cheshire Cat' phenomenon, in which physical observables tend to be insensitive to the bag radius R. We suggest that when strange quarks are present, a qualitative change occurs in the Cheshire Cat picture; in particular, we propose that strangeness provides an obstruction to this picture. We present a phenomenological indication that when strange quarks are present, the bag radius R is frozen at a value substantially larger than 0.5 fm by as much as a factor of two. Roughly speaking, the Cheshire Cat picture emerges from a near cancellation between repulsive quark kinetic and attractive pion-cloud energies in the case of the nucleon. In the ..lambda.. and ..sigma.. particles, however, replacement of one up or down quark by a strange quark removes part of the attraction from the coupling of the quarks to the pion cloud. This upsets the balance needed for the Cheshire Cat phenomenon and makes larger strange baryons more favorable energetically than the 0.5 fm ones appropriate for pure u- and d-systems. We find that magnetic moments of strange baryons favor a bag radius R approx. = 1.1 fm. We find that the excited states of the ..lambda..-hyperons favor similarly large bag radii. Somewhat less convincingly, due to perturbative effects - the bag radius appropriate to the lies intermediate between that of the nucleon and of the stran

  3. What confines the rings of Saturn? (United States)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Nicholson, Philip D.; El Moutamid, Maryame; Longaretti, Pierre-Yves; Burns, Joseph A.


    The viscous spreading of planetary rings is believed to be counteracted by satellite torques, either through an individual resonance or through overlapping resonances (when the satellite is close to the ring edge). For the A ring of Saturn, it has been commonly believed that the satellite Janus alone can prevent the ring from spreading via its 7:6 Lindblad resonance. We discuss this common misconception and show that, in reality, the A ring is confined by the contributions from the group of satellites Pan, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, and Mimas, whose resonances gradually decrease the angular momentum flux transported outward through the ring via density and bending waves. We further argue that this decrease in angular momentum flux occurs through the mechanism of ‘flux reversal’.We find that the Janus 7:6 torque is relatively feeble, as is the comparable torque of the nearby small satellite Atlas, each amounting to less than one-tenth of the angular momentum transport carried by the A ring. But the cumulative torques of the many other satellite resonances in the A ring sufficiently reduce the angular momentum flux through the rings so that the torques due to Janus and Atlas are effective in confining the outer edge of the ring.Furthermore, we use the magnitude of the satellites’ resonance torques to estimate the effective viscosity profile across the A ring, showing that it decreases from ~50 cm2 s-1 at the inner edge to less than ~11 cm2 s-1 at the outer edge. The gradual estimated decrease of the angular momentum flux and effective viscosity are roughly consistent with results obtained by balancing the shepherding torques from Pan and Daphnis with the viscous torque at the edges of the Encke and Keeler gaps, as well as the edge of the A ring.On the other hand, the Mimas 2:1 Lindblad resonance alone seems to be capable of confining the edge of the B ring, and contrary to the situation in the A ring, we show that the effective viscosity

  4. Duality and Confinement in Massive Antisymmetric Tensor Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M Cristina


    We extend the duality between massive and topologically massive antisymmetric tensor gauge theories in arbitrary space-time dimensions to include topological defects. We show explicitly that the condensation of these defects leads, in 4 dimensions, to confinement of electric strings in the two dual models. The dual phase, in which magnetic strings are confined is absent. The presence of the confinement phase explicitely found in the 4-dimensional case, is generalized, using duality arguments, to arbitrary space-time dimensions.

  5. Generalized Lawson Criteria for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, Robert E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Lawson Criterion was proposed by John D. Lawson in 1955 as a general measure of the conditions necessary for a magnetic fusion device to reach thermonuclear ignition. Over the years, similar ignition criteria have been proposed which would be suitable for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. This paper will compare and contrast several ICF ignition criteria based on Lawson’s original ideas. Both analytical and numerical results will be presented which will demonstrate that although the various criteria differ in some details, they are closely related and perform similarly as ignition criteria. A simple approximation will also be presented which allows the inference of each ignition parameter directly from the measured data taken on most shots fired at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with a minimum reliance on computer simulations. Evidence will be presented which indicates that the experimentally inferred ignition parameters on the best NIF shots are very close to the ignition threshold.

  6. Ultra-Compact Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device (United States)

    Young, Garrett


    A unique, linear dual-beam configuration with an internal volume of 144 cc was simulated and operated. Deuteron ion paths were simulated using Mathematica and the electric field distribution was optimized relative to convergence density, potential well efficiency, and confinement time. The resulting cathode design is a departure from conventional systems, with gradual conical surfaces. The simulated trajectories correlated well to the observed operation, evidenced by two principle factors. First, the high transparency of the cathode due to the focused beams allowed for >1 kW operation without duration-limiting temperature rise. Second, when compared to inertial electrostatic configurations, the constructed device achieved record steady-state D-D fusion rates per internal volume including 3.7E +4 fusions/sec/cc at 52 kV applied potential and 28 mTorr operating pressure.

  7. Morphogenesis of filaments growing in flexible confinements (United States)

    Vetter, R.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.


    Space-saving design is a requirement that is encountered in biological systems and the development of modern technological devices alike. Many living organisms dynamically pack their polymer chains, filaments or membranes inside deformable vesicles or soft tissue-like cell walls, chorions and buds. Surprisingly little is known about morphogenesis due to growth in flexible confinements—perhaps owing to the daunting complexity lying in the nonlinear feedback between packed material and expandable cavity. Here we show by experiments and simulations how geometric and material properties lead to a plethora of morphologies when elastic filaments are growing far beyond the equilibrium size of a flexible thin sheet they are confined in. Depending on friction, sheet flexibility and thickness, we identify four distinct morphological phases emerging from bifurcation and present the corresponding phase diagram. Four order parameters quantifying the transitions between these phases are proposed.

  8. A new discipline: Confined Areas Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Agostinis


    Full Text Available The Confined Areas Medicine is a new discipline devoted to a specific branch of the components of emergency services. In it convey the characteristics typical of behavioral intervention in hostile area peculiar of the National Fire Corps and the National Speleological and Alpine Corps. While not considering the natural events that cause the collapse of housing the Italian case reported in the last fifty years about two hundred structural collapses that are charged over a thousand deaths (source: ISTAT 2006. Analysis of the documents accessible to the public today we can say without fear of denials, that 25% of these deaths are due to relief late or ineffective treatment on the spot. In fact, the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association claims that 10% of victims trapped under the rubble can be saved with a location and an early recovery, which can significantly increase this percentage with the health care stabilization directly at the place of discovery.

  9. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional...... shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (approx. 3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  10. Modeling collective cell migration in geometric confinement (United States)

    Tarle, Victoria; Gauquelin, Estelle; Vedula, S. R. K.; D'Alessandro, Joseph; Lim, C. T.; Ladoux, Benoit; Gov, Nir S.


    Monolayer expansion has generated great interest as a model system to study collective cell migration. During such an expansion the culture front often develops ‘fingers’, which we have recently modeled using a proposed feedback between the curvature of the monolayer’s leading edge and the outward motility of the edge cells. We show that this model is able to explain the puzzling observed increase of collective cellular migration speed of a monolayer expanding into thin stripes, as well as describe the behavior within different confining geometries that were recently observed in experiments. These comparisons give support to the model and emphasize the role played by the edge cells and the edge shape during collective cell motion.

  11. Confining standing waves in optical corrals. (United States)

    Babayan, Yelizaveta; McMahon, Jeffrey M; Li, Shuzhou; Gray, Stephen K; Schatz, George C; Odom, Teri W


    Near-field scanning optical microscopy images of solid wall, circular, and elliptical microscale corrals show standing wave patterns confined inside the structures with a wavelength close to that of the incident light. The patterns inside the corrals can be tuned by changing the size and material of the walls, the wavelength of incident light, and polarization direction for elliptical corrals. Finite-difference time-domain calculations of the corral structures agree with the experimental observations and reveal that the electric and magnetic field intensities are out of phase inside the corral. A theoretical modal analysis indicates that the fields inside the corrals can be attributed to p- and s-polarized waveguide modes, and that the superposition of the propagating and evanescent modes can explain the phase differences between the fields. These experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that electromagnetic fields on a dielectric surface can be controlled in a predictable manner.

  12. Topological Spin Textures in Confined Geometries (United States)

    Zang, Jiadong

    The magnetic skyrmion is a nanostructured spin texture stabilized by the spin-orbital coupling. Its nontrivial topology enables unique dynamical property and thermal stability, which give out promise on future magnetic memory devise. However, to enable its applications, it is essential to understand the skyrmion properties in confined geometries and tackle key challenges including the creation and detection of skyrmions, preferably without magnetic fields. In this talk, I will present our recent theory-experiment collaboration results, covering studies of skyrmions in nanoribbon, nanodisk, and nanowires. Zero field skyrmions and their polarization switch will be discussed. New skyrmion materials and new topological textures in helimagnet heterostructures will be presented. This work is supported by the Grant DE-SC0016424 funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.

  13. Dancing disclinations in confined active nematics (United States)

    Shendruk, Tyler N.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Thijssen, Kristian; Yeomans, Julia M.

    The spontaneous emergence of collective flows is a generic property of active fluids and often leads to chaotic flow patterns characterised by swirls, jets, and topological disclinations in their orientation field. However, the ability to achieve structured flows and ordered disclinations is of particular importance in the design and control of active systems. By confining an active nematic fluid within a channel, we find a regular motion of disclinations, in conjunction with a well defined and dynamic vortex lattice. As pairs of moving disclinations travel through the channel, they continually exchange partners producing a dynamic ordered state, reminiscent of Ceilidh dancing. We anticipate that this biomimetic ability to self-assemble organised topological disclinations and dynamically structured flow fields in engineered geometries will pave the road towards establishing new active topological microfluidic devices.

  14. Dancing droplets: Contact angle, drag, and confinement (United States)

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu


    When deposited on a clean glass slide, a mixture of water and propylene glycol forms a droplet of given contact angle, when both pure liquids spread. (Cira, Benusiglio, Prakash: Nature, 2015). The droplet is stabilized by a gradient of surface tension due to evaporation that induces a Marangoni flow from the border to the apex of the droplets. The apparent contact angle of the droplets depends on both their composition and the external humidity as captured by simple models. These droplets present remarkable properties such as lack of a large pinning force. We discuss the drag on these droplets as a function of various parameters. We show theoretical and experimental results of how various confinement geometries change the vapor gradient and the dynamics of droplet attraction.

  15. The theory of toroidally confined plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    White, Roscoe B


    This graduate level textbook develops the theory of magnetically confined plasma, with the aim of bringing the reader to the level of current research in the field of thermonuclear fusion. It begins with the basic concepts of magnetic field description, plasma equilibria and stability, and goes on to derive the equations for guiding center particle motion in an equilibrium field. Topics include linear and nonlinear ideal and resistive modes and particle transport. It is of use to workers in the field of fusion both for its wide-ranging account of tokamak physics and as a kind of handbook or formulary. This edition has been extended in a number of ways. The material on mode-particle interactions has been reformulated and much new information added, including methodology for Monte Carlo implementation of mode destabilization. These results give explicit means of carrying out mode destabilization analysis, in particular for the dangerous fishbone mode. A new chapter on cyclotron motion in toroidal geometry has ...

  16. Structure of charged polymer chains in confined geometry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E. P.; Auvray, L.; Lal, J.


    The intra- and interchain structure of sodium poly(styrenesulphonate) when free and when confined in contrast matched porous Vycor has been investigated by SANS. When confined, a peak is observed whose intensity increases with molecular weight and the 1/q scattering region is extended compared to the bulk. We infer that the chains are sufficiently extended, under the influence of confinement, to highlight the large scale disordered structure of Vycor. The asymptotic behavior of the observed interchain structure factor is = 1/q{sup 2} and = 1/q for free and confined chains respectively.

  17. Cancer cell motility: lessons from migration in confined spaces (United States)

    Paul, Colin D.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos


    Time-lapse, deep-tissue imaging made possible by advances in intravital microscopy has demonstrated the importance of tumour cell migration through confining tracks in vivo. These tracks may either be endogenous features of tissues or be created by tumour or tumour-associated cells. Importantly, migration mechanisms through confining microenvironments are not predicted by 2D migration assays. Engineered in vitro models have been used to delineate the mechanisms of cell motility through confining spaces encountered in vivo. Understanding cancer cell locomotion through physiologically relevant confining tracks could be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to combat metastasis. PMID:27909339

  18. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement. (United States)

    Gallagher, Shaun


    What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a "cruel and unusual punishment," there is no consensus on the definition of the term "cruel" in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of "cruelty" by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.

  19. High beta and confinement studies on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, G.A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Iacono, R.; Mauel, M.E.; Sabbagh, S.A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Kesner, J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))


    A new regime of high poloidal beta operation in TFTR was developed in the course of the first two years of this project (9/25/89 to 9/24/91). Our proposal to continue this successful collaboration between Columbia University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for a three year period (9/25/91 to 9/24/94) to continue to investigate improved confinement and tokamak performance in high poloidal beta plasmas in TFTR through the DT phase of operation was approved by the DOE and this is a report of our progress during the first 9 month budget period of the three year grant (9/25/91 to 6/24/92). During the approved three year project period we plan to (1) extend and apply the low current, high QDD discharges to the operation of TFTR using Deuterium and Tritium plasma; (2) continue the analysis and plan experiments on high poloidal beta phenomena in TFTR including: stability properties, enhanced global confinement, local transport, bootstrap current, and divertor formation; (3) plan and carry out experiments on TFTR which attempt to elevate the central q to values > 2 where entry to the second stability regime is predicted to occur; and (4) collaborate on high beta experiments using bean-shaped plasmas with a stabilizing conducting shell in PBX-M. In the seven month period covered by this report we have made progress in each of these four areas through the submission of 4 TFTR Experimental Proposals and the partial execution of 3 of these using a total of 4.5 run days during the August 1991 to February 1992 run.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Advanced Diagnostics for Magnetic and Inertial Confinement Fusion (United States)

    Stott, PE; Wootton, A.; Gorini, G.; Sindoni, E.; Batani, D.


    This book is a collection of papers, written by specialists in the field, on advanced topics of nuclear fusion diagnostics. The 78 contributions were originally presented at the International Conference on Advanced Diagnostics for Magnetic and Inertial Fusion held at Villa Monastero, Italy in September 2001. Both magnetically confined and inertial fusion programmes are quite extensively covered, with more emphasis given to the former scheme. In the case of magnetic confinement, since the present international programme is strongly focused on next-step devices, particular attention is devoted to techniques and technologies viable in an environment with strong neutron fluxes. Indeed, in the first section, the various methods are considered in the perspective of performing the measurements of the relevant parameters in conditions approaching a burning plasma, mainly in the Tokamak configuration. The most demanding requirements, like the implications of the use of tritium and radiation resistance, are reviewed and the most challenging open issues, which require further research and development, are also clearly mentioned. The following three sections are devoted to some of the most recent developments in plasma diagnostics, which are grouped according to the following classification: `Neutron and particle diagnostics', `Optical and x-ray diagnostics' and `Interferometry, Polarimetry and Thomson Scattering'. In these chapters, several of the most recent results are given, covering measurements taken on the most advanced experiments around the world. Here the developments described deal more with the requirements imposed by the physical issues to be studied. They are therefore more focused on the approaches adopted to increase the spatial and time resolution of the diagnostics, on some methods to improve the characterisation of the turbulence and on fast particles. Good coverage is given to neutron diagnostics, which are assuming increasing relevance as the plasma

  1. Free Energy of a Polymer in Slit-Like Confinement across the Odijk, moderate confinement, and Bulk Regimes (United States)

    Kamanzi, Albert; Leith, Jason S.; Sean, David; Berard, Daniel; Guthrie, Andrew C.; McFaul, Christopher M. J.; Slater, Gary W.; de Haan, Hendrick W.; Leslie, Sabrina R.; McGill University Team; University of Ottawa, University of Ontario Collaboration

    We directly measure the free energy of confinement for semi-flexible polymers from the nanoscale to bulk regimes in slit-like confinement. We use Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) microscopy of DNA to load and directly count molecules at equilibrium in a single chamber of smoothly increasing height. CLiC microscopy allows for direct visualization of polymers in free solution over long periods, as a function of tunable vertical confinement - from the millimeter to the nanometer scale, and within a single device. Our direct characterization of the free energy of confinement, across several orders of magnitude of applied confinement, agree with new simulations established in this work. We compare experimental results to the ``de Gennes blob model'', to theory published by Casassa, as well as to simulations by Chen and Sullivan, in appropriate regimes. This work establishes a robust platform for understanding and manipulating polymers at the nanoscale, with a wide range of applications to biomedical technologies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Korovljev


    Full Text Available Following the development of the powerful sport industry, in front of us appeared a lot of new opportunities for creating of the new programmes of exercising with certain requisites. One of such programmes is certainly step-aerobics. Step-aerobics can be defined as a type of aerobics consisting of the basic aerobic steps (basic steps applied in exercising on stepper (step bench, with a possibility to regulate its height. Step-aerobics itself can be divided into several groups, depending on the following: type of music, working methods and adopted knowledge of the attendants. In this work, the systematization of the basic steps in step-aerobics was made on the basis of the following criteria: steps origin, number of leg motions in stepping and relating the body support at the end of the step. Systematization of the basic steps of the step-aerobics is quite significant for making a concrete review of the existing basic steps, thus making creation of the step-aerobics lesson easier

  3. Large scale Brownian dynamics of confined suspensions of rigid particles. (United States)

    Sprinkle, Brennan; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Patankar, Neelesh A; Donev, Aleksandar


    We introduce methods for large-scale Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulation of many rigid particles of arbitrary shape suspended in a fluctuating fluid. Our method adds Brownian motion to the rigid multiblob method [F. Balboa Usabiaga et al., Commun. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 11(2), 217-296 (2016)] at a cost comparable to the cost of deterministic simulations. We demonstrate that we can efficiently generate deterministic and random displacements for many particles using preconditioned Krylov iterative methods, if kernel methods to efficiently compute the action of the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa (RPY) mobility matrix and its "square" root are available for the given boundary conditions. These kernel operations can be computed with near linear scaling for periodic domains using the positively split Ewald method. Here we study particles partially confined by gravity above a no-slip bottom wall using a graphical processing unit implementation of the mobility matrix-vector product, combined with a preconditioned Lanczos iteration for generating Brownian displacements. We address a major challenge in large-scale BD simulations, capturing the stochastic drift term that arises because of the configuration-dependent mobility. Unlike the widely used Fixman midpoint scheme, our methods utilize random finite differences and do not require the solution of resistance problems or the computation of the action of the inverse square root of the RPY mobility matrix. We construct two temporal schemes which are viable for large-scale simulations, an Euler-Maruyama traction scheme and a trapezoidal slip scheme, which minimize the number of mobility problems to be solved per time step while capturing the required stochastic drift terms. We validate and compare these schemes numerically by modeling suspensions of boomerang-shaped particles sedimented near a bottom wall. Using the trapezoidal scheme, we investigate the steady-state active motion in dense suspensions of confined microrollers, whose

  4. Large scale Brownian dynamics of confined suspensions of rigid particles (United States)

    Sprinkle, Brennan; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Donev, Aleksandar


    We introduce methods for large-scale Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulation of many rigid particles of arbitrary shape suspended in a fluctuating fluid. Our method adds Brownian motion to the rigid multiblob method [F. Balboa Usabiaga et al., Commun. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 11(2), 217-296 (2016)] at a cost comparable to the cost of deterministic simulations. We demonstrate that we can efficiently generate deterministic and random displacements for many particles using preconditioned Krylov iterative methods, if kernel methods to efficiently compute the action of the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa (RPY) mobility matrix and its "square" root are available for the given boundary conditions. These kernel operations can be computed with near linear scaling for periodic domains using the positively split Ewald method. Here we study particles partially confined by gravity above a no-slip bottom wall using a graphical processing unit implementation of the mobility matrix-vector product, combined with a preconditioned Lanczos iteration for generating Brownian displacements. We address a major challenge in large-scale BD simulations, capturing the stochastic drift term that arises because of the configuration-dependent mobility. Unlike the widely used Fixman midpoint scheme, our methods utilize random finite differences and do not require the solution of resistance problems or the computation of the action of the inverse square root of the RPY mobility matrix. We construct two temporal schemes which are viable for large-scale simulations, an Euler-Maruyama traction scheme and a trapezoidal slip scheme, which minimize the number of mobility problems to be solved per time step while capturing the required stochastic drift terms. We validate and compare these schemes numerically by modeling suspensions of boomerang-shaped particles sedimented near a bottom wall. Using the trapezoidal scheme, we investigate the steady-state active motion in dense suspensions of confined microrollers, whose

  5. New photolithography stepping machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Markle, D. [Ultratech Stepper Inc. (United States)


    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  6. Stepping Stones through Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lyle


    Full Text Available Indo-European mythology is known only through written records but it needs to be understood in terms of the preliterate oral-cultural context in which it was rooted. It is proposed that this world was conceptually organized through a memory-capsule consisting of the current generation and the three before it, and that there was a system of alternate generations with each generation taking a step into the future under the leadership of a white or red king.

  7. Albumin (BSA) adsorption onto graphite stepped surfaces (United States)

    Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Vilhena, J. G.; Takeuchi, Noboru; Serena, Pedro A.; Pérez, Rubén


    Nanomaterials are good candidates for the design of novel components with biomedical applications. For example, nano-patterned substrates may be used to immobilize protein molecules in order to integrate them in biosensing units. Here, we perform long MD simulations (up to 200 ns) using an explicit solvent and physiological ion concentrations to characterize the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto a nano-patterned graphite substrate. We have studied the effect of the orientation and step size on the protein adsorption and final conformation. Our results show that the protein is stable, with small changes in the protein secondary structure that are confined to the contact area and reveal the influence of nano-structuring on the spontaneous adsorption, protein-surface binding energies, and protein mobility. Although van der Waals (vdW) interactions play a dominant role, our simulations reveal the important role played by the hydrophobic lipid-binding sites of the BSA molecule in the adsorption process. The complex structure of these sites, that incorporate residues with different hydrophobic character, and their flexibility are crucial to understand the influence of the ion concentration and protein orientation in the different steps of the adsorption process. Our study provides useful information for the molecular engineering of components that require the immobilization of biomolecules and the preservation of their biological activity.

  8. Anisotropic dielectric relaxation of the water confined in nanotubes for terahertz spectroscopy studied by molecular dynamics simulations. (United States)

    Qi, Wenpeng; Chen, Jige; Yang, Junwei; Lei, Xiaoling; Song, Bo; Fang, Haiping


    The dynamics and structure of the hydrogen-bond network in confined water are of importance in understanding biological and chemical processes. Recently, terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy was widely applied for studying the kinetics of molecules and the hydrogen-bond network in water. However, the characteristics of the THz spectroscopy varying with respect to the confinement and the mechanism underlying the variation are still unclear. Here, on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, the relationship between the anisotropic dielectric relaxation and the structure of the water confined in a carbon nanotube (CNT) was investigated. The results show that there are two preferred hydrogen-bond orientations of the confined water in the nanotube: (1) parallel to the CNT axis and (2) perpendicular to the CNT axis, which are clearly different. Moreover, the response of the orientations to the increment of the CNT diameters is opposite, leading to the opposite variations of the dielectric relaxation times along the two directions. The anisotropy in the relaxation time can be presented by the anisotropic dielectric permittivity which is able to be observed through THz spectroscopy. The anormal behaviors above are attributed to the special structure of the water close to the nanotube wall due to the confinement and hydrophobicity of CNT. These studies contribute an important step in understanding the THz experiments of water in nanoscales, and designing a chamber for specific chemical and biological reactions by controlling the diameters and materials of the nanotube.

  9. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. J. Galyean; A. M. Whaley; D. L. Kelly; R. L. Boring


    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  10. DFT reactivity indices in confined many-electron atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , global hardness and softness are reported for a representative set of spherically confined atoms of IA, IIA, VA and VIIIA series in the periodic table. The atomic electrons are confined within the impenetrable spherical cavity defined by a given ...

  11. Shearing Nanometer-Thick Confined Hydrocarbon Films: Friction and Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, I. M.; Persson, B. N. J.


    We present molecular dynamics (MD) friction and adhesion calculations for nanometer-thick confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths 20, 100 and 1400 carbon atoms. We study the dependency of the frictional shear stress on the confining pressure and sliding speed. We present results...

  12. Investigation of stress–strain models for confined high strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ascending branch of stress–strain curves depended on the ratio of confinement reinforcement was similar to the modified Kent–Park model and the descending branch similar to the Nagashima model. Keywords. High strength concrete; confined concrete; stress–strain models; ductility toughness. 1. Introduction.

  13. Confinement, average forces, and the Ehrenfest theorem for a one ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The topics of confinement, average forces, and the Ehrenfest theorem are examined for a particle in one spatial dimension. Two specific cases are considered: A free particle moving on the entire real line, which is then permanently confined to a line segment or `a box' (this situation is achieved by taking the limit V 0 → ∞ in ...

  14. Dynamical properties of nimodipine molecules confined in SBA-15 matrix (United States)

    Kiwilsza, A.; Pajzderska, A.; Mielcarek, J.; Jenczyk, J.; Wąsicki, J.


    The paper reports results of 13C and 1H ssNMR for nimodipine confined in mesopores of SBA-15 for the samples (i) containing nimodipine molecules inside and on the external surface of silica, (ii) containing nimodipine only inside pores forming an incomplete monolayer on the surface (iii) for bulk nimodipine. The measurements permitted comparison of the dynamics of nimodipine bulk and confined in pores. The confined nimodipine is in an amorphous state and has additional degrees of rotational freedom with respect to the bulk one. The height of the energy barrier related to the rotation of methyl groups in confined nimodipine is lower than in bulk nimodipine. The higher mobility of nimodipine molecules confined in silica pores can explain the higher release rate of nimodipine from silica matrix than dissolution rate of bulk drug.

  15. Confined space entry program for the Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornell, T.M.


    To comply with anticipated OSHA regulatory requirements concerning Permit-Required Confined Spaces, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) created a Confined Spaces Task Team. The primary focus of the task team was to prepare a formal Confined Space Entry (CSE) Program that would ensure full compliance with the anticipated OSHA requirements. A comprehensive training plan was also prepared and submitted for approval as soon as the new CSE Program was approved and released for implementation. On January 14, 1993, OSHA released their final ruling which contained several further changes, requiring the WHC Confined Space Entry Program and Training Plan to be revised. The revised training manual and lessons learned in establishing a Confined Space Entry Program are presented.

  16. Diffusion of Finite-Size Particles in Confined Geometries

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria


    The diffusion of finite-size hard-core interacting particles in two- or three-dimensional confined domains is considered in the limit that the confinement dimensions become comparable to the particle\\'s dimensions. The result is a nonlinear diffusion equation for the one-particle probability density function, with an overall collective diffusion that depends on both the excluded-volume and the narrow confinement. By including both these effects, the equation is able to interpolate between severe confinement (for example, single-file diffusion) and unconfined diffusion. Numerical solutions of both the effective nonlinear diffusion equation and the stochastic particle system are presented and compared. As an application, the case of diffusion under a ratchet potential is considered, and the change in transport properties due to excluded-volume and confinement effects is examined. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  17. Ultrafast Laser-Shock-Induced Confined Metaphase Transformation for Direct Writing of Black Phosphorus Thin Films. (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Nian, Qiong; Motlag, Maithilee; Jin, Shengyu; Deng, Biwei; Deng, Yexin; Charnas, Adam R; Ye, Peide D; Cheng, Gary J


    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as one of the most promising candidates for post-silicon electronic materials due to its outstanding electrical and optical properties. However, lack of large-scale BP thin films is still a major roadblock to further applications. The most widely used methods for obtaining BP thin films are mechanical exfoliation and liquid exfoliation. Herein, a method of directly synthesizing continuous BP thin films with the capability of patterning arbitrary shapes by employing ultrafast laser writing with confinement is reported. The physical mechanism of confined laser metaphase transformation is understood by molecular dynamics simulation. Ultrafast laser ablation of BP layer under confinement can induce transient nonequilibrium high-temperature and high-pressure conditions for a few picoseconds. Under optimized laser intensity, this process induces a metaphase transformation to form a crystalline BP thin film on the substrate. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques are utilized to characterize the morphology of the resulting BP thin films. Field-effect transistors are fabricated on the BP films to study their electrical properties. This unique approach offers a general methodology to mass produce large-scale patterned BP films with a one-step manufacturing process that has the potential to be applied to other 2D materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Stair-stepped Mound (United States)


    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-429, 22 July 2003This April 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a stair-stepped mound of sedimentary rock (right of center) on the floor of a large impact crater in western Arabia Terra near 11.0oN, 4.4oW. Sedimentary rock outcrops are common in the craters of this region. The repeated thickness and uniformity of the layers that make up this mound suggest that their depositional environment was one in which cyclic or episodic events occurred over some period of time. The sediments might have been deposited in a lake, or they may have settled directly out of the atmosphere. Most of the layered material was later eroded away, leaving this circular mound and the other nearby mesas and knobs. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  19. Astronomical sketching a step-by-step introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Handy, Richard; Perez, Jeremy; Rix, Erika; Robbins, Sol


    This book presents the amateur with fine examples of astronomical sketches and step-by-step tutorials in each medium, from pencil to computer graphics programs. This unique book can teach almost anyone to create beautiful sketches of celestial objects.

  20. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler's outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  1. Diagnostics for magnetic confinement fusion research (United States)

    Weller, Arthur


    Significant progress towards the development of an attractive fusion energy source based on magnetic or inertial plasma confinement has been achieved within the international fusion energy program. High-level diagnostics capabilities are required to characterize fusion plasmas and to achieve a sound physics basis to design a fusion power plant. A large variety of different measuring techniques is used, most of them based on the detection of electromagnetic radiation in a wide range of wavelengths or of particles emitted from the plasma. Active probing by laser and particle beams permits to measure local plasma parameters directly, whereas passive measurements and imaging methods require unfolding and tomographic reconstruction techniques in order to obtain the spatial source distribution. Most diagnostics systems are limited in the accessible parameter range, in accuracy, temporal and spatial resolution, energy resolution and hardiness in a harsh environment, so that redundancy and complementarity of different methods is desirable. A considerable synergy exists between plasma diagnostics for fusion and astrophysics research. In particular, novel imaging detectors developed for the observation of astrophysical objects may be applied to fusion devices, too. An overview of diagnostics requirements, measuring techniques and selected results are presented with an emphasis of imaging diagnostics in toroidal magnetic fusion devices.

  2. Confinement Studies in High Temperature Spheromak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D N; Mclean, H S; Wood, R D; Casper, T A; Cohen, B I; Hooper, E B; LoDestro, L L; Pearlstein, L D; Romero-Talamas, C


    Recent results from the SSPX spheromak experiment demonstrate the potential for obtaining good energy confinement (Te > 350eV and radial electron thermal diffusivity comparable to tokamak L-mode values) in a completely self-organized toroidal plasma. A strong decrease in thermal conductivity with temperature is observed and at the highest temperatures, transport is well below that expected from the Rechester-Rosenbluth model. Addition of a new capacitor bank has produced 60% higher magnetic fields and almost tripled the pulse length to 11ms. For plasmas with T{sub e} > 300eV, it becomes feasible to use modest (1.8MW) neutral beam injection (NBI) heating to significantly change the power balance in the core plasma, making it an effective tool for improving transport analysis. We are now developing detailed designs for adding NBI to SSPX and have developed a new module for the CORSICA transport code to compute the correct fast-ion orbits in SSPX so that we can simulate the effect of adding NBI; initial results predict that such heating can raise the electron temperature and total plasma pressure in the core by a factor of two.

  3. Human Adaptation to Isolated and Confined Environments (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sybil


    A study was conducted over seven months in a winter Antarctic isolated and confined environment (ICE). Physiological and psychological data was collected several times a week. Information was collected on a monthly basis on behavior and the use of physical facilities. Adaptation and information indicated that there was a significant decrease in epinephrine and norepinephrine during the middle trimester of the winter. No vital changes were found for blood pressure. Self reports of hostility and anxiety show a linear increase. There were no significant changes in depression during ICE. The physiological and psychological data do not move in a synchronous fashion over time. The data also suggest that both ambient qualities of an ICE and discrete social environmental events, such as the arrival of the summer crew, have an impact on the outcome measures used. It may be most appropiate to develop a model for ICE's that incorporates not only global chronic stressors common to all ICE's but also the role of discrete environmental effects which can minimize or enhance the influence of more chronic stressors. Behavioral adjustment information highlight the importance of developing schedules which balance work and recreational activities.

  4. Optical properties of matrix confined species (United States)

    Lezhnina, M. M.; Kynast, U. H.


    A majority of optically functional materials can be perceived as a liaison between ionic or molecular guests and a more or less rigid host. The guests exhibit an optical function, whereas the host provides suitable space, both of them synergistically complementing each other. The embracement of guests and hosts is often very intimate, as e.g. in typical phosphors, where luminescent ions even become part of the host. While the host-guest terminology usually is not applied to such marriages, the term becomes appropriate, if the host grants some degrees of spatial freedom, yet giving order and structure to its guests. Zeolites, clays and inverse opals are porous materials naturally providing hospitable cavities, channels or other compartments, and at the same time the guests are often demanded to occupy preassigned positions within these, or to structurally adapt to the interior host topology. Whereas zeolites and clays are merely patient providers of guest space, inverse opals, can actively turn the light on and off. The present article summarises and highlights recent experimental evidence, ongoing research and some envisaged merits resulting from the interaction of matrix confined luminescent ions, complexes and molecules with a focus on the optical properties of rare earth based materials.

  5. Thermalization in a holographic confining gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Takaaki [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); Kiritsis, Elias [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); APC, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR 7164 CNRS,10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Rosen, Christopher [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece)


    Time dependent perturbations of states in the holographic dual of a 3+1 dimensional confining theory are considered. The perturbations are induced by varying the coupling to the theory’s most relevant operator. The dual gravitational theory belongs to a class of Einstein-dilaton theories which exhibit a mass gap at zero temperature and a first order deconfining phase transition at finite temperature. The perturbation is realized in various thermal bulk solutions by specifying time dependent boundary conditions on the scalar, and we solve the fully backreacted Einstein-dilaton equations of motion subject to these boundary conditions. We compute the characteristic time scale of many thermalization processes, noting that in every case we examine, this time scale is determined by the imaginary part of the lowest lying quasi-normal mode of the final state black brane. We quantify the dependence of this final state on parameters of the quench, and construct a dynamical phase diagram. Further support for a universal scaling regime in the abrupt quench limit is provided.

  6. Fuzzy Dark Matter from Infrared Confining Dynamics (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Murphy, Christopher W.


    A very light boson of mass O (10-22) eV may potentially be a viable dark matter (DM) candidate, which can avoid phenomenological problems associated with cold DM. Such "fuzzy DM (FDM)" may naturally be an axion with a decay constant fa˜1 016- 1 018 GeV and a mass ma˜μ2/fa with μ ˜1 02 eV . Here, we propose a concrete model, where μ arises as a dynamical scale from infrared confining dynamics, analogous to QCD. Our model is an alternative to the usual approach of generating μ through string theoretic instanton effects. We outline the features of this scenario that result from various cosmological constraints. We find that those constraints are suggestive of a period of mild of inflation, perhaps from a strong first order phase transition, that reheats the standard model (SM) sector only. A typical prediction of our scenario, broadly speaking, is a larger effective number of neutrinos compared to the SM value Neff≈3 , as inferred from precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background. Some of the new degrees of freedom may be identified as "sterile neutrinos," which may be required to explain certain neutrino oscillation anomalies. Hence, aspects of our scenario could be testable in terrestrial experiments, which is a novelty of our FDM model.

  7. Confined nanoparticle measurement using Bessel Beam Microscopy (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chumki; Snoeyink, Craig


    With the advent of Lab-on-chip technologies, study of near surface phenomenon has gained a lot of importance due to their huge impact on bulk fluid properties. Such studies demand imaging techniques with utmost precision to capture the intricate details of the interface. But, resolution for most of the optical imaging systems is limited due to the light spreading effects of diffraction. This diffraction limited resolution, can be improved by the use of Bessel Beam microscopy. Bessel beam imaging technique when combined with a TIRF (Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence) system can be used for high resolution particle tracking experiments, to reveal detailed information about near surface particle positions and motions with their velocity profile and distribution. With the experimental set up combining these two powerful tools, we plan to present our particle tracking velocimetry results in the interface regime of confined nanoparticles in a binary fluid mixture. Such a study can contribute towards a better understanding of near surface fluid-particle interfaces.

  8. Electrostatically confined trilayer graphene quantum dots (United States)

    Mirzakhani, M.; Zarenia, M.; Vasilopoulos, P.; Peeters, F. M.


    Electrically gating of trilayer graphene (TLG) opens a band gap offering the possibility to electrically engineer TLG quantum dots. We study the energy levels of such quantum dots and investigate their dependence on a perpendicular magnetic field B and different types of stacking of the graphene layers. The dots are modeled as circular and confined by a truncated parabolic potential which can be realized by nanostructured gates or position-dependent doping. The energy spectra exhibit the intervalley symmetry EKe(m ) =-EK'h(m ) for the electron (e ) and hole (h ) states, where m is the angular momentum quantum number and K and K ' label the two valleys. The electron and hole spectra for B =0 are twofold degenerate due to the intervalley symmetry EK(m ) =EK'[-(m +1 ) ] . For both ABC [α =1.5 (1.2) for large (small) R ] and ABA (α =1 ) stackings, the lowest-energy levels show approximately a R-α dependence on the dot radius R in contrast with the 1 /R3 one for ABC-stacked dots with infinite-mass boundary. As functions of the field B , the oscillator strengths for dipole-allowed transitions differ drastically for the two types of stackings.

  9. Green Schools Energy Project: A Step-by-Step Manual. (United States)

    Quigley, Gwen

    This publication contains a step-by-step guide for implementing an energy-saving project in local school districts: the installation of newer, more energy-efficient "T-8" fluorescent tube lights in place of "T-12" lights. Eleven steps are explained in detail: (1) find out what kind of lights the school district currently uses;…

  10. Performance test of single step continuous dry attrition mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Woo; Joung, C. Y.; Lee, Y. W.; Na, S. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S


    This report describes the improvement of the two-step attrition mill to solve problems associated with its complexity and those of batch type attrition mill as well as the results of the performance test in view of the comparison. In the performance test of the improved single step continuous attrition mill, powder milling and discharge time per pass was systematically measured, and UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture, UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture with poreformer, M{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder and/or MO2 scrap were milled to compare the performance of the milling operations between the 2-step attrition mill and improved single-step attrition mill. The results of the performance test shows, in addition to its improved milling operation, an improved function in less contamination with impurities, simpler handling with easier operation and maintenance and hence, less contamination of operational location, especially when used for the operation in a confinement system, for the improved single step attrition mill compared with a batch type or continuous 2-step attrition mill.

  11. Singularity confinement for a class of m-th order difference equations of combinatorics. (United States)

    Adler, Mark; van Moerbeke, Pierre; Vanhaecke, Pol


    In a recent publication, it was shown that a large class of integrals over the unitary group U(n) satisfy nonlinear, non-autonomous difference equations over n, involving a finite number of steps; special cases are generating functions appearing in questions of the longest increasing subsequences in random permutations and words. The main result of the paper states that these difference equations have the discrete Painlevé property; roughly speaking, this means that after a finite number of steps the solution to these difference equations may develop a pole (Laurent solution), depending on the maximal number of free parameters, and immediately after be finite again ("singularity confinement"). The technique used in the proof is based on an intimate relationship between the difference equations (discrete time) and the Toeplitz lattice (continuous time differential equations); the point is that the Painlevé property for the discrete relations is inherited from the Painlevé property of the (continuous) Toeplitz lattice.

  12. Space-Confined Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Boron/Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes/Carbon Nanosheets Line-in-Wall Hybrids and Their Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Shan; Li, Jiajun; Li, Qingfeng


    This research demonstrates a flexible one-pot strategy for fabricating three-dimensional (3D) boron/nitrogen-doped networks of carbon nanotubes(CNTs)/carbon nanosheets "Line-in-Wall" hybrids (LIWNB) based on the space-confined template method. In the synthesis, the high rate of freezing step and ...

  13. One-step microlithography (United States)

    Kahlen, Franz-Josef; Sankaranarayanan, Srikanth; Kar, Aravinda


    Subject of this investigation is a one-step rapid machining process to create miniaturized 3D parts, using the original sample material. An experimental setup where metal powder is fed to the laser beam-material interaction region has been built. The powder is melted and forms planar, 2D geometries as the substrate is moved under the laser beam in XY- direction. After completing the geometry in the plane, the substrate is displaced in Z-direction, and a new layer of material is placed on top of the just completed deposit. By continuous repetition of this process, 3D parts wee created. In particular, the impact of the focal spot size of the high power laser beam on the smallest achievable structures was investigated. At a translation speed of 51 mm/s a minimum material thickness of 590 micrometers was achieved. Also, it was shown that a small Z-displacement has a negligible influence on the continuity of the material deposition over this power range. A high power CO2 laser was used as energy source, the material powder under investigation was stainless steel SS304L. Helium was used as shield gas at a flow rate of 15 1/min. The incident CO2 laser beam power was varied between 300 W and 400 W, with the laser beam intensity distribute in a donut mode. The laser beam was focused to a focal diameter of 600 (Mu) m.

  14. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean


    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  15. Acoustic Focusing and Energy Confinement Based on Multilateral Metasurfaces (United States)

    Qi, Shuibao; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine


    Metamaterial-based acoustic wave manipulation shows great potential in effective acoustic energy confinement and low-frequency acoustic isolation. We numerically and theoretically propose here a concept based on multilateral metasurfaces for reflected acoustic focusing and energy confinement. The theoretical phase-shift profile required for reflected wave focusing and governed by the generalized Snell's law can be discretely realized by appropriately arraying the labyrinthine units in the right sequences. Based on this design, multilateral metasurfaces for acoustic wave focusing and energy confinement under point-source incidence are considered and sufficiently investigated. The coupling effects and multiple reflections between or among metasurfaces, which play a significant role in the energy confinement, are initially analyzed and discussed. We show that the acoustic focusing and confinement increase with the sides of the multilateral metasurfaces as anticipated. In addition to the contribution of the first reflection, multiple reflections also contribute to the acoustic focusing and energy confinement, especially when the metasurfaces are configured in parallel. The proposed multilateral metasurfaces should have excellent performance in acoustic energy confinement in various situations due to the variable designs and strong acoustic focusing capabilities.

  16. Pattern formation in confined chemical gardens (United States)

    De Wit, Anne; Haudin, Florence; Brau, Fabian; Cartwright, Julyan


    Chemical gardens are plant-like mineral structures first described in the seventeenth century and popularly known from chemistry sets for children. They are classically grown in three-dimensional containers by placing a solid metal-salt seed into a silicate solution. When the metal salt starts dissolving in the silicate solution, a semi-permeable membrane forms by precipitation across which water is pumped by osmosis from the silicate solution into the metal salt solution, further dissolving the salt. Above a given pressure, the membrane breaks. The dissolved metal salt solution being generally less dense than the reservoir silicate solution, it rises as a buoyant jet through the broken membrane and further precipitates in contact with the silicate solution, producing a collection of mineral forms that resemble a garden. Such gardens are the subject of increased interest as a model system to understand pattern formation in sea-ice brinicles and hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, among others. All these self-organized precipitation structures at the interface between chemistry, fluid dynamics and mechanics share indeed common chemical, mechanical and electrical properties. In this framework, we study experimentally spatial patterns resulting from the growth of chemical gardens in confined quasi-two-dimensional (2D) geometries upon radial injection of a metallic salt solution into a silicate solution in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. We find a large variety of patterns including spirals, fingers, worms, filiform tubes, and flower-like patterns. By exploring the phase space of reactant concentrations and injection flow rates, we observe transitions between these spatio-temporal structures resulting from a coupling between the precipitation reaction, mechanical effects and hydrodynamic instabilities.

  17. Engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, R.


    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants generate long-lived radioactive waste of high toxicity. The security assessment of repositories destined to definitive confinement of radioactive waste has been studied for several decades. Deep geological repositories are technically feasible and begin to be built by some pioneer countries. The scientific evaluation of interactions between the different engineered barriers is studied by laboratory experiments, natural analogues and modeling studies. The three methods are able to represent and validate the main geochemical processes that take place in the near field. This paper reviews the scientific and technical basis of the concept of geological disposal, with particular focus on the methods of study applied to the evaluation of geochemical stability of the bentonite barrier.

    Las centrales nucleares generan residuos radiactivos de elevada peligrosidad y permanencia en el tiempo. La evaluación de la seguridad de repositorios destinados al alojamiento definitivo de estos residuos lleva estudiándose desde hace varias décadas. El almacenamiento geológico es técnicamente factible y empieza ya a desarrollarse en países pioneros. La evaluación científica de las interacciones entre las distintas barreras de ingeniería se estudia mediante ensayos de laboratorio, análisis de análogos naturales y modelos teóricos. Las tres vías de estudio son capaces de representar y validar los principales procesos geoquímicos que tienen lugar en el campo cercano al repositorio. Este artículo revisa los fundamentos científicos y técnicos del concepto de almacenamiento geológico detallando, en particular, los métodos de estudio aplicados a la evaluación de la estabilidad geoquímica de la barrera de bentonita.

  18. Definition of Ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion (United States)

    Christopherson, A. R.; Betti, R.


    Defining ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an unresolved problem. In ICF, a distinction must be made between the ignition of the hot spot and the propagation of the burn wave in the surrounding dense fuel. Burn propagation requires that the hot spot is robustly ignited and the dense shell exhibits enough areal density. Since most of the energy gain comes from burning the dense shell, in a scale of increasing yields, hot-spot ignition comes before high gains. Identifying this transition from hot-spot ignition to burn-wave propagation is key to defining ignition in general terms applicable to all fusion approaches that use solid DT fuel. Ad hoc definitions such as gain = 1 or doubling the temperature are not generally valid. In this work, we show that it is possible to identify the onset of ignition through a unique value of the yield amplification defined as the ratio of the fusion yield including alpha-particle deposition to the fusion yield without alphas. Since the yield amplification is a function of the fractional alpha energy fα =EαEα 2Ehs 2Ehs (a measurable quantity), it appears possible not only to define ignition but also to measure the onset of ignition by the experimental inference of the fractional alpha energy and yield amplification. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Services under Award Number DE-FC02-04ER54789 and National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  19. Superfluid phases of $^3$He in a periodic confined geometry


    Wiman, J. J.; Sauls, J. A.


    Predictions and discoveries of new phases of superfluid $^3$He in confined geometries, as well as novel topological excitations confined to surfaces and edges of near a bounding surface of $^3$He, are driving the fields of superfluid $^3$He infused into porous media, as well as the fabrication of sub-micron to nano-scale devices for controlled studies of quantum fluids. In this report we consider superfluid $^3$He confined in a periodic geometry, specifically a two-dimensional lattice of squa...

  20. Scale testing of a partially confined blast chamber

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundling, W


    Full Text Available at the peak pressure readings from the confined and unconfined graphs, it is clear that in both cases the pressure has increased by partially confining the open side by 65%. Face-on pressure increased from 1 MPa up to 1.7 Mpa, while side-on pressure... readings increased from 0.8 MPa to 0.95 MPa in the confined state. It is recommended that more tests are done within the scaled blast chamber to retrieve repeatability in measurement results. Up-scaling of the pendulum to cover the full-size blast...

  1. Hard-wall confinement of a fractional quantum Hall liquid (United States)

    Macaluso, E.; Carusotto, I.


    We make use of numerical exact diagonalization calculations to explore the physics of ν =1 /2 bosonic fractional quantum Hall droplets in the presence of experimentally realistic cylindrically symmetric hard-wall potentials. This kind of confinement is found to produce very different many-body spectra compared to a harmonic trap or the so-called extremely steep limit. For a relatively weak confinement, the degeneracies are lifted and the low-lying excited states organize themselves in energy branches that can be explained in terms of their Jack polynomial representation. For a strong confinement, a strong spatial deformation of the droplet is found, with an unexpected depletion of its central density.

  2. Surface-confined molecular coolers for cryogenics. (United States)

    Lorusso, Giulia; Jenkins, Mark; González-Monje, Pablo; Arauzo, Ana; Sesé, Javier; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel; Roubeau, Olivier; Evangelisti, Marco


    An excellent molecule-based cryogenic magnetic refrigerant, gadolinium acetate tetrahydrate, is here used to decorate selected portions of silicon substrate. By quantitative magnetic force microscopy for a variable applied magnetic field near liquid-helium temperature, the molecules are demonstrated to hold their magnetic properties intact, and therefore their cooling functionality, after their deposition. These results represent a step forward towards the realization of a molecule-based micro-refrigerating device at very low temperatures. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Step-step interactions on GaAs (110) nanopatterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Tejedor, P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    The step-step interactions on vicinal GaAs (110) surface patterns have been extracted from the quantitative analysis of the terrace width distribution (TWD). We have specifically studied the interactions in near-equilibrium faceting and kinetics-driven step bunching and meandering formed by spontaneous self-organization or through the modification of GaAs growth kinetics by atomic hydrogen. We show that the experimental TWDs determined from atomic force microscopy measurements can be accurately described by a weighed sum of a generalized Wigner distribution and several Gaussians. The results of our calculations indicate that straight facets are formed during high temperature homoepitaxy due to attractive interactions between [110] steps. At low temperatures, steady state attractive interactions in [110] step bunches are preceded by a transition regime dominated by entropic and energetic repulsions between meandering [11n]-type steps (n {>=} 2), whose population density exceeds that of the [110] bunched steps. In addition, it has been found that atomic H reduces the attractive interactions between [110] bunched steps and enhances entropic and dipole-induced energetic repulsions between H-terminated [11n] steps through the inhibition of As-As bond formation at step edges. Our analysis has evidenced a correlation between the value of the adjustable parameter that accounts in our model for the specific weight of the secondary peaks in the TWD ({beta}) and the extent of transverse meandering on the vicinal surface.

  4. Modeling the Stepping Process of Negative Lightning Stepped Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Cooray


    Full Text Available A physical model based on the mechanism observed in experimental investigations is introduced to describe the formation of negative leader steps. Starting with a small length of a space leader located at the periphery of the negative streamer system of the stepped leader, the model simulates the growth and the subsequent formation of the leader step. Based on the model, the step length, the step forming time, and the propagation speed of stepped leaders as a function of the prospective return stroke peak current are estimated. The results show that the step length and the leader speed increase with increasing prospective return stroke current. The results also show that the speed of the stepped leader increases as it approaches the ground. For prospective return stroke currents in the range of 15 kA–60 kA, the step lengths lie within the range 5 m–100 m, the step forming times lie within the range 10 μs–250 μs, and the leader speed lies within the range 105 m/s −1.5 × 106 m/s. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the experimental observations.

  5. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Akutsu


    Full Text Available Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL, which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111 surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the 〈101〉 direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  6. Pneumatic fractures in confined granular media (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Toussaint, Renaud; Turquet, Antoine L.; Mâløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.


    We perform experiments where air is injected at a constant overpressure Pin, ranging from 5 to 250 kPa, into a dry granular medium confined within a horizontal linear Hele-Shaw cell. The setup allows us to explore compacted configurations by preventing decompaction at the outer boundary, i.e., the cell outlet has a semipermeable filter such that beads are stopped while air can pass. We study the emerging patterns and dynamic growth of channels in the granular media due to fluid flow, by analyzing images captured with a high speed camera (1000 images/s). We identify four qualitatively different flow regimes, depending on the imposed overpressure, ranging from no channel formation for Pin below 10 kPa, to large thick channels formed by erosion and fingers merging for high Pin around 200 kPa. The flow regimes where channels form are characterized by typical finger thickness, final depth into the medium, and growth dynamics. The shape of the finger tips during growth is studied by looking at the finger width w as function of distance d from the tip. The tip profile is found to follow w (d ) ∝dβ , where β =0.68 is a typical value for all experiments, also over time. This indicates a singularity in the curvature d2d /d w2˜κ ˜d1 -2 β , but not of the slope d w /d d ˜dβ -1 , i.e., more rounded tips rather than pointy cusps, as they would be for the case β >1 . For increasing Pin, the channels generally grow faster and deeper into the medium. We show that the channel length along the flow direction has a linear growth with time initially, followed by a power-law decay of growth velocity with time as the channel approaches its final length. A closer look reveals that the initial growth velocity v0 is found to scale with injection pressure as v0∝Pin3/2 , while at a critical time tc there is a cross-over to the behavior v (t ) ∝t-α , where α is close to 2.5 for all experiments. Finally, we explore the fractal dimension of the fully developed patterns. For

  7. Sustained Operations in Confined-Space Military Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delleman, Nico J; Colaciuri, Véronique; Wiederkehr, Emeric; Valk, Pierre J.L


    This paper reports 2 baseline studies and 1 experiment performed in a confined-space military vehicle concerning the effects on fitness and performance of time in a sitting posture and workstation characteristics...

  8. Confined compressive strength model of rock for drilling optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchao Shi


    Full Text Available The confined compressive strength (CCS plays a vital role in drilling optimization. On the basis of Jizba's experimental results, a new CCS model considering the effects of the porosity and nonlinear characteristics with increasing confining pressure has been developed. Because the confining pressure plays a fundamental role in determining the CCS of bottom-hole rock and because the theory of Terzaghi's effective stress principle is founded upon soil mechanics, which is not suitable for calculating the confining pressure in rock mechanics, the double effective stress theory, which treats the porosity as a weighting factor of the formation pore pressure, is adopted in this study. The new CCS model combined with the mechanical specific energy equation is employed to optimize the drilling parameters in two practical wells located in Sichuan basin, China, and the calculated results show that they can be used to identify the inefficient drilling situations of underbalanced drilling (UBD and overbalanced drilling (OBD.

  9. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Lassila, David H [Aptos, CA; Bonner, Brian P [Livermore, CA


    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  10. Confined-but-Connected Quantum Solids via Controlled Ligand Displacement

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.


    Confined-but-connected quantum dot solids (QDS) combine the advantages of tunable, quantum-confined energy levels with efficient charge transport through enhanced electronic interdot coupling. We report the fabrication of QDS by treating self-assembled films of colloidal PbSe quantum dots with polar nonsolvents. Treatment with dimethylformamide balances the rates of self-assembly and ligand displacement to yield confined-but-connected QDS structures with cubic ordering and quasi-epitaxial interdot connections through facets of neighboring dots. The QDS structure was analyzed by a combination of transmission electron microscopy and wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering. Excitonic absorption signatures in optical spectroscopy confirm that quantum confinement is preserved. Transport measurements show significantly enhanced conductivity in treated films. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Miniature magnetic bottle confined by circularly polarized laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolka, E.; Eliezer, S.; Paiss, Y. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center


    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss. In this configuration the circularly polarized laser light is used to obtain confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The poloidal magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser and the efficiency of laser absorption by the plasma are calculated. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces. The Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n = 5``centre dot`` 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and confinement time {tau} = 20 ns. The laser and plasma parameters required to obtain an energetic gain are calculated. (Author).

  12. Bounce resonance diffusion coefficients for spatially confined waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xinxin; Tao, Xin; Lu, Quanmin; Dai, Lei


    ...; therefore, they are not directly applicable to waves that have a finite spatial extent. We theoretically derive and numerically validate a new set of bounce resonance diffusion coefficients for spatially confined waves...

  13. Enhanced Plasma Confinement in a Magnetic Well by Whistler Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balmashnov, A. A.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    The propagation of whistler waves in a magnetic field of mirror configuration is investigated experimentally. The strong interaction between waves and particles at the electron-cyclotron resonance leads to enhanced confinement in the magnetic well.......The propagation of whistler waves in a magnetic field of mirror configuration is investigated experimentally. The strong interaction between waves and particles at the electron-cyclotron resonance leads to enhanced confinement in the magnetic well....

  14. Confinement less spectral behavior in hollow-core Bragg fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foroni, M.; Passaro, D.; Poli, F.


    The influence of each cross-section geometric parameter on hollow-core Bragg fiber guiding properties has been numerically investigated. Fabricated fibers have been modeled, giving insight into the spectral behavior of the confinement loss. It has been verified that, by changing the amount...... of silica and air in the fiber cladding, it is possible to change the reflection conditions undergone by the field within the core, thus shifting the confinement loss spectrum....

  15. Variational perturbation treatment of the confined hydrogen atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, H E Jr, E-mail: [Chemistry Program, Centre College, 600 West Walnut Street, Danville, KY 40422-1394 (United States)


    The Schroedinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the student to the effects of confinement on atomic systems using a tractable problem from which insight into variational perturbation theory may be gained.

  16. Understanding quantum confinement in nanowires: basics, applications and possible laws. (United States)

    Mohammad, S Noor


    A comprehensive investigation of quantum confinement in nanowires has been carried out. Though applied to silicon nanowires (SiNWs), it is general and applicable to all nanowires. Fundamentals and applications of quantum confinement in nanowires and possible laws obeyed by these nanowires, have been investigated. These laws may serve as backbones of nanowire science and technology. The relationship between energy band gap and nanowire diameter has been studied. This relationship appears to be universal. A thorough review indicates that the first principles results for quantum confinement vary widely. The possible cause of this variation has been examined. Surface passivation and surface reconstruction of nanowires have been elucidated. It has been found that quantum confinement owes its origin to surface strain resulting from surface passivation and surface reconstruction and hence thin nanowires may actually be crystalline-core/amorphous-shell (c-Si/a-Si) nanowires. Experimental data available in the literature corroborate with the suggestion. The study also reveals an intrinsic relationship between quantum confinement and the surface amorphicity of nanowires. It demonstrates that surface amorphicity may be an important tool to investigate the electronic, optoelectronic and sensorial properties of quantum-confined nanowires.

  17. Pneumatic fractures in Confined Granular Media (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Turkaya, Semih


    We will present our ongoing study of the patterns formed when air flows into a dry, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. This is an optically transparent system consisting of two glass plates separated by 0.5 to 1 mm, containing a packing of dry 80 micron beads in between. The cell is rectangular and has an air-permeable boundary (blocking beads) at one short edge, while the other three edges are completely sealed. The granular medium is loosely packed against the semi-permeable boundary and fills about 80 % of the cell volume. This leaves an empty region at the sealed side, where an inlet allows us to set and maintain the air at a constant overpressure (0.1 - 2 bar). For the air trapped inside the cell to relax its overpressure it has to move through the deformable granular medium. Depending on the applied overpressure and initial density of the medium, we observe a range of different behaviors such as seepage through the pore-network with or without an initial compaction of the solid, formation of low density bubbles with rearrangement of particles, granular fingering/fracturing, and erosion inside formed channels/fractures. The experiments are recorded with a high-speed camera at a framerate of 1000 images/s and a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels. We use various image processing techniques to characterize the evolution of the air invasion patterns and the deformations in the surrounding material. The experiments are similar to deformation processes in porous media which are driven by pore fluid overpressure, such as mud volcanoes and hydraulic or pneumatic (gas-induced) fracturing, and the motivation is to increase the understanding of such processes by optical observations. In addition, this setup is an experimental version of the numerical models analyzed by Niebling et al. [1,2], and is useful for comparison with their results. In a directly related project [3], acoustic emissions from the cell plate are recorded during

  18. Step-by-Step Visual Manuals: Design and Development (United States)

    Urata, Toshiyuki


    The types of handouts and manuals that are used in technology training vary. Some describe procedures in a narrative way without graphics; some employ step-by-step instructions with screen captures. According to Thirlway (1994), a training manual should be like a tutor that permits a student to learn at his own pace and gives him confidence for…

  19. On the Convexity of Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke


    The main result of this paper is the convexity of Step out - Step in (SoSi) sequencing games, a class of relaxed sequencing games first analyzed by Musegaas, Borm, and Quant (2015). The proof makes use of a polynomial time algorithm determining the value and an optimal processing order for an

  20. Tick Removal: A Step-by-Step Guide (For Parents) (United States)

    ... that Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States, but your child's risk ... the site of the bite with soap and water. Step 5: Swab the bite site with ... of disease transmission). Next Steps Call your doctor after the ...

  1. Preface, Soil Science: A step-by-step analysis (United States)

    This book provides step-by-step procedures for soil professionals, without a lot of background theory. Chapters are targeted toward agricultural and environmental consultants, producers, students, teachers, government, and industry. Applied soil scientists gave input through a survey, which guided t...

  2. Step Bunching and Solution Flow (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.


    Imagine a sequence of equidistant steps parallel to one another on a crystal face growing from solution. Steps may be one or part of a lattice spacing high. With such ideal morphology, the most perfect material is expected to be produced. Sometimes this happens. Much more often, however, steps form bunches, acquire wavy shapes and interlace. With time, these spontaneous perturbations may be increased in amplitude, i.e. the stepped surface becomes morphologically unstable. Interferometric studies of Y.G. Kuznetsov, L.N. Rashkovich, P.G. Vekilov and N.A. Booth and the author demonstrated that the step bunching depends at least on direction and rate of solution flow over the interface, supersaturation and presence of impurities. In particular, if solution and step flow are parallel to one another, the steps convene into bunches. If these flows are antiparallel, the bunches disappear. As the step train propagates, the overall bunch height often increases infinitely. However, we have found recently that if the flow rate is large enough, (approximately 1 meter per second), the bunch height may be limited. All these phenomena come from interaction between steps. The interaction mechanisms are still not fully understood. I plan to overview major approaches to the still unresolved problem on how these dissipative structures on growing crystal face appear and evolve.

  3. A compliant mechanism for inspecting extremely confined spaces (United States)

    Mascareñas, David; Moreu, Fernando; Cantu, Precious; Shields, Daniel; Wadden, Jack; El Hadedy, Mohamed; Farrar, Charles


    We present a novel, compliant mechanism that provides the capability to navigate extremely confined spaces for the purpose of infrastructure inspection. Extremely confined spaces are commonly encountered during infrastructure inspection. Examples of such spaces can include pipes, conduits, and ventilation ducts. Often these infrastructure features go uninspected simply because there is no viable way to access their interior. In addition, it is not uncommon for extremely confined spaces to possess a maze-like architecture that must be selectively navigated in order to properly perform an inspection. Efforts by the imaging sensor community have resulted in the development of imaging sensors on the millimeter length scale. Due to their compact size, they are able to inspect many extremely confined spaces of interest, however, the means to deliver these sensors to the proper location to obtain the desired images are lacking. To address this problem, we draw inspiration from the field of endoscopic surgery. Specifically we consider the work that has already been done to create long flexible needles that are capable of being steered through the human body. These devices are typically referred to as ‘steerable needles.’ Steerable needle technology is not directly applicable to the problem of navigating maze-like arrangements of extremely confined spaces, but it does provide guidance on how this problem should be approached. Specifically, the super-elastic nitinol tubing material that allows steerable needles to operate is also appropriate for the problem of navigating maze-like arrangements of extremely confined spaces. Furthermore, the portion of the mechanism that enters the extremely confined space is completely mechanical in nature. The mechanical nature of the device is an advantage when the extremely confined space features environmental hazards such as radiation that could degrade an electromechanically operated mechanism. Here, we present a compliant mechanism

  4. Estimating ship-induced sediment transport in confined waters (United States)

    Ulm, Marius; Niehüser, Sebastian; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen; Kondziella, Bernhard; Uliczka, Klemens


    The maintenance of waterways is a challenging task for federal authorities. An expensive subtask is dredging and disposing of accumulated sediments. Dredging volumes are often estimated based on experience while the underlying physical transport processes causing sedimentations are not fully explored yet. For instance, in confined waterways moving ships have an influence on the turbidity by resuspending sediments which can then be transported by prevailing currents. Therefore, the German Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW) conducted an eight-day field campaign using a network of three probes which recorded parameters like turbidity, pressure, and flow velocities in the Kiel Canal (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany). The advantages of this canal as test site are the laboratory-like conditions with almost no natural flow and no influence of tides. Data assimilation and analysis of the field campaign have been performed at the Research Institute for Water and Environment at the University of Siegen as part of a research cooperation with the BAW to estimate the ship-induced proportion of the totally transported sediment volume in the Kiel Canal. Therefore the three high-frequency turbidity records from the canal bed were used to model the turbidity distribution in the canal cross-section. Linking the turbidity distributions with the measured flow velocities yields an estimation of the totally transported sediment volume during the field campaign. In a second step smoothing the turbidity and flow velocity time series and recalculating the estimation removes all ship influences from the transported volumes so that the difference in both volumes describes the ship-induced proportion of the totally transported sediment volume. As a result, a proportion of about 10% of the entirely transported sediments can be attributed to ship-induced resuspension. In reverse, the majority of the sediment transport originates from a slow but steady drainage flow in the

  5. Effect of confinement on droplet coalescence in shear flow. (United States)

    Chen, Dongju; Cardinaels, Ruth; Moldenaers, Paula


    The effect of confinement on the coalescence of Newtonian (polydimethylsiloxane) droplets in a Newtonian (polyisobutylene) matrix is investigated experimentally. A counter rotating parallel plate device, equipped with a microscopy setup, is used to visualize two interacting droplets during shear flow. The ratio of droplet-to-matrix viscosity is kept constant at 1.1. Droplet collisions are studied for a range of droplet sizes, both in bulk conditions and for gap spacings that are comparable to the droplet size. As a result, we present the first quantitative experimental data set for the coalescence of two equal-sized droplets in a pure shear flow with varying degrees of confinement. Compared to bulk conditions, for droplets smaller than roughly 0.2 times the gap spacing, a slight degree of confinement only decreases the orientation angle at which the droplets coalesce whereas the critical conditions for coalescence remain unaltered. For more confined conditions, the critical capillary number up to which coalescence can occur, increases. Therefore, confinement clearly promotes coalescence. In addition, the droplet trajectories, the time-dependent orientation angle of the droplet pair, and the droplet deformation prior to the coalescence event are systematically studied, and a comparison between the confined and the unconfined situation is provided. It is shown that the presence of two parallel walls can induce changes in the flow field around the droplet pair, which cause an increase of the interaction time between the droplets. Moreover, for sufficiently confined droplets, the additional force originating from the presence of the walls becomes comparable to the hydrodynamic force on the droplet pair, thus influencing the drainage of the matrix film between the droplet surfaces.

  6. Sensible Steps Towards Library Automation (United States)

    Miller, Ellen Wasby


    The article argues two main points: (1) make decisions about library automation in the context of competent organization, management, and planning; and (2) lay a sound foundation for automation by completing a step-by-step sequence of tasks. (Author/NH)

  7. Ice-Confined Basaltic Lava Flows: Review and Discussion (United States)

    Skilling, I.; Edwards, B. R.


    Basaltic lavas that are interpreted as having been emplaced in subglacial or ice-confined subaerial settings are known from several localities in Iceland, British Columbia and Antarctica. At least four different types of observations have been used to date to identify emplacement of basaltic lavas in an ice-rich environment: i) gross flow morphology, ii) surface structures, iii) evidence for ice-confined water during emplacement, and iv) lava fracture patterns. Five types of ice-confined lava are identified: sheets, lobes, mounds, linear ridges and sinuous ridges. While the appearance of lavas is controlled by the same factors as in the submarine environment, such as the geometry and configuration of vents and lava tubes, flow rheology and rates, and underlying topography, the presence of ice can lead to distinct features that are specific to the ice-confined setting. Other types have very similar or identical equivalents in submarine environment, albeit with some oversteepening/ice contact surfaces. Ice-confined lavas can form as (1) subaerial or subaqueous lavas emplaced against ice open to the air, (2) subaqueous lavas emplaced into pre-existing sub-ice drainage networks, and (3) subaqueous lavas emplaced into ponded water beneath ice. Their surface structures reflect the relationship between rates of lava flow emplacement at the site of ice-water-lava contact, ice melting and water drainage. Variations in local lava flow rates could be due to lava cooling, constriction, inflation, tube development, ice melting, ice collapse, lava collapse, changes in eruption rate etc. Episodes of higher lava flow rate would favour direct ice contact and plastic compression against the ice, generating oversteepened and/or overthickened chilled margins, cavities in the lava formed by melting of enveloped ice blocks (cryolith cavities) and structures such as flattened pillows and lava clasts embedded into the glassy margins. Melting back of the confining ice generates space to

  8. Intersubband transitions in pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs multiple step quantum wells


    Li, H. S.; Chen, Y. W.; Wang, K. L.; Lie, D. Y. C.


    Intersubband transitions from the ground state to the first and second excited states in pseudomorphic AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs multiple step quantum wells have been observed. The step well structure has a configuration of two AlGaAs barriers confining an InGaAs/GaAs step. Multiple step wells were grown on GaAs substrate with each InGaAs layer compressively strained. During the growth, a uniform growth condition was adopted so that inconvenient long growth interruptions and fast temperature ...

  9. Local order variations in confined hard-sphere fluids. (United States)

    Nygård, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Kjellander, Roland


    Pair distributions of fluids confined between two surfaces at close distance are of fundamental importance for a variety of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, such as interactions between macromolecules in solution, surface forces, and diffusion in narrow pores. However, in contrast to bulk fluids, properties of inhomogeneous fluids are seldom studied at the pair-distribution level. Motivated by recent experimental advances in determining anisotropic structure factors of confined fluids, we analyze theoretically the underlying anisotropic pair distributions of the archetypical hard-sphere fluid confined between two parallel hard surfaces using first-principles statistical mechanics of inhomogeneous fluids. For this purpose, we introduce an experimentally accessible ensemble-averaged local density correlation function and study its behavior as a function of confining slit width. Upon increasing the distance between the confining surfaces, we observe an alternating sequence of strongly anisotropic versus more isotropic local order. The latter is due to packing frustration of the spherical particles. This observation highlights the importance of studying inhomogeneous fluids at the pair-distribution level.

  10. Status report of confinement studies Douglas United Nuclear operated reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spink, J.R.; Fifer, N.F. [comp.


    Confinement studies on the Hanford Production reactors were started in March at the request of the Richland Operations Office. The confinement studies were then undertaken with the following objectives established: (1) review and reestablish if necessary, the maximum credible accident for the production reactors operated by Douglas United Nuclear (DUN); (2) evaluate the present confinement systems under the Code of Federal Regulation Title 10, Part 100, Reactor Site Criteria, for the maximum credible accident and an accident corresponding to the failure of reactor fuel containing 50% of the reactor`s fission product inventory; (3) establish improvements or additions in the confinement system needed to more nearly comply with 10 CFR Part 100 radiation dose criteria for existing boundaries of the exclusion area and the low population zone for the maximum credible accident; and (4) list facility additions and changes required to comply with 10 CFR Part 100 criteria for more serious accidents than the maximum credible accident. This report presents the interim status of the confinement studies in meeting the listed objectives and lists the improvements which might be used to bring the reactors nearer to compliance with 10 CFR Part 100.

  11. High-Energy Electron Confinement in a Magnetic Cusp Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Park


    Full Text Available We report experimental results validating the concept that plasma confinement is enhanced in a magnetic cusp configuration when β (plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure is of order unity. This enhancement is required for a fusion power reactor based on cusp confinement to be feasible. The magnetic cusp configuration possesses a critical advantage: the plasma is stable to large scale perturbations. However, early work indicated that plasma loss rates in a reactor based on a cusp configuration were too large for net power production. Grad and others theorized that at high β a sharp boundary would form between the plasma and the magnetic field, leading to substantially smaller loss rates. While not able to confirm the details of Grad’s work, the current experiment does validate, for the first time, the conjecture that confinement is substantially improved at high β. This represents critical progress toward an understanding of the plasma dynamics in a high-β cusp system. We hope that these results will stimulate a renewed interest in the cusp configuration as a fusion confinement candidate. In addition, the enhanced high-energy electron confinement resolves a key impediment to progress of the Polywell fusion concept, which combines a high-β cusp configuration with electrostatic fusion for a compact, power-producing nuclear fusion reactor.

  12. Shape and Current Profile Effects on Runaway Electron Confinement (United States)

    Izzo, V. A.; James, A. N.; Humphreys, D. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Whyte, D. G.; Olynyk, G. M.


    The potential for several MA of current carried by multi-MeV runaway electrons (REs) during ITER disruptions has motivated a variety of experiments in present-day tokamaks studying RE generation, confinement, and control. In both DIII-D and Alcator C Mod, different RE behavior is seen in limited vs. diverted plasmas, suggesting better RE confinement for limited shapes. NIMROD simulations of rapid shutdowns in both devices support this finding, and show reduced stochasticity in limited plasma shapes. Integration of RE drift-orbits also shows differences in RE strike-points that are consistent with experimental observations. In DIII-D a wide variation in RE confinement results for diverted discharges may also point to current density profile effects on RE confinement. Several DIII-D diverted discharges are modeled with NIMROD. Confined RE fractions found in NIMROD are mostly consistent with observed RE currents in DIII-D, although other effects, such as seed generation and avalanching may contribute to the experimental variation. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-06ER54861, DE-FG02-05ER54809, DE-FG02-07ER54917, DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54762.

  13. Issues in tokamak/stellarator transport and confinement enhancement mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, F.W.


    At present, the mechanism for anomalous energy transport in low-{beta} toroidal plasmas -- tokamaks and stellarators -- remains unclear, although transport by turbulent E {times} B velocities associated with nonlinear, fine-scale microinstabilities is a leading candidate. This article discusses basic theoretical concepts of various transport and confinement enhancement mechanisms as well as experimental ramifications which would enable one to distinguish among them and hence identify a dominant transport mechanism. While many of the predictions of fine-scale turbulence are born out by experiment, notable contradictions exist. Projections of ignition margin rest both on the scaling properties of the confinement mechanism and on the criteria for entering enhanced confinement regimes. At present, the greatest uncertainties lie with the basis for scaling confinement enhancement criteria. A series of questions, to be answered by new experimental/theoretical work, is posed to resolve these outstanding contradictions (or refute the fine-scale turbulence model) and to establish confinement enhancement criteria. 73 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Effects of confinement on protein folding and protein stability (United States)

    Ping, G.; Yuan, J. M.; Vallieres, M.; Dong, H.; Sun, Z.; Wei, Y.; Li, F. Y.; Lin, S. H.


    In a cell, proteins exist in crowded environments; these environments influence their stability and dynamics. Similarly, for an enzyme molecule encapsulated in an inorganic cavity as in biosensors or biocatalysts, confinement and even surface effects play important roles in its stability and dynamics. Using a minimalist model (two-dimensional HP lattice model), we have carried out Monte Carlo simulations to study confinement effects on protein stability. We have calculated heat capacity as a function of temperature using the histogram method and results obtained show that confinement tends to stabilize the folded conformations, consistent with experimental results (some reported here) and previous theoretical analyses. Furthermore, for a protein molecule tethered to a solid surface the stabilization effect can be even greater. We have also investigated the effects of confinement on the kinetics of the refolding and unfolding processes as functions of temperature and box size. As expected, unfolding time increases as box size decreases, however, confinement affects folding times in a more complicated way. Our theoretical results agree with our experimentally observed trends that thermal stability of horseradish peroxidase and acid phosphatase, encapsulated in mesoporous silica, increases as the pore size of the silica matrix decreases.

  15. Reducing the graphene grain density in three steps (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Chu, Yi-Hung; Tsai, He-Guang; Hofmann, Mario


    The production of large-scale, single crystalline graphene is a requirement for enhancing its electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has shown the potential to grow high quality graphene but the simultaneous nucleation of many grains limits their achievable domain size. We report here that ultralow nucleation densities can be achieved through multi-step optimization of the catalyst morphology. First, annealing in a hydrogen-free environment is required to retain a surface copper oxide which decreases the nucleation density. Second, CuO was found to be the relevant copper species for this process and air oxidation of the copper foil at 200 °C maximizes its concentration. Both pre-treatment steps were found to affect the morphology of the catalyst and a direct correlation between nucleation density and surface roughness was found which indicates that the primary role of the oxidation step is the decrease in catalyst roughness. To further enhance this determining parameter, confined CVD was carried out after sample oxidation and hydrogen-free annealing. Each of these three steps reduces the grain density by approximately one order of magnitude resulting in ultralow nucleation densities of 1.23 grains/mm2 and high quality, single-crystalline graphene grains of several millimeter sizes were grown using this method.

  16. Exploiting Confinement Effects to Tune Selectivity in Cyclooctane Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Pump, Eva


    The mechanism of cyclooctane metathesis using confinement effect strategies in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is discussed by catalytic experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. WMe6 was immobilized inside the pores of a series of MSNs having the same structure but different pore diameters (60, 30 and 25 Å). Experiments in cyclooctane metathesis suggest that confinement effects observed in smaller pores (30 and 25 Å) improve selectivity towards the dimeric cyclohexadecane. In contrast, in larger pores (60 Å) a broad product distribution dominated by ring contracted cycloalkanes was found. The catalytic cycle and potential side reactions occurring at [(≡SiO-)WMe5] were examined with DFT calculations. Analysis of the geometries for the key reaction intermediates allowed to rationalize the impact of a confined environment on the enhanced selectivity towards the dimeric product in smaller pores, while in large pores the ring contracted products are favored.

  17. Confined contextuality in neutron interferometry: Observing the quantum pigeonhole effect (United States)

    Waegell, Mordecai; Denkmayr, Tobias; Geppert, Hermann; Ebner, David; Jenke, Tobias; Hasegawa, Yuji; Sponar, Stephan; Dressel, Justin; Tollaksen, Jeff


    Previous experimental tests of quantum contextuality based on the Bell-Kochen-Specker (BKS) theorem have demonstrated that not all observables among a given set can be assigned noncontextual eigenvalue predictions, but have never identified which specific observables must fail such assignment. We now remedy this shortcoming by showing that BKS contextuality can be confined to particular observables by pre- and postselection, resulting in anomalous weak values that we measure using modern neutron interferometry. We construct a confined contextuality witness from weak values, which we measure experimentally to obtain a 5 σ average violation of the noncontextual bound, with one contributing term violating an independent bound by more than 99 σ . This weakly measured confined BKS contextuality also confirms the quantum pigeonhole effect, wherein eigenvalue assignments to contextual observables apparently violate the classical pigeonhole principle.

  18. Highly Confined Electronic and Ionic Conduction in Oxide Heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini


    The conductance confined at the interface of complex oxide heterostructures provides new opportunities to explore nanoelectronic as well as nanoionic devices. In this talk I will present our recent results both on ionic and electronic conductivity at different heterostructures systems. In the first...... unattainable for Bi2O3-based materials, is achieved[1]. These confined heterostructures provide a playground not only for new high ionic conductivity phenomena that are sufficiently stable but also uncover a large variety of possible technological perspectives. At the second part, I will discuss and show our...... recent results of high mobile samples realized by, interface confined redox reactions[2], strain induced polarization[3]and modulation doping at complex oxide interfaces. This collection of samples offers unique opportunities for a wide range of rich world of mesoscopic physics. [1] S. Sanne et al...

  19. Modeling of Dilute Polymer Solutions in Confined Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanwei


    to macromolecules is critical to the design and application of those devices. Our primary interest is to provide an understanding of the separation principle of polymers in size exclusion chromatography (SEC), where under ideal conditions the polymer concentration is low, and detailed enthalpic interactions......This thesis deals with modeling of a polymer chain subject to spatial confinement. The properties of confined macromolecules are both of fundamental interest in polymer physics and of practical importance in a variety of applications including chromatographic separation of polymers, and the use...... by simple mathematical analyses. When the CABS method is applied to compute the equilibrium distribution (the equilibrium partition coefficient, Ko) of polymers between a dilute macroscopic solution phase and a solution confined by inert impenetrable boundaries, a sphere-like universal partitioning feature...

  20. Climbing, falling and jamming during ant locomotion in confined environments

    CERN Document Server

    Gravish, Nick; Goodisman, Michael A D; Goldman, Daniel I


    Locomotion emerges from effective interactions of an individual with its environment. Principles of biological terrestrial locomotion have been discovered on unconfined vertical and horizontal substrates. However a diversity of organisms construct, inhabit, and move within confined spaces. Such animals are faced with locomotor challenges including limited limb range of motion, crowding, and visual sensory deprivation. Little is known about how these organisms accomplish their locomotor tasks, and such environments challenge human-made devices. To gain greater insight into how animals move within confined spaces we study the confined locomotion of the fire ant {\\em Solenopsis invicta}, which constructs subterranean tunnel networks (nests). Laboratory experiments reveal that ants construct tunnels with diameter, D, comparable to bodylength, L=3.5 $\\pm$ 0.5 mm. Ants can move rapidly (> 9 bodylengths/sec) within these environments; their tunnels allow for effective limb, body, and antennae interaction with walls ...

  1. Effects of vertical confinement on gelation and sedimentation of colloids. (United States)

    Razali, Azaima; Fullerton, Christopher J; Turci, Francesco; Hallett, James E; Jack, Robert L; Royall, C Patrick


    We consider the sedimentation of a colloidal gel under confinement in the direction of gravity. The confinement allows us to compare directly experiments and computer simulations, for the same system size in the vertical direction. The confinement also leads to qualitatively different behaviour compared to bulk systems: in large systems gelation suppresses sedimentation, but for small systems sedimentation is enhanced relative to non-gelling suspensions, although the rate of sedimentation is reduced when the strength of the attraction between the colloids is strong. We map interaction parameters between a model experimental system (observed in real space) and computer simulations. Remarkably, we find that when simulating the system using Brownian dynamics in which hydrodynamic interactions between the particles are neglected, we find that sedimentation occurs on the same timescale as the experiments. An analysis of local structure in the simulations showed similar behaviour to gelation in the absence of gravity.

  2. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion for Space Propulsion (United States)

    Nadler, Jon


    An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using EEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois@Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

  3. Characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows (United States)

    So, R. M. C.; Ahmed, S. A.


    An experimental program to study the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling flows to obtain detailed and accurate data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport modeling for combustor flows is discussed. The work was also motivated by the need to investigate and quantify the influence of confinement and swirl on the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets. The flow facility was constructed in a simple way which allows easy interchange of different swirlers and the freedom to vary the jet Reynolds number. The velocity measurements were taken with a one color, one component DISA Model 55L laser-Doppler anemometer employing the forward scatter mode. Standard statistical methods are used to evaluate the various moments of the signals to give the flow characteristics. The present work was directed at the understanding of the velocity field. Therefore, only velocity and turbulence data of the axial and circumferential components are reported for inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows.

  4. Physical investigation of a quad confinement plasma source (United States)

    Knoll, Aaron; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Christopher; Cappelli, Mark


    Quad magnetic confinement plasma sources are novel magnetized DC discharges suitable for applications in a broad range of fields, particularly space propulsion, plasma etching and deposition. These sources contain a square discharge channel with magnetic cusps at the four lateral walls, enhancing plasma confinement and electron residence time inside the device. The magnetic field topology is manipulated using four independent electromagnets on each edge of the channel, tuning the properties of the generated plasma. We characterize the plasma ejected from the quad confinement sources using a combination of traditional electrostatic probes and non-intrusive laser-based diagnostics. Measurements show a strong ion acceleration layer located 8 cm downstream of the exit plane, beyond the extent of the magnetic field. The ion velocity field is investigated with different magnetic configurations, demonstrating how ion trajectories may be manipulated. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NSSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  5. Is ion channel selectivity mediated by confined water?

    CERN Document Server

    Prada-Gracia, Diego


    Ion channels form pores across the lipid bilayer, selectively allowing inorganic ions to cross the membrane down their electrochemical gradient. While the study of ion desolvation free-energies have attracted much attention, the role of water inside the pore is less clear. Here, molecular dynamics simulations of a reduced model of the KcsA selectivity filter indicate that the equilibrium position of Na+, but not of K+, is strongly influenced by confined water. The latter forms a stable complex with Na+, moving the equilibrium position of the ion to the plane of the backbone carbonyls. Almost at the centre of the binding site, the water molecule is trapped by favorable electrostatic interactions and backbone hydrogen-bonds. In the absence of confined water the equilibrium position of both Na+ and K+ is identical. Our observations strongly suggest a previously unnoticed active role of confined water in the selectivity mechanism of ion channels.

  6. Polymerization Within Confined Nanochannels of Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (United States)

    Hu, Zhigang; Zhao, Dan


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been increasingly investigated as templates for precise control of polymerization. Polymerizations within confined nanochannels of porous MOFs have shown unique confinement and alignment effect on polymer chain structures and thus are promising ways to achieve well-defined polymers. Herein, this review will focus on illustrating the recent progress of polymerization within confined nanochannels of MOFs, including radical polymerization, coordination polymerization, ring-opening polymerization, catalytic polymerization, etc. It will demonstrate how the heterogeneous MOF structures (pore size, pore shapes, flexible structures, and versatile functional groups) affect the polymeric products' molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, tacticity, reaction sites, copolymer sequence, etc. Meanwhile, we will highlight some challenges and foreseeable prospects on these novel polymerization methods.

  7. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma (United States)

    Rostoker, Norman [Irvine, CA; Binderbauer, Michl [Irvine, CA


    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions ions are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  8. Confinement-induced Molecular Templating and Controlled Ligation (United States)

    Berard, Daniel; Shayegan, Marjan; Michaud, François; Henkin, Gil; Scott, Shane; Leith, Jason; Leslie, Sabrina; Leslie Lab Team

    Loading and manipulating long DNA molecules within sub-50 nm cross-section nanostructures for genomic and biochemical analyses, while retaining their structural integrity, present key technological challenges to the biotechnology sector, such as device clogging and molecular breakage. We overcome these challenges by using Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) technology to gently load DNA into nanogrooves from above. Here, we demonstrate single-fluorophore visualization of custom DNA barcodes as well as efficient top-loading of DNA into sub-50 nm nanogrooves of variable topographies. We study confinement-enhanced self-ligation of polymers loaded in circular nanogrooves. Further, we use concentric, circular nanogrooves to eliminate confinement gradient-induced drift of stretched DNA.

  9. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl


    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions ions are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  10. Linking of uniform random polygons in confined spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsuaga, J [Department of Mathematics, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Blackstone, T [Department of Computer Science, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Diao, Y [Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of North Carolina, Charlotte 9201, University City Blvd Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Karadayi, E [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Saito, M [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)


    In this paper, we study the topological entanglement of uniform random polygons in a confined space. We derive the formula for the mean squared linking number of such polygons. For a fixed simple closed curve in the confined space, we rigorously show that the linking probability between this curve and a uniform random polygon of n vertices is at least 1-O(1/{radical}n). Our numerical study also indicates that the linking probability between two uniform random polygons (in a confined space), of m and n vertices respectively, is bounded below by 1-O(1/{radical}(mn)). In particular, the linking probability between two uniform random polygons, both of n vertices, is bounded below by 1-O(1/n)

  11. Self-assembly of ABA triblock copolymers under soft confinement (United States)

    Sheng, Yuping; An, Jian; Zhu, Yutian


    Using Monte Carlo method, the self-assembly of ABA triblock copolymers under soft confinement is investigated in this study. The soft confinement is achieved by a poor solvent environment for the polymer, which makes the polymer aggregate into a droplet. Various effects, including the block length ratio, the solvent quality for the blocks B, and the incompatibility between blocks A and B, on the micellar structures induced by soft confinement are examined. By increasing the solvent quality of B blocks, the micellar structure transforms from stacked lamella to bud-like structure, and then to onion-like structure for A5B8A5 triblock copolymers, while the inner micellar structure changes from spherical phase to various cylindrical phase, such as inner single helix, double helixes, stacked rings and cage-like structures, for A7B4A7 triblock copolymers. Moreover, the formation pathways of some typical aggregates are examined to illustrate their growth mechanisms.

  12. Collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays. (United States)

    Schiller, Ulf D; Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Seemann, Ralf; Gompper, Gerhard


    Excitation mechanisms for collective waves in confined dense one-dimensional microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific 'defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. Excited longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets. Transversely excited modes obey the dispersion relation of microfluidic phonons and induce a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes, whose origin is the hydrodynamic interaction of the droplets with the confining walls. Moreover, we investigate the long-time behaviour of the oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our findings demonstrate that the collective dynamics of microfluidic droplet ensembles can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. Experimentally, the ability to control microfluidic droplets may allow the modulation of the refractive index of optofluidic crystals, which is a promising approach for the production of dynamically programmable metamaterials.

  13. Adsorption-induced step formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, P.; Christoffersen, Ebbe; Lorensen, Henrik Qvist


    Through an interplay between density functional calculations, Monte Carlo simulations and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments, we show that an intermediate coverage of CO on the Pt(110) surface gives rise to a new rough equilibrium structure with more than 50% step atoms. CO is shown to bin...... so strongly to low-coordinated Pt atoms that it can break Pt-Pt bonds and spontaneously form steps on the surface. It is argued that adsorption-induced step formation may be a general effect, in particular at high gas pressures and temperatures....

  14. Single cell antimicrobial susceptibility testing by confined microchannels and electrokinetic loading (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Donna D.; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.; Wong, Pak Kin


    Multidrug-resistant pathogens are an emerging global health problem. In addition to the need of developing new antibiotics in the pipeline, the ability to rapidly determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria represents one of the most crucial steps toward the management of infectious diseases and the prevention of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Here, we report a single cell antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) approach for rapid determination of the antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens. By confining individual bacteria in gas permeable microchannels with dimensions comparable to a single bacterium, the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria can be monitored in real-time at the single cell level. To facilitate the dynamic loading of the bacteria into the confined microchannels for observation, AC electrokinetics is demonstrated for capturing bacteria to defined locations in high-conductivity AST buffer. The electrokinetic technique achieves a loading efficiency of about 75% with a negligible effect on the bacterial growth rate. To optimize the protocol for single cell AST, the bacterial growth rate of individual bacteria under different antibiotic conditions has been determined systematically. The applicability of single cell AST is demonstrated by the rapid determination of the antimicrobial resistant profiles of uropathogenic clinical isolates in Mueller-Hinton media and in urine. The antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria can be determined in less than one hour compared to days in standard culture-based AST techniques. PMID:23445209

  15. How thermal stress alters the confinement of polymers vitrificated in nanopores (United States)

    Teng, Chao; Li, Linling; Wang, Yong; Wang, Rong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xue, Gi


    Understanding and controlling the glass transition temperature (Tg) and dynamics of polymers in confined geometries are of significance in both academia and industry. Here, we investigate how the thermal stress induced by a mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion affects the Tg behavior of polystyrene (PS) nanorods located inside cylindrical alumina nanopores. The size effects and molecular weight dependence of the Tg are also studied. A multi-step relaxation process was employed to study the relationship between thermal stress and cooling rate. At fast cooling rates, the imparted thermal stress would overcome the yield stress of PS and peel chains off the pore walls, while at slow cooling rates, chains are kept in contact with the pore walls due to timely dissipation of the produced thermal stress during vitrification. In smaller nanopores, more PS chains closely contact with pore walls, then stronger internal thermal stress would be generated between core and shell of PS nanorod, which results in a larger deviation between two Tgs. The core part of PS shows lower Tg than bulk value, which can induce faster dynamics in the center region. A complex and important role stress plays is supposed in complex confinement condition, e.g., in nanopores, during vitrification.

  16. Thermonuclear plasma physic: inertial confinement fusion; Physique des plasmas thermonucleaires: la fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Ch.; Juraszek, D


    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion in which the fuel contained in a spherical capsule is strongly compressed and heated to achieve ignition and burn. The released thermonuclear energy can be much higher than the driver energy, making energetic applications attractive. Many complex physical phenomena are involved by the compression process, but it is possible to use simple analytical models to analyze the main critical points. We first determine the conditions to obtain fuel ignition. High thermonuclear gains are achieved if only a small fraction of the fuel called hot spot is used to trigger burn in the main fuel compressed on a low isentrope. A simple hot spot model will be described. The high pressure needed to drive the capsule compression are obtained by the ablation process. A simple Rocket model describe the main features of the implosion phase. Several parameters have to be controlled during the compression: irradiation symmetry, hydrodynamical stability and when the driver is a laser, the problems arising from interaction of the EM wave with the plasma. Two different schemes are examined: Indirect Drive which uses X-ray generated in a cavity to drive the implosion and the Fast Ignitor concept using a ultra intense laser beam to create the hot spot. At the end we present the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. LMJ is scaled to a thermonuclear gain of the order of ten. (authors)

  17. Turbulent Flame Stabilization Methods Using Confinement, Diluents, and High-Potential Electric Fields (United States)


    due to an increase in turbulent swirling . Liftoff delays were also present in both the semi-confined and fully confined cases, such that a higher jet ...1. Determine if confining a methane jet flame (with the presence of ambient coflow) would increase flame stability and decrease turbulent swirling ...confined (confinement cylinder with viewing window open) behaved much more sporadically due to an increase in turbulent swirling . Liftoff delays were

  18. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson


    Full Text Available

    The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  19. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson


    Full Text Available The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  20. Functional assembly of protein fragments induced by spatial confinement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Yu

    Full Text Available Natural proteins are often confined within their local microenvironments, such as three-dimensional confinement in organelles or two-dimensional confinement in lipid rafts on cytoplasmic membrane. Spatial confinement restricts proteins' entropic freedom, forces their lateral interaction, and induces new properties that the same proteins lack at the soluble state. So far, the phenomenon of environment-induced protein functional alteration still lacks a full illustration. We demonstrate here that engineered protein fragments, although being non-functional in solution, can be re-assembled within the nanometer space to give the full activity of the whole protein. Specific interaction between hexahistidine-tag (His-tag and NiO surface immobilizes protein fragments on NiO nanoparticles to form a self-assembled protein "corona" on the particles inside the nanopores of mesoporous silica. Site-specific assembly forces a shoulder-by-shoulder orientation and promotes fragment-fragment interaction; this interaction together with spatial confinement of the mesopores results in functional re-assembly of the protein half fragments. To our surprise, a single half fragment of luciferase (non-catalytic in solution exhibited luciferase activity when immobilized on NiO in the mesopores, in the absence of the complimentary half. This shows for the first time that spatial confinement can induce the folding of a half fragment, reconstitute the enzyme active site, and re-gain the catalytic capability of the whole protein. Our work thereby highlights the under-documented notion that aside from the chemical composition such as primary sequence, physical environment of a protein also determines its function.

  1. Confinement-deconfinement transitions in a model of interacting dislocations (United States)

    Balakrishnan, V.; Bottani, C. E.


    An exact solution is found for the equilibrium dislocation distribution in a continuum model of interacting parallel dislocations moving in a common slip plane, under an external shear σ and a realistic internal stress barrier that is finite everywhere on the slip plane. As functions of σ and the total populations, we find regions of two-component confinement (a compact distribution of dislocations of both signs), stable single-component confinement, and breakaway. Stability properties are summarized and critical lines on the bifurcation surface are identified.

  2. Elastic scattering of positronium: Application of the confined variational method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi


    We demonstrate for the first time that the phase shift in elastic positronium-atom scattering can be precisely determined by the confined variational method, in spite of the fact that the Hamiltonian includes an unphysical confining potential acting on the center of mass of the positron and one of the atomic electrons. As an example, we study the S-wave elastic scattering for the positronium-hydrogen scattering system, where the existing 4% discrepancy between the Kohn variational calculation and the R-matrix calculation is resolved. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  3. Simulation of transition dynamics to high confinement in fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Xu, G. S.; Madsen, Jens


    The transition dynamics from the low (L) to the high (H) confinement mode in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated using a first-principles four-field fluid model. Numerical results are in agreement with measurements from the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak - EAST. Particula...... are highly relevant for developing predictive models of the transition, essential for understanding and optimizing future fusion power reactors........ Particularly, the slow transition with an intermediate dithering phase is well reproduced at proper parameters. The model recovers the power threshold for the L-H transition as well as the decrease in power threshold switching from single to double null configuration observed experimentally. The results...

  4. Ladder Operators for Quantum Systems Confined by Dihedral Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Ley-Koo


    Full Text Available We report the identification and construction of raising and lowering operators for the complete eigenfunctions of isotropic harmonic oscillators confined by dihedral angles, in circular cylindrical and spherical coordinates; as well as for the hydrogen atom in the same situation of confinement, in spherical, parabolic and prolate spheroidal coordinates. The actions of such operators on any eigenfunction are examined in the respective coordinates, illustrating the possibility of generating the complete bases of eigenfunctions in the respective coordinates for both physical systems. The relationships between the eigenfunctions in each pair of coordinates, and with the same eigenenergies are also illustrated.

  5. Embedding beyond electrostatics-The role of wave function confinement. (United States)

    Nåbo, Lina J; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna; Solanko, Lukasz M; Wüstner, Daniel; Kongsted, Jacob


    We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π(∗) transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics. This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods.

  6. Nonlocal response in plasmonic waveguiding with extreme light confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Yan, Wei


    We present a novel wave equation for linearized plasmonic response, obtained by combining the coupled real-space differential equations for the electric field and current density. Nonlocal dynamics are fully accounted for, and the formulation is very well suited for numerical implementation......, allowing us to study waveguides with subnanometer cross-sections exhibiting extreme light confinement. We show that groove and wedge waveguides have a fundamental lower limit in their mode confinement, only captured by the nonlocal theory. The limitation translates into an upper limit for the corresponding...

  7. Optical response of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchianti, A; Marinelli, C; Mariotti, E; Bogi, A; Marmugi, L; Giomi, S; Maccari, M; Veronesi, S; Moi, L [CNISM and DSFTA, University of Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy)


    We study the influence of optical radiation on adsorption and desorption processes of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass matrices. Exposure of the sample to near-IR or visible light changes the atomic distribution inside the glass nanopores, forcing the entire system to evolve towards a different state. This effect, due to both atomic photodesorption and confinement, causes the growth and evaporation of metastable nanoparticles. It is shown that, by a proper choice of light characteristics and pore size, these processes can be controlled and tailored, thus opening new perspectives for fabrication of nanostructured surfaces. (nanoobjects)

  8. Aspects of Confinement and Screening in M theory

    CERN Document Server

    Elitzur, Shmuel; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Elitzur, Shmuel; Pelc, Oskar; Rabinovici, Eliezer


    Confinement and Screening are investigated in SUSY gauge theories, realized by an M5 brane configuration, extending an approach applied previously to N=1 SYM theory, to other models. The electric flux tubes are identified as M2 branes ending on the M5 branes and the conserved charge they carry is identified as a topological property. The group of charges carried by the flux tubes is calculated and the results agree in all cases considered with the field theoretical expectations. In particular, whenever the dynamical matter is expected to screen the confining force, this is reproduced correctly in the M theory realization.

  9. Step 1: Learn about Diabetes (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 1: Learn About Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of ... fewer problems with your eyesight, feet, and gums. Learn how caring for your diabetes helps you feel ...

  10. 7 Steps to Aging Well (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... 6. Don't Drink Too Much Why? The consequences of alcohol misuse are serious — in many cases, ...

  11. Stepped psychological care after stroke. (United States)

    Kneebone, Ian I


    Emotional difficulties are common after stroke and have an impact on rehabilitation outcome. It is a challenge to manage these problems effectively, particularly in times of resource stringency. One proposal for how to do this has arisen out of an approach to general mental health management: a system of 'stepped care'. Such a system directs intervention by considering level of need, thereby making the most efficient use of available resources. It is the purpose of this article to articulate a stepped psychological care approach for emotional problems after stroke. Narrative review and elaboration of the model proposed by the Department of Health in England for the management of emotional problems after stroke. A stepped care model for the management of emotional problems after stroke is presented in detail, including descriptions of specific interventions and guidance to inform the level of management. The stepped psychological care proposal for emotional problems after stroke requires evaluation but is potentially of use within comparable healthcare systems. Implications for Rehabilitation Emotional problems are common after stroke and effect rehabilitation outcomes. A stepped care approach to these problems offers the ability to cater to all according to need. Greater specification of the services at each step can be outlined. While recommended, such an approach requires evaluation to prove its efficacy.

  12. Evaluation of the Heading Confinement Pressure Effect on Ground Settlement for EPBTBM Using Full 3D Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Haghi


    Full Text Available Ground settlement is often the most serious concern when tunneling under an old city with numerous historic monuments. A successful engineering design under these conditions would require getting the most out of the ground strength parameters and avoiding any weakening maneuver throughout the operation. Knowing that surface settlement is highly affected by tunneling parameters in EPB shield tunneling lead us to estimate the optimum values for the machine heading pressure with the lower amount of the ground settlement in fragile structure of the old city for the Esfahan Subway Project. Tunnels were dug underneath some of the most prominent historical sites along the path of the project. To improve precision and efficiency in tunneling operation, at the first step, tunnel heading confinement pressure is calculated by using an advanced 3D mathematical approach based on the limit equilibrium theory. Then, a promoted 3D finite element model is developed, taking into account the tunneling procedures and the designed heading confinement pressure from the first step. Settlements were pre-calculated and the surface displacement was checked at all sensitive locations. At the third step, settlement is estimated by exerting executed face supporting pressure to the tunnel face and the concluded amounts for displacement are compared with the outputs of extensometers. This comparison leads us to check the reliability of calculated settlements and the accuracy of the designed tunnel heading confinement pressure. Furthermore, evaluating the relation between extensometer outputs and executed tunnel face pressure at the points of extensometers stations validates the assumption that the safe face supporting pressure causes least surface displacement. Although the minimum pressure occurred in short term fluctuations, this approach confirms the sensibility of settlement with the least executed face supporting pressure.. It is also found that higher executed face

  13. Transoral Robotic Surgery: Step-by-Step Radical Tonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Granell


    Full Text Available Introduction. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS radical tonsillectomy is an emerging minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of cancer of the tonsil. The detailed surgical technique and claims for its reproducibility have been previously published. Case Presentation. We present a patient with a T2N2bM0 epidermoid carcinoma of the tonsil to illustrate step by step the surgical procedure for TORS radical tonsillectomy. Neck dissection and TORS were staged. No surgical reconstruction of the defect was required. No tracheostomy was necessary. The patient could eat without any feeding tube and was on full oral diet on the fifth postoperative day. Discussion. The transoral approach offers the benefits of minimally invasive surgery to patients with cancer of the tonsil. The excellent exposure and high precision provided by robotic instrumentation allow the surgeon to closely follow and accomplish the surgical steps, which is the best warranty for safety and effectiveness.

  14. Multiphase flow in a confined geometry with Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, D.C.


    The research presented in this thesis is focused on the modelling of multiphase flow in a confined geometry with Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD). DPD is a particle-based mesoscopic simulation technique that obeys the Navier-Stokes equations and is particularly useful to model complex fluids and

  15. Electronic structure and lattice relaxations in quantum confined Pb films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, A.


    Epitaxial films that are only several atoms layers thick exhibit interesting properties associated with quantum confinement. The electrons form standing waves, just like a violin string, clamped at both ends. In ultrathin lead films, this so-called `quantum size effect' (QSE) alters the physical

  16. Enzymatic reactivity of glucose oxidase confined in nanochannels. (United States)

    Yu, Jiachao; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin


    The construction of nanodevices coupled with an integrated real-time detection system for evaluation of the function of biomolecules in biological processes, and enzymatic reaction kinetics occurring at the confined space or interface is a significant challenge. In this work, a nanochannel-enzyme system in which the enzymatic reaction could be investigated with an electrochemical method was constructed. The model system was established by covalently linking glucose oxidase (GOD) onto the inner wall of the nanochannels of the porous anodic alumina (PAA) membrane. An Au disc was attached at the end of the nanochannels of the PAA membrane as the working electrode for detection of H2O2 product of enzymatic reaction. The effects of ionic strength, amount of immobilized enzyme and pore diameter of the nanochannels on the enzymatic reaction kinetics were illustrated. The GOD confined in nanochannels showed high stability and reactivity. Upon addition of glucose to the nanochannel-enzyme system, the current response had a calibration range span from 0.005 to 2 mM of glucose concentration. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)(app)) of GOD confined in nanochannel was 0.4 mM. The presented work provided a platform for real-time monitoring of the enzyme reaction kinetics confined in nanospaces. Such a nanochannel-enzyme system could also help design future biosensors and enzyme reactors with high sensitivity and efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DFT reactivity indices in confined many-electron atoms + ∫

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    *For correspondence. DFT reactivity indices in confined many-electron atoms. JORGE GARZA1,*, RUBICELIA VARGAS1,*, NORBERTO AQUINO2 and K D SEN3. 1Departamento de Química, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma. Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina ...

  18. solution of confined seepage problems below hydraulic structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 1985 ... compared with those results obtained by exact solutions for the case of standard profiles like, horizontal floor with a central pile and floor with two piles. Finally using the optimum number of elements thus evolved, complicated boundary forms of hydraulic structures are considered for the solution of confined.

  19. Effects of Predamaged Level on Confined HSC Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Chau-Khun


    Full Text Available In the design of repair works for damaged concrete, an accurate and representative stress-strain model is of important. The stress-strain model for damaged high strength concrete (HSC repaired with post-tensioning steel straps confinement yet available, although the confining method has been proven to be effective in improving the performance of non-damaged HSC. A series of experimental test was carried out to investigate the stress-strain relationships of such concrete. A total of 24 HSC cylinders were compressed until certain damaged levels, then repaired by using steel straps. Two important parameters have been identified to have significant effects on the stress-strain relationship of such repaired concrete, namely the confining volumetric ratio and damaged levels. These parameters were incorporated into the development of stressstrain model, which later was shown to correlate well with the experimental results. This paper also has evidenced that existing stressstrain models of damaged concrete are not suitable to be directly applied to the design of repair works using post-tensioning steel straps confinement that produce external lateral stress on damaged columns before subsequent loading applied.

  20. Variational Perturbation Treatment of the Confined Hydrogen Atom (United States)

    Montgomery, H. E., Jr.


    The Schrodinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the…

  1. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.


    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  2. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention...

  3. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL...

  4. Acoustic confinement and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Poulton, Christopher G; Eggleton, Benjamin J


    We examine the effect of acoustic mode confinement on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in optical waveguides that consist of a guiding core embedded in a solid substrate. We find that SBS can arise due to coupling to acoustic modes in three different regimes. First, the acoustic modes may be guided by total internal reflection; in this case the SBS gain depends directly on the degree of confinement of the acoustic mode in the core, which is in turn determined by the acoustic V-parameter. Second, the acoustic modes may be leaky, but may nevertheless have a sufficiently long lifetime to have a large effect on the SBS gain; the lifetime of acoustic modes in this regime depends not only on the contrast in acoustic properties between the core and the cladding, but is also highly dependent on the waveguide dimensions. Finally SBS may occur due to coupling to free modes, which exist even in the absence of acoustic confinement; we find that the cumulative effect of coupling to these non-confined modes results in signi...

  5. Diffusion of hydrocarbons in confined media: Translational and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diffusion of monatomic guest species within confined media has been understood to a good degree due to investigations carried out during the past decade and a half. Most guest species that are of industrial relevance are actually polyatomics such as, for example, hydrocarbons in zeolites. We attempt to investigate the ...

  6. Solution of Confined Seepage Problems below Hydraulic Structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confined seepage problems below hydraulic structures using finite element method are investigated. The foundations are assumed to be infinite with homogeneous and isotropic conditions. Three different types of elements with varying mesh sizes are used for comparing the finite element results with those of exact ...

  7. Multiple-scale turbulence model in confined swirling jet predictions (United States)

    Chen, C. P.


    A recently developed multiple-scale turbulence model which attempts to circumvent the deficiencies of earlier models by taking nonequilibrium spectral energy transfer into account is presented. The model's validity is tested by predicting the confined swirling coaxial jet flow in a sudden expansion. It is noted that, in order to account for anisotropic turbulence, a full Reynolds stress model is required.

  8. Imprinting of confining sites for cell cultures on thermoplastic substrates (United States)

    Cone, C. D.; Fleenor, E. N.


    Prevention of test cell migration beyond the field of observation involves confining cells or cultures in microlagoons made in either a layer of grease or a thermoplastic substrate. Thermoplastic films or dishes are easily imprinted with specifically designed patterns of microlagoons.

  9. Electron-hole confinement symmetry in silicon quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, F.; Mueller, Filipp; Konstantaras, Georgios; Spruijtenburg, P.C.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Zwanenburg, Floris Arnoud


    We report electrical transport measurements on a gate-defined ambipolar quantum dot in intrinsic silicon. The ambipolarity allows its operation as either an electron or a hole quantum dot of which we change the dot occupancy by 20 charge carriers in each regime. Electron−hole confinement symmetry is

  10. Hydrophobic Ice Confined between Graphene and MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Teernstra, V.J.; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene


    The structure and nature of water confined between hydrophobic molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and graphene (Gr) are investigated at room temperature by means of atomic force microscopy. We find the formation of two-dimensional (2D) crystalline ice layers. In contrast to the hexagonal ice “bilayers” of

  11. Quantification of the confinement effect in microporous materials. (United States)

    García, Edder J; Pérez-Pellitero, Javier; Jallut, Christian; Pirngruber, Gerhard D


    The confinement effect plays a key role in physisorption in microporous materials and many other systems. Confinement is related to the relationship between the pore geometry (pore size and topology) and the geometry of the adsorbed molecule. Geometric properties of the porous solid can be described using the concepts of Gaussian and mean curvatures. In this work we show that the Gaussian and mean curvatures are suited descriptors for mathematically quantifying the confinement of small molecules in porous solids. A method to determine these geometric parameters on microporous materials is presented. The new methodology is based on the reconstruction of the solid's accessible surface. Then, a numerical calculation of the Gaussian and mean curvatures is carried out over the reconstructed mesh. On the one hand, we show that the local curvature can be used to identify the most favourable adsorption sites. On the other hand, the global mean curvature of the solid is correlated to the heat of adsorption of CO2 and CH4 on several zeolites and MOFs. A theoretical justification for this empirical correlation is provided. In conclusion, our methodology allows for a semi-quantitative estimation of confinement, applicable to any pore geometry, independent of the chemical composition, and without the need for applying a force field.

  12. Polymer mixtures in confined geometries: Model systems to explore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While binary (A,B) symmetric polymer mixtures in = 3 dimensions have an unmixing critical point that belongs to the 3 Ising universality class and crosses over to mean field behavior for very long chains, the critical behavior of mixtures confined into thin film geometry falls in the 2 Ising class irrespective of chain length.

  13. A study of an advanced confined linear energy source (United States)

    Anderson, M. C.; Heidemann, W. B.


    A literature survey and a test program to develop and evaluate an advanced confined linear energy source were conducted. The advanced confined linear energy source is an explosive or pyrotechnic X-Cord (mild detonating fuse) supported inside a confining tube capable of being hermetically sealed and retaining all products of combustion. The energy released by initiation of the X-Cord is transmitted through the support material to the walls of the confining tube causing an appreciable change in cross sectional configuration and expansion of the tube. When located in an assembly that can accept and use the energy of the tube expansion, useful work is accomplished through fracture of a structure, movement of a load, reposition of a pin, release of a restraint, or similar action. The tube assembly imparts that energy without release of debris or gases from the device itself. This facet of the function is important to the protection of men or equipment located in close proximity to the system during the time of function.

  14. Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea fowl is a common game bird in Africa and there have been efforts to domesticate it for use as a source of human food. An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg ...

  15. Confinement Spectroscopy: Probing Single DNA Molecules with Tapered Nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Fredrik; Utko, Pawel; Reisner, Walter


    We demonstrate a confinement spectroscopy technique capable of probing small conformational changes of unanchored single DNA molecules in a manner analogous to force spectroscopy, in the regime corresponding to femtonewton forces. In contrast to force spectroscopy, various structural forms of DNA...

  16. Boredom and Action—Experiences from Youth Confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt


    Few studies have examined boredom as a central experience of everyday life. This article adds to the boredom-related literature by examining the role of boredom and boredom-aversion in the everyday life of young people confined in secure care for young offenders. Data are primarily drawn from...

  17. Current barriers to confine high frequency common mode currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, Dominicus Johannes Guilielmus; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes


    A commercially produced three phase power line filter is submitted to a Current Barrier (CB) Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) zoning strategy as an attempt to confine high frequency common mode currents. The intent of the paper is not to show how to build a ’perfect’ filter, since this is known.

  18. Tactical operations in confined and shallow waters (TOPICS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, J.; Vermeulen, J.F.J.


    The tasks of navies have shifted towards crisis management and surveillance operations. Searching for a conventional submarine in confined and shallow waters in times of crisis becomes more and more important, The Operations Research model TOPICS should provide the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN with

  19. Self-Assembly of Magnetic Colloids in Soft Confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.


    The central theme in this thesis is the effect of the soft confinements consisting of molecular microtubes and fluid interfaces, on the self-assembly of colloids. We have specially focused on the synthesis of magnetic colloids and the magnetic responses of self-assembled structures including

  20. Conditional electron confinement in graphene via smooth magnetic fields (United States)

    Le, Dai-Nam; Le, Van-Hoang; Roy, Pinaki


    In this article we discuss confinement of electrons in graphene via smooth magnetic fields which are finite everywhere on the plane. We shall consider two types of magnetic fields leading to systems which are conditionally exactly solvable and quasi exactly solvable. The bound state energies and wavefunctions in both cases have been found exactly.

  1. Structure and dynamics of confined alcohol-water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Witteveen, J.P.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Lohse, Detlef; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.


    The effect of confinement between mica and graphene on the structure and dynamics of alcohol–water mixtures has been studied in situ and in real time at the molecular level by atomic force microscopy (AFM) at room temperature. AFM images reveal that the adsorbed molecules are segregated into faceted

  2. Wigner time delay and spin-orbit activated confinement resonances (United States)

    Keating, D. A.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.


    A study of the photoionization of spin-orbit split subshells of high-Z atoms confined in C60 has been performed using the relativistic-random-phase approximation. Specifically, Hg@C60 5p, Rn@C60 6p and Ra@C60 5d were investigated and the near-threshold confinement resonances in the j = l - 1/2 channels were found to engender structures in the j = l + 1/2 cross sections via correlation in the form of interchannel coupling. These structures are termed spin-orbit induced confinement resonances and they are found to profoundly influence the Wigner time delay spectrum resulting in time delays of tens or hundreds of attoseconds along with dramatic swings in time delay over small energy intervals. Pronounced relativistic effects in time delay are also found. These structures, including their manifestation in time delay spectra, are expected to be general phenomena in the photoionization of spin-orbit doublets in confined high-Z atoms.

  3. Reactivity within a confined self-assembled nanospace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koblenz, T.S.; Wassenaar, J.; Reek, J.N.H.


    Confined nanospaces in which reactions can take place, have been created by various approaches such as molecular capsules, zeolites and micelles. In this tutorial review we focus on the application of self-assembled nanocapsules with well-defined cavities as nanoreactors for organic and metal

  4. Screening ventilation strategies for confined-space manure storage facilities. (United States)

    Pesce, E P; Zhao, J; Manbeck, H B; Murphy, D J


    Fatalities associated with entry into on-farm confined-space manure storage facilities occur each year. The fatalities are due to asphyxiation or poisoning by exposure to high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide. Forced ventilation has been shown to be an effective way to reduce concentrations of noxious gases to levels that are safe for human entry into these storage facilities. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was used as an indicator gas to investigate the effectiveness of forced-air ventilation strategies for eliminating the toxic and oxygen-deficient atmosphere in confined-space manure storage facilities. This article focuses on experimental methods for identifying ventilation strategies that effectively reduce toxic gas (i.e., H2S) concentrations in a fan-ventilated confined-space manure tank to the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) (H2S PEL = 10 ppm) and to 25% of the initial gas concentration. Typical H2S concentration reduction curves during forced-air ventilation were identified in the tank as well. Based on the experimental tests conducted in this research, the most promising candidate ventilation strategies were identified for this rectangular confined-space manure tank with solid, fully slotted, and partially slotted covers. In addition, based on the results of experimental tests, a field-based database was developed for future validation of computational fluid dynamics modeling protocols.

  5. Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbagiovanni, Eric G., E-mail: [Laboratory for Simulation of Physical Systems, Beijing Computational Science Research Centre, Beijing 100084 (China); Lockwood, David J. [National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Simpson, Peter J.; Goncharova, Lyudmila V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)


    The role of quantum confinement (QC) in Si and Ge nanostructures (NSs) including quantum dots, quantum wires, and quantum wells is assessed under a wide variety of fabrication methods in terms of both their structural and optical properties. Structural properties include interface states, defect states in a matrix material, and stress, all of which alter the electronic states and hence the measured optical properties. We demonstrate how variations in the fabrication method lead to differences in the NS properties, where the most relevant parameters for each type of fabrication method are highlighted. Si embedded in, or layered between, SiO{sub 2}, and the role of the sub-oxide interface states embodies much of the discussion. Other matrix materials include Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Si NSs exhibit a complicated optical spectrum, because the coupling between the interface states and the confined carriers manifests with varying magnitude depending on the dimension of confinement. Ge NSs do not produce well-defined luminescence due to confined carriers, because of the strong influence from oxygen vacancy defect states. Variations in Si and Ge NS properties are considered in terms of different theoretical models of QC (effective mass approximation, tight binding method, and pseudopotential method). For each theoretical model, we discuss the treatment of the relevant experimental parameters.

  6. Intrinsic Flow and Momentum Transport during Improved Confinement in MST (United States)

    Craig, D.; Tan, E.; Schott, B.; Anderson, J. K.; Boguski, J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Xing, Z. A.


    Progress in absolute wavelength calibration of the Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CHERS) system on MST has enabled new observations and analysis of intrinsic flow and momentum transport. Localized toroidal and poloidal flow measurements with systematic accuracy of +/- 3 km/s have been obtained during improved confinement Pulsed Parallel Current Drive (PPCD) plasmas at high plasma current (400-500 kA). The magnetic activity prior to and during the transition to improved confinement tends to increase the flow and sets the initial condition for the momentum profile evolution during improved confinement where intrinsic flow drive appears to weaken. Inboard flows change in time during PPCD, consistent with changes in the core-resonant m =1, n =6 tearing mode phase velocity. Outboard flows near the magnetic axis are time-independent, resulting in the development of a strongly sheared toroidal flow in the core and asymmetry in the poloidal flow profile. The deceleration of the n =6 mode during the period of improved confinement correlates well with the n =6 mode amplitude and is roughly consistent with the expected torque from eddy currents in the conducting shell. The level of Dα emission and secondary mode amplitudes (n =7-10) do not correlate with the mode deceleration suggesting that the momentum loss from charge exchange with neutrals and diffusion due to residual magnetic stochasticity are not significant in PPCD. This work has been supported by the U.S.D.O.E.

  7. Spatial confinement can lead to increased stability of amorphous indomethacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Gordon, Keith C.


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the physical stability of amorphous indomethacin can be improved by separating the drug material into small units by the use of microcontainers. Crystallisation from the spatially confined amorphous indomethacin in the microcontainers was determined...

  8. Self-organized structures in soft confined thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These very small scale, highly confined systems are inherently unstable and thus self-organize into ordered structures which can be exploited for MEMS, sensors, opto-electronic devices and a host of other nanotechnology applications. In particular, mesomechanics requires incorporation of intermolecular interactions and ...

  9. Brucellosis in pastoral and confined livestock: prevention and vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, H. L.


    The traditional lifestyle and beliefs of pastoralists and small-scale farmers with confined livestock, together with certain farming environments, create favourable conditions for the spread and transmission of brucellosis. The risks associated with these practices are difficult to control because

  10. Polymer mixtures in confined geometries: Model systems to explore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. While binary (A,B) symmetric polymer mixtures in d = 3 dimensions have an unmixing critical point that belongs to the 3d Ising universality class and crosses over to mean field behavior for very long chains, the critical behavior of mixtures confined into thin film geometry falls in the 2d Ising class irrespective of chain ...

  11. THz quantum-confined Stark effect in semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, Boris S.; Livshits, Daniil A.


    We demonstrate an instantaneous all-optical manipulation of optical absorption at the ground state of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) via a quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) induced by the electric field of incident THz pulses with peak electric fields reaching 200 kV/cm in the free space...

  12. Molecular modeling in confined polymer and biomembrane systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeeta Ghosh


    Full Text Available The computational study of soft materials under confinement for bio- and nanotechnology still poses significantchallenges but has come a long way in the last decade. It is possible to realistically model and understand the fundamentalmechanisms which are at play if soft materials are confined to nanometer dimensions. Here, we present several recentexamples of such studies. Thin polymer films are abundantly used as friction modifiers or steric stabilizers. We show howsystematic modeling can shed light on the interplay between entropic and energetic interactions. Thin glassy films arecritical for the success of nanolithography. For that we have to understand the effect of confinement on the glass transitionbehavior in order to guarantee the stability and integrity of the lithographic masks. Simulations aim to understand the fundamental differences in the densities of states of glass formers in bulk and under confinement. With the advent of bionanotechnology the structure and phase behavior of lipid membranes as models for cellular membranes at the nano scale length is of importance due to implications in understanding the role of the lipids in biochemical membrane processes.

  13. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects (United States)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica


    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  14. Microsoft Windows Sharepoint Services 3.0 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Londer, Olga; Bleeker, Todd; Coventry, Penelope


    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Windows SharePoint Services to enable effective team collaboration. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build your own SharePoint site with easy-to-use templatesCreate lists and libraries to store informationAdd discussion boards, wikis, and blogsSet up Document and Meeting Workspaces for easy collaborationShare calendars, contacts, and data from Microsoft Office programsCustomize your pages with Web Parts Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Fi

  15. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope


    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  16. Information marketing business entrepreneur's step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur


    A six-figure income from information? Yes! It sounds easy because it is. You've got information that millions of others are looking for and now you can learn how to package, price and sell it.The experts at Entrepreneur take you step by step, jumpstarting your thinking about your area of expertise and showing you how to convert it into a high-demand information product. Following the example set by today's most successful information marketers, you learn the ins and outs of running your own information marketing business using proven strategies and effective marketing techniques.

  17. Microsoft® Office Access™ 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Steve; Lambert, Joan


    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to build database solutions with Access 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build databases from scratch or from templatesExchange data with other databases and Office documentsCreate forms to simplify data entryUse filters and queries to find and analyze informationDesign rich reports that help make your data meaningfulHelp prevent data corruption and unauthorized access Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Files for building skills and practic

  18. Four steps to two sexes. (United States)

    Hutson, V; Law, R


    Four steps through which parasitic intracellular symbionts could bring about the evolution of two sexes are considered. In the first step, a primitive host population has biparental cytoplasmic inheritance and lacks gametic differentiation: parasitic cytoplasmic elements readily invade and spread by vertical transmission through such host populations, even if they have major deleterious effects on their hosts. The second step leads to the establishment of a nuclear mutant in the host (locus A) that prevents inheritance of the cytoplasm in gametes in which it occurs. This mutant comes to equilibrium at an intermediate frequency, because a double dose of symbionts is more deleterious than a single dose, and zygotes lacking cytoplasm from both gametes are inviable. The third step involves the spread of a mutant at another nuclear locus (B), causing self-incompatibility of gametes in which it occurs. If this is closely linked to locus A, the mutant may become established by preventing the deleterious gamete unions. The mutant at locus B must, however, start both with an appreciable frequency and be in gametic disequilibrium with locus A. In the fourth step a second mutation causing self-incompatibility occurs at locus B. This allele spreads by becoming associated with the other allele at locus A, eventually leaving the population with two gamete types, or sexes, one predominantly transmitting the cytoplasm, and the other eliminating it. It is argued that this is a feasible mechanism for the origin of two sexes.

  19. Inertial Confinement Fusion R&D and Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston


    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R&D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  20. Hydrodynamic pairing of soft particles in a confined flow (United States)

    Aouane, O.; Farutin, A.; Thiébaud, M.; Benyoussef, A.; Wagner, C.; Misbah, C.


    The mechanism of hydrodynamics-induced pairing of soft particles, namely closed bilayer membranes (vesicles, a model system for red blood cells) and drops, is studied numerically with a special attention paid to the role of the confinement (the particles are within two rigid walls). This study unveils the complexity of the pairing mechanism due to hydrodynamic interactions. We find both for vesicles and for drops that two particles attract each other and form a stable pair at weak confinement if their initial separation is below a certain value. If the initial separation is beyond that distance, the particles repel each other and adopt a longer stable interdistance. This means that for the same confinement we have (at least) two stable branches. To which branch a pair of particles relaxes with time depends only on the initial configuration. An unstable branch is found between these two stable branches. At a critical confinement the stable branch corresponding to the shortest interdistance merges with the unstable branch in the form of a saddle-node bifurcation. At this critical confinement we have a finite jump from a solution corresponding to the continuation of the unbounded case to a solution which is induced by the presence of walls. The results are summarized in a phase diagram, which proves to be of a complex nature. The fact that both vesicles and drops have the same qualitative phase diagram points to the existence of a universal behavior, highlighting the fact that with regard to pairing the details of mechanical properties of the deformable particles are unimportant. This offers an interesting perspective for simple analytical modeling.

  1. Emergency cricothyrotomy in confined space airway emergencies: a comparison. (United States)

    Givens, Gregory C; Shelton, Stephen L; Brown, Eric A


    In confined-space airway emergencies, prehospital personnel may need to perform cricothyrotomy when conventional airway techniques cannot be utilized or have failed. This study is a prospective, cross-over, randomized controlled trial that compares two widely-known techniques using two commercially available kits. Twenty residents at Palmetto Health Richland Department of Emergency Medicine participated in the study. Their performance was assessed using the time required to placement and correctness of placement for each device. The residents performed the procedures on an Air-Man™ manikin that had been situated in a confined space.The residents also indicated which kit they would prefer in a confined-space, emergency airway situation. All of the devices were placed in the airway. The mean time to placement for the Melker™ and Quicktrach™ kits was 108.5 seconds and 23.9 seconds, respectively. This yielded a mean difference of 84.5 seconds, which provided a t-statistic of 8.88 (p < 0.0001).There was no evidence of a carry-over effect (p = 0.292) or a period effect (p = 0.973). All residents preferred using the Quicktrach™ kit. Use of the Quicktrach™ kit resulted in the fastest time to placement, was placed correctly in the airway, and was preferred by each of the residents. Its small, simple,and sturdy design, with few parts and easy manipulation, allow the Quicktrach™ to be a valuable option in prehospital situations involving confined spaces. The Melker™ kit, with its many parts, and need for greater manipulation, is not as easily utilized or preferred in a confined space scenario.

  2. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step. (United States)

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana


    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Numerical simulation of rock fragmentation during cutting by conical picks under confining pressure (United States)

    Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibo; Ge, Shirong; Malekian, Reza; Li, Zhixiong


    In this article, the effect of confining pressure on rock fragmentation process during cutting was investigated by numerical simulation with a discrete element method (DEM). Four kinds of sandstones with different physical properties were simulated in the rock cutting models under different confining pressures. The rock fragmentation process, the cutting force, and the specific energy under different confining pressures were analyzed. With the increase in confining pressure and rock strength, the vertical propagation of cracks was restrained. Rock samples were compacted and strengthened by confining pressure resulting in the increase of the cutting force. The specific energy of rock cutting linearly increased with the increase of the confining pressure ratio.

  4. Step by step male to female transsexual surgery. (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Uliano Moser; Abreu, Fernando Jahn da Silva; da Silva, Gabriel M V; Dos Santos, João Vitor Quadra Vieira; Batezini, Nelson Sivonei da Silva; Silva, Brasil; Rosito, Tiago Elias


    After the diagnosis of transsexualism is confirmed therapy commences with psychotherapeutic preparation for the conversion, and after conversion, long-term patient rehabilitation is maintained for at least two years. The indication for surgery is chronic discomfort caused by discord with the patient's natural gender, intense dislike of developing secondary sex characteristics and the onset of puberty. The surgical conversion of transsexuals is the main step in the complex care of these problematic patients (1). This surgery was first described by Benjamin H, using a flap of inverted penile skin (2) and is considered the gold standard since then. Male-to-female transsexual surgical techniques are well defined and give good cosmetic and functional results. Sex reassignment surgery promotes the improvement of psychological aspects and social relationships as shown in the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment applied in the patients submitted to this procedure (3). Techniques include the creation of a normal appearing female introitus, a vaginoplasty allowing sexual intercourse and the capability of clitoral orgasm (4). Various methods for neovaginoplasty have been described and can be classified into five categories, i.e. pedicled intestinal transplants, penile skin grafts, penile skin flaps, non-genital skin flaps and non-genital skin grafts (5). In our Hospital, we use penile and scrotal skin flaps. Until now, 174 procedures have been performed by our team using this technique with high rates of satisfaction (3). We present a step-by-step male to female transsexual surgery. Surgical gender reassignment of male transsexuals resulted in replicas of female genitalia which enabled coitus with orgasm (1). With this video we show step by step that a surgery using penile skin flaps is able to be performed with good cosmetic results. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  5. Microfluidic step-emulsification in a cylindrical geometry (United States)

    Chakraborty, Indrajit; Leshansky, Alexander M.


    The model microfluidic device for high-throughput droplet generation in a confined cylindrical geometry is investigated numerically. The device comprises of core-annular pressure-driven flow of two immiscible viscous liquids through a cylindrical capillary connected co-axially to a tube of a larger diameter through a sudden expansion, mimicking the microfluidic step-emulsifier (1). To study this problem, the numerical simulations of axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations have been carried out using an interface capturing procedure based on coupled level set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) methods. The accuracy of the numerical method was favorably tested vs. the predictions of the linear stability analysis of core-annular two-phase flow in a cylindrical capillary. Three distinct flow regimes can be identified: the dripping (D) instability near the entrance to the capillary, the step- (S) and the balloon- (B) emulsification at the step-like expansion. Based on the simulation results we present the phase diagram quantifying transitions between various regimes in plane of the capillary number and the flow-rate ratio. MICROFLUSA EU H2020 project.

  6. Needed Computations Shortcutting Needed Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoy, Sergio; Johannsen, Jacob; Libby, Steven

    We define a compilation scheme for a constructor-based strongly-sequential graph rewriting system which shortcuts some needed steps. The result of this compilation is another constructor-based graph rewriting system that is normalizing for the original system when using an innermost strategy. We...... then modify the resulting rewrite sytem in a way that avoids totally or partially the construction of the contracta of some needed steps of a computation. The resulting rewrite system can be easily implemented by eager functions in a variety of programming languages. When computing normal forms in this way...

  7. Numerical modeling of the transition from low to high confinement in magnetically confined plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens


    including both open and closed field lines. The results reveal different types of L–H-like transitions in response to ramping up the input power by increasing the ion temperature in the edge region. For a fast rising input power we obtain an abrupt transition, and for a slow rising power we obtain a L......–I–H transition with an intermediate I-phase displaying limit-cycle oscillations (LCO). The model recovers the power threshold for the L–H transition, the scaling of the threshold with the density and with the loss-rate in the SOL, indicating a decrease in power threshold when switching from single to double null...... configuration. The results hold promises for developing full predictive modeling of the L–H transition, which is an essential step in understanding and optimizing fusion devices....

  8. Stepped-impedance phase shifters

    CERN Document Server

    Faltin, L


    A coupled-line phase shifter can be decomposed in two lines of stepped characteristic impedances, interconnected by a 180 degrees hybrid. This network permits phase responses which cannot be realised with coupled lines. Practical simplifications are possible by omitting one of the two lines or by using a 90 degrees hybrid. (5 refs).

  9. Step sites in syngas catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup-Nielsen, J.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative explanat...

  10. Stepping out: dare to step forward, step back, or just stand still and breathe. (United States)

    Waisman, Mary Sue


    It is important to step out and make a difference. We have one of the most unique and diverse professions that allows for diversity in thought and practice, permitting each of us to grow in our unique niches and make significant contributions. I was frightened to 'step out' to go to culinary school at the age of 46, but it changed forever the way I look at my profession and I have since experienced the most enjoyable and innovative career. There are also times when it is important to 'step back' to relish the roots of our profession; to help bring food back into nutrition; to translate all of our wonderful science into a language of food that Canadians understand. We all need to take time to 'just stand still and breathe': to celebrate our accomplishments, reflect on our actions, ensure we are heading toward our vision, keep the profession vibrant and relevant, and cherish one another.

  11. Detecting bacteria and Determining Their Susceptibility to Antibiotics by Stochastic Confinement in Nanoliter Droplets using Plug-Based Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedicker, J.; Li, L; Kline, T; Ismagilov, R


    This article describes plug-based microfluidic technology that enables rapid detection and drug susceptibility screening of bacteria in samples, including complex biological matrices, without pre-incubation. Unlike conventional bacterial culture and detection methods, which rely on incubation of a sample to increase the concentration of bacteria to detectable levels, this method confines individual bacteria into droplets nanoliters in volume. When single cells are confined into plugs of small volume such that the loading is less than one bacterium per plug, the detection time is proportional to plug volume. Confinement increases cell density and allows released molecules to accumulate around the cell, eliminating the pre-incubation step and reducing the time required to detect the bacteria. We refer to this approach as stochastic confinement. Using the microfluidic hybrid method, this technology was used to determine the antibiogram - or chart of antibiotic sensitivity - of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to many antibiotics in a single experiment and to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug cefoxitin (CFX) against this strain. In addition, this technology was used to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus in samples of human blood plasma. High-throughput microfluidic techniques combined with single-cell measurements also enable multiple tests to be performed simultaneously on a single sample containing bacteria. This technology may provide a method of rapid and effective patient-specific treatment of bacterial infections and could be extended to a variety of applications that require multiple functional tests of bacterial samples on reduced timescales.

  12. Dissecting a complex neurosurgical illustration: step-by-step development. (United States)

    Suk, Ian


    Modern computer graphics software has enabled the medical illustrator to render very complex anatomy by composing many different layers of drawings simultaneously. This and the author's capacity to take an "editorial" approach to compress several chronological events into a single, comprehensive two-dimensional illustration are analyzed in a step-by-step process. Through a series of images, the article provides a visual synopsis of the development of an illustration for an extensive clinical case: total sacrectomy performed through an all-posterior approach. Originally given as a slide presentation at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons Theodore Kurze Lecture in April 2011, the article provides some detailed notes on the techniques the author used to develop a comprehensive neurosurgical illustration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi A. Black


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined on: (1 lying behaviour and activity; (2 feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3 intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14 or pasture ( n = 14 using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d, lying bouts (bouts/d, steps (steps/d and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum, close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum, calving (calving date and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum. Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less

  14. Suppression of instabilities in multiphase flow by geometric confinement. (United States)

    Humphry, Katherine J; Ajdari, Armand; Fernández-Nieves, Alberto; Stone, Howard A; Weitz, David A


    We investigate the effect of confinement on drop formation in microfluidic devices. The presence or absence of drop formation is studied for two immiscible coflowing liquids in a microfluidic channel, where the channel width is considerably larger than the channel height. We show that stability of the inner fluid thread depends on the channel geometry: when the width of the inner fluid is comparable to or larger than the channel height, hydrodynamic instabilities are suppressed, and a stable jet that does not break into drops results; otherwise, the inner fluid breaks into drops, in either a dripping or jetting regime. We present a model that accounts for the data and experimentally exploit this effect of geometric confinement to induce the breakup of a jet at a spatially defined location.

  15. Revisiting blob theory for DNA diffusivity in slitlike confinement. (United States)

    Dai, Liang; Tree, Douglas R; van der Maarel, Johan R C; Dorfman, Kevin D; Doyle, Patrick S


    Blob theory has been widely applied to describe polymer conformations and dynamics in nanoconfinement. In slit confinement, blob theory predicts a scaling exponent of 2/3 for polymer diffusivity as a function of slit height, yet a large body of experimental studies using DNA produce a scaling exponent significantly less than 2/3. In this work, we develop a theory that predicts that this discrepancy occurs because the segment correlation function for a semiflexible chain such as DNA does not follow the Flory exponent for length scales smaller than the persistence length. We show that these short length scale effects contribute significantly to the scaling for the DNA diffusivity, but do not appreciably affect the scalings for static properties. Our theory is fully supported by Monte Carlo simulations, quantitative agreement with DNA experiments, and the results reconcile this outstanding problem for confined polymers.

  16. Computer simulation of confined and flexoelectric liquid crystalline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barmes, F


    In this Thesis, systems of confined and flexoelectric liquid crystal systems have been studied using molecular computer simulations. The aim of this work was to provide a molecular model of a bistable display cell in which switching is induced through the application of directional electric field pulses. In the first part of this Thesis, the study of confined systems of liquid crystalline particles has been addressed. Computation of the anchoring phase diagrams for three different surface interaction models showed that the hard needle wall and rod-surface potentials induce both planar and homeotropic alignment separated by a bistability region, this being stronger and wider for the rod-surface varant. The results obtained using the rod-sphere surface model, in contrast, showed that tilled surface arrangements can be induced by surface absorption mechanisms. Equivalent studies of hybrid anchored systems showed that a bend director structure can be obtained in a slab with monostable homeotropic anchoring at the...

  17. Micelle confined mechanistic pathway for 4-nitrophenol reduction. (United States)

    Roy, Anindita; Debnath, Biplab; Sahoo, Ramkrishna; Aditya, Teresa; Pal, Tarasankar


    The model 4-nitrophenol reduction has been carried out by different groups in presence of metallic or even non-metallic catalyst elaborating different mechanistic aspects. In the present investigation, we have thoroughly studied the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol in a completely metal free homogeneous condition. The introduction of a non-fluorescent probe unequivocally generates a fluorescent molecule that indirectly justifies the anion radical stabilization in the micelle. The reduction mechanism under metal-free condition was proposed and the concept of stabilization of anion radical transition state of 4-nitrophenol at the positively charged Stern layer of anionic micelle was established. The plausible reduction mechanism has also enlightened the graphene-like conducting property of Stern layer of the homogeneous micellar system. Furthermore, the confinement effect for catalysis has also been authenticated by supporting experimental evidences. The borrowed concept of catalysis in confinement drives the catalytic study to a new era of catalysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.


    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...... to the mean component of the flow. Bursting can also result from the quasi-linear modification of the linear instability drive which is the mean pressure gradient. For each bursting process the relevant zero-dimensional model equations are given. These are finally coupled in a minimal model of convection...

  19. Confined States and Tunnelling in Gated Graphene Nanoribbons (United States)

    Guilleminot, E.,; Meza-Montes, L.

    Graphene Quantum Dots (GQDs) are promising candidates for the development of quantum information processors. We propose a scheme to determine electronic states of GQDs as defined by voltage gates applied to armchair graphene nanoribbons. Using transfer matrix method based on the set of solutions proposed by Burkard et al ., we study confined states of double wells and the transmission of electrons through double barrier systems. Comparison with previous results for systems on the graphene sheet shows good agreement. Confined states of a double well turn out to be very sensitive to deformation of the potential profile, showing strong localization of the electron for asymmetric systems, which also depends on the considered state. Spikes of high transmission appeared for periodic values of the incident angle of the electron travelling through a double barrier and disappear as the systems approaches to a single barrier as one barrier vanishes. We remark effects not shown in usual semiconductor heterostructures. Partially supported by VIEP-BUAP, Mexico,.

  20. Detection of Seed Methods for Quantification of Feature Confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Bouwers, Eric; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard


    The way features are implemented in source code has a significant influence on multiple quality aspects of a software system. Hence, it is important to regularly evaluate the quality of feature confinement. Unfortunately, existing approaches to such measurement rely on expert judgement for tracing...... links between features and source code which hinders the ability to perform cost-efficient and consistent evaluations over time or on a large portfolio of systems. In this paper, we propose an approach to automating measurement of feature confinement by detecting the methods which play a central role...... in implementations of features, the so-called seed methods, and using them as starting points for a static slicing algorithm. We show that this approach achieves the same level of performance compared to the use of manually identified seed methods. Furthermore we illustrate the scalability of the approach...

  1. Confinement from semiclassical gluon fields in SU(2) gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Langfeld, Kurt


    The infrared structure of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is studied by means of lattice gauge simulations using a new constrained cooling technique. This method reduces the action while all Polyakov lines on the lattice remain unchanged. In contrast to unconstrained cooling, quark confinement is still intact. A study of the Hessian of the Yang-Mills action shows that low action (semi-) classical configurations can be achieved, with a characteristic splitting between collective modes and higher momentum modes. Besides confinement, the semiclassical configurations also support the topological susceptibility and generate spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry.We show that they possess a cluster structure of locally mainly (anti-) selfdual objects. By contrast to an instanton or a meron medium, the topological charge of individual clusters is smoothly distributed.

  2. Domain wall network as QCD vacuum: confinement, chiral symmetry, hadronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelko Sergei N.


    Full Text Available An approach to QCD vacuum as a medium describable in terms of statistical ensemble of almost everywhere homogeneous Abelian (anti-self-dual gluon fields is reviewed. These fields play the role of the confining medium for color charged fields as well as underline the mechanism of realization of chiral SUL(Nf × SUR(Nf and UA(1 symmetries. Hadronization formalism based on this ensemble leads to manifestly defined quantum effective meson action. Strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions of mesons are represented in the action in terms of nonlocal n-point interaction vertices given by the quark-gluon loops averaged over the background ensemble. Systematic results for the mass spectrum and decay constants of radially excited light, heavy-light mesons and heavy quarkonia are presented. Relationship of this approach to the results of functional renormalization group and Dyson-Schwinger equations, and the picture of harmonic confinement is briefly outlined.

  3. Interface-Controlled Motility of Photoactive Microalgae in Confinement (United States)

    Ostapenko, Tanya; Kreis, Christian T.; Baeumchen, Oliver

    The natural habitats of many biological microorganisms include complex interfaces and varying environmental conditions. For flagellated microalgae swimming in an aqueous medium, we showed that the curvature of the compartment wall governs their motility in geometric confinement. This curvature-guided motility results in long detention times towards the interface, which we determined from the analysis of individual cell trajectories. For puller-type microswimmers, the precise nature of their flagella-wall interactions are important. We discovered a way to control these interactions for photoactive microalgae by manipulating the adhesiveness of their flagella in light. Here, we report on the swimming dynamics of single photoactive microalgae in two-dimensional microfluidic chambers under different light conditions. We find that their motility can be switched reversibly in confinement, which could be exploited for use in biological optical traps and wastewater decontamination.

  4. Tailoring nanoscopic confines to maximize catalytic activity of hydronium ions (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Eckstein, Sebastian; Vjunov, Aleksei; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.


    Acid catalysis by hydronium ions is ubiquitous in aqueous-phase organic reactions. Here we show that hydronium ion catalysis, exemplified by intramolecular dehydration of cyclohexanol, is markedly influenced by steric constraints, yielding turnover rates that increase by up to two orders of magnitude in tight confines relative to an aqueous solution of a Brønsted acid. The higher activities in zeolites BEA and FAU than in water are caused by more positive activation entropies that more than offset higher activation enthalpies. The higher activity in zeolite MFI with pores smaller than BEA and FAU is caused by a lower activation enthalpy in the tighter confines that more than offsets a less positive activation entropy. Molecularly sized pores significantly enhance the association between hydronium ions and alcohols in a steric environment resembling the constraints in pockets of enzymes stabilizing active sites.

  5. Confinement in single walled carbon nanotubes investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battie, Y., E-mail: [LCP-A2MC, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57070 Metz (France); Jamon, D. [Université de Lyon, Université Jean Monnet, EA 3523, Laboratoire Télécom Claude Chappe, 25 rue du Dr Rémy Annino, 42000 Saint Etienne (France); Lauret, J.S. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, UPR 3321, ENS Cachan, 94245 Cachan (France); Gu, Q.; Gicquel-Guézo, M. [FOTON, UMR 6082, INSA, Avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, 35043 Rennes (France); En Naciri, A. [LCP-A2MC, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57070 Metz (France); Loiseau, A. [Laboratoire d' étude des microstructures, ONERA-CNRS UMR 104, 29 Av. de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon (France)


    Thick films of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different diameter and chirality distributions are characterized by combining transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The dependence of the dielectric function with the increase of the SWCNT diameter occurs with a drastic redshift of the S{sub 11}, S{sub 22} and M{sub 11} transition energies. The transfer integral parameter γ{sub 0} of SWCNT is also evaluated and analyzed. We demonstrate that parts of the optical properties of SWCNTs are attributed to a one dimensional confinement effect. - Highlights: • Ellipsometric measurements are performed on carbon nanotube thick films. • The complex dielectric functions of conventional carbon nanotubes are given. • Confinement effects explain the variations of dielectric function of nanotubes.

  6. Confined nano-crystallization of celecoxib inside porous mannitol (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Jonghwi


    Improving the dissolution behavior of poorly or sparingly water-soluble drugs by reducing their particle size remains a critical issue in oral drug delivery. Confined nano-crystallization has many advantages over other nanocrystal preparation techniques, but also has the serious drawback of the use of uncommon excipients as porous template materials. We prepared novel porous mannitol templates with pore sizes ranging from a few microns to submicrons by directional melt crystallization of solvent; these pores served to confine the evaporative crystallization of celecoxib. Pore structures were relatively well connected, which was beneficial for infiltration of the drug solution. The particle size of the resulting crystals spanned from tens of microns to several hundreds of nanometers. Distinctly improved dissolution characteristics were obtained with retention of the stable original polymorph. We anticipate the readily dissolvable composite formulation of mannitol and celecoxib described in this study will spur the development of nanocrystal formulations for various poorly water-soluble drugs.

  7. Forces and Refractive Index of Molecularly Confined Cyclohexane (United States)

    Zäch, Michael; Heuberger, Manfred P.; Spencer, Nicholas D.


    The density profiles and interaction potentials in confined liquids are thought to oscillate with distance. These short-range interactions manifest as distance modulations in surface forces apparatus (SFA) measurements. They are commonly referred to as solvation forces or structural forces. Unfortunately, the SFA exhibits mechanical instabilities, as any other spring apparatus. Thus, the force-versus-distance profile is not entirely accessible experimentally. Novel measurements performed on the extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) will be presented. We have measured simultaneously the force-versus-distance profile as well as the refractive index of confined cyclohexane at unprecedented range and resolution. The force curves show previously unreported fine structure. Fluid density variations are inferred from the refractive index data. Our results appear to necessitate modifications to the common picture. They can be interpreted in terms of phase separation, density fluctuations and plastic behaviour which is not compatible with any oscillatory potential.

  8. Local structural ordering in surface-confined liquid crystals (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Jeżewski, W.; Zakharov, A. V.


    The effect of the interplay between attractive nonlocal surface interactions and attractive pair long-range intermolecular couplings on molecular structures of liquid crystals confined in thin cells with flat solid surfaces has been studied. Extending the McMillan mean field theory to include finite systems, it has been shown that confining surfaces can induce complex orientational and translational ordering of molecules. Typically, local smectic A, nematic, and isotropic phases have been shown to coexist in certain temperature ranges, provided that confining cells are sufficiently thick, albeit finite. Due to the nonlocality of surface interactions, the spatial arrangement of these local phases can display, in general, an unexpected complexity along the surface normal direction. In particular, molecules located in the vicinity of surfaces can still be organized in smectic layers, even though nematic and/or isotropic order can simultaneously appear in the interior of cells. The resulting surface freezing of smectic layers has been confirmed to occur even for rather weak surface interactions. The surface interactions cannot, however, prevent smectic layers from melting relatively close to system boundaries, even when molecules are still arranged in layers within the central region of the system. The internal interfaces, separating individual liquid-crystal phases, are demonstrated here to form fronts of local finite-size transitions that move across cells under temperature changes. Although the complex molecular ordering in surface confined liquid-crystal systems can essentially be controlled by temperature variations, specific thermal properties of these systems, especially the nature of the local transitions, are argued to be strongly conditioned to the degree of molecular packing.

  9. Exercise thermoregulation with bed rest, confinement, and immersion deconditioning. (United States)

    Greenleaf, J E


    Altered thermoregulation following exposure to prolonged (12-14 days) of bed rest and 6 hr of head-down thermoneutral water immersion in humans, and cage confinement (8 weeks) in male, mongrel dogs resulted in occasional increased core temperature (Tcore) at rest, but consistent "excessive" increase in Tcore during submaximal exercise. This excessive increase in Tcore in nonexercising and exercising subjects was independent of the mode (isometric or isotonic) of exercise training during bed rest, and was associated with the consistent hypovolemia in men but not in women taking estrogen supplementation (1.25 mg premarin/ day) which restored plasma volume during bed rest to ambulatory control levels. Post-bed rest exercise sweating (evaporative heat loss) was unchanged or higher than control levels; however, calculated tissue heat conductance was significantly lower in men, and forearm venoconstriction was greater (venous volume was reduced) in women during exercise after bed rest. Because sweating appeared proportional to the increased level of Tcore, these findings suggest that one major factor for the excessive hyperthermia is decreased core to periphery heat conduction. Exercising dogs respond like humans with excessive increase in both rectal (Tre) and exercising muscle temperatures (Tmu) after confinement and, after eight weeks of exercise training on a treadmill following confinement, they had an attenuated rate of increase of Tre even below ambulatory control levels. Intravenous infusion of glucose also attenuated not only the rise in Tre during exercise in normal dogs, but also the excessive rise in Tre and exercising Tmu after confinement. Oral glucose also appeared to reduce the rate of increase in excessive Tre in men after immersion deconditioning. There was a greater rate of rise in Tcore in two cosmonauts during supine submaximal exercise (65% VO2 max) on the fifth recovery day after the 115-day Mir 18 mission. Thus, the excessive rise in core

  10. Universality classes and critical phenomena in confined liquid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Chalyi


    Full Text Available It is well known that the similar universal behavior of infinite-size (bulk systems of different nature requires the same basic conditions: space dimensionality; number components of order parameter; the type (short- or long-range of the intermolecular interaction; symmetry of the fluctuation part of thermodynamical potential. Basic conditions of similar universal behavior of confined systems needs the same supplementary conditions such as the number of monolayers for a system confinement; low crossover dimensionality, i.e., geometric form of restricted volume; boundary conditions on limiting surfaces; physical properties under consideration. This review paper is aimed at studying all these conditions of similar universal behavior for diffusion processes in confined liquid systems. Special attention was paid to the effects of spatial dispersion and low crossover dimensionality. This allowed us to receive receiving correct nonzero expressions for the diffusion coefficient at the critical point and to take into account the specific geometric form of the confined liquid volume. The problem of 3D⇔2D dimensional crossover was analyzed. To receive a smooth crossover for critical exponents, the Kawasaki-like approach from the theory of mode coupling in critical dynamics was proposed. This ensured a good agreement between data of computer experiment and theoretical calculations of the size dependence of the critical temperature Tc(H of water in slitlike pores. The width of the quasi-elastic scattering peak of slow neutrons near the structural phase transition in the aquatic suspensions of plasmatic membranes (mesostructures with the typical thickness up to 10 nm was studied. It was shown that the width of quasi-elastic peak of neutron scattering decreases due to the process of cell proliferation, i.e., with an increase of the membrane size (including the membrane thickness. Thus, neutron studies could serve as an additional diagnostic test for the

  11. Crowded, Confined, and Frustrated: Dynamics of Molecules Tethered to Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen


    Above a critical chemistry-dependent molecular weight, all polymer molecules entangle and, as a result, exhibit slow dynamics, enhanced viscosity, and elasticity. Herein we report on the dynamics of low molecular weight polymers tethered to nanoparticles and find that even conventionally unentangled chains manifest dynamical features similar to entangled, long-chain molecules. Our findings are shown to imply that crowding and confinement of polymers on particles produce topological constraints analogous to those in entangled systems. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  12. An antiproton catalyst for inertial confinement fusion propulsion (United States)

    Lewis, Raymond A.; Newton, Richard; Smith, Gerald A.; Toothacker, William S.; Kanzleiter, Randall J.


    This paper discusses the concept of an inertial confinement fusion propulsion system involving an antiproton catalyst (for antiproton-induced fission). It is argued that, when the two processes, fusion and antimatter annihilation, are combined into one system, a viable candidate propulsion system for planetary exploration emerges. It is shown that as much as 7.6 GW of power, well within the requrements for interplanetary travel, can be achieved using existing driver technologies and available quantities of antiprotons.

  13. RFID smart shelf with confined detection volume at UHF


    Medeiros, Carla R.; Costa, Jorge R.; Fernandes, Carlos A.


    WOS:000269791600065 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) This letter presents a smart shelf configuration for radio frequency identification (RFID) application. The proposed shelf has an embedded leaking microstrip transmission line with extended ground plane. This structure, when connected to an RFID reader, allows detecting tagged objects in close proximity with proper field confinement to avoid undesired reading of neighboring shelves. The working frequency band covers simultaneously the three...

  14. A second-order modeling study of confined swirling flow (United States)

    Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.


    A numerical study of a confined strong swirling flow is presented. Computations are performed using a differential second-moment closure. The effect of inlet dissipation rate on calculated mean and turbulence fields is investigated. Two pressure-strain models with various model constants are examined to demonstrate their influences on the predicted results. Finally, comparison of the differential second-moment calculation is made with algebraic second-moment results to determine a better suited model for complex swirling flows.

  15. The Knot Spectrum of Confined Random Equilateral Polygons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao Y.


    Full Text Available It is well known that genomic materials (long DNA chains of living organisms are often packed compactly under extreme confining conditions using macromolecular self-assembly processes but the general DNA packing mechanism remains an unsolved problem. It has been proposed that the topology of the packed DNA may be used to study the DNA packing mechanism. For example, in the case of (mutant bacteriophage P4, DNA molecules packed inside the bacteriophage head are considered to be circular since the two sticky ends of the DNA are close to each other. The DNAs extracted from the capsid without separating the two ends can thus preserve the topology of the (circular DNAs. It turns out that the circular DNAs extracted from bacteriophage P4 are non-trivially knotted with very high probability and with a bias toward chiral knots. In order to study this problem using a systematic approach based on mathematical modeling, one needs to introduce a DNA packing model under extreme volume confinement condition and test whether such a model can produce the kind of knot spectrum observed in the experiments. In this paper we introduce and study a model of equilateral random polygons con_ned in a sphere. This model is not meant to generate polygons that model DNA packed in a virus head directly. Instead, the average topological characteristics of this model may serve as benchmark data for totally randomly packed circular DNAs. The difference between the biologically observed topological characteristics and our benchmark data might reveal the bias of DNA packed in the viral capsids and possibly lead to a better understanding of the DNA packing mechanism, at least for the bacteriophage DNA. The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the knot spectrum of equilateral random polygons under such a spherical confinement with length and confinement ratios in a range comparable to circular DNAs packed inside bacteriophage heads.

  16. Vortex-Transport Element Simulation of a Confined Mixing Layer (United States)


    Vol. 125, pp. 397-410. Browand, F. E., and Ho, C.-M. (1983) Journal de Mecanique theorique et Aunliauee Numero Special, pp. 99-120. Chorin, A. J...layers was initiated by Givi and Jou (1988) using a hybrid pseudo-spectral second order finite difference scheme. In all cases, the Reynolds number was...confinement. Therefore, they can provide accurate simulations for high Reynolds number, spatially growing flows. Moreover, vortex methods optimize the

  17. Probing quantum confinement within single core-multishell nanowires


    Martínez-Criado, Gema; Homs, Alejandro; Alén, Benito; Sans, Juan Ángel; Segura-Ruiz, Jaime; Molina-Sánchez, Alejandro; Susini, Jean; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Yi, J. G. C.


    Theoretically core-multishell nanowires under a cross-section of hexagonal geometry should exhibit peculiar confinement effects. Using a hard X-ray nanobeam, here we show experimental evidence for carrier localization phenomena at the hexagon corners by combining synchrotron excited optical luminescence with simultaneous X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Applied to single coaxial n-GaN/InGaN multiquantum-well/p-GaN nanowires, our experiment narrows the gap between optical microscopy and high-r...

  18. Quantum Confined Semiconductors - In-House Interim Research (United States)


    during scanning due to the generated harmonic modulation of the reference laser beam, known as Cannes Advantage, is the benefit of FTIR spectrometer...nanoparticles, particularly the clearly enhanced quantum confinement with respect to other allractive semiconductors such as CdTe and CdS, has...PL) is the prerequisite for light emitting device stmctures, the PL properties of various QDs, such as CdS, CdTe [ 10, 11), and PbS [12-14), have been

  19. Characteristics of high-confinement modes in Alcator C Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snipes, J.A.; Boivin, R.L.; Christensen, C.; Fiore, C.; Garnier, D.; Goetz, J.; Golovato, S.N.; Graf, M.; Granetz, R.S.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Irby, J.; LaBombard, B.; Marmar, E.S.; Niemczewski, A.; OShea, P.; Porkolab, M.; Stek, P.; Takase, Y.; Terry, J.L.; Umansky, M.; Wolfe, S.M. [Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    The regime of high particle and energy confinement known as the H mode [Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 49}, 1408 (1982)] has been extended to a unique range of operation for divertor tokamaks up to toroidal fields of nearly 8 T, line-averaged electron densities of 3{times}10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3}, and surface power densities of nearly 0.6 MW/m{sup 2} in the compact high-field tokamak Alcator C Mod [Phys. Plasmas {bold 1}, 1511 (1994)]. H modes are achieved in Alcator C Mod with Ion Cyclotron Resonant Frequency (ICRF) heating and with Ohmic heating alone without boronization of the all molybdenum tiled first wall. Large increases in charge exchange flux are observed during the H mode over the entire range of energies from 2 to 10 keV. There appears to be an upper limit to the midplane neutral pressure, of about 0.08 Pa above which no H modes have been observed. The plasmas with the best energy confinement have the lowest midplane neutral pressures, below 0.01 Pa. There is an edge electron temperature threshold such that {ital T}{sub {ital e}}{ge}280 eV {plus_minus}40 eV for sustaining the H mode, which is equal at L{endash}H and H{endash}L transitions. The hysteresis in the threshold power between L{endash}H and H{endash}L transitions is less than 25{percent} on average. Both core and edge particle confinement improve by a factor of 2{endash}4 from L mode to H mode. Energy confinement also improves by up to a factor of 2 over L mode. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Confinement and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.L.; Ashcroft, D.; Barnes, C.W.; Barnes, G.; Batha, S.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.E.; Camp, R.; Caorlin, M.; Cauffman, S.; Chang, Z.; Cheng, C.Z.; Collins, J.; Coward, G.; Darrow, D.S.; DeLooper, J.; Duong, H.; Dudek, L.; Durst, R.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ernst, D.; Fisher, R.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredrickson, E.; Fromm, N.; Fu, G.Y.; Furth, H.P.; Gentile, C.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.R.; Hammett, G.; Hanson, G.R.; Heidbrink, W.; Herrmann, H.W.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.L.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kugel, H.; Lam, N.T.; LaMarche, P.H.; Loughlin, M.J.; LeBlanc, B.; Leonard, M.; Levinton, F.M.; Machuzak, J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Martin, A.; Mazzucato, E.; Majeski, R.; Marmar, E.; McChesney, J.; McCormack, B.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; McKee, G.; Meade, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Muelle


    The Tomamak Fusion Test reactor has performed initial high-power experiments with the plasma fueled with nominally equal densities of deuterium and tritium. Compared to pure deuterium plasmas, the energy stored in the electron and ions increased by [similar to]20%. These increases indicate improvements in confinement associated with the use of tritium and possibly heating of electrons by [alpha] particles created by the D-T fusion reactions.

  1. Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments (United States)

    van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Coninx, Ilse; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max

    Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments R. Van Houdt, I. Coninx, A. Provoost, N. Leys, and M. Mergeay Expertise group for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. Human exploration of extreme and isolated hostile environments such as space requires special confined small volume habitats to protect and house the crew. However, human confinement in such small volume habitats has restrictions on waste disposal and personal hygiene and inevitably generates a particular community of microorganisms within the habitat. These microorganisms are mainly originating from the crew (skin, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract) but also include the residing environmental microorganisms. Earth-based confined habitats such as the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are used as test beds for long-duration spaceflights to study the physiologic and psychological adaptation to isolated environments. The dynamics of the environmental microbial population in such a test bed could render additional insights in assessing the potential health risks in long-duration space missions. Not only total bacterial contamination levels are important, but it is essential to identify also the predominant microbial taxa and their mobile genetic elements (MGE). These MGEs could be exchanged between bacteria by horizontal gene transfer and may alter the pathogenic potential since they often carry antibiotic resistance or more in general adaptation-enhancing traits. In this study several bacterial strains isolated in the Concordia research station were examined for their plasmid content. An optimized protocol for extraction of large plasmids showed the present of at least one plasmid in 50% of the strains. For all strains the minimal inhibitory concentration of a range of antibiotics was determined indicating resistance to

  2. Midplane measurements of MeV ion confinement in TFTR (United States)

    Boivin, R.; Kilpatrick, S.; Manos, D.; Zweben, S.


    A new detector has been designed and installed on TFTR for studying the confinement of MeV ions, especially for measuring the losses due to the toroidal field ripple. It is located just below the outer midplane where the peak in ripple-induced losses is expected. The detector consists of a scintillator [ZnS(Ag)] and collimating apertures mounted on a radially movable probe. New design features of this detector are presented along with some of the first results.

  3. Exercise thermoregulation with bed rest, confinement, and immersion deconditioning (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.


    Altered thermoregulation following exposure to prolonged (12-14 days) of bed rest and 6 hr of head-down thermoneutral water immersion in humans, and cage confinement (8 weeks) in male, mongrel dogs resulted in occasional increased core temperature (Tcore) at rest, but consistent "excessive" increase in Tcore during submaximal exercise. This excessive increase in Tcore in nonexercising and exercising subjects was independent of the mode (isometric or isotonic) of exercise training during bed rest, and was associated with the consistent hypovolemia in men but not in women taking estrogen supplementation (1.25 mg premarin/ day) which restored plasma volume during bed rest to ambulatory control levels. Post-bed rest exercise sweating (evaporative heat loss) was unchanged or higher than control levels; however, calculated tissue heat conductance was significantly lower in men, and forearm venoconstriction was greater (venous volume was reduced) in women during exercise after bed rest. Because sweating appeared proportional to the increased level of Tcore, these findings suggest that one major factor for the excessive hyperthermia is decreased core to periphery heat conduction. Exercising dogs respond like humans with excessive increase in both rectal (Tre) and exercising muscle temperatures (Tmu) after confinement and, after eight weeks of exercise training on a treadmill following confinement, they had an attenuated rate of increase of Tre even below ambulatory control levels. Intravenous infusion of glucose also attenuated not only the rise in Tre during exercise in normal dogs, but also the excessive rise in Tre and exercising Tmu after confinement. Oral glucose also appeared to reduce the rate of increase in excessive Tre in men after immersion deconditioning. There was a greater rate of rise in Tcore in two cosmonauts during supine submaximal exercise (65% VO2 max) on the fifth recovery day after the 115-day Mir 18 mission. Thus, the excessive rise in core

  4. Semiflexible polymers under external fields confined to two dimensions


    Lamura, A.; Winkler, Roland G.


    The non-equilibrium structural and dynamical properties of semiflexible polymers confined to two dimensions are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Three different scenarios are considered: The force-extension relation of tethered polymers, the relaxation of an initially stretched semiflexible polymer, and semiflexible polymers under shear flow. We find quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for the force-extension relation and the time dependence of the entropically ...

  5. Confining concrete with sisal and jute FRP as alternatives for CFRP and GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Sen


    Full Text Available This research paper presents an experimental investigation on the confinement strength and confinement modulus of concrete cylinders confined using different types of natural fibre composites and a comparative performance analysis with different artificial fibre based composite materials. The paper also highlights the need to switch over from the utilization of artificial fibres, which are non-renewable and fossil fuel products, to environmental beneficial materials like green fibres. The utilization of plant products like sisal and jute fibres and their composites in various structural engineering applications addresses the issues of sustainability and renewability with constructional materials. The paper describes a suitable mechanical treatment method like high temperature conditioning, which aids us in further improving the properties of these woven natural materials like sisal and jute for composite fabrication and utilization. Heat treated natural fibres of woven sisal and jute were utilized for confining concrete cylinders similar to CFRP and GFRP confinement and their confinement characteristics were obtained and compared. All the cylinders were subjected to monotonic axial compressive loads, so as to evaluate the effect of confinement on the axial load carrying capacity and all their failure modes were discussed thoroughly. The results indicated superior performance by sisal FRP as well as jute FRP confined cylinders as compared to controlled or unconfined cylinders, also sisal FRP wrapped cylinders displayed ultimate axial load of comparable magnitude to CFRP confinement. Natural FRP confinement displayed superior confinement modulus and confinement strength, also the ultimate axial load of concrete cylinders confined with natural FRPs underwent 66% enhancement by sisal FRP and 48% enhancement by jute FRP, in comparison with controlled or unconfined cylinders. Enhancement in axial load carrying capacity was 83% with CFRP confinement

  6. Equilibrium partitioning of macromolecules in confining geometries: Improved universality with a new molecular size parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanwei; Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing


    structures (CABS), allows the computation of equilibrium partition coefficients as a function of confinement size solely based on a single sampling of the configuration space of a macromolecule in bulk. Superior in computational speed to previous computational methods, CABS is capable of handling slits...... parameter for characterization of spatial confinement effects on macromolecules. Results for the equilibrium partition coefficient in the weak confinement regime depend only on the ratio ofR-s to the confinement size regardless of molecular details....

  7. Nanochannel confinement: DNA stretch approaching full contour length. (United States)

    Kim, Yoori; Kim, Ki Seok; Kounovsky, Kristy L; Chang, Rakwoo; Jung, Gun Young; dePablo, Juan J; Jo, Kyubong; Schwartz, David C


    Fully stretched DNA molecules are becoming a fundamental component of new systems for comprehensive genome analysis. Among a number of approaches for elongating DNA molecules, nanofluidic molecular confinement has received enormous attentions from physical and biological communities for the last several years. Here we demonstrate a well-optimized condition that a DNA molecule can stretch almost to its full contour length: the average stretch is 19.1 µm ± 1.1 µm for YOYO-1 stained λ DNA (21.8 µm contour length) in 250 nm × 400 nm channel, which is the longest stretch value ever reported in any nanochannels or nanoslits. In addition, based on Odijk's polymer physics theory, we interpret our experimental findings as a function of channel dimensions and ionic strengths. Furthermore, we develop a Monte Carlo simulation approach using a primitive model for the rigorous understanding of DNA confinement effects. Collectively, we present a more complete understanding of nanochannel confined DNA stretching via the comparisons to computer simulation results and Odijk's polymer physics theory. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Weak and strong confinements in prismatic and cylindrical nanostructures. (United States)

    Vorobiev, Yuri V; Mera, Bruno; Vieira, Vítor R; Horley, Paul P; González-Hernández, Jesús


    Cylindrical nanostructures, namely, nanowires and pores, with rectangular and circular cross section are examined using mirror boundary conditions to solve the Schrödinger equation, within the effective mass approximation. The boundary conditions are stated as magnitude equivalence of electron's Ψ function in an arbitrary point inside a three-dimensional quantum well and image point formed by mirror reflection in the walls defining the nanostructure. Thus, two types of boundary conditions - even and odd ones - can be applied, when Ψ functions in a point, and its image, are equated with the same and the opposite signs, correspondingly. In the former case, the Ψ function is non-zero at the boundary, which is the case of a weak confinement. In the latter case, the Ψ function vanishes at the boundary, corresponding to strong quantum confinement. The analytical expressions for energy spectra of electron confined within a nanostructure obtained in the paper show a reasonable agreement with the experimental data without using any fitting parameters.

  9. Confinement and fermion doubling problem in Dirac-like Hamiltonians (United States)

    Messias de Resende, B.; de Lima, F. Crasto; Miwa, R. H.; Vernek, E.; Ferreira, G. J.


    We investigate the interplay between confinement and the fermion doubling problem in Dirac-like Hamiltonians. Individually, both features are well known. First, simple electrostatic gates do not confine electrons due to the Klein tunneling. Second, a typical lattice discretization of the first-order derivative k →-i ∂x skips the central point and allow spurious low-energy, highly oscillating solutions known as fermion doublers. While a no-go theorem states that the doublers cannot be eliminated without artificially breaking a symmetry, here we show that the symmetry broken by the Wilson's mass approach is equivalent to the enforcement of hard-wall boundary conditions, thus making the no-go theorem irrelevant when confinement is foreseen. We illustrate our arguments by calculating the following: (i) the band structure and transport properties across thin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 , for which we use ab initio density functional theory calculations to justify the model; and (ii) the band structure of zigzag graphene nanoribbons.

  10. Understanding nanorheology and surface forces of confined thin films (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Yan, Bin; Faghihnejad, Ali; Xu, Haolan; Zeng, Hongbo


    Understanding the nanorheology and associated intermolecular/surface forces of fluids in confined geometries or porous media is of both fundamental and practical importance, providing significant insights into various applications such as lubrication and micro/nanoelectromechanical systems. In this work, we briefly reviewed the fundamentals of nanoreheolgy, advances in experimental techniques and theoretical simulation methods, as well as important progress in the nanorheology of confined thin films. The advent of advanced experimental techniques such as surface forces apparatus (SFA), X-ray surface forces apparatus (XSFA) and atomic force microscope (AFM) and computational methods such as molecular dynamics simulations provides powerful tools to study a wide range of rheological phenomena at molecular level and nano scale. One of the most challenging issues unresolved is to elucidate the relationship between the rheological properties and structural evolution of the confined fluid films and particles suspensions. Some of the emerging research areas in the nanorheology field include, but are not limited to, the development of more advanced characterization techniques, design of multifunctional rheological fluids, bio-related nanorheology, and polymer brushes.

  11. Effect of Confinement in PFSA Ionomer Thin Films (United States)

    Dudenas, Peter; Tesfaye, Meron; Weber, Adam; Kusoglu, Ahmet

    Ion-conducting polymer (ionomer) behavior in catalyst layers of electrochemical devices is fairly unknown and presents challenges for their characterization in this heterogeneous environment. In order to enable next-generation electrochemical devices, structure-property relationships of these ionomers must be elucidated under confinement. In an effort to do so, model systems of ionomer thin films of varying thicknesses (10 to 200 nm) are utilized to understand effect of confinement on crystallinity, swelling and mechanical properties. Grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) is used to determine the relative degree of crystallinity (rDoC) as a function of thickness, which is then correlated to mechanical properties and swelling of thin films, as measured by a cantilever bending method and ellipsometry, respectively. Moreover, factors controlling the thin-film behavior, such as thermal transitions and substrate effects, are explored further through temperature-dependent ellipsometry and GIWAXS. Multiple perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer chemistries are used to demonstrate the effect of side-chain length and density on the interplay between the confinement effects and structure-property relationships.

  12. Superstable Ultrathin Water Film Confined in a Hydrophilized Carbon Nanotube. (United States)

    Tomo, Yoko; Askounis, Alexandros; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Takata, Yasuyuki; Sefiane, Khellil; Takahashi, Koji


    Fluids confined in a nanoscale space behave differently than in the bulk due to strong interactions between fluid molecules and solid atoms. Here, we observed water confined inside "open" hydrophilized carbon nanotubes (CNT), with diameter of tens of nanometers, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A 1-7 nm water film adhering to most of the inner wall surface was observed and remained stable in the high vacuum (order of 10 -5 Pa) of the TEM. The superstability of this film was attributed to a combination of curvature, nanoroughness, and confinement resulting in a lower vapor pressure for water and hence inhibiting its vaporization. Occasional, suspended ultrathin water film with thickness of 3-20 nm were found and remained stable inside the CNT. This film thickness is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the critical film thickness (about 40 nm) reported by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory and previous experimental investigations. The stability of the suspended ultrathin water film is attributed to the additional molecular interactions due to the extended water meniscus, which balances the rest of the disjoining pressures.

  13. Enhanced confinement in compositionally heterogeneous alloy quantum dots (United States)

    Hossain, Zubaer

    While there is a growing need to increase solar cell efficiencies and reduce the cost per watt, reported efficiencies are still well below the thermodynamic limit of photovoltaic energy conversion. The major factor that affects the efficiency (by more than 40%) is the lack of absorption or thermalization of electrons. To improve absorption, existing approaches, till date, are focused on combining multiple materials in the form of heterostructures. This talk will show the application of a physics-based mechanistic approach to engineer absorption by using alloy quantum dots and exploiting its heterogeneous compositional and deformation fields. Using a multiscale computational framework that combines density functional theory, k.p method and the finite element calculations, the work shows that heterogeneous distribution of composition and strain fields can lead to substantial confinement in alloy quantum dots. Subsequently alloy quantum dots that are much larger (on the order of 50 nm) in size - compared to their single crystalline counterparts (which are on the order of 5 nm) - can still provide significant confinement. The findings uncover new fundamental insights for engineering confinement that are unattainable under conventional homogenization approximations.

  14. Ionic structure in liquids confined by dielectric interfaces (United States)

    Jing, Yufei; Jadhao, Vikram; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica


    The behavior of ions in liquids confined between macromolecules determines the outcome of many nanoscale assembly processes in synthetic and biological materials such as colloidal dispersions, emulsions, hydrogels, DNA, cell membranes, and proteins. Theoretically, the macromolecule-liquid boundary is often modeled as a dielectric interface and an important quantity of interest is the ionic structure in a liquid confined between two such interfaces. The knowledge gleaned from the study of ionic structure in such models can be useful in several industrial applications, such as in the design of double-layer supercapacitors for energy storage and in the extraction of metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we compute the ionic structure in a model system of electrolyte confined by two planar dielectric interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations and liquid state theory. We explore the effects of high electrolyte concentrations, multivalent ions, dielectric contrasts, and external electric field on the ionic distributions. We observe the presence of non-monotonic ionic density profiles leading to a layered structure in the fluid which is attributed to the competition between electrostatic and steric (entropic) interactions. We find that thermal forces that arise from symmetry breaking at the interfaces can have a profound effect on the ionic structure and can oftentimes overwhelm the influence of the dielectric discontinuity. The combined effect of ionic correlations and inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity significantly changes the character of the effective interaction between the two interfaces.

  15. The influence of electric field and confinement on cell motility. (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ja; Samorajski, Justin; Kreimer, Rachel; Searson, Peter C


    The ability of cells to sense and respond to endogenous electric fields is important in processes such as wound healing, development, and nerve regeneration. In cell culture, many epithelial and endothelial cell types respond to an electric field of magnitude similar to endogenous electric fields by moving preferentially either parallel or antiparallel to the field vector, a process known as galvanotaxis. Here we report on the influence of dc electric field and confinement on the motility of fibroblast cells using a chip-based platform. From analysis of cell paths we show that the influence of electric field on motility is much more complex than simply imposing a directional bias towards the cathode or anode. The cell velocity, directedness, as well as the parallel and perpendicular components of the segments along the cell path are dependent on the magnitude of the electric field. Forces in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are in competition with one another in a voltage-dependent manner, which ultimately govern the trajectories of the cells in the presence of an electric field. To further investigate the effects of cell reorientation in the presence of a field, cells are confined within microchannels to physically prohibit the alignment seen in 2D environment. Interestingly, we found that confinement results in an increase in cell velocity both in the absence and presence of an electric field compared to migration in 2D.

  16. Theory of Activated Relaxation in Nanoscale Confined Liquids (United States)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth


    We extend the recently developed Elastically Cooperative Nonlinear Langevin Equation(ECNLE) theory of activated relaxation in supercooled liquids to treat the case of geometrically confined liquids. Generically, confinement of supercooled liquids leads to a speeding up of the dynamics(with a consequent depression of the glass transition temperature) extending on the order of tens of molecular diameters away from a free surface. At present, this behavior is not theoretically well understood. Our theory interprets the speed up in dynamics in terms of two coupled effects. First, a direct surface effect, extending two to three molecular diameters from a free surface, and related to a local rearrangement of molecules with a single cage. The second is a longer ranged ``confinement'' effect, extending tens of molecular diameters from a free surface and related to the long range elastic penalty necessary for a local rearrangement. The theory allows for the calculation of relaxation time and Tg profiles within a given geometry and first principles calculations of relevant length scales. Comparison to both dynamic and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements shows reasonable agreement to experiment with no adjustable parameters.

  17. Modelling enhanced confinement in drift-wave turbulence (United States)

    Hajjar, R. J.; Diamond, P. H.; Ashourvan, A.; Tynan, G. R.


    The results of modeling studies of an enhanced confinement in the drift wave turbulent plasma of the CSDX linear device are presented. The mechanism of enhanced confinement is investigated here using a reduced 1D, time-dependent model, which illustrates the exchange of enstrophy between two disparate scale structures: the mesoscale flow and profile, and the turbulence intensity fields. Mean density, mean vorticity, and turbulent potential enstrophy are the variables for this model. Total potential enstrophy is conserved in this model. Vorticity mixing occurs on a scale length related to an effective Rhines' scale of turbulence, and shrinks as both density and vorticity gradients steepen. Numerical results obtained from solution of the model agree well with the experimental data from CSDX showing: (i) a steepening of the mean density profile, indicating a radial transport barrier formation, (ii) the development of a radially sheared azimuthal flow velocity that coincides with the density steepening and initiates a turbulence quench, and (iii) negative Reynolds work values, indicating that fluctuations drive the shear flow. These observations as the magnitude of the magnetic field B increases are recovered using purely diffusive expressions for the vorticity and density fluxes. A new dimensionless turbulence parameter RDT-defined as the ratio of the integrated potential enstrophy transfer from turbulence to the flow, to the integrated potential enstrophy production due to relaxation of the density gradient is introduced as a turbulence collapse indicator that detects when the enhanced confinement state is triggered.

  18. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Design and Implementation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano D. [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1- to 2-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. We have developed a neutron assay system for the purposes of Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) measurements of the vessel prior to and after cleanout. We present our approach to confronting the challenges in designing, building, and testing such a system. The system was designed to meet a set of functional and operational requirements. A Monte Carlo model was developed to aid in optimizing the detector design as well as to predict the systematic uncertainty associated with confinement vessel measurements. Initial testing was performed to optimize and determine various measurement parameters, and then the system was characterized using {sup 252}Cf placed a various locations throughout the measurement system. Measurements were also performed with a {sup 252}Cf source placed inside of small steel and HDPE shells to study the effect of moderation. These measurements compare favorably with their MCNPX model equivalent, making us confident that we can rely on the Monte Carlo simulation to predict the systematic uncertainty due to variations in response to material that may be localized at different points within a vessel.

  19. Progress toward the creation of magnetically confined pair plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Haruhiko [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); The University of Tokyo (Japan); Hergenhahn, Uwe; Paschkowski, Norbert; Stanja, Juliane; Stenson, Eve V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); Niemann, Holger; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald (Germany); Stoneking, Matthew R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); Lawrence University (United States); Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Piochacz, Christian; Vohburger, Sebastian [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schweikhard, Lutz [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald (Germany); Danielson, James R.; Surko, Clifford M. [University of California, San Diego (United States)


    The PAX (Positron Accumulation eXperiment) and APEX (A Positron Electron eXperiment) projects aim to experimentally study the unique wave propagation and stability properties of pair plasmas. We plan to accumulate a large number of positrons in a multicell-type trap system (PAX) and to confine them with electrons in APEX, a levitated dipole or stellarator configuration, operated at the NEPOMUC facility, the world's most intense positron source. In this contribution, we report on recent results from PAX and APEX. We have conducted electron experiments with a 2.3 T Penning-Malmberg trap; confinement for more than 1 hour and observation of a collective mode were demonstrated. At NEPOMUC, we have characterized the positron beam for a wide energy range. In a prototype permanent-magnet dipole trap, efficient (38%) injection of the remoderated 5 eV positron beam was realized using E x B drifts. Based on these results, design studies on the confinement of pair-plasmas in a levitated dipole trap are ongoing.

  20. Fast ignition of asymmetrically compressed targets for inertial confinement fusion (United States)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Kuchugov, P. A.; Rozanov, V. B.; Stepanov, R. V.; Yakhin, R. A.


    It is shown that fast ignition can ensure the combustion of asymmetrically compressed targets for inertial confinement fusion with an efficiency close to the combustion of one-dimensionally compressed targets. This statement is valid not only for targets specially designed for fast ignition. Fast heating by an external energy source can ensure the ignition of a target designed for spark ignition, but where this ignition does not occur because inhomogeneities are formed in the temperature and density distributions owing to the development of hydrodynamic instabilities. The condition for ignition is the fast heating of the plasma in the combustion initiation region whose size is comparable with the sizes of compression inhomogeneities. Thus, fast ignition not only significantly reduces the ignition energy, but also is possibly a necessary stage in the inertial confinement fusion scheme when the spherically symmetric compression of a target requires very high engineering and financial expenses. The studies are based on the numerical simulation of the compression and combustion of inertial confinement fusion targets with one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic codes.

  1. Molecular simulation of chevrons in confined smectic liquid crystals (United States)

    Webster, Richard E.; Mottram, Nigel J.; Cleaver, Douglas J.


    Chevron structures adopted by confined smectic liquid crystals are investigated via molecular dynamics simulations of the Gay-Berne model. The chevrons are formed by quenching nematic films confined between aligning planar substrates whose easy axes have opposing azimuthal components. When the substrates are perfectly smooth, the chevron formed migrates rapidly towards one of the confining walls to yield a tilted layer structure. However, when substrate roughness is included, by introducing a small-amplitude modulation to the particle-substrate interaction well depth, a symmetric chevron is formed which remains stable over sufficiently long run times for detailed structural information, such as the relevant order parameters and director orientation, to be determined. For both smooth and rough boundaries, the smectic order parameter remains nonzero across the entire chevron, implying that layer identity is maintained across the chevron tip. Also, when the surface-stabilized chevron does eventually revert to a tilted layer structure, it does so via surface slippage, such that layer integrity is maintained throughout the chevron to tilted layer relaxation process.

  2. Millisecond burning of confined energetic materials during cookoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.G.; Baer, T.A.


    The response of a system containing an energetic material (EM) to an abnormal thermal environment is termed cookoff. To predict the violence of reaction of confined energetic materials during cookoff requires a description of the relevant physical processes that occur on time scales Ranging from days to submicroseconds. The time-to-ignition can be characterized accurately using heat transfer with chemistry and quasistatic mechanics. After ignition the energetic material deflagrates on a millisecond time scale. During this time the mechanical processes become dynamic. If the confinement survives burning then accelerated deflagration can lead to shock formation and deflagration to detonation transition. The focus of this work is the dynamic combustion regime in the millisecond time domain. Due to the mathematical stiffness of the chemistry equations and the prohibitively fine spatial resolution requirements needed to resolve the structure of the flame, an interface tracking approach is used to propagate the burn front. Demonstrative calculations are presented that illustrate the dynamic interaction of the deflagrating energetic material with its confinement.

  3. Instability of thin liquid films in strongly confined channels (United States)

    Lavalle, Gianluca; Li, Yiqin; Mergui, Sophie; Grenier, Nicolas; Dietze, Georg


    The flow of a falling liquid film in contact with a gas within a very narrow inclined channel may occur in several chemical engineering devices, e.g. within structured packings in distillation columns. Surface waves on the liquid film are known to greatly intensify inter-phase heat/mass transfer. It is also known that a counter-current gas flow may destabilize the non-linear surface waves, possibly leading to the flooding of the channel. Conversely, we show in our current study that the confinement can strongly stabilize the film when the gas velocity is quite low. In particular, we find that the critical Reynolds number can be increased by up to 30% at moderate relative confinement. This effect depends on the inclination angle of the channel due to a competition between lubrication- versus acceleration-induced pressure variations in the gas. We show this by way of linear stability analysis based on the Orr-Sommerfeld equation as well as experimental comparisons. In addition, simulations with an integral boundary layer model and direct numerical simulations show that the opposing bounding wall causes a flattening of the crests of large-amplitude non-linear surface waves. This effect may be important in understanding the onset of flooding in strongly-confined geometries. The ANR project wavyFILM is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. The Role of Confinement in Bubble Collapse in a Channel (United States)

    Rodriguez, Mauro; Alahyari Beig, Shahaboddin; Johnsen, Eric; Barbier, Charlotte


    In a variety of applications, cavitation bubbles collapse near solid objects give rise to damage in certain extreme cases. Numerous detailed computational studies have been conducted of a single bubble collapsing near a rigid wall. However, there are known situations where the bubbles collapse in a confined configuration, such as in biomedical applications and in the spallation neutron source. However, the effect of confinement (e.g., in the case of bubble collapse in a narrow channel) is poorly understood. In the present work, we quantify the effect of confinement on the bubble dynamics, pressures and temperatures produced from a single bubble collapsing in a channel. An in-house, solution-adaptive, high-order accurate shock- and interface-capturing method is used to solve the 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations for gas/liquid flows. We demonstrate the conditions under which the channel walls strengthen/weaken the violence of the collapse and result in amplifying/reducing the wall pressures and temperatures. We further determine the smallest channel width, relative to the initial bubble radius, for which the presence of a second wall affects the collapse. Additional simulations of multiple bubbles collapsing in a channel are underway and will be discussed. This research was supported in part by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0751 and NSF Grant CBET 1253157.

  5. Imaging electrostatically confined Dirac fermions in graphene quantum dots (United States)

    Lee, Juwon; Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jairo, Jr.; Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin F.; Kahn, Salman; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Feng; Levitov, Leonid S.; Crommie, Michael F.


    Electrostatic confinement of charge carriers in graphene is governed by Klein tunnelling, a relativistic quantum process in which particle-hole transmutation leads to unusual anisotropic transmission at p-n junction boundaries. Reflection and transmission at these boundaries affect the quantum interference of electronic waves, enabling the formation of novel quasi-bound states. Here we report the use of scanning tunnelling microscopy to map the electronic structure of Dirac fermions confined in quantum dots defined by circular graphene p-n junctions. The quantum dots were fabricated using a technique involving local manipulation of defect charge within the insulating substrate beneath a graphene monolayer. Inside such graphene quantum dots we observe resonances due to quasi-bound states and directly visualize the quantum interference patterns arising from these states. Outside the quantum dots Dirac fermions exhibit Friedel oscillation-like behaviour. Bolstered by a theoretical model describing relativistic particles in a harmonic oscillator potential, our findings yield insights into the spatial behaviour of electrostatically confined Dirac fermions.

  6. Facile and rapid one-pot microwave-assisted synthesis of Pd-Ni magnetic nanoalloys confined in mesoporous carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez de Yuso, Alicia; Le Meins, Jean-Marc [Université de Strasbourg, Université de Haute-Alsace, Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR (France); Oumellal, Yassine; Paul-Boncour, Valérie; Zlotea, Claudia [Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris Est, UMR 7182, CNRS-UPEC (France); Matei Ghimbeu, Camelia, E-mail: [Université de Strasbourg, Université de Haute-Alsace, Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR (France)


    An easy and rapid one-pot microwave-assisted soft-template synthesis method for the preparation of Pd-Ni nanoalloys confined in mesoporous carbon is reported. This approach allows the formation of mesoporous carbon and the growth of the particles at the same time, under short microwave irradiation (4 h) compared to the several days spent for the classical approach. In addition, the synthesis steps are diminished and no thermopolymerization step or reduction treatment being required. The influence of the Pd-Ni composition on the particle size and on the carbon characteristics was investigated. Pd-Ni solid solutions in the whole composition range could be obtained, and the metallic composition proved to have an important effect on the nanoparticle size but low influence on carbon textural properties. Small and uniformly distributed nanoparticles were confined in mesoporous carbon with uniform pore size distribution, and dependence between the nanoparticle size and the nanoalloy composition was observed, i.e., increase of the particle size with increasing the Ni content (from 5 to 14 nm). The magnetic properties of the materials showed a strong nanoparticle size and/or composition effect. The blocking temperature of Pd-Ni nanoalloys increases with the increase of Ni amount and therefore of particle size. The magnetization values are smaller than the bulk counterpart particularly for the Ni-rich compositions due to the formed graphitic shells surrounding the particles inducing a dead magnetic layer.

  7. Confinement effect in diffusion-controlled stepwise polymerization by Monte Carlo simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malvaldi, M; Bruzzone, S; Picchioni, F


    Diffusion-controlled stepwise polymerization of a linear polymer confined in nanoscopic slits is simulated through a Monte Carlo approach. A noticeable influence of the confinement on the kinetics is found. The confinement modifies both the spatial pair distribution function and the diffusive

  8. Instability studies on a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Jin

    The spherical inertial electrostatic confinement concept offers an alternative fusion plasma confinement scheme, where charged particles are accelerated and confined electrostatically with a series of biased spherical concentric electrodes. The inertia of the accelerated ions compresses the ions and builds up the space charge at the center of the cathode grid. The space charge of the ions attracts electrons which in turn accumulate a space charge. The accumulation of collective space charge creates a series of deep "virtual" electrostatic potential wells which confine and concentrate ions into a small volume where an appreciable number of nuclear fusion reactions could occur. It is very attractive for a power plant due to its mechanical simplicity and high power-to-mass ratio. However, its beam-plasma interactions are not clearly understood. In order to evaluate the inertial electrostatic confinement concept, it is essential to develop a reliable and flexible instability analysis method for an equilibrium plasma in a potential well. Subsequently stability of this well can be studied. As a part of this study, methods are sought to avoid or suppress any destructive instabilities. Methods to be explored include modification/control of the well profile, control of the electron to ion beam density ratio, control of the angular momentum of the beam, etc. For this purpose, a perturbative (deltaf) particle simulation techniques for a kinetic analysis is applied to simulate completely the dynamic evolution of perturbed Vlasov-Poisson equations and, in addition, to achieve much more accurate simulations of the nonlinear dynamics using less simulation particles compared to conventional particle-in-cell method. This model is used to study the behavior of two-stream-like instabilities related to the trapped spherically converging ions. Results show that steady-state solutions of the self-consistent Vlasov-Poisson equation in which angular momentum of positively charged particle

  9. Interface-confined oxide nanostructures for catalytic oxidation reactions. (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Yang, Fan; Bao, Xinhe


    Heterogeneous catalysts, often consisting of metal nanoparticles supported on high-surface-area oxide solids, are common in industrial chemical reactions. Researchers have increasingly recognized the importance of oxides in heterogeneous catalysts: that they are not just a support to help the dispersion of supported metal nanoparticles, but rather interact with supported metal nanoparticles and affect the catalysis. The critical role of oxides in catalytic reactions can become very prominent when oxides cover metal surfaces forming the inverse catalysts. The source of the catalytic activity in homogeneous catalysts and metalloenzymes is often coordinatively unsaturated (CUS) transition metal (TM) cations, which can undergo facile electron transfer and promote catalytic reactions. Organic ligands and proteins confine these CUS cations, making them highly active and stable. In heterogeneous catalysis, however, confining these highly active CUS centers on an inorganic solid so that they are robust enough to endure the reaction environment while staying flexible enough to perform their catalysis remains a challenge. In this Account, we describe a strategy to confine the active CUS centers on the solid surface at the interface between a TM oxide (TMO) and a noble metal (NM). Among metals, NMs have high electron negativity and low oxygen affinity. This means that TM cations of the oxide bind strongly to NM atoms at the interface, forming oxygen-terminated-bilayer TMO nanostructures. The resulting CUS sites at the edges of the TMO nanostructure are highly active for catalytic oxidation reactions. Meanwhile, the strong interactions between TMOs and NMs prevent further oxidation of the bilayer TMO phases, which would otherwise result in the saturation of oxygen coordination and the deactivation of the CUS cations. We report that we can also tune the oxide-metal interactions to modulate the bonding of reactants with CUS centers, optimizing their catalytic performance. We

  10. Behaviour of FRP confined concrete in square columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Diego, A.


    Full Text Available A significant amount of research has been conducted on FRP-confined circular columns, but much less is known about rectangular/square columns in which the effectiveness of confinement is much reduced. This paper presents the results of experimental investigations on low strength square concrete columns confined with FRP. Axial compression tests were performed on ten intermediate size columns. The tests results indicate that FRP composites can significantly improve the bearing capacity and ductility of square section reinforced concrete columns with rounded corners. The strength enhancement ratio is greater the lower the concrete strength and also increases with the stiffness of the jacket. The confined concrete behaviour was predicted according to the more accepted theoretical models and compared with experimental results. There are two key parameters which critically influence the fitting of the models: the strain efficiency factor and the effect of confinement in non-circular sections.La mayoría de las investigaciones sobre hormigón confinado con FRP se han realizado sobre pilares de sección circular, pero el comportamiento en secciones cuadradas/rectangulares, donde el confinamiento es menos eficaz, es mucho menos conocido. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de un estudio experimental sobre probetas de hormigón de baja resistencia y sección cuadrada. Se han ensayado a compresión centrada diez probetas de tamaño intermedio. Los resultados indican que el confinamiento mejora significativamente la resistencia y ductilidad del hormigón en columnas de sección cuadrada con las esquinas redondeadas. El incremento de resistencia es mayor cuanto menor es la resistencia del hormigón sin confinar y también aumenta con la rigidez del encamisado. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos según los modelos teóricos más aceptados. Hay dos parámetros críticos en el ajuste de los modelos: el factor de eficiencia de la deformación y el

  11. Mussel-Inspired Adhesive and Tough Hydrogel Based on Nanoclay Confined Dopamine Polymerization. (United States)

    Han, Lu; Lu, Xiong; Liu, Kezhi; Wang, Kefeng; Fang, Liming; Weng, Lu-Tao; Zhang, Hongping; Tang, Youhong; Ren, Fuzeng; Zhao, Cancan; Sun, Guoxing; Liang, Rui; Li, Zongjin


    Adhesive hydrogels are attractive biomaterials for various applications, such as electronic skin, wound dressing, and wearable devices. However, fabricating a hydrogel with both adequate adhesiveness and excellent mechanical properties remains a challenge. Inspired by the adhesion mechanism of mussels, we used a two-step process to develop an adhesive and tough polydopamine-clay-polyacrylamide (PDA-clay-PAM) hydrogel. Dopamine was intercalated into clay nanosheets and limitedly oxidized between the layers, resulting in PDA-intercalated clay nanosheets containing free catechol groups. Acrylamide monomers were then added and in situ polymerized to form the hydrogel. Unlike previous single-use adhesive hydrogels, our hydrogel showed repeatable and durable adhesiveness. It adhered directly on human skin without causing an inflammatory response and was easily removed without causing damage. The adhesiveness of this hydrogel was attributed to the presence of enough free catechol groups in the hydrogel, which were created by controlling the oxidation process of the PDA in the confined nanolayers of clay. This mimicked the adhesion mechanism of the mussels, which maintain a high concentration of catechol groups in the confined nanospace of their byssal plaque. The hydrogel also displayed superior toughness, which resulted from nanoreinforcement by clay and PDA-induced cooperative interactions with the hydrogel networks. Moreover, the hydrogel favored cell attachment and proliferation, owning to the high cell affinity of PDA. Rat full-thickness skin defect experiments demonstrated that the hydrogel was an excellent dressing. This free-standing, adhesive, tough, and biocompatible hydrogel may be more convenient for surgical applications than adhesives that involve in situ gelation and extra agents.

  12. Blogging business step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur


    This kit includes: Essential industry and business-specific startup steps with worksheets, calculators, checklists and more. Entrepreneur Editors' Start Your Own Business, a guide to starting any business and surviving the first three years. Downloadable, customizable business letters, sales letters, and other sample documents. Entrepreneur's Small Business Legal Toolkit. Blogs are still one of the internet's fastest-growing phenomena–and one of the best and easiest ways to make money online. Packed with the latest blog tools, tricks, and up-and-coming trends, this fully revised edition teache

  13. Confined Chemical Etching for Electrochemical Machining with Nanoscale Accuracy. (United States)

    Zhan, Dongping; Han, Lianhuan; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Kang; Zhou, Jian-Zhang; Tian, Zhao-Wu; Tian, Zhong-Qun


    In the past several decades, electrochemical machining (ECM) has enjoyed the reputation of a powerful technique in the manufacturing industry. Conventional ECM methods can be classified as electrolytic machining and electroforming: the former is based on anodic dissolution and the latter is based on cathodic deposition of metallic materials. Strikingly, ECM possesses several advantages over mechanical machining, such as high removal rate, the capability of making complex three-dimensional structures, and the practicability for difficult-to-cut materials. Additionally, ECM avoids tool wear and thermal or mechanical stress on machining surfaces. Thus, ECM is widely used for various industrial applications in the fields of aerospace, automobiles, electronics, etc. Nowadays, miniaturization and integration of functional components are becoming significant in ultralarge scale integration (ULSI) circuits, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and miniaturized total analysis systems (μ-TAS). As predicted by Moore's law, the feature size of interconnectors in ULSI circuits are down to several nanometers. In this Account, we present our perseverant research in the last two decades on how to "confine" the ECM processes to occur at micrometer or even nanometer scale, that is, to ensure ECM with nanoscale accuracy. We have been developing the confined etchant layer technique (CELT) to fabricate three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures (3D-MNS) on different metals and semiconductor materials since 1992. In general, there are three procedures in CELT: (1) generating the etchant on the surface of the tool electrode by electrochemical or photoelectrochemical reactions; (2) confining the etchant in a depleted layer with a thickness of micro- or nanometer scale; (3) feeding the tool electrode to etch the workpiece. Scavengers, which can react with the etchant, are usually adopted to form a confined etchant layer. Through the subsequent homogeneous reaction between the scavenger

  14. Effects of rigid or adaptive confinement on colloidal self-assembly. Fixed vs. fluctuating number of confined particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pȩkalski, J.; Ciach, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Almarza, N. G. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)


    The effects of confinement on colloidal self-assembly in the case of fixed number of confined particles are studied in the one dimensional lattice model solved exactly in the grand canonical ensemble (GCE) in Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 014903 (2015)]. The model considers a pair interaction defined by a short-range attraction plus a longer-range repulsion. We consider thermodynamic states corresponding to self-assembly into clusters. Both fixed and adaptive boundaries are studied. For fixed boundaries, there are particular states in which, for equal average densities, the number of clusters in the GCE is larger than in the canonical ensemble. The dependence of pressure on density has a different form when the system size changes with fixed number of particles and when the number of particles changes with fixed size of the system. In the former case, the pressure has a nonmonotonic dependence on the system size. The anomalous increase of pressure for expanding system is accompanied by formation of a larger number of smaller clusters. In the case of elastic confining surfaces, we observe a bistability, i.e., two significantly different system sizes occur with almost the same probability. The mechanism of the bistability in the closed system is different to that of the case of permeable walls, where the two equilibrium system sizes correspond to a different number of particles.

  15. Acta Clinica Croatica: progress of a journal step by step. (United States)

    Ramljak, Gordana


    The journal Acta Clinica Croatica (ACC) was founded in 1962 under the title Anali Bolnice Dr. M. Stojanović. In 1995, the title of the journal was changed into its present form and ever since all papers have been published in English. In 2000, the electronic (online) edition of the ACC was released in addition to the print version. The paper presents development of the journal from 1962 to 2012 based on the analysis of the following SCOPUS citation index parameters: type and number of documents published in the journal; number of citations; and number of domestic and foreign authors. The studied period was analyzed in three time segments: the period from 1995 to 1999, the period from 2000 to 2006 and the period from 2007 to 2012. The same parameters were analyzed in the Web of Science/SCI-Expanded bibliographic and citation index for the 2007-2012 period. The increasing number of documents, authors (both domestic and foreign) and citations demonstrates gradual rise in the quality, visibility and impact of the journal. The fifty years of experience show that a goal, at first very distant and almost unachievable, may be reached by progressing step by step.

  16. Structure and dynamics of a Gay-Berne liquid crystal confined in cylindrical nanopores. (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Lefort, Ronan; Busselez, Rémi; Morineau, Denis


    Gay-Berne liquid crystals confined in two cylindrical nanopores with different pore sizes were studied by molecular dynamics simulation. Their structure and dynamics properties were obtained and compared with those of the bulk. Our data show that confinement changes the bulk isotropic-to-nematic transition to a continuous ordering from a paranematic to a nematic phase. Moreover, confinement strongly hinders the smectic translational order. The molecular dynamics is characterized by the translational diffusion coefficients and the first-rank reorientational correlation times. Very different characteristic times and temperature variations in the dynamics are observed in confinement. Spatially resolved quantities illustrate that confinement induces predominant structural and dynamical heterogeneities.

  17. Metal-organic frameworks as host materials of confined supercooled liquids (United States)

    Fischer, J. K. H.; Sippel, P.; Denysenko, D.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Volkmer, D.; Loidl, A.


    In this work, we examine the use of metal-organic framework (MOF) systems as host materials for the investigation of glassy dynamics in confined geometry. We investigate the confinement of the molecular glass former glycerol in three MFU-type MOFs with different pore sizes (MFU stands for "Metal-Organic Framework Ulm-University") and study the dynamics of the confined liquid via dielectric spectroscopy. In accord with previous reports on confined glass formers, we find different degrees of deviations from bulk behavior depending on pore size, demonstrating that MOFs are well-suited host systems for confinement investigations.

  18. Social mobility: the next steps


    Gregg, P; Cleal, Paul; Shephard, Gillian; Milburn, Alan; Johnston, David; Attwood, Tom; Carrie, Anne Marie; Guy, Christian; Williams, Catriona; Hamilton, Douglas


    The Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission was formally tasked by Ministers to give its view on what further steps the UK government could reasonably take to improve social mobility.The Commission advised opportunities for low paid workers to move up the career ladder, for young people to move from school to employment, and for disadvantaged youngsters to get support in their earliest years should be Ministers’ top priorities if they are to make headway on tackling the UK’s stagnating l...

  19. Steps in Researching the Music in Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole


    The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy.......The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy....

  20. Hydraulic Design of Stepped Spillways Workshop (United States)

    Stepped chutes and spillways are commonly used for routing discharges during flood events. In addition, stepped chutes are used for overtopping protection of earthen embankments. Stepped spillways provide significant energy dissipation due to its stepped feature; as a result, the stilling basin as...