WorldWideScience

Sample records for conductive composite material

  1. Electrically conductive composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  2. Composite materials with ionic conductivity: from inorganic composites to hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslavtsev, Andrei B [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    Information on composite materials with ionic conductivity including inorganic composites and hybrid polymeric ion exchange membranes containing inorganic or polymeric nanoparticles is generalized. The nature of the effect of increase in the ionic conductivity in this type of materials and the key approaches used for theoretical estimation of the conductivity are considered. Data on the ionic conductivity and some other important properties of composites and membrane materials are presented. Prospects for utilization of composite materials and hybrid membranes in hydrogen power engineering are briefly outlined.

  3. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  4. Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  5. Ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive for piezoelectric composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liao, Qingwei; Zhou, Xingli; Wang, Likun; Zhong, Chao; Zhang, Di

    2018-01-01

    Limited by the low thermal resistance of composite material, ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive with curing temperature less than 100 °C needed urgently for the surface conduction treatment of piezoelectric composite material. An ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive with high adhesion strength for the applications of piezoelectric composite material was investigated. The crystal structure of cured adhesive, SEM/EDS analysis, thermal analysis, adhesive properties and conductive properties of different content of nano-silver filler or micron-silver doping samples were studied. The results show that with 60 wt.% nano-silver filler the ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive had the relatively good conductivity as volume resistivity of 2.37 × 10-4 Ω cm, and good adhesion strength of 5.13 MPa. Minor micron-doping (below 15 wt.%) could improve conductivity, but would decrease other properties. The ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive could successfully applied to piezoelectric composite material.

  6. POLYPYRROLE AND POLYPYRROLE/WOOD-DERIVED MATERIALS CONDUCTING COMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Beneventi Mail

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood and cellulose derivatives, in both fibrous and water-soluble macromolecular form, are emerging as outstanding candidates for organic electronics applications due to their large-scale availability, low cost, and easy processability. Paper and wood fibre-based derivatives are considered to be materials of choice as supports for communication world-wide. The interest in producing inexpensive and universally available conducting polymer/cellulose fibres substrates resides in the possibility of creating new materials that can be used for a broad range of advanced applications. For instance, PPy/cellulose fibres composites can be used for the preparation of energy storage devices thanks to the conjugation of the high specific area of cellulose fibres and the electrochemical properties of PPy. Other possible applications of such composites are in the area of the antistatic materials, sensors, electromagnetic interference shielding materials, smart packaging, and tissues. Concerning the woody polymers, some of them (i.e. cellulose derivatives also exhibit biocompatibility, as well as film-forming properties and transparency. In combination with the electrical properties of PPy, these features make PPy/macromolecular cellulose composites suitable for applications as displays, lighting, and photovoltaics. Due to their chemical structure, macromolecular wood derivatives have been proposed with success as enhancing conductivity additives in Py polymerisation. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of PPy chemistry and of the most relevant advances attained in the production of PPy/wood derived materials conducting composites.

  7. Thermally Conductive Structural 2D Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Dimensional Pitch Polyimide Composite Micrographs ........ 27 Figure 23. 4-Ply Silver Polyimide Laminate ...through-thickness thermal conductivity of up to 20 W/m.K. This novel structural prepreg material will be developed through engineering of an optimal fiber...with an EPON 862/Epikure W epoxy resin system to form unidirectional prepreg tapes. Each prepreg was then cut to 6 inch by 6 inch plies and

  8. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  9. Thermal Conductivity on the Nanofluid of Graphene and Silver Nanoparticles Composite Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myekhlai, Munkhshur; Lee, Taejin; Baatar, Battsengel; Chung, Hanshik; Jeong, Hyomin

    2016-02-01

    The composite material consisted of graphene (GN) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been essential topic in science and industry due to its unique thermal, electrical and antibacterial proper- ties. However, there are scarcity studies based on their thermal properties of nanofluids. Therefore, GN-AgNPs composite material was synthesized using facile and environment friendly method and further nanofluids were prepared by ultrasonication in this study. The morphological and structural investigations were carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) as well as ultra violet (UV)-visible spectroscopy. Furthermore, thermal conductivity measurements were performed for as-prepared nanofluids. As a result of thermal conductivity study, GN-AgNPs composite material was considerably enhanced the thermal conductivity of base fluid (water) by to 6.59% for the nanofluid (0.2 wt% GN and 0.4 wt% AgNPs).

  10. Concept of a Conducting Composite Material for Lightning Strike Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Katunin A.; Krukiewicz K.; Herega A.; Catalanotti G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on development of a multifunctional material which allows conducting of electrical current and simultaneously holds mechanical properties of a polymeric composite. Such material could be applied for exterior fuselage elements of an aircraft in order to minimize damage occurring during lightning strikes. The concept introduced in this paper is presented from the points of view of various scientific disciplines including materials science, chemistry, structural physics and mec...

  11. Micromechanics model for predicting anisotropic electrical conductivity of carbon fiber composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Faisal; Haider, Md. Mushfique; Yasmeen, Farzana

    2016-07-01

    Heterogeneous materials, such as composites consist of clearly distinguishable constituents (or phases) that show different electrical properties. Multifunctional composites have anisotropic electrical properties that can be tailored for a particular application. The effective anisotropic electrical conductivity of composites is strongly affected by many parameters including volume fractions, distributions, and orientations of constituents. Given the electrical properties of the constituents, one important goal of micromechanics of materials consists of predicting electrical response of the heterogeneous material on the basis of the geometries and properties of the individual phases, a task known as homogenization. The benefit of homogenization is that the behavior of a heterogeneous material can be determined without resorting or testing it. Furthermore, continuum micromechanics can predict the full multi-axial properties and responses of inhomogeneous materials, which are anisotropic in nature. Effective electrical conductivity estimation is performed by using classical micromechanics techniques (composite cylinder assemblage method) that investigates the effect of the fiber/matrix electrical properties and their volume fractions on the micro scale composite response. The composite cylinder assemblage method (CCM) is an analytical theory that is based on the assumption that composites are in a state of periodic structure. The CCM was developed to extend capabilities variable fiber shape/array availability with same volume fraction, interphase analysis, etc. The CCM is a continuum-based micromechanics model that provides closed form expressions for upper level length scales such as macro-scale composite responses in terms of the properties, shapes, orientations and constituent distributions at lower length levels such as the micro-scale.

  12. Concurrent design of composite materials and structures considering thermal conductivity constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, J.; Cheng, W.; Long, K.

    2017-08-01

    This article introduces thermal conductivity constraints into concurrent design. The influence of thermal conductivity on macrostructure and orthotropic composite material is extensively investigated using the minimum mean compliance as the objective function. To simultaneously control the amounts of different phase materials, a given mass fraction is applied in the optimization algorithm. Two phase materials are assumed to compete with each other to be distributed during the process of maximizing stiffness and thermal conductivity when the mass fraction constraint is small, where phase 1 has superior stiffness and thermal conductivity whereas phase 2 has a superior ratio of stiffness to density. The effective properties of the material microstructure are computed by a numerical homogenization technique, in which the effective elasticity matrix is applied to macrostructural analyses and the effective thermal conductivity matrix is applied to the thermal conductivity constraint. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization algorithm, several three-dimensional illustrative examples are provided and the features under different boundary conditions are analysed.

  13. Preparation and properties of highly conductive palmitic acid/graphene oxide composites as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Indra Mahlia, Teuku Meurah; Cornelis Metselaar, Hendrik Simon

    2013-01-01

    PA/GO (palmitic acid/graphene oxide) as PCMs (phase change materials) prepared by vacuum impregnation method, have high thermal conductivity. The GO (graphene oxide) composite was used as supporting material to improve thermal conductivity and shape stabilization of composite PCM (phase change material). SEM (Scanning electronic microscope), FT-IR (Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) were applied to determine microstructure, chemical structure and crystalloid phase of palmitic acid/GO composites, respectively. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) test was done to investigate thermal properties which include melting and solidifying temperatures and latent heat. FT-IR analysis represented that the composite instruction of porous palmitic acid and GO were physical. The temperatures of melting, freezing and latent heats of the composite measured through DSC analysis were 60.45, 60.05 °C, 101.23 and 101.49 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling test showed that the form-stable composite PCM has good thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was improved by more than three times from 0.21 to 1.02. As a result, due to their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and great thermal conductivities, we can consider the prepared form-stable composites as highly conductive PCMs for thermal energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Novel composite PCM with high thermal conductivity and latent heat storage. • New thermal cycling test for thermal reliability of composite PCMs. • Increasing thermal conductivity of composite PCM with graphene oxide. • Increasing thermal stability of phase change material by adding graphene oxide

  14. Conductive polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koszkul, J.

    1997-01-01

    The results of studies on polypropylene composites with three sorts of Polish-made carbon blacks were presented. It was found that composite of 20% black content had properties of an electrically conducting material

  15. Enhanced ionic conductivity in composite materials due to interfacial space charge layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    The ionic conductivity of a number of salts (e.g., β-AgI, LiI, CuCl, HgI 2 , etc.) can be enhanced by one to three orders of magnitude with the addition of fine particles of an insoluble and nonconducting material such as Al 2 O 3 or SiO 2 . Typically the conductivity increases with addition of the inert particles and reaches a peak at 10-40 vol % of the particles. The mechanism responsible for the enhanced conductivity of the composite is not understood at this time. Some claim that this effect is due to an increased concentration of charge carriers in a diffuse space charge layer near the charged surface of the particle. The goal of the present study is to test this proposed mechanism by calculating the maximum space charge layer effect and then using this result to estimate the conductivity of a composite with a random distribution of Al 2 O 3 particles. Also, the conductivity of composite systems has been investigated assuming an ordered distribution of particles which are surrounded by a high conductivity layer

  16. Thermal conductivity of an organic phase change material/expanded graphite composite across the phase change temperature range and a novel thermal conductivity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Ziye; Chen, Jiajie; Xu, Tao; Fang, Xiaoming; Gao, Xuenong; Zhang, Zhengguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Expanded graphite can improve thermal conductivity of RT44HC by 20–60 times. • Thermal conductivity of PCM/EG composites keeps constant before/after melting. • Thermal conductivity of PCMs nearly doubled during phase changing. • Thermal conductivity of composite PCM increases with density and percentage of EG. • The simple model predicts thermal conductivity of EG-based composites accurately. - Abstract: This work studies factors that affect the thermal conductivity of an organic phase change material (PCM), RT44HC/expanded graphite (EG) composite, which include: EG mass fraction, composite PCM density and temperature. The increase of EG mass fraction and bulk density will both enhance thermal conductivity of composite PCMs, by up to 60 times. Thermal conductivity of RT44HC/EG composites remains independent on temperature outside the phase change range (40–45 °C), but nearly doubles during the phase change. The narrow temperature change during the phase change allows the maximum heat flux or minimum temperature for heat source if attaching PCMs to a first (constant temperature) or second (constant heat flux) thermal boundary. At last, a simple thermal conductivity model for EG-based composites is put forward, based on only two parameters: mass fraction of EG and bulk density of the composite. This model is validated with experiment data presented in this paper and in literature, showing this model has general applicability to any composite of EG and poor thermal conductive materials

  17. Shape-stabilized phase change materials with high thermal conductivity based on paraffin/graphene oxide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Silakhori, Mahyar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The composite PCM was prepared with impregnation method. ► Shapes stabilized phase change material made with paraffin and GO composite. ► Determine effects of GO composite on shape stabilized PCM properties. ► The composite PCM has good thermal stability and form-stability. ► The composite PCM has much higher thermal conductivity than that of paraffin. - Abstract: This paper mainly focuses on the preparation, characterization, thermal properties and thermal stability and reliability of new form-stable composite phase change materials (PCMs) prepared by vacuum impregnation of paraffin within graphene oxide (GO) sheets. SEM and FT-IR techniques and TGA and DSC analysis are used for characterization of material and thermal properties. The composite PCM contained 48.3 wt.% of paraffin without leakage of melted PCM and therefore this composite found to be a form-stable composite PCM. SEM results indicate that the paraffin bounded into the pores of GO. FT-IR analysis showed there was no chemical reaction between paraffin and GO. Temperatures of melting and freezing and latent heats of the composite were 53.57 and 44.59 °C and 63.76 and 64.89 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling tests were done by 2500 melting/freezing cycling for verification of the form-stable composite PCM in terms of thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was highly improved from 0.305 to 0.985 (W/mk). As a result, the prepared paraffin/GO composite is appropriate PCM for thermal energy storage applications because of their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and thermal conductivities

  18. Highly thermal conductive carbon fiber/boron carbide composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Akio; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Goto, Sumitaka; Saito, Yukio; Jinbo, Ryutaro; Ogiwara, Norio; Saido, Masahiro.

    1996-01-01

    In a composite member for use in walls of a thermonuclear reactor, if carbon fibers and boron carbide are mixed, since they are brought into contact with each other directly, boron is reacted with the carbon fibers to form boron carbide to lower thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers. Then, in the present invention, graphite or amorphous carbon is filled between the carbon fibers to provide a fiber bundle of not less than 500 carbon fibers. Further, the surface of the fiber bundle is coated with graphite or amorphous carbon to suppress diffusion or solid solubilization of boron to carbon fibers or reaction of them. Then, lowering of thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers is prevented, as well as the mixing amount of the carbon fiber bundles with boron carbide, a sintering temperature and orientation of carbon fiber bundles are optimized to provide a highly thermal conductive carbon fiber/boron carbide composite material. In addition, carbide or boride type short fibers, spherical graphite, and amorphous carbon are mixed in the boron carbide to prevent development of cracks. Diffusion or solid solubilization of boron to carbon fibers is reduced or reaction of them if the carbon fibers are bundled. (N.H.)

  19. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry......, viscoelastic behavior, and internal stress states. Other physical properties considered are thermal and electrical conductivities, diffusion coefficients, dielectric constants and magnetic permeability. Special attention is given to the effect of pore shape on the mechanical and physical behavior of porous....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...

  20. A reconstruction of Maxwell model for effective thermal conductivity of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.Z.; Gao, B.Z.; Kang, F.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Deficiencies were found in classical Maxwell model for effective thermal conductivity. • Maxwell model was reconstructed based on potential mean-field theory. • Reconstructed Maxwell model was extended with particle–particle contact resistance. • Predictions by reconstructed Maxwell model agree excellently with experimental data. - Abstract: Composite materials consisting of high thermal conductive fillers and polymer matrix are often used as thermal interface materials to dissipate heat generated from mechanical and electronic devices. The prediction of effective thermal conductivity of composites remains as a critical issue due to its dependence on considerably factors. Most models for prediction are based on the analog between electric potential and temperature that satisfy the Laplace equation under steady condition. Maxwell was the first to derive the effective electric resistivity of composites by examining the far-field spherical harmonic solution of Laplace equation perturbed by a sphere of different resistivity, and his model was considered as classical. However, a close review of Maxwell’s derivation reveals that there exist several controversial issues (deficiencies) inherent in his model. In this study, we reconstruct the Maxwell model based on a potential mean-field theory to resolve these issues. For composites made of continuum matrix and particle fillers, the contact resistance among particles was introduced in the reconstruction of Maxwell model. The newly reconstructed Maxwell model with contact resistivity as a fitting parameter is shown to fit excellently to experimental data over wide ranges of particle concentration and mean particle diameter. The scope of applicability of the reconstructed Maxwell model is also discussed using the contact resistivity as a parameter.

  1. Composite Material Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  2. A Simplified Method for Upscaling Composite Materials with High Contrast of the Conductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ewing, R.; Iliev, O.; Lazarov, R.; Rybak, I.; Willems, J.

    2009-01-01

    A large class of industrial composite materials, such as metal foams, fibrous glass materials, mineral wools, and the like, are widely used in insulation and advanced heat exchangers. These materials are characterized by a substantial difference between the thermal properties of the highly conductive materials (glass or metal) and the insulator (air) as well as low volume fractions and complex network-like structures of the highly conductive components. In this paper we address the important issue for the engineering practice of developing fast, reliable, and accurate methods for computing the macroscopic (upscaled) thermal conductivities of such materials. We assume that the materials have constant macroscopic thermal conductivity tensors, which can be obtained by upscaling techniques based on the postprocessing of a number of linearly independent solutions of the steady-state heat equation on representative elementary volumes (REVs). We propose, theoretically justify, and computationally study a numerical method for computing the effective conductivities of materials for which the ratio δ of low and high conductivities satisfies δ ≪ 1. We show that in this case one needs to solve the heat equation in the region occupied by the highly conductive media only. Further, we prove that under certain conditions on the microscale geometry the proposed method gives an approximation that is O(δ)-close to the upscaled conductivity. Finally, we illustrate the accuracy and the limitations of the method on a number of numerical examples. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  3. Electrical conductivity of silicon carbide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, R.; Greeff, J. de; Vinche, C.; Frias Rebelo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical conductivity was measured on two SiC/SiC composite materials in the temperature range from room temperature up to 1000degC in order to estimate the magnitude of MHD effects in liquid metal blankets if SiC/SiC composites are used as structural materials. For both types of material, the electrical conductivity increased continuously with temperature. The conductivity values ranged from 350 (Ωm) -1 at room temperature to 550 (Ωm) -1 at 1000degC, indicating that the materials tested cannot be treated as an electrical insulator in a MHD analysis for liquid metal blanket studies. (author)

  4. Composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambrook, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A superconductor composite is described comprising at least one longitudinally extending superconductor filament or bundle of sub-filaments, each filament or bundle of sub-filaments being surrounded by and in good electrical contact with a matrix material, the matrix material comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending cells of a metal of high electrical conductivity surrounded by a material of lower electrical conductivity. The high electrical conductivity material surrounding the superconducting filament or bundle of sub-filaments is interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of the lower electrical conductivity, the arrangement being such that at least two superconductor filaments or sub-filaments are circumferentially circumscribed by a single annulus of the material of high electrical conductivity. The annulus is electrically interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of low electrical conductivity

  5. Method of forming an electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Ashtead, GB

    2011-11-22

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  6. Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor M. Shakhov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A major problem challenging specialists in present-day materials sciences is the development of compact, cheap to fabricate heat sinks for electronic devices, primarily for computer processors, semiconductor lasers, high-power microchips, and electronics components. The materials currently used for heat sinks of such devices are aluminum and copper, with thermal conductivities of about 250 W/(m·K and 400 W/(m·K, respectively. Significantly, the thermal expansion coefficient of metals differs markedly from those of the materials employed in semiconductor electronics (mostly silicon; one should add here the low electrical resistivity metals possess. By contrast, natural single-crystal diamond is known to feature the highest thermal conductivity of all the bulk materials studied thus far, as high as 2,200 W/(m·K. Needless to say, it cannot be applied in heat removal technology because of high cost. Recently, SiC- and AlN-based ceramics have started enjoying wide use as heat sink materials; the thermal conductivity of such composites, however, is inferior to that of metals by nearly a factor two. This prompts a challenging scientific problem to develop diamond-based composites with thermal characteristics superior to those of aluminum and copper, adjustable thermal expansion coefficient, low electrical conductivity and a moderate cost, below that of the natural single-crystal diamond. The present review addresses this problem and appraises the results reached by now in studying the possibility of developing composites in diamond-containing systems with a view of obtaining materials with a high thermal conductivity.

  7. Thermal characteristics of expanded perlite/paraffin composite phase change material with enhanced thermal conductivity using carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaipekli, Ali; Biçer, Alper; Sarı, Ahmet; Tyagi, Vineet Veer

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Expanded perlite/n-eicosane composite for thermal energy storage was prepared. • Addition of CNTs increases considerably the thermal conductivity of the composite. • The composite PCM including 1 wt% CNTs is promising material. - Abstract: Paraffins constitute a class of solid-liquid organic phase change materials (PCMs). However, low thermal conductivity limits their feasibility in thermal energy storage (TES) applications. Carbon nano tubes (CNTs) are one of the best materials to increase the thermal conductivity of paraffins. In this regard, the present study is focus on the preparation, characterization, and improvement of thermal conductivity using CNTs as well as determination of TES properties of expanded perlite (ExP)/n-eicosane (C20) composite as a novel type of form-stable composite PCM (F-SCPCM). It was found that the ExP could retain C20 at weight fraction of 60% without leakage. The SEM and FTIR analyses were carried out to characterize the microstructure and chemical properties of the composite PCM. The TES properties of the prepared F-SCPCM were determined using DSC and TG analyses. The analysis results showed that the components of the composite are in good compatibleness and C20 used as PCM are well-infiltrated into the structure of ExP/CNTs matrix. The DSC analysis indicated that the ExP/C20/CNTs (1 wt%) composite has a melting point of 36.12 °C and latent heat of 157.43 J/g. The TG analysis indicated that the F-SCPCM has better thermal durability compared with pure C20 and also it has good long term-TES reliability. In addition, the effects of CNTs on the thermal conductivity of the composite PCM were investigated. Compared to ExP/C20 composite, the use of CNTs has apparent improving effect for the thermal conductivity without considerably affecting the compatibility of components, TES properties, and thermal stability.

  8. Efficiency of the Needle Probe Test for Evaluation of Thermal Conductivity of Composite Materials: Two-Scale Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łydżba Dariusz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The needle probe test, as a thermal conductivity measurement method, has become very popular in recent years. In the present study, the efficiency of this methodology, for the case of composite materials, is investigated based on the numerical simulations. The material under study is a two-phase composite with periodic microstructure of “matrix-inclusion” type. Two-scale analysis, incorporating micromechanics approach, is performed. First, the effective thermal conductivity of the composite considered is found by the solution of the appropriate boundary value problem stated for the single unit cell. Next, numerical simulations of the needle probe test are carried out. In this case, two different locations of the measuring sensor are considered. It is shown that the “equivalent” conductivity, derived from the probe test, is strongly affected by the location of the sensor. Moreover, comparing the results obtained for different scales, one can notice that the “equivalent” conductivity cannot be interpreted as the effective one for the composites considered. Hence, a crude approximation of the effective property is proposed based on the volume fractions of constituents and the equivalent conductivities derived from different sensor locations.

  9. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  10. An Analysis of the Thermal Conductivity of Composite Materials (CPC-30R/Charcoal from Sugarcane Bagasse Using the Hot Insulated Plate Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Salgado-Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of new thermally insulating composite materials from solid residues such as charcoal from sugarcane bagasse (CSB is of great importance because it takes advantage of materials that might otherwise pollute the environment. Therefore, for this study, we obtained composite materials based on a portland cement (CPC-30R matrix and CSB particles with a 4 : 1 water-cement ratio and CSB concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight. The thermal conductivities of these materials were characterized following ASTM guideline C177, their CSB morphological properties were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and their compositions were determined using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The results show that the composite materials have reduced thermal conductivities. The metallic oxide percentage composition of the CSB was also determined. It was observed that there was a reduction in thermal conductivity when CSB was used as compared to 100% CPC-30R, and the influence of the CSB concentration on thermal conductivity was measured.

  11. Effect of composition on thermal conductivity of MgO–Nd2Zr2O7 composites for inert matrix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.T.; Giachino, M.M.; Nino, J.C.; McClellan, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Inert matrix fuels based on magnesium oxide (MgO) as the inert phase have been of historic interest due to its high thermal conductivity. Minor actinide-bearing phases possessing an A 2 B 2 O 7 pyrochlore structure are also believed to contain a range of favorable attributes, suggesting a possible pairing with MgO to yield a high performance inert matrix fuel. The thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal expansion of MgO–Nd 2 Zr 2 O 7 composites were measured from room temperature to 1273 K, where the MgO phase content was varied from 40 to 70 volume percent. The thermal conductivity of each composition was calculated using these results and then compared to widely employed methods to approximate the thermal conductivity of composite materials based upon the properties of the constituent phases. Results suggest that use of either a rule of mixtures or geometric mean approximation for the thermal conductivity of composite systems such as this one would be subject to significant uncertainties when the constituent properties widely differ. A sigmoidal average of the upper and lower Hashin–Shtrikman bounds was found to be in good agreement with the thermal conductivity of the composites as determined experimentally

  12. Composite Materials for Low-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials with improved thermal conductivity and good mechanical strength properties should allow for the design and construction of more thermally efficient components (such as pipes and valves) for use in fluid-processing systems. These materials should have wide application in any number of systems, including ground support equipment (GSE), lunar systems, and flight hardware that need reduced heat transfer. Researchers from the Polymer Science and Technology Laboratory and the Cryogenics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center were able to develop a new series of composite materials that can meet NASA's needs for lightweight materials/composites for use in fluid systems and also expand the plastic-additive markets. With respect to thermal conductivity and physical properties, these materials are excellent alternatives to prior composite materials and can be used in the aerospace, automotive, military, electronics, food-packaging, and textile markets. One specific application of the polymeric composition is for use in tanks, pipes, valves, structural supports, and components for hot or cold fluid-processing systems where heat flow through materials is a problem to be avoided. These materials can also substitute for metals in cryogenic and other low-temperature applications. These organic/inorganic polymeric composite materials were invented with significant reduction in heat transfer properties. Decreases of 20 to 50 percent in thermal conductivity versus that of the unmodified polymer matrix were measured. These novel composite materials also maintain mechanical properties of the unmodified polymer matrix. These composite materials consist of an inorganic additive combined with a thermoplastic polymer material. The intrinsic, low thermal conductivity of the additive is imparted into the thermoplastic, resulting in a significant reduction in heat transfer over that of the base polymer itself, yet maintaining most of the polymer's original properties. Normal

  13. Studies of selected synthesis procedures of the conducting LiFePO{sub 4}-based composite cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, W.; Marzec, J.; Swierczek, K.; Zajac, W.; Molenda, J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Molenda, M.; Dziembaj, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, ul. R. Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland)

    2007-11-15

    In this paper technological aspects of a synthesis of phospho-olivine LiFePO{sub 4} based composite cathode materials for lithium batteries are presented. An effective synthesis route yielding a highly conductive composite cathode material was developed. The structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these materials were investigated. It was shown that the enhanced conductivity of the cathode material is due to the presence of a thin layer of the reduced material which has metallic properties, which is formed on the grain surfaces of the phospho-olivine. We propose a synthesis route yielding LiFePO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}P composite material. (author)

  14. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Composite poypropilene-Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betha; Mashuri; Sudirman; Karo Karo, Aloma

    2001-01-01

    Thermal conductivity composite materials polypropylene (PP)-sand have been investigated. PP composite with sand to increase thermal conductivity from the polymer. The composite in this observation is done by mixing matrix (PP melt flow 2/10)and filler sand)by means tool labo plastomil. The result of thermal conductivity is composite of PP-sand which is obtained increase and followed by the raising of filler particle volume fraction. The analysis of thermal conductivity based on the model Cheng and Vachon, model Lewis and Nielsen where this model has the function to support experiment finding. It is proved that Lewis' and Nielsen's model almost approach experiment result. And then thermal conductivity raising will be analyzed by the model of pararel-series conductive with the two (2)phases system. It is showed that sand in PP MF 2 composite have the big role to increase the thermal conductivity than sand in PP MF 10 composition, but it is not easy to shape conductive medium

  15. Thermally Conductive Metal-Tube/Carbon-Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of fabricating joints between metal and carbon-fiber-based composite materials in lightweight radiators and heat sinks has been devised. Carbon-fiber-based composite materials have been used in such heat-transfer devices because they offer a combination of high thermal conductivity and low mass density. Metal tubes are typically used to carry heat-transfer fluids to and from such heat-transfer devices. The present fabrication method helps to ensure that the joints between the metal tubes and the composite-material parts in such heat-transfer devices have both (1) the relatively high thermal conductances needed for efficient transfer of heat and (2) the flexibility needed to accommodate differences among thermal expansions of dissimilar materials in operation over wide temperature ranges. Techniques used previously to join metal tubes with carbon-fiber-based composite parts have included press fitting and bonding with epoxy. Both of these prior techniques have been found to yield joints characterized by relatively high thermal resistances. The present method involves the use of a solder (63 percent Sn, 37 percent Pb) to form a highly thermally conductive joint between a metal tube and a carbon-fiber-based composite structure. Ordinarily, the large differences among the coefficients of thermal expansion of the metal tube, solder, and carbon-fiber-based composite would cause the solder to pull away from the composite upon post-fabrication cooldown from the molten state. In the present method, the structure of the solder is modified (see figure) to enable it to deform readily to accommodate the differential thermal expansion.

  16. Studies on conducting polymer and conducting polymerinorganic composite electrodes prepared via a new cathodic polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhilendra

    A novel approach for the electrodeposition of conducting polymers and conducting polymer-inorganic composite materials is presented. The approach shows that conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be electrodeposited by the application of a cathodic bias that generates an oxidizing agent, NO+, via the in-situ reduction of nitrate anions. This new cathodic polymerization method allows for the deposition of PPy and PEDOT as three dimensional, porous films composed of spherical polymer particles. The method is also suitable for the co-deposition of inorganic species producing conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. Such composites are used as high surface area electrodes in Li-ion batteries, electrochemical hydrogen evolution and in the development of various other conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. New Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes where Sn and Sb nanoparticles are well dispersed among the PPy framework are reported. These structures allow for decreased stress during expansion and contraction of the active material (Sn, Sb) during the alloying and de-alloying processes of a Li-ion battery anode, significantly alleviating the loss of active material due to pulverization processes. The new electrochemical synthesis mechanism allows for the fabrication of Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes directly from a conducting substrate and eliminates the use of binding materials and conducting carbon used in modern battery anodes, which significantly simplifies their fabrication procedures. Platinum (Pt) has long been identified as the most efficient catalyst for electrochemical water splitting, while nickel (Ni) is a cheaper, though less efficient alternative to Pt. A new morphology of PPy attained via the aforementioned cathodic deposition method allows for the use of minimal quantities of Pt and Ni dispersed over a very high surface area PPy substrate. These composite electrodes

  17. Thermal conductivity of glass copper-composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Makoto; Terai, Ryohei; Haidai, Haruki

    1980-01-01

    Glass-metal composites are to be one of the answers for promoting thermal conduction in the glassy solids containing high-level radioactive wastes. In order to investigate the effect of metal addition on thermal conductivity of glasses, glass-copper composites were selected, and the conductivities of the composites were measured and discussed in regards to copper content and microstructure. Fully densified composites were successfully prepared by pressure sintering of the powder mixtures of glass and copper at temperatures above the yield points of the constituent glasses if the copper content was not so much. The conductivity was measured by means of a comparative method, in which the thermal gradient of the specimen was compared with that of quartz glass as standard under thermally steady state. Measurements were carried out at around 50 0 C. The thermal conductivity increased with increasing content of copper depending on the kind of copper powder used. The conductivities of the composites of the same copper content differed considerably each another. Fine copper powder was effective on increasing conductivity, and the conductivity became about threefold of that of glass by mixing the fine copper powder about 10 vol%. For the composites containing the fine copper powder less than 5 vol%, the conductivity obeyed so-called logarithmic rule, one of the mixture rules of conductivity, whereas for composites containing more than 5 vol%, the conductivity remarkably increased apart from the rule. This fact suggests that copper becomes continuous in the composite when the copper content increased beyond 5 vol%. For the composites containing coarse copper powder, the conductivity was increased not significantly, and obeyed an equation derived from the model in which conductive material dispersed in less conductive one. (author)

  18. Continuous Carbon Nanotube-Ultrathin Graphite Hybrid Foams for Increased Thermal Conductivity and Suppressed Subcooling in Composite Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmanov, Iskandar; Kim, Jaehyun; Ou, Eric; Ruoff, Rodney S; Shi, Li

    2015-12-22

    Continuous ultrathin graphite foams (UGFs) have been actively researched recently to obtain composite materials with increased thermal conductivities. However, the large pore size of these graphitic foams has resulted in large thermal resistance values for heat conduction from inside the pore to the high thermal conductivity graphitic struts. Here, we demonstrate that the effective thermal conductivity of these UGF composites can be increased further by growing long CNT networks directly from the graphite struts of UGFs into the pore space. When erythritol, a phase change material for thermal energy storage, is used to fill the pores of UGF-CNT hybrids, the thermal conductivity of the UGF-CNT/erythritol composite was found to increase by as much as a factor of 1.8 compared to that of a UGF/erythritol composite, whereas breaking the UGF-CNT bonding in the hybrid composite resulted in a drop in the effective room-temperature thermal conductivity from about 4.1 ± 0.3 W m(-1) K(-1) to about 2.9 ± 0.2 W m(-1) K(-1) for the same UGF and CNT loadings of about 1.8 and 0.8 wt %, respectively. Moreover, we discovered that the hybrid structure strongly suppresses subcooling of erythritol due to the heterogeneous nucleation of erythritol at interfaces with the graphitic structures.

  19. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of composite electrode from activated carbon/conductive materials/ruthenium oxide for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia); Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Talib, I. A.; Ishak, M. M.; Omar, R.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Basri, N. H.; Othman, M. A. R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Kanwal, S. [ICCBS, H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi (Pakistan)

    2015-04-16

    Activated carbon powders (ACP) were produced from the KOH treated pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust. Different conductive materials (graphite, carbon black and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were added with a binder (polivinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) into ACP to improve the supercapacitive performance of the activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Symmetric supercapacitor cells, fabricated using these AC electrodes and 1 molar H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, were analyzed using a standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The addition of graphite, carbon black and CNTs was found effective in reducing the cell resistance from 165 to 68, 23 and 49 Ohm respectively, and increasing the specific capacitance of the AC electrodes from 3 to 7, 17, 32 F g{sup −1} respectively. Since the addition of CNTs can produce the highest specific capacitance, CNTs were chosen as a conductive material to produce AC composite electrodes that were added with 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % (by weight) electro-active material namely ruthenium oxide; PVDF binder and CNTs contents were kept at 5 % by weight in each AC composite produced. The highest specific capacitance of the cells obtained in this study was 86 F g{sup −1}, i.e. for the cell with the resistance of 15 Ohm and composite electrode consists of 5 % ruthenium oxide.

  20. Magnetic losses in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramprecht, J; Sjoeberg, D

    2008-01-01

    We discuss some of the problems involved in homogenization of a composite material built from ferromagnetic inclusions in a nonmagnetic background material. The small signal permeability for a ferromagnetic spherical particle is combined with a homogenization formula to give an effective permeability for the composite material. The composite material inherits the gyrotropic structure and resonant behaviour of the single particle. The resonance frequency of the composite material is found to be independent of the volume fraction, unlike dielectric composite materials. The magnetic losses are described by a magnetic conductivity which can be made independent of frequency and proportional to the volume fraction by choosing a certain bias. Finally, some concerns regarding particles of small size, i.e. nanoparticles, are treated and the possibility of exciting exchange modes are discussed. These exchange modes may be an interesting way to increase losses in composite materials

  1. The influence of reduced graphene oxide on electrical conductivity of LiFePO4-based composite as cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin, Muhammad; Aimon, Akfiny Hasdi; Winata, Toto; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Iskandar, Ferry

    2016-01-01

    LiFePO 4 is fascinating cathode active materials for Li-ion batteries application because of their high electrochemical performance such as a stable voltage at 3.45 V and high specific capacity at 170 mAh.g −1 . However, their low intrinsic electronic conductivity and low ionic diffusion are still the hindrance for their further application on Li-ion batteries. Therefore, the efforts to improve their conductivity are very important to elevate their prospecting application as cathode materials. Herein, we reported preparation of additional of reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) into LiFePO 4 -based composite via hydrothermal method and the influence of rGO on electrical conductivity of LiFePO 4 −based composite by varying mass of rGO in composition. Vibration of LiFePO 4 -based composite was detected on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, while single phase of LiFePO 4 nanocrystal was observed on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, it furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images showed that rGO was distributed around LiFePO4-based composite. Finally, the 4-point probe measurement result confirmed that the optimum electrical conductivity is in additional 2 wt% rGO for range 1 to 2 wt% rGO

  2. Method of quantitative analysis of superconducting metal-conducting composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, V.N.; Zhuravlev, V.V.; Petranovskij, V.P.; Pimenov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Technique for quantitative analysis of superconducting metal-containing composite materials, SnO 2 -InSn, WO 3 -InW, Zn)-InZn in particular, has been developed. The method of determining metal content in a composite is based on the dependence of superconducting transition temperature on alloy composition. Sensitivity of temperature determination - 0.02K, error of analysis for InSn system - 0.5%

  3. Stretchable Conductive Composites from Cu-Ag Nanowire Felt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Matthew J; Reyes, Christopher; Cruz, Mutya A; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2018-04-24

    Materials that retain a high conductivity under strain are essential for wearable electronics. This article describes a conductive, stretchable composite consisting of a Cu-Ag core-shell nanowire felt infiltrated with a silicone elastomer. This composite exhibits a retention of conductivity under strain that is superior to any composite with a conductivity greater than 1000 S cm -1 . This work also shows how the mechanical properties, conductivity, and deformation mechanism of the composite changes as a function of the stiffness of the silicone matrix. The retention of conductivity under strain was found to decrease as the Young's modulus of the matrix increased. This was attributed to void formation as a result of debonding between the nanowire felt and the elastomer. The nanowire composite was also patterned to create serpentine circuits with a stretchability of 300%.

  4. Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei

    2010-11-08

    This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to “bridge” the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

  5. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites characterization of the starting materials and evaluation of thermal and electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wellington Marcos da

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate the electrical and thermal properties of I) composite materials fabricated with O, I, 0,5 and I wt% of concentric multi-wall carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin (MWNT) dispersed randomly in the resin; 2) MWNT buckypaper/resin composite materials; 3) and neat MWNT buckypaper. Initially, we use the techniques of thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, scanning and transmission electron microscopy for a broadening characterization of the starting materials, to evaluate its morphology, purity, chemical composition and structure, in order to optimize the properties of crosslinked resin and, consequently, of the composite systems. Important parameters such as the average molecular mass and the equivalent weight of epoxy resin (DGEBA) were determined by 1 H-NMR analysis and, after that, resin/curing agent relations with Phr 10, 15, 20 and 53,2 were elaborated and investigated by thermogravimetry, the resin/curing agent relation with Phr 10 showed to be the most thermally stable. This stoichiometric relation was used to elaborate the composites. We have evaluated that the effect of adding 10 wt% of the solvent acetone to the epoxy resin preparation does not alter its properties so we have adopted two routes to fabricate the composites. In the first route we used 10 wt% of acetone and, in the second the MWNT were dispersed in the matrix without using the solvent. However, no significant difference was observed for the dispersion of the bundle tubes in both systems. The electrical conductivity of the composites and buckypapers was evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and the thermal conductivity by the flash laser flash method. Only the buckypapers presented high values for electrical conductivity (10 3 S.m -1 ). The composite systems presented values of 10 -3 S.m -1 , only a bit different from the value of the crosslinked resin. For thermal conductivity, the values for the

  6. Preparation and thermal conductivity enhancement of composite phase change materials for electronic thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Weixiong; Zhang, Guoqing; Ke, Xiufang; Yang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Ziyuan; Liu, Chenzhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A kind of composite phase change material board (PCMB) is prepared and tested. • PCMB presents a large thermal storage capacity and enhanced thermal conductivity. • PCMB displays much better cooling effect in comparison to natural air cooling. • PCMB presents different cooling characteristics in comparison to ribbed radiator. - Abstract: A kind of phase change material board (PCMB) was prepared for use in the thermal management of electronics, with paraffin and expanded graphite as the phase change material and matrix, respectively. The as-prepared PCMB presented a large thermal storage capacity of 141.74 J/g and enhanced thermal conductivity of 7.654 W/(m K). As a result, PCMB displayed much better cooling effect in comparison to natural air cooling, i.e., much lower heating rate and better uniformity of temperature distribution. On the other hand, compared with ribbed radiator technology, PCMB also presented different cooling characteristics, demonstrating that they were suitable for different practical application

  7. A nano-graphite/paraffin phase change material with high thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Paraffin and NG formed a nanoscale compound. ► The thermal conductivity increased gradually with the content of NG. ► The thermal conductivity of the material containing 10% NG were 0.9362 W/m K. - Abstract: Nano-graphite (NG)/paraffin composites were prepared as composite phase change materials. NG has the function of improving the thermal conductivity of the composite. The microstructure and thermal properties of the materials were examined with environmental scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The results indicated that the NG layers were randomly dispersed in the paraffin, and the thermal conductivity increased gradually with the content of NG. Thermal conductivity of the material containing 10% NG were 0.9362 W/m K

  8. Thermal conductivity of tungsten–copper composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Su Yong; Ham, Hye Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present the temperature dependence of the thermophysical properties for tungsten–copper composite from room temperature to 400 °C. The powders of tungsten–copper were produced by the spray conversion method and the W–Cu alloys were fabricated by the metal injection molding. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of tungsten–copper composite was controllable by volume fraction copper. - Abstract: As the speed and degree of integration of semiconductor devices increases, more heat is generated, and the performance and lifetime of semiconductor devices depend on the dissipation of the generated heat. Tungsten–copper alloys have high electrical and thermal conductivities, low contact resistances, and low coefficients of thermal expansion, thus allowing them to be used as a shielding material for microwave packages, and heat sinks for high power integrated circuits (ICs). In this study, the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of several types of tungsten–copper (W–Cu) composites are investigated, using compositions of 5–30 wt.% copper balanced with tungsten. The tungsten–copper powders were produced using the spray conversion method, and the W–Cu alloys were fabricated via the metal injection molding. The tungsten–copper composite particles were nanosized, and the thermal conductivity of the W–Cu alloys gradually decreases with temperature increases. The thermal conductivity of the W–30 wt.% Cu composite was 238 W/(m K) at room temperature.

  9. Conducting compositions of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  10. Ceramic/Metal Composites with Positive Temperature Dependence of Thermal Conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianhui; Yu Qi; Sun Wei; Zhang Rui; Wang Ke; Li Jingfeng; Ichigozaki, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Most materials show decreasing thermal conductivity with increasing temperature, but an opposite temperature dependence of thermal conductivity is required for some industrial applications. The present work was conducted with a motivation to develop composite materials with a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity. ZrO 2 / stainless steel powders (304L) composite, with 3% stearic acid, was prepared by normal sintering under the protecting of Ar after mixing by mechanical ball milling technique. With the 304L content increasing from 10% to 20%, the thermal conductivity values increased. For all samples, the thermal conductivity in the temperature range of room temperature to 700 °C decreased with temperature below 300 °C, and then began to increase. The increasing thermal conductivity of the composites (within the high temperature range was attributed to the difference of the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient between ZrO 2 ceramic and 304L stainless steel powders. Two simple models were also used to estimate the thermal conductivity of the composites, which were in good agreement with the experiment results.

  11. Conductivity variations in composites of. alpha. -zirconium phosphate and alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slade, R.C.T.; Knowles, J.A. (Dept. of Chemistry, Exeter Univ. (UK))

    Composite proton-conducting solid electrolytes have been formed from {alpha}-zirconium hydrogen phosphate ({alpha}-Zr(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O, {alpha}-ZrP) and aluminas (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in varying mole ratios. Conductivity variations as a function of temperature have been characterised and compared to that for a delaminated {alpha}-ZrP (no alumina). There are no appreciable conductivity enhancements on composite formation, but conductivity for materials ca. 50 mole% in alumina can be comparable to the delaminated materials. Differential scanning calorimetry shows the composites to have different thermal properties to simple admixtures. High resolution {sup 31}P NMR studies show reaction to form aluminium phosphate at the interface between components. (orig.).

  12. New transparent conductive metal based on polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Jamali, Mohammad [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Strunkus, Thomas; Zaporochentko, Vladimir; Faupel, Franz [Multicomponent Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Elbahri, Mady [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Institute of Polymer Research, Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Currently great efforts are made to develop new kind of transparent conductors (TCs) to replace ITO. In this regard different materials and composites have been proposed and studied including conductive polymers, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metal grids, and random networks of metallic nanowires. But so far none of them could be used as a replacing material, since either they are either fragile and brittle or their electrical conductivity is below the typical ITO. Thin metallic films due to their high electrical conductivity could be one of the best replacing materials for ITO, however their poor transparency makes their application as TCs limited. Here we design and fabricate a new polymeric composite coating which enhances the transparency of the thin metal film up to 100% relative to the initial value while having a high electrical conductivity of typical metals. Therefore our proposed device has a great potential to be used as new transparent conductor.

  13. Conduction noise absorption by fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ok Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lim, Yun-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all electronic equipment is susceptible to malfunction as a result of electromagnetic interference. In this study, glass fiber, and carbon fiber as a type reinforcement and epoxy as a matrix material were used to fabricate composite materials. In an attempt to increase the conduction noise absorption, carbon nanotubes were grown on the surface of glass fibers and carbon fibers. A microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω in connection with network analyzer was used to measure the conduction noise absorption. In comparing a glass fiber/epoxy composite with a GF-CNT/Ep composite, it was demonstrated that the CNTs significantly influence the noise absorption property mainly due to increase in electric conductivity. In the carbon fiber composites, however, the effectiveness of CNTs on the degree of electric conductivity is negligible, resulting in a small change in reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave. - Research Highlights: → In this study, glass fiber and carbon fiber as a type reinforcement and epoxy as a matrix material were used to fabricate composite materials. In an attempt to increase the conduction noise absorption, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on the surface of glass fibers and carbon fibers. A microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω in connection with network analyzer was used to measure the conduction noise absorption. → In comparing a glass fiber/epoxy composite with a GF-CNT/Ep composite, it was demonstrated that the CNTs significantly influence the noise absorption property mainly due to increase in electric conductivity. In the carbon fiber composites, however, the effectiveness of CNTs on the degree of electric conductivity is negligible, resulting in a small change in reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave.

  14. Electrically conductive carbon fibre-reinforced composite for aircraft lightning strike protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, Andrzej; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Turczyn, Roman; Sul, Przemysław; Bilewicz, Marcin

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft elements, especially elements of exterior fuselage, are subjected to damage caused by lightning strikes. Due to the fact that these elements are manufactured from polymeric composites in modern aircraft, and thus, they cannot conduct electrical charges, the lightning strikes cause burnouts in composite structures. Therefore, the effective lightning strike protection for such structures is highly desired. The solution presented in this paper is based on application of organic conductive fillers in the form of intrinsically conducting polymers and carbon fabric in order to ensure electrical conductivity of whole composite and simultaneously retain superior mechanical properties. The presented studies cover synthesis and manufacturing of the electrically conductive composite as well as its characterization with respect to mechanical and electrical properties. The performed studies indicate that the proposed material can be potentially considered as a constructional material for aircraft industry, which characterizes by good operational properties and low cost of manufacturing with respect to current lightning strike protection materials solutions.

  15. The influence of reduced graphene oxide on electrical conductivity of LiFePO{sub 4}-based composite as cathode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifin, Muhammad; Aimon, Akfiny Hasdi; Winata, Toto; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 Indonesia (Indonesia); Iskandar, Ferry, E-mail: ferry@fi.itb.ac.id [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 Indonesia (Indonesia); Research Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    LiFePO{sub 4} is fascinating cathode active materials for Li-ion batteries application because of their high electrochemical performance such as a stable voltage at 3.45 V and high specific capacity at 170 mAh.g{sup −1}. However, their low intrinsic electronic conductivity and low ionic diffusion are still the hindrance for their further application on Li-ion batteries. Therefore, the efforts to improve their conductivity are very important to elevate their prospecting application as cathode materials. Herein, we reported preparation of additional of reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) into LiFePO{sub 4}-based composite via hydrothermal method and the influence of rGO on electrical conductivity of LiFePO{sub 4}−based composite by varying mass of rGO in composition. Vibration of LiFePO{sub 4}-based composite was detected on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, while single phase of LiFePO{sub 4} nanocrystal was observed on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, it furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images showed that rGO was distributed around LiFePO4-based composite. Finally, the 4-point probe measurement result confirmed that the optimum electrical conductivity is in additional 2 wt% rGO for range 1 to 2 wt% rGO.

  16. New composites graphite/salt for high temperature thermal energy storage: From elaboration to development of thermal characterization methods for orthotropic conductive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acem, Zoubir

    2007-01-01

    This PhD is carried out within the framework of DISTOR (European) and HTPSTOCK (French) projects, which have for objective to conceive and study new graphite/salt composites dedicated to high temperature energy storage (>200 deg. C). She is split into two distinct part. The first one focused mainly on works linked with elaboration and thermal characterisation of these new composites. The different composites ways of elaboration (Dispersion, uniaxial compression, isostatic) associated to the different kind of graphite (Natural expanded graphite (ENG), synthetic graphite) investigated during the PhD are presented. The results of the thermal characterization campaign of these composites are also presented and permit to highlight the impact of graphite in the thermal behaviour of studied materials. Based on these results, modelling studies of the evolution of the thermal conductivity have been undertaken to deepen the understanding of the effect of graphite (quantity, size of particles) on the effective conductivity composites. The second one describes the thermal characterization devices and associated thermo-kinetics models which had to be developed and adapted to the specificities of newly developed materials. This concerns mainly the materials prepared by compression, which present orthotropic properties and are difficult to reproduce. So, the characterization of this kind of material is very difficult and tedious. That is why we are committed to develop and adapt existing methods of characterization to allow the complete thermal characterisation of an orthotropic conductive material from a single experimentation on a single sample. (author) [fr

  17. Development of unidirectional C/C composite with high thermal conductivity and its application to plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, Kimihiro; Onozuka, Masanori; Ikeda, Takeshi; Akiba, Masato.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectional C/C composite named 'MFC-1' with high conductivity was developed, and full-scale armor tiles were fabricated. The thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the plasma-side surface is more than 300-500 W/m·degC, which is higher than those of other C/C composites ever made, even superior to that of pyrolytic carbon. It was shown by high heat load tests done using an electron beam test facility that the unidirectional C/C composite was very resistant against both surface erosion as well as severe thermal shock. The 'MFC-1' was successfully brazed to copper substrate, and its high thermal shock resistance was observed in heat load tests (20 MW/m 2 , 3s, not cooled). A functionally gradient material has been also developed as compliant layer for the MFC-1 bonded to copper. (author)

  18. Thermal conductivity analysis and applications of nanocellulose materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetani, Kojiro; Hatori, Kimihito

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this review, we summarize the recent progress in thermal conductivity analysis of nanocellulose materials called cellulose nanopapers, and compare them with polymeric materials, including neat polymers, composites, and traditional paper. It is important to individually measure the in-plane and through-plane heat-conducting properties of two-dimensional planar materials, so steady-state and non-equilibrium methods, in particular the laser spot periodic heating radiation thermometry method, are reviewed. The structural dependency of cellulose nanopaper on thermal conduction is described in terms of the crystallite size effect, fibre orientation, and interfacial thermal resistance between fibres and small pores. The novel applications of cellulose as thermally conductive transparent materials and thermal-guiding materials are also discussed. PMID:29152020

  19. Electrically conductive bulk composites through a contact-connected aggregate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan I Nawroj

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a concept that allows the creation of low-resistance composites using a network of compliant conductive aggregate units, connected through contact, embedded within the composite. Due to the straight-forward fabrication method of the aggregate, conductive composites can be created in nearly arbitrary shapes and sizes, with a lower bound near the length scale of the conductive cell used in the aggregate. The described instantiation involves aggregate cells that are approximately spherical copper coils-of-coils within a polymeric matrix, but the concept can be implemented with a wide range of conductor elements, cell geometries, and matrix materials due to its lack of reliance on specific material chemistries. The aggregate cell network provides a conductive pathway that can have orders of magnitude lower resistance than that of the matrix material--from 10(12 ohm-cm (approx. for pure silicone rubber to as low as 1 ohm-cm for the silicone/copper composite at room temperature for the presented example. After describing the basic concept and key factors involved in its success, three methods of implementing the aggregate into a matrix are then addressed--unjammed packing, jammed packing, and pre-stressed jammed packing--with an analysis of the tradeoffs between increased stiffness and improved resistivity.

  20. Thermal conductivity of microPCMs-filled epoxy matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    Su, J.F.; Wang, X.Y; Huang, Z.; Zhao, Y.H.; Yuan, X.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) have been widely applied in solid matrix as thermal-storage or temperature-controlling functional composites. The thermal conductivity of these microPCMs/matrix composites is an important property need to be considered. In this study, a series of microPCMs have been fabricated using the in situ polymerization with various core/shell ratio and average diameter; the thermal conductivity of microPCMs/epoxy composites were investigated in detai...

  1. Development of unidirectional C/C composite with high thermal conductivity and its application to plasma facing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, Kimihiro (Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Onozuka, Masanori; Ikeda, Takeshi; Akiba, Masato

    1994-03-01

    Unidirectional C/C composite named 'MFC-1' with high conductivity was developed, and full-scale armor tiles were fabricated. The thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the plasma-side surface is more than 300-500 W/m[center dot]degC, which is higher than those of other C/C composites ever made, even superior to that of pyrolytic carbon. It was shown by high heat load tests done using an electron beam test facility that the unidirectional C/C composite was very resistant against both surface erosion as well as severe thermal shock. The 'MFC-1' was successfully brazed to copper substrate, and its high thermal shock resistance was observed in heat load tests (20 MW/m[sup 2], 3s, not cooled). A functionally gradient material has been also developed as compliant layer for the MFC-1 bonded to copper. (author).

  2. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. PMID:24591286

  3. Damping properties of non-conductive composite materials for applications in power transmission pylons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Mathias; Rüppel, Marvin; Høgsberg, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the fibre direction dependent damping properties of non-conductive composite materialsto be used in newly designed electrical power transm°ission pylons, on which the conducting cables will be directlyconnected. Thus, the composite structure can be designed both to...

  4. High thermal conductivity of graphite fiber silicon carbide composites for fusion reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Balden, M.; Causey, R.A.; Atsumi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of using CVI SiC/graphite fiber composites as low tritium retaining, high thermal conductivity composites for fusion applications are presented. Three-dimensional woven composites have been chemically vapor infiltrated with SiC and their thermophysical properties measured. One material used an intermediate grade graphite fiber in all directions (Amoco P55) while a second material used very high thermal conductive fiber (Amoco K-1100) in the high fiber density direction. The overall void was less than 20%. Strength as measured by four-point bending was comparable to those of SiC/SiC composite. The room temperature thermal conductivity in the high conductivity direction was impressive for both materials, with values >70 W/m K for the P-55 and >420 W/m K for the K-1100 variant. The thermal conductivity was measured as a function of temperature and exceeds the highest thermal conductivity of CVD SiC currently available at fusion relevant temperatures (>600 deg. C). Limited data on the irradiation-induced degradation in thermal conductivity is consistent with carbon fiber composite literature

  5. Composite materials for thermal energy storage: enhancing performance through microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Conductivity of Composite Material Based on System NdPO4·nH2OCsH2PO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana; Bjerrum, Niels J.; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to obtain a comprehensive knowledge about synthesis conditions, structure, thermal behavior and conductivity properties of neodymiumorthophosphates in order to analyze of use this material in intermediate temperature fuel cells due to their thermal and chemical...... stability properties.The impedance spectroscopy technique (IS) was used to measure the conductivity. The conductivity of composites observed to be lower than conductivity of pure CsH2PO4 but had improved sufficiently conductivity of pure NdPO4·nH2O...

  7. Investigations on Thermal Conductivities of Jute and Banana Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Satish; Ramakrishna, Avasarala; Balaram Padal, Korabu Tulasi

    2017-04-01

    The Jute and Banana fibers are used as reinforcement in epoxy resin matrix for making partially green biodegradable material composite via hand lay-up technique. The thermal conductivity of the jute fiber epoxy composites and banana fiber epoxy composites at different volume fraction of the fiber is determined experimentally by using guarded heat flow meter method. The experimental results had shown that thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. Experimental results are compared with theoretical models (Series model, Hashin model and Maxwell model) to describe the variation of the thermal conductivity versus the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is observed. Thermal conductivity of Banana fiber composite is less when compared to that of Jute composite which indicates banana is a good insulator and also the developed composites can be used as insulating materials in building, automotive industry and in steam pipes to save energy by reducing rate of heat transfer.

  8. Metallic composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frommeyer, G.

    1987-01-01

    The structure and properties of metallic composite materials and composite materials with metallic matrix are considered. In agreement with the morphology of constituent phases the following types of composite materials are described: dispersion-strengthened composite materials; particle-reinforced composite materials; fibrous composite materials; laminar composite materials. Data on strength and electric properties of the above-mentioned materials, as well as effect of the amount, location and geometric shape of the second phase on them, are presented

  9. Fabrication and characterization of stearic acid/polyaniline composite with electrical conductivity as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Ji, Hui; Shi, Huan; Zhang, Ting; Xia, TianDong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stearic acid/polyaniline composite PCM with electrical conductivity was fabricated. • Stearic acid acted as thermal energy storage media and doping acid. • Latent heats of SA/PANI are as high as the same type composites. • Improved electrical conductivity of capsules is 0.7042 S cm −1 . - Abstract: This paper presents the experimental investigation on the thermal properties and electrical conductivity of the new microencapsulated phase change material by entrapping of stearic acid (SA) into PANI (polyaniline) shell through self-assembly method. Experimental results reveal that PANI nuclei grew on the surface of SA, and then copied its original morphological structure and finally exhibited peony flower-like morphology. The two components have good compatibility and have no chemical reaction both in the process of fabrication and subsequent use, while hydrogen bondings between the imino groups and carboxyl groups exist. The maximum mass fraction of stearic acid loaded in SA/PANI is determined as high as 62.1 wt% without seepage of melted SA from capsules. Due to the secondary doping with carboxyl group, the composite phase change material embedded with SA exhibits improved electrical conductivity from 0.3968 S cm −1 to 0.7042 S cm −1 when compared to PANI. The phase change temperatures and latent heats of SA/PANI are measured to be 55.6 °C and 113.02 J/g for melting and, 50.8 °C and 112.58 J/g for freezing, respectively. TG analysis test revealed that the prepared SA/PANI composite PCM has high thermal durability in working temperature range. Moreover, the results of DSC, FT-IR, TG, conductivity investigation and thermal cycling test are all show that the thermal reliability and electrical conductivity of the SA/APNI have imperceptible changes. In total, the additional electrical conductivity, high heat storage potential and good thermal reliability and stability facilitated SA/PANI to be considered as a viable candidate for thermal

  10. N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries with greatly enhanced electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guanghui, Wu; Ruiyi, Li; Zaijun, Li; Junkang, Liu; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The study reported a novel N-doped graphene/graphite anode material for lithium ion batteries. The composite exhibits a largely enhanced electrochemical performance. The study also provides an attractive approach for the fabrication of various graphite-based materials for high power batteries. Display Omitted -- Highlights: • The paper developed a new N-doped graphene/graphite composite for lithium ion battery • The composite contains a three-dimensional graphene framework with rich of open pores • The hybrid offers a higher electrical conductivity when compared with pristine graphite • The hybrid electrode provides a greatly enhanced electrochemical performance • The study provides a prominent approach for fabrication of graphite-based materials -- ABSTRACT: Present graphite anode cannot meet the increasing requirement of electronic devices and electric vehicles due to its low specific capacity, poor cycle stability and low rate capability. The study reported a promising N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries. Herein, graphite oxide and urea were dispersed in ultrapure water and partly reduced by ascorbic acid. Followed by mixing with graphite and hydrothermal treatment to produce graphene oxide/graphite hydrogel. The hydrogel was dried and finally annealed in Ar/H 2 to obtain N-doped graphene/graphite composite. The result shows that all of graphite particles was dispersed in three-dimensional graphene framework with a rich of open pores. The open pore accelerates the electrolyte transport. The graphene framework works as a conductive agent and graphite particle connector and improves the electron transfer. Electrical conductivity of the composite reaches 5912 S m −1 , which is much better than that of the pristine graphite (4018 S m −1 ). The graphene framework also acts as an expansion absorber in the anodes of lithium ion battery to relieve the large strains

  11. Fully coupled heat conduction and deformation analyses of nonlinear viscoelastic composites

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-05-01

    This study presents an integrated micromechanical model-finite element framework for analyzing coupled heat conduction and deformations of particle-reinforced composite structures. A simplified micromechanical model consisting of four sub-cells, i.e., one particle and three matrix sub-cells is formulated to obtain the effective thermomechanical properties and micro-macro field variables due to coupled heat conduction and nonlinear thermoviscoelastic deformation of a particulate composite that takes into account the dissipation of energy from the viscoelastic constituents. A time integration algorithm for simultaneously solving the equations that govern heat conduction and thermoviscoelastic deformations of isotropic homogeneous materials is developed. The algorithm is then integrated to the proposed micromechanical model. A significant temperature generation due to the dissipation effect in the viscoelastic matrix was observed when the composite body is subjected to cyclic mechanical loadings. Heat conduction due to the dissipation of the energy cannot be ignored in predicting the factual temperature and deformation fields within the composite structure, subjected to cyclic loading for a long period. A higher creep resistant matrix material or adding elastic particles can lower the temperature generation. Our analyses suggest that using particulate composites and functionally graded materials can reduce the heat generation due to energy dissipation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Percolation Phenomena For New Magnetic Composites And Tim Nanocomposites Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Thabet Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical investigation in order to obtain new composite and nanocomposite magnetic industrial materials. The effective conductivity and thermal effective conductivity have been predicted by adding various types and percentages of conductive particles (Al2O3, MgO, ZnO, Graphite etc. to the main matrices of Epoxy, Iron and Silicon for formulating new composite and nanocomposite industrial materials. The characterization of effective conductivity of new polymeric composites has been investigated with various applied forces, inclusion types and their concentrations. In addition, the effect of inclusion types and their concentrations on the effective thermal conductivities of thermal interface nanocomposite industrial materials has been explained and discussed.

  13. Realization and characterization of a cellulose and conducting polymer-based ultrathin films composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Christelle

    1998-01-01

    This work was dedicated to the realization and the characterization of an organic composite material in order to obtain organized ultrathin films with high conductivity and good mechanical properties. In this purpose, the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of a crosslinked alkyl cellulose (rigid-rod polymer) was used as a host matrix for the electro-polymerization of alkyl thiophene and pyrrole. The first interesting result was the synthesis of a bigger amount of conducting alkyl polymer in the presence of cellulose. With the help of a photo-patterning technique, we were able to form contacts more or less conducting on the substrate. We have also shown that the conducting polymer grows beyond the electrode area until distances never described up to now in the literature. A preferential orientation of the conducting polymer chains along the LB dipping direction of the cellulose has been observed in some cases. Even for the films without molecular orientation, we have systematically observed a microscopic or macroscopic anisotropy. This phenomenon appears as domains concentrated in conducting polymers with anisotropic shapes oriented along the dipping direction. Finally, we have noticed that cellulose doesn't change the conductivity and the electrochromic properties of the conducting polymer. Beyond the keeping of these intrinsic properties, the matrix allows to stabilize the film when it is in contact with an organic solvent. (author) [fr

  14. Electrically conductive carbon nanofiber/paraffin wax composites for electric thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kun; Han Baoguo; Yu Xun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/paraffin wax composite is found to be a promising electric thermal storage material. ► The thermal storage capacity of CNF/paraffin wax composite is five times of traditional electric thermal storage material. ► CNF is shown to be an effective conductive filler for the composite. - Abstract: The research of electric thermal storage (ETS) has attracted a lot of attention recently, which converts off-peak electrical energy into thermal energy and release it later at peak hours. In this study, new electric thermal storage composites are developed by employing paraffin wax as thermal storage media and carbon nanofiber (CNF) as conductive fillers. Electric heating and thermal energy release performances of the CNF/paraffin wax composites are experimentally investigated. Experimental results show that, when the composites are heated to about 70 °C, the developed electrically conductive CNF/paraffin wax composites present a thermal storage capacity of about 280 kJ/kg, which is five times of that of traditional thermal storage medium such as ceramic bricks (54 kJ/kg). The CNF/paraffin wax composites can also effectively store the thermal energy and release the thermal energy in later hours.

  15. Thermal and electrical conductivity enhancement of graphite nanoplatelets on form-stable polyethylene glycol/polymethyl methacrylate composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GnPs), obtained by sonicating the expanded graphite, were employed to simultaneously enhance the thermal (k) and electrical (σ) conductivity of organic form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs). Using the method of in situ polymerization upon ultrasonic irradiation, GnPs serving as the conductive fillers and polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as the phase change material (PCM) were uniformly dispersed and embedded inside the network structure of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), which contributed to the well package and self-supporting properties of composite FSPCMs. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated that the GnPs were physically combined with PEG/PMMA matrix and did not participate in the polymerization. The GnPs additives were able to effectively enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCM. When the mass ratio of GnP was 8%, the k and σ of FSPCM changed up to 9 times and 8 orders of magnitude over that of PEG/PMMA matrix, respectively. The improvements in both k and σ were mainly attributed to the well dispersion and large aspect ratio of GnPs, which were endowed with benefit of forming conducting network in polymer matrix. It was also confirmed that all the prepared specimens possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability. -- Highlights: ► GnPs were employed to simultaneously enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCMs. ► PEG/PMMA/GnPs composite FSPCMs were prepared by in situ polymerization method. ► The composite FSPCMs exhibited well package and self-supporting properties. ► GnPs additives effectively enhanced the k and σ of composite FSPCMs. ► All the composites possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability.

  16. Anisotropic thermal conductivity in epoxy-bonded magnetocaloric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Bruno; Sellschopp, Kai; Bierdel, Marius; Funk, Alexander; Bobeth, Manfred; Krautz, Maria; Waske, Anja

    2016-09-01

    Thermal management is one of the crucial issues in the development of magnetocaloric refrigeration technology for application. In order to ensure optimal exploitation of the materials "primary" properties, such as entropy change and temperature lift, thermal properties (and other "secondary" properties) play an important role. In magnetocaloric composites, which show an increased cycling stability in comparison to their bulk counterparts, thermal properties are strongly determined by the geometric arrangement of the corresponding components. In the first part of this paper, the inner structure of a polymer-bonded La(Fe, Co, Si)13-composite was studied by X-ray computed tomography. Based on this 3D data, a numerical study along all three spatial directions revealed anisotropic thermal conductivity of the composite: Due to the preparation process, the long-axis of the magnetocaloric particles is aligned along the xy plane which is why the in-plane thermal conductivity is larger than the thermal conductivity along the z-axis. Further, the study is expanded to a second aspect devoted to the influence of particle distribution and alignment within the polymer matrix. Based on an equivalent ellipsoids model to describe the inner structure of the composite, numerical simulation of the thermal conductivity in different particle arrangements and orientation distributions were performed. This paper evaluates the possibilities of microstructural design for inducing and adjusting anisotropic thermal conductivity in magnetocaloric composites.

  17. Thermal conductivity of wood ash diatomite composites using the transient hot strip method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muia, L.M.; Gaitho, F.

    2003-08-01

    The transient Hot Strip method (THS) was used to determine the thermal conductivities of pure Wood Ash (WA), two kinds of diatomite i.e., DB and DF, and their composites. The effects of grain size and temperature on the thermal conductivities of the three systems and their composites were also determined. The lowest thermal conductivities of 0.02x10 -2 Wm -1 K -1 for wood ash and ∼ 3x10 -2 Wm -1 K -1 for the diatomites are found in the particle size range 60 -80μm. The thermal conductivities of the various composites range between 1.3x10 -3 and 6.8x10 -2 Wm -1 K -1 . These values are a factor of 10 lower than those of the pure materials. The thermal conductivity of the three composites is independent of temperature in the range 26-350 deg. C, in contrast to those pure materials which increase with temperature. Generally, the thermal conductivites of the pure materials which increase as their porosity or moisture contents are increased. (author)

  18. Preparation of conductive paper composites based on natural cellulosic fibers for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Samahy, Magda Ali; Abdel Rehim, Mona H

    2012-08-01

    Conducting paper based on natural cellulosic fibers and conductive polymers was prepared using unbleached bagasse and/or rice straw fibers (as cellulosic raw materials) and polyaniline (PANi) as conducting polymer. These composites were synthesized by in situ emulsion polymerization using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant in the presence of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) as emulsifier. The prepared composites were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and their morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Electrical conductivity measurements showed that the conductivity of the paper sheets increases by increasing the ratio of PANi in the composite. Mechanical properties of the paper sheets were also investigated, the results revealed that the values of breaking length, burst factor, and tear factor are decreased with increasing ratio of added PANi, and this effect is more pronounced in bagasse-based composites. The new conductive composites can have potential use as anti-static packaging material or anti-bacterial paper for packaging applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fiber/matrix interfacial thermal conductance effect on the thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    SiC/SiC composites used in fusion reactor applications are subjected to high heat fluxes and require knowledge and tailoring of their in-service thermal conductivity. Accurately predicting the thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites as a function of temperature will guide the design of these materials for their intended use, which will eventually include the effects of 14-MeV neutron irradiations. This paper applies an Eshelby–Mori–Tanaka approach (EMTA) to compute the thermal conductivity of unirradiated SiC/SiC composites. The homogenization procedure includes three steps. In the first step EMTA computes the homogenized thermal conductivity of the unidirectional (UD) SiC fiber embraced by its coating layer. The second step computes the thermal conductivity of the UD composite formed by the equivalent SiC fibers embedded in a SiC matrix, and finally the thermal conductivity of the as-formed SiC/SiC composite is obtained by averaging the solution for the UD composite over all possible fiber orientations using the second-order fiber orientation tensor. The EMTA predictions for the transverse thermal conductivity of several types of SiC/SiC composites with different fiber types and interfaces are compared to the predicted and experimental results by Youngblood et al. [J. Nucl. Mater. 307–311 (2002) 1120–1125, Fusion Sci. Technol. 45 (2004) 583–591, Compos. Sci. Technol. 62 (2002) 1127–1139.

  20. High thermal conductivity materials for thermal management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broido, David A.; Reinecke, Thomas L.; Lindsay, Lucas R.

    2018-05-29

    High thermal conductivity materials and methods of their use for thermal management applications are provided. In some embodiments, a device comprises a heat generating unit (304) and a thermally conductive unit (306, 308, 310) in thermal communication with the heat generating unit (304) for conducting heat generated by the heat generating unit (304) away from the heat generating unit (304), the thermally conductive unit (306, 308, 310) comprising a thermally conductive compound, alloy or composite thereof. The thermally conductive compound may include Boron Arsenide, Boron Antimonide, Germanium Carbide and Beryllium Selenide.

  1. Composite materials for protection against electromagnetic microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyk, IV; Barsukov, VZ; Savchenko, BM; Shevchenko, KL; Plavan, VP; Shpak, Yu V; Kruykova, OA

    2016-01-01

    A fairly wide range of carbon-polymer composite materials was synthesized and studied in terms of their potential to protect people and electronic equipment from exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The materials studied included three main groups: (1) PVC polymer composites filled with various carbon-containing fillers (colloidal graphite, thermally expanded graphite, acetylene black, graphitized carbon black, carbon nanotubes, graphene) at concentrations ranging from 5 to 20%; (2) carbon cloth - commercial and modified with nanometal additives (e.g., nanoparticles of Cu, TiN, etc.); (3) highly-filled polymer-carbon composites in the form of paint. The transmission rate a of electromagnetic radiation was investigated for such materials in the frequency range of 10 GHz as well as their electrical conductivity. The results showed that the shielding ability of the materials of group (2) is significantly higher than that of the materials of group (1), which is probably due to the presence of strong internal skeleton of conductivity. Nevertheless, some highly-filled mixed polymer-carbon composites in the form of paint demonstrate even more shielding ability than carbon cloth and could be used for the defense against EMR. (paper)

  2. Reinforcement of Conducting Silver-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike JUNG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a well-known material in the field of contact materials because of its high electrical and thermal conductivity. However, due to its bad mechanical and switching properties, silver alloys or reinforcements of the ductile silver matrix are required. Different reinforcements, e. g. tungsten, tungsten carbide, nickel, cadmium oxide or tin oxide, are used in different sectors of switches. To reach an optimal distribution of these reinforcements, various manufacturing techniques (e. g. powder blending, preform infiltration, wet-chemical methods, internal oxidation are being used for the production of these contact materials. Each of these manufacturing routes offers different advantages and disadvantages. The mechanical alloying process displays a successful and efficient method to produce particle-reinforced metal-matrix composite powders. This contribution presents the obtained fine disperse microstructure of tungsten-particle-reinforced silver composite powders produced by the mechanical alloying process and displays this technique as possible route to provide feedstock powders for subsequent consolidation processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4889

  3. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of polypropylene/conducting fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Yeung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic released from the automotive electronic parts is harmful to human body. Electromagnetic interference (EMT) shielding refers to the reflection and/or adsorption of electromagnetic radiation by a material, which thereby acts as a shield against the penetration of the radiation through the shield. Polypropylene (PP)/conductive micro fiber composites containing various fiber contents and fiber length were injection-molded. The effect of fiber content and length on electrical properties of the composites was studied by electrical resistivity and EMT shielding measurements. The through-plane electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity were obtained by measuring dielectric properties. The EMT shielding effectiveness (SE) was investigated by using S-parameter in the range of 100 ~ 1500 MHz. Reflection, absorption and multiple-reflection are the EMT attenuation mechanisms. From the measurement of S-Parameters, the absorption coefficient, reflection coefficient, and the shielding efficiency of the materials were calculated. The EMT SE of PP/conducing fiber composites is 40 dB over a wide frequency range up to 1.5 GHz, which is higher than that of PP/talc composite used automotive parts, viz. 0 dB.

  4. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...

  5. Estimation of effective thermal conductivity tensor from composite microstructure images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M; Boyard, N; Jarny, Y; Delaunay, D

    2008-01-01

    The determination of the effective thermal properties of inhomogeneous materials is a long-standing problem of continuously interest. The impressive number of methods developed to measure or estimate the thermal properties of composite materials clearly exhibits the importance given to their knowledge. Homogenization models are a cheap way to determine or predict them. Many different approaches of homogenization were developed, but the last advances are credited to numerical methods. In this study, a new computational model is developed to estimate the 2D thermal conductivity tensor and the thermal main directions of a pure carbon/epoxy unidirectional composite. This tool is based on real composite microstructure.

  6. Processable Conducting Polyaniline, Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and Their Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kan

    Good processability is often required for applications of conducting materials like polyaniline (PANI), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene. This can be achieved by either physical stabilization or chemical functionalization. Functionalization usually expands the possible applications for the conducting materials depending on the properties of the functional groups. Processable conducting materials can also be combined with other co-dissolving materials to prepare composites with desired chemical and physical properties. Polyanilines (PANI) doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) are soluble in many organic solvents such as chloroform and toluene. Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be dispersed into PANI/DBSA to form homogeneous solutions. PANI/DBSA functions as a conducting surfactant for SWCNTs. The mixture can be combined with two-parts polyurethanes that co-dissolve in the organic solvent to produce conducting polymer composites. The composite mixtures can be applied onto various substrates by simple spray-on methods to obtain transparent and conducting coatings. Graphene, a single layer of graphite, has drawn intense interest for its unique properties. Processable graphene has been produced in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) by a one-step solvothermal reduction of graphite oxide without the aid of any reducing reagent and/or surfactant. The as-synthesized graphene disperses well in a variety of organic solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol and tetrahydrogenfuran (THF). The conductivity of solvothermal reduced graphite oxide is comparable to hydrazine reduced graphite oxide. Attempts were made to create intrinsically conducting glue comparable to mussel adhesive protiens using polyaniline and graphene. Mussels can attach to a variety of substrates under water. Catechol residue in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the key to the wet adhesion. Tyrosine and phosphoserine with primary alkyl amine groups also participate in adhesion. A

  7. Health monitoring method for composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jr., Kenneth S.; Morris, Shelby J [Hampton, VA

    2011-04-12

    An in-situ method for monitoring the health of a composite component utilizes a condition sensor made of electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymeric matrix. The sensor is bonded or otherwise formed on the matrix surface of the composite material. Age-related shrinkage of the sensor matrix results in a decrease in the resistivity of the condition sensor. Correlation of measured sensor resistivity with data from aged specimens allows indirect determination of mechanical damage and remaining age of the composite component.

  8. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, ,gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  9. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  10. Electrically conductive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  11. Electrical conductivity of metal (hydr)oxide–activated carbon composites under compression. A comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso-Bogeat, A., E-mail: adrianbogeat@unex.es [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Alexandre-Franco, M.; Fernández-González, C. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Sánchez-González, J. [Department of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Gómez-Serrano, V. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    From a granular commercial activated carbon (AC) and six metal (hydr)oxide precursors, including Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, SnCl{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, a broadly varied series of metal (hydr)oxide–AC composites were prepared by wet impregnation and subsequent oven-drying at 120 °C. Here, the electrical conductivity of the resulting products was studied under moderate compression. The influence of the applied pressure, sample volume, mechanical work, and density of the hybrid materials was thoroughly investigated. The dc electrical conductivity of the compressed samples was measured at room temperature by the four-probe method. Compaction assays show that the mechanical properties of the composites are largely determined by the carbon matrix. Both the decrease in volume and the increase in density under compression were very small and only significant at pressures lower than 100 kPa for AC and most composites. By contrast, the bulk electrical conductivity of the hybrid materials was strongly influenced by the nature, content and intrinsic conductivity of the supported metal phases, which act as insulating thin layers thereby hindering the effective electron transport between AC cores of neighbouring sample particles in contact under compression. Conductivity values for the composites were lower than for the raw AC, all of them falling in the range of typical semiconductor materials. The patterns of variation of the electrical conductivity with pressure and mechanical work were slightly similar, thus suggesting the predominance of the pressure effects rather than the volume ones. - Highlights: • Pressure-dependent conductivity is studied for metal (hydr)oxide–AC composites. • Mechanical properties of the composites are essentially determined by AC. • Supported metal (hydr)oxides determine the bulk conductivity of the composites. • Metal (hydr)oxides act as insulating thin layers hindering the

  12. Influence of Hybrid Fillers on Thermal Conductivity of Nylon-6/Graphene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Na

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermal insulating properties of polymer greatly restrict the application of polymer as the thermal conductivity materials in industry. Multilayer graphene was chosen as a filler due to its unique thermal transfer property. The effect of alumina oxide (Al2O3 and silicon carbide (SiC with graphene as hybrid fillers on thermal conductivity of polymers was also explored. The thermal conductivity of the composites enhances 161% with 3%(mass fraction graphene content compared to pure nylon-6(PA6. The thermal conductivity of PA6 composites is within 0.653-4.307W·m-1·K-1 by adjusting hybrid fillers content and the ratio of graphene with Al2O3 and SiC. The best thermal conductivity is 20 times higher than the pure PA6. It is no doubt that the exploration can provide valuable experimental basis for extending the utilization of graphene as thermal conductivity filler and the application of PA6 thermal conductivity materials in industry.

  13. Strain-Detecting Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Terryl A. (Inventor); Smith, Stephen W. (Inventor); Piascik, Robert S. (Inventor); Horne, Michael R. (Inventor); Messick, Peter L. (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor); Glaessgen, Edward H. (Inventor); Hailer, Benjamin T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composite material includes a structural material and a shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite in response to a predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. In a second embodiment, the composite material includes a plurality of particles of a ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite and changes magnetic phase in response to the predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. A method of forming a composite material for sensing the predefined critical macroscopic average strain includes providing the shape-memory alloy having an austenite crystallographic phase, changing a size and shape of the shape-memory alloy to thereby form a plurality of particles, and combining the structural material and the particles at a temperature of from about 100-700.degree. C. to form the composite material.

  14. Optimization of sensor introduction into laminated composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2008-03-01

    This work seeks to extend the functionality of the composite material beyond that of simply load-bearing and to enable in situ sensing, without compromising the structural integrity of the host composite material. Essential to the application of smart composites is the issue of the mechanical coupling of the sensor to the host material. Here we present various methods of embedding sensors within the host composite material. In this study, quasi-static three-point bending (short beam) and fatigue three-point bending (short beam) tests are conducted in order to characterize the effects of introducing the sensors into the host composite material. The sensors that are examined include three types of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin film sensors: silver ink with a protective coating of urethane, silver ink without a protective coating, and nickel-copper alloy without a protective coating. The methods of sensor integration include placement at the midplane between the layers of prepreg material as well as a sandwich configuration in which a PVDF thin film sensor is placed between the first and second and nineteenth and twentieth layers of prepreg. Each PVDF sensor is continuous and occupies the entire layer, lying in the plane normal to the thickness direction in laminated composites. The work described here is part of an ongoing effort to understand the structural effects of integrating microsensor networks into a host composite material.

  15. Study on paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change thermal energy storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhengguo; Fang Xiaoming

    2006-01-01

    A paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change thermal energy storage material was prepared by absorbing the paraffin into an expanded graphite that has an excellent absorbability. In such a composite, the paraffin serves as a latent heat storage material and the expanded graphite acts as the supporting material, which prevents leakage of the melted paraffin from its porous structure due to the capillary and surface tension forces. The inherent structure of the expanded graphite did not change in the composite material. The solid-liquid phase change temperature of the composite PCM was the same as that of the paraffin, and the latent heat of the paraffin/expanded graphite composite material was equivalent to the calculated value based on the mass ratio of the paraffin in the composite. The heat transfer rate of the paraffin/expanded graphite composite was obviously higher than that of the paraffin due to the combination with the expanded graphite that had a high thermal conductivity. The prepared paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change material had a large thermal storage capacity and improved thermal conductivity and did not experience liquid leakage during its solid-liquid phase change

  16. Preparation process and properties of LiCoO2/PANI/dodecylbenzenesulfonate composite electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferchichi, Karima; Hbaieb, Souhaira; Amdouni, Noureddine; Kalfat, Rafik; Chevalier, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials that combine the lithium exchanging material LiCoO 2 and the conductive polymer poly(aniline) (PANI) have been investigated regarding their possible application to electrode materials of lithium batteries. Such composite materials have been prepared by means of polymerization of aniline in acidic suspensions of LiCoO 2 particles. PANI was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline by ammonium persulfate in the presence of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) as a micellar template and dopant. The composite material consisted in LiCoO 2 particles dispersed in a continuous matrix of PANI. The ribbon-like morphology of the powdered material was distinctly different of the morphologies of the parent materials. The conductive material had conductivity close to that of PANI because the LiCoO 2 content of the composite material was low. The presence of the poorly conductive inorganic phase caused a significant loss of conductivity, showing that LiCoO 2 blocked electronic transfers between PANI crystallites. Ammonium persulfate caused the loss of lithium from LiCoO 2 when it was used at high concentration in the polymerization recipe. In this case a new phase made of Co 3 O 4 formed by chemical decomposition of Li x CoO 2 . Thin films prepared from stable suspensions of composite materials in water show comparable electrical performance to that measured for bulk materials. - Highlights: • LiCoO 2 was incorporated in a conductive polymer matrix made of PANI. • The hybrid material retained the high conductive properties of PANI. • Loss of lithium by persulfate oxidation caused conversion of LiCoO 2 into Co 3 O 4

  17. Aerogel / Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  18. Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions

  19. Conductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Kostecki, Robert; Wilcox, James; Lau, Grace

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for optimizing the carbon coatings on non-conductive battery cathode material powders has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The enhancement of the electronic conductivity of carbon coating enables minimization of the amount of carbon in the composites, allowing improvements in battery rate capability without compromising energy density. The invention is applicable to LiFePO 4 and other cathode materials used in lithium ion or lithium metal batteries for high power applications such as power tools and hybrid or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The market for lithium ion batteries in consumer applications is currently $5 billion/year. Additionally, lithium ion battery sales for vehicular applications are projected to capture 5% of the hybrid and electric vehicle market by 2010, and 36% by 2015 (http://www.greencarcongress.com). LiFePO 4 suffers from low intrinsic rate capability, which has been ascribed to the low electronic conductivity (10 -9 S cm -1 ). One of the most promising approaches to overcome this problem is the addition of conductive carbon. Co-synthesis methods are generally the most practical route for carbon coating particles. At the relatively low temperatures ( 4 , however, only poorly conductive disordered carbons are produced from organic precursors. Thus, the carbon content has to be high to produce the desired enhancement in rate capability, which decreases the cathode energy density

  20. Preparation and proton conductivity of composite membranes based on sulfonated poly(phenylene oxide) and benzimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yifeng; Yu Qinchun; Wu Yihua

    2007-01-01

    The Bronsted acid-base composite membrane was prepared by entrapping benzimidazole in sulfonated poly(phenylene oxide) by tuning the doping ratios. Their thermal stability, dynamic mechanical properties and proton conductivity were investigated under the conditions for intermediate temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell operation. In addition, investigation of activation energies of the SPPO-xBnIm at different relative humidity was also performed. TG-DTA curves reveal these SPPO-xBnIm composite materials had the high thermal stability. The proton conductivity of SPPO-xBnIm composite material increased with the temperature, and the highest proton conductivity of SPPO-xBnIm composite materials was found to be 8.93 x 10 -4 S/cm at 200 deg. C under 35% relative humidity (RH) with a 'doping rate' where x = 2. The SPPO-2BnIm composite membrane show higher storage moduli and loss moduli than SPPO. Tests in a hydrogen-air laboratory cell demonstrate the applicability of SPPO-2BnIm in PEMFCs at intermediate temperature under non-humidified conditions

  1. High thermal conductivity SiC/SiC composites for fusion applications -- 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowbel, W.; Tsou, K.T.; Withers, J.C.; Youngblood, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report covers material presented at the IEA/Jupiter Joint International Workshop on SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Structural Applications held in conjunction with ICFRM-8, Sendai, Japan, Oct. 23--24, 1997. An unirradiated SiC/SiC composite made with MER-developed CVR SiC fiber and a hybrid PIP/CVI SiC matrix exhibited room temperature transverse thermal conductivity of 45 W/mK. An unirradiated SiC/SiC composite made from C/C composite totally CVR-converted to a SiC/SiC composite exhibited transverse thermal conductivity values of 75 and 35 W/mK at 25 and 1000 C, respectively. Both types of SiC/SiC composites exhibited non-brittle failure in flexure testing

  2. Radiometric Measurements of the Thermal Conductivity of Complex Planetary-like Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueux, S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Planetary surface temperatures and thermal inertias are controlled by the physical and compositional characteristics of the surface layer material, which result from current and past geological activity. For this reason, temperature measurements are often acquired because they provide fundamental constraints on the geological history and habitability. Examples of regolith properties affecting surface temperatures and inertias are: grain sizes and mixture ratios, solid composition in the case of ices, presence of cement between grains, regolith porosity, grain roughness, material layering etc.. Other important factors include volatile phase changes, and endogenic or exogenic heat sources (i.e. geothermal heat flow, impact-related heat, biological activity etc.). In the case of Mars, the multitude of instruments observing the surface temperature at different spatial and temporal resolutions (i.e. IRTM, Thermoskan, TES, MiniTES, THEMIS, MCS, REMS, etc.) in conjunction with other instruments allows us to probe and characterize the thermal properties of the surface layer with an unprecedented resolution. While the derivation of thermal inertia values from temperature measurements is routinely performed by well-established planetary regolith numerical models, constraining the physical properties of the surface layer from thermal inertia values requires the additional step of laboratory measurements. The density and specific heat are usually constant and sufficiently well known for common geological materials, but the bulk thermal conductivity is highly variable as a function of the physical characteristics of the regolith. Most laboratory designs do not allow an investigation of the thermal conductivity of complex regolith configurations similar to those observed on planetary surfaces (i.e. cemented material, large grains, layered material, and temperature effects) because the samples are too small and need to be soft to insert heating or measuring devices. For this

  3. Thermo-structural analysis and electrical conductivity behavior of epoxy/metals composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumedienne, N.; Faska, Y.; Maaroufi, A.; Pinto, G.; Vicente, L.; Benavente, R.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports on the elaboration and characterization of epoxy resin filled with metallic particles powder (aluminum, tin and zinc) composites. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures, density measurements and x-ray diffraction analysis (DRX) showed a homogeneous phase of obtained composites. The differential scanning calorimetry revealed a good adherence at matrix-filler interfaces, confirming the SEM observations. The measured glass transition temperatures depend on composites fillers' nature. Afterwards, the electrical conductivity of composites versus their fillers' contents has been investigated. The obtained results depict a nonlinear behavior, indicating an insulator to conductor phase transition at a conduction threshold; with high contrast of ten decades. Hence, the elaborated materials give a possibility to obtain dielectric or electrically conducting phases, which can to be interesting in the choice of desired applications. Finally, the obtained results have been successfully simulated on the basis of different percolation models approach combined with structural characterization inferences.

  4. Nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  5. Synthesis and testing of a conducting polymeric composite material for lightning strike protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, A.; Krukiewicz, K.; Turczyn, R.; Sul, P.; Łasica, A.; Catalanotti, G.; Bilewicz, M.

    2017-02-01

    Lightning strike protection is one of the important issues in the modern maintenance problems of aircraft. This is due to a fact that the most of exterior elements of modern aircraft is manufactured from polymeric composites which are characterized by isolating electrical properties, and thus cannot carry the giant electrical charge when the lightning strikes. This causes serious damage of an aircraft structure and necessity of repairs and tests before returning a vehicle to operation. In order to overcome this problem, usually metallic meshes are immersed in the polymeric elements. This approach is quite effective, but increases a mass of an aircraft and significantly complicates the manufacturing process. The approach proposed by the authors is based on a mixture of conducting and dielectric polymers. Numerous modeling studies which are based on percolation clustering using kinetic Monte Carlo methods, finite element modeling of electrical and mechanical properties, and preliminary experimental studies, allow achieving an optimal content of conducting particles in a dielectric matrix in order to achieve possibly the best electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, simultaneously. After manufacturing the samples with optimal content of a conducting polymer, mechanical and electrical characterization as well as high-voltage testing was performed. The application of such a material simplifies manufacturing process and ensures unique properties of aircraft structures, which allows for minimizing damage after lightning strike, as well as provide electrical bounding and grounding, interference shielding, etc. The proposed solution can minimize costs of repair, testing and certification of aircraft structures damaged by lightning strikes.

  6. How to determine composite material properties using numerical homogenization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2014-01-01

    Numerical homogenization is an efficient way to determine effective macroscopic properties, such as the elasticity tensor, of a periodic composite material. In this paper an educational description of the method is provided based on a short, self-contained Matlab implementation. It is shown how...... the basic code, which computes the effective elasticity tensor of a two material composite, where one material could be void, is easily extended to include more materials. Furthermore, extensions to homogenization of conductivity, thermal expansion, and fluid permeability are described in detail. The unit...

  7. Synthesis, characterization and AC conductivity studies of silver doped conducting polyaniline/graphene/SrTiO3 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, K.; Shivakumar, K.; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Revanasiddappa, M.

    2018-05-01

    The present work is an investigation of ac conduction behaviour and dielectric response of Polyaniline/Ag/Graphene/SrTiO3 (PAGS) composite prepared by in-situ chemical oxidative interfacial polymerization using (NH4)2S2O8 as an oxidising agent at 0-5°C. The structural characterization of the samples was examined using FT-IR and XRD techniques. The ac conductivity and dielectric response of synthesized polymer composites were investigated at room temperature in the frequency range varying from 5 × 101 - 5 × 106 Hz using HIOKI make 3532-50 LCR Hi-tester. The ac conductivity increases with increase in frequency and follows the regular trend, the real dielectric constant (ɛ') and imaginary dielectric constant (ɛ'') decreases with increase in frequency and exhibits almost zero dielectric loss at higher frequencies, which suggests that the composite is a lossless material at frequencies beyond 3Hz.

  8. Thermal conductivity and latent heat thermal energy storage properties of LDPE/wax as a shape-stabilized composite phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigui, Abdelwaheb; Karkri, Mustapha; Krupa, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study deals with the comparison of experimental results for different PCM composite to be used in passive solar walls. • This paper reports on the successful use of a specific experimental method in order to characterize the phase change effects. • The results have shown that most important thermal properties of these composites at the solid and liquid states. • Results indicate the thermal effectiveness of phase change material and significant amount of energy saving can be achieved. • Heat flux measurements are a very interesting experimental source of data which comes to complete the calorimetric device (DSC). - Abstract: Phase change material (PCM) composites based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with paraffin waxes were investigated in this study. The composites were prepared using a meltmixing method with a Brabender-Plastograph. The LDPE as the supporting matrix kept the molten waxes in compact shape during its phase transition from solid to liquid. Immiscibility of the PCMs (waxes) and the supporting matrix (LDPE) is a necessary property for effective energy storage. Therefore, this type paraffin can be used in a latent heat storage system without encapsulation. The objective of this research is to use PCM composite as integrated components in a passive solar wall. The proposed composite TROMBE wall allows daily storage of the solar energy in a building envelope and restitution in the evening, with a possible control of the air flux in a ventilated air layer. An experimental set-up was built to determine the thermal response of these composites to thermal solicitations. In addition, a DSC analysis was carried out. The results have shown that most important thermal properties of these composites at the solid and liquid states, like the “apparent” thermal conductivity, the heat storage capacity and the latent heat of fusion. Results indicate the performance of the proposed system is affected by the thermal effectiveness of

  9. Analysis of effective thermal conductivity for mineral cast material structures with varying epoxy content using TPS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selvakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, cast iron is the material used for high speed machine tool structures. As an alternate material to improve the structural properties, composite materials are being used, which are known to exhibit excellent thermal and mechanical properties. While selecting an alternate material, thermal conductivity is an important thermo physical property of the material that should be studied. A resin composite material has a lesser thermal conductivity and its thermal properties vary with the composition of the mixture. A material with lower thermal conductivity will have higher heat concentration within the structure, which may result in structural deformation. In this analysis, epoxy granite, a material which is tested to exhibit excellent mechanical properties has been selected to study its thermal properties. Tests are carried out using Transient Plane Source (TPS method, on eight samples with varying volume fraction of epoxy content in the range 10-24%. It is observed that, the effective thermal conductivity decreases with an increase in epoxy resin content in the mixture because the resin content increases interfacial resistance between particles. Hence, lower epoxy content in the mixture that maximizes the effective thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties is to be selected.

  10. Analysis of effective thermal conductivity for mineral cast material structures with varying epoxy content using TPS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selvakumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, cast iron is the material used for high speed machine tool structures. As an alternate material to improve the structural properties, composite materials are being used, which are known to exhibit excellent thermal and mechanical properties. While selecting an alternate material, thermal conductivity is an important thermo physical property of the material that should be studied. A resin composite material has a lesser thermal conductivity and its thermal properties vary with the composition of the mixture. A material with lower thermal conductivity will have higher heat concentration within the structure, which may result in structural deformation. In this analysis, epoxy granite, a material which is tested to exhibit excellent mechanical properties has been selected to study its thermal properties. Tests are carried out using Transient Plane Source (TPS method, on eight samples with varying volume fraction of epoxy content in the range 10-24%. It is observed that, the effective thermal conductivity decreases with an increase in epoxy resin content in the mixture because the resin content increases interfacial resistance between particles. Hence, lower epoxy content in the mixture that maximizes the effective thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties is to be selected.

  11. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  12. Learning from Natural Nacre: Constructing Layered Polymer Composites with High Thermal Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guiran; Yao, Yimin; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Sun, Jiajia; Hu, Jiantao; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jian-Bin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2017-09-27

    Inspired by the microstructures of naturally layered and highly oriented materials, such as natural nacre, we report a thermally conductive polymer composite that consists of epoxy resin and Al 2 O 3 platelets deposited with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Owing to their unique two-dimensional structure, Al 2 O 3 platelets are stacked together via a hot-pressing technique, resulting in a brick-and-mortar structure, which is similar to the one of natural nacre. Moreover, the AgNPs deposited on the surfaces of the Al 2 O 3 platelets act as bridges that link the adjacent Al 2 O 3 platelets due to the reduced melting point of the AgNPs. As a result, the polymer composite with 50 wt % filler achieves a maximum thermal conductivity of 6.71 W m -1 K -1 . In addition, the small addition of AgNPs (0.6 wt %) minimally affects the electrical insulation of the composites. Our bioinspired approach will find uses in the design and fabrication of thermally conductive materials for thermal management in modern electronics.

  13. Improvement of thermal conductivity of ceramic matrix composites for 4. generation nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrero, J.

    2009-11-01

    This study deals with thermal conductivity improvement of SiCf/SiC ceramic matrix composites materials to be used as cladding material in 4. generation nuclear reactor. The purpose of the study is to develop a composite for which both the temperature and irradiation effect is less pronounced on thermal conductivity of material than for SiC. This material will be used as matrix in CMC with SiC fibers. Some TiC-SiC composites with different SiC volume contents were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The sintering process enables to fabricate specimens very fast, with a very fine microstructure and without any sintering aids. Neutron irradiation has been simulated using heavy ions, at room temperature and at 500 C. Evolution of the thermal properties of irradiated materials is measured using modulated photothermal IR radiometry experiment and was related to structural evolution as function of dose and temperature. It appears that such approach is reliable to evaluate TiC potentiality as matrix in CMC. Finally, CMC with TiC matrix and SiC fibers were fabricated and both mechanical and thermal properties were measured and compare to SiCf/SiC CMC. (author)

  14. Combinatory Models for Predicting the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Frozen and Unfrozen Food Materials

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Reddy; P Karthikeyan

    2010-01-01

    A model to predict the effective thermal conductivity of heterogeneous materials is proposed based on unit cell approach. The model is combined with four fundamental effective thermal conductivity models (Parallel, Series, Maxwell-Eucken-I, and Maxwell-Eucken-II) to evolve a unifying equation for the estimation of effective thermal conductivity of porous and nonporous food materials. The effect of volume fraction (ν) on the structure composition factor (ψ) of the food materials is studied. Th...

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Composites and Complex Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spowart, Jonathan E.; Gupta, Nikhil; Lehmhus, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    Advanced composite materials form an important class of high-performance industrial materials used in weight-sensitive applications such as aerospace structures, automotive structures and sports equipment. In many of these applications, parts are made in small production runs, are highly customized and involve long process development times. Developments in additive manufacturing (AM) methods have helped in overcoming many of these limitations. The special topic of Additive Manufacturing of Composites and Complex Materials captures the state of the art in this area by collecting nine papers that present much novel advancement in this field. The studies under this topic show advancement in the area of AM of carbon fiber and graphene-reinforced composites with high thermal and electrical conductivities, development of new hollow glass particle-filled syntactic foam filaments for printing lightweight structures and integration of sensors or actuators during AM of metallic parts. Some of the studies are focused on process optimization or modification to increase the manufacturing speed or tuning manufacturing techniques to enable AM of new materials.

  16. Tunneling Conductivity and Piezoresistivity of Composites Containing Randomly Dispersed Conductive Nano-Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouyi, Amirhossein Biabangard; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman; Mertiny, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a three-dimensional continuum percolation model was developed based on a Monte Carlo simulation approach to investigate the percolation behavior of an electrically insulating matrix reinforced with conductive nano-platelet fillers. The conductivity behavior of composites rendered conductive by randomly dispersed conductive platelets was modeled by developing a three-dimensional finite element resistor network. Parameters related to the percolation threshold and a power-low describing the conductivity behavior were determined. The piezoresistivity behavior of conductive composites was studied employing a reoriented resistor network emulating a conductive composite subjected to mechanical strain. The effects of the governing parameters, i.e., electron tunneling distance, conductive particle aspect ratio and size effects on conductivity behavior were examined. PMID:28788580

  17. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  18. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner For Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, David; Singh, Jogender

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high thermal conductivity materials research conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with state of the art combustion chamber liner material NARloy-Z showed that its thermal conductivity can be increased significantly by adding diamond particles and sintering it at high temperatures. For instance, NARloy-Z containing 40 vol. percent diamond particles, sintered at 975C to full density by using the Field assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) showed 69 percent higher thermal conductivity than baseline NARloy-Z. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40vol. percent D is 30 percent lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 140 percent better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. By one estimate, increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power up to 2X and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and ISP, resulting in an expected 20 percent improvement in engine performance. Follow on research is now being conducted to demonstrate the benefits of this high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite for combustion chamber liner applications in advanced rocket engines. The work consists of a) Optimizing the chemistry and heat treatment for NARloy-Z-D composite, b) Developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) for the optimized NARloy-Z-D, c) Fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and d) Hot fire testing of the liner for performance. FAST is used for consolidating and sintering NARlo-Z-D. The subscale cylindrical liner with built in channels for coolant flow is also fabricated near net shape using the FAST process. The liner will be assembled into a test rig and hot fire tested in the MSFC test facility to determine performance. This paper describes the development of this novel high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite material, and the advanced net shape technology to fabricate the combustion

  19. Preparation process and properties of LiCoO{sub 2}/PANI/dodecylbenzenesulfonate composite electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchichi, Karima, E-mail: ferchichikarima1@gmail.com [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Hbaieb, Souhaira, E-mail: souhaira.bouchaira@gmail.com [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Amdouni, Noureddine, E-mail: nouredin.amdouni@fst.rnu.tn [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kalfat, Rafik, E-mail: rafik.kalfat@gmail.com [Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique, 2020 Sidi Thabet (Tunisia); Chevalier, Yves, E-mail: chevalier@lagep.univ-lyon1.fr [Laboratoire d' Automatique et de Génie des Procédés (LAGEP), CNRS UMR 5007, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-10-01

    Composite materials that combine the lithium exchanging material LiCoO{sub 2} and the conductive polymer poly(aniline) (PANI) have been investigated regarding their possible application to electrode materials of lithium batteries. Such composite materials have been prepared by means of polymerization of aniline in acidic suspensions of LiCoO{sub 2} particles. PANI was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline by ammonium persulfate in the presence of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) as a micellar template and dopant. The composite material consisted in LiCoO{sub 2} particles dispersed in a continuous matrix of PANI. The ribbon-like morphology of the powdered material was distinctly different of the morphologies of the parent materials. The conductive material had conductivity close to that of PANI because the LiCoO{sub 2} content of the composite material was low. The presence of the poorly conductive inorganic phase caused a significant loss of conductivity, showing that LiCoO{sub 2} blocked electronic transfers between PANI crystallites. Ammonium persulfate caused the loss of lithium from LiCoO{sub 2} when it was used at high concentration in the polymerization recipe. In this case a new phase made of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} formed by chemical decomposition of Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2}. Thin films prepared from stable suspensions of composite materials in water show comparable electrical performance to that measured for bulk materials. - Highlights: • LiCoO{sub 2} was incorporated in a conductive polymer matrix made of PANI. • The hybrid material retained the high conductive properties of PANI. • Loss of lithium by persulfate oxidation caused conversion of LiCoO{sub 2} into Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}.

  20. Homogenization in thermoelasticity: application to composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyroux, R [Lab. de Mecanique et Genie Civil, Univ. Montpellier 2, 34 Montpellier (France); Licht, C [Lab. de Mecanique et Genie Civil, Univ. Montpellier 2, 34 Montpellier (France)

    1993-11-01

    One of the obstacles to the industrial use of metal matrix composite materials is the damage they rapidly undergo when they are subjected to cyclic thermal loadings; local thermal stresses of high level can develop, sometimes nearby or over the elastic limit, due to the mismatch of elastic and thermal coefficients between the fibers and the matrix. For the same reasons, early cracks can appear in composites like ceramic-ceramic. Therefore, we investigate the linear thermoelastic behaviour of heterogeneous materials, taking account of the isentropic coupling term in the heat conduction equation. In the case of periodic materials, recent results, using the homogenization theory, allowed us to describe macroscopic and microscopic behaviours of such materials. This paper is concerned with the numerical simulation of this problem by a finite element method, using a multiscale approach. (orig.).

  1. Simulation of the structure and calculation of the thermal conductivity of napped composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezko, S.N.; Zarichnyak, Yu.P.; Korenev, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a model of the structure of a napped composite. Characteristic trends in the structure of the material are delineated, and the effective thermal conductivity of the model structure is calculated for these trends with allowance for conduction and radiation

  2. Superconducting composites materials. Materiaux composites supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerjouan, P; Boterel, F; Lostec, J; Bertot, J P; Haussonne, J M [Centre National d' Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET), 22 - Lannion (FR)

    1991-11-01

    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developed in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}, by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. 8 refs.; 14 figs.; 9 tabs.

  3. Electric conductance of films prepared from polymeric composite nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hain, J.; Pich, A.; Adler, H. J.; Rais, David; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2008), s. 61-65 ISSN 1022-1360. [Microsymposium on Advanced Polymer Materials for Photonics and Electronics /47./. Prague, 15.07.2007-19.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA MŠk OC 138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : coatings * composites * conducting polymers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  4. Superconducting composites materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerjouan, P.; Boterel, F.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J.P.; Haussonne, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developed in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ , by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. 8 refs.; 14 figs.; 9 tabs [fr

  5. Preparation and characterization of 304 stainless steel/Q235 carbon steel composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenning Shen

    Full Text Available The composite material of 304 stainless steel reinforced Q235 carbon steel has been prepared by modified hot-rolling process. The resulted material was characterized by scanning electron microscope, three-electrode method, fault current impact method, electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that metallurgical bond between the stainless steel layer and carbon steel substrate has been formed. The composite material exhibited good electrical conductivity and thermal stability. The average grounding resistance of the composite material was about 13/20 of dip galvanized steel. There has no surface crack and bubbling formed after fault current impact. The composite material led to a significant decrease in the corrosion current density in soil solution, compared with that of hot dip galvanized steel and bare carbon steel. On the basis polarization curve and EIS analyses, it can be concluded that the composite material showed improved anti-corrosion property than hot-dip galvanized steel. Keywords: Stainless steel, Carbon steel, Anti-corrosion, Conductivity, Electrochemical, EIS

  6. Conductive polymer composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a conductive polymer composition comprising graphene and the articles obtained by this process. The process comprises the following steps: A) contacting graphite oxide in an aqueous medium with a water-soluble or dispersible

  7. Mechanics in Composite Materials and Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Gil

    1993-03-01

    This book includes introduction of composite materials, stress, in-plane stiffness of laminates strain rate, ply stress, failure criterion and bending, composite materials micromechanics, composite plates and micromechanics of composite materials. It also deals with process of composite materials such as autoclave vacuum bag degassing process, connection of composite materials, filament winding process, resin transfer molding, sheet molding compound and compression molding.

  8. Composite materials design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Daniel; Tsai, Stephen W

    2002-01-01

    PART ONE. PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTIONCOMPOSITE MATERIALS, INTEREST AND PROPERTIESWhat is Composite Material Fibers and MatrixWhat can be Made Using Composite Materials?Typical Examples of Interest on the Use of Composite MaterialsExamples on Replacing Conventional Solutions with CompositesPrincipal Physical PropertiesFABRICATION PROCESSESMolding ProcessesOther Forming ProcessesPractical Hints in the Manufacturing ProcessesPLY PROPERTIESIsotropy and AnisotropyCharacteristics of the Reinforcement-Matrix MixtureUnidirectional PlyWoven FabricsMats and Reinforced MatricesMultidimensional FabricsMetal Matrix CompositesTestsSANDWICH STRUCTURES:What is a Sandwich Structure?Simplified FlexureA Few Special AspectsFabrication and Design ProblemsNondestructive Quality ControlCONCEPTION AND DESIGNDesign of a Composite PieceThe LaminateFailure of LaminatesSizing of LaminatesJOINING AND ASSEMBLYRiveting and BoltingBondingInsertsCOMPOSITE MATERIALS AND AEROSPACE CONSTRUCTIONAircraftHelicoptersPropeller Blades for AirplanesTur...

  9. Microencapsulated Phase Change Composite Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alexander

    This study aims to elucidate how phase change material (PCM)-composite materials can be leveraged to reduce the energy consumption of buildings and to provide cost savings to ratepayers. Phase change materials (PCMs) can store thermal energy in the form of latent heat when subjected to temperatures exceeding their melting point by undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid state. Reversibly, PCMs can release this thermal energy when the system temperature falls below their solidification point. The goal in implementing composite PCM walls is to significantly reduce and time-shift the maximum thermal load on the building in order to reduce and smooth out the electricity demand for heating and cooling. This Ph.D. thesis aims to develop a set of thermal design methods and tools for exploring the use of PCM-composite building envelopes and for providing design rules for their practical implementation. First, detailed numerical simulations were used to show that the effective thermal conductivity of core-shell-matrix composites depended only on the volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the constituent materials. The effective medium approximation reported by Felske (2004) was in very good agreement with numerical predictions of the effective thermal conductivity. Second, a carefully validated transient thermal model was used to simulate microencapsulated PCM-composite walls subjected to diurnal or annual outdoor temperature and solar radiation flux. It was established that adding microencapsulated PCM to concrete walls both substantially reduced and delayed the thermal load on the building. Several design rules were established, most notably, (i) increasing the volume fraction of microencapsulated PCM within the wall increases the energy savings but at the potential expense of mechanical properties [1], (ii) the phase change temperature leading to the maximum energy and cost savings should equal the desired indoor temperature regardless of the climate

  10. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Leigh

    This study looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. As the use of composite materials in aircraft construction increases, the understanding of how macroscopic failure characteristics of composite materials may aid the field investigator is becoming of increasing importance.. The first phase of this research project was to explore how investigation practitioners conduct wreckage examinations. Four accident investigation case studies were examined. The analysis of the case studies provided a framework of the wreckage examination process. Subsequently, a literature survey was conducted to establish the current level of knowledge on the visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite failures. Relevant literature was identified and a compendium of visual and macroscopic characteristics was created. Two full-scale polymer composite wing structures were loaded statically, in an upward bending direction, until each wing structure fractured and separated. The wing structures were subsequently examined for the existence of failure characteristics. The examination revealed that whilst characteristics were present, the fragmentation of the structure destroyed valuable evidence. A hypothetical accident scenario utilising the fractured wing structures was developed, which UK government accident investigators subsequently investigated. This provided refinement to the investigative framework and suggested further guidance on the interpretation of polymer composite failures by accident investigators..

  11. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  12. The effect of reinforcement volume ratio on porosity and thermal conductivity in Al-Mgo composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Calin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of reinforcement volume ratios (RVR on composite structure and thermal conductivity were examined in Al-MgO reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs of 5%, 10% and 15% RVR produced by melt stirring. In the production of composites, EN AW 1050A aluminum alloy was used as the matrix material and MgO powders with particle size of -105 µm were used as the reinforcement material. For every composite specimen was produced at 500 rev/min stirring speed, at 750 °C liquid matrix temperature and 4 minutes stirring time. Composite samples were cooled under normal atmosphere. Then, microstructures of the samples were determined and evaluated by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS analysis. In general, it was observed that the reinforcement exhibited a homogeneous distribution. Furthermore, it was determined that the increase in the RVR increased porosity. From the Scanning Electron Microscope images, a thermal Ansys model was generated to determine effective thermal conductivity. Effective thermal conductivity of Al-MgO composites increased with the decrease in reinforcement volume ratio.

  13. A novel high specific surface area conducting paper material composed of polypyrrole and Cladophora cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihranyan, Albert; Nyholm, Leif; Bennett, Alfonso E Garcia; Strømme, Maria

    2008-10-02

    We present a novel conducting polypyrrole-based composite material, obtained by polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of iron(III) chloride on a cellulose substrate derived from the environmentally polluting Cladophora sp. algae. The material, which was doped with chloride ions, was molded into paper sheets and characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, N 2 gas adsorption analysis, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and conductivity measurements at varying relative humidities. The specific surface area of the composite was found to be 57 m (2)/g and the fibrous structure of the Cladophora cellulose remained intact even after a 50 nm thick layer of polypyrrole had been coated on the cellulose fibers. The composite could be repeatedly used for electrochemically controlled extraction and desorption of chloride and an ion exchanging capacity of 370 C per g of composite was obtained as a result of the high surface area of the cellulose substrate. The influence of the oxidation and reduction potentials on the chloride ion exchange capacity and the nucleation of delocalized positive charges, forming conductive paths in the polypyrrole film, was also investigated. The creation of conductive paths during oxidation followed an effective medium rather than a percolative behavior, indicating that some conduction paths survive the polymer reduction steps. The present high surface area material should be well-suited for use in, e.g., electrochemically controlled ion exchange or separation devices, as well as sensors based on the fact that the material is compact, light, mechanically stable, and moldable into paper sheets.

  14. Tailored functional materials with controlled thermal expansion and excellent thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korb, G.; Sebo, P.

    1997-01-01

    Engineering materials are mainly used for structures. Therefore high-strength, stiffness and sufficient toughness are of prime importance. For a long time engineers thought first in terms of metals. Material scientists developed alloys tailored to the needs of industry. Ceramics are known to be brittle and therefore not suitable in the first place for structural application under stress. Polymers with their low modulus became attractive when reinforced with high-strength fibres. Composites processed by polymer, metal or ceramic matrices and high-strength reinforcements have been introduced into many sectors of industry. Engineering materials for structural applications fulfil a function: they withstand high stresses, temperatures, fatigue, creep etc. But usually we do not call them functional materials. Functional materials serve applications apart from classical engineering fields. Electricity conducting materials, semi conductors, memory alloys and many others are called functional materials. Because of the fact that the basic physical properties cannot be changed in single-phase materials, the combination of two and more materials with different properties lead to components with new and tailored properties. A few techniques for preparation are described as powder metallurgy, infiltration of prepegs and compaction of precoated fibres/particles. The lecture is focusing on carbon fibre/particle reinforced Metal Matrix Materials. The achievable properties, in particular the thermal conductivity originating from the base materials is depending on the orientation of the fibres and interfacial contacts in the composite. The carefully controlled expansion behaviour is the most important property to use the material as a heat sink in electronic assemblies. (author)

  15. Experimental Investigations on Thermal Conductivity of Fenugreek and Banana Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Satish; Venkatesh, Talari; Seeli, Hepsiba

    2018-04-01

    The use of composite materials in manufacturing has significantly increased in the past decade. Research is being done to identify natural fibers that can be used as composites. Several natural fibers are already being used in the industry as composites. The appealing advantages of using natural fibers are reflected in lower density when compared to synthetic fibers and also in saving costs. This research paper highlights the experiment that analyses the use of biodegradable fenugreek composite as natural fiber and concludes that fenugreek natural fibers are an excellent substitute to the synthetic fibers in terms of reinforcement properties for the polymers. These fenugreek fibers are naturally sourced, renewable, cost effective and bio-friendly. In thermal energy storage systems as well as in air conditioning systems, thermal insulators are predominantly used to enhance the storage properties. An experiment was created to investigate the thermal properties of fenugreek banana composites for different fiber concentrations. The experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical models to describe the variation of thermal conductivity with the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results was observed.

  16. Thermally conductive, dielectric PCM-boron nitride nanosheet composites for efficient electronic system thermal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Lihui; Luo, Wei; Wan, Jiayu; Dai, Jiaqi; Han, Xiaogang; Fu, Kun; Henderson, Doug; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-11-24

    Phase change materials (PCMs) possessing ideal properties, such as superior mass specific heat of fusion, low cost, light weight, excellent thermal stability as well as isothermal phase change behavior, have drawn considerable attention for thermal management systems. Currently, the low thermal conductivity of PCMs (usually less than 1 W mK -1 ) greatly limits their heat dissipation performance in thermal management applications. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a two-dimensional material known for its excellent thermally conductive and electrically insulating properties, which make it a promising candidate to be used in electronic systems for thermal management. In this work, a composite, consisting of h-BN nanosheets (BNNSs) and commercialized paraffin wax was developed, which inherits high thermally conductive and electrically insulating properties from BNNSs and substantial heat of fusion from paraffin wax. With the help of BNNSs, the thermal conductivity of wax-BNNS composites reaches 3.47 W mK -1 , which exhibits a 12-time enhancement compared to that of pristine wax (0.29 W mK -1 ). Moreover, an 11.3-13.3 MV m -1 breakdown voltage of wax-BNNS composites was achieved, which shows further improved electrical insulating properties. Simultaneously enhanced thermally conductive and electrically insulating properties of wax-BNNS composites demonstrate their promising application for thermal management in electronic systems.

  17. Thermal conductivity of bulk boron nitride nanotube sheets and their epoxy-impregnated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubinek, Michael B.; Kim, Keun Su; Simard, Benoit; Niven, John F.; Johnson, Michel B.; Ashrafi, Behnam; White, Mary Anne

    2016-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of bulk, self-supporting boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) sheets composed of nominally 100% BNNTs oriented randomly in-plane was measured by a steady-state, parallel thermal conductance method. The sheets were either collected directly during synthesis or produced by dispersion and filtration. Differences between the effective thermal conductivities of filtration-produced BNNT buckypaper (∝1.5 W m -1 K -1 ) and lower-density as-synthesized sheets (∝0.75 W m -1 K -1 ), which are both porous materials, were primarily due to their density. The measured results indicate similar thermal conductivity, in the range of 7-12 W m -1 K -1 , for the BNNT network in these sheets. High BNNT-content composites (∝30 wt.% BNNTs) produced by epoxy impregnation of the porous BNNT network gave 2-3 W m -1 K -1 , more than 10 x the baseline epoxy. The combination of manufacturability, thermal conductivity, and electrical insulation offers exciting potential for electrically insulating, thermally conductive coatings and packaging. Thermal conductivity of free-standing BNNT buckypaper, buckypaper composites, and related materials at room temperature. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Simon J; Bradley, Robert J; Purssell, Christopher P; Billson, Duncan R; Hutchins, David A

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping') before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  19. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Leigh

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping' before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  20. Applications of graphite-enabled phase change material composites to improve thermal performance of cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingli; Lin, Zhibin; Wu, Lili; Wang, Jinhui; Gong, Na

    2017-11-01

    Enhancing the thermal efficiency to decrease the energy consumption of structures has been the topic of much research. In this study, a graphite-enabled microencapsulated phase change material (GE-MEPCM) was used in the production of a novel thermal energy storage engineered cementitious composite feathering high heat storage capacity and enhanced thermal conductivity. The surface morphology and particle size of the microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal properties of MEPCM was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In addition, thermal and mechanical properties of the cementitious mortar with different admixtures were explored and compared with those of a cementitious composite. It was shown that the latent heat of MEPCM was 162 J/g, offering much better thermal energy storage capacity to the cementitious composite. However, MEPCM was found to decrease the thermal conductivity of the composite, which can be effectively solved by adding natural graphite (NG). Moreover, the incorporation of MEPCM has a certain decrease in the compressive strength, mainly due to the weak interfaces between MEPCM and cement matrix.

  1. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaokun

    Smart materials have been widely investigated to explore new functionalities unavailable to traditional materials or to mimic the multifunctionality of biological systems. Synthetic polymers are particularly attractive as they already possess some of the attributes required for smart materials, and there are vast room to further enhance the existing properties or impart new properties by polymer synthesis or composite formulation. In this work, three types of smart polymer and composites have been investigated with important new applications: (1) healable polymer composites for structural application and healable composite conductor for electronic device application; (2) conducting polymer polypyrrole actuator for implantable medical device application; and (3) ferroelectric polymer and ceramic nanoparticles composites for electrocaloric effect based solid state refrigeration application. These application entail highly challenging materials innovation, and my work has led to significant progress in all three areas. For the healable polymer composites, well known intrinsically healable polymer 2MEP4F (a Diels-Alder crosslinked polymer formed from a monomer with four furan groups and another monomer with two maleimide groups) was first chosen as the matrix reinforced with fiber. Glass fibers were successfully functionalized with maleimide functional groups on their surface. Composites from functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F healable polymer were made to compare with composites made from commercial carbon fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. Dramatically improved short beam shear strength was obtained from composite of functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. The high cost of 2MEP4F polymer can potentially limit the large-scale application of the developed healable composite, we further developed a new healable polymer with much lower cost. This new polymer was formed through the Diels-Alder crosslinking of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) and 1,1'-(Methylenedi-4

  2. Thermal energy storage characteristics of bentonite-based composite PCMs with enhanced thermal conductivity as novel thermal storage building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarı, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, novel bentonite-based and form-stable composite phase change materials (Bb-FSPCMs) were produced for LHTES in buildings by impregnation of CA, PEG600, DD and HD with bentonite clay. The microstructures of the compatibility of the Bb-FSPCMs were by using SEM and FT-IR techniques. The DSC results indicated that the produced Bb-FSPCMs composites had suitable phase change temperature of 4–30 °C and good latent heat capacity between 38 and 74 J/g. The TG results demonstrated that all of the fabricated Bb-FSPCMs had good thermal resistance. The Bb-FSPCMs maintained their LHTES properties even after 1000 heating–cooling cycling. The total heating times of the prepared Bb-FSPCMs were reduced noticeably due to their enhanced thermal conductivity after EG (5 wt%) addition. - Highlights: • Bb-FSPCMs were produced by impregnation of CA, PEG600, DD and HD with bentonite. • DSC analysis indicated that Bb-FSPCMs had melting temperature in range of 4–30 °C. • DSC analysis also showed that Bb-FSPCMs had latent heat between 38 and 74 J/g. • The TG analysis demonstrated that Bb-FSPCMs had good thermal resistance. • Thermal conductivity of Bb-FSPCMs were enhanced noticeably with EG (5 wt%) addition. - Abstract: In this work, for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications in buildings, bentonite-based form-stable composite phase change materials (Bb-FSPCMs) were produced by impregnation of capric acid (CA), polyethylene glycol (PEG600), dodecanol (DD) and heptadecane (HD) into bentonite clay. The morphological characterization results obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the bentonite acted as good structural barrier for the organic PCMs homogenously dispersed onto its surface and interlayers. The chemical investigations made by using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique revealed that the attractions between the components of the composites was physical in nature and thus the PCMs were hold

  3. Multifunctional materials and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Jeon, Ki-Wan

    2017-08-22

    Forming multifunctional materials and composites thereof includes contacting a first material having a plurality of oxygen-containing functional groups with a chalcogenide compound, and initiating a chemical reaction between the first material and the chalcogenide compound, thereby replacing oxygen in some of the oxygen-containing functional groups with chalcogen from the chalcogen-containing compound to yield a second material having chalcogen-containing functional groups and oxygen-containing functional groups. The first material is a carbonaceous material or a macromolecular material. A product including the second material is collected and may be processed further to yield a modified product or a composite.

  4. An overview of high thermal conductive hot press forming die material development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Zulhishamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the automotive industries are using high strength steel components, which are produced via hot press forming process. This process requires die material with high thermal conductivity that increases cooling rate during simultaneous quenching and forming stage. Due to the benefit of high quenching rate, thermal conductive die materials were produced by adding carbide former elements. This paper presents an overview of the modification of alloying elements in tool steel for high thermal conductivity properties by transition metal elements addition. Different types of manufacturing processes involved in producing high thermal conductive materials were discussed. Methods reported were powder metallurgy hot press, direct metal deposition, selective laser melting, direct metal laser sintering and spray forming. Elements likes manganese, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten and chromium were proven to increase thermal conductivity properties. Thermal conductivity properties resulted from carbide network presence in the steel microstructure. To develop feasible and low cost hot press forming die material, casting of Fe-based alloy with carbide former composition can be an option. Current thermal conductivity properties of hot press forming die material range between 25 and 66 W/m.K. The wide range of thermal conductivity varies the mechanical properties of the resulting components and lifetime of HPF dies.

  5. composite materials under static loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamrat Mostefa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work constitutes a contribution to the analysis of the behavior of beams repaired by composite materials. To analyze the overall behavior and failure modes of the beams, an experimental study of nine reinforced concrete beams, pre-cracked and then repaired by composite materials was conducted. Six beams were pre-cracked and repaired in the tensioned part (bending repair and in the other two beams on the tensioned and lateral parts with strips in the shape of U (shear repair. A comparative study was made between the ultimate moments measured experimentally and those calculated by the theoretical models. Compared to the control beam, the resistance gain for the beams repaired in bending is 50% to 90%, while that of beams repaired in shear is from 120% to177 %. The beams repaired in shear exhibit a ductile rupture in bending. However, the beams repaired in bending were failed by the lift-off of composite or by failure of concrete cover layer (except for beams repaired by fiber glass. BAEL99, EC2-04 and ACI318-08 models give the best prediction of the ultimate moments with a mean value of 1.16 for the ratio of MExp./Mtheor. and a mean standard deviation of 0.33.

  6. Ablation resistance and mechanical/conductive properties of ZrB{sub 2} reinforced carbon based composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.T.; Shi, J.L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, G.B.; Guo, Q.G.; Liu, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China)

    2007-02-15

    Zirconium diboride reinforced carbon (ZrB{sub 2}/C) particulate composites are prepared from petroleum coke, coal tar pitch, and ZrB{sub 2} powder by hot-pressing. The ablation, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of the composites are studied. Results show that the composites have excellent flexural strength and thermal conductivity, with highest values reaching 131 MPa and 161 W/mK for a 10% ZrB{sub 2} addition in raw materials. The electrical resistivity reduces rapidly with increasing amount of ZrB{sub 2}. The values of mass and linear ablation rates are lower in the composites than those measured for pure carbon, decreasing with increasing ZrB{sub 2} content, confirming that these materials are promising for ultrahigh temperature materials. Correlations between properties and microstructure of the composites are also discussed.

  7. Interfacial characteristics of diamond/aluminum composites with high thermal conductivity fabricated by squeeze-casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Longtao; Wang, Pingping; Xiu, Ziyang; Chen, Guoqin; Lin, Xiu; Dai, Chen; Wu, Gaohui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, aluminum matrix composites reinforced with diamond particles (diamond/aluminum composites) were fabricated by squeeze casting method. The material exhibited a thermal conductivity as high as 613 W / (m · K). The obtained composites were investigated by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope in terms of the (100) and (111) facets of diamond particles. The diamond particles were observed to be homogeneously distributed in the aluminum matrix. The diamond (111) /Al interface was found to be devoid of reaction products. While at the diamond (100) /Al interface, large-sized aluminum carbides (Al 4 C 3 ) with twin-crystal structure were identified. The interfacial characteristics were believed to be responsible for the excellent thermal conductivity of the material. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Squeeze casting method was introduced to fabricate diamond/Al composite. • Sound interfacial bonding with excellent thermal conductivity was produced. • Diamond (111) / aluminum interface was firstly characterized by TEM/HRTEM. • Physical combination was the controlling bonding for diamond (111) /aluminum. • The growth mechanism of Al 4 C 3 was analyzed by crystallography theory

  8. Preparation and thermal properties characterization of carbonate salt/carbon nanomaterial composite phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.B.; Lin, C.H.; He, Y.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite phase change materials were prepared and characterized. • Larger specific surface area is more efficient to enhance specific heat. • Columnar structure is more efficient to enhance thermal conductivity. • Thermal conductivity enhancement is the key. • Single walled carbon nanotube is the optimal nanomaterial additive. - Abstract: To enhance the performance of high temperature salt phase change material, four kinds of carbon nanomaterials with different microstructures were mixed into binary carbonate eutectic salts to prepare carbonate salt/nanomaterial composite phase change material. The microstructures of the nanomaterial and composite phase change material were characterized by scanning electron microscope. The thermal properties such as melting point, melting enthalpy, specific heat, thermal conductivity and total thermal energy storage capacity were characterized. The results show that the nanomaterial microstructure has great effects on composite phase change material thermal properties. The sheet structure Graphene is the best additive to enhance specific heat, which could be enhanced up to 18.57%. The single walled carbon nanotube with columnar structure is the best additive to enhance thermal conductivity, which could be enhanced up to 56.98%. Melting point increases but melting enthalpy decreases with nanomaterial specific surface area increase. Although the additives decrease the melting enthalpy of composite phase change material, they also enhance the specific heat. As a combined result, the additives have little effects on thermal energy storage capacity. So, for phase change material performance enhancement, more emphasis should be placed on thermal conductivity enhancement and single walled carbon nanotube is the optimal nanomaterial additive

  9. Industry to Education Technical Transfer Program & Composite Materials. Composite Materials Course. Fabrication I Course. Fabrication II Course. Composite Materials Testing Course. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuda, Rachel

    These four reports provide details of projects to design and implement courses to be offered as requirements for the associate degree program in composites and reinforced plastics technology. The reports describe project activities that led to development of curricula for four courses: composite materials, composite materials fabrication I,…

  10. Composite Materials in Overhead Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    towers and recently conductors based on composite materials are available at transmission levels. In this paper it is investigated which composite based solutions are available in connection with complete overhead line systems including insulators, towers and conductors. The components are reviewed......The use of composite materials, e.g. fibreglass materials, in overhead transmission line systems is nothing new. Composite based insulators have been applied to transmission lines for over 30 years, mainly as suspension and post insulators and often as an option for special applications. Also...... with respect to solved and persisting known failures/problems of both mechanical and electrical nature. Major challenges related to extensive use of composite materials in an overhead line system are identified, as are possible benefits - both when using standard as well as customised composite components, e...

  11. Hierarchically interconnected porous scaffolds for phase change materials with improved thermal conductivity and efficient solar-to-electric energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yu, Peng; Tang, Li-Sheng; Bao, Rui-Ying; Liu, Zheng-Ying; Yang, Ming-Bo; Yang, Wei

    2017-11-23

    An ice-templating self-assembly strategy and a vacuum impregnation method were used to fabricate polyethylene glycol (PEG)/hierarchical porous scaffold composite phase change materials (PCMs). Hierarchically interconnected porous scaffolds of boron nitride (BN), with the aid of a small amount of graphene oxide (GO), endow the composite PCMs with high thermal conductivity, excellent shape-stability and efficient solar-to-electric energy conversion. The formation of a three-dimensional (3D) thermally conductive pathway in the composites contributes to improving the thermal conductivity up to 2.36 W m -1 K -1 at a relatively low content of BN (ca. 23 wt%). This work provides a route for thermally conductive and shape-stabilized composite PCMs used as energy storage materials.

  12. Strength and conductivity of unidirectional copper composites reinforced by continuous SiC fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmig, S.; Allen, I.; You, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    A SiC long fiber-reinforced copper composite offers a beneficial combination of high strength and high thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. Both properties make the composite a promising material for the heat sink of high-heat-flux components. In this work, we developed a novel Cu/SiC f composite using the Sigma fiber. Based on HIP technique, a metallurgical process was established for fabricating high quality specimens using a TiC interface coating. Extensive tensile tests were conducted on the unidirectionally reinforced composite at 20 °C and 300 °C for a wide range of fiber volume fraction (V f ). In this paper, a large amount of test data is presented. The transversal thermal conductivity varies from 260 to 130 W/mK at 500 °C as V f is increased from 13% to 37%. The tensile strength reached up to 1246 MPa at 20 °C for V f = 37.6%, where the fracture strain was limited to 0.8%. The data of both elastic modulus and ultimate strength exhibited a good agreement with the rule-of-mixture predictions indicating a high quality of the materials. The strength of the composite with the Sigma fibers turned out to be superior to those of the SCS6 fibers at 300 °C, although the SCS6 fiber actually has a higher strength than the Sigma fiber. The fractographic pictures of tension test and fiber push-out test manifested a sufficient interfacial bonding

  13. Study on influence of vibration behavior of composite material damage by holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Linfeng; Zhao, Zhimin; Gao, Mingjuan; Zhuang, Xianzhong

    2006-01-01

    Composite material has been applied widely in aeronautics, astronautics and some other fields due to their high strength, light weight and antifatigue and etc. But in the application, composite material may be destroyed or damaged, which may have impact on its further applications. Therefore, study on the influence of behavior of composite material damage becomes a hot research. In this paper, the common composite material for aircraft is used as the test object, and a study is conducted to investigate the influence of vibration behavior of composite material damage. The authors adopt the method of light-carrier wave and time-average holography. Compared the interference fringes of composite materials before and after damage, the width of the interference fringes of hologram of the damaged composite material is narrower than that of the fringes before. It means that the off-plane displacement of each point on the test object is larger than before. Based on the elastic mechanics theory, the off-plane displacement is inverse to the bending stiffness, and the bending stiffness of the test object will decrease after it is damaged. In other words, the vibration property of the composite material changes after damages occur. The research results of the paper show that the results accord with the analysis of theory.

  14. High-Capacity, High-Voltage Composite Oxide Cathode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagh, Nader M.

    2015-01-01

    This SBIR project integrates theoretical and experimental work to enable a new generation of high-capacity, high-voltage cathode materials that will lead to high-performance, robust energy storage systems. At low operating temperatures, commercially available electrode materials for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries do not meet energy and power requirements for NASA's planned exploration activities. NEI Corporation, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego, has developed layered composite cathode materials that increase power and energy densities at temperatures as low as 0 degC and considerably reduce the overall volume and weight of battery packs. In Phase I of the project, through innovations in the structure and morphology of composite electrode particles, the partners successfully demonstrated an energy density exceeding 1,000 Wh/kg at 4 V at room temperature. In Phase II, the team enhanced the kinetics of Li-ion transport and electronic conductivity at 0 degC. An important feature of the composite cathode is that it has at least two components that are structurally integrated. The layered material is electrochemically inactive; however, upon structural integration with a spinel material, the layered material can be electrochemically activated and deliver a large amount of energy with stable cycling.

  15. Conducting polymer/carbon nanocoil composite electrodes for efficient supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we report for the first time, conducting polymer (polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY)) coated carbon nanocoils (CNCs) as efficient binder-free electrode materials for supercapacitors. CNCs act as a perfect backbone for the uniform distribution of the conducting polymers in the composites. In two electrode configuration, the samples exhibited high specific capacitance with the values reaching up to 360 and 202 F g -1 for PANI/CNCs and PPY/CNCs respectively. The values obtained for specific capacitance and maximum storage energy per unit mass of the composites were found to be comparable to one of the best reported values for polymer coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. In addition, the fabricated PANI/CNC based supercapacitors exhibited a high value of 44.61 Wh kg -1 for maximum storage energy per unit mass. Although the devices exhibit an initial capacitance loss due to the instability of the polymer, the specific capacitance stabilizes at a fixed value after 500 charge-discharge cycles. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Composite material dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  17. Using Composite Materials in a Cryogenic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batton, William D.; Dillard, James E.; Rottmund, Matthew E.; Tupper, Michael L.; Mallick, Kaushik; Francis, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Several modifications have been made to the design and operation of an extended-shaft cryogenic pump to increase the efficiency of pumping. In general, the efficiency of pumping a cryogenic fluid is limited by thermal losses which is itself caused by pump inefficiency and leakage of heat through the pump structure. A typical cryogenic pump includes a drive shaft and two main concentric static components (an outer pressure containment tube and an intermediate static support tube) made from stainless steel. The modifications made include replacement of the stainless-steel drive shaft and the concentric static stainless-steel components with components made of a glass/epoxy composite. The leakage of heat is thus reduced because the thermal conductivity of the composite is an order of magnitude below that of stainless steel. Taking advantage of the margin afforded by the decrease in thermal conductivity, the drive shaft could be shortened to increase its effective stiffness, thereby increasing the rotordynamic critical speeds, thereby further making it possible to operate the pump at a higher speed to increase pumping efficiency. During the modification effort, an analysis revealed that substitution of the shorter glass/epoxy shaft for the longer stainless-steel shaft was not, by itself, sufficient to satisfy the rotordynamic requirements at the desired increased speed. Hence, it became necessary to increase the stiffness of the composite shaft. This stiffening was accomplished by means of a carbon-fiber-composite overwrap along most of the length of the shaft. Concomitantly with the modifications described thus far, it was necessary to provide for joining the composite-material components with metallic components required by different aspects of the pump design. An adhesive material formulated specially to bond the composite and metal components was chosen as a means to satisfy these requirements.

  18. Thermal compatibility of Sodium Nitrate/Expanded Perlite composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruguang; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Cheng, Xiaomin; Li, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Expanded Perlite/Sodium Nitrate composites hardly reported in thermal storage fields. • The thermal compatibility and adsorption of Expanded Perlite were investigated. • The thermo physic properties of composites were determined. • The thermal stability and long term enthalpy changes of composites were investigated. - Abstract: The present work focused on the preparation and characterization of a new thermal storage material applied in thermal energy management. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that Expanded Perlite (EP) has a good thermal stability varying from 300 °C to 900 °C. Morphology of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that sodium nitrate is uniformly encapsulated and embedded in the three-dimensional network structure of EP. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated that the EP is physically combined with the nitrate salt. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) indicated that the composites have good thermal stability. The adsorption capacity of loose EP was 213.21%. When the EP mass fraction varying from 10% to 60%, thermal conductivity decreased with the content of EP increased, and the highest thermal conductivity is 1.14 W (m K)"−"1 at 300 °C. SEM revealed the network structure of EP provided thermal conduction paths which enhanced the thermal conductivity of the composites. All results indicated that EP could be a good adsorption material to be applied in the thermal storage fields.

  19. Materials space of solid-state electrolytes: unraveling chemical composition-structure-ionic conductivity relationships in garnet-type metal oxides using cheminformatics virtual screening approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, Natalia; Pervov, Vladislav S

    2017-08-09

    The organic electrolytes of most current commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LiBs) are flammable, toxic, and have limited electrochemical energy windows. All-solid-state battery technology promises improved safety, cycling performance, electrochemical stability, and possibility of device miniaturization and enables a number of breakthrough technologies towards the development of new high power and energy density microbatteries for electronics with low processing cost, solid oxide fuel cells, electrochromic devices, etc. Currently, rational materials design is attracting significant attention, which has resulted in a strong demand for methodologies that can accelerate the design of materials with tailored properties; cheminformatics can be considered as an efficient tool in this respect. This study was focused on several aspects: (i) identification of the parameters responsible for high Li-ion conductivity in garnet structured oxides; (ii) development of quantitative models to elucidate composition-structure-Li ionic conductivity relationships, taking into account the experimental details of sample preparation; (iii) circumscription of the materials space of solid garnet-type electrolytes, which is attractive for virtual screening. Several candidate compounds have been recommended for synthesis as potential solid state electrolyte materials.

  20. Thermal conductivity of bulk boron nitride nanotube sheets and their epoxy-impregnated composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubinek, Michael B.; Kim, Keun Su; Simard, Benoit [Security and Disruptive Technologies, Division of Emerging Technologies, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Niven, John F. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Johnson, Michel B. [Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Ashrafi, Behnam [Aerospace, Division of Engineering, National Research Council Canada, Montreal, QC (Canada); White, Mary Anne [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    The thermal conductivity of bulk, self-supporting boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) sheets composed of nominally 100% BNNTs oriented randomly in-plane was measured by a steady-state, parallel thermal conductance method. The sheets were either collected directly during synthesis or produced by dispersion and filtration. Differences between the effective thermal conductivities of filtration-produced BNNT buckypaper (∝1.5 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and lower-density as-synthesized sheets (∝0.75 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}), which are both porous materials, were primarily due to their density. The measured results indicate similar thermal conductivity, in the range of 7-12 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, for the BNNT network in these sheets. High BNNT-content composites (∝30 wt.% BNNTs) produced by epoxy impregnation of the porous BNNT network gave 2-3 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, more than 10 x the baseline epoxy. The combination of manufacturability, thermal conductivity, and electrical insulation offers exciting potential for electrically insulating, thermally conductive coatings and packaging. Thermal conductivity of free-standing BNNT buckypaper, buckypaper composites, and related materials at room temperature. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Reinforced Conductive Polyaniline-Paper Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for direct aniline interfacial polymerization on polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE-reinforced paper substrate is introduced in this paper. Cellulose-based papers with and without reinforcement were considered. The polyaniline (PANI-paper composites had surface resistivity lower than 100 Ω/sq after more than 3 polymerizations. Their mechanical strength and thermal stability were analyzed by tensile tests and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR results revealed that there was strong interaction between NH groups in aniline monomers and OH groups in fibers, which did not disappear until after 3 polymerizations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and field emission (FE SEM images showed morphological differences between composites using reinforced and untreated base papers. Conductive composites made with PAE-reinforced base paper had both good thermal stability and good mechanical strength, with high conductivity and a smaller PANI amount.

  2. Modern filaments for composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivelli-Viskonti, I.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of modern state and ways to improve properties of different filaments for the forecast of the filament application in composite materials has been conducted. In the near future as before the greatest attention will be paid to fibre glass, as this material is widely used in the reinforcing of organic matrices. Carbon and kevlar filaments are the most prospective ones. For the service at medium, high or superhigh temperatures selection of matrix material is more significant than selection of filament. Organic matrices can not be used at temperatures > 250 deg C: this is already the range of metal matrix application. Though at temperatures above room one many filaments can be used, boron filaments and metal wire are the only reinforcing materials, inspite of the fact that carbon filaments are successfully used for metal matrix reinforcing. At very high temperatures only carbon filaments or silicon carbide ones can be used, but their cost is very high and besides economical problems there are many difficulties of technical character

  3. Composite Material Suitable for Use as Electrode Material in a SOC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to composite material suitable for use as an electrode material in a solid oxide cell, said composite material consist of at least two non-miscible mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Further provided is a composite material suitable for use as an electrode material...... in a solid oxide cell, said composite material being based on (Gd1-xSrx)1-sFe1-yCoyO3-[delta] or (Ln1-xSrx)1-sFe1-yCioyO3-[delta](s equal to 0.05 or larger) wherein Ln is a lanthanide element, Sc or Y, said composite material comprising at least two phases which are non-miscible, said composite material...... being obtainable by the glycine nitrate combustion method. Said composite material may be used for proving an electrode material in the form of at least a two-phase system showing a very low area specific resistance of around 0.1 [Omega]cm2 at around 600 DEG C....

  4. Glass-Graphite Composite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayzan, M.Z.H.; Lloyd, J.W.; Heath, P.G.; Stennett, M.C.; Hyatt, N.C.; Hand, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    A summary is presented of investigations into the potential of producing glass-composite materials for the immobilisation of graphite or other carbonaceous materials arising from nuclear power generation. The methods are primarily based on the production of base glasses which are subsequently sintered with powdered graphite or simulant TRISO particles. Consideration is also given to the direct preparation of glass-graphite composite materials using microwave technology. Production of dense composite wasteforms with TRISO particles was more successful than with powdered graphite, as wasteforms containing larger amounts of graphite were resistant to densification and the glasses tried did not penetrate the pores under the pressureless conditions used. Based on the results obtained it is concluded that the production of dense glassgraphite composite wasteforms will require the application of pressure. (author)

  5. Proton-conductive nano zeolite-PVA composite film as a new water-absorbing electrolyte for water electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nishihara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, organic-inorganic composite electrolyte membranes are developed for a novel water-absorbing porous electrolyte water electrolysis cell. As the materials of the composite electrolyte membrane, 80 wt% of a proton-conducting nano zeolite (H-MFI as an electrolyte and 20 wt% of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as a cross-linkable matrix are used. The nano zeolite is prepared by a milling process. The nano zeolite-PVA composite membrane precursors are prepared by spraying onto a substrate, followed by cross-linking. The resulting nano zeolite-cross-linked PVA composite films are then evaluated for their properties such as proton conductivity as electrolyte membranes for the water-absorbing porous electrolyte water electrolysis cell. It is confirmed that conventional materials such as zeolites and PVA can be used for the water electrolysis as an electrolyte.

  6. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  7. Interface polymerization synthesis of conductive polymer/graphite oxide@sulfur composites for high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiwen; Zhang, Zhian; Yan, Xiaolin; Qu, Yaohui; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid nanostructure that incorporate the merits of conductive polymer nanorods and graphite oxide sheets. • A novel approach based on interface polymerization for synthesizing CP/GO@S ternary composite. • CP/GO@S ternary composite cathode shows enhanced electrochemical properties compared with CP@S binary composite cathode. • PEDOT/GO@S composite is the material system that have best electrochemical performance in all CP/GO@S ternary composites. - Abstract: The novel ternary composites, conductive polymers (CPs)/graphene oxide (GO)@sulfur composites were successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot route and used as cathode materials for Li-S batteries The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/GO and polyaniline (PANI)/GO composites were prepared by interface polymerization of monomers on the surface of GO sheets. Then sulfur was in-situ deposited on the CPs/GO composites in same solution. The component and structure of the composites were characterized by XPS, TGA, FTIR, SEM, TEM and electrochemical measurements. In this structure, the CPs nanostructures are believed to serve as a conductive matrix and an adsorbing agent, while the highly conductive GO will physically and chemically confine the sulfur and polysulfide within cathode. The PEDOT/GO@S composites with the sulfur content of 66.2 wt% exhibit a reversible discharge capacity of 800.2 mAh g −1 after 200 cycles at 0.5 C, which is much higher than that of PANI/GO@S composites (599.1 mAh g −1 ) and PANI@S (407.2 mAh g −1 ). Even at a high rate of 4 C, the PEDOT/GO@S composites still retain a high specific capacity of 632.4 mAh g −1

  8. Tensile Mechanical Properties and Failure Modes of a Basalt Fiber/Epoxy Resin Composite Material

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jingjing; Shi, Junping; Cao, Xiaoshan; Hu, Yifeng

    2018-01-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests of basalt fiber/epoxy (BF/EP) composite material with four different fiber orientations were conducted under four different fiber volume fractions, and the variations of BF/EP composite material failure modes and tensile mechanical properties were analyzed. The results show that when the fiber volume fraction is constant, the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and limiting strain of BF/EP composite material all decrease with increasing fiber orientation angle. When the ...

  9. Interfacial characteristics of diamond/aluminum composites with high thermal conductivity fabricated by squeeze-casting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Longtao, E-mail: longtaojiang@163.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Pingping [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xiu, Ziyang [Skate Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Guoqin [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Lin, Xiu [Heilongjiang Academy of Industrial Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai, Chen; Wu, Gaohui [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In this work, aluminum matrix composites reinforced with diamond particles (diamond/aluminum composites) were fabricated by squeeze casting method. The material exhibited a thermal conductivity as high as 613 W / (m · K). The obtained composites were investigated by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope in terms of the (100) and (111) facets of diamond particles. The diamond particles were observed to be homogeneously distributed in the aluminum matrix. The diamond{sub (111)}/Al interface was found to be devoid of reaction products. While at the diamond{sub (100)}/Al interface, large-sized aluminum carbides (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}) with twin-crystal structure were identified. The interfacial characteristics were believed to be responsible for the excellent thermal conductivity of the material. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Squeeze casting method was introduced to fabricate diamond/Al composite. • Sound interfacial bonding with excellent thermal conductivity was produced. • Diamond{sub (111)}/ aluminum interface was firstly characterized by TEM/HRTEM. • Physical combination was the controlling bonding for diamond{sub (111)}/aluminum. • The growth mechanism of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was analyzed by crystallography theory.

  10. A carbon-carbon composite materials development program for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.; Eatherly, W.P.; Engle, G.B.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1992-10-01

    Carbon-carbon composites increasingly are being used for plasma-facing component (PFC) applications in magnetic-confinement plasma-fusion devices. They offer substantial advantages such as enhanced physical and mechanical properties and superior thermal shock resistance compared to the previously favored bulk graphite. Next-generation plasma-fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), will require advanced carbon-carbon composites possessing extremely high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated extreme thermal heat loads. This report outlines a program that will facilitate the development of advanced carbon-carbon composites specifically tailored to meet the requirements of ITER and BPX. A strategy for developing the necessary associated design data base is described. Materials property needs, i.e., high thermal conductivity, radiation stability, tritium retention, etc., are assessed and prioritized through a systems analysis of the functional, operational, and component requirements for plasma-facing applications. The current Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Program on carbon-carbon composites is summarized. Realistic property goals are set based upon our current understanding. The architectures of candidate PFC carbon-carbon composite materials are outlined, and architectural features considered desirable for maximum irradiation stability are described. The European and Japanese carbon-carbon composite development and irradiation programs are described. The Working Group conclusions and recommendations are listed. It is recommended that developmental carbon-carbon composite materials from the commercial sector be procured via request for proposal/request for quotation (RFP/RFQ) as soon as possible

  11. Predictions of the electro-mechanical response of conductive CNT-polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Miguel A. S.; Tagarielli, Vito L.; Baiz-Villafranca, Pedro M.; Pinho, Silvestre T.

    2018-05-01

    We present finite element simulations to predict the conductivity, elastic response and strain-sensing capability of conductive composites comprising a polymeric matrix and carbon nanotubes. Realistic representative volume elements (RVE) of the microstructure are generated and both constituents are modelled as linear elastic solids, with resistivity independent of strain; the electrical contact between nanotubes is represented by a new element which accounts for quantum tunnelling effects and captures the sensitivity of conductivity to separation. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted and the sensitivity of the predictions to RVE size is explored. Predictions of modulus and conductivity are found in good agreement with published results. The strain-sensing capability of the material is explored for multiaxial strain states.

  12. Heat conductivity of buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.; Fredrikson, Anders; Johannesson, L.E.

    1994-11-01

    The report deals with the thermal conductivity of bentonite based buffer materials. An improved technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of buffer materials is described. Measurements of FLAC calculations applying this technique have led to a proposal of how standardized tests should be conducted and evaluated. The thermal conductivity of bentonite with different void ratio and degree of water saturation has been determined in the following different ways: * Theoretically according to three different investigations by other researchers. * Laboratory measurements with the proposed method. * Results from back-calculated field tests. Comparison and evaluation showed that these results agreed very well, when the buffer material was almost water saturated. However, the influence of the degree of saturation was not very well predicted with the theoretical methods. Furthermore, the field tests showed that the average thermal conductivity in situ of buffer material (compacted to blocks) with low degree of water saturation was lower than expected from laboratory tests. 12 refs, 29 figs, 11 tabs

  13. Thermal conductivity of granular materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyevich, Yu A

    1974-01-01

    Stationary heat transfer in a granular material consisting of a continuous medium containing spherical granules of other substances is considered under the assumption that the spatial distribution of granules is random. The effective thermal conductivity characterizing macroscopic heat transfer in such a material is expressed as a certain function of the conductivities and volume fractions of the medium and dispersed substances. For reasons of mathematical analogy, all the results obtained for the thermal conductivity are valid while computing the effective diffusivity of some admixture in granular materials as well as for evaluation of the effective electric conductivity or the mean dielectric and magnetic permeabilities of granular conductors and dielectrics. (23 refs.)

  14. Friction Material Composites Materials Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2012-01-01

    Friction Material Composites is the first of the five volumes which strongly educates and updates engineers and other professionals in braking industries, research and test labs. It explains besides the formulation of design processes and its complete manufacturing input. This book gives an idea of mechanisms of friction and how to control them by designing .The book is  useful for designers  of automotive, rail and aero industries for designing the brake systems effectively with the integration of friction material composite design which is critical. It clearly  emphasizes the driving  safety and how serious designers should  select the design input. The significance of friction material component like brake pad or a liner as an integral part of the brake system of vehicles is explained. AFM pictures at nanolevel illustrate broadly the explanations given.

  15. Composite materials processing, applications, characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Composite materials are used as substitutions of metals/traditional materials in aerospace, automotive, civil, mechanical and other industries. The present book collects the current knowledge and recent developments in the characterization and application of composite materials. To this purpose the volume describes the outstanding properties of this class of advanced material which recommend it for various industrial applications.

  16. Novel phthalocyanine crystals as a conductive filler in crosslinked epoxy materials: Fractal particle networks and low percolation thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhe; Brokken-Zijp, J.C.M.; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Novel nanosized crystals of aquocyanophthalocyaninatocobalt (III) (Phthalcon 11) were used as a conductive filler in crosslinked epoxy materials. The crosslinked composite materials had a very low percolation threshold (c 0.9 vol %). The relationship between the volume conductivity and the filler

  17. Friction material composites copper-metal-free material design perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2015-01-01

    This book examines material composites used in connection with brake friction, their design and safety. To aid in understanding, the essentials of friction are explained. This second edition was extended to include friction material composites without copper, as they offer an environmentally friendlier option. The second edition is intended to support beginners by offering insights into the essentials of friction material composites, helping them to develop a broader understanding of brake friction materials. Friction materials find wide-ranging applications in household and industrial appliances, brake pads for automotive applications, rail brake friction pads and composition brake blocks. This second edition is an introductory volume to a set of related books, and is based on the author’s experience and expertise with various material manufacturers, brake manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, researchers and testing labs around the world with which the author has been associated for the past 28 years.

  18. Composites materials: the technology of future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.N.; Memon, I.R.; Ahmad, F.; Zafar, N.

    2001-01-01

    Composite materials have a long history of usage. Their precise beginnings are not known; however all recorded history contains references to some form of composite material. e.g. straw was used by man to strengthen mud bricks thousands of years ago. This article presents the use of advanced composites materials in aircraft and space industry. Its brief history, use in military and civil aviation, use in space program, future usage, advantages in terms of cost, weight and strength. Use of composites in unmanned aerial vehicles and problems associated with usage of composites materials are also discussed. (author)

  19. Application of multi-criteria material selection techniques to constituent refinement in biobased composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Sabbie A.; Lepech, Michael D.; Billington, Sarah L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biobased composites have the potential to replace certain engineered materials. • Woven reinforcement can provide better material properties in biobased composites. • Short fiber filler can provide lower environmental impact in biobased composites. • Per function, different fibers are desired to lower composite environmental impact. - Abstract: Biobased composites offer a potentially low environmental impact material option for the construction industries. Designing these materials to meet both performance requirements for an application and minimize environmental impacts requires the ability to refine composite constituents based on environmental impact and mechanical properties. In this research, biobased composites with varying natural fiber reinforcement in a poly(β-hydroxybutyrate)-co-(β-hydroxyvalerate) matrix were characterized based on material properties through experiments and environmental impact through life cycle assessments. Using experimental results, these biobased composites were found to have competitive flexural properties and thermal conductivity with certain short-chopped glass fiber reinforced plastics. Multi-criteria material selection techniques were applied to weigh desired material properties with greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel demand, and Eco-Indicator ’99 score. The effects of using different reinforcing fibers in biobased composites were analyzed using the developed selection scheme as a tool for choosing constituents. The use of multi-criteria material selection provided the ability to select fiber reinforcement for biobased composites and showed when it would be more appropriate to use a novel biobased composite or a currently available engineered material

  20. Conducting single-molecule magnet materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosquer, Goulven; Shen, Yongbing; Almeida, Manuel; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2018-05-11

    Multifunctional molecular materials exhibiting electrical conductivity and single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour are particularly attractive for electronic devices and related applications owing to the interaction between electronic conduction and magnetization of unimolecular units. The preparation of such materials remains a challenge that has been pursued by a bi-component approach of combination of SMM cationic (or anionic) units with conducting networks made of partially oxidized (or reduced) donor (or acceptor) molecules. The present status of the research concerning the preparation of molecular materials exhibiting SMM behaviour and electrical conductivity is reviewed, describing the few molecular compounds where both SMM properties and electrical conductivity have been observed. The evolution of this research field through the years is discussed. The first reported compounds are semiconductors in spite being able to present relatively high electrical conductivity, and the SMM behaviour is observed at low temperatures where the electrical conductivity of the materials is similar to that of an insulator. During the recent years, a breakthrough has been achieved with the coexistence of high electrical conductivity and SMM behaviour in a molecular compound at the same temperature range, but so far without evidence of a synergy between these properties. The combination of high electrical conductivity with SMM behaviour requires not only SMM units but also the regular and as far as possible uniform packing of partially oxidized molecules, which are able to provide a conducting network.

  1. Enhanced laminated composite phase change material for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, J.; Zhou, T. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies (CSET), The University of Nottingham Ningbo, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper summarises studies undertaken towards the development of a laminated composite aluminium/hexadecane phase change material (PCM) drywall based on previous analytical work. The study also covered the selection and testing of various types of adhesive materials and identified Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) material as a suitable bonding material. For the purpose of comparison pure hexadecane and composite aluminium/hexadecane samples were developed and tested. The test results revealed faster thermal response by the aluminium/hexadecane sample regarding the rate of heat flux and also achieved about 10% and 15% heat transfer enhancements during the charging and discharging periods respectively. Its measured effective thermal conductivity also increased remarkably to 1.25 W/mK as compared with 0.15 W/mK for pure hexadecane. However there was about 5% less total cumulative thermal energy discharged at the end of the test which indicates that its effective thermal capacity was reduced by the presence of the aluminium particles. The study has shown that some of the scientific and technical barriers associated with the development of laminated composite PCM drywall systems can be overcome but further investigations of effects of adhesive materials are needed. (author)

  2. Conduction mechanism in Polyaniline-flyash composite material for shielding against electromagnetic radiation in X-band & Ku band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanish Pratap Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available β–Naphthalene sulphonic acid (β–NSA doped polyaniline (PANI–flyash (FA composites have been prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization route whose conductivity lies in the range 2.37–21.49 S/cm. The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity has also been recorded which shows that composites follow Mott's 3D–VRH model. SEM images demonstrate that β–NSA leads to the formation of the tubular structure with incorporated flyash phase. TGA studies show the improvement in thermal stability of composites with increase in loading level of flyash. Complex parameters i.e. permittivity (ɛ* = ɛ′- iɛ″ and permeability (μ*=μ′- iμ″ of PANI-FA composites have been calculated from experimental scattering parameters (S11 & S21 using theoretical calculations given in Nicholson–Ross and Weir algorithms. The microwave absorption properties of the composites have been studied in X-band (8.2 – 12.4 GHz & Ku–Band (12.4 – 18 GHz frequency range. The maximum shielding effectiveness observed was 32dB, which strongly depends on dielectric loss and volume fraction of flyash in PANI matrix.

  3. Preparation and characterization of 304 stainless steel/Q235 carbon steel composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenning; Feng, Lajun; Feng, Hui; Cao, Ying; Liu, Lei; Cao, Mo; Ge, Yanfeng

    The composite material of 304 stainless steel reinforced Q235 carbon steel has been prepared by modified hot-rolling process. The resulted material was characterized by scanning electron microscope, three-electrode method, fault current impact method, electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that metallurgical bond between the stainless steel layer and carbon steel substrate has been formed. The composite material exhibited good electrical conductivity and thermal stability. The average grounding resistance of the composite material was about 13/20 of dip galvanized steel. There has no surface crack and bubbling formed after fault current impact. The composite material led to a significant decrease in the corrosion current density in soil solution, compared with that of hot dip galvanized steel and bare carbon steel. On the basis polarization curve and EIS analyses, it can be concluded that the composite material showed improved anti-corrosion property than hot-dip galvanized steel.

  4. [Preparation of sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material for bone repair and its biocompatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanmei; He, Jiacai; Li, Quanli; Shen, Jijia

    2014-02-01

    To prepare sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material and to explore its feasibility as a bone repair material. Sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material was prepared using chemical cross-linking and freeze-drying technology. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and its porosity was measured by liquid displacement method. The fifth passage of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) were incubated on the composite material and then growth was observed by inverted microscope and SEM. BMSCs were cultured with liquid extracts of the material, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to calculate the relative growth rate (RGR) on 1, 3, 5 d and to evaluate the cytotoxicity. Fresh dog blood was added into the liquid extracts to conduct hemolysis test, the spectrophotometer was used to determine the optical density (OD) and to calculate the hemolysis rate. Sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material displayed porosity, the porous pore rate was (88.6 +/- 4.5)%. BMSCs showed full stretching and vigorous growth under inverted microscope and SEM. BMSCs cultured with liquid extracts of the material had good activities. The toxicity of composite material was graded as 1. Hemolysis test results showed that the hemolysis rate of the composite material was 1.28%, thus meeting the requirement of medical biomaterials. The composite material fabricated in this study has high porosity and good biocompatibility.

  5. Study on thermal conductive BN/novolac resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shasha; Qi, Shuhua; Liu, Nailiang; Cao, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Boron nitride (BN) particles were used to modify novolac resin. → BN particles were pretreated by γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. → The thermal conductivity trend of composite almost agrees with the predicted data from the Maxwell-Eucken model. → At BN concentration of 80 wt.%, thermal conductivity value of composite is 4.5 times that of pure novolac resin. → Combined use of the larger and smaller particles with a mass ratio of 1:2 provides the composites with the maximum thermal conductivity among the testing systems. → The composite thermal property also increases with an increase in the BN concentration. - Abstract: In this study, γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-treated boron nitride (BN) particles were used to modify novolac resin. The effect of varying the BN concentration, particle size, and hybrid BN fillers with the binary particle size distribution on the thermal conductivity of the composites was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed homogeneously dispersed treated BN particles in the matrix. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity increased as the BN concentration was increased. This behavior was also observed when the filler size was increased. Experimentally obtained thermal conductivity values agree with the predicted data from the Maxwell-Eucken model well at less than 70 wt.% BN loading. A larger particle size BN-filled novolac resin exhibits a higher thermal conductivity than a smaller particle size BN-filled one. The combined use of 0.5 and 15 μm particles with a mass ratio of 2:1 achieved the maximum thermal conductivity among the testing systems. The thermal resistance properties of the composites were also studied.

  6. Nickel-Graphite Composite Compliant Interface and/or Hot Shoe Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdosy, Samad A.; Chun-Yip Li, Billy; Ravi, Vilupanur A.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Anjunyan, Harut

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation high-temperature thermoelectric-power-generating devices will employ segmented architectures and will have to reliably withstand thermally induced mechanical stresses produced during component fabrication, device assembly, and operation. Thermoelectric materials have typically poor mechanical strength, exhibit brittle behavior, and possess a wide range of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values. As a result, the direct bonding at elevated temperatures of these materials to each other to produce segmented leg components is difficult, and often results in localized microcracking at interfaces and mec hanical failure due to the stresses that arise from the CTE mismatch between the various materials. Even in the absence of full mechanical failure, degraded interfaces can lead to increased electrical and thermal resistances, which adversely impact conversion efficiency and power output. The proposed solution is the insertion of a mechanically compliant layer, with high electrical and thermal conductivity, between the low- and high-temperature segments to relieve thermomechanical stresses during device fabrication and operation. This composite material can be used as a stress-relieving layer between the thermoelectric segments and/or between a thermoelectric segment and a hot- or cold-side interconnect material. The material also can be used as a compliant hot shoe. Nickel-coated graphite powders were hot-pressed to form a nickel-graphite composite material. A freestanding thermoelectric segmented leg was fabricated by brazing the compliant pad layer between the high-temperature p- Zintl and low-temperature p-SKD TE segments using Cu-Ag braze foils. The segmented leg stack was heated in vacuum under a compressive load to achieve bonding. The novelty of the innovation is the use of composite material that re duces the thermomechanical stresses en - countered in the construction of high-efficiency, high-temperature therm - o-electric devices. The

  7. Manufacturing of aluminum composite material using stir casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, M.H.; Panhwar, M.I.; Unar, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing of aluminum alloy based casting composite materials via stir casting is one of the prominent and economical route for development and processing of metal matrix composites materials. Properties of these materials depend upon many processing parameters and selection of matrix and reinforcements. Literature reveals that most of the researchers are using 2, 6 and 7 xxx aluminum matrix reinforced with SiC particles for high strength properties whereas, insufficient information is available on reinforcement of 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles in 7 xxx aluminum matrix. The 7 xxx series aluminum matrix usually contains Cu-Zn-Mg; Therefore, the present research was conducted to investigate the effect of elemental metal such as Cu-Zn-Mg in aluminum matrix on mechanical properties of stir casting of aluminum composite materials reinforced with alpha 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles using simple foundry melting alloying and casting route. The age hardening treatments were also applied to study the aging response of the aluminum matrix on strength, ductility and hardness. The experimental results indicate that aluminum matrix cast composite can be manufactured via conventional foundry method giving very good responses to the strength and ductility up to 10% 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles reinforced in aluminum matrix. (author)

  8. Manufacturing of Aluminum Composite Material Using Stir Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hayat Jokhio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing of aluminum alloy based casting composite materials via stir casting is one of the prominent and economical route for development and processing of metal matrix composites materials. Properties of these materials depend upon many processing parameters and selection of matrix and reinforcements. Literature reveals that most of the researchers are using 2, 6 and 7xxx aluminum matrix reinforced with SiC particles for high strength properties whereas, insufficient information is available on reinforcement of \\"Al2O3\\" particles in 7xxx aluminum matrix. The 7xxx series aluminum matrix usually contains Cu-Zn-Mg. Therefore, the present research was conducted to investigate the effect of elemental metal such as Cu-Zn-Mg in aluminum matrix on mechanical properties of stir casting of aluminum composite materials reinforced with alpha \\"Al2O3\\" particles using simple foundry melting alloying and casting route. The age hardening treatments were also applied to study the aging response of the aluminum matrix on strength, ductility and hardness. The experimental results indicate that aluminum matrix cast composite can be manufactured via conventional foundry method giving very good responses to the strength and ductility up to 10% \\"Al2O3\\" particles reinforced in aluminum matrix.

  9. Corrosion resistant composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanin, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Foundations for corrosion-resistant composite materials design are considered with account of components compatibility. Fibrous and lamellar composites with metal matrix, dispersion-hardened steels and alloys, refractory metal carbides-, borides-, nitrides-, silicides-based composites are described. Cermet compositions and fields of their application, such as protective coatings for operation in agressive media at high temperatures, are presented

  10. Graphite-high density polyethylene laminated composites with high thermal conductivity made by filament winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lv

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The low thermal conductivity of polymers limits their use in numerous applications, where heat transfer is important. The two primary approaches to overcome this limitation, are to mix in other materials with high thermal conductivity, or mechanically stretch the polymers to increase their intrinsic thermal conductivity. Progress along both of these pathways has been stifled by issues associated with thermal interface resistance and manufacturing scalability respectively. Here, we report a novel polymer composite architecture that is enabled by employing typical composites manufacturing method such as filament winding with the twist that the polymer is in fiber form and the filler in form of sheets. The resulting novel architecture enables accession of the idealized effective medium composite behavior as it minimizes the interfacial resistance. The process results in neat polymer and 50 vol% graphite/polymer plates with thermal conductivity of 42 W·m–1·K–1 (similar to steel and 130 W·m–1·K–1 respectively.

  11. Vacuum-assisted bilayer PEDOT:PSS/cellulose nanofiber composite film for self-standing, flexible, conductive electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Youngsang; Kim, Dabum; Kim, Ung-Jin; You, Jungmok

    2017-10-01

    Sustainable cellulose nanofiber (CNF)-based composites as functional conductive materials have garnered considerable attention recently for their use in soft electronic devices. In this work, self-standing, highly flexible, and conductive PEDOT:PSS-CNF composite films were developed using a simple vacuum-assisted filtration method. Two different composite films were successfully fabricated and then tested: 1) a single-layer composite composed of a mixture of PEDOT:PSS and CNF phases and 2) a bilayer composite composed of an upper PEDOT:PSS membrane layer and a CNF matrix sub-layer. The latter composite was constructed by electrostatic/hydrogen bonding interactions between PEDOT:PSS and CNFs coupled with sequential vacuum-assisted filtration. Our results demonstrated that the resultant bilayer composite film exhibited a competitive electrical conductivity (ca. 22.6Scm -1 ) compared to those of previously reported cellulose-based composites. Furthermore, decreases in the electrical properties were not observed in the composite films when they were bent up to 100 times at an angle of 180° and bent multiple times at an angle of 90°, clearly demonstrating their excellent mechanical flexibility. This study provides a straightforward method of fabricating highly flexible, lightweight, and conductive films, which have the potential to be used in high-performance soft electronic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal conductivity of polymer composites with oriented boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hong Jun; Eoh, Young Jun; Park, Sung Dae; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity depended on the orientation of BN in the polymer matrices. • Hexagonal boron nitride (BN) particles were treated by C 27 H 27 N 3 O 2 and C 14 H 6 O 8 . • Amphiphilic-agent-treated BN particles are more easily oriented in the composite. • BN/PVA composites with C 14 H 6 O 8 -treated BN showed the highest thermal conductivity. • Thermal conductivity of the composites was compared with several theoretical models. - Abstract: Thermal conductivity of boron nitride (BN) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and/or polyvinyl butyral (PVB) was investigated as a function of the degree of BN orientation, the numbers of hydroxyl groups in the polymer matrices and the amphiphilic agents used. The composites with in-plane orientation of BN showed a higher thermal conductivity than the composites with out-of-plane orientation of BN due to the increase of thermal pathway. For a given BN content, the composites with in-plane orientation of BN/PVA showed higher thermal conductivity than the composites with in-plane orientation of BN/PVB. This result could be attributed to the improved degree of orientation of BN, caused by a larger number of hydroxyl groups being present. Those treated with C 14 H 6 O 8 amphiphilic agent demonstrated a higher thermal conductivity than those treated by C 27 H 27 N 3 O 2 . The measured thermal conductivity of the composites was compared with that predicted by the several theoretical models

  13. Alignment of Boron Nitride Nanofibers in Epoxy Composite Films for Thermal Conductivity and Dielectric Breakdown Strength Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengdong; Liu, Jingya; Cheng, Yonghong; Chen, Siyu; Yang, Mengmeng; Huang, Jialiang; Wang, Hongkang; Wu, Guanglei; Wu, Hongjing

    2018-04-15

    Development of polymer-based composites with simultaneously high thermal conductivity and breakdown strength has attracted considerable attention owing to their important applications in both electronic and electric industries. In this work, boron nitride (BN) nanofibers (BNNF) are successfully prepared as fillers, which are used for epoxy composites. In addition, the BNNF in epoxy composites are aligned by using a film casting method. The composites show enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric breakdown strength. For instance, after doping with BNNF of 2 wt%, the thermal conductivity of composites increased by 36.4% in comparison with that of the epoxy matrix. Meanwhile, the breakdown strength of the composite with 1 wt% BNNF is 122.9 kV/mm, which increased by 6.8% more than that of neat epoxy (115.1 kV/mm). Moreover, the composites have maintained a low dielectric constant and alternating current conductivity among the range of full frequency, and show a higher thermal decomposition temperature and glass-transition temperature. The composites with aligning BNNF have wide application prospects in electronic packaging material and printed circuit boards.

  14. Boride ceramics covalent functionalization and its effect on the thermal conductivity of epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhi-Qiang, E-mail: yuzhiqiang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Wu, Yicheng [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Wei, Bin; Baier, Horst [Institute of Lightweight Structures, Technical University Munich (TUM), Boltzmannstr. 15, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Zirconium diboride/aluminium oxide (ZrB{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) composite particles were functionalized with epoxide functionalized γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane by the covalent bonding approach to improve the interfacial compatibility of composite particles in epoxy matrix. The composites of epoxy resin filled with functionalized ZrB{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by in situ bulk condensation polymerization of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin in the presence of ZrB{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The heat-conducting properties of composites were investigated by the finite element method (FEM) and the thermal conductivity test. The finite-element program ANSYS was used for this numerical analysis, and three-dimensional spheres-in-cube lattice array models were built to simulate the microstructure of composite materials for different filler contents. The thermal conductivity of composites was determined by laser flash method (LFA447 Nanoflash), using the measured heat capacity and thermal diffusivity, with separately entered density data. The results show that the effective chemical bonds are formed between ZrB{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane after the surface functionalization. The interfacial compatibility and bonding of modified particles with the epoxy matrix are improved. The thermal conductivities of functionalized composites with 3 vol% and 5 vol% loading are increased by 8.3% and 12.5% relative to the unmodified composites, respectively. Comparison of experimental values and calculated values of the thermal conductivity, the average relative differences are under 5%. The predictive values of thermal conductivity of epoxy composites are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values. - Highlights: • The surfaces of ZrB{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were functionalized by silane coupling agents. • The thermal conductivity (TC) of modified epoxy composites is improved significantly. • The FEM values of TC are in

  15. Thermophysical properties estimation of paraffin/graphite composite phase change material using an inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachheb, Mohamed; Karkri, Mustapha; Albouchi, Fethi; Mzali, Foued; Nasrallah, Sassi Ben

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation of paraffin/graphite composites by uni-axial compression technique. • Measurement of thermophysical properties of paraffin/graphite using the periodic method. • Measurement of the experimental densities of paraffin/graphite composites. • Prediction of the effective thermal conductivity using analytical models. - Abstract: In this paper, two types of graphite were combined with paraffin in an attempt to improve thermal conductivity of paraffin phase change material (PCM): Synthetic graphite (Timrex SFG75) and graphite waste obtained from damaged Tubular graphite Heat Exchangers. These paraffin/graphite phase change material (PCM) composites are prepared by the cold uniaxial compression technique and the thermophysical properties were estimated using a periodic temperature method and an inverse technique. Results showed that the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are greatly influenced by the graphite addition

  16. Synthesis of new metal-matrix Al-Al2O3-graphene composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshina, L. A.; Muradymov, R. V.; Kvashnichev, A. G.; Vichuzhanin, D. I.; Molchanova, N. G.; Pankratov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism of formation of ceramic microparticles (alumina) and graphene in a molten aluminum matrix is studied as a function of the morphology and type of precursor particles, the temperature, and the gas atmosphere. The influence of the composition of an aluminum composite material (as a function of the concentration and size of reinforcing particles) on its mechanical and corrosion properties, melting temperature, and thermal conductivity is investigated. Hybrid metallic Al-Al2O3-graphene composite materials with up to 10 wt % alumina microparticles and 0.2 wt % graphene films, which are uniformly distributed over the metal volume and are fully wetted with aluminum, are synthesized during the chemical interaction of a salt solution containing yttria and boron carbide with molten aluminum in air. Simultaneous introduction of alumina and graphene into an aluminum matrix makes it possible to produce hybrid metallic composite materials having a unique combination of the following properties: their thermal conductivity is higher than that of aluminum, their hardness and strength are increased by two times, their relative elongation during tension is increased threefold, and their corrosion resistance is higher than that of initial aluminum by a factor of 2.5-4. We are the first to synthesize an in situ hybrid Al-Al2O3-graphene composite material having a unique combination of some characteristics. This material can be recommended as a promising material for a wide circle of electrical applications, including ultrathin wires, and as a structural material for the aerospace industry, the car industry, and the shipbuilding industry.

  17. The Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Woven Pristine and Intercalated Graphite Fiber-Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Vandenburg, Yvonne Yoder; Berkebile, Steven; Stueben, Heather; Balagadde, Frederick

    2002-01-01

    A series of woven fabric laminar composite plates and narrow strips were fabricated from a variety of pitch-based pristine and bromine intercalated graphite fibers in an attempt to determine the influence of the weave on the electrical and thermal conduction. It was found generally that these materials can be treated as if they are homogeneous plates. The rule of mixtures describes the resistivity of the composite fairly well if it is realized that only the component of the fibers normal to the equipotential surface will conduct current. When the composite is narrow with respect to the fiber weave, however, there is a marked angular dependence of the resistance which was well modeled by assuming that the current follows only along the fibers (and not across them in a transverse direction), and that the contact resistance among the fibers in the composite is negligible. The thermal conductivity of composites made from less conductive fibers more closely followed the rule of mixtures than that of the high conductivity fibers, though this is thought to be an artifact of the measurement technique. Electrical and thermal anisotropy could be induced in a particular region of the structure by weaving together high and low conductivity fibers in different directions, though this must be done throughout all of the layers of the structure as interlaminar conduction precludes having only the top layer carry the anisotropy. The anisotropy in the thermal conductivity is considerably less than either that predicted by the rule of mixtures or the electrical resistivity.

  18. Fabrication of High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Greene, Sandra E.; Singh, Jogender

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the process development for fabricating a high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond composite (NARloy-Z-D) combustion chamber liner for application in advanced rocket engines. The fabrication process is challenging and this paper presents some details of these challenges and approaches used to address them. Prior research conducted at NASA-MSFC and Penn State had shown that NARloy-Z-40%D composite material has significantly higher thermal conductivity than the state of the art NARloy-Z alloy. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40 %D is much lighter than NARloy-Z. These attributes help to improve the performance of the advanced rocket engines. Increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power, increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and specific impulse. Early work on NARloy-Z-D composites used the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST, Ref. 1, 2) for fabricating discs. NARloy-Z-D composites containing 10, 20 and 40vol% of high thermal conductivity diamond powder were investigated. Thermal conductivity (TC) data. TC increased with increasing diamond content and showed 50% improvement over pure copper at 40vol% diamond. This composition was selected for fabricating the combustion chamber liner using the FAST technique.

  19. Nanocellulose based polymer composite for acoustical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mohammad; Purniawan, Agung; Susanti, Diah; Priyono, Slamet; Ardhyananta, Hosta; Rahmasita, Mutia E.

    2018-04-01

    Natural fibers are biodegradable materials that are innovatively and widely used for composite reinforcement in automotive components. Nanocellulose derived from natural fibers oil palm empty bunches have properties that are remarkable for use as a composite reinforcement. However, there have not been many investigations related to the use of nanocellulose-based composites for wideband sound absorption materials. The specimens of nanocellulose-based polyester composite were prepared using a spray method. An impedance tube method was used to measure the sound absorption coefficient of this composite material. To reveal the characteristics of the nanocellulose-based polyester composite material, SEM (scanning electron microscope), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red), TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), and density tests were performed. Sound absorption test results showed the average value of sound absorption coefficient of 0.36 to 0,46 for frequency between 500 and 4000 Hz indicating that this nanocellulose-based polyester composite materials had a tendency to wideband sound absorption materials and potentially used as automotive interior materials.

  20. Correlation between Composition and Properties of Composite Material Based on Scrap Tires

    OpenAIRE

    Mālers, L; Plēsuma, R; Ločmele, L; Kalniņš, M

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present work is to investigate mechanical and insulation properties of the composite material based on scrap tires and polyurethane-type binder in correlation with composition of composite material. The studies of material’s hardness must be considered as an express-method for estimation of the selected mechanical properties (E and ccompressive stress) of the composite material without direct experimental testing of given parameters. It was shown that composite material must be r...

  1. Investigation on Failures of Composite Beam and Substrate Concrete due to Drying Shrinkage Property of Repair Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, Rashmi Ranjan

    2017-06-01

    A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and an experimental study was conducted on composite beam of repair material and substrate concrete to investigate the failures of the composite beam due to drying shrinkage property of the repair materials. In FEA, the stress distribution in the composite beam due to two concentrate load and shrinkage of repair materials were investigated in addition to the deflected shape of the composite beam. The stress distributions and load deflection shapes of the finite element model were investigated to aid in analysis of the experimental findings. In the experimental findings, the mechanical properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, and load-deflection curves were studied in addition to slant shear bond strength, drying shrinkage and failure patterns of the composite beam specimens. Flexure test was conducted to simulate tensile stress at the interface between the repair material and substrate concrete. The results of FEA were used to analyze the experimental results. It was observed that the repair materials with low drying shrinkage are showing compatible failure in the flexure test of the composite beam and deform adequately in the load deflection curves. Also, the flexural strength of the composite beam with low drying shrinkage repair materials showed higher flexural strength as compared to the composite beams with higher drying shrinkage value of the repair materials even though the strength of those materials were more.

  2. Microhardness of bulk-fill composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fil (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and ...

  3. Soft and flexible conductive PDMS/MWCNT composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassouneh, Suzan Sager; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was used to pre-disperse MWCNT in a MWCNT/IL-gel that was used for preparation of MWCVNT/PDMS composites. The method was seen to be effective at low levels of MWCNT, but required combination with a roll mill to obtain a stable dispersion at 4 wt % MWCNT. With higher amounts of MWCNT a reduction...... for preparation of MWCNT/PDMS composites. Composites prepared by use of the IL dispersion method, use of a roll mill or by use of the f-MWCNT all had conductivities around 0.005–0.01 s/cm and retained conductivity upon extension....

  4. Effects of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senor, D.J.; Youngblood, G.E.; Moore, C.E.; Trimble, D.J.; Woods, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    A variety of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics were characterized by measuring their thermal diffusivity in the unirradiated, thermal annealed, and irradiated conditions over the temperature range 400 to 1,000 C. The irradiation was conducted in the EBR-II to doses of 33 and 43 dpa-SiC (185 EFPD) at a nominal temperature of 1,000 C. The annealed specimens were held at 1,010 C for 165 days to approximately duplicate the thermal exposure of the irradiated specimens. Thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash method, and was converted to thermal conductivity using density data and calculated specific heat values. Exposure to the 165 day anneal did not appreciably degrade the conductivity of the monolithic or particulate-reinforced composites, but the conductivity of the fiber-reinforced composites was slightly degraded. The crystalline SiC-based materials tested in this study exhibited thermal conductivity degradation of irradiation, presumably caused by the presence of irradiation-induced defects. Irradiation-induced conductivity degradation was greater at lower temperatures, and was typically more pronounced for materials with higher unirradiated conductivity. Annealing the irradiated specimens for one hour at 150 C above the irradiation temperature produced an increase in thermal conductivity, which is likely the result of interstitial-vacancy pair recombination. Multiple post-irradiation anneals on CVD β-SiC indicated that a portion of the irradiation-induced damage was permanent. A possible explanation for this phenomenon was the formation of stable dislocation loops at the high irradiation temperature and/or high dose that prevented subsequent interstitial/vacancy recombination

  5. Effects of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senor, D.J.; Youngblood, G.E.; Moore, C.E.; Trimble, D.J.; Woods, J.J.

    1997-05-01

    A variety of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics were characterized by measuring their thermal diffusivity in the unirradiated, thermal annealed, and irradiated conditions over the temperature range 400 to 1,000 C. The irradiation was conducted in the EBR-II to doses of 33 and 43 dpa-SiC (185 EFPD) at a nominal temperature of 1,000 C. The annealed specimens were held at 1,010 C for 165 days to approximately duplicate the thermal exposure of the irradiated specimens. Thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash method, and was converted to thermal conductivity using density data and calculated specific heat values. Exposure to the 165 day anneal did not appreciably degrade the conductivity of the monolithic or particulate-reinforced composites, but the conductivity of the fiber-reinforced composites was slightly degraded. The crystalline SiC-based materials tested in this study exhibited thermal conductivity degradation after irradiation, presumably caused by the presence of irradiation-induced defects. Irradiation-induced conductivity degradation was greater at lower temperatures, and was typically more pronounced for materials with higher unirradiated conductivity. Annealing the irradiated specimens for one hour at 150 C above the irradiation temperature produced an increase in thermal conductivity, which is likely the result of interstitial-vacancy pair recombination. Multiple post-irradiation anneals on CVD β-SiC indicated that a portion of the irradiation-induced damage was permanent. A possible explanation for this phenomenon was the formation of stable dislocation loops at the high irradiation temperature and/or high dose that prevented subsequent interstitial/vacancy recombination

  6. The effect of neutron irradiation on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.; Eatherly, W.P.; Robbins, J.M.; Strizak, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are an attractive choice for fusion reactor plasma facing components (PFCs) because of their low atomic number, superior thermal shock resistance, and low neutron activation. Next generation plasma fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will require advanced carbon-carbon composite materials possessing extremely high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated severe heat loads. Moreover, ignition machines such as ITER will produce high neutron fluxes. Consequently, the influence of neutron damage on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials must be evaluated. Data from an irradiation experiment are reported and discussed here. Fusion relevant graphite and carbon-carbon composites were irradiated in a target capsule in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A peak damage dose of 1.59 dpa at 600 degrees C was attained. The carbon materials irradiated included nuclear graphite grade H-451 and one-, two-, and three-directional carbon-carbon composite materials. Dimensional changes, thermal conductivity and strength are reported for the materials examined. The influence of fiber type, architecture, and heat treatment temperature on properties and irradiation behavior are reported. Carbon-Carbon composite dimensional changes are interpreted in terms of simple microstructural models

  7. Fabrication and characterization of nanofiber-nanoparticle-composites with phase change materials by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babapoor, Aziz; Karimi, Gholamreza; Khorram, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Form-stable nanofibers with phase change material are produced by electrospinning. • PA6 and PEG are used as the supporting matrix and phase change material. • Various nanoparticles are used to enhance thermal properties of the fibers. • The nanofiber-nanoparticle composites exhibited desirable thermal stability. • Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles improved thermal conductivity of the composites considerably. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Abstract: Thermal energy storage has been recognized as one of the most important technologies for the utilization of renewable energy sources and conserving energy. In this investigation, through combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a phase change material (PCM), polyamid6 (PA6) and various nanoparticles (SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 and ZnO) as supporting materials, novel form-stable PCMs-based composites were fabricated by single nozzle electrospinning. The structure, morphology and thermal properties of the prepared nanofiber-nanocomposite-enhanced phase change materials (NEPCMs) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimeter, respectively. Based on the results, nanocomposites-nanofibers were successfully fabricated with high thermal stability and reliability. It is observed that in all composites, the fiber diameter is decreased by increasing the nanoparticles loading. The lowest average diameter obtained was for Fe 2 O 3 composite. Al 2 O 3 composite showed the maximum thermal conductivity enhancement. This study suggests that the fabricated nanocomposite-PCMs offer proper phase transition temperature range and high heat enthalpy values and hence, have potential for thermal energy storage applications.

  8. Multi-physics modeling of multifunctional composite materials for damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujidkul, Thanyawalai

    This study presents a modeling of multifunction composite materials for damage detection with its verification and validation to mechanical behavior predictions of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer composites (CFRPs), CFRPs laminated composites, and woven SiC/SiC matrix composites that are subjected to fracture damage. Advantages of those materials are low cost, low density, high strength-to-weight ratio, and comparable specific tensile properties, the special of SiC/SiC is good environmental stability at high temperature. Resulting in, the composite has been used for many important structures such as helicopter rotors, aerojet engines, gas turbines, hot control surfaces, sporting goods, and windmill blades. Damage or material defect detection in a mechanical component can provide vital information for the prediction of remaining useful life, which will result in the prevention of catastrophic failures. Thus the understanding of the mechanical behavior have been challenge to the prevent damage and failure of composites in different scales. The damage detection methods in composites have been investigated widely in recent years. Non-destructive techniques are the traditional methods to detect the damage such as X-ray, acoustic emission and thermography. However, due to the invisible damage in composite can be occurred, to prevent the failure in composites. The developments of damage detection methods have been considered. Due to carbon fibers are conductive materials, in resulting CFRPs can be self-sensing to detect damage. As is well known, the electrical resistance has been shown to be a sensitive measure of internal damage, and also this work study in thermal resistance can detect damage in composites. However, there is a few number of different micromechanical modeling schemes has been proposed in the published literature for various types of composites. This works will provide with a numerical, analytical, and theoretical failure models in different damages to

  9. Structural, electrical conductivity and dielectric behavior of Na2SO4–LDT composite solid electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Z. Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of composite materials of general molecular formula (1 − x Na2SO4 − (x LDT was prepared by solid state reaction method. The phase structure and functionalization of these materials were defined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR respectively. Differential thermal analysis (DTA revealed that the hump of phase transition at 250 °C has decreased while its thermal stability was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy signifies the presence of improved rigid surfaces and interphases that are accountable for the high ionic conduction due to dispersion of LDT particles in the composite systems. Arrhenius plots of the conductance show the maximum conductivity, σ = 4.56 × 10−4 S cm−1 at 500 °C for the x = 0.4 composition with the lowest activation energy 0.34 eV in the temperature range of 573–773 K. The value of dielectric constant was decreased with increasing frequency and follows the usual trend.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and DC conductivity studies of conducting polyaniline/PVA/Fly ash polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanasiddappa, M.; Swamy, D. Siddalinga; Vinay, K.; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Raghavendra, S. C.

    2018-05-01

    The present work is an investigation of dc conduction behaviour of conducting polyaniline/fly ash nano particles blended in polyvinyl Alcohol (PANI/PVA/FA) synthesized via in-situ polymerization technique using (NH4)2S2O8 as an oxidising agent with varying fly ash cenosphere by 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt%. The structural characterization of the synthesised polymer composites was examined using FT-IR, XRD and SEM techniques. Dc conductivity as a function of temperature has been measured in the temperature range from 302K - 443K. The increase of conductivity with increasing temperature reveals semiconducting behaviour of the composites and shows an evidence for the transport properties of the composites.

  11. Inorganic-based proton conductive composite membranes for elevated temperature and reduced relative humidity PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunmei

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are regarded as highly promising energy conversion systems for future transportation and stationary power generation and have been under intensive investigations for the last decade. Unfortunately, cutting edge PEM fuel cell design and components still do not allow economically commercial implementation of this technology. The main obstacles are high cost of proton conductive membranes, low-proton conductivity at low relative humidity (RH), and dehydration and degradation of polymer membranes at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to develop a systematic approach to design a high proton conductive composite membrane that can provide a conductivity of approximately 100 mS cm-1 under hot and dry conditions (120°C and 50% RH). The approach was based on fundamental and experimental studies of the proton conductivity of inorganic additives and composite membranes. We synthesized and investigated a variety of organic-inorganic Nafion-based composite membranes. In particular, we analyzed their fundamental properties, which included thermal stability, morphology, the interaction between inorganic network and Nafion clusters, and the effect of inorganic phase on the membrane conductivity. A wide range of inorganic materials was studied in advance in order to select the proton conductive inorganic additives for composite membranes. We developed a conductivity measurement method, with which the proton conductivity characteristics of solid acid materials, zirconium phosphates, sulfated zirconia (S-ZrO2), phosphosilicate gels, and Santa Barbara Amorphous silica (SBA-15) were discussed in detail. Composite membranes containing Nafion and different amounts of functionalized inorganic additives (sulfated inorganics such as S-ZrO2, SBA-15, Mobil Composition of Matter MCM-41, and S-SiO2, and phosphonated inorganic P-SiO2) were synthesized with different methods. We incorporated inorganic particles within Nafion clusters

  12. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  13. Combinatory Models for Predicting the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Frozen and Unfrozen Food Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A model to predict the effective thermal conductivity of heterogeneous materials is proposed based on unit cell approach. The model is combined with four fundamental effective thermal conductivity models (Parallel, Series, Maxwell-Eucken-I, and Maxwell-Eucken-II to evolve a unifying equation for the estimation of effective thermal conductivity of porous and nonporous food materials. The effect of volume fraction (ν on the structure composition factor (ψ of the food materials is studied. The models are compared with the experimental data of various foods at the initial freezing temperature. The effective thermal conductivity estimated by the Maxwell-Eucken-I + Present model shows good agreement with the experimental data with a minimum average deviation of ±8.66% and maximum deviation of ±42.76% of Series + Present Model. The combined models have advantages over other empirical and semiempirical models.

  14. RESEARCH ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF COMPOSITES MADE OF ECOLOGICAL FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Luminita BRENCI, Camelia COSEREANU, Adriana FOTIN, Alexandru VASILACHE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the researchconducted to obtain new ecological composites thatcould be used for thermal insulation of buildings. Theobtained panels are made of ecological materials thatdo not affect the human health (wood chips andfibers, host of hemp, textile fibers, wool and reed.The testing was performed in eight points, for aninternal temperature of T=200C and an outdoortemperature situated in the range of -200C÷200C. Asthe tests conducted, the results showed that the bestinsulating capacity belonged to a composite whichhas wood fiber and wool in its structure, followed acomposite which has wood chips, hemp particles andwool in its structure.

  15. Carbon/carbon composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, J.; Orly, P.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites are singular materials from their components, their manufacturing process as well as their characteristics. This paper gives a global overview of these particularities and applications which make them now daily used composites. (authors)

  16. Composites and blends from biobased materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, S.S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The program is focused on the development of composites and blends from biobased materials to use as membranes, high value plastics, and lightweight composites. Biobased materials include: cellulose derivative microporous materials, cellulose derivative copolymers, and cellulose derivative blends. This year`s research focused on developing an improved understanding of the molecular features that cellulose based materials with improved properties for gas separation applications. Novel cellulose ester membrane composites have been developed and are being evaluated under a collaborative research agreement with Dow Chemicals Company.

  17. On the Mechanical Behavior of Advanced Composite Material Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Jack

    During the period between 1993 and 2004, the author, as well as some colleagues and graduate students, had the honor to be supported by the Office of Naval Research to conduct research in several aspects of the behavior of structures composed of composite materials. The topics involved in this research program were numerous, but all contributed to increasing the understanding of how various structures that are useful for marine applications behaved. More specifically, the research topics focused on the reaction of structures that were made of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites when subjected to various loads and environmental conditions. This included the behavior of beam, plate/panel and shell structures. It involved studies that are applicable to fiberglass, graphite/carbon and Kevlar fibers imbedded in epoxy, polyester and other polymeric matrices. Unidirectional, cross-ply, angle ply, and woven composites were involved, both in laminated, monocoque as well as in sandwich constructions. Mid-plane symmetric as well as asymmetric laminates were studied, the latter involving bending-stretching coupling and other couplings that only can be achieved with advanced composite materials. The composite structures studied involved static loads, dynamic loading, shock loading as well as thermal and hygrothermal environments. One major consideration was determining the mechanical properties of composite materials subjected to high strain rates because the mechanical properties vary so significantly as the strain rate increases. A considerable number of references are cited for further reading and study for those interested.

  18. Carbon nanotube/paraffin/montmorillonite composite phase change material for thermal energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Guo, Qiangang; Nutt, Steven

    2017-04-01

    A composite phase change material (PCM) comprised of organic montmorillonite (OMMT)/paraffin/grafted multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) is synthesized via ultrasonic dispersion and liquid intercalation. The microstructure of the composite PCM has been characterized to determine the phase distribution, and thermal properties (latent heat and thermal conductivity) have been measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a thermal constant analyzer. The results show that paraffin molecules are intercalated in the montmorillonite layers and the grafted MWNTs are dispersed in the montmorillonite layers. The latent heat is 47.1 J/g, and the thermal conductivity of the OMMT/paraffin/grafted MWNT composites is 34% higher than that of the OMMT/paraffin composites and 65% higher than that of paraffin.

  19. Conductive polymer/metal composites for interconnect of flexible devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Jin; Hashimoto Shinoda, Yasuo; Shuto, Takanori; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2015-06-01

    An interconnect of flexible and foldable devices based on advanced electronics requires high electrical conductivity, flexibility, adhesiveness on a plastic substrate, and efficient productivity. In this study, we investigated the applicability of a conductive polymer/metal composite to the interconnect of flexible devices. By combining an inkjet process and a photochemical reaction, micropatterns of a polypyrrole/silver composite were formed on flexible plastic substrates with an average linewidth of approximately 70 µm within 10 min. The conductivity of the composite was improved to 6.0 × 102 Ω-1·cm-1. From these results, it is expected that the conducting polymer/metal composite can be applied to the microwiring of flexible electronic devices.

  20. Highly Conductive 3D Segregated Graphene Architecture in Polypropylene Composite with Efficient EMI Shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr E. Alam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of electronic equipment in modern life causes potential electromagnetic pollution harmful to human health. Therefore, it is of great significance to enhance the electrical conductivity of polymers, which are widely used in electronic components, to screen out electromagnetic waves. The fabrication of graphene/polymer composites has attracted much attention in recent years due to the excellent electrical properties of graphene. However, the uniform distribution of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs in a non-polar polymer matrix like polypropylene (PP still remains a challenge, resulting in the limited improvement of electrical conductivity of PP-based composites achieved to date. Here, we propose a single-step approach to prepare GNPs/PP composites embedded with a segregated architecture of GNPs by coating PP particles with GNPs, followed by hot-pressing. As a result, the electrical conductivity of 10 wt % GNPs-loaded composites reaches 10.86 S·cm−1, which is ≈7 times higher than that of the composites made by the melt-blending process. Accordingly, a high electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE of 19.3 dB can be achieved. Our method is green, low-cost, and scalable to develop 3D GNPs architecture in a polymer matrix, providing a versatile composite material suitable for use in electronics, aerospace, and automotive industries.

  1. Morphology and microstructure of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Srinivansan, K.

    1991-01-01

    Lightweight continuous carbon fiber based polymeric composites are currently enjoying increasing acceptance as structural materials capable of replacing metals and alloys in load bearing applications. As with most new materials, these composites are undergoing trials with several competing processing techniques aimed at cost effectively producing void free consolidations with good mechanical properties. As metallic materials have been in use for several centuries, a considerable database exists on their morphology - microstructure; and the interrelationships between structure and properties have been well documented. Numerous studies on composites have established the crucial relationship between microstructure - morphology and properties. The various microstructural and morphological features of composite materials, particularly those accompanying different processing routes, are documented.

  2. Graphene Nanosheets/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanotubes Composite Materials for Electrochemical Biosensing Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tzu-Yen; Kung, Chung-Wei; Wang, Jen-Yuan; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Lin-Chi; Chu, Chih-Wei; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel composite materials contain 2D rGO nanosheets and 1D PEDOT nanotubes. • 3D nanocomposite film effectively improved the sensitivity for analyte detection. • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film shows good catalytic activities toward hydrazine and H 2 O 2 . • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film also exhibits high selectivity from the interference test. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: In this study, we developed the novel composite materials containing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes (PEDOT NTs) for electrochemical biosensing applications. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy suggested that the rGO nanosheets cover the substrate uniformly, and the PEDOT NTs act as a conducting bridge to connect the rGO sheets. By combining the two materials, it's expected to enhance the conductivity of the film and improve the surface coverage. We applied the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite for electrochemical detection of hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide; noticeable improvements in electrochemical activity and reactivity were observed compared to those of the pristine rGO and PEDOT NTs electrodes. This may be attributed to the better surface coverage of the rGO/PEDOT NTs modified electrode with superior conductivity. Furthermore, interference tests indicate that the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite film exhibits high selectivity toward the analyte. The rGO/PEDOT NTs composite thus provides a potential platform for biosensing applications

  3. Thermal Conductivity and Erosion Durability of Composite Two-Phase Air Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Zhu, Dongming; Dorfman, Mitchell R.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance efficiency of gas turbines, new thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be designed which improve upon the thermal stability limit of 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), approximately 1200 C. This tenant has led to the development of new TBC materials and microstructures capable of improved high temperature performance. This study focused on increasing the erosion durability of cubic zirconia based TBCs, traditionally less durable than the metastable t' zirconia based TBCs. Composite TBC microstructures composed of a low thermal conductivity/high temperature stable cubic Low-k matrix phase and a durable t' Low-k secondary phase were deposited via APS. Monolithic coatings composed of cubic Low-k and t' Low-k were also deposited, in addition to a 7YSZ benchmark. The thermal conductivity and erosion durability were then measured and it was found that both of the Low-k materials have significantly reduced thermal conductivities, with monolithic t' Low-k and cubic Low-k improving upon 7YSZ by approximately 13 and approximately 25%, respectively. The 40 wt% t' Low-k composite (40 wt% t' Low-k - 60 wt% cubic Low-k) showed a approximately 22% reduction in thermal conductivity over 7YSZ, indicating even at high levels, the t' Low-k secondary phase had a minimal impact on thermal in the composite coating. It was observed that a mere 20 wt% t' Low-k phase addition can reduce the erosion of a cubic Low-k matrix phase composite coating by over 37%. Various mixing rules were then investigated to assess this non-linear composite behavior and suggestions were made to further improve erosion durability.

  4. Thermal properties of composite materials with a complex fractal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes-Álvarez, F; Reyes-Salgado, J J; Dossetti, V; Carrillo, J L

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the thermal characterization of platelike composite samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy and thermal relaxation, the thermal diffusivity, conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the samples were experimentally measured. The volume fraction of the inclusions was systematically varied in order to study the changes in the effective thermal conductivity of the composites. For some samples, a static magnetic field was applied during the polymerization process, resulting in anisotropic inclusion distributions. Our results show a decrease in the thermal conductivity of some of the anisotropic samples, compared to the isotropic randomly distributed ones. Our analysis indicates that the development of elongated inclusion structures leads to the formation of magnetite and resin domains, causing this effect. We correlate the complexity of the inclusion structure with the observed thermal response through a multifractal and lacunarity analysis. All the experimental data are contrasted with the well known Maxwell–Garnett effective media approximation for composite materials. (paper)

  5. High-Performance Stretchable Conductive Composite Fibers from Surface-Modified Silver Nanowires and Thermoplastic Polyurethane by Wet Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Jiang, Jianwei; Yoon, Sungho; Kim, Kyung-Shik; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Sanghyuk; Kim, Sang-Ho; Piao, Longhai

    2018-01-17

    Highly stretchable and conductive fibers have attracted great interest as a fundamental building block for the next generation of textile-based electronics. Because of its high conductivity and high aspect ratio, the Ag nanowire (AgNW) has been considered one of the most promising conducting materials for the percolation network-based conductive films and composites. However, the poor dispersibility of AgNWs in hydrophobic polymers has hindered their application to stretchable conductive composite fibers. In this paper, we present a highly stretchable and conductive composite fiber from the co-spinning of surface-modified AgNWs and thermoplastic polyurethane (PU). The surface modification of AgNWs with a polyethylene glycol derivative improved the compatibility of PU and AgNWs, which allowed the NWs to disperse homogeneously in the elastomeric matrix, forming effective percolation networks and causing the composite fiber to show enhanced electrical and mechanical performance. The maximum AgNW mass fraction in the composite fiber was 75.9 wt %, and its initial electrical conductivity was as high as 14 205 S/cm. The composite fibers also exhibited superior stretchability: the maximum rupture strain of the composite fiber with 14.6 wt % AgNW was 786%, and the composite fiber was also conductive even when it was stretched up to 200%. In addition, 2-dimensional (2-D) Ag nanoplates were added to the AgNW/PU composite fibers to increase the stability of the conductive network under repeated stretching and releasing. The Ag nanoplates acted as a bridge to effectively prevent the AgNWs from slippage and greatly improved the stability of the conductive network.

  6. Effect of electrical conductivity on the polarization behaviour and pyroelectric, piezoelectric property prediction of 0-3 ferroelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Nian; Zhang Duanming; Yang Fengxia; Han Xiangyun; Zhong Zhicheng; Zheng Keyu

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of electrical conductivity of the constituents on the poling behaviour of the ceramic inclusions in 0-3 ferroelectric composites which comprise a dilute suspension of spherical particles uniformly distributed in the matrix material. A new model for the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties in terms of the poling conditions (poling field and poling time) has been developed to include electrical conductivity. Simulated results show that conductivity plays an important role in the poling process. Properly increasing the conductivity of the matrix σ m can enhance the polarization in the ceramic inclusion of the composite P i , thereby making the poling of the composite more efficient. In contrast, higher conductivity of the ceramic inclusion σ i results in lower polarization P i , which is unfavourable to the poling of the composite. These results provide insights into the observed behaviour of 0-3 composites. The model predicts the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties under different poling conditions, which agree well with the corresponding experimental data

  7. High Thermal Conductivity Composite Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bootle, John

    1999-01-01

    ... applications and space based radiators. The advantage of this material compared to competing materials that it can be used to fabricate high strength, high thermal conductivity, relatively thin structures less than 0.050" thick...

  8. DC ionic conductivity of NaNO3: γ-Al2O3 composite solid electrolyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhava Rao, M.V.; Narender Reddy, S.; Sadananda Chary, A.

    2005-01-01

    We present DC ionic conductivity measurements on composites formed between Na + ion conductor (NaNO 3 ) and dispersed insulating oxide (alumina). Enhancement of conductivity is noticed to increase with mole percent (m/o) of the dispersoid. The maximum enhancement observed is more than two orders of magnitude with respect to the host material. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies ruled out the formation of solid solutions between the host material and the dispersoid. The experimental data indicating higher conductivity in dispersed system is interpreted in terms of the formation of space charge layer between the host material and the dispersoid in which defect concentration increases and that is thought to be the possible mechanism of conductivity enhancement. Activation energies obtained from the conductivity data in the extrinsic conduction region indicated least value for the systems at threshold mole percentage

  9. Novel Formulations of Phase Change Materials-Epoxy Composites for Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Maria Elena; Alvarez Feijoo, Miguel Angel; Suarez Garcia, Andres; Luhrs, Claudia C

    2018-01-26

    This research aimed to evaluate the thermal properties of new formulations of phase change materials (PCMs)-epoxy composites, containing a thickening agent and a thermally conductive phase. The composite specimens produced consisted of composites fabricated using (a) inorganic PCMs (hydrated salts), epoxy resins and aluminum particulates or (b) organic PCM (paraffin), epoxy resins, and copper particles. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to analyze the thermal behavior of the samples, while hardness measurements were used to determine changes in mechanical properties at diverse PCM and conductive phase loading values. The results indicate that the epoxy matrix can act as a container for the PCM phase without hindering the heat-absorbing behavior of the PCMs employed. Organic PCMs presented reversible phase transformations over multiple cycles, an advantage that was lacking in their inorganic counterparts. The enthalpy of the organic PCM-epoxy specimens increased linearly with the PCM content in the matrix. The use of thickening agents prevented phase segregation issues and allowed the fabrication of specimens containing up to 40% PCM, a loading significantly higher than others reported. The conductive phase seemed to improve the heat transfer and the mechanical properties of the composites when present in low percentages (material at the temperatures employed.

  10. Illusion thermal device based on material with constant anisotropic thermal conductivity for location camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Quanwen; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Meng, Tong; Liu, Cunliang

    2016-09-01

    Thermal metamaterials and devices based on transformation thermodynamics often require materials with anisotropic and inhomogeneous thermal conductivities. In this study, still based on the concept of transformation thermodynamics, we designed a planar illusion thermal device, which can delocalize a heat source in the device such that the temperature profile outside the device appears to be produced by a virtual source at another position. This device can be constructed by only one kind of material with constant anisotropic thermal conductivity. The condition which should be satisfied by the device is provided, and the required anisotropic thermal conductivity is then deduced theoretically. This study may be useful for the designs of metamaterials or devices since materials with constant anisotropic parameters have great facility in fabrication. A prototype device has been fabricated based on a composite composed by two naturally occurring materials. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the device.

  11. Thermal conductivity of the pine-biocarbon-preform/copper composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Faber, K. T.

    2010-07-01

    The thermal conductivity of composites of a new type prepared by infiltration under vacuum of melted copper into empty sap channels (aligned with the sample length) of high-porosity biocarbon preforms of white pine tree wood has been studied in the temperature range 5-300 K. The biocarbon preforms have been prepared by pyrolysis of tree wood in an argon flow at two carbonization temperatures of 1000 and 2400°C. From the experimental values of the composite thermal conductivities, the fraction due to the thermal conductivity of the embedded copper is isolated and found to be substantially lower than that of the original copper used in preparation of the composites. The decrease in the thermal conductivity of copper in the composite is assigned to defects in its structure, namely, breaks in the copper filling the sap channels, as well as the radial ones, also filled by copper. A possibility of decreasing the thermal conductivity of copper in a composite due to its doping by the impurities present in the carbon preform is discussed.

  12. Erosion-resistant composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C.B.; Tennery, V.J.; Curlee, R.M.

    A highly erosion-resistant composite material is formed of chemical vapor-deposited titanium diboride on a sintered titanium diboride-nickel substrate. This material may be suitable for use in cutting tools, coal liquefaction systems, etc.

  13. Nanocellulose Composite Materials Synthesizes with Ultrasonic Agitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Timothy; Folken, Andrew; Fritch, Byron; Bradley, Derek

    We have extended current techniques in forming nanocellulose composite solids, suspensions and aerogels to enhance the breakdown of cellulose into its molecular components. Using only mechanical processing which includes ball milling, using a simple mortar and pestle, and ultrasonic agitation, we are able to create very low concentration uniform nanocellulose suspensions in water, as well as incorporate other materials such as graphite, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic materials. Of interest is that no chemical processing is necessary, nor is the use of nanoparticles, necessary for composite formation. Using both graphite and carbon nanotubes, we are able to achieve conducting nanocellulose solids and aerogels. Standard magnetic powder can also be incorporated to create magnetic solids. The technique also allows for the creation of an extremely fine nanocellulose suspension in water. Using extremely low concentrations, less than 1% cellulose by mass, along with careful control over processing parameters, we are able to achieve highly dilute, yet homogenous nanocellulose suspensions. When air dried, these suspensions have similar hardness and strength properties to those created with more typical starting cellulose concentrations (2-10%). However, when freeze-dried, these dilute suspensions form aerogels with a new morphology with much higher surface area than those with higher starting concentrations. We are currently examining the effect of this higher surface area on the properties of nanocellulose aerogel composites and how it influences the impact of incorporating nanocellulose into other polymer materials.

  14. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Pan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC. This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing–thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  15. Thermal characteristic investigation of eutectic composite fatty acid as heat storage material for solar heating and cooling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaib, R.; Fauzi, H.; Ong, H. C.; Rizal, S.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Riza, M.

    2018-03-01

    A composite phase change material (CPCM) of myristic acid/palmitic acid/sodium myristate (MA/PA/SM) and of myristic acid/palmitic acid/sodium laurate (MA/PA/SL) were impregnated with purified damar gum as called Shorea Javanica (SJ) to improve the thermal conductivity of CPCM. The thermal properties, thermal conductivity, and thermal stability of both CPCM have investigated by using a Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) thermal analysis, hot disc thermal conductivity analyzer, and Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA), simultaneously. However, a chemical compatibility between both fatty acid eutectic mixtures and SJ in composite mixtures measured by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectrophotometer. The results were obtained that the thermal conductivity of MA/PA/SM/SJ and MA/PA/SL/SJ eutectic composite phase change material (CPCM) were improved by addition 3 wt.% and 2 wt.% of Shorea javanica (SJ), respectively, without occur a significant change on thermal properties of CPCM. Moreover, the absorbance spectrum of FT-IR shows the good compatibility of SJ with both MA/PA/SM and MA/PA/SL eutectic mixtures, the composite PCM also present good thermal performance and good thermal stability. Therefore, it can be noted that the purified Shorea Javanica proposed, the as high conductive material in this study was able to improve the thermal conductivity of eutectic PCM without any significant reduction on its thermo-physical and chemical properties and can be recommended as novelty composite phase change material for thermal energy storage application.

  16. Development of composite ceramic materials with improved thermal conductivity and plasticity based on garnet-type oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovkina, L.S., E-mail: golovkina_lyudmila@mail.ru [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Orlova, A.I.; Boldin, M.S.; Sakharov, N.V.; Chuvil' deev, V.N.; Nokhrin, A.V. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Konings, R.; Staicu, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate G – Nuclear Safety and Security, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Powders based on the complex garnet-type oxide Y{sub 2.5}Nd{sub 0.5}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} - x wt. % Ni (x = 0, 10, 20) were prepared using wet chemistry methods. Ceramics based on these compounds were obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) with a relative densities: 99%. 4% (TD = 4.77 g/cm{sup 3} (0%)), 97.6% (TD = 4.88 g/cm{sup 3} (10%)), 94.4% (TD = 5.06 g/cm{sup 3} (20%)). The influence of nickel concentration on the mechanical (fracture toughness, microhardness) and thermophysical (thermal conductivity) properties of the composites was studied. - Highlights: •Powders were prepared using wet chemistry methods. •Ceramics were sintering by SPS method (ρ{sub rel} ∼ 99%); t{sub shrinkage} < 10 min. •By increasing Ni concentration in composites, their fracture toughness was enhanced. •Thermal conductivity increases with elevated concentration of Ni.

  17. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon-Al-Cu Composite for Friction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lihui; Luo, Ruiying; Ma, Denghao

    2018-03-31

    A carbon/carbon-Al-Cu composite reinforced with carbon fiber 2.5D-polyacrylonitrile-based preforms was fabricated using the pressureless infiltration technique. The Al-Cu alloy liquids were successfully infiltrated into the C/C composites at high temperature and under vacuum. The mechanical and metallographic properties, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of the C/C-Al-Cu composites were analyzed. The results showed that the bending property of the C/C-Al-Cu composites was 189 MPa, whereas that of the pure carbon slide material was only 85 MPa. The compressive strength of C/C-Al-Cu was 213 MPa, whereas that of the pure carbon slide material was only 102 MPa. The resistivity of C/C-Al-Cu was only 1.94 μΩm, which was lower than that of the pure carbon slide material (29.5 μΩm). This finding can be attributed to the "network conduction" structure. Excellent wettability was observed between Al and the carbon matrix at high temperature due to the existence of Al₄C₃. The friction coefficients of the C/C, C/C-Al-Cu, and pure carbon slide composites were 0.152, 0.175, and 0.121, respectively. The wear rate of the C/C-Al-Cu composites reached a minimum value of 2.56 × 10 -7 mm³/Nm. The C/C-Al-Cu composite can be appropriately used as railway current collectors for locomotives.

  18. Conductivity and Structure of Superionic Composite (AgI0.6(NaPO30.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kartini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Superionic conductors are of considerable interest from both application and fundamental points of view. Superionic solid electrolytes can be used for batteries, fuel cells and sensors. We have used melt quenching to make a new superionic composite (AgI0.6(NaPO30.4 which exhibits an ionic conductivity of about 2 x 10-4 S/cm at ambient temperature. The conductivity of crystalline AgI and NaPO3 glass are lower of orders of magnitude. (AgI0.6(NaPO30.4 is a composite material containing both crystalline and glass phases. The paper presents the conductivity as a function of temperature measured by impedance spectroscopy and the crystal structure performed by a high resolution powder diffractometer, VEGA at the Neutron Science Laboratory (KENS, KEK, Japan.

  19. Controlling Thermal Conduction by Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qin; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Manipulating thermal conductivities are fundamentally important for controlling the conduction of heat at will. Thermal cloaks and concentrators, which have been extensively studied recently, are actually graded materials designed according to coordinate transformation approaches, and their effective thermal conductivity is equal to that of the host medium outside the cloak or concentrator. Here we attempt to investigate a more general problem: what is the effective thermal conductivity of graded materials? In particular, we perform a first-principles approach to the analytic exact results of effective thermal conductivities of materials possessing either power-law or linear gradation profiles. On the other hand, by solving Laplace’s equation, we derive a differential equation for calculating the effective thermal conductivity of a material whose thermal conductivity varies along the radius with arbitrary gradation profiles. The two methods agree with each other for both external and internal heat sources, as confirmed by simulation and experiment. This work provides different methods for designing new thermal metamaterials (including thermal cloaks and concentrators), in order to control or manipulate the transfer of heat. Support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11725521, by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality under Grant No. 16ZR1445100

  20. PEDOT-based composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhiheng; Richardson, Georgia F; Meng, Qingshi; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Shenmin; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (denoted PEDOT) already has a brief history of being used as an active material in supercapacitors. It has many advantages such as low-cost, flexibility, and good electrical conductivity and pseudocapacitance. However, the major drawback is low stability, which means an obvious capacitance drop after a certain number of charge–discharge cycles. Another disadvantage is its limited capacitance and this becomes an issue for industrial applications. To solve these problems, there are several approaches including the addition of conducting nanofillers to increase conductivity, and mixing or depositing metal oxide to enhance capacitance. Furthermore, expanding the surface area of PEDOT is one of the main methods to improve its performance in energy storage applications through special processes; for example using a three-dimensional substrate or preparing PEDOT aerogel through freeze drying. This paper reviews recent techniques and outcomes of PEDOT based composites for supercapacitors, as well as detailed calculations about capacitances. Finally, this paper outlines the new direction and recent challenges of PEDOT based composites for supercapacitor applications. (topical review)

  1. Highly conductive, multi-layer composite precursor composition to fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z [Centerville, OH; Zhamu, Aruna [Centerville, OH; Guo, Jiusheng [Centerville, OH

    2011-02-15

    This invention provides a moldable, multiple-layer composite composition, which is a precursor to an electrically conductive composite flow field plate or bipolar plate. In one preferred embodiment, the composition comprises a plurality of conductive sheets and a plurality of mixture layers of a curable resin and conductive fillers, wherein (A) each conductive sheet is attached to at least one resin-filler mixture layer; (B) at least one of the conductive sheets comprises flexible graphite; and (C) at least one resin-filler mixture layer comprises a thermosetting resin and conductive fillers with the fillers being present in a sufficient quantity to render the resulting flow field plate or bipolar plate electrically conductive with a conductivity no less than 100 S/cm and thickness-direction areal conductivity no less than 200 S/cm.sup.2.

  2. Numerical investigation of porous materials composites reinforced with natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, M.; Metidji, N.; Mokhtari, F.; Merzouk, N. k.

    2018-05-01

    The present article tends to predict the effective thermal properties of porous biocomposites materials. The composites matrix consists on porous materials namely gypsum and the reinforcement is a natural fiber as date palm fibers. The numerical study is done using Comsol software resolving the heat transfer equation. The results are fitted with theoretical model and experimental results. The results of this study indicate that the porosity has an effect on the Effective thermal conductivity biocompoites.

  3. Development of Design Standards and Guidelines for Electromagnetic Compatibility and Lightning Protection for Spacecraft Utilizing Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    This final report presents information concerning technical accomplishments by Tec-Masters, Inc. (TMI) for this contract effort. This effort included the accomplishment and/or submission by TMI of the following items: (1) Literature Survey Report, Electrical Properties of Non-Metallic Composites by Mr. Hugh W. Denny; (2) Interim Report, Composite Materials - Conductivity, Shielding Effectiveness, and Current Carrying Capability by Mr. Ross W. Evans; (3) Fault Current Test Plan by Mr. Ross W. Evans (4) Fault Current Test Procedure by Mr. Ross W. Evans (5) Test Report, Fault Current Through Graphite Filament Reinforced Plastic, NASA CR-4774, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, September 1996, by Mr. Ross W. Evans; (6) Test Plan, Lightning Effects on Composite Materials by Mr. Ross W. Evans; (7) Test Report, Lightning Effects on Composite Materials, NASA CR-4783, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, February 1997, by Mr. Ross W. Evans; (8) Design Guidelines for Shielding Effectiveness, Current Carrying Capability, and the Enhancement of Conductivity of Composite Materials, NASA CR-4784, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, September 1996, by Mr. Ross W. Evans. These items are not attached but are considered to be a part of this final report. Efforts on two additional items were accomplished at no increase in cost to NASA/MSFC. These items consisted of updating the 'MSFC EMC Design and Interference Control Handbook,' and revising the 'Design Guidelines for Shielding Effectiveness, Current Carrying Capability, and the Enhancement of Conductivity of Composite Materials.'

  4. Composites as structural materials in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megusar, J.

    1989-01-01

    In fusion reactors, materials are used under extreme conditions of temperature, stress, irradiation, and chemical environment. The absence of adequate materials will seriously impede the development of fusion reactors and might ultimately be one of the major difficulties. Some of the current materials problems can be solved by proper design features. For others, the solution will have to rely on materials development. A parallel and balanced effort between the research in plasma physics and fusion-related technology and in materials research is, therefore, the best strategy to ultimately achieve economic, safe, and environmentally acceptable fusion. The essential steps in developing composites for structural components of fusion reactors include optimization of mechanical properties followed by testing under fusion-reactor-relevant conditions. In optimizing the mechanical behavior of composite materials, a wealth of experience can be drawn from the research on ceramic matrix and metal matrix composite materials sponsored by the Department of Defense. The particular aspects of this research relevant to fusion materials development are methodology of the composite materials design and studies of new processing routes to develop composite materials with specific properties. Most notable examples are the synthesis of fibers, coatings, and ceramic materials in their final shapes form polymeric precursors and the infiltration of fibrous preforms by molten metals

  5. Functionalised hybrid materials of conducting polymers with individual wool fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Fern M; Johnston, James H; Borrmann, Thomas; Richardson, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Composites of natural protein materials, such as merino wool, with the conducting polymers polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) have been successfully synthesised. In doing so, hybrid materials have been produced in which the mechanical strength and flexibility of the fibers is retained whilst also incorporating the desired chemical and electrical properties of the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy shows PPy coatings to comprise individual polymer spheres, approximately 100 to 150 nm in diameter. The average size of the polymer spheres of PAn was observed to be approximately 50 to 100 nm in diameter. These spheres fuse together in a continuous sheet to coat the fibers in their entirety. The reduction of silver ions to silver metal nanoparticles onto the redox active polymer surface has also been successful and thus imparts anti-microbial properties to the hybrid materials. This gives rise to further applications requiring the inhibition of microbial growth. The chemical and physical characterisation of such products has been undertaken through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the testing of their anti-microbial activity.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of polymer matrix composite material with combination of ZnO filler and nata de coco fiber as a candidate of semiconductor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Anindita, Hana Nabila

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of semiconductor composite using acrylic matrix filled with ZnO and nata de coco fiber has been conducted in this research. The purpose of this research is to obtain semiconductor composite material that has a good mechanical strength and thermal resistance. In situ polymerization method is used in this research and the composites are ready to be characterized after 12 hours. The main parameter that is characterized is the electric conductivity of the composite. Additional parameters are also characterized such as composite's elastic modulus and glass transition temperature. The composites that has been made in this research can be classified as semiconductor material because the conductivity is in the range of 10-8-103 S/cm. In general the addition of ZnO and nata de coco filler can increase the conductivity of the composite. The highest semiconductor characteristic in acrylic/ZnO composite is obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 3.4 x 10-7 S/cm. Similar with acrylic/ZnO composite, in acrylic/nata de coco fiber composite the highest semiconductor characteristic is also obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 1.15 x 10-7 S/cm. Combination of 20% volume of ZnO, 10% volume of nata de coco, and 70% volume of acrylic resulting in composite with electric conductivity of 1.92 x 10-7 S/cm. In addition, combination of ZnO and nata de coco fiber as filler in composite can also improve the characteristic of composite where composite with 20% volume of ZnO filler and 10% volume of nata de coco fiber resulting in composite with elastic modulus of 1.79 GPa and glass transition temperature of 175.73°C which is higher than those in acrylic/ZnO composite.

  7. Graphene-based biomimetic materials targeting urine metabolite as potential cancer biomarker: application over different conductive materials for potentiometric transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truta, Liliana A.A.N.A.; Ferreira, Nádia S.; Sales, M. Goreti F.

    2015-01-01

    This works presents a novel surface Smart Polymer Antibody Material (SPAM) for Carnitine (CRT, a potential biomarker of ovarian cancer), tested for the first time as ionophore in potentiometric electrodes of unconventional configuration. The SPAM material consisted of a 3D polymeric network created by surface imprinting on graphene layers. The polymer was obtained by radical polymerization of (vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride and 4-styrenesulfonic acid (signaling the binding sites), and vinyl pivalate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (surroundings). Non-imprinted material (NIM) was prepared as control, by excluding the template from the procedure. These materials were then used to produce several plasticized PVC membranes, testing the relevance of including the SPAM as ionophore, and the need for a charged lipophilic additive. The membranes were casted over solid conductive supports of graphite or ITO/FTO. The effect of pH upon the potentiometric response was evaluated for different pHs (2-9) with different buffer compositions. Overall, the best performance was achieved for membranes with SPAM ionophore, having a cationic lipophilic additive and tested in HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) buffer, pH 5.1. Better slopes were achieved when the membrane was casted on conductive glass (−57.4mV/decade), while the best detection limits were obtained for graphite-based conductive supports (3.6×10−5mol/L). Good selectivity was observed against BSA, ascorbic acid, glucose, creatinine and urea, tested for concentrations up to their normal physiologic levels in urine. The application of the devices to the analysis of spiked samples showed recoveries ranging from 91% (± 6.8%) to 118% (± 11.2%). Overall, the combination of the SPAM sensory material with a suitable selective membrane composition and electrode design has lead to a promising tool for point-of-care applications. PMID:26456975

  8. Nonlinear DC Conduction Behavior in Graphene Nanoplatelets/Epoxy Resin Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yang; Wang, Qingguo; Qu, Zhaoming

    2018-01-01

    Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)/Epoxy resin (ER) with a low percolation threshold were fabricated. Then the nonlinear DC conduction behavior of GNPs/ER composites was investigated, which indicates that dispersion, exfoliation level and conductivity of GNPs in specimens are closely related to the conduction of composites. Moreover, it could be seen that the modified graphene nanoplatelets made in this paper could be successfully used for increasing the electric conductivity of the epoxy resin, and the GNPs/ER composites with nonlinear conduction behavior have a good application prospects in the field of intelligent electromagnetic protection.

  9. Composite material and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Samuels, William D.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2004-04-20

    The composite material and methods of making the present invention rely upon a fully dense monolayer of molecules attached to an oxygenated surface at one end, and an organic terminal group at the other end, which is in turn bonded to a polymer. Thus, the composite material is a second material chemically bonded to a polymer with fully dense monolayer there between.

  10. Mechanical and thermophysical properties of graphite/polyimide composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummler, D. R.; Clark, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An on-going program to characterize advanced composites for up to 50,000 hours of exposure to simulated supersonic cruise environments is summarized. Results are presented for up to 25,000 hours of thermal exposure and 10,000 hours of flight simulation at temperatures up to 560K (550 F) with emphasis on HTS/710 graphite/polyimide composite material. Results to date indicate that the maximum use temperature for HTS/710 may be reduced to 505K (450 F) for long-time (1000 hours) application such as the supersonic transport. Preliminary thermophysical properties data for HTS/PMR15 graphite/polyimide were generated. These data include thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and specific heat from 115K (-252 F) to 590K (600 F) and emittance at room temperature and 590K (600 F). The purpose in generating these data was to validate use of state-of-the-art property measurement methods for advanced graphite fiber reinforced resin matrix composites. Based on results to this point, thermal expansion measurements for composites are most difficult to perform. A high degree of caution in conducting thermal expansion tests and analyzing results is required to produce reliable data.

  11. Status and prospects for SiC-SiC composite materials development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, S.; Jones, R.H.; Kohyama, A.; Fenici, P.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) composites are very attractive for fusion applications because of their low afterheat and low activation characteristics coupled with excellent high temperature properties. These composites are relatively new materials that will require material development as well as evaluation of hermiticity, thermal conductivity, radiation stability, high temperature strength, fatigue, thermal shock, and joining techniques. The radiation stability of SiC-SiC composites is a critical aspect of their application as fusion components and recent results will be reported. Many of the non-fusion specific issues are under evaluation by other ceramic composite development programs, such as the US national continuous fiber ceramic composites.The current development status of various SiC-SiC composites research and development efforts is given. Effect of neutron irradiation on the properties of SiC-SiC composite between 500 and 1200 C are reported. Novel high temperature properties specific to ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials are discussed. The chemical stability of SiC is reviewed briefly. Ongoing research and development efforts for joining CMC materials including SiC-SiC composites are described. In conclusion, ongoing research and development efforts show extremely promising properties and behavior for SiC-SiC composites for fusion applications. (orig.)

  12. Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, P K

    2007-01-01

    The newly expanded and revised edition of Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design presents the most up-to-date resource available on state-of-the-art composite materials. This book is unique in that it not only offers a current analysis of mechanics and properties, but also examines the latest advances in test methods, applications, manufacturing processes, and design aspects involving composites. This third edition presents thorough coverage of newly developed materials including nanocomposites. It also adds more emphasis on underlying theories, practical methods, and problem-solving skills employed in real-world applications of composite materials. Each chapter contains new examples drawn from diverse applications and additional problems to reinforce the practical relevance of key concepts. New in The Third Edition: Contains new sections on material substitution, cost analysis, nano- and natural fibers, fiber architecture, and carbon-carbon composites Provides a new chapter on poly...

  13. Genetic Homogenization of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tobola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on numerical studies of electromagnetic properties of composite materials used for the construction of small airplanes. Discussions concentrate on the genetic homogenization of composite layers and composite layers with a slot. The homogenization is aimed to reduce CPU-time demands of EMC computational models of electrically large airplanes. First, a methodology of creating a 3-dimensional numerical model of a composite material in CST Microwave Studio is proposed focusing on a sufficient accuracy of the model. Second, a proper implementation of a genetic optimization in Matlab is discussed. Third, an association of the optimization script and a simplified 2-dimensional model of the homogeneous equivalent model in Comsol Multiphysics is proposed considering EMC issues. Results of computations are experimentally verified.

  14. A composite material based on recycled tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malers, L.; Plesuma, R.; Locmele, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is devoted to the elaboration and investigation of a composite material based on mechanically grinded recycled tires and a polymer binder. The correlation between the content of the binder, some technological parameters, and material properties of the composite was clarified. The apparent density, the compressive stress at a 10% strain, the compressive elastic modulus in static and cyclic loadings, and the insulating properties (acoustic and thermal) were the parameters of special interest of the present investigation. It is found that a purposeful variation of material composition and some technological parameters leads to multifunctional composite materials with different and predictable mechanical and insulation properties.

  15. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar; Greene, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    NARloy-Z (Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr) alloy is state-of-the-art combustion chamber liner material used in liquid propulsion engines such as the RS-68 and RS-25. The performance of future liquid propulsion systems can be improved significantly by increasing the heat transfer through the combustion chamber liner. Prior work1 done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has shown that the thermal conductivity of NARloy-Z alloy can be improved significantly by embedding high thermal conductivity diamond particles in the alloy matrix to form NARloy-Z-diamond composite (fig. 1). NARloy-Z-diamond composite containing 40vol% diamond showed 69% higher thermal conductivity than NARloy-Z. It is 24% lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 120% better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. The research work consists of (a) developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) of NARloy-Z-D composite, (b) fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and (c) hot-fire testing of the liner to test performance. Initially, NARloy-Z-D composite slabs were made using the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) for the purpose of determining design properties. In the next step, a cylindrical shape was fabricated to demonstrate feasibility (fig. 3). The liner consists of six cylinders which are sintered separately and then stacked and diffusion bonded to make the liner (fig. 4). The liner will be heat treated, finish-machined, and assembled into a combustion chamber and hot-fire tested in the MSFC test facility (TF 115) to determine perform.

  16. Effective electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube-polymer composites: a simplified model and its validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung-Hwan; Yin, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    A simplified model is presented to predict the effective electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube(CNT)-polymer composite with different material proportions, which is validated by the experiments of multi-walled CNT/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. CNTs are well dispersed in a PDMS matrix, and the mixture is then cured and cast into thin films for electrical characterization. The CNTs are assumed to be statistically uniformly distributed in the PDMS matrix with the three-dimensional (3D) waviness. As the proportion of CNTs increases to a certain level, namely the percolation threshold, the discrete CNTs start to connect with each other, forming a 3D network which exhibits a significant increase of effective electrical conductivity. The eight-chain model has been used to predict the effective electrical conductivity of the composite, in which the contact resistance between CNTs has been considered through the Simmons’ equation. The eight-chain network features can be significantly changed with the modification to mixing process, CNT length and diameter, and CNT clustering and curling. A Gaussian statistics-based formulation is used to calculate the effective length of a single CNT well dispersed in the matrix. The modeling results of effective electrical conductivity agree with the experiments very well, which are highly dependent on a contact resistance between CNTs and the waviness of the CNTs. The effect of inner-nanotube distance and diameter of CNTs on the effective electrical conductivity of the CNT/PDMS composite is also discussed. (paper)

  17. Carbon Fiber Composite Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Jr., Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mainka, Hendrik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Volkswagen (VW) is internationally recognized for quantity and quality of world-wide vehicle production and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is internationally recognized in materials research and development. With automotive production ramping up in the recently constructed VW Group of America facility in Chattanooga, Tennessee, ORNL and VW initiated discussions in 2012 concerning opportunities for collaboration around ORNL’s carbon fiber and composites programs. ORNL is conducting an internationally recognized program to develop and implement lower cost carbon fibers and composites for automotive and other “energy missions” for the US Department of Energy. Significant effort is ongoing in selecting, developing, and evaluating alternative precursors, developing and demonstrating advanced conversion techniques, and developing and tailoring surface treatment, sizings, and formatting fiber for specific composite matrices and end-use applications. ORNL already had North America’s most comprehensive suite of tools for carbon fiber research and development and established a semiproduction demonstration line referred to as the Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF) to facilitate implementation of low cost carbon fiber (LCCF) approaches in early 2013. ORNL and VW agreed to collaborate in a formal Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (NFE-12-03992) specifically focused on evaluating applicability of low cost carbon fiber products for potential vehicle components. The goal of the work outlined in this report was to develop and qualify uses for carbon fiber-reinforced structures in connection with civilian ground transportation. Significant progress was achieved in evaluating and understanding lignin-based precursor materials; however, availability of carbon fiber converted from lignin precursor combined with logistical issues associated with the Visa limitations for the VW participant resulted in significantly shortening of the collaboration

  18. Composite materials for cryogenic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the composition, mechanical properties and capabilities of various types of composite materials for cryogenic structures. Attention is given to high-pressure plastic laminates, low-pressure plastic laminates, metal-matrix laminates, and aggregates (low-temperature concretes). The ability of these materials to match the strength and modulus of stainless steels suggests that their usage will substantially increase as alloying elements become scarce and more expensive

  19. Highly Elastic, Transparent, and Conductive 3D-Printed Ionic Composite Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Odent, Jérémy

    2017-07-17

    Despite extensive progress to engineer hydrogels for a broad range of technologies, practical applications have remained elusive due to their (until recently) poor mechanical properties and lack of fabrication approaches, which constrain active structures to simple geometries. This study demonstrates a family of ionic composite hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties that can be rapidly 3D-printed at high resolution using commercial stereolithography technology. The new material design leverages the dynamic and reversible nature of ionic interactions present in the system with the reinforcement ability of nanoparticles. The composite hydrogels combine within a single platform tunable stiffness, toughness, extensibility, and resiliency behavior not reported previously in other engineered hydrogels. In addition to their excellent mechanical performance, the ionic composites exhibit fast gelling under near-UV exposure, remarkable conductivity, and fast osmotically driven actuation. The design of such ionic composites, which combine a range of tunable properties and can be readily 3D-printed into complex architectures, provides opportunities for a variety of practical applications such as artificial tissue, soft actuators, compliant conductors, and sensors for soft robotics.

  20. Review on factors influencing thermal conductivity of concrete incorporating various type of waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misri, Z.; Ibrahim, M. H. W.; Awal, A. S. M. A.; Desa, M. S. M.; Ghadzali, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    Concrete is well-known as a construction material which is widely used in building and infrastructure around the world. However, its widespread use has affected the reduction of natural resources. Hence, many approached have been made by researchers to study the incorporation of waste materials in concrete as a substitution for natural resources besides reducing waste disposal problems. Concrete is basically verified by determining its properties; strengths, permeability, shrinkage, durability, thermal properties etc. In various thermal properties of concrete, thermal conductivity (TC) has received a large amount of attention because it is depend upon the composition of concrete. Thermal conductivity is important in building insulation to measure the ability of a material to transfer heat. The aim of this paper is to discuss the methods and influence factors of TC of concrete containing various type of waste materials.

  1. Low-temperature-cured highly conductive composite of Ag nanowires and polyvinyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Song; Zhang Xiang; Yang Bingchu; Xu Xiaomei; Chen Hui; Zhou Conghua

    2017-01-01

    Flexible conductive films were fabricated from a low-temperature-cured, highly conductive composite of silver nanowires (as conducting filler) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, as binder). Sheet resistance of 0.12 Ω/sq, conductivity of 2.63×10 4 S/cm, and contact resistance of 1.0 Ω/cm 2 were measured in the films, along with excellent resistance to scratching and good flexibility, making them suitable electrical contact materials for flexible optoelectronic devices. Effects of curing temperature, curing duration, film thickness, and nanowire length on the film’s electrical properties were studied. Due to the abundance of hydroxyl groups on its molecular chains, the addition of PVA improves the film’s flexibility and resistance to scratching. Increased nanowire density and nanowire length benefit film conductance. Monte Carlo simulation was used to further explore the impact of these two parameters on the conductivity. It was observed that longer nanowires produce a higher length-ratio of conducting routes in the networks, giving better film conductivity. (paper)

  2. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL MATERIALS EMBEDDED INTO COMPOSITES UPON THE THERMAL INSULATING CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa-Maria BRENCI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a research performed in order to design and manufacture composites that embed in their structure ecological raw materials, such as wood chips and hemp hurds. The thermal conductivity was determined for a temperature difference (ΔT of 200 C between the cold plate and warm plate and the measurements were done in eight points. The results showed that the best insulating composite material was obtained for the structure containing equal shares of wood chips and chopped hemp

  4. Fabricating and strengthening the carbon nanotube/copper composite fibers with high strength and high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Baoshuai; Guo, Enyu; Xue, Xiang; Zhao, Zhiyong; Li, Tiejun; Xu, Yanjin; Luo, Liangshun; Hou, Hongliang

    2018-05-01

    Combining the excellent properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) and copper, CNT/Cu composite fibers were fabricated by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and rolling treatment. Dense and continuous copper film (∼2 μm) was coated on the surface of the CNT fibers by PVD, and rolling treatment was adopt to strengthen the CNT/Cu composite fibers. After the rolling treatment, the defects between the Cu grains and the CNT bundles were eliminated, and the structure of both the copper film and the core CNT fibers were optimized. The rolled CNT/Cu composite fibers possess high tensile effective strength (1.01 ± 0.13 GPa) and high electrical conductivity ((2.6 ± 0.3) × 107 S/m), and thus, this material may become a promising wire material.

  5. Development of AlN/Epoxy Composites with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yang, Chi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hailong; Hu, Song; Wang, Shiwei

    2017-01-01

    AlN/epoxy composites with high thermal conductivity were successfully prepared by infiltrating epoxy into AlN porous ceramics which were fabricated by gelcasting of foaming method. The microstructure, mechanical, and thermal properties of the resulting composites were investigated. The compressive strengths of the AlN/epoxy composites were enhanced compared with the pure epoxy. The AlN/epoxy composites demonstrate much higher thermal conductivity, up to 19.0 W/(m·K), compared with those by the traditional particles filling method, because of continuous thermal channels formed by the walls and struts of AlN porous ceramics. This study demonstrates a potential route to manufacture epoxy-based composites with extremely high thermal conductivity. PMID:29258277

  6. Development of AlN/Epoxy Composites with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yang, Chi; Li, Jun; Mao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Hailong; Hu, Song; Wang, Shiwei

    2017-12-18

    AlN/epoxy composites with high thermal conductivity were successfully prepared by infiltrating epoxy into AlN porous ceramics which were fabricated by gelcasting of foaming method. The microstructure, mechanical, and thermal properties of the resulting composites were investigated. The compressive strengths of the AlN/epoxy composites were enhanced compared with the pure epoxy. The AlN/epoxy composites demonstrate much higher thermal conductivity, up to 19.0 W/(m·K), compared with those by the traditional particles filling method, because of continuous thermal channels formed by the walls and struts of AlN porous ceramics. This study demonstrates a potential route to manufacture epoxy-based composites with extremely high thermal conductivity.

  7. Ink composition for making a conductive silver structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven B.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-10-18

    An ink composition for making a conductive silver structure comprises a silver salt and a complex of (a) a complexing agent and a short chain carboxylic acid or (b) a complexing agent and a salt of a short chain carboxylic acid, according to one embodiment. A method for making a silver structure entails combining a silver salt and a complexing agent, and then adding a short chain carboxylic acid or a salt of the short chain carboxylic acid to the combined silver salt and a complexing agent to form an ink composition. A concentration of the complexing agent in the ink composition is reduced to form a concentrated formulation, and the silver salt is reduced to form a conductive silver structure, where the concentrated formulation and the conductive silver structure are formed at a temperature of about 120.degree. C. or less.

  8. Longevity of dental amalgam in comparison to composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windisch, Friederike

    2008-11-01

    fillings in posterior teeth is difficult. Apart from the difficulties in conducting a randomized, controlled long-term study comparing the longevity of direct fillings, the fact that composites and adhesives used in a study have often already been replaced by the next generation of the product at the time of study publication presents an additional problem. Not only the filling material, but also patient parameters and local, intraoral factors (e. g. localisation of the filling as well as the treating dentist have an impact on the longevity of dental fillings. In evaluating economic studies, one has to refer to the heterogeneity of data on longevity in the medical evaluation. The only effect parameter used in the studies is longevity, other aspects (e. g. long-term functionality are only referred to in discussions. Extensive counselling of patients regarding the selection of the appropriate filling material is important. Conclusions: Amalgam fillings show a longer longevity than composite fillings. Two out of six systematic reviews conclude that the expected survival time of composite fillings can be comparable to amalgam fillings. However, these conclusions are based on the results of short-term studies which usually overestimate the longevity of filling materials. From an economic standpoint, amalgam is the more economic filling material compared to direct composite fillings in posterior teeth when considering longevity as the only result parameter. Other aspects than longevity need to be considered in individually choosing the appropriate dental filling material. For future studies aiming to compare the longevity of amalgam and composite fillings, a sufficient sample size and study period, preferably in the setting of a private dental practice, should be aimed for. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of amalgam and composite fillings should take the functionality of teeth over a longer time period into account, as well as patients’ preferences. The rapid

  9. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sung Ha; Choi, Bok Lok

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses

  10. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomino, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) SiC fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  11. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, James

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) Sic fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  12. Thermal conductivity: recent developments on insulating and new materials; La conductivite thermique: developpements recents sur les isolants et les materiaux nouveaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop organized by the thermo-kinetics section of the French society of thermal engineers deals with recent developments concerning insulating, dielectric and composite materials. The seven papers presented during this workshop concern the methods and results of thermal conductivity measurements performed in these materials and the possible applications of these materials in aerospace industry (carbon foams, ceramic-based composite materials), civil engineering (glazing materials, aerogels), power electronics (dielectric thin films, ceramics), and in other industries (heat resistant and thermal insulating materials). (J.S.)

  13. High-performance thermoelectric materials based on ternary TiO2/CNT/PANI composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Fuat; Li, Hui; Wang, Xizu; Wang, FuKe; He, Chaobin

    2018-04-04

    In the present work, we report the fabrication of high-performance thermoelectric materials using TiO2/CNT/PANI ternary composites. We showed that a conductivity of ∼2730 S cm-1 can be achieved for the binary CNT (70%)/PANI (30%) composite, which is the highest recorded value for the reported CNT/PANI composites. We further demonstrated that the Seebeck coefficient of CNT/PANI composites could be enhanced by incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into the binary CNT/PANI composites, which could be attributed to lower carrier density and the energy scattering of low-energy carriers at the interfaces of TiO2/a-CNT and TiO2/PANI. The resulting TiO2/a-CNT/PANI ternary system exhibits a higher Seebeck coefficient and enhanced thermoelectric power. Further optimization of the thermoelectric power was achieved by water treatment and by tuning the processing temperature. A high thermoelectric power factor of 114.5 μW mK-2 was obtained for the ternary composite of 30% TiO2/70% (a-CNT (70%)/PANI (30%)), which is the highest reported value among the reported PANI based ternary composites. The improvement of thermoelectric performance by incorporation of TiO2 suggests a promising approach to enhance power factor of organic thermoelectric materials by judicial tuning of the carrier concentration and electrical conductivity.

  14. Producing New Composite Materials by Using Tragacanth and Waste Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar Bicer; Serif Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    In present study, two kinds of thermal power plant ashes; one the fly ash and the other waste ash are mixed with adhesive tragacanth and cement to produce new composite materials. 48 new samples are produced by varying the percentages of the fly ash, waste ash, cement and tragacanth. The new samples are subjected to some tests to find out their properties such as thermal conductivity, compressive strength, tensile strength and sucking capability of water. It is found that; the thermal conduct...

  15. Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

  16. A study of the oriented composites with the conductive segregated structure obtained via solid-phase processing of the UHMWPE reactor powder mixed with the carbon nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Oleg V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University,) Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); N.S. Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymer Materials of RAS, Profsoyuznaya st., Moscow, 117393 (Russian Federation); Kechek’yan, Alexander S.; Shevchenko, Vitaly G.; Kurkin, Tikhon S.; Golubev, Evgeny K.; Ozerin, Alexander N. [N.S. Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymer Materials of RAS, Profsoyuznaya st., Moscow, 117393 (Russian Federation); Karpushkin, Evgeny A.; Sergeev, Vladimir G. [Moscow State University, Chemical Department, Leninskie Gori, Moscow, 119234 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-18

    Electrically conductive oriented polymer nano-composites of different compositions, based on the reactor powder of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with a special morphology, filled with particles of nanostructured graphite (NG), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and electrically conductive carbon black (CB), were investigated. Polymer composites were obtained via compaction of the mechanical mixture of the polymer and filler powder, followed by uniaxial deformation of the material under homogeneous shear (HS) conditions (all of the processing stages were conducted at room temperature). Resulted composites possess a high tensile strength, high level of the electrical conductivity and low percolation threshold, owing it to the formation of the segregated conductive structure, The influence of the type of nanosized carbon filler, degree of the deformation under HS condition, temperature and etc. on the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of strengthened conductive composites oriented under homogeneous shear conditions was investigated. Changes in the electrical conductivity of oriented composite materials during reversible “tension–shrinkage” cycles along the orientation axis direction were studied. A theoretical approach, describing the process of transformation of the conductive system as a response on polymer phase deformation and volume change, was proposed, based on the data received from the analysis of the conductivity behavior during the uniaxial deformation and thermal treatment of composites.

  17. Designing Neat and Composite Carbon Nanotube Materials by Porosimetric Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Kazufumi; Yoon, Howon; Ata, Seisuke; Yamada, Takeo; Futaba, Don N; Hata, Kenji

    2017-12-06

    We propose a porosimetry-based method to characterize pores formed by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the CNT agglomerates for designing neat CNT-based materials and composites. CNT agglomerates contain pores between individual CNTs and/or CNT bundles (micropore  50 nm). We investigated these pores structured by CNTs with different diameters and number of walls, clarifying the broader size distribution and the larger volume with increased diameters and number of walls. Further, we demonstrated that CNT agglomerate structures with different bulk density were distinguished depending on the pore sizes. Our method also revealed that CNT dispersibility in solvent correlated with the pore sizes of CNT agglomerates. By making use of these knowledge on tailorable pores for CNT agglomerates, we successfully found the correlation between electrical conductivity for CNT rubber composites and pore sizes of CNT agglomerates. Therefore, our method can distinguish diverse CNT agglomerate structures and guide pore sizes of CNT agglomerates to give high electrical conductivity of CNT rubber composites.

  18. Developing polymer composite materials: carbon nanotubes or graphene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuemei; Sun, Hao; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-10-04

    The formation of composite materials represents an efficient route to improve the performances of polymers and expand their application scopes. Due to the unique structure and remarkable mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and catalytic properties, carbon nanotube and graphene have been mostly studied as a second phase to produce high performance polymer composites. Although carbon nanotube and graphene share some advantages in both structure and property, they are also different in many aspects including synthesis of composite material, control in composite structure and interaction with polymer molecule. The resulting composite materials are distinguished in property to meet different applications. This review article mainly describes the preparation, structure, property and application of the two families of composite materials with an emphasis on the difference between them. Some general and effective strategies are summarized for the development of polymer composite materials based on carbon nanotube and graphene. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Numerical simulation of mechanical behavior of composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    An original mechanical formulation to treat nonlinear orthotropic behavior of composite materials is presented in this book. It also examines different formulations that allow us to evaluate the behavior of composite materials through the composition of its components, obtaining a new composite material. Also two multiple scale homogenization methods are given, one based on the analytical study of the cells (Ad-hoc homogenization), and other one, more general based on the finite element procedure applied on the macro scale (upper-scale) and in the micro scale (sub-scale). A very general formulation to simulate the mechanical behavior for traditional composite structures (plywood, reinforced concrete, masonry, etc.), as well as the new composite materials reinforced with long and short fibers, nanotubes, etc., are also shown in this work. Typical phenomena occurring in composite materials are also described in this work, including fiber-matrix debounding, local buckling of fibers and its coupling with the over...

  20. Mussel-Inspired Anisotropic Nanocellulose and Silver Nanoparticle Composite with Improved Mechanical Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Linh Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials for wearable devices, tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications require both antibacterial activity to prevent bacterial infection and biofilm formation, and electrical conductivity to electric signals inside and outside of the human body. Recently, cellulose nanofibers have been utilized for various applications but cellulose itself has neither antibacterial activity nor conductivity. Here, an antibacterial and electrically conductive composite was formed by generating catechol mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the surface of cellulose nanofibers. The chemically immobilized catechol moiety on the nanofibrous cellulose network reduced Ag+ to form AgNPs on the cellulose nanofiber. The AgNPs cellulose composite showed excellent antibacterial efficacy against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the catechol conjugation and the addition of AgNP induced anisotropic self-alignment of the cellulose nanofibers which enhances electrical and mechanical properties of the composite. Therefore, the composite containing AgNPs and anisotropic aligned the cellulose nanofiber may be useful for biomedical applications.

  1. Preparation of smooth, flexible and stable silver nanowires- polyurethane composite transparent conductive films by transfer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shengchi; Wang, Haifeng; Yang, Hui; Zhang, He; Guo, Xingzhong

    2018-02-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs)-polyurethane (PU) composite transparent conductive films were fabricated via transfer method using AgNWs conductive inks and polyurethane as starting materials, and the effects of post-treatments including heat treatment, NaCl solution bath and HCl solution bath for AgNWs film on the sheet resistance and transmittance of the composite films were respectively investigated in detail. AgNWs networks are uniformly embedded in the PU layer to improve the adhesion and reduce the surface roughness of AgNWs-PU composite films. Heat treatment can melt and weld the nanowires, and NaCl and HCl solution baths promote the dissolution and re-deposition of silver and the dissolving of the polymer, both which form conduction pathways and improve contact of AgNWs for reducing the sheet resistance. Smooth and flexible AgNWs-PU composite film with a transmittance of 85% and a sheet resistance of 15 Ω · sq‑1 is obtained after treated in 0.5 wt% HCl solution bath for 60 s, and the optoelectronic properties of the resultant composite film can maintain after 1000 cycles of bending and 100 days.

  2. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  3. Electrical and thermal conductivities of Stycast 1266 epoxy/graphite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, Hoang; Park, Joonkyu; Han, Sanga; Ahmad, Muneer; Seo, Yongho; Shin, Koo

    2011-01-01

    Nanocomposites composed of graphene flakes and epoxy resin (Stycast 1266) were produced with different concentrations of graphene in the range of 0 to 15 wt.%. The direct-current conductivity of the composites complied with percolation behavior. The percolation threshold concentration pc from the conductivity measurement was estimated as 8 wt.%, and the critical exponent as t = 1.85 ± 0.23. The alternating-current conductivity of the composite increased monotonically as the frequency was increased in the range from 1 to 10 MHz. The thermal conductivity k also exhibited a similar percolation behavior, with highest value of k = 0.73 W/m·K for the 12-wt.% composite, which corresponds to a 350% enhancement of the thermal conductivity.

  4. Spirally Structured Conductive Composites for Highly Stretchable, Robust Conductors and Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Xinxing; Lu, Canhui

    2017-07-12

    Flexible and stretchable electronics are highly desirable for next generation devices. However, stretchability and conductivity are fundamentally difficult to combine for conventional conductive composites, which restricts their widespread applications especially as stretchable electronics. Here, we innovatively develop a new class of highly stretchable and robust conductive composites via a simple and scalable structural approach. Briefly, carbon nanotubes are spray-coated onto a self-adhesive rubber film, followed by rolling up the film completely to create a spirally layered structure within the composites. This unique spirally layered structure breaks the typical trade-off between stretchability and conductivity of traditional conductive composites and, more importantly, restrains the generation and propagation of mechanical microcracks in the conductive layer under strain. Benefiting from such structure-induced advantages, the spirally layered composites exhibit high stretchability and flexibility, good conductive stability, and excellent robustness, enabling the composites to serve as highly stretchable conductors (up to 300% strain), versatile sensors for monitoring both subtle and large human activities, and functional threads for wearable electronics. This novel and efficient methodology provides a new design philosophy for manufacturing not only stretchable conductors and sensors but also other stretchable electronics, such as transistors, generators, artificial muscles, etc.

  5. Improvement of thermal conductivity of ceramic matrix composites for 4. generation nuclear reactors; Amelioration de la conductivite thermique des composites a matrice ceramique pour les reacteurs de 4. generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrero, J.

    2009-11-15

    This study deals with thermal conductivity improvement of SiCf/SiC ceramic matrix composites materials to be used as cladding material in 4. generation nuclear reactor. The purpose of the study is to develop a composite for which both the temperature and irradiation effect is less pronounced on thermal conductivity of material than for SiC. This material will be used as matrix in CMC with SiC fibers. Some TiC-SiC composites with different SiC volume contents were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The sintering process enables to fabricate specimens very fast, with a very fine microstructure and without any sintering aids. Neutron irradiation has been simulated using heavy ions, at room temperature and at 500 C. Evolution of the thermal properties of irradiated materials is measured using modulated photothermal IR radiometry experiment and was related to structural evolution as function of dose and temperature. It appears that such approach is reliable to evaluate TiC potentiality as matrix in CMC. Finally, CMC with TiC matrix and SiC fibers were fabricated and both mechanical and thermal properties were measured and compare to SiCf/SiC CMC. (author)

  6. Nanodiamond composite as a material for cold electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A V; Sominski, G G; Uvarov, A A; Gordeev, S K; Korchagina, S B

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of field-induced electron emission were investigated for one of newly designed all-carbon materials - nanodiamond composite (NDC). The composite is comprised by 4-6 nm diamond grains covered with 0.2-1 nm-thick graphite-like shells that merge at grain junctions and determine such properties as mechanical strength and high electric conductivity. Large number of uniformly distributed sp 3 -sp 2 interfaces allowed to expect enhanced electron emission in electric field. Combination of these features makes NDC a promising material for cold electron emitters in various applications. Experimental testing confirmed high efficiency of electron emission from NDC. In comparison with previousely tested forms of nanocarbon, NDC emitters demonstrated better stabily and tolerance to performance conditions. Unusual activation scenarios and thermal dependencies of emission characteristics observed in experiments with NDC can add new background for explanation of facilitated electron emission from nanocarbons with relatively 'smooth' surface morphology

  7. Preparation and application of conducting polymer/Ag/clay composite nanoparticles formed by in situ UV-induced dispersion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Yang, Chao; Sakai, Eiichi

    2016-02-01

    In this work, composite nanoparticles containing polypyrrole, silver and attapulgite (PPy/Ag/ATP) were prepared via UV-induced dispersion polymerization of pyrrole using ATP clay as a templet and silver nitrate as photoinitiator. The effects of ATP concentration on morphology, structure and electrical conductivity were studied. The obtained composite nanoparticles with an interesting beads-on-a-string morphology can be obtained in a short time (10 min), which indicates the preparation method is facile and feasible. To explore the potential applications of the prepared PPy/Ag/ATP composite nanoparticles, they were served as multifunctional filler and blended with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) matrix to prepare biodegradable composite material. The distribution of fillers in polymer matrix and the interfacial interaction between fillers and PBS were confirmed by scanning electron microscope, elemental mapping and dynamic mechanical analysis. The well dispersed fillers in PBS matrix impart outstanding antibacterial property to the biodegradable composite material as well as enhanced storage modulus due to Ag nanoparticles and ATP clay. The biodegradable composite material also possesses modest surface resistivity (106 ~ 109 Ω/◻).

  8. Preparation and application of conducting polymer/Ag/clay composite nanoparticles formed by in situ UV-induced dispersion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Yang, Chao; Sakai, Eiichi

    2016-02-03

    In this work, composite nanoparticles containing polypyrrole, silver and attapulgite (PPy/Ag/ATP) were prepared via UV-induced dispersion polymerization of pyrrole using ATP clay as a templet and silver nitrate as photoinitiator. The effects of ATP concentration on morphology, structure and electrical conductivity were studied. The obtained composite nanoparticles with an interesting beads-on-a-string morphology can be obtained in a short time (10 min), which indicates the preparation method is facile and feasible. To explore the potential applications of the prepared PPy/Ag/ATP composite nanoparticles, they were served as multifunctional filler and blended with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) matrix to prepare biodegradable composite material. The distribution of fillers in polymer matrix and the interfacial interaction between fillers and PBS were confirmed by scanning electron microscope, elemental mapping and dynamic mechanical analysis. The well dispersed fillers in PBS matrix impart outstanding antibacterial property to the biodegradable composite material as well as enhanced storage modulus due to Ag nanoparticles and ATP clay. The biodegradable composite material also possesses modest surface resistivity (10(6)~ 10(9) Ω/◻).

  9. Carbon Nanotube Composite Ampacity and Metallic CNT Buckypaper Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groh, Henry C., III

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently working on developing motors for hybrid electric propulsion applications in aviation. To make electric power more feasible in airplanes higher power to weight ratios are sought for electric motors. One facet to these efforts is to improve (increase) the conductivity and (lower) density of the magnet wire used in motors. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and composites containing CNT are being explored as a possible way to increase wire conductivity and lower density. Presented here are measurements of the current carrying capacity (ampacity) of a composite made from CNT and copper. The ability of CNT to improve the conductivity of such composites is hindered by the presence of semiconductive CNT (s-CNT) that exist in CNT supplies naturally, and currently, unavoidably. To solve this problem, and avoid s-CNT, various preferential growth and sorting methods are being explored. A supply of sorted 95 metallic CNT (m-CNT) was acquired in the form of thick film Buckypaper (BP) as part of this work and characterized using Raman spectroscopy, resistivity, and density measurements. The ampacity (Acm2) of the Cu-5volCNT composite was 3.8 lower than the same gauge pure Cu wire similarly tested. The lower ampacity in the composite wire is believed to be due to the presence of s-CNT in the composite and the relatively low (proper) level of longitudinal cooling employed in the test method. Although Raman spectroscopy can be used to characterize CNT, a strong relation between the ratios of the primary peaks GGand the relative amounts of m-CNT and s-CNT was not observed. The average effective conductivity of the CNT in the sorted, 95 m-CNT BP was 2.5 times higher than the CNT in the similar but un-sorted BP. This is an indication that improvements in the conductivity of CNT composites can be made by the use of sorted, highly conductive m-CNT.

  10. Enhanced bulk conductivity and bipolar transport in mixtures of MoOx and organic hole transport materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Baolin; Ban, Dayan; Aziz, Hany

    2013-01-01

    We study the conductivity of thin films of molybdenum oxide (MoO x ) mixed with an organic hole transport material, such as N,N′-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N′-bis (phenyl)benzidine or 4′,4″-tri(N-carbazolyl)triphenylamine, in lateral test devices. Contrary to previous reports, the conductivity of the mixture is found to exceed that of neat MoO x , exhibiting ∼ 5 orders of magnitude higher conductivity in comparison to the neat films. Studies also show that the mixing enhances both hole and electron transport. The higher conductivity may be attributed to a higher concentration of “free” carriers in the mixture, as a result of the formation of a charge transfer complex between the MoO x and the hole transport material. The findings shed light on the potential of hybrid composites of inorganic and organic materials in realizing enhanced conductivity. - Highlights: • We investigate the conductivity of mixtures of MoO x and hole transport material (HTM). • Materials are studied in lateral devices instead of conventional vertical devices. • Mixing MoO x with HTM brings > 5 orders of magnitude increase in bulk conductivity. • The mixture of MoO x and HTM enhances both hole and electron transport

  11. Advancement in conductive cotton fabrics through in situ polymerization of polypyrrole-nanocellulose composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeish, A; Farag, S; Sharaf, S; Shaheen, Th I

    2016-10-20

    Current research was undertaking with a view to innovate a new approach for development of conductive - coated textile materials through coating cotton fabrics with nanocellulose/polypyrrole composites. The study was designed in order to have a clear understanding of the role of nanocellulose as well as modified composite thereof under investigation. It is anticipated that incorporation of nanocellulose in the pyrrole/cotton fabrics/FeCl3/H2O system would form an integral part of the composites with mechanical, electrical or both properties. Three different nanocellulosic substrates are involved in the oxidation polymerization reaction of polypyrrole (Ppy) in presence of cotton fabrics. Polymerization was subsequently carried out by admixing at various ratios of FeCl3 and pyrrole viz. Ppy1, Ppy2 and pp3. The conductive, mechanical and thermal properties of cotton fabrics coated independently with different nanocellulose/polypyrrole were investigated. FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM and EDX were also used for further characterization. Results signify that, the conductivity of cotton fabrics increases exponentially with increasing the dose of pyrrole and oxidant irrespective of nanocellulose substrate used. While, the mechanical properties of cotton fabrics are not significantly affected by the oxidant treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel biomimetic composite material for potentiometric screening of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento, Ana S; Moreira, Felismina T C; Guerreiro, Joana L; Tavares, Ana P; Sales, M Goreti F

    2017-10-01

    This work describes a novel approach to produce an antibody-like biomimetic material. It includes preparing composite imprinted material never presented before, with highly conductive support nanostructures and assembling a high conductivity polymeric layer at low temperature. Overall, such highly conductive material may enhance the final features of electrically-based devices. Acetylcholine (ACh) was selected as target analyte, a neurotransmitter of importance in Alzheimer's disease. Potentiometric transduction was preferred, allowing quick responses and future adaptation to point-of-care requirements. The biomimetic material was obtained by bulk polymerization, where ACh was placed in a composite matrix of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and aniline (ANI). Subsequent polymerization, initiated by radical species, yielded a polymeric structure of polyaniline (PANI) acting as physical support of the composite. A non-imprinted material (NIM) having only PANI/MWCNT (without ACh) has been prepared for comparison of the biomimetic-imprinted material (BIM). RAMAN and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM), and Scanning Electron microscope (SEM) analysis characterized the structures of the materials. The ability of this biomaterial to rebind ACh was confirmed by including it as electroactive compound in a PVC/plasticizer mixture. The membranes with imprinted material and anionic additive presented the best analytical characteristics, with a sensitivity of 83.86mV decade -1 and limit of detection (LOD) of 3.45×10 -5 mol/L in HEPES buffer pH4.0. Good selectivity was observed against creatinine, creatine, glucose, cysteine and urea. The electrodes were also applied on synthetic serum samples and seemed a reliable tool for screening ACh in synthetic serum samples. The overall performance showed fast response, reusability, simplicity and low price. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metal/graphite-composite materials for fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Kny, E.; Fischer, W.; Reheis, N.; Staffler, R.; Samm, U.; Winter, J.

    1995-01-01

    The utilization of graphite as a structural material depends to an important extent on the availability of a joining technique suitable for the production of reliable large scale metal/graphite-composites. This study has been conducted to evaluate vacuum brazes and procedures for graphite and metals which can be used in fusion applications up to about 1500 degree C. The braze materials included: AgCuTi, CuTi, NiTi, Ti, ZrTi, Zr. Brazing temperatures ranged from 850 degree C to 1900 degree C. The influence of graphite quality on wettability and pore-penetration of the braze has been investigated. Screening tests of metal/graphite-assemblies with joint areas exceeding some square-centimeters have shown that they can only successfully be produced when graphite is brazed to a metal, such as tungsten or molybdenum with a coefficient of thermal expansion closely matching that of graphite. Therefore all experimental work on evaluation of joints has been concentrated on molybdenum/graphite brazings. The tensile strength of molybdenum/graphite-composites compares favorably with the tensile strength of bulk graphite from room temperature close to the melting temperature of the braze. In electron beam testing the threshold damage line for molybdenum/graphite-composites has been evaluated. Results show that even composites with the low melting AgCuTi-braze are expected to withstand 10 MW/m 2 power density for at least 10 3 cycles. Limiter testing in TEXTOR shows that molybdenum/graphite-segments with 3 mm graphite brazed on molybdenum-substrate withstand severe repeated TEXTOR plasma discharge conditions without serious damage. Results prove that actively cooled components on the basis of a molybdenum/graphite-composite can sustain a higher heat flux than bulk graphite alone. (author)

  14. X-ray backscatter sensing of defects in carbon fibre composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Daniel; Crews, Chiaki; Fox, Nicholas; Allen, Brian P.; Sammons, Mark; Speller, Robert D.

    2017-05-01

    X-ray backscatter (XBS) provides a novel approach to the field of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) in the aerospace industry. XBS is conducted by collecting the radiation which is scattered from a sample illuminated by a well-defined Xray beam, and the technique enables objects to be scanned at a sub-surface level using single-sided access, and without the requirement for coupling with the sample. Single-sided access is of particular importance when the objects of interest are very large, such as aircraft components. Carbon fibre composite materials are being increasingly used as a structural material in aircraft, and there is an increasing demand for techniques which are sensitive to the delaminations which occur in these composites as a result of both large impacts and barely visible impact damage (BVID). The XBS signal is greatly enhanced for plastics and lightweight materials, making it an ideal candidate for probing sub-surface damage and defects in carbon fibre composites. Here we present both computer modelling and experimental data which demonstrate the capability of the XBS technique for identifying hidden defects in carbon fibre.

  15. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye

    2017-01-26

    Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets. The composition has high conductivity and flexibility. The composition can be made by a one-pot synthesis in which a graphene material precursor is converted to the graphene material, and the metal precursor is converted to the metal. A reducing solvent or dispersant such as NMP can be used. Devices made from the composition include a pressure sensor which has high sensitivity. Two two- dimension materials can be combined to form a hybrid material.

  16. THERMAL INSULATION PROPERTIES RESEARCH OF THE COMPOSITE MATERIAL WATER GLASS–GRAPHITE MICROPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gostev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research results for the composite material (CM water glass–graphite microparticles with high thermal stability and thermal insulation properties are given. A composition consisting of graphite (42 % by weight, water glass Na2O(SiO2n (50% by weight and the hardener - sodium silicofluoric Na2SiF6 (8% by weight. Technology of such composition receipt is suggested. Experimental samples of the CM with filler particles (graphite and a few microns in size were obtained. This is confirmed by a study of samples by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of the CM structure is done. Load limit values leading to the destruction of CM are identified. The character of the rupture surface is detected. Numerical values of specific heat and thermal conductivity are defined. Dependence of the specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity on temperature at monotonic heating is obtained experimentally. Studies have confirmed the increased thermal insulation properties of the proposed composition. CM with such characteristics can be recommended as a coating designed to reduce heat losses and resistant to high temperatures. Due to accessibility and low cost of its components the proposed material can be produced on an industrial scale.

  17. High frequency characterization of conductive inks embedded within a structural composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pa, Peter; McCauley, Raymond; Larimore, Zachary; Mills, Matthew; Yarlaggada, Shridhar; Mirotznik, Mark S.

    2015-06-01

    Woven fabric composites provide an attractive platform for integrating electromagnetic functionality—such as conformal load-bearing antennas and frequency selective surfaces—into a structural platform. One practical fabrication method for integrating conductive elements within a woven fabric composite system involves using additive manufacturing systems such as screen printing. While screen printing is an inherently scalable, flexible and cost effective method, little is known about the high frequency electrical properties of its conductive inks when they are embedded within the woven fabric composite. Thus, we have completed numerical and experimental studies to determine the electrical conductivity of screen printable conductive inks that are embedded within this composite. We have also performed mechanical studies to evaluate how printing affects the structural performance of the composite.

  18. Preparation and Properties of Paraffin/TiO2/Active-carbon Composite Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Yong-gan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel composite phase change materials (PCMs of paraffin/TiO2/active-carbon was prepared by a microemulsion method, where paraffin acted as a PCM and titanium dioxide (TiO2 as matrix material, and a small amount of active carbon was added to improve the thermal conductivity. The compositions, morphology and thermal properties of the paraffin/TiO2/active-carbon composite PCMs were characterized by XRD, SEM, TGA and DSC respectively. The shape stability during phase change process of this composite was also tested. The results show that paraffin is well encapsulated by TiO2 matrix, and thus exhibiting excellent shape-stabilized phase change feature. Besides, this composite PCM also presents superhydrophobic property. Therefore, these multifunctional features will endow PCMs with important application potential in energy efficient buildings.

  19. Microstructure-lattice thermal conductivity correlation in nanostructured PbTe{sub 0.7}S{sub 0.3} thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiaqing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University Evanston, IL (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University Evanston, IL (United States); Girard, Steven N [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University Evanston, IL (United States); Kanatzidis, Mercouri G [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University Evanston, IL (United States); Materials Science Division Argonne, National Laboratory Argonne, IL (United States); Dravid, Vinayak P [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-03-09

    The reduction of thermal conductivity, and a comprehensive understanding of the microstructural constituents that cause this reduction, represent some of the important challenges for the further development of thermoelectric materials with improved figure of merit. Model PbTe-based thermoelectric materials that exhibit very low lattice thermal conductivity have been chosen for this microstructure-thermal conductivity correlation study. The nominal PbTe{sub 0.7}S{sub 0.3} composition spinodally decomposes into two phases: PbTe and PbS. Orderly misfit dislocations, incomplete relaxed strain, and structure-modulated contrast rather than composition-modulated contrast are observed at the boundaries between the two phases. Furthermore, the samples also contain regularly shaped nanometer-scale precipitates. The theoretical calculations of the lattice thermal conductivity of the PbTe{sub 0.7}S{sub 0.3} material, based on transmission electron microscopy observations, closely aligns with experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of a very low value, {proportional_to}0.8 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} at room temperature, approximately 35% and 30% of the value of the lattice thermal conductivity of either PbTe and PbS, respectively. It is shown that phase boundaries, interfacial dislocations, and nanometer-scale precipitates play an important role in enhancing phonon scattering and, therefore, in reducing the lattice thermal conductivity. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Microhardness of resin composite materials light-cured through fiber reinforced composite.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Ray, N.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Kreulen, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare polymerization efficiency of resin composite basing materials when light-cured through resin composite and fiber reinforced composite (FRC) by testing microhardness. METHODS: Simulated indirect restorations were prepared by application of resin composite (Clearfil AP-X) or FRC

  1. Effect of nano-fillers on the thermal conductivity of epoxy composites with micro-Al2O3 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhifang; Zhao, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-fillers were synthesized by a simple urea process. • Ternary filler system with synthesized nano-hybrid fillers was investigated. • Using of nano-hybrid filler for prevent nanofiller aggregation was presented. - Abstract: Nano-AlN particles, AlN/graphene nano-hybrids (AlN/GE) and AlN/carbon nanotubes nano-hybrids (AlN/CNTs) were prepared. The structures, morphologies of synthesized nano-materials were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that the morphologies of the synthesized nano-materials were obviously different. In addition, the thermal conductivity of epoxy composites could be effectively improved by adding the produced nano-fillers. Especially, the epoxy composite with AlN/GE nano-hybrids had the highest enhancement in thermal conductivity comparison to the pure epoxy. Moreover, the density of epoxy composites with the synthesized nano-fillers was decreased and the corresponding thermal stability was enhanced

  2. Analysis of Material Removal and Surface Characteristics in Machining Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Filled Alumina Composites by WEDM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annebushan Singh Meinam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of ceramic materials with electrically conductive particles increases the overall conductivity of the ceramic material. This allows the ceramic material to be more readily machined using wire electrical discharge machining process. The current work is an approach to identify the machinability of multi walled carbon nanotubes filled alumina composites in wire electrical discharge machining process. Alumina samples of 5 vol. % and 10 vol. % multi walled carbon nanotubes are machined and analysed for material removal rate and the surface characteristics. An increase in material removal rate is observed with increase in filler concentrations. At the same time, better surface roughness is observed. The surface characteristics of composite alumina are further compared with Monel 400 alloy. It has been observed that spalling action is the dominating material removal mechanism for alumina composites, while melting and evaporation is for the Monel 400 alloy.

  3. Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittenber, David B.

    The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination

  4. Thermophysical characterization tools and numerical models for high temperature thermo-structural composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorrette, Ch.

    2007-04-01

    This work is an original contribution to the study of the thermo-structural composite materials thermal behaviour. It aims to develop a methodology with a new experimental device for thermal characterization adapted to this type of material and to model the heat transfer by conduction within these heterogeneous media. The first part deals with prediction of the thermal effective conductivity of stratified composite materials in the three space directions. For that, a multi scale model using a rigorous morphology analysis of the structure and the elementary properties is proposed and implemented. The second part deals with the thermal characterization at high temperature. It shows how to estimate simultaneously the thermal effusiveness and the thermal conductivity. The present method is based on the observation of the heating from a plane sample submitted to a continuous excitation generated by Joule Effect. Heat transfer is modelled with the quadrupole formalism, temperature is here measured on two sides of the sample. The development of both resistive probes for excitation and linear probes for temperature measurements enables the thermal properties measured up to 1000 C. Finally, some experimental and numerical application examples lead to review the obtained results. (author)

  5. Ionic conductivity and the formation of cubic CaH2 in the LiBH4-Ca(BH4)2 composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Blanchard, Didier; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson

    2014-01-01

    LiBH4–Ca(BH4)2 composites were prepared by ball milling. Their crystal structures and phase composition were investigated using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement, and their ionic conductivity was measured using impedance spectroscopy. The materials were found to form a physical...... treatment. Concurrent formation of elemental boron may also occur. The ionic conductivity of the composites was measured using impedance spectroscopy, and was found to be lower than that of ball milled LiBH4. Electronic band structure calculations indicate that cubic CaH2 with hydrogen defects...... is electronically conducting. Its formation along with the possible precipitation of boron therefore has an effect on the measured conductivity of the LiBH4–Ca(BH4)2 composites and may increase the risk of an internal short-circuit in the cells....

  6. Effect of particle size ratio on the conducting percolation threshold of granular conductive-insulating composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Da; Ekere, N N

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we apply Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the conductive percolation threshold of granular composite of conductive and insulating powders with amorphous structure. We focus on the effect of insulating to conductive particle size ratio λ = d i /d c on the conducting percolation threshold p c (the volume fraction of the conductive powder). Simulation results show that, for λ = 1, the percolation threshold p c lies between simple cubic and body centred cubic site percolation thresholds, and that as λ increases the percolation threshold decreases. We also use the structural information obtained by the simulation to study the nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of composite with solid volume fraction of conductive powder below p c in terms of electron tunnelling for nanoscale powders, dielectric breakdown for microscale or larger powders, and pressing induced conduction for non-rigid insulating powders

  7. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  8. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination has been made of the mechanical and failure properties of several composite materials, such as a short and a long carbon fiber reinforced plastic (short- and long-CFRP and metal based composite material. The short CFRP materials were used for a recycled CFRP which fabricated by the following process: the CFRP, consisting of epoxy resin with carbon fiber, is injected to a rectangular plate cavity after mixing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin with different weight fractions of CFRP. The fatigue and ultimate tensile strength (UTS increased with increasing CFRP content. These correlations, however, break down, especially for tensile strength, as the CFPR content becomes more than 70%. Influence of sample temperature on the bending strength of the long-CFRP was investigated, and it appears that the strength slightly degreases with increasing the temperature, due to the weakness in the matrix. Broken fiber and pull-out or debonding between the fiber and matrix were related to the main failure of the short- and long-CFRP samples. Mechanical properties of metal based composite materials have been also investigated, where fiber-like high hardness CuAl2 structure is formed in aluminum matrix. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained in this alloy, e.g., the higher strength and the higher ductility, compared tothe same alloy without the fiber-like structure. There are strong anisotropic effects on the mechanical properties due to the fiber-like metal composite in a soft Al based matrix.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of conducting composites of polyaniline and carbon black with high thermal stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio R. Simões

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a detailed chemical route to prepare thermally stable polyaniline (PANI/carbon black (CB composites is described. The syntheses were performed by chemical polymerization of aniline over CB particles, using different PANI/CB mass ratios. The thermal and electrical properties were characterized. Composites with mass ratio up to 65:35 (PANI:CB showed excellent thermal stability maintaining their conducting properties when thermally treated at 230 °C for two hours, which is adequate to process these materials. Moreover, the results showed an important reduction in the surface area of the composites which have a good relationship with the improvement of the rheological properties in melt processing.

  11. Electrical conductivity studies in (Ag3AsS3)x(As2S3)1-x superionic glasses and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Neimet, Yu. Yu.; Kranjčec, M.; Solomon, A. M.; Orliukas, A. F.; Kežionis, A.; Kazakevičius, E.; Šalkus, T.

    2014-01-01

    Compositional, frequency, and temperature studies of impedance and electrical conductivity in (Ag3AsS3)x(As2S3)1-x superionic glasses and composites were performed. Frequency range from 10 Hz to 3 × 109 Hz and temperature interval 300-400 K were used for the measurements. Compositional dependences of electrical conductivity and activation energy are analyzed; the most substantial changes are observed with the transition from (Ag3AsS3)0.4(As2S3)0.6 glass to (Ag3AsS3)0.5(As2S3)0.5 composite. With increase of Ag3AsS3 content, the investigated materials are found to have crystalline inclusions and show the two-phase composite nature. Addition of Ag3AsS3 leads to the increase of electrical conductivity whereas the activation energy decreases.

  12. Polythiophene-carbon nanotubes composites as energy storage materials for supercapacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, A. K.; Choudhary, R. B.; Sartale, S. D.; Desai, Mangesh

    2016-01-01

    Polythiophene incorporated carbon materials have sought huge attention due to various improved electrochemical properties including enhanced electrical conductivity. Our work includes the synthesis of polythiophene (PTP)-multi-wallcarbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via in-situ polymerization method. The homogeneous distribution of MWCNT in PTP was confirmed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Examination of the specimen using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the composite formation. Other electrochemical characterizations like electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV)of the PTP-MWCNT composite affirmed that incorporation of MWCNT improves the electrochemical properties of neat PTP including a significant increase in the capacitance. Hence making PTP-MWCNT isa better material for supercapacitor application than neat PTP.

  13. Polythiophene-carbon nanotubes composites as energy storage materials for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, A. K., E-mail: anukulphyism@gmail.com; Choudhary, R. B. [CPESM-DR Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Indian school of mines Dhanbad-826004,India (India); Sartale, S. D.; Desai, Mangesh [Thin Films and Nanomaterials LaboratoryDepartment of Physics,Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune-411007 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Polythiophene incorporated carbon materials have sought huge attention due to various improved electrochemical properties including enhanced electrical conductivity. Our work includes the synthesis of polythiophene (PTP)-multi-wallcarbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via in-situ polymerization method. The homogeneous distribution of MWCNT in PTP was confirmed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Examination of the specimen using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the composite formation. Other electrochemical characterizations like electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV)of the PTP-MWCNT composite affirmed that incorporation of MWCNT improves the electrochemical properties of neat PTP including a significant increase in the capacitance. Hence making PTP-MWCNT isa better material for supercapacitor application than neat PTP.

  14. Micromechanics of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, George

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a broad exposition of analytical and numerical methods for modeling composite materials, laminates, polycrystals and other heterogeneous solids, with emphasis on connections between material properties and responses on several length scales, ranging from the nano and microscales to the macroscale. Many new results and methods developed by the author are incorporated into a rich fabric of the subject, which has been explored by several researchers over the last 40 years.   The first  part of the book reviews anisotropic elasticity theory, and then it describes the frequently used procedures and theorems for bounding and estimating overall properties, local fields and energy changes in elastic inhomogeneities, heterogeneous media, fiber composites and functionally graded materials.  Those are caused by mechanical loads and by phase eigenstrains, such as thermal, transformation and inelastic strains, and also by cavities and cracks.    Worked examples show that the eigendeformations may...

  15. Composite materials research and education program: The NASA-Virginia Tech composites program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakovich, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Major areas of study include: (1) edge effects in finite width laminated composites subjected to mechanical, thermal and hygroscopic loading with temperature dependent material properties and the influence of edge effects on the initiation of failure; (2) shear and compression testing of composite materials at room and elevated temperatures; (3) optical techniques for precise measurement of coefficients of thermal expansion of composites; (4) models for the nonlinear behavior of composites including material nonlinearity and damage accumulation and verification of the models under biaxial loading; (5) compressive failure of graphite/epoxy plates with circular holes and the buckling of composite cylinders under combined compression and torsion; (6) nonlinear mechanical properties of borsic/aluminum, graphite/polyimide and boron/aluminum; (7) the strength characteristics of spliced sandwich panels; and (8) curved graphite/epoxy panels subjected to internal pressure.

  16. Nanodiamond composite as a material for cold electron emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, A V; Sominski, G G; Uvarov, A A [St.Petersburg State Polytechnic University, 29 Politchnicheskaya, St.Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation); Gordeev, S K; Korchagina, S B [FSUE ' Central Research Institute for Materials' , 8 Paradnaya Street, St.Petersburg, 191014 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: arkhipov@rphf.spbstu.ru

    2008-03-15

    Characteristics of field-induced electron emission were investigated for one of newly designed all-carbon materials - nanodiamond composite (NDC). The composite is comprised by 4-6 nm diamond grains covered with 0.2-1 nm-thick graphite-like shells that merge at grain junctions and determine such properties as mechanical strength and high electric conductivity. Large number of uniformly distributed sp{sup 3}-sp{sup 2} interfaces allowed to expect enhanced electron emission in electric field. Combination of these features makes NDC a promising material for cold electron emitters in various applications. Experimental testing confirmed high efficiency of electron emission from NDC. In comparison with previousely tested forms of nanocarbon, NDC emitters demonstrated better stabily and tolerance to performance conditions. Unusual activation scenarios and thermal dependencies of emission characteristics observed in experiments with NDC can add new background for explanation of facilitated electron emission from nanocarbons with relatively 'smooth' surface morphology.

  17. Analysis of the conductivity of commercial easy sintering grade 3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P.S.; Ciacchi, Fabio T.; Giampietro, Kristine M. [CSIRO, Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology, Private Bag 33, Clayton South 3169, Victoria (Australia)

    2005-01-14

    Fine grain zirconia-yttria materials are required for enhanced performance in solid oxide fuel cells and related devices and in applications requiring good thermo-mechanical properties. Materials with about 3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} composition are good electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cell, ceramic membrane oxygen separation and a number of related devices because of their superior mechanical properties and ease of fabrication into thin self-supporting structures in comparison with a material in the 8-10 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} composition range. In this study, sintering behaviour, impedance studies, four-probe DC conductivity measurements and microstructure analysis has been performed on various easy sintering grade materials from two commercial powder suppliers. These materials achieve near theoretical density at sintering temperatures as low as 1350-1400C. For direct comparison of the conductivity and impedance behaviour in easy sintering grade materials, several other 3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} powders were also investigated. The total ionic conductivity at 850C in easy sintering grade materials is comparable with normal-grade commercial materials of similar composition despite a slightly higher grain boundary impedance at lower temperatures (below circa 450C). There were no obvious differences in the grain boundary thickness, calculated from the impedance data, of normal and easy sintering grade materials.

  18. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod

    2003-12-02

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  19. Tensile Mechanical Properties and Failure Modes of a Basalt Fiber/Epoxy Resin Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial tensile tests of basalt fiber/epoxy (BF/EP composite material with four different fiber orientations were conducted under four different fiber volume fractions, and the variations of BF/EP composite material failure modes and tensile mechanical properties were analyzed. The results show that when the fiber volume fraction is constant, the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and limiting strain of BF/EP composite material all decrease with increasing fiber orientation angle. When the fiber orientation angle is constant, the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and limiting strain of BF/EP composite material all increase with increasing fiber volume fraction. A certain degree of fiber clustering appears in the epoxy resin when the basalt fiber volume fraction is >1.2%. The fiber equidistribution coefficient and clustering fiber content were used to characterize the basalt fiber clustering effect. With the increase of fiber volume fraction, the clustering fiber content gradually increased, but the fiber equidistribution coefficient decreased. Meanwhile, based on Tsai theory, a geometric model and a tensile mechanical model of the clustering fiber are established. By considering the fiber clustering effect, the BF/EP composite material tensile strength is calculated, and the calculated values are close to the experimental results.

  20. A Li+-conductive microporous carbon–sulfur composite for Li-S batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Qiao, Dan; Pan, Jiaxin; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi; Ai, Xinping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A carbon–sulfur composite was prepared by vaporizing sulfur into the nanopores of Li + -conductive carbon microspheres. ► The redox reaction of S 8 molecules embedded in the nanopores of carbon microspheres proceeds through a solid–solid mechanism at the S/C interfaces. ► The carbon–sulfur composite exhibits a stable cycling performance and a superior high coulombic efficiency of 100%. - Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new strategy to develop high performance sulfur electrode by impregnating sulfur into the micropores of a Li + -insertable carbon matrix with the simultaneous use of a carbonate electrolyte, which does not dissolve polysulfides, to restrain the solution of the reaction intermediates of sulfur. To proof this concept, we prepared a Li + -insertable microporous carbon–sulfur composite by vaporizing sulfur into the micropores of the nanofiber-wired carbon microspheres. The experimental results demonstrate that, in the carbonate electrolyte of 1 M LiPF 6 /PC-EC-DEC, such S/C composite electrode exhibits not only stable cycling performance with a reversible capacity of 720 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles, but also superior high coulombic efficiency of ∼100% upon extended cycling (except the first three cycles). The structural and electrochemical analysis indicates that the improved electrochemical behaviors of the S/C composite arise from a new reaction mechanism, in which Li + ions and electrons transport through the carbon matrix into the interior of the cathode and then react with the embedded sulfur in the S/C solid–solid interfaces, avoiding the solution of the intermediates into the bulk electrolyte. More significantly, the structural design and working mechanism of such a sulfur cathode could be extended to a variety of poorly conductive and easily soluble redox-active materials for battery applications.

  1. Theoretical prediction of thermal conductivity for thermal protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, F.; Corasaniti, S.; Worek, W.M.; Minkowycz, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is aimed to evaluate the effective thermal conductivity of an ablative composite material in the state of virgin material and in three paths of degradation. The composite material is undergoing ablation with formation of void pores or char and void pores. The one dimensional effective thermal conductivity is evaluated theoretically by the solution of heat conduction under two assumptions, i.e. parallel isotherms and parallel heat fluxes. The paper presents the theoretical model applied to an elementary cubic cell of the composite material which is made of two crossed fibres and a matrix. A numerical simulation is carried out to compare the numerical results with the theoretical ones for different values of the filler volume fraction. - Highlights: ► Theoretical models of the thermal conductivity of an ablative composite. ► Composite material is made of two crossed fibres and a matrix. ► Three mechanisms of degradation are investigated. ► One dimensional thermal conductivity is evaluated by the heat conduction equation. ► Numerical simulations to be compared with the theoretical models.

  2. Thermal conductivity of highly porous mullite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barea, Rafael; Osendi, Maria Isabel; Ferreira, Jose M.F.; Miranzo, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity of highly porous mullite materials (35-60 vol.% porosity) has been measured up to 1000 deg C by the laser flash method. These materials were fabricated by a direct consolidation method based on the swelling properties of starch granules in concentrated aqueous suspensions and showed mainly spherical shaped pores of about 30 μm in diameter. From the point of view of heat conduction, they behave as a bi-phase material of voids dispersed in the continuous mullite matrix. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity for the different porosities was modeled by a simple equation that considers the contribution to heat conduction of the mullite matrix and the gas inside the pores, as well as the radiation. The thermal conductivity of the matrix was taken from the measurements done in a dense mullite while the conductivity in the voids was assumed to be that of the testing atmosphere

  3. Studies on possibilities of polymer composites with conductive nanomaterials application in wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralczyk, Kinga; Janczak, D.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, Ł.; Lepak, S.; Wróblewski, G.; Jakubowska, M.

    2017-08-01

    In the last few years there has been a growing interest in wearable electronic products, which are generating considerable interest especially in sport and medical industries. But rigid electronics is not comfortable to wear, so things like stretchable substrates, interconnects and electronic devices might help. Flexible electronics could adjust to the curves of a human body and allow the users to move freely. The objective of this paper is to study possibilities of polymer composites with conductive nanomaterials application in wearable electronics. Pastes with graphene, silver nanoplates and carbon nanotubes were manufactured and then interconnects were screen-printed on the surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and fabric. Afterwards, the resistance and mechanical properties of samples were examined, also after washing them in a washing machine. It has been found that the best material for the conductive phase is silver. Traces printed directly on the fabric using conductive composites with one functional phase (silver nanoplates or graphene or carbon nanotubes) are too fragile to use them as a common solution in wearable electronics. Mechanical properties can be improved not only by adding carbon nanotubes or graphene to the silver paste, but also by printing additional layer of graphene paste or carbon nanotube paste onto silver layer. In fact, these solutions are not sufficient enough to solve a problem of using these composites in wearable electronics.

  4. Tungsten-based composite materials for fusion reactor shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Composite tungsten-based materials were recently proposed for the heavy constituent of compact fusion reactor shields. These composite materials will enable the incorporation of tungsten - the most efficient nonfissionable inelastic scattering (as well as good neutron absorbing and very good photon attenuating) material - in the shield in a relatively cheap way and without introducing voids (so as to enable minimizing the shield thickness). It is proposed that these goals be achieved by bonding tungsten powder, which is significantly cheaper than high-density tungsten, with a material having the following properties: good shielding ability and relatively low cost and ease of fabrication. The purpose of this work is to study the effectiveness of the composite materials as a function of their composition, and to estimate the economic benefit that might be gained by the use of these materials. Two materials are being considered for the binder: copper, second to tungsten in its shielding ability, and iron (or stainless steel), the common fusion reactor shield heavy constituent

  5. Microbiological destruction of composite polymeric materials in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legonkova, O. A.; Selitskaya, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    Representatives of the same species of microscopic fungi developed on composite materials with similar polymeric matrices independently from the type of soils, in which the incubation was performed. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Clonostachys solani were isolated from the samples of polyurethane. Fusarium solani, Clonostachys rosea, and Trichoderma harzianum predominated on the surface of ultrathene samples. Ulocladium botrytis, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Fusarium solani predominated in the variants with polyamide. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Acremonium strictum were isolated from Lentex-based composite materials. Mucor circinelloides, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicillium auranthiogriseum were isolated from composite materials based on polyvinyl alcohol. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the structure of polymer surface (loosening and an increase in porosity) under the impact of fungi. The physicochemical properties of polymers, including their strength, also changed. The following substances were identified as primary products of the destruction of composite materials: stearic acid for polyurethane-based materials; imide of dithiocarbonic acid and 1-nonadecen in variants with ultrathene; and tetraaminopyrimidine and isocyanatodecan in variants with polyamide. N,N-dimethyldodecan amide, 2-methyloximundecanon and 2-nonacosane were identified for composites on the base of Lentex A4-1. Allyl methyl sulfide and imide of dithiocarbonic acid were found in variants with the samples of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol. The identified primary products of the destruction of composite materials belong to nontoxic compounds.

  6. Fibrous and textile materials for composite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fangueiro, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the fibers and textiles used in composite materials. It presents both existing technologies currently used in commercial applications and the latest advanced research and developments. It also discusses the different fiber forms and architectures, such as short fibers, unidirectional tows, directionally oriented structures or advanced 2D- and 3D-textile structures that are used in composite materials. In addition, it examines various synthetic, natural and metallic fibers that are used to reinforce polymeric, cementitious and metallic matrices, as well as fiber properties, special functionalities, manufacturing processes, and composite processing and properties. Two entire chapters are dedicated to advanced nanofiber and nanotube reinforced composite materials. The book goes on to highlight different surface treatments and finishes that are applied to improve fiber/matrix interfaces and other essential composite properties. Although a great deal of information about fibers and textile str...

  7. Conducting polyaniline/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composite paints on low carbon steel for corrosion protection: electrochemical investigations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deshpande, P. P.; Vathare, S. S.; Vagge, S. T.; Tomšík, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1072-1078 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : corrosion * polyaniline * conducting polymer Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  8. Preparation of Advanced CuO Nanowires/Functionalized Graphene Composite Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper oxide (CuO nanowires/functionalized graphene (f-graphene composite material was successfully composed by a one-pot synthesis method. The f-graphene synthesized through the Birch reduction chemistry method was modified with functional group “–(CH25COOH”, and the CuO nanowires (NWs were well dispersed in the f-graphene sheets. When used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, the composite exhibited good cyclic stability and decent specific capacity of 677 mA·h·g−1 after 50 cycles. CuO NWs can enhance the lithium-ion storage of the composites while the f-graphene effectively resists the volume expansion of the CuO NWs during the galvanostatic charge/discharge cyclic process, and provide a conductive paths for charge transportation. The good electrochemical performance of the synthesized CuO/f-graphene composite suggests great potential of the composite materials for lithium-ion batteries anodes.

  9. A Study of Hybrid Composite Hydroxyapatite (HA-Geopolymers as a Material for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to study the physical properties and microstructure characters of hybrid composites HA-geopolymers as a material for biomedical application. Hybrid composite HA–geopolymers were produced through alkaline activation method of metakaolin as a matrix and HA as the filler. HA was synthesized from eggshell particles by using a precipitation method. The addition of HA in metakaolin paste was varied from 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% relative the weight of metakaolin. FTIR was used to examine the absorption bands the composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to study the crystal structure of the starting and the resulting materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS was used to investigate the surface morphology of the composites. The thermal properties of the samples was examined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Capacitance measurement was conducted to investigate the bioactive properties of HA. The study results suggest that hybrid composite HA-geopolymers has a potential to be applied as a biomedical such as biosensor material.

  10. Investigations on electrostatic dissipative materials derived from Poly(vinyl alcohol/ferrofluid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winatthakan Phuchaduek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymer composites based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and ferrofluid (FF were prepared by solutioncasting method. Such composites were characterized by various methods in order to evaluate their potential for use as elec-trostatic dissipative (ESD materials. Effects of ferrofluid content on mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of thecomposites were investigated. The morphology of the composites was examined by SEM and the water contact angle on thecomposite surface was also measured. Experimental results showed that surface resistivity of the composites can be reducedby the addition of FF. The abrupt transition of such resistivity occurred in the concentration range 20-30 wt.% FF. Theconductive mechanism of the proposed composites is a complex manner, including contact conduction and tunnelingconduction.

  11. Using Virtual Testing for Characterization of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph

    Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications -- airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They have high strength-to-weight ratios, are durable and resistant to environmental effects, have high impact strength, and can be manufactured in a variety of shapes. Generalized constitutive models are being developed to accurately model composite systems so they can be used in implicit and explicit finite element analysis. These models require extensive characterization of the composite material as input. The particular constitutive model of interest for this research is a three-dimensional orthotropic elasto-plastic composite material model that requires a total of 12 experimental stress-strain curves, yield stresses, and Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio in the material directions as input. Sometimes it is not possible to carry out reliable experimental tests needed to characterize the composite material. One solution is using virtual testing to fill the gaps in available experimental data. A Virtual Testing Software System (VTSS) has been developed to address the need for a less restrictive method to characterize a three-dimensional orthotropic composite material. The system takes in the material properties of the constituents and completes all 12 of the necessary characterization tests using finite element (FE) models. Verification and validation test cases demonstrate the capabilities of the VTSS.

  12. Results of ASTM round robin testing for mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    The results are summarized of several interlaboratory 'round robin' test programs for measuring the mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of advanced fiber reinforced composite materials. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were conducted by participants in ASTM committee D30 on High Modulus Fibers and their Composites and by representatives of the European Group on Fracture (EGF) and the Japanese Industrial Standards Group (JIS). DCB tests were performed on three AS4 carbon fiber reinforced composite materials: AS4/3501-6 with a brittle epoxy matrix; AS4/BP907 with a tough epoxy matrix; and AS4/PEEK with a tough thermoplastic matrix. Difficulties encountered in manufacturing panels, as well as conducting the tests are discussed. Critical issues that developed during the course of the testing are highlighted. Results of the round robin testing used to determine the precision of the ASTM DCB test standard are summarized.

  13. Wetting, superhydrophobicity, and icephobicity in biomimetic composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Vahid

    Recent developments in nano- and bio-technology require new materials. Among these new classes of materials which have emerged in the recent years are biomimetic materials, which mimic structure and properties of materials found in living nature. There are a large number of biological objects including bacteria, animals and plants with properties of interest for engineers. Among these properties is the ability of the lotus leaf and other natural materials to repel water, which has inspired researchers to prepare similar surfaces. The Lotus effect involving roughness-induced superhydrophobicity is a way to design nonwetting, self-cleaning, omniphobic, icephobic, and antifouling surfaces. The range of actual and potential applications of superhydrophobic surfaces is diverse including optical, building and architecture, textiles, solar panels, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic devices, and applications requiring antifouling from biological and organic contaminants. In this thesis, in chapter one, we introduce the general concepts and definitions regarding the wetting properties of the surfaces. In chapter two, we develop novel models and conduct experiments on wetting of composite materials. To design sustainable superhydrophobic metal matrix composite (MMC) surfaces, we suggest using hydrophobic reinforcement in the bulk of the material, rather than only at its surface. We experimentally study the wetting properties of graphite-reinforced Al- and Cu-based composites and conclude that the Cu-based MMCs have the potential to be used in the future for the applications where the wear-resistant superhydrophobicity is required. In chapter three, we introduce hydrophobic coating at the surface of concrete materials making them waterproof to prevent material failure, because concretes and ceramics cannot stop water from seeping through them and forming cracks. We create water-repellant concretes with CA close to 160o using superhydrophobic coating. In chapter four, experimental

  14. Composite Materials Based on Hemp and Flax for Low-Energy Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyski, Przemysław; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on prospective application of flax/hemp wastes as a filling material of lime-based composites in the construction of low-energy buildings. The utilized filler comprised the hydrated lime with clay and Portland cement used as additives. The analysis involved evaluation of such properties as porosity, density, thermal conductivity, absorptivity, permeability, as well as compressive and flexural strength. Depending on the quantity of the filler, the properties of the composite changed. This, in turn, enabled to evaluate whether the utilized composite met the thermal requirements established for low-energy buildings. Afterwards, the obtained data were cross-referenced with the results gathered in the case of a room built of autoclaved aerated concrete. In order to prevent reaching the critical surface humidity, the internal surface temperature had to be calculated. Moreover, the chances of interstitial condensation occurring in the wall made of the analyzed lime–flax–hemp composite were determined as well. The study showed that the composite exhibits low strength, low density, low thermal conductivity, and high absorptivity. The external walls made of the lime–flax–hemp composite receive a limited exposure to condensation, but not significant enough to constitute any threat. The requirements established for low-energy buildings can be met by using the analyzed composite. PMID:28772871

  15. Improved conductivity of carbon-nano-fiber (CNF)/polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Sarita; Kalra, G. S.; Pushkar, Vinay K.; Gill, Fateh Singh, E-mail: drfatehs@gmail.com [Graphic Era University, Bell Road, Clement Town, Dehradun (India); Panwar, Variz [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Gupta, Himanshu; Pal, Pankaj K.; Pathak, Trilok K.; Purohit, L. P. [Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (India)

    2016-05-23

    A series of CNF/PTFE composite loaded with different weight % of CNFs as 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 into PTFE is fabricated. In this work, the 5wt% heat-treated CNFs were used as filler in PTFE. Current-voltage (I-V) study of the samples confirmed the samples as conducting composite. In scanning electron microscope (SEM) study, the conducting CNFs channels were observed from upper surface to inside throughout the polymer matrix. A sintered composite of 5 wt% loading of CNFs showed an improved conductivity and SEM image exhibited a good binding of CNFs into PTFE.

  16. Improved conductivity of carbon-nano-fiber (CNF)/polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sarita; Kalra, G. S.; Pushkar, Vinay K.; Gill, Fateh Singh; Panwar, Variz; Gupta, Himanshu; Pal, Pankaj K.; Pathak, Trilok K.; Purohit, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    A series of CNF/PTFE composite loaded with different weight % of CNFs as 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 into PTFE is fabricated. In this work, the 5wt% heat-treated CNFs were used as filler in PTFE. Current-voltage (I-V) study of the samples confirmed the samples as conducting composite. In scanning electron microscope (SEM) study, the conducting CNFs channels were observed from upper surface to inside throughout the polymer matrix. A sintered composite of 5 wt% loading of CNFs showed an improved conductivity and SEM image exhibited a good binding of CNFs into PTFE.

  17. DC conductivity and magnetic properties of piezoelectric–piezomagnetic composite system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemeda, O.M.; Tawfik, A.; A-Al-Sharif; Amer, M.A.; Kamal, B.M.; El Refaay, D.E.; Bououdina, M.

    2012-01-01

    A series of composites (1−x) (Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 )+x (BaTiO 3 ), where x=0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% BT content, have been prepared by the standard ceramic technique, then sintered at 1200 °C for 8 h. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the prepared composites consist of two phases, ferrimagnetic and ferroelectric. DC electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power, charge carriers concentration and charge carrier mobility have been studied at different temperatures. It was found that the DC electrical conductivity increases with increasing BT content. The values of the thermoelectric power were positive and negative for the composites indicating that there are two conduction mechanisms, hopping and band conduction, respectively. Using the values of DC electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power, the values of charge carrier mobility and the charge carrier concentration were calculated. Magnetic measurements (hysteresis loop and magnetic permeability) show that the magnetization decreases by increasing BT content. M–H loop of pure Ni 0.6 Zn 0.4 Fe 2 O 4 composite indicates that it is paramagnetic at room temperature and that the magnetization is diluted by increasing the BT content in the composite system. The value of magnetoelectric coefficient for the composites decreases by increasing BT content for all the compositions except for 40% BT content, which may be due to the low resistivity of magnetic phase compared with the BT phase that causes a leakage of induced charges on the piezoelectric phase. Since both ferroelectric and magnetic phases preserve their basic properties in the bulk composite, the present BT–NZF composite are potential candidates for applications as pollution sensors and electromagnetic waves. - Highlights: ► Studied composite has a high magnetoelectric coefficient compared with other composites. ► A p–n transition is observed for the composite with 80% BT and 100% BT content. ► Ni-ferrite can lead to a strong shift

  18. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  19. Calculation of electromagnetic constitutive parameters of insulating magnetic materials with conducting inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuster, E.; Moore, R.; Lust, L.; Kemper, P. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A Method of Moments (MoM) electromagnetic model of percolating conducting films was applied to calculate the effective parameters of the composite formed by conducting inclusions placed within a dispersive magnetic but nondispersive dielectric matrix. The MoM calculations demonstrate a coupling between the magnetic properties of the matrix and the effective composite permittivity and frequency dispersion of the composite. The coupling of permittivity and permeability is observed near the percolation threshold of the composite and for high conductivity inclusions. The prediction agrees with physical expectations since near percolation the conduction correlation length dominates the effective permittivity of the composite and this correlation length is determined by both the permittivity and permeability of the composite.

  20. Ferrocement: A versatile composite structural material - A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, N. A.; Sumadi, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    The use of-based composites for structural application is becoming more popular with the introduction of new high performance materials. Ferrocement as a structural material has evolved from an appropriate technology applied for rural development to high performance and high durability construction material. The efficient use of ferrocement technology as per the requirements of the structures must be studied and developed in order to assist all the concerned parties concerned with structural activities. This paper is aimed to present the research made continuously to improve the ferrocement properties and performance and its uses in the different application and to encourage practical application of ferrocement especially in developing countries like Pakistan. This paper covers the theoretical, experimental and numerical studies conducted by several researchers to investigate the mechanical and structural properties of ferrocement. Also the efforts made to develop the design code offerrocement have been reviewed. (author)

  1. Multiscale Modeling of Carbon/Phenolic Composite Thermal Protection Materials: Atomistic to Effective Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Lawson, John W.; Monk, Joshua D.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation ablative thermal protection systems are expected to consist of 3D woven composite architectures. It is well known that composites can be tailored to achieve desired mechanical and thermal properties in various directions and thus can be made fit-for-purpose if the proper combination of constituent materials and microstructures can be realized. In the present work, the first, multiscale, atomistically-informed, computational analysis of mechanical and thermal properties of a present day - Carbon/Phenolic composite Thermal Protection System (TPS) material is conducted. Model results are compared to measured in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical and thermal properties to validate the computational approach. Results indicate that given sufficient microstructural fidelity, along with lowerscale, constituent properties derived from molecular dynamics simulations, accurate composite level (effective) thermo-elastic properties can be obtained. This suggests that next generation TPS properties can be accurately estimated via atomistically informed multiscale analysis.

  2. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of binary nitrate salts/expanded graphite as composite phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Junbing [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Huang, Jin, E-mail: huangjiner@126.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Zhu, Panpan; Wang, Changhong [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Li, Xinxi [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The expanded graphite enhanced thermal conductivity coefficient greatly. • The aqueous solution method adopting ultrasonic was utilized to disperse EG. • The combination of composite was physical without chemical reaction. • The reduction on total latent heat was slight after the adding EG. - Abstract: The binary nitrate salts/expanded graphite (EG) composite phase change material (PCM) were prepared via adding different mass rate of EG to binary nitrate salts consisting of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} (6:4) by aqueous solution method adopting ultrasonic. The morphology and chemical composition of EG and the composite PCM were characterized and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. Laser thermal conductivity instrument and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were employed to measure thermo physical properties. Drawing the conclusion from investigation, that EG had enhanced thermal conductivity coefficient which largely increased to 4.884 W/(m K) and reduced total latent heat by mostly 11.0%. The morphology and phase structure results indicated that EG were well dispersed into and physically combined with molten salts. In general, the prepared composite PCM could be a suitable phase change material for thermal energy storage.

  3. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of binary nitrate salts/expanded graphite as composite phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Junbing; Huang, Jin; Zhu, Panpan; Wang, Changhong; Li, Xinxi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The expanded graphite enhanced thermal conductivity coefficient greatly. • The aqueous solution method adopting ultrasonic was utilized to disperse EG. • The combination of composite was physical without chemical reaction. • The reduction on total latent heat was slight after the adding EG. - Abstract: The binary nitrate salts/expanded graphite (EG) composite phase change material (PCM) were prepared via adding different mass rate of EG to binary nitrate salts consisting of NaNO 3 and KNO 3 (6:4) by aqueous solution method adopting ultrasonic. The morphology and chemical composition of EG and the composite PCM were characterized and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. Laser thermal conductivity instrument and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were employed to measure thermo physical properties. Drawing the conclusion from investigation, that EG had enhanced thermal conductivity coefficient which largely increased to 4.884 W/(m K) and reduced total latent heat by mostly 11.0%. The morphology and phase structure results indicated that EG were well dispersed into and physically combined with molten salts. In general, the prepared composite PCM could be a suitable phase change material for thermal energy storage

  4. Performance ratio hardness characteristics polystyrene-metal composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepikov, V.F.; Prokhorenko, E.M.; Lytvynenko, V.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A.; Hazhmuradov, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The methods of measuring the hardness of layered polystyrene-metallic composite materials. It is proposed to use powder-like tungsten and powder-like steel as radiation-protective layer. A measurement of the hardness of composites of different composition, and given its dependence on the particle size and their form. The possibility of increasing the hardness of the composites reinforced with metallic additives. Radiation-protective characteristics were calculated for the studied species of composite materials. Influence of the quantitative composition of the metal components is studied on the change of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation

  5. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor); Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  6. Mechanical properties of wood-based composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Robert J. Ross

    2010-01-01

    The term composite is used to describe any wood material bonded together with adhesives. The current product mix ranges from fiberboard to laminated beams and components. In this chapter, wood-based composite materials are classified into the following categories: panel products (plywood, oriented strandboard (OSB), particleboard, fiberboard, medium-density fiberboard...

  7. Measuring oxygen surface exchange kinetics on mixed-conducting composites by electrical conductivity relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Bobing; Wang, Yunlong; Zhu, Zhuoying; Xia, Changrong; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen release kinetics of mixed-conducting Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6 d–Sm0.2Ce0.8O2 d (SFM–SDC) dualphase composites has been investigated, at 750 C, as a function of the SDC phase volume fraction using electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) under reducing atmospheres, extending our previous work on

  8. Cell-Based Fabrication of Organic/Inorganic Composite Gel Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Nakano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials containing components similar to the native biological tissue would have benefits as an implantable scaffold material. To obtain such biomimetic materials, cells may be great contributors because of their crucial roles in synthetic organics. In addition, the synthesized organics—especially those derived from osteogenic differentiated cells—become a place where mineral crystals nucleate and grow even in vitro. Therefore to fabricate an organic/inorganic composite material, which is similar to the biological osteoid tissue, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs were cultured in a 3D fibrin gel in this study. BMSCs secreted bone-related proteins that enhanced the biomineralization within the gel when the cells were cultured with an osteogenic differentiation medium. The compositions of both synthesized matrices and precipitated minerals in the obtained materials altered depending on the cell culture period. The mineral obtained in the 3D gel showed low crystalline hydroxyapatite. The composite materials also showed excellent osteoconductivity with new bone formation when implanted in mice tibiae. Thus, we demonstrated the contributions of cells for fabricating implantable organic/inorganic composite gel materials and a method for controlling the material composition in the gel. This cell-based material fabrication method would be a novel method to fabricate organic/inorganic composite biomimetic materials for bone tissue engineering.

  9. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani Shayeh, J. [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, A., E-mail: a.ehsani@qom.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, P.O. Box 37185-359, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, M.R.; Norouzi, P. [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaleh, B. [Physics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI/rGO/AuNPs as a ternary composite synthesized by electrodeposition. • Presence of rGO/AuNPs caused increasing the stability of electrodes. • Composite represented high specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy values than PANI. - Abstract: Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge–discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm{sup −2}. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g{sup −1}, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  10. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani Shayeh, J.; Ehsani, A.; Ganjali, M.R.; Norouzi, P.; Jaleh, B.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI/rGO/AuNPs as a ternary composite synthesized by electrodeposition. • Presence of rGO/AuNPs caused increasing the stability of electrodes. • Composite represented high specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy values than PANI. - Abstract: Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge–discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm"−"2. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g"−"1, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  11. Zirconia-hydroxyapatite composite material with micro porous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya Junior; An, Sang-Hyun; Ishimoto, Takuya; Nakano, Takayoshi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Imazato, Satoshi

    2011-11-01

    Titanium plates and apatite blocks are commonly used for restoring large osseous defects in dental and orthopedic surgery. However, several cases of allergies against titanium have been recently reported. Also, sintered apatite block does not possess sufficient mechanical strength. In this study, we attempted to fabricate a composite material that has mechanical properties similar to biocortical bone and high bioaffinity by compounding hydroxyapatite (HAp) with the base material zirconia (ZrO(2)), which possesses high mechanical properties and low toxicity toward living organisms. After mixing the raw material powders at several different ZrO(2)/HAp mixing ratios, the material was compressed in a metal mold (8 mm in diameter) at 5 MPa. Subsequently, it was sintered for 5 h at 1500°C to obtain the ZrO(2)/HAp composite. The mechanical property and biocompatibility of materials were investigated. Furthermore, osteoconductivity of materials was investigated by animal studies. A composite material with a minute porous structure was successfully created using ZrO(2)/HAp powders, having different particle sizes, as the starting material. The material also showed high protein adsorption and a favorable cellular affinity. When the mixing ratio was ZrO(2)/HAp=70/30, the strength was equal to cortical bone. Furthermore, in vivo experiments confirmed its high osteoconductivity. The composite material had strength similar to biocortical bones with high cell and tissue affinities by compounding ZrO(2) and HAp. The ZrO(2)/HAp composite material having micro porous structure would be a promising bone restorative material. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Composition and conductance distributions of single GeSi quantum rings studied by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Cui, J; Jiang, Z M; Yang, X J

    2013-02-15

    Atomic force microscopy imaging combined with selective chemical etching is employed to quantitatively investigate three-dimensional (3D) composition distributions of single GeSi quantum rings (QRs). In addition, the 3D quantitative composition distributions and the corresponding conductance distributions are simultaneously obtained on the same single GeSi QRs by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching, allowing us to investigate the correlations between the conductance and composition distributions of single QRs. The results show that the QRs' central holes have higher Ge content, but exhibit lower conductance, indicating that the QRs' conductance distribution is not consistent with their composition distribution. By comparing the topography, composition and conductance profiles of the same single QRs before and after different etching processes, it is found that the conductance distributions of GeSi QRs do not vary with the change of composition distribution. Instead, the QRs' conductance distributions are found to be consistent with their topographic shapes, which can be supposed to be due to the shape determined electronic structures.

  13. Coating material composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Ozeki, Takao; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo; Maeda, Yutaka.

    1969-01-01

    A coating material composition is provided which can easily be cross-linked by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams and ultraviolet light, using a mixture of a prepolymer (a) with an addition reaction product (b). Such compositions have coating properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resins. The prepolymer (a) is produced by primarily reacting at least 0.1 mol of saturated cyclocarboxylic acid anhydrides and/or alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acid anhydrides by addition reaction with one mol of hydroxyl radicals of a basic polymer having a molecular weight of 1,000 to 100,000, the basic polymer being obtained from 1%-40% of a hydroxyl radical containing vinyl monomer and at least 30% of (meth)acrylate monomer. One mol of the sum of hydroxyl radicals and carboxyl radicals of the primary reaction product undergoes a secondary addition reaction with at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer to form the prepolymer(a). The addition reaction product(b) is produced by reacting an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The coating material composition contains a majority of a mixture consisting of 10%-90% of (a) and 90%-10% of (b) above by weight. Four examples of the production of basic polymers, seven examples of the production of prepolymers, seven examples of the production of oligomers, and five examples of applications are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  14. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented. PMID:29562635

  15. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caggiano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented.

  16. Reinforced concrete treatment as composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, S.; Onate, E.; Miguel, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the general mixing theory applied to the numerical simulation of multiphase composite material behaviour as reinforced concrete materials. This theory is based on the mixture of that composite basic substances and allows to evaluate the inter-dependence behaviour between the different compounding constitutive models. If it would be necessary to consider the initial anisotropy of each compound it could be done by mean of the mapped isotropic plastic formulation. The approach is a generalization of the classic isotropic plasticity theory to be applied to either ortho tropic or anisotropic materials such as reinforced concrete. The existence of a stress and strain real anisotropic spaces, and the respective fictitious isotropic spaces are assumed, where a mapped fictitious problem is solved. Those spaces are relating by means of two fourth order transformation tensors. Both formulation are joined establishing a powerful work tool for the treatment of bulk-fiber composite materials. The induced anisotropy behaviour is take into account by each compounding constitutive formulation. (author). 24 refs., 3 figs

  17. High through-plane thermal conduction of graphene nanoflake filled polymer composites melt-processed in an L-shape kinked tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haejong; Yu, Seunggun; Bae, Nam-Seok; Cho, Suk Man; Kim, Richard Hahnkee; Cho, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Ihn; Jeong, Beomjin; Ryu, Ji Su; Hwang, Junyeon; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min; Park, Cheolmin

    2015-07-22

    Design of materials to be heat-conductive in a preferred direction is a crucial issue for efficient heat dissipation in systems using stacked devices. Here, we demonstrate a facile route to fabricate polymer composites with directional thermal conduction. Our method is based on control of the orientation of fillers with anisotropic heat conduction. Melt-compression of solution-cast poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and graphene nanoflake (GNF) films in an L-shape kinked tube yielded a lightweight polymer composite with the surface normal of GNF preferentially aligned perpendicular to the melt-flow direction, giving rise to a directional thermal conductivity of approximately 10 W/mK at 25 vol % with an anisotropic thermal conduction ratio greater than six. The high directional thermal conduction was attributed to the two-dimensional planar shape of GNFs readily adaptable to the molten polymer flow, compared with highly entangled carbon nanotubes and three-dimensional graphite fillers. Furthermore, our composite with its density of approximately 1.5 g/cm(3) was mechanically stable, and its thermal performance was successfully preserved above 100 °C even after multiple heating and cooling cycles. The results indicate that the methodology using an L-shape kinked tube is a new way to achieve polymer composites with highly anisotropic thermal conduction.

  18. Voltage-Induced Nonlinear Conduction Properties of Epoxy Resin/Micron-Silver Particles Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhaoming; Lu, Pin; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear conduction properties of epoxy resin (ER)/micron-silver particles (MP) composites were investigated. Under sufficient high intensity applied constant voltage, the obvious nonlinear conduction properties of the samples with volume fraction 25% were found. With increments in the voltage, the conductive switching effect was observed. The nonlinear conduction mechanism of the ER/MP composites under high applied voltages could be attributed to the electrical current conducted via discrete paths of conductive particles induced by the electric field. The test results show that the ER/MP composites with nonlinear conduction properties are of great potential application in electromagnetic protection of electron devices and systems.

  19. Thermal Diffusivity and Thermal Conductivity of Dispersed Glass Sphere Composites Over a Range of Volume Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James K.

    2018-06-01

    Glass spheres are often used as filler materials for composites. Comparatively few articles in the literature have been devoted to the measurement or modelling of thermal properties of composites containing glass spheres, and there does not appear to be any reported data on the measurement of thermal diffusivities over a range of filler volume fractions. In this study, the thermal diffusivities of guar-gel/glass sphere composites were measured using a transient comparative method. The addition of the glass beads to the gel increased the thermal diffusivity of the composite, more than doubling the thermal diffusivity of the composite relative to the diffusivity of the gel at the maximum glass volume fraction of approximately 0.57. Thermal conductivities of the composites were derived from the thermal diffusivity measurements, measured densities and estimated specific heat capacities of the composites. Two approaches to modelling the effective thermal diffusivity were considered.

  20. Flexible Composite-Material Pressure Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Glen; Haggard, Roy; Harris, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed lightweight pressure vessel would be made of a composite of high-tenacity continuous fibers and a flexible matrix material. The flexibility of this pressure vessel would render it (1) compactly stowable for transport and (2) more able to withstand impacts, relative to lightweight pressure vessels made of rigid composite materials. The vessel would be designed as a structural shell wherein the fibers would be predominantly bias-oriented, the orientations being optimized to make the fibers bear the tensile loads in the structure. Such efficient use of tension-bearing fibers would minimize or eliminate the need for stitching and fill (weft) fibers for strength. The vessel could be fabricated by techniques adapted from filament winding of prior composite-material vessels, perhaps in conjunction with the use of dry film adhesives. In addition to the high-bias main-body substructure described above, the vessel would include a low-bias end substructure to complete coverage and react peak loads. Axial elements would be overlaid to contain damage and to control fiber orientation around side openings. Fiber ring structures would be used as interfaces for connection to ancillary hardware.

  1. Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, J. H.; Tate, L. C.; Gaddis, S. W.; Neal, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant advantages in space applications. Weight reduction is imperative for deep space systems. However, the pathway to deployment of composites alternatives is problematic. Improvements in the materials and processes are needed, and extensive testing is required to validate the performance, qualify the materials and processes, and certify components. Addressing these challenges could lead to the confident adoption of composites in space applications and provide spin-off technical capabilities for the aerospace and other industries. To address the issues associated with composites applications in space systems, NASA sponsored a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) entitled, "Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications," the proceedings of which are summarized in this Conference Publication. The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate and the Game Changing Program chartered the meeting. The meeting was hosted by the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM)-a public/private partnership between NASA, the State of Louisiana, Louisiana State University, industry, and academia, in association with the American Composites Manufacturers Association. The Louisiana Center for Manufacturing Sciences served as the coordinator for the TIM.

  2. Mechanical Characterization of Cotton Fiber/Polyester Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Hussain Rajper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of composite from natural fiber for lower structural application is growing for long-term sustainable perspective. Cotton fiber composite material has the added advantages of high specific strength, corrosion resistance, low cost and low weight compared to glass fiber on the expense of internal components of IC engines. The primary aim of the research study is to examine the effect of the cotton fiber on mechanical properties of lower structural applications when added with the polyester resin. In this paper composite material sample has been prepared by hand Lay-Up process. A mould is locally developed in the laboratory for test sample preparation. Initially samples of polyester resin with appropriate ratio of the hardener were developed and tested. At the second stage yarns of cotton fiber were mixed with the polyester resin and sample specimens were developed and tested. Relative effect of the cotton as reinforcing agent was examined and observed that developed composite specimen possess significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength was improved as 19.78 % and modulus of elasticity was increased up to 24.81%. Through this research it was also observed that developed composite material was of ductile nature and its density decreases up to 2.6%. Results from this study were compared with relevant available advanced composite materials and found improved mechanical properties of developed composite material

  3. Development and characterization of composite materials for production of composite risers by filament winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, L.L.; Bastian, F.L. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering], e-mail: ledjane@metalmat.ufrj.br; Calado, V.M.A. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Industry has been challenged to provide riser systems which are more cost effective and which can fill the technology gaps with respect to water depth, riser diameter and high temperatures left open by flexible, steel catenary risers (SCRs) and hybrid risers. Composite materials present advantages over conventional steel risers because composite materials are lighter, more fatigue and corrosion resistant, better thermal insulators and can be designed for improving the structural and mechanical response. Besides, composite materials present some attractive attributes for the offshore service, such as: high specific strength and stiffness. This paper focuses on the development and characterization of a polymer matrix (epoxy) and of material composite (epoxy/fiber glass), which will be used in a development for composites risers by the filament winding process (wet winding). (author)

  4. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2015-07-21

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  5. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2017-10-17

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  6. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2017-08-08

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  7. Modeling Lightning Impact Thermo-Mechanical Damage on Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Delgado, Sofía; González, Carlos; López-Romano, Bernardo; Wang, De-Yi; LLorca, Javier

    2014-02-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers, used in primary structures for aircraft due to an excellent strength-to-weight ratio when compared with conventional aluminium alloy counterparts, may nowadays be considered as mature structural materials. Their use has been extended in recent decades, with several aircraft manufacturers delivering fuselages entirely manufactured with carbon composites and using advanced processing technologies. However, one of the main drawbacks of using such composites entails their poor electrical conductivity when compared with aluminium alloy competitors that leads to lightning strikes being considered a significant threat during the service life of the aircraft. Traditionally, this problem was overcome with the use of a protective copper/bronze mesh that added additional weight and reduced the effectiveness of use of the material. Moreover, this traditional sizing method is based on vast experimental campaigns carried out by subjecting composite panels to simulated lightning strike events. While this method has proven its validity, and is necessary for certification of the structure, it may be optimized with the aid provided by physically based numerical models. This paper presents a model based on the finite element method that includes the sources of damage observed in a lightning strike, such as thermal damage caused by Joule overheating and electromagnetic/acoustic pressures induced by the arc around the attachment points. The results of the model are compared with lightning strike experiments carried out in a carbon woven composite.

  8. Discussion on the Standardization of Shielding Materials — Sensitivity Analysis of Material Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview of standardization activities for shielding materials is described. We propose a basic approach for standardizing material composition used in radiation shielding design for nuclear and accelerator facilities. We have collected concrete composition data from actual concrete samples to organize a representative composition and its variance data. Then the sensitivity analysis of the composition variance has been performed through a simple 1-D dose calculation. Recent findings from the analysis are summarized.

  9. DC conductivity and magnetic properties of piezoelectric-piezomagnetic composite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemeda, O.M., E-mail: omhemeda@yahoo.co.uk [Tanta University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department (Egypt); Taif University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department (Saudi Arabia); Tawfik, A. [Taif University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department (Saudi Arabia); A-Al-Sharif [Moata University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department (Jordan); Amer, M.A. [Taif University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department (Saudi Arabia); Kamal, B.M.; El Refaay, D.E. [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department (Egypt); Bououdina, M. [Nanotechnology Centre, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 (Bahrain); Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2012-11-15

    A series of composites (1-x) (Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})+x (BaTiO{sub 3}), where x=0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% BT content, have been prepared by the standard ceramic technique, then sintered at 1200 Degree-Sign C for 8 h. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the prepared composites consist of two phases, ferrimagnetic and ferroelectric. DC electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power, charge carriers concentration and charge carrier mobility have been studied at different temperatures. It was found that the DC electrical conductivity increases with increasing BT content. The values of the thermoelectric power were positive and negative for the composites indicating that there are two conduction mechanisms, hopping and band conduction, respectively. Using the values of DC electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power, the values of charge carrier mobility and the charge carrier concentration were calculated. Magnetic measurements (hysteresis loop and magnetic permeability) show that the magnetization decreases by increasing BT content. M-H loop of pure Ni{sub 0.6} Zn{sub 0.4} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite indicates that it is paramagnetic at room temperature and that the magnetization is diluted by increasing the BT content in the composite system. The value of magnetoelectric coefficient for the composites decreases by increasing BT content for all the compositions except for 40% BT content, which may be due to the low resistivity of magnetic phase compared with the BT phase that causes a leakage of induced charges on the piezoelectric phase. Since both ferroelectric and magnetic phases preserve their basic properties in the bulk composite, the present BT-NZF composite are potential candidates for applications as pollution sensors and electromagnetic waves. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studied composite has a high magnetoelectric coefficient compared with other composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A p-n transition is observed

  10. Multiscale modeling of the anisotropic electrical conductivity of architectured and nanostructured Cu-Nb composite wires and experimental comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, T.; Medy, J.-R.; Volpi, F.; Castelnau, O.; Forest, S.; Hervé-Luanco, E.; Lecouturier, F.; Proudhon, H.; Renault, P.-O.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured and architectured copper niobium composite wires are excellent candidates for the generation of intense pulsed magnetic fields (> 90T) as they combine both high electrical conductivity and high strength. Multi-scaled Cu-Nb wires can be fabricated by accumulative drawing and bundling (a severe plastic deformation technique), leading to a multiscale, architectured and nanostructured microstructure providing a unique set of properties. This work presents a comprehensive multiscale study to predict the anisotropic effective electrical conductivity based on material nanostructure and architecture. Two homogenization methods are applied: a mean-field theory and a full-field approach. The size effect associated with the microstructure refinement is taken into account in the definition of the conductivity of each component in the composites. The multiscale character of the material is then accounted for through an iterative process. Both methods show excellent agreement with each other. The results are further compared, for the first time, with experimental data obtained by the four-point probe technique, and also show excellent agreement. Finally, the qualitative and quantitative understanding provided by these models demonstrates that the microstructure of Cu-Nb wires has a significant effect on the electrical conductivity.

  11. Fiscal 1989 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments (Research and development of advanced composite materials using oil as raw material); 1989 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekiyu genryokei senshin fukugo zairyo no kenkhyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The research and development of advanced composite materials succeeds the composite material development project initiated in fiscal 1981, and activities were conducted in the two domains of advanced composite material development and comprehensive survey implementation. In the comprehensive survey, trends of associated technologies were investigated, and technical tasks were studied relative to the development of advanced materials. In the effort to develop advanced composite materials, activities were conducted in the three fields of (1) oil pitch derived random structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials, (2) oil pitch derived onion structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials, and (3) oil pitch derived double structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials. In Field (1), relations between conditions of forming carbon fibers out of pitch and carbon fiber random structure were elucidated, and development was started of technologies for providing fibers with oxidation resisting surface coatings. In Field (2), relations between conditions of forming carbon fibers out of pitch and carbon fiber onion structure were elucidated, and development was started of technologies for providing fibers with oxidation resisting surface coatings. In Field (3), efforts were started to elucidate oxidation resistance governing factors. (NEDO)

  12. Synthesis of hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO_4/carbon nanotubes composite with less antisite defects for high power lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jianjun; Shao, Guangjie; Ma, Zhipeng; Wang, Guiling; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO4/CNTs composite with less antisite defects is synthesized by a modified solvothemal process and delivers superior electrochemical performance with high rate capability and good capacity retention. - Abstract: The low electronic conductivity and Li ion diffusion ability are two major obstacles to realize its wide application for LiFePO_4 materials. The material with hierarchical conductive structure and lower antisite defects concentration can effectively enhance the electronic conductivity and Li ion diffusion ability. We firstly report here a modified solvothemal process for the fabrication of hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO_4/CNTs composite with less antisite defects. It is found that the modified solvothemal process is facilitated to decrease Fe_L_i antisite defects and enhance the electronic continuity between LFP and CNTs. In favor of its unique properties, the C/LFP/CNTs composites can deliver superior rate capability and cycling stability. Remarkably, even at a high rate of 20C (3400 mA g"−"1), a high initial discharge capacity of 91.6 mAh g"−"1 and good cycle retention of 95% with almost 100% coulombic efficiency are still obtained after 100 cycles.

  13. Conduction and Narrow Escape in Dense, Disordered, Particulate-based Heterogeneous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechman, Jeremy

    For optimal and reliable performance, many technological devices rely on complex, disordered heterogeneous or composite materials and their associated manufacturing processes. Examples include many powder and particulate-based materials found in phyrotechnic devices for car airbags, electrodes in energy storage devices, and various advanced composite materials. Due to their technological importance and complex structure, these materials have been the subject of much research in a number of fields. Moreover, the advent of new manufacturing techniques based on powder bed and particulate process routes, the potential of functional nano-structured materials, and the additional recognition of persistent shortcomings in predicting reliable performance of high consequence applications; leading to ballooning costs of fielding and maintaining advanced technologies, should motivate renewed efforts in understanding, predicting and controlling these materials' fabrication and behavior. Our particular effort seeks to understand the link between the top-down control presented in specific non-equilibrium processes routes (i.e., manufacturing processes) and the variability and uncertainty of the end product performance. Our ultimate aim is to quantify the variability inherent in these constrained dynamical or random processes and to use it to optimize and predict resulting material properties/performance and to inform component design with precise margins. In fact, this raises a set of deep and broad-ranging issues that have been recognized and as touching the core of a major research challenge at Sandia National Laboratories. In this talk, we will give an overview of recent efforts to address aspects of this vision. In particular the case of conductive properties of packed particulate materials will be highlighted. Combining a number of existing approaches we will discuss new insights and potential directions for further development toward the stated goal. Sandia National

  14. Development and characterization of woven kevlar reinforced epoxy matrix composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, A.; Alam, S.; Irfan, S.; Iftikhar, F.; Raza, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials are actually well established materials that have demonstrated their promising advantages among the light weight structural materials used for aerospace and advanced applications. A great effort is now being made to develop and characterize the Kevlar Epoxy Composite Materials by changing the % age composition of curing agent in epoxy matrix. In order to study the phenomenon; how the change in composition of curing agent effect the composite material and which optimum composition can give the optimum properties of the material, when Kevlar reinforced to Epoxy Matrix by Hand Lay-up process. It was ensured that factors which can .affect the experiment remained the same for each experiment. The composite produced were subjected to mechanical tests to analyze the performance, to optimize the material. (author)

  15. Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowden, R.A.; Ferber, M.K.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technology's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for advanced, high-temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are leading candidates. The symposium was organized such that papers concerning constituents--fibers and matrices--were presented first, followed by composite processing, modeling of mechanical behavior, and thermomechanical testing. More stable reinforcements are necessary to enhance the performance and life of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, and to ensure final acceptance of these materials for high-temperature applications. Encouraging results in the areas of polymer-derived SiC fibers and single crystal oxide filaments were given, suggesting composites with improved thermomechanical properties and stability will be realized in the near future. The significance of the fiber-matrix interface in the design and performance of these materials is evident. Numerous mechanical models to relate interface properties to composite behavior, and interpret test methods and data, were enthusiastically discussed. One issue of great concern for any advanced material for use in extreme environments is stability. This theme arose frequently throughout the symposium and was the topic of focus on the final day. Fifty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  16. High Thermal Conductivity of Copper Matrix Composite Coatings with Highly-Aligned Graphite Nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Vincenzo; Ucciardello, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Nanocomposite coatings with highly-aligned graphite nanoplatelets in a copper matrix were successfully fabricated by electrodeposition. For the first time, the disposition and thermal conductivity of the nanofiller has been evaluated. The degree of alignment and inclination of the filling materials has been quantitatively evaluated by polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy. The room temperature values of the thermal conductivity were extracted for the graphite nanoplatelets by the dependence of the Raman G-peak frequency on the laser power excitation. Temperature dependency of the G-peak shift has been also measured. Most remarkable is the global thermal conductivity of 640 ± 20 W·m−1·K−1 (+57% of copper) obtained for the composite coating by the flash method. Our experimental results are accounted for by an effective medium approximation (EMA) model that considers the influence of filler geometry, orientation, and thermal conductivity inside a copper matrix. PMID:29068424

  17. Facile synthesis and stable cycling ability of hollow submicron silicon oxide–carbon composite anode material for Li-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joong-Yeon; Nguyen, Dan Thien [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joon-Sup [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung-Wan, E-mail: swsong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Hollow submicron SiO{sub 2}–carbon composite material was synthesized using Si{sup 4+}-citrate chelation. • Composite material possessed a homogeneous distribution of SiO{sub 2} and carbon. • Composite electrode delivered ⩾600 mAh/g with a stable cycling stability. • This materials design and synthesis provides a useful platform for scalable production. - Abstract: Advanced SiO{sub 2}–carbon composite anode active material for lithium-ion battery has been synthesized through a simple chelation of silicon cation with citrate in a glyme-based solvent. The resultant composite material demonstrates a homogeneous distribution of constituents over the submicron particles and a unique hollow spherical microstructure, which provides an enhanced electrical conductivity and better accommodation of volume change of silicon during electrochemical charge–discharge cycling, respectively. As a result, the composite electrode exhibits a high cycling stability delivering the capacity retention of 91% at the 100th cycle and discharge capacities of 662–602 mAh/g and coulombic efficiencies of 99.8%. This material synthesis is scalable and cost-effective in preparing various submicron or micron composite electrode materials.

  18. Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Ravi B.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Holzwarth, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of current applications of composite materials and structures in military, transport and General Aviation aircraft is presented to assess the maturity of composites technology, and the payoffs realized. The results of the survey show that performance requirements and the potential to reduce life cycle costs for military aircraft and direct operating costs for transport aircraft are the main reasons for the selection of composite materials for current aircraft applications. Initial acquisition costs of composite airframe components are affected by high material costs and complex certification tests which appear to discourage the widespread use of composite materials for aircraft applications. Material suppliers have performed very well to date in developing resin matrix and fiber systems for improved mechanical, durability and damage tolerance performance. The next challenge for material suppliers is to reduce material costs and to develop materials that are suitable for simplified and inexpensive manufacturing processes. The focus of airframe manufacturers should be on the development of structural designs that reduce assembly costs by the use of large-scale integration of airframe components with unitized structures and manufacturing processes that minimize excessive manual labor.

  19. Multifunctional Composite Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polymeric composite materials that are currently utilized in aircraft structures are susceptible to significant damage from lightning strikes. Enhanced electrical...

  20. Anisotropy in thermal conductivity of graphite flakes–SiC_p/matrix composites: Implications in heat sinking design for thermal management applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.M.; Louis, E.

    2015-01-01

    Within the frame of heat dissipation for electronics, a very interesting family of anisotropic composite materials, fabricated by liquid infiltration of a matrix into preforms of oriented graphite flakes and SiC particles, has been recently proposed. Aiming to investigate the implications of the inherent anisotropy of these composites on their thermal conductivity, and hence on their potential applications, materials with matrices of Al–12 wt.% Si alloy and epoxy polymer have been fabricated. Samples have been cut at a variable angle with respect to the flakes plane and thermal conductivity has been measured by means of two standard techniques, namely, steady state technique and laser flash method. Experimental results are presented and discussed in terms of current models, from which important technological implications for heat sinking design can be derived. - Highlights: • Anisotropy in thermal conductivity of graphite flakes-based composites is evaluated. • Samples are cut in a direction forming a variable angle with the oriented flakes. • For angles 0° and 90°, thermal conductivity does not depend on sample geometry. • For intermediate angles, thermal conductivity strongly depends on sample geometry. • “Thin” samples must be thicker than 600 μm, “thick” samples must be encapsulated.

  1. Mixed conducting materials for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frade, J. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with additional conditions for the conservation of carbon and hydrogen were used to predict the gas composition obtained by partial oxidation of methane as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature; this was used to assess the stability and oxygen permeability requirements of mixed conducting membrane materials proposed for this purpose. A re-examination of known mixed conductors shows that most materials with highest permeability still fail to fulfil the requirements of stability under reducing conditions. Other materials possess sufficient stability but their oxygen permeability is insufficient. Different approaches were thus used to attempt to overcome those limitations, including changes in composition in the A and B site positions of ABO3 perovskites, and tests of materials with different structure types. Promising results were obtained mainly for some materials with perovskite or related K2NiF4-type structures. Limited stability of the most promising materials shows that one should rely mainly on kinetic limitations in the permeate side to protect the mixed conductor from severe reducing conditions.

    Se han usado cálculos termodinámicos con condiciones adicionales para la conservación del carbono e hidrógeno para predecir la composición del gas obtenido mediante la oxidación parcial del metano en función de la presión parcial de oxígeno y de la temperatura; esto se ha usado para asegurar los requerimientos de estabilidad y permeabilidad al oxígeno de los materiales conductores mixtos empleados como membrana para este propósito. Un nuevo exámen de los conductores mixtos conocidos muestra que la mayoría de los materiales con la mayor permeabilidad todavía fallan en el cumplimiento de los requerimientos de estabilidad bajo condiciones reductoras. Otros materiales poseen suficiente estabilidad, pero su permeabilidad al oxígeno es insuficiente. Por ello se han empleado diferentes

  2. Nano-modified cement composites and its applicability as concrete repair material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzur, Tanvir

    optimum mix proportion to produce CNT reinforced cement composites. In this study, an extensive parametric study has been conducted using different types of treated and untreated multi walled nanotubes (MWNT) as reinforcement of cementitious composites having different mix proportions. It is found that mixing of nanotubes within cement matrix is the key to develop composites having desirable properties. A mixing technique has been proposed to address the issues related to dispersion of nanotubes within cement matrix. Polycarboxylate based super plasticizer has been proposed to use as surfactant. It is evident that there exists an optimum concentration of MWNT and mix proportion to achieve proper reinforcement behavior and strength properties. The affect of size of MWNT on strengths (both compressive and flexure) of composites has also been investigated. Based on the parametric study and statistical analysis, a tentative optimum mix proportion has been proposed. Composites made by the proposed mixing technique and design mix obtained 26, 27 and 16% higher compressive strength as compared to control samples at the age of 3, 7 and 28 day, respectively. Flexural strengths of those composites at 3, 7 and 28 day were about 24, 24.5 and 20% higher than that of control samples, respectively. It has also been suggested that application of MWNT reinforced cement mortar as concrete repair material has excellent potential since composites exhibited desirable behavior in setting time, bleeding and slant shear.

  3. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  4. Micromechanics of Composite Materials Governed by Vector Constitutive Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Arnold, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    The high-fidelity generalized method of cells micromechanics theory has been extended for the prediction of the effective property tensor and the corresponding local field distributions for composites whose constituents are governed by vector constitutive laws. As shown, the shear analogy, which can predict effective transverse properties, is not valid in the general three-dimensional case. Consequently, a general derivation is presented that is applicable to both continuously and discontinuously reinforced composites with arbitrary vector constitutive laws and periodic microstructures. Results are given for thermal and electric problems, effective properties and local field distributions, ordered and random microstructures, as well as complex geometries including woven composites. Comparisons of the theory's predictions are made to test data, numerical analysis, and classical expressions from the literature. Further, classical methods cannot provide the local field distributions in the composite, and it is demonstrated that, as the percolation threshold is approached, their predictions are increasingly unreliable. XXXX It has been observed that the bonding between the fibers and matrix in composite materials can be imperfect. In the context of thermal conductivity, such imperfect interfaces have been investigated in micromechanical models by Dunn and Taya (1993), Duan and Karihaloo (2007), Nan et al. (1997) and Hashin (2001). The present HFGMC micromechanical method, derived for perfectly bonded composite materials governed by vector constitutive laws, can be easily generalized to include the effects of weak bonding between the constituents. Such generalizations, in the context of the mechanical micromechanics problem, involve introduction of a traction-separation law at the fiber/matrix interface and have been presented by Aboudi (1987), Bednarcyk and Arnold (2002), Bednarcyk et al. (2004) and Aboudi et al. (2013) and will be addressed in the future.

  5. Graphite nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes based polyethylene composites: Electrical conductivity and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haznedar, Galip; Cravanzola, Sara; Zanetti, Marco; Scarano, Domenica; Zecchina, Adriano; Cesano, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) and/or multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/low density polyethylene (LDPE) composites have been obtained either via melt-mixing or solvent assisted methods. Electrical properties of samples obtained through the above mentioned methods are compared and the conductance values as function of filler fraction are discussed. The corresponding percolation thresholds are evaluated. Conductivity maps images are acquired under low-potentials scanning electron microscopy (0.3 KV) and the relationship between the obtained conductivity images and electric properties is highlighted. The synergistic role of CNTs (1D) and GNPs (2D) in improving the conductive properties of the polymer composites has been shown. - Highlights: • Graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) and GNPs/MWCNT LDPE composites. • Low potential SEM conductivity maps. • Conducting paths between 1D and 2D C-structures (synergistic effect) are obtained. • Composites based on hybrid 1D/2D combinations show lower percolation thresholds

  6. Creep of fibrous composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans

    1985-01-01

    Models are presented for the creep behaviour of fibrous composite materials with aligned fibres. The models comprise both cases where the fibres remain rigid in a creeping matrix and cases where the fibres are creeping in a creeping matrix. The treatment allows for several contributions...... to the creep strength of composites. The advantage of combined analyses of several data sets is emphasized and illustrated for some experimental data. The analyses show that it is possible to derive creep equations for the (in situ) properties of the fibres. The experiments treated include model systems...... such as Ni + W-fibres, high temperature materials such as Ni + Ni3Al + Cr3C2-fibres, and medium temperature materials such as Al + SiC-fibres. For the first two systems reasonable consistency is found for the models and the experiments, while for the third system too many unquantified parameters exist...

  7. Hybrid Composite Material and Solid Particle Erosion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaganesh, D.; Khan, M. Adam; Ashif, A. Mohamed; Ragul Selvan, T.; Nachiappan, S.; Winowlin Jappes, J. T.

    2018-04-01

    Composite is one of the predominant material for most challenging engineering components. Most of the components are in the place of automobile structure, aircraft structures, and wind turbine blade and so on. At the same all the components are indulged to mechanical loading. Recent research on composite material are machinability, wear, tear and corrosion studies. One of the major issue on recent research was solid particle air jet erosion. In this paper hybrid composite material with and without filler. The fibre are in the combination of hemp – kevlar (60:40 wt.%) as reinforcement using epoxy as a matrix. The natural material palm and coconut shell are used as filler materials in the form of crushed powder. The process parameter involved are air jet velocity, volume of erodent and angle of impingement. Experiment performed are in eight different combinations followed from 2k (k = 3) factorial design. From the investigation surface morphology was studied using electron microscope. Mass change with respect to time are used to calculate wear rate and the influence of the process parameters. While solid particle erosion the hard particle impregnates in soft matrix material. Influence of filler material has reduced the wear and compared to plain natural composite material.

  8. Demineralized dentin matrix composite collagen material for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Yang, Juan; Zhong, Xiaozhong; He, Fengrong; Wu, Xiongwen; Shen, Guanxin

    2013-01-01

    Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) had been successfully used in clinics as bone repair biomaterial for many years. However, particle morphology of DDM limited it further applications. In this study, DDM and collagen were prepared to DDM composite collagen material. The surface morphology of the material was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). MC3T3-E1 cells responses in vitro and tissue responses in vivo by implantation of DDM composite collagen material in bone defect of rabbits were also investigated. SEM analysis showed that DDM composite collagen material evenly distributed and formed a porous scaffold. Cell culture and animal models results indicated that DDM composite collagen material was biocompatible and could support cell proliferation and differentiation. Histological evaluation showed that DDM composite collagen material exhibited good biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoconductivity with host bone in vivo. The results suggested that DDM composite collagen material might have a significant clinical advantage and potential to be applied in bone and orthopedic surgery.

  9. Standard Guide for Testing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the application of ASTM standard test methods (and other supporting standards) to continuous-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials. The most commonly used or most applicable ASTM standards are included, emphasizing use of standards of Committee D30 on Composite Materials. 1.2 This guide does not cover all possible standards that could apply to polymer matrix composites and restricts discussion to the documented scope. Commonly used but non-standard industry extensions of test method scopes, such as application of static test methods to fatigue testing, are not discussed. A more complete summary of general composite testing standards, including non-ASTM test methods, is included in the Composite Materials Handbook (MIL-HDBK-17). Additional specific recommendations for testing textile (fabric, braided) composites are contained in Guide D6856. 1.3 This guide does not specify a system of measurement; the systems specified within each of the referenced standards shall appl...

  10. Thermal Conductivity of Structural Glass/Fibre Epoxy Composite as a Function of Fibre Orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Cugnet, D; Kuijper, A; Parma, Vittorio; Vandoni, Giovanna

    2002-01-01

    The LHC, the new superconducting particle accelerator presently under construction at CERN, makes use of some 1200 dipole magnets for orbit bending and 500 quadrupole magnets for focusing/defocusing of the circulating high-energy proton beams. Two or three column-type support posts sustain each cryomagnet. The choice of a convenient material for these supports is critical, because of the required high positioning accuracy of the magnets in their cryostats and stringent thermal budget requirements imposed by the LHC cryogenic system. A glass-fibre/epoxy resin composite has been chosen for its good combination of high stiffness and low thermal conductivity over the 2-293 K temperature range. Plies of long glass-fibres are stacked optimally yielding the best mechanical behaviour. However, heat leaks from the supports are influenced by the thermal characteristics of the composite, which in turn depend on the orientation of the fibres. To study the dependence of the thermal conductivity on fibre's orientation, we ...

  11. Development of composite ceramic materials with improved thermal conductivity and plasticity based on garnet-type oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovkina, L. S.; Orlova, A. I.; Boldin, M. S.; Sakharov, N. V.; Chuvil'deev, V. N.; Nokhrin, A. V.; Konings, R.; Staicu, D.

    2017-06-01

    Powders based on the complex garnet-type oxide Y2.5Nd0.5Al5O12 - x wt. % Ni (x = 0, 10, 20) were prepared using wet chemistry methods. Ceramics based on these compounds were obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) with a relative densities: 99%. 4% (TD = 4.77 g/cm3 (0%)), 97.6% (TD = 4.88 g/cm3 (10%)), 94.4% (TD = 5.06 g/cm3 (20%)). The influence of nickel concentration on the mechanical (fracture toughness, microhardness) and thermophysical (thermal conductivity) properties of the composites was studied.

  12. Conductivity of SDC and (Li/Na){sub 2}CO{sub 3} composite electrolytes in reducing and oxidising atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Andreas; Lagergren, Carina; Lindbergh, Goeran [KTH Chemical Science and Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Di, Jing; Wang, Cheng Yang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2007-10-25

    Composite electrolytes made of samarium-doped cerium oxide and a mixture of lithium carbonate and sodium carbonate salts are investigated with respect to their structure, morphology and ionic conductivity. The composite electrolytes are considered promising for use in so called intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC), operating at 400-600 C. The electrolytes are tested in both gaseous anode (reducing) and cathode (oxidising) environments and at different humidities and carbon dioxide partial pressures. For the structure and morphology measurements, it was concluded that no changes occur to the materials after usage. From measurements of melting energies, it was concluded that the melting point of the carbonate salt phase decreases with decreasing fraction of carbonate salt and that a partial melting occurs before the bulk melting point of the salt is reached. For all the composites, two regions may be observed for the conductivity, one below the carbonate salt melting point and one above the melting point. The conductivity is higher when electrolytes are tested in anode gas than when tested in cathode gas, at least for electrolytes with less than half the volume fraction consisting of carbonate salt. The higher the content of carbonate salt phase, the higher the conductivity of the composite for the temperature region above the carbonate melting point. Below the melting point, though, the conductivity does not follow this trend. Calculations on activation energies for the conductivity show no trend or value that indicates a certain transport mechanism for ion transport, either when changing between the different composites or between different gas environments. (author)

  13. Enhancement of thermal conductive pathway of boron nitride coated polymethylsilsesquioxane composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyungbok; Ryu, Seung Han; Lee, Jun-Tae; Seong, Ki-Hun; Lee, Jae Eun; Yoon, Phil-Joong; Kim, Bum-Sung; Hussain, Manwar; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2013-11-01

    We report here in the fabrication of enhanced thermal conductive pathway nanocomposites of boron nitride (BN)-coated polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) composite beads using isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as a mixing medium. Exfoliated and size-reduced boron nitride particles were successfully coated on the PMSQ beads and explained by surface charge differences. A homogeneous dispersion and coating of BN on the PMSQ beads using IPA medium was confirmed by SEM. Each condition of the composite powder was carried into the stainless still mould and then hot pressed in an electrically heated hot press machine. Three-dimensional percolation networks and conductive pathways created by exfoliated BN were precisely formed in the nanocomposites. The thermal conductivity of nanocomposites was measured by multiplying specific gravity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity, based upon the laser flash method. Densification of the composite resulted in better thermal properties. For an epoxy reinforced composite with 30 vol% BN and PMSQ, a thermal conductivity of nine times higher than that of pristine PMSQ was observed.

  14. Perspectives of application of synthetic diamonds in polyurethane compositions for development of new high thermal conductivity system of isolation of powerful turbogenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kensits'kij, O.G.; Vigovs'kij, O.V.; Khvalyin, D.Yi.

    2017-01-01

    Reviewed and analyzed components of modern high-voltage insulation of electrical machines. The expediency of increasing of heat-conducting properties of the system of isolation of stator winding of powerful turbogenerators is justified. The main ways of improving heat transfer in the insulation system the stator windings of the turbogenerators are presented and analyzed. Perspectives of application of composite material based on polyurethane with additives of synthetic diamonds for development of new high thermal conductivity system of isolation of powerful electrical machines are analyzed. The technology by which was created the prototype of the insulating material with the application of diamond powder in a polyurethane composition is described. Executed laboratory experimental researches of the electrophysical parameters of the sample developed insulating material. That showed the perspective of this direction of perfection of isolation.

  15. Method of tissue repair using a composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O' Neill, Hugh M.

    2016-03-01

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  16. Method of tissue repair using a composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh M

    2014-03-18

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  17. Preliminary calculations of stress change of fuel pin using SiC/SiC composites for GFR with changing of thermal conductivity degradation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Naganuma, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is being researched as a candidate concept of Generation IV international Forum. As a main feature of GFR, it should be maintained high temperature and pressure of coolant gas for heat transfer efficiency. Such a demanding environment requires high-temperature-resistant structural materials distinguished from traditional steel material. Consequently, ceramics are promising candidate material of core components. Especially, Silicon Carbide fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide composites (SiC/SiC) have encouraging characteristics such as refractoriness, low activation and toughness. Application of new material to core components must be explained by the viewpoint of engineering validity. Therefore, present study surveyed that current report for mechanical strength and thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites. According to the reports, neutron irradiation environment degraded mechanical properties of SiC/SiC composites. To confirm applicability to core components, model of fuel pin using SiC/SiC composites was assumed with feasible mechanical properties. Furthermore, it was calculated and estimated that the stress caused by temperature variation of inner and outer side of assumed model of cladding tube. Stress was calculated by changing of input date such as thickness of cladding tube, temperature variation, thermal conductivity and linear power. In the range of this study, the most important factor was identified as degradation of thermal conductivity by irradiation. It caused a significant stress and limited a geometrical design of fuel pin. It was discussed that the differences of heat transfer between isotropic and anisotropic materials like a metal and composites. These results should be helpful not only to determine a design factor of core component but also to indicate an improvement direction of SiC/SiC composites. Through these work, reliability and safety of GFR will be increased

  18. Biomedical composites materials, manufacturing and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials are engineered materials, made from two or more constituents with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. Due to their special mechanical and physical properties they have the potential to replace conventional materials in various fields such as the biomedical industry.

  19. The conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte upon addition of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Farzana Abd.; Salleh, Fauzani Md.; Mohamed, Nor Sabirin

    2017-12-01

    The effect of graphene composition on the conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte was studied. These polymer composite solid electrolytes were synthesized by sol gel method and prepared via the solution-casting technique. The compositions of graphene were varied between 10 wt% to 70 wt%. The changes in the functional group of polymer composite after the addition of graphene were characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted at ambient temperature in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz to study the conductivity of the polymer composite. The highest conductivity was obtained at 60 wt% graphene with the value of 2.85×10-4 Scm-1. Sample without the addition of graphene showed the lowest conductivity value of 1.77×10-7 Scm-1 and acts as an insulator. The high conductivity at 60 wt% graphene loading is related to dehydration of cellulose. This is supported by the FTIR spectrum where the absorption peaks of C-O stretching vibrations of polymer composite is weakened and the hydroxyl group is slightly shifted compared to the FTIR spectrum without the addition of graphene. Linear sweep voltammetry results demonstrated that the polymer composite solid electrolyte exhibited electrochemical stability up to 3.2 V.

  20. FY 1991 report on the results of the surveys on the technologies for forming composite materials. Research and development of the new technologies for forming composite materials (Comprehensive surveys and researches); 1991 nendo fukugo zairyo seikei gijutsu chosa hokokusho. Fukugo zairyo shinseikei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (sogo chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of new technologies for forming composite materials by studying the methods for controlling structures of ceramic- and metal-based composite materials, and also at development of the technologies for forming near-net shapes utilizing the phenomenon of superplasticity. The literature survey is conducted to help promote the developments, and the abstracts of the major papers are pigeonholed into 4 general categories; (1) production and properties of ceramic-based composite materials, (2) superplasticity of ceramic-based composite materials, (3) production and properties of metal-based composite materials, and (4) superplasticity of metal-based composite materials. This paper summarizes the abstract of these papers. The category (1) includes carbon fiber reinforced Sialon composites produced by polymer pyrolysis, the category (2) includes superplasticity of functional ceramics, and comparison of tensile and compressive creep behavior of a superplastic yttria-stabilized zirconia-20 wt.% alumina composite, the category (3) includes in-situ metal matrix composite, and the category (4) includes high strain rate superplasticity in whisker-reinforced alumina composites, and application of superplasticity to fabrication of metal matrix composites. (NEDO)

  1. Damage detection in laminar thermoplastic composite materials by means of embedded optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojović Aleksandar M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of applying optical fibers as sensors for investigating low energy impact damage in laminar thermoplastic composite materials, in real time. Impact toughness testing by a Charpy impact pendulum with different loads was conducted in order to determine the method for comparative measurement of the resulting damage in the material. For that purpose intensity-based optical fibers were built in to specimens of composite materials with Kevlar 129 (the DuPont registered trade-mark for poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide woven fabric as reinforcement and thermoplastic PVB (poly(vinyl butyral as the matrix. In some specimens part of the layers of Kevlar was replaced with metal mesh (50% or 33% of the layers. Experimental testing was conducted in order to observe and analyze the response of the material under multiple low-energy impacts. Light from the light-emitting diode (LED was launched to the embedded optical fiber and was propagated to the phototransistor-based photo detector. During each impact, the signal level, which is proportional to the light intensity in the optical fiber, drops and then slowly recovers. The obtained signals were analyzed to determine the appropriate method for real time damage monitoring. The major part of the damage occurs during impact. The damage reflects as a local, temporary release of strain in the optical fiber and an increase of the signal level. The obtained results show that intensity-based optical fibers could be used for measuring the damage in laminar thermoplastic composite materials. The acquired optical fiber signals depend on the type of material, but the same set of rules (relatively different, depending on the type of material could be specified. Using real time measurement of the signal during impact and appropriate analysis enables quantitative evaluation of the impact damage in the material. Existing methods in most cases use just the intensity of the signal before

  2. Investigations on neutron irradiated 3D carbon fibre reinforced carbon composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Ramani; Alur, V. D.; Patra, A. K.; Acharya, R.; Srivastava, D.

    2018-04-01

    As against conventional graphite materials carbon-carbon (C/C) composite materials are now being contemplated as the promising candidate materials for the high temperature and fusion reactor owing to their high thermal conductivity and high thermal resistance, better mechanical/thermal properties and irradiation stability. The current need is for focused research on novel carbon materials for future new generation nuclear reactors. The advantage of carbon-carbon composite is that the microstructure and the properties can be tailor made. The present study encompasses the irradiation of 3D carbon composite prepared by reinforcement using PAN carbon fibers for nuclear application. The carbon fiber reinforced composite was subjected to neutron irradiation in the research reactor DHRUVA. The irradiated samples were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The DSC scans were taken in argon atmosphere under a linear heating program. The scanning was carried out at temperature range from 30 °C to 700 °C at different heating rates in argon atmosphere along with reference as unirradiated carbon composite. The Wigner energy spectrum of irradiated composite showed two peaks corresponding to 200 °C and 600 °C. The stored energy data for the samples were in the range 110-170 J/g for temperature ranging from 30 °C to 700 °C. The Wigner energy spectrum of irradiated carbon composite did not indicate spontaneous temperature rise during thermal annealing. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments have been carried out to investigate neutron irradiation induced changes in porosity of the composite samples. SANS data were recorded in the scattering wave vector range of 0.17 nm-1 to 3.5 nm-1. Comparison of SANS profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples indicates significant change in pore morphology. Pore size distributions of the samples follow power law size distribution with

  3. Mixed conductivity, structural and microstructural characterization of titania-doped yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline/titania-doped yttria stabilized zirconia composite anode matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, M.T.; Maczka, M.

    2011-01-01

    Taking advantage of the fact that TiO 2 additions to 8YSZ cause not only the formation of a titania-doped YSZ solid solution but also a titania-doped YTZP solid solution, composite materials based on both solutions were prepared by solid state reaction. In particular, additions of 15 mol% of TiO 2 give rise to composite materials constituted by 0.51 mol fraction titania-doped yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and 0.49 mol fraction titania-doped yttria stabilized zirconia (0.51TiYTZP/0.49TiYSZ). Furthermore, Y 2 (Ti 1-y Zr y ) 2 O 7 pyrochlore is present as an impurity phase with y close to 1, according to FT-Raman results. Lower and higher additions of titania than that of 15 mol%, i.e., x=0, 5, 10, 20, 25 and 30 mol% were considered to study the evolution of 8YSZ phase as a function of the TiO 2 content. Furthermore, zirconium titanate phase (ZrTiO 4 ) is detected when the titania content is equal or higher than 20 mol% and this phase admits Y 2 O 3 in solid solution according to FE-SEM-EDX. The 0.51TiYTZP/0.49TiYSZ duplex material was selected in this study to establish the mechanism of its electronic conduction under low oxygen partial pressures. In the pO 2 range from 0.21 to 10 -7.5 atm. the conductivity is predominantly ionic and constant over the range and its value is 0.01 S/cm. The ionic plus electronic conductivity is 0.02 S/cm at 1000 o C and 10 -12.3 atm. Furthermore, the onset of electronic conductivity under reducing conditions exhibits a -1/4 pO 2 dependence. Therefore, it is concluded that the n-type electronic conduction in the duplex material can be due to a small polaron-hopping between Ti 3+ and Ti 4+ . -- Graphical abstract: FE-SEM micrograph of a polished and thermal etched surface of a Ti-doped YTZP/Ti-doped YSZ composite material. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Ti-doped YTZP/Ti-doped YSZ composite materials are mixed conductors under low partial pressures. → From 5 mol% of TiO 2 , Y 2 (Ti 1-y ,Zr y ) 2 O 7 pyrochlore is

  4. Determination of kinetic parameters during the thermal decomposition of epoxy/carbon fiber composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hun; Kim, Kwang Seok; Kim, Hyo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth study to determine the thermal decomposition kinetics parameters such as the activation energy E_a, the reaction order n, and the pre-exponential factor A of epoxy/carbon fiber composite material has been conducted. We employ not only the modified peak property method that is proposed here, but also the conventional method in analyzing the experimental data, and compare the results to show the performance of the proposed model. The pyrolysis tests for the epoxy/carbon fiber composite materials are conducted by using thermogravimetric analyser at various heating rates. As a result, the best prediction to the experimental data can be obtained by the modified peak property method. Besides, among the methods applied here, the modified peak property method provides most convenient way to recover the parameters: it does not require a curve fitting of the data nor a long iterative computation

  5. Book Review COMPOSITE WARFARE: THE CONDUCT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPOSITE WARFARE: THE CONDUCT OF. SUCCESSFUL GROUND FORCE. OPERATIONS IN AFRICA. Eeben Barlow. Abel Esterhuyse, PhD. Stellenbosch University. Pinetown: 30 Degrees South Publishers. 2015, 576 pages. ISBN 9781928211761. Africa is still one of the most conflict-ridden places on earth – from ...

  6. Materials characterization center workshop on compositional and microstructural analysis of nuclear waste materials. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.L.; Strachan, D.M.; Shade, J.W.; Thomas, M.T.

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on Compositional and Microstructural Analysis of Nuclear Waste Materials, conducted November 11 and 12, 1980, was to critically examine and evaluate the various methods currently used to study non-radioactive, simulated, nuclear waste-form performance. Workshop participants recognized that most of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) test data for inclusion in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook will result from application of appropriate analytical procedures to waste-package materials or to the products of performance tests. Therefore, the analytical methods must be reliable and of known accuracy and precision, and results must be directly comparable with those from other laboratories and from other nuclear waste materials. The 41 participants representing 18 laboratories in the United States and Canada were organized into three working groups: Analysis of Liquids and Solutions, Quantitative Analysis of Solids, and Phase and Microstructure Analysis. Each group identified the analytical methods favored by their respective laboratories, discussed areas needing attention, listed standards and reference materials currently used, and recommended means of verifying interlaboratory comparability of data. The major conclusions from this workshop are presented

  7. Embedded Si/Graphene Composite Fabricated by Magnesium-Thermal Reduction as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangliu; Ren, Yurong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wenkai; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-01

    Embedded Si/graphene composite was fabricated by a novel method, which was in situ generated SiO2 particles on graphene sheets followed by magnesium-thermal reduction. The tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and flake graphite was used as original materials. On the one hand, the unique structure of as-obtained composite accommodated the large volume change to some extent. Simultaneously, it enhanced electronic conductivity during Li-ion insertion/extraction. The MR-Si/G composite is used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, which shows high reversible capacity and ascendant cycling stability reach to 950 mAh·g-1 at a current density of 50 mA·g-1 after 60 cycles. These may be conducive to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  8. Mathematical model predicts the elastic behavior of composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoroastro de Miranda Boari

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have found that the non-uniform distribution of reinforcing elements in a composite material can markedly influence its characteristics of elastic and plastic deformation and that a composite's overall response is influenced by the physical and geometrical properties of its reinforcing phases. The finite element method, Eshelby's method and dislocation mechanisms are usually employed in formulating a composite's constitutive response. This paper discusses a composite material containing SiC particles in an aluminum matrix. The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between a composite material's particle distribution and its resistance, and to come up with a mathematical model to predict the material's elastic behavior. The proposed formulation was applied to establish the thermal stress field in the aluminum-SiC composite resulting from its fabrication process, whereby the mixture is prepared at 600 °C and the composite material is used at room temperature. The analytical results, which are presented as stress probabilities, were obtained from the mathematical model proposed herein. These results were compared with the numerical ones obtained by the FEM method. A comparison of the results of the two methods, analytical and numerical, reveals very similar average thermal stress values. It is also shown that Maxwell-Boltzmann's distribution law can be applied to identify the correlation between the material's particle distribution and its resistance, using Eshelby's thermal stresses.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Silver Nanowire-Based Transparent Conductive Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ji-Li; Zhang, Hua-Yu; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanowire-based transparent conductive composite films with different structures were successfully prepared using various methods, including liquid polyol, magnetron sputtering and spin coating. The experimental results revealed that the optical transmittance of all different structural composite films decreased slightly (1-3%) compared to pure films. However, the electrical conductivity of all composite films had a great improvement. Under the condition that the optical transmittance was greater than 78% over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm, the AgNW/PVA/AgNW film became a conductor, while the AZO/AgNW/AZO film and the ITO/AgNW/ITO film showed 88.9% and 94% reductions, respectively, for the sheet resistance compared with pure films. In addition, applying a suitable mechanical pressure can improve the conductivity of AgNW-based composite films.

  10. Thermo-stimulated current and dielectric loss in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, S.; Hagihara, T.; Okada, T.

    1986-01-01

    Thermo-stimulated current and dielectric loss measurements have been performed on five kinds of commercially available composite materials in order to study the electric properties of composite materials at low temperatures. Thermo-stimulated current measurements have been made on the composite materials in which the matrix quality was changed intentionally. The changes in the matrices were introduced by gamma irradiation or different curing conditions. Thermo-stimulated current and dielectric loss measurements revealed the number and the molecular weight of dipolar molecules. The different features of thermo-stimulated current and dielectric losses were determined for different composite materials. The gamma irradiation and the curing conditions especially affect the thermo-stimulated current features. The changes in macroscopic mechanical properties reflect those of thermo-stimulated current. It was found that the change in quality and/or degradation of the composite materials could be detected by means of thermo-stimulated current and/or dielectric loss measurements

  11. A theory of electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, and electromagnetic interference shielding for lightweight graphene composite foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Xiaodong [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Wang, Yang; Weng, George J., E-mail: weng@jove.rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Zhong, Zheng [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-08-28

    This work was driven by the need to understand the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of light weight, flexible, and high performance graphene composite foams, but as EMI SE of a material depends on its electrical conductivity, dielectric permittivity, and magnetic permeability, the investigation of these three properties also became a priority. In this paper, we first present a continuum theory to determine these three electromagnetic properties, and then use the obtained properties to evaluate the EMI SE of the foam. A two-scale composite model is conceived to evaluate these three properties, with the large one being the skeleton-void composite and the small one being the graphene-polymer composite that serves as the skeleton of the foam. To evaluate the properties of the skeleton, the effective-medium approach is taken as the starting point. Subsequently, the effect of an imperfect interface and the contributions of electron tunneling to the interfacial conductivity and Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization mechanism to the dielectric constant are also implemented. The derived skeleton properties are then utilized on the large scale to determine the three properties of the composite foam at a given porosity. Then a uniform plane electromagnetic wave is considered to evaluate the EMI SE of the foam. It is demonstrated that the electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, and EMI SE of the foam calculated from the developed theory are in general agreement with the reported experimental data of graphene/PDMS composite foams. The theory is further proven to be valid for the EMI SE of solid graphene/epoxy and solid carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites. It is also shown that, among the three electromagnetic properties, electrical conductivity has the strongest influence on the EMI shielding effectiveness.

  12. Numerical Material Model for Composite Laminates in High-Velocity Impact Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract A numerical material model for composite laminate, was developed and integrated into the nonlinear dynamic explicit finite element programs as a material user subroutine. This model coupling nonlinear state of equation (EOS, was a macro-mechanics model, which was used to simulate the major mechanical behaviors of composite laminate under high-velocity impact conditions. The basic theoretical framework of the developed material model was introduced. An inverse flyer plate simulation was conducted, which demonstrated the advantage of the developed model in characterizing the nonlinear shock response. The developed model and its implementation were validated through a classic ballistic impact issue, i.e. projectile impacting on Kevlar29/Phenolic laminate. The failure modes and ballistic limit velocity were analyzed, and a good agreement was achieved when comparing with the analytical and experimental results. The computational capacity of this model, for Kevlar/Epoxy laminates with different architectures, i.e. plain-woven and cross-plied laminates, was further evaluated and the residual velocity curves and damage cone were accurately predicted.

  13. Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft structures: Future program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Revolutionary advances in structural materials have been responsible for revolutionary changes in all fields of engineering. These advances have had and are still having a significant impact on aircraft design and performance. Composites are engineered materials. Their properties are tailored through the use of a mix or blend of different constituents to maximize selected properties of strength and/or stiffness at reduced weights. More than 20 years have passed since the potentials of filamentary composite materials were identified. During the 1970s much lower cost carbon filaments became a reality and gradually designers turned from boron to carbon composites. Despite progress in this field, filamentary composites still have significant unfulfilled potential for increasing aircraft productivity; the rendering of advanced organic composite materials into production aircraft structures was disappointingly slow. Why this is and research and technology development actions that will assist in accelerating the application of advanced organic composites to production aircraft is discussed.

  14. Resin bond to indirect composite and new ceramic/polymer materials: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Frank A; Horvath, Sebastian D; Guess, Petra C; Blatz, Markus B

    2014-01-01

    Resin bonding is essential for clinical longevity of indirect restorations. Especially in light of the increasing popularity of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-fabricated indirect restorations, there is a need to assess optimal bonding protocols for new ceramic/polymer materials and indirect composites. The aim of this article was to review and assess the current scientific evidence on the resin bond to indirect composite and new ceramic/polymer materials. An electronic PubMed database search was conducted from 1966 to September 2013 for in vitro studies pertaining the resin bond to indirect composite and new ceramic/polymer materials. The search revealed 198 titles. Full-text screening was carried out for 43 studies, yielding 18 relevant articles that complied with inclusion criteria. No relevant studies could be identified regarding new ceramic/polymer materials. Most common surface treatments are aluminum-oxide air-abrasion, silane treatment, and hydrofluoric acid-etching for indirect composite restoration. Self-adhesive cements achieve lower bond strengths in comparison with etch-and-rinse systems. Thermocycling has a greater impact on bonding behavior than water storage. Air-particle abrasion and additional silane treatment should be applied to enhance the resin bond to laboratory-processed composites. However, there is an urgent need for in vitro studies that evaluate the bond strength to new ceramic/polymer materials. This article reviews the available dental literature on resin bond of laboratory composites and gives scientifically based guidance for their successful placement. Furthermore, this review demonstrated that future research for new ceramic/polymer materials is required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Antibacterial Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials: In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycka, Beata; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Sokołowski, Krzysztof; Półtorak, Konrad; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of composite materials modified with calcium fluoride against cariogenic bacteria S. mutans and L. acidophilus. One commercially available conventional light-curing composite material containing fluoride ions (F2) and two commercially available flowable light-curing composite materials (Flow Art and X-Flow) modified with 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride addition were used in the study. Composite material samples were incubated in 0.95% NaCl at 35°C for 3 days; then dilution series of S. mutans and L. acidophilus strains were made from the eluates. Bacteria dilutions were cultivated on media afterwards. Colony-forming unit per 1 mL of solution (CFU/mL) was calculated. Composite materials modified with calcium fluoride highly reduced (p composite materials containing fluoride compounds. The greatest reduction in bacteria growth was observed for composite materials modified with 1.5% wt. CaF2. All three tested composite materials showed statistically greater antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus than against S. mutans. PMID:28053976

  16. Cold storage condensation heat recovery system with a novel composite phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Mingzhu; Yuan, Yanping; Zhao, Xudong; Cao, Xiaoling; Tang, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cold storage condensation heat recovery system using PCM was proposed. • CW with a phase change temperature of nearly 80 °C was selected as the potential PCM. • The optimal mass ratio between the CW and EG was 10:1. • The thermal and physical performances of the CW/EG were investigated. • The thermal reliability was demonstrated by 1000 cycles. - Abstract: Using condensation heat from cold storage refrigeration systems to provide heat for domestic hot water preparation and industrial hot water supply promotes energy conservation. However, few studies have investigated cold storage condensation heat recovery using phase change materials (PCMs). In this study, a cold storage condensation heat recovery system that uses PCMs has been designed and analysed. According to the principle of energy cascade recycling, different operation modes could be effectively switched to recycle condensation heat. Furthermore, a novel and suitable phase change composite material is developed for cold storage condensation heat recovery, which has a relatively large latent heat, high thermal conductivity, and an appropriate phase change temperature (i.e. 80 °C). With carnauba wax (CW) as the PCM and expanded graphite (EG) as the additive, a composite was developed with an optimal mass ratio of CW:EG = 10:1. The thermal and physical properties and the interior structure of the composite were then investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal constants analyser (Hot Disk), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). Furthermore, experiments on the melting and solidification processes and accelerated thermal cycling were also conducted. It was found that at the optimal mass ratio of 10:1, the temperatures of the CW/EG composite in the melting and solidification processes were 81.98 °C and 80.43 °C, respectively, while the corresponding latent heats were 150.9 J/g and 142.6 J/g, respectively

  17. Graphene network organisation in conductive polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syurik, Y.V.; Ghislandi, M.G.; Tkalya, E.; Paterson, G.; McGrouther, D.; Ageev, O.A.; Loos, J.

    2012-01-01

    A latex technique is used to prepare graphene/polystyrene and graphene/poly(propylene) composites with varying GR loadings. Their electrical properties and the corresponding volume organisation of GR networks are studied. Percolation thresholds for conduction are found to be about 0.9 and 0.4 wt%

  18. Effective thermal conductivity in thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, LL; Snyder, GJ; Toberer, ES

    2013-05-28

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from a temperature gradient. Optimizing these devices for maximum power production can be difficult due to the many heat transport mechanisms occurring simultaneously within the TEG. In this paper, we develop a model for heat transport in thermoelectric materials in which an "effective thermal conductivity" (kappa(eff)) encompasses both the one dimensional steady-state Fourier conduction and the heat generation/consumption due to secondary thermoelectric effects. This model is especially powerful in that the value of kappa(eff) does not depend upon the operating conditions of the TEG but rather on the transport properties of the TE materials themselves. We analyze a variety of thermoelectric materials and generator designs using this concept and demonstrate that kappa(eff) predicts the heat fluxes within these devices to 5% of the exact value. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  19. Mode II Interlaminar Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Characterization of a Graphite Epoxy Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Johnston, William M.; Toland, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and delamination onset and growth characterization data were generated for IM7/8552 graphite epoxy composite materials from two suppliers for use in fracture mechanics analyses. Both the fracture toughness testing and the fatigue testing were conducted using the End-notched Flexure (ENF) test. The ENF test for mode II fracture toughness is currently under review by ASTM as a potential standard test method. This current draft ASTM protocol was used as a guide to conduct the tests on the IM7/8552 material. This report summarizes the test approach, methods, procedures and results of this characterization effort.

  20. The stress analysis method for three-dimensional composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Kanehiro; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Maekawa, Zen'ichiro; Hamada, Hiroyuki

    1994-05-01

    This study proposes a stress analysis method for three-dimensionally fiber reinforced composite materials. In this method, the rule-of mixture for composites is successfully applied to 3-D space in which material properties would change 3-dimensionally. The fundamental formulas for Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio are derived. Also, we discuss a strength estimation and an optimum material design technique for 3-D composite materials. The analysis is executed for a triaxial orthogonally woven fabric, and their results are compared to the experimental data in order to verify the accuracy of this method. The present methodology can be easily understood with basic material mechanics and elementary mathematics, so it enables us to write a computer program of this theory without difficulty. Furthermore, this method can be applied to various types of 3-D composites because of its general-purpose characteristics.

  1. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  2. Evaluation of Composite Materials for Use on Launch Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finchum, A.; Welch, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available composite structural shapes were evaluated for use. These composites, fiberglass-reinforced polyester and vinylester resin materials are being used extensively in the fabrication and construction of low maintenance, corrosion resistant structures. The evaluation found that in many applications these composite materials can be successfully used at the space center. These composite materials should not be used where they will be exposed to the hot exhaust plume/cloud of the launch vehicle during the liftoff, and caution should be taken in their use in areas where electrostatic discharge and hypergolic propellant compatibility are primary concerns.

  3. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The morphology of the composites was observed by SEM. The electrochemical performances of composite electrodes used in electrochemical capacitors were studied in addition to the properties of electrode consisting of separate active carbon and nickel oxide only. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and impedance spectroscopy. The composites were tested in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte using two- and three-electrode Swagelok systems. The results showed that adding only a few percent of nickel oxide to active carbon provided the highest value of capacity. It is the confirmation of the fact that such an amount of nickel oxide is optimal to take advantage of both components of the composite, which additionally can be a good solution as a negative electrode in asymmetric configuration of electrode materials in an electrochemical capacitor.

  4. Polyaniline/TiO2/kaolinite: The composite material with high electrical anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarský, Jonáš; Neuwirthová, Lucie; Peikertová, Pavlína; Kulhánková, Lenka; Mamulová Kutláková, Kateřina; Matějka, Vlastimil; Čapková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Kaolinite–TiO 2 nanocomposite matrix (KATI) coated with polyaniline (PANI) layer has been prepared in powder form and pressed into tablets. The conductivity was studied in dependence on (1) wt.% of TiO 2 in KATI matrix and (2) thermal pre-treatment of KATI matrix. The anisotropy factor α, i.e. the ratio of in-plane conductivity and conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the tablet plane, was found to be very high for PANI/KATI tablet (α is of the order of 10 3 –10 4 ) in comparison with pure PANI tablet (α is of the order of 10 2 ). Structure has been studied using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and molecular modeling. The possibility of using the tablets as a load sensors have been tested and tablets pressed from composites containing calcined KATI seem to be promising material for this purpose. - Graphical abstract: Tablets pressed from powder form of polyaniline/TiO 2 /kaolinite composites exhibit very high electrical anisotropy and were found to be suitable as load sensors. - Highlights: • Kaolinite/TiO 2 /polyaniline composites exhibit very high electrical anisotropy. • Presence of TiO 2 helps polyaniline to fully cover the kaolinite particles. • Tablets pressed from these composites can be used as load sensors. • Calcination of kaolinite/TiO 2 matrix improves the sensing properties

  5. Anisotropy in thermal conductivity of graphite flakes–SiC{sub p}/matrix composites: Implications in heat sinking design for thermal management applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J.M., E-mail: jmmj@ua.es [Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, | E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Louis, E. [Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Unidad Asociada del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, | E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Within the frame of heat dissipation for electronics, a very interesting family of anisotropic composite materials, fabricated by liquid infiltration of a matrix into preforms of oriented graphite flakes and SiC particles, has been recently proposed. Aiming to investigate the implications of the inherent anisotropy of these composites on their thermal conductivity, and hence on their potential applications, materials with matrices of Al–12 wt.% Si alloy and epoxy polymer have been fabricated. Samples have been cut at a variable angle with respect to the flakes plane and thermal conductivity has been measured by means of two standard techniques, namely, steady state technique and laser flash method. Experimental results are presented and discussed in terms of current models, from which important technological implications for heat sinking design can be derived. - Highlights: • Anisotropy in thermal conductivity of graphite flakes-based composites is evaluated. • Samples are cut in a direction forming a variable angle with the oriented flakes. • For angles 0° and 90°, thermal conductivity does not depend on sample geometry. • For intermediate angles, thermal conductivity strongly depends on sample geometry. • “Thin” samples must be thicker than 600 μm, “thick” samples must be encapsulated.

  6. Improvement of Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Epoxy/boron Nitride/silver Nanoparticle Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungyong; Lim, Soonho [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of BN (boron nitride) on the thermal and the electrical conductivity of composites. In case of epoxy/BN composites, the thermal conductivity was increased as the BN contents were increased. Epoxy/AgNP (Ag nanoparticle) nanocomposites exhibited a slight change of thermal conductivity and showed a electrical percolation threshold at 20 vol% of Ag nanoparticles. At the fixed Ag nanoparticle content below the electrical percolation threshold, increasing the amount of BN enhanced the electrical conductivity as well as thermal conductivity for the epoxy/AgNP/BN composites.

  7. The preparation and performance of calcium carbide-derived carbon/polyaniline composite electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liping; Wang, Xianyou; Li, Na; An, Hongfang; Chen, Huajie [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Hubei 430073 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Calcium carbide (CaC{sub 2})-derived carbon (CCDC)/polyaniline (PANI) composite materials are prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization of an aniline solution containing well-dispersed CCDC. The structure and morphology of CCDC/PANI composite are characterized by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. It has been found that PANI was uniformly deposited on the surface and the inner pores of CCDC. The supercapacitive behaviors of the CCDC/PANI composite materials are investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and cycle life measurements. The results show that the CCDC/PANI composite electrodes have higher specific capacitances than the as grown CCDC electrodes and higher stability than the conducting polymers. The capacitance of CCDC/PANI composite electrode is as high as 713.4 F g{sup -1} measured by cyclic voltammetry at 1 mV s{sup -1}. Besides, the capacitance retention of coin supercapacitor remained 80.1% after 1000 cycles. (author)

  8. Composite of wood-plastic and micro-encapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) used for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamekhorshid, A.; Sadrameli, S.M.; Barzin, R.; Farid, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A composite of wood–plastic-MEPCM has been produced. • Compression molding has been used for the composite preparation. • Thermal and properties were investigated using DSC analysis and cycling test. • Leakage test has been performed for the encapsulated PCM. • The composites can be used as a building material for thermal energy management. - Abstract: Application of phase change materials (PCMs) in lightweight building is growing due to the high latent heat of fusion of PCMs and their ability to control temperature by absorbing and releasing heat efficiently. Wood-plastic composites (WPC) are materials used in the interior parts of buildings that have improved properties compared to conventional materials. However, these materials have low energy storage capacity, which can be improved by incorporating PCM in them. Leakage of PCM is a major obstacle to the industrial applications, which can be solved through the use of microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM). This paper presents the performance tests conducted for a composite of wood-plastic-MEPCM for using in buildings for thermal storage. The wood-plastic-MEPCM composites were produced in this project using compression molding and their thermal and mechanical properties were investigated using DSC analysis, cycling test, leakage test, and three point bending analysis. The results showed that there is no leakage of PCM during phase change. The results also indicated that the composite has reasonable thermal properties, but its mechanical properties need to be improved by increasing the pressure during the molding process or by using extrusion method. The produced composites can be used as a building material for thermal energy management of building.

  9. Magneto-electro-responsive material based on magnetite nanoparticles/polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcharoen, Karat; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2016-01-01

    Multi-functional materials in actuator applications have been developed toward reversibility and sensitivity under various actuating fields. In this work, magneto-electro-responsive materials consisting of a polyurethane (PU) matrix and its composites embedded with magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) as a dispersed phase were fabricated to tailor the electromechanical properties and bending performance under electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields. Due to the superior characteristics of MNP over other magnetic materials, the composites fabricated with electronic polarization were highly responsive under electric field. The highest storage modulus sensitivity belonged to the 1.0% v/v MNP/PU composite which possessed the value of 3.46 at the electric field 2 kV mm"−"1. Moreover, all of the PU composites behaved as an electrostrictive material in which the stress depended quadratically on the electric field. It was demonstrated that the PU composites also possessed very good recoverability, fast response (< 15 s) and large bending angle relative to that of pristine PU under applied electric field. Interestingly, the steady state storage modulus response was attained within the first electrical actuation cycle and the PU composite was a fully reversible material. In addition, it was shown that superparamagnetism was a common characteristic of all fabricated composites under magnetic field. The 3.0%v/v MNP/PU composite provided the largest bending distance up to 23.60 mm, and 14.10 mm under the magnetic field of 5000 G, and the electromagnetic field of 320 G, respectively. In summary, the MNP/PU composite material is a potential candidate to be used as a smart material under the influences of electric and/or magnetic fields over other existing dielectric materials. - Highlights: • MNP/PU composites exhibit a superparamagnetic behavior. • MNP/PU composites show full reversibility under electric field. • 1.0% v/v MNP/PU composite provides the highest sensitivity

  10. Magneto-electro-responsive material based on magnetite nanoparticles/polyurethane composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petcharoen, Karat; Sirivat, Anuvat, E-mail: anuvat.s@chula.ac.th

    2016-04-01

    Multi-functional materials in actuator applications have been developed toward reversibility and sensitivity under various actuating fields. In this work, magneto-electro-responsive materials consisting of a polyurethane (PU) matrix and its composites embedded with magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) as a dispersed phase were fabricated to tailor the electromechanical properties and bending performance under electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields. Due to the superior characteristics of MNP over other magnetic materials, the composites fabricated with electronic polarization were highly responsive under electric field. The highest storage modulus sensitivity belonged to the 1.0% v/v MNP/PU composite which possessed the value of 3.46 at the electric field 2 kV mm{sup −1}. Moreover, all of the PU composites behaved as an electrostrictive material in which the stress depended quadratically on the electric field. It was demonstrated that the PU composites also possessed very good recoverability, fast response (< 15 s) and large bending angle relative to that of pristine PU under applied electric field. Interestingly, the steady state storage modulus response was attained within the first electrical actuation cycle and the PU composite was a fully reversible material. In addition, it was shown that superparamagnetism was a common characteristic of all fabricated composites under magnetic field. The 3.0%v/v MNP/PU composite provided the largest bending distance up to 23.60 mm, and 14.10 mm under the magnetic field of 5000 G, and the electromagnetic field of 320 G, respectively. In summary, the MNP/PU composite material is a potential candidate to be used as a smart material under the influences of electric and/or magnetic fields over other existing dielectric materials. - Highlights: • MNP/PU composites exhibit a superparamagnetic behavior. • MNP/PU composites show full reversibility under electric field. • 1.0% v/v MNP/PU composite provides the highest

  11. Ac-conductivity and dielectric response of new zinc-phosphate glass/metal composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaroufi, A., E-mail: maaroufi@fsr.ac.ma [University of Mohammed V, Laboratory of Composite Materials, Polymers and Environment, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, P.B. 1014, Rabat-Agdal (Morocco); Oabi, O. [University of Mohammed V, Laboratory of Composite Materials, Polymers and Environment, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, P.B. 1014, Rabat-Agdal (Morocco); Lucas, B. [XLIM UMR 7252 – Université de Limoges/CNRS, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2016-07-01

    The ac-conductivity and dielectric response of new composites based on zinc-phosphate glass with composition 45 mol%ZnO–55 mol%P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, filled with metallic powder of nickel (ZP/Ni) were investigated by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz at room temperature. A high percolating jump of seven times has been observed in the conductivity behavior from low volume fraction of filler to the higher fractions, indicating an insulator – semiconductor phase transition. The measured conductivity at higher filler volume fraction is about 10{sup −1} S/cm and is frequency independent, while, the obtained conductivity for low filler volume fraction is around 10{sup −8} S/cm and is frequency dependent. Moreover, the elaborated composites are characterized by high dielectric constants in the range of 10{sup 5} for conductive composites at low frequencies (100 Hz). In addition, the distribution of the relaxation processes was also evaluated. The Debye, Cole-Cole, Davidson–Cole and Havriliak–Negami models in electric modulus formalism were used to model the observed relaxation phenomena in ZP/Ni composites. The observed relaxation phenomena are fairly simulated by Davidson–Cole model, and an account of the interpretation of results is given. - Highlights: • Composites of ZnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/metal were investigated by impedance spectroscopy. • Original ac-conductivity behavior was discovered in ZnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/metal composites. • High dielectric constant is measured in ZnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/metal composites. • Dielectric constant as filler function is well interpreted with percolation theory. • Observed relaxation processes are well described using electric modulus formalism.

  12. Development of Ultra-Light Composite Material to Build the Platform of a Shaking Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botero-Jaramillo Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the developments of the last decades in the area of ultra-light materials, their application in the construction of the platform of the new one direction hydrau- lic shaking table was proposed, with capacity of one ton and frequency range from 0.4 Hz to 4.0 Hz for the Geotechnical Laboratory of the Institute of Engineering, UNAM. The aim was to replace the heavy conventional steel platforms, used in shaking tables, by a composite material based on wood and Kevlar, hence reducing its weight and optimizing the hydraulic equipment capacity available in the labora- tory. Accordingly, an experimental investigation was conducted to characterize the stress-strain behavior of composite materials under monotonically increasing load. This research involved the determination of the adequate proportions of the different constituent materials and manufacturing techniques that best suit the needs and available resources.

  13. Embedded Si/Graphene Composite Fabricated by Magnesium-Thermal Reduction as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangliu; Ren, Yurong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wenkai; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-16

    Embedded Si/graphene composite was fabricated by a novel method, which was in situ generated SiO 2 particles on graphene sheets followed by magnesium-thermal reduction. The tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and flake graphite was used as original materials. On the one hand, the unique structure of as-obtained composite accommodated the large volume change to some extent. Simultaneously, it enhanced electronic conductivity during Li-ion insertion/extraction. The MR-Si/G composite is used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, which shows high reversible capacity and ascendant cycling stability reach to 950 mAh·g -1 at a current density of 50 mA·g -1 after 60 cycles. These may be conducive to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  14. Choosing the optimal Pareto composition of the charge material for the manufacture of composite blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalazinsky, A. G.; Kryuchkov, D. I.; Nesterenko, A. V.; Titov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The results of an experimental study of the mechanical properties of pressed and sintered briquettes consisting of powders obtained from a high-strength VT-22 titanium alloy by plasma spraying with additives of PTM-1 titanium powder obtained by the hydride-calcium method and powder of PV-N70Yu30 nickel-aluminum alloy are presented. The task is set for the choice of an optimal charge material composition of a composite material providing the required mechanical characteristics and cost of semi-finished products and items. Pareto optimal values for the composition of the composite material charge have been obtained.

  15. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  16. Mechanical behaviour of composite materials made by resin film infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casavola C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovative composite materials are frequently used in designing aerospace, naval and automotive components. In the typical structure of composites, multiple layers are stacked together with a particular sequence in order to give specific mechanical properties. Layers are organized with different angles, different sequences and different technological process to obtain a new and innovative material. From the standpoint of engineering designer it is useful to consider the single layer of composite as macroscopically homogeneous material. However, composites are non homogeneous bodies. Moreover, layers are not often perfectly bonded together and delamination often occurs. Other violations of lamination theory hypotheses, such as plane stress and thin material, are not unusual and in many cases the transverse shear flexibility and the thickness-normal stiffness should be considered. Therefore the real behaviour of composite materials is quite different from the predictions coming from the traditional lamination theory. Due to the increasing structural performance required to innovative composites, the knowledge of the mechanical properties for different loading cases is a fundamental source of concern. Experimental characterization of materials and structures in different environmental conditions is extremely important to understand the mechanical behaviour of these new materials. The purpose of the present work is to characterize a composite material developed for aerospace applications and produced by means of the resin film infusion process (RFI. Different tests have been carried out: tensile, open-hole and filled-hole tensile, compressive, openhole and filled-hole compressive. The experimental campaign has the aim to define mechanical characteristics of this RFI composite material in different conditions: environmental temperature, Hot/Wet and Cold.

  17. Round robin testing of thermal conductivity reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulstrom, L.C.; Tye, R.P.; Smith, S.E.

    1985-07-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has a need to determine the thermal properties of basalt in the region being considered for a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Experimental data on thermal conductivity and its variation with temperature are information required for the characterization of basalt. To establish thermal conductivity values for the reference materials, an interlaboratory measurements program was undertaken. The program was planned to meet the objectives of performing an experimental characterization of the new stock and providing a detailed analysis of the results such that reference values of thermal conductivity could be determined. This program of measurements of the thermal conductivity of Pyrex 7740 and Pyroceram 9606 has produced recommended values that are within +- 1% of those accepted previously. These measurements together with those of density indicate that the present lots of material are similar to those previously available. Pyrex 7740 and Pyroceram 9606 can continue to be used with confidence as thermal conductivity reference materials for studies on rocks and minerals and other materials of similar thermal conductivity. The uncertainty range for Pyrex 7740 and Pyroceram 9606 up to 300 0 C is +- 10.3% and +- 5.6%, respectively. This range is similar to that indicated for the previously recommended values proposed some 18 years ago. It would appear that the overall state of the art in thermal conductivity measurements for materials in this range has changed little in the intervening years. The above uncertainties, which would have been greater had not three data sets been eliminated, are greater than those which are normally claimed for each individual method. Analyses of these differences through refinements in techniques and additional measurements to higher temperatures are required. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Composite materials application on FORMOSAT-5 remote sensing instrument structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chueh Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite material has been widely applied in space vehicle structures due to its light weight and designed stiffness modulus. Some special mechanical properties that cannot be changed in general metal materials, such as low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion and directional material stiffness can be artificially adjusted in composite materials to meet the user’s requirements. Space-qualified Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP composite materials are applied In the FORMOSAT-5 Remote Sensing (RSI structure because of its light weight and low CTE characteristics. The RSI structural elements include the primary mirror supporting plate, secondary mirror supporting ring, and supporting frame. These elements are designed, manufactured, and verified using composite materials to meet specifications. The structure manufacturing process, detailed material properties, and CFRP structural element validation methods are introduced in this paper.

  19. Graphene/fly ash geopolymeric composites as self-sensing structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saafi, Mohamed; Fung, Jason; Rahman, Mahbubur [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Tang, Leung [Agilent Technologies, Mobile Measurement Group, EH12 9DJ (United Kingdom); Sillars, Fiona [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Liggat, John [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Zhou, Xiangming [School of Engineering, Brunel University, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The reduction of graphene oxide during the processing of fly ash-based geopolymers offers a completely new way of developing low-cost multifunctional materials with significantly improved mechanical and electrical properties for civil engineering applications such as bridges, buildings and roads. In this paper, we present for the first time the self-sensing capabilities of fly ash-based geopolymeric composites containing in situ reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Geopolymeric composites with rGO concentrations of 0.0, 0.1 and 0.35% by weight were prepared and their morphology and conductivity were determined. The piezoresistive effect of the rGO-geopolymeric composites was also determined under tension and compression. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicate that the rGO sheets can easily be reduced during synthesis of geopolymers due to the effect of the alkaline solution on the functional groups of GO. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the majority of pores and voids within the geopolymers were significantly reduced due to the addition of rGO. The rGO increased the electrical conductivity of the fly ash-based rGO-geopolymeric composites from 0.77 S m{sup −1} at 0.0 wt% to 2.38 S m{sup −1} at 0.35 wt%. The rGO also increased the gauge factor by as much as 112% and 103% for samples subjected to tension and compression, respectively.

  20. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Voicu, Georgeta, E-mail: getav2001@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, Madalina Georgiana [Department of Collagen, Branch of Leather and Footwear Research, National Institute of Research and Development for Textile and Leather, 93 I. Minulescu Street, RO-031215 Bucharest (Romania); Iordache, Florin [Department of Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Therapy, “Nicolae Simionescu” Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology of Romanian Academy, 8 B.P. Hasdeu Street, RO-050568 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-05-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  1. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad; Voicu, Georgeta; Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  2. International conference on composite materials and energy: Proceedings. Enercomp 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    World demand for composite materials is continuously increasing. High strength and rigidity, associated with light weight, are the key factors for composites' success. These materials find numerous applications in all sectors of industry. Presently, a sector of particular interest in terms of demand for composite materials is the energy industry. More and more applications are found in the field of the forms of energy: electrical, petroleum, gas, nuclear, solar and wind. The topics addressed in various sessions of the conference cover potential applications of the entire range of polymer, metal and ceramic composites in all sectors of energy. Papers are divided into sessions covering the following topics: properties; design and analysis; fracture; fatigue and long-term performance; new materials; innovative processing; liquid molding; joining and repairs; radiation curing; recycling; development in ceramic materials; innovations in metallic materials; metal-matrix composites; nondestructive evaluation; energy savings in transportation; pressure vessels and piping; wind energy applications; electrical components; concrete applications; power plant applications; and new materials in the energy field. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  3. Metal nanoparticles as a conductive catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Eric N [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-03

    A metal nanocluster composite material for use as a conductive catalyst. The metal nanocluster composite material has metal nanoclusters on a carbon substrate formed within a porous zeolitic material, forming stable metal nanoclusters with a size distribution between 0.6-10 nm and, more particularly, nanoclusters with a size distribution in a range as low as 0.6-0.9 nm.

  4. Electromagnetic characterization of fine-scale particulate composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, P.; Konn, A.M.; Brosseau, C.

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of the composition and frequency-dependent complex permittivity and permeability of ZnO and γ-Fe 2 O 3 composites prepared by powder pressing. The electromagnetic properties of these materials exhibit a strong dependence on the powder size of the starting materials. In the microwave frequency range, the permittivity and permeability show nonlinear variations with volume fraction of Fe 2 O 3 . As the particle size decreases from a few micrometers to a few tens of nanometers, the data indicate that local mesostructural factors such as shape anisotropy, porosity and possible effect of the binder are likely to be intertwined in the understanding of electromagnetic properties of fine-scale particulate composite materials

  5. Proton Conducting Fuel Cells where Electrochemistry Meets Material Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which directly convert the chemical energy of fuels into electrical energy. They are featured of high energy conversion efficiency and minimized pollutant emission. Proton conducting electrolytes are primarily used as separator materials for low and intermed...... science point of view including novel proton conducting materials and non-precious metal catalysts. The discussion will be made with highlights of DTU´s recent research and of course addressing a diverse technical audience.......Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which directly convert the chemical energy of fuels into electrical energy. They are featured of high energy conversion efficiency and minimized pollutant emission. Proton conducting electrolytes are primarily used as separator materials for low...... followed by a review of the state-of-the-art in terms of performance, lifetime and cost. Technically faced challenges are then outlined on a system level and traced back to fundamental issues of the proton conducting mechanisms and materials. Perspectives and future research are sketched from a materials...

  6. Producing p-type conductivity in self-compensating semiconductor material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vechten, J.A. van; Woodall, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    This relates to compound type semiconductor materials that exhibit self-compensated n-type conductivity. The process described imparts p-type conductivity to a body of normally n-conductivity self-compensated compound semiconductor material by bombarding it with charged particles, either electrons, protons or ions. Other possible steps include introducing an acceptor impurity and applying a coating onto the crystal body. This technique will allow new semiconductor structures to be made. For example, there are some compound semiconductor materials that exhibit n-conductivity only that have energy gap widths that would permit electrical to light conversion at frequency and colours not readily achieved in semiconductor devices. (U.K.)

  7. Evaluation of radiation-shielding properties of the composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, V.I.; Chekashina, N.I.; Yastrebinskij, R.N.; Sokolenko, I.V.; Noskov, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the evaluation of radiation-shielding properties of composite materials with respect to gamma-radiation. As a binder for the synthesis of radiation-shielding composites we used lead boronsilicate glass matrix. As filler we used nanotubular chrysotile filled with lead tungstate PbWO4. It is shown that all the developed composites have good physical-mechanical characteristics, such as compressive strength, thermal stability and can be used as structural materials. On the basis of theoretical calculation we described the graphs of the gamma-quanta linear attenuation coefficient depending on the emitted energy for all investigated composites. We founded high radiation-shielding properties of all the composites on the basis of theoretical and experimental data compared to materials conventionally used in the nuclear industry - iron, concrete, etc

  8. Multiple criteria decision making with life cycle assessment for material selection of composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Milani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of interdisciplinary approaches in today’s modern engineering, current efforts in optimal design of composites include seeking material selection protocols that can (1 simultaneously consider a series of mechanical/electrical/chemical cost criteria over a set of alternative material options, and (2 closely take into account environmental aspects of final products including recycling and end-of-life disposal options. In this paper, in addition to a review of some recent experimental and methodological advances in the above areas, a new application of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM is presented to deal with decision conflicts often seen among design criteria in composite material selection with the help of life cycle assessment (LCA. To show the application, an illustrative case study on a plastic gear material selection is conducted where the cost, mechanical and thermal properties along with environmental impact criteria are to be satisfied simultaneously. A pure plastic gear is compared to a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/aluminum-powder composite alternative. Results suggest that simple MCDM models, including a signal-to-noise measure adapted to MCDM in the same case study, can be used to explore both trade-offs and design break-even points in large decision spaces as the decision maker’s perspective over environmental, material performance and cost attributes change during the design process. More advanced topics including the account of material data uncertainties are addressed.

  9. DC electrical conductivity of silicon carbide ceramics and composites for flow channel insert applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Y.; Kondo, S.; Snead, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    High purity chemically vapor-deposited silicon carbide (SiC) and 2D continuous SiC fiber, chemically vapor-infiltrated SiC matrix composites with pyrocarbon interphases were examined. Specifically, temperature dependent (RT to 800 deg. C) electrical conductivity and the influence of neutron irradiation were measured. The influence of neutron irradiation on electrical properties appeared very strong for the SiC of this study, typically resulting in orders lower ambient conductivity and steeper temperature dependency of this conductivity. For the 2D composites, through-thickness (normal to the fiber axis') electrical conductivity was dominated by bypass conduction via interphase network at relatively low temperatures, whereas conduction through SiC constituents dominated at higher temperatures. Through-thickness electrical conductivity of neutron-irradiated 2D SiC composites with thin PyC interphase, currently envisioned for flow channel insert application, will likely in the order of 10 S/m at the appropriate operating temperature. Mechanisms of electrical conduction in the composites and irradiation-induced modification of electrical conductivity of the composites and their constituents are discussed.

  10. Anhydrous proton conducting composite membranes containing Nafion and triazole modified POSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, M.; Wang, Y.G.; Zhang, F.F.; Huang, C.; Xu, X.; Zhang, R.; Fan, D.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Development of membrane electrolytes having reasonable proton conductivity and mechanical strength under anhydrous conditions is of great importance for proton exchange membrane fuel cells operated at elevated temperature. With the introduction of triazole modified polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (Tz-POSS) into Nafion membrane, the formed composite electrolytes exhibit improved mechanical properties compared to pristine Nafion membrane due to the well distribution of Tz-POSS inside the membrane. The anhydrous proton conductivity of the formed composite membranes increases initially with the increase in temperature, reaching about 0.02 Scm −1 at 140 °C. With further increase in temperature to about 150 °C, the composite membrane reaches its glass transition point above which the proton conductivity decreases dramatically. The performance of assembled single cell from composite membrane is slightly dependent on humidification conditions at 95 °C, reaching 0.45 V at 600 mAcm −2 using hydrogen and oxygen as reaction gases

  11. Present status of SiCf/SiC composites as low-activation structural materials of fusion reactor in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, A.; Katoh, Y.; Hasegawa, A.; Noda, T.

    2001-01-01

    The outline of research subjects on SiCf/SiC composites to apply to the structural components of fusion reactors are described and present status on material development of SiCf/SiC composites in Japan is reviewed. Irradiation experiments of the composites using fission reactors conducted by international collaborations to clarify their radiation response and to optimize the fabrication processes are introduced. (author)

  12. The effect of low temperature neutron irradiation and annealing on the thermal conductivity of advanced carbon-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, V.; Mazul, I.; Latypov, R.; Pokrovsky, A.; Wu, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Several carbon-based materials (carbon fibre composites NB 31, NS 31 and UAM-92, doped graphite RGTi-91), were irradiated at about 90 deg. C in the damage dose range 0.0021-0.13 dpa. Significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of all materials was observed (e.g. at damage dose of ∼0.13 dpa the thermal conductivity degraded up to level of ∼2-3% of the initial values). However, saturation of this effect was observed starting at a dose of ∼0.06 dpa. The effect of annealing at 250 and 350 deg. C on the recovery of thermal conductivity of NB 31 and NS 31 was studied and it was shown this annealing can significantly improve thermal conductivity (∼2.5-3 times). The data on the degradation of the thermal conductivity after additional irradiation after annealing is also reported

  13. 21 CFR 878.3500 - Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... composite implant material. 878.3500 Section 878.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Prosthetic Devices § 878.3500 Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material. (a) Identification. A polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material is a porous device...

  14. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles A [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  15. Investigation of Irradiation Effects on Conducting Composite of Polypyrole/Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Karabulut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the present study, polypyrrole/bentonite (PPy/Bnt composite was synthesized into the Bnt interlayers by chemical oxidation polymerization. The irradiation process was carried out in air in a conventional gamma chamber, which uses a 60Co source, and the composite was exposed to a dose of 40 kGy. Effects of irradiation on the composite were investigated by means of FTIR, UV-visible absorption, TGA, XRD, SEM and temperature dependent electrical conductivity in the temperature range of 290-410 K. The initial decomposition temperature of pristine PPy/Bnt composite was found higher than irradiated PPy/Bnt composite. The XRD patterns revealed that the intensity of the peaks changed with irradiation. It was found from temperature dependent conductivity measurements that the radiation significantly influenced the conductivity of PPy/Bnt composite. The conductivity results show that dominant conduction mechanisms were hopping for both PPy/Bnt composite and irradiated samples due to wide range of localized states present near the Fermi level. Key words: Polypyrrole, bentonite, conducting composite, gamma irradiation. Polipirol/Bentonit İletken Kompozitine Radyasyon Etkilerinin Araştırılması Özet: Bu çalışmada, polipirol/bentonit (PPy/Bnt kompoziti, Bnt tabakaları arasında kimyasal oksidasyon polimerizasyonu yoluyla sentezlendi. Radyasyon uygulaması 60Co kaynağının kullanıldığı bir gama çemberi içerisinde hava ortamında gerçekleştirildi ve kompozite 40 kGy doz uygulandı. Kompozite radyasyon etkileri, FTIR, UV, TGA, XRD, SEM ve 290-410 K sıcaklık aralığında sıcaklığa bağlı elektriksel iletkenlik ölçümleri ile incelendi. Saf PPy/Bnt kompozitinin başlangıç bozunma sıcaklığı radyasyona uğramış PPy/Bnt kompozitinden daha yüksek olduğu bulundu. XRD desenlerine ait pik yoğunluğunun radyasyon ile değiştiği görüldü. Sıcaklığa bağlı iletkenlik ölçümlerinden radyasyonlanma sonucunda, PPy

  16. The Properties of Nano Silver (Ag-Geopolymer as Antibacterial Composite for Functional Surface Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armayani. M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to produce and characterize nano silver (Ag-geopolymer composite for functional surface materials. Geopolymer matrix was synthesized through alkali activation of metakaolin and nano silver was added into geopolymers paste with a mass of 0, 0.5 g, 1 g, 1.5 g and 2 g keeping the mass of metakaolin constant. The mixture was cured at 70°C/1 hour and stored for 7 days before conducting any measurements. The structure of the resulting composite was examined by using Rigaku Mini Flex II x-ray diffraction (XRD. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS was used to examine the morphology of the composite surface as well as the capability of the composite to isolate the growth of bacteria. The thermal properties of composites in terms of their working temperature and enthalpy were examined by using Perkin Elmer Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The heat resistance of composite was observed through calcination at 750°C for 18 hours. The results indicate that the resulting composites were able resist up 750°C. SEM examinations showed that nano Ag-geopolymer composites were effectively restraining the growth of bacteria. It is suggested that nano Ag-geopolymer composites are suitable for functional surface applications such as floor and wall, kitchen ware utensils, hospital instruments, art and decoration materials.

  17. Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Smart Soft Composite Actuators According to Material Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Min-Woo; Kim, Hyung-Il; Song, Sung-Hyuk; Ahn, Sung-Hoon [Seoul Nat’l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Fiber-reinforced polymer composites, which are made by combining a continuous fiber that acts as reinforcement and a homogeneous polymeric material that acts as a host, are engineering materials with high strength and stiffness and a lightweight structure. In this study, a shape memory alloy(SMA) reinforced composite actuator is presented. This actuator is used to generate large deformations in single lightweight structures and can be used in applications requiring a high degree of adaptability to various external conditions. The proposed actuator consists of numerous individual laminas of the glass-fiber fabric that are embedded in a polymeric matrix. To characterize its deformation behavior, the composition of the actuator was changed by changing the matrix material and the number of the glass-fiber fabric layers. In addition, current of various magnitudes were applied to each actuator to study the effect of the heating of SMA wires on applying current.

  18. Hydrogen bonds of sodium alginate/Antarctic krill protein composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Guo, Jing; Yu, Yue; An, Qingda; Wang, Liyan; Li, Shenglin; Huang, Xuelin; Mu, Siyang; Qi, Shanwei

    2016-05-20

    Sodium alginate/Antarctic krill protein composite material (SA/AKP) was successfully obtained by blending method. The hydrogen bonds of SA/AKP composite material were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectrum (HNMR). Experiment manifested the existence of intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in SA/AKP system; strength of intermolecular hydrogen bond enhanced with the increase of AKP in the composite material and the interaction strength of hydrogen bonding followed the order: OH…Ether O>OH…π>OH…N. The percentage of intermolecular hydrogen bond decreased with increase of pH. At the same time, the effect of hydrogen bonds on properties of the composite material was discussed. The increase of intermolecular hydrogen bonding led to the decrease of crystallinity, increase of apparent viscosity and surface tension, as well as obvious decrease of heat resistance of SA/AKP composite material. SA/AKP fiber SEM images and energy spectrum showed that crystallized salt was separated from the fiber, which possibly led to the fibrillation of the composite fibers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced electrical conductivity and hardness of silver-nickel composites by silver-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongmok; Sim, Jeonghyun; Baik, Seunghyun; Kim, Wonyoung; Moon, Chuldong; Cho, Wookdong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated electrical conductivity and Vickers hardness of Ag- and Ni-based composites prepared by powder metallurgy involving spark plasma sintering. The starting composition was Ag:Ni = 61:39 vol%, which provided an electrical conductivity of 3.30 × 10"5 S cm"−"1 and a hardness of 1.27 GPa. The addition of bare multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs, 1.45 vol%) increased hardness (1.31 GPa) but decreased electrical conductivity (2.99 × 10"5 S cm"−"1) and carrier mobility (11 cm"2 V"−"1 s"−"1) due to the formation of Ni_3C in the interface between the MWNTs and Ni during spark plasma sintering. The formation of Ni_3C was prevented by coating the surface of the nanotubes with Ag (nAgMWNTs), concomitantly increasing electrical conductivity (3.43 × 10"5 S cm"−"1) and hardness (1.37 GPa) of the sintered specimen (Ag:Ni:nAgMWNTs = 59.55:39:1.45 vol%). The electrical contact switching time (133 357) was also increased by 30%, demonstrating excellent feasibility as electrical contact materials for electric power industries. (paper)

  20. Verification and Validation of a Three-Dimensional Generalized Composite Material Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffarth, Canio; Harrington, Joseph; Rajan, Subramaniam D.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; DuBois, Paul; Blankenhorn, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    A general purpose orthotropic elasto-plastic computational constitutive material model has been developed to improve predictions of the response of composites subjected to high velocity impact. The three-dimensional orthotropic elasto-plastic composite material model is being implemented initially for solid elements in LS-DYNA as MAT213. In order to accurately represent the response of a composite, experimental stress-strain curves are utilized as input, allowing for a more general material model that can be used on a variety of composite applications. The theoretical details are discussed in a companion paper. This paper documents the implementation, verification and qualitative validation of the material model using the T800-F3900 fiber/resin composite material

  1. In situ preparation of NiS2/CoS2 composite electrocatalytic materials on conductive glass substrates with electronic modulation for high-performance counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Faxin; Wang, Jiali; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Yaqiang; Huang, Niu; Sun, Panpan; Fang, Liang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Xiaohua

    2018-04-01

    The electrocatalytic composite materials of honeycomb structure NiS2 nanosheets loaded with metallic CoS2 nanoparticles are in situ prepared on F doped SnO2 conductive glass (FTO) substrates used as counter electrodes of DSSCs through chemical bath deposition (CBD) and sulfidizing process. Single crystalline NiS2 honeycomb structure array lay a foundation for the large surface area of NiS2/CoS2 composite CEs. The formed NiS2/CoS2 nanointerface modulates electronic structure of composite CEs from the synergetic interactions between CoS2 nanoparticles and NiS2 nanosheets, which dramatically improves the electrocatalytic activity of NiS2/CoS2 composite CEs; Metallic CoS2 nanoparticles covering NiS2 nanosheets electrodes adjusts the electrodes' structure and then reduces the series resistance (Rs) and the Nernst diffusion resistance (Zw) of counter electrodes. The improvement of these areas greatly enhances the electrocatalytic performance of CEs and the short circuit current density (Jsc) and Fill factor (FF) of DSSCs. Impressively, the DSSC based on NiS2/CoS2-0.1 CE shows the best photovoltaic performance with photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 8.22%, which is 24.36% higher than that (6.61%) of the DSSC with Pt CE. And the NiS2/CoS2-0.1 CE also displays a good stability in the iodine based electrolyte. This work indicates that rational construction of composite electrocatalytic materials paves an avenue for high-performance counter electrodes of DSSCs.

  2. Proton Conducting Graphene Oxide/Chitosan Composite Electrolytes as Gate Dielectrics for New-Concept Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Du, Peifu; Wan, Changjin; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-09-30

    New-concept devices featuring the characteristics of ultralow operation voltages and low fabrication cost have received increasing attention recently because they can supplement traditional Si-based electronics. Also, organic/inorganic composite systems can offer an attractive strategy to combine the merits of organic and inorganic materials into promising electronic devices. In this report, solution-processed graphene oxide/chitosan composite film was found to be an excellent proton conducting electrolyte with a high specific capacitance of ~3.2 μF/cm 2 at 1.0 Hz, and it was used to fabricate multi-gate electric double layer transistors. Dual-gate AND logic operation and two-terminal diode operation were realized in a single device. A two-terminal synaptic device was proposed, and some important synaptic behaviors were emulated, which is interesting for neuromorphic systems.

  3. Cryogenic Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Candidate Materials for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, JIm; Canavan, Ed; Jahromi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Spacecraft and instruments on space missions are built using a wide variety of carefully-chosen materials. In addition to having mechanical properties appropriate for surviving the launch environment, these materials generally must have thermal conductivity values which meet specific requirements in their operating temperature ranges. Space missions commonly propose to include materials for which the thermal conductivity is not well known at cryogenic temperatures. We developed a test facility in 2004 at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center to measure material thermal conductivity at temperatures between 4 and 300 Kelvin, and we have characterized many candidate materials since then. The measurement technique is not extremely complex, but proper care to details of the setup, data acquisition and data reduction is necessary for high precision and accuracy. We describe the thermal conductivity measurement process and present results for several materials.

  4. Synthesis and thermal properties of the MA/HDPE composites with nano-additives as form-stable PCM with improved thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yaojie; Su, Di; Huang, Xiang; Alva, Guruprasad; Liu, Lingkun; Fang, Guiyin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MA/HDPE composites with nano-additives were prepared for thermal conductivity enhancement. • Microstructure and chemical structure of the FSPCM were analyzed. • Thermal properties and thermal reliability of the FSPCM were investigated. • Thermal conductivity of the FSPCM can be enhanced by adding NAO and NG. - Abstract: For the purpose of improving the thermal conductivity of the form–stable phase change materials (FSPCM), two types of nano–powders with high thermal conductivity were added into the samples. In the modified FSPCM, myristic acid (MA) was used as a solid–liquid phase change material (PCM), high density polyethylene (HDPE) acted as supporting material to prevent the leakage of the melted MA. Nano–Al 2 O 3 (NAO) and nano–graphite (NG) were the additives for thermal conductivity enhancement. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT–IR) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to analyze the microstructure, chemical structure and crystalline phase of the samples, respectively. Furthermore, the specific latent heat and phase transition temperature, thermal conductivity and thermal reliability were investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal conductivity meter and thermo–gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed that the MA was uniformly absorbed in the HDPE matrices and there was no leakage during the melting process when the mass fraction of the MA in the MA/HDPE composite was less than 70%. The DSC results revealed that the modified FSPCM have a constant phase change temperature and high specific latent heat. The thermal conductivity of the FSPCM was measured in the solid (30 °C) and liquid (60 °C) states of the MA. When the mass fraction of nano–powder additives is 12%, the thermal conductivities of the FSPCM increase by 95% (NAO) and 121% (NG) at 30 °C. It is anticipated that the FSPCM possess a potential application for thermal energy

  5. Low-activation structural ceramic composites for fusion power reactors: materials development and main design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.S.; Le Bars, N.; Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Salavy, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Development of advanced Low-Activation Materials (LAMs) with favourable short-term activation characteristics is discussed, for the use as structural materials in a fusion power reactor (in order to reduce the risk associated with a major accident, in particular those related with radio-isotopes release in the environment), and to try to approach the concept of an inherently safe reactor. LA Ceramics Composites (LACCs) are the most promising LAMs because of their relatively good thermo-mechanical properties. At present, SiC/SiC composite is the only LACC considered by the fusion community, and therefore is the one having the most complete data base. The preliminary design of a breeding blanket using SiC/SiC as structural material indicated that significant improvement of its thermal conductivity is required. (author) 11 refs.; 3 figs

  6. The efficiency of the use of composite materials in electrotechnical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)