WorldWideScience

Sample records for conducting polymer electrodes

  1. Conducting polymer coated neural recording electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alexander R.; Morgan, Simeon J.; Chen, Jun; Kapsa, Robert M. I.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2013-02-01

    Objective. Neural recording electrodes suffer from poor signal to noise ratio, charge density, biostability and biocompatibility. This paper investigates the ability of conducting polymer coated electrodes to record acute neural response in a systematic manner, allowing in depth comparison of electrochemical and electrophysiological response. Approach. Polypyrrole (Ppy) and poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) doped with sulphate (SO4) or para-toluene sulfonate (pTS) were used to coat iridium neural recording electrodes. Detailed electrochemical and electrophysiological investigations were undertaken to compare the effect of these materials on acute in vivo recording. Main results. A range of charge density and impedance responses were seen with each respectively doped conducting polymer. All coatings produced greater charge density than uncoated electrodes, while PEDOT-pTS, PEDOT-SO4 and Ppy-SO4 possessed lower impedance values at 1 kHz than uncoated electrodes. Charge density increased with PEDOT-pTS thickness and impedance at 1 kHz was reduced with deposition times up to 45 s. Stable electrochemical response after acute implantation inferred biostability of PEDOT-pTS coated electrodes while other electrode materials had variable impedance and/or charge density after implantation indicative of a protein fouling layer forming on the electrode surface. Recording of neural response to white noise bursts after implantation of conducting polymer-coated electrodes into a rat model inferior colliculus showed a general decrease in background noise and increase in signal to noise ratio and spike count with reduced impedance at 1 kHz, regardless of the specific electrode coating, compared to uncoated electrodes. A 45 s PEDOT-pTS deposition time yielded the highest signal to noise ratio and spike count. Significance. A method for comparing recording electrode materials has been demonstrated with doped conducting polymers. PEDOT-pTS showed remarkable low fouling during

  2. Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D

    2014-01-01

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that p-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel ...

  3. Conducting polymer electrodes for gel electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Bengtsson

    Full Text Available In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that π-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

  4. Conducting polymer electrodes for gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D

    2014-01-01

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that π-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

  5. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-05-16

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  6. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  7. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  8. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Marcisz, Honorata; Michalska, Agata; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof

    2005-12-01

    A novel construction of solution free (pseudo)reference electrodes, compatible with all-solid-state potentiometric indicator electrodes, has been proposed. These electrodes use conducting polymers (CP): polypyrrole (PPy) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Two different arrangements have been tested: solely based on CP and those where the CP phase is covered with a poly(vinyl chloride) based outer membrane of tailored composition. The former arrangement was designed to suppress or compensate cation- and anion-exchange, using mobile perchlorate ions and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) or dodecylbenzenesulfonate anions as immobilized dopants. The following systems were used: (i) polypyrrole layers doped simultaneously by two kinds of anions, both mobile and immobilized in the polymer layer; (ii) bilayers of polypyrrole with anion exchanging inner layer and cation-exchanging outer layer; (iii) polypyrrole doped by surfactant dodecylbenzenesulfonate ions, which inhibit ion exchange on the polymer/solution interface. For the above systems, recorded potentials have been found to be practically independent of electrolyte concentration. The best results, profound stability of potentials, have been obtained for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or polypyrrole doped by poly(4-styrenesulfonate) anions covered by a poly(vinyl chloride) based membrane, containing both anion- and cation-exchangers as well as solid potassium chloride and silver chloride with metallic silver. Differently to the cases (i)-(iii) these electrodes are much less sensitive to the influence of redox and pH interferences. This arrangement has been also characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry.

  9. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  10. Conducting polymer/carbon nanocoil composite electrodes for efficient supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we report for the first time, conducting polymer (polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY)) coated carbon nanocoils (CNCs) as efficient binder-free electrode materials for supercapacitors. CNCs act as a perfect backbone for the uniform distribution of the conducting polymers in the composites. In two electrode configuration, the samples exhibited high specific capacitance with the values reaching up to 360 and 202 F g -1 for PANI/CNCs and PPY/CNCs respectively. The values obtained for specific capacitance and maximum storage energy per unit mass of the composites were found to be comparable to one of the best reported values for polymer coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. In addition, the fabricated PANI/CNC based supercapacitors exhibited a high value of 44.61 Wh kg -1 for maximum storage energy per unit mass. Although the devices exhibit an initial capacitance loss due to the instability of the polymer, the specific capacitance stabilizes at a fixed value after 500 charge-discharge cycles. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

  12. Studies on conducting polymer and conducting polymerinorganic composite electrodes prepared via a new cathodic polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhilendra

    A novel approach for the electrodeposition of conducting polymers and conducting polymer-inorganic composite materials is presented. The approach shows that conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be electrodeposited by the application of a cathodic bias that generates an oxidizing agent, NO+, via the in-situ reduction of nitrate anions. This new cathodic polymerization method allows for the deposition of PPy and PEDOT as three dimensional, porous films composed of spherical polymer particles. The method is also suitable for the co-deposition of inorganic species producing conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. Such composites are used as high surface area electrodes in Li-ion batteries, electrochemical hydrogen evolution and in the development of various other conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. New Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes where Sn and Sb nanoparticles are well dispersed among the PPy framework are reported. These structures allow for decreased stress during expansion and contraction of the active material (Sn, Sb) during the alloying and de-alloying processes of a Li-ion battery anode, significantly alleviating the loss of active material due to pulverization processes. The new electrochemical synthesis mechanism allows for the fabrication of Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes directly from a conducting substrate and eliminates the use of binding materials and conducting carbon used in modern battery anodes, which significantly simplifies their fabrication procedures. Platinum (Pt) has long been identified as the most efficient catalyst for electrochemical water splitting, while nickel (Ni) is a cheaper, though less efficient alternative to Pt. A new morphology of PPy attained via the aforementioned cathodic deposition method allows for the use of minimal quantities of Pt and Ni dispersed over a very high surface area PPy substrate. These composite electrodes

  13. Effect of electrodes in the radiation induced conductivity for polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio Filho, R.; Gross, B.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of PET with 23 μm thickness were exposed to continuous X-rays and the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) as a function of time were measured, using electrodes of evaporated aluminum and gold. The results showed that the use of higher atomic number metal electrodes increase the received dose rate by sample, without almost modifying the time evolution of the RIC or its dependence with the applied electric field intensity. It is also showed that this increase is caused by the electrode placed in the face of the sample where the radiation strikes, as well as by the one placed in the oposite face. (author) [pt

  14. Investigation of ITO free transparent conducting polymer based electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Sapna, Sachdev, Kanupriya

    2016-05-01

    The last few decades have seen a significant improvement in organic semiconductor technology related to solar cell, light emitting diode and display panels. The material and structure of the transparent electrode is one of the major concerns for superior performance of devices such as OPV, OLED, touch screen and LCD display. Commonly used ITO is now restricted due to scarcity of indium, its poor mechanical properties and rigidity, and mismatch of energy levels with the active layer. Nowadays DMD (dielectric-metal-dielectric) structure is one of the prominent candidates as alternatives to ITO based electrode. We have used solution based spin coated polymer layer as the dielectric layer with silver thin film embedded in between to make a polymer-metal-polymer (PMP) structure for TCE applications. The PMP structure shows low resistivity (2.3 x 10-4Ω-cm), high carrier concentration (2.9 x 1021 cm-3) and moderate transparency. The multilayer PMP structure is characterized with XRD, AFM and Hall measurement to prove its suitability for opto-electronic device applications.

  15. Investigation of ITO free transparent conducting polymer based electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Vikas; Sapna,; Sachdev, Kanupriya

    2016-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a significant improvement in organic semiconductor technology related to solar cell, light emitting diode and display panels. The material and structure of the transparent electrode is one of the major concerns for superior performance of devices such as OPV, OLED, touch screen and LCD display. Commonly used ITO is now restricted due to scarcity of indium, its poor mechanical properties and rigidity, and mismatch of energy levels with the active layer. Nowadays DMD (dielectric-metal-dielectric) structure is one of the prominent candidates as alternatives to ITO based electrode. We have used solution based spin coated polymer layer as the dielectric layer with silver thin film embedded in between to make a polymer-metal-polymer (PMP) structure for TCE applications. The PMP structure shows low resistivity (2.3 x 10"−"4Ω-cm), high carrier concentration (2.9 x 10"2"1 cm"−"3) and moderate transparency. The multilayer PMP structure is characterized with XRD, AFM and Hall measurement to prove its suitability for opto-electronic device applications.

  16. Investigation of ITO free transparent conducting polymer based electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vikas; Sapna,; Sachdev, Kanupriya [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, JLN Marg, Jaipur-India-302017 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The last few decades have seen a significant improvement in organic semiconductor technology related to solar cell, light emitting diode and display panels. The material and structure of the transparent electrode is one of the major concerns for superior performance of devices such as OPV, OLED, touch screen and LCD display. Commonly used ITO is now restricted due to scarcity of indium, its poor mechanical properties and rigidity, and mismatch of energy levels with the active layer. Nowadays DMD (dielectric-metal-dielectric) structure is one of the prominent candidates as alternatives to ITO based electrode. We have used solution based spin coated polymer layer as the dielectric layer with silver thin film embedded in between to make a polymer-metal-polymer (PMP) structure for TCE applications. The PMP structure shows low resistivity (2.3 x 10{sup −4}Ω-cm), high carrier concentration (2.9 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}) and moderate transparency. The multilayer PMP structure is characterized with XRD, AFM and Hall measurement to prove its suitability for opto-electronic device applications.

  17. Optimization of mechanical performance of oxidative nano-particle electrode nitrile butadiene rubber conducting polymer actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baek-Chul; Park, S J; Cho, M S; Lee, Y; Nam, J D; Choi, H R; Koo, J C

    2009-12-01

    Present work delivers a systematical evaluation of actuation efficiency of a nano-particle electrode conducting polymer actuator fabricated based on Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR). Attempts are made for maximizing mechanical functionality of the nano-particle electrode conducting polymer actuator that can be driven in the air. As the conducting polymer polypyrrole of the actuator is to be fabricated through a chemical oxidation polymerization process that may impose certain limitations on both electrical and mechanical functionality of the actuator, a coordinated study for optimization process of the actuator is necessary for maximizing its performance. In this article actuation behaviors of the nano-particle electrode polypyrrole conducting polymer is studied and an optimization process for the mechanical performance maximization is performed.

  18. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Wang, Ruiqi; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid

  19. Injection molded chips with integrated conducting polymer electrodes for electroporation of cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristian; Hansen, Morten; Matschuk, Maria

    2010-01-01

    We present the design-concept for an all polymer injection molded single use microfluidic device. The fabricated devices comprise integrated conducting polymer electrodes and Luer fitting ports to allow for liquid and electrical access. A case study of low voltage electroporation of biological...

  20. Impedance study of tea with added taste compounds using conducting polymer and metal electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Mopsy; Kapur, Pawan; Ganguli, Abhijit; Singla, Madan Lal

    2012-09-01

    In this study the sensing capabilities of a combination of metals and conducting polymer sensing/working electrodes for tea liquor prepared by addition of different compounds using an impedance mode in frequency range 1 Hz-100 KHz at 0.1 V potential has been carried out. Classification of six different tea liquor samples made by dissolving various compounds (black tea liquor + raw milk from milkman), (black tea liquor + sweetened clove syrup), (black tea liquor + sweetened ginger syrup), (black tea liquor + sweetened cardamom syrup), (black tea liquor + sweet chocolate syrup) and (black tea liquor + vanilla flavoured milk without sugar) using six different working electrodes in a multi electrode setup has been studied using impedance and further its PCA has been carried out. Working electrodes of Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Glassy Carbon (GC) and conducting polymer electrodes of Polyaniline (PANI) and Polypyrrole (PPY) grown on an ITO surface potentiostatically have been deployed in a three electrode set up. The impedance response of these tea liquor samples using number of working electrodes shows a decrease in the real and imaginary impedance values presented on nyquist plots depending upon the nature of the electrode and amount of dissolved salts present in compounds added to tea liquor/solution. The different sensing surfaces allowed a high cross-selectivity in response to the same analyte. From Principal Component Analysis (PCA) plots it was possible to classify tea liquor in 3-4 classes using conducting polymer electrodes; however tea liquors were well separated from the PCA plots employing the impedance data of both conducting polymer and metal electrodes.

  1. THE ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF ANTIBODY-MODIFIED CONDUCTING POLYMER ELECTRODES. (R825323)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe modification of conducting polymer electrodes with antibodies (i.e. proteins) by means of electrochemical polymerization is a simple step that can be used to develop an immunological sensor. However, the electrochemical processes involved leading to the ge...

  2. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerender, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  3. Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang-Bae; Park, Sucheol; Hong, Jin-Who

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymers exhibit good mechanical and interfacial compatibility with plastic substrates. We prepared an optimized coating formulation based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl acrylate and fabricated a transparent electrode on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. The surface resistances and transmittance of the prepared thin films were 500-600 Ω/□ and 87% at 500 nm, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the conducting polymer electrode, we fabricated a five-layer flexible polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) device as a PET-PEDOT-PDLC-PEDOT-PET flexible film. The prepared PDLC device exhibited a low driving voltage (15 VAC), high contrast ratio (60:1), and high transmittance in the ON state (60%), characteristics that are comparable with those of conventional PDLC film based on indium tin oxide electrodes. The fabrication of conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes in this study showed that such films can be used as a substitute for an indium tin oxide electrode, which further enhances the flexibility of PDLC film

  4. Highly stable supercapacitors with conducting polymer core-shell electrodes for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2015-01-14

    Conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni) show a great potential as pseudocapacitor materials for electrochemical energy storage applications. Yet, the cycling instability of PAni resulting from structural alteration is a major hurdle to its commercial application. Here, the development of nanostructured PAni-RuO2 core-shell arrays as electrodes for highly stable pseudocapacitors with excellent energy storage performance is reported. A thin layer of RuO2 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on PAni nanofibers plays a crucial role in stabilizing the PAni pseudocapacitors and improving their energy density. The pseudocapacitors, which are based on optimized PAni-RuO2 core-shell nanostructured electrodes, exhibit very high specific capacitance (710 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and power density (42.2 kW kg-1) at an energy density of 10 Wh kg-1. Furthermore, they exhibit remarkable capacitance retention of ≈88% after 10 000 cycles at very high current density of 20 A g-1, superior to that of pristine PAni-based pseudocapacitors. This prominently enhanced electrochemical stability successfully demonstrates the buffering effect of ALD coating on PAni, which provides a new approach for the preparation of metal-oxide/conducting polymer hybrid electrodes with excellent electrochemical performance.

  5. All-solid-state ion-selective silicone rubber membrane electrodes with a new conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Rang; Chung, Yeon Joon; Hwang, Sun Woo

    2012-01-01

    New conducting polymers containing heterocyclic rings with carbazole, ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) and benzobisthiazole were synthesized and the characterized by using organic spectroscopic methods. Potentiometric ion-selective membrane electrodes (ISMEs) have been extensively used for ion analysis in clinical, environmental, and industrial fields owing to their wide response range (4 to 7 orders of magnitude), no effect of sample turbidity, fast response time, and ease of miniaturization. Considerable attention has been given to alternative use of room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV)-type silicone rubber (SR) owing to its strong adhesion and high thermal durability. Unfortunately, the high membrane resistance of SR-based ion-selective membranes (ISMs) (2 to 3 higher orders of magnitude compared to those of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)-based ones) has significantly restricted their application. Herein, we demonstrate a new method to reduce the membrane resistance via addition of a new conducting polymer into the SR-based ISMs.

  6. Vapor Phase Polymerization Deposition Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites on Porous Dielectric Surface as High Performance Electrode Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya jie Yang; Luning Zhang; Shibin Li; Zhiming Wang; Jianhua Xu; Wenyao Yang; Yadong Jiang

    2013-01-01

    We report chemical vapor phase polymerization(VPP) deposition of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT) and PEDOT/graphene on porous dielectric tantalum pentoxide(Ta2O5) surface as cathode films for solid tantalum electrolyte capacitors. The modified oxidant/oxidant-graphene films were first deposited on Ta2O5 by dip-coating, and VPP process was subsequently utilized to transfer oxidant/oxidant-graphene into PEDOT/PEDOT-graphene films. The SEM images showed PEDOT/PEDOT-graphene films was successfully constructed on porous Ta2O5 surface through VPP deposition, and a solid tantalum electrolyte capacitor with conducting polymer-graphene nano-composites as cathode films was constructed. The high conductivity nature of PEDOT-graphene leads to resistance decrease of cathode films and lower contact resistance between PEDOT/graphene and carbon paste. This nano-composite cathode films based capacitor showed ultralow equivalent series resistance(ESR) ca. 12 m? and exhibited excellent capacitance-frequency performance, which can keep 82% of initial capacitance at 500 KHz. The investigation on leakage current revealed that the device encapsulation process has no influence on capacitor leakage current, indicating the excellent mechanical strength of PEDOT/PEDOT-gaphene films. This high conductivity and mechanical strength of graphene-based polymer films shows promising future for electrode materials such as capacitors, organic solar cells and electrochemical energy storage devices.

  7. Freeze Drying Improves the Shelf-Life of Conductive Polymer Modified Neural Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri S. Mandal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Coating microelectrodes with conductive polymer is widely recognized to decrease impedance and improve performance of implantable neural devices during recording and stimulation. A concern for wide-spread use of this approach is shelf-life, i.e., the electrochemical stability of the coated microelectrodes prior to use. In this work, we investigated the possibility of using the freeze-drying process in order to retain the native low impedance state and, thereby, improve the shelf-life of conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT-PSS modified neural electrodes. Control PEDOT-PSS coated microelectrodes demonstrated a significant increase in impedance at 1 kHz after 41–50 days of room temperature storage. Based on equivalent circuit modeling derived from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, this increase in impedance could be largely attributed to a decrease in the interfacial capacitance consistent with a collapse and closing of the porous structure of the polymeric coating. Time-dependent electrochemical impedance measurements revealed higher stability of the freeze-dried coated microelectrodes compared to the controls, such that impedance values after 41–50 days appeared to be indistinguishable from the initial levels. This suggests that freeze drying PEDOT-PSS coated microelectrodes correlates with enhanced electrochemical stability during shelf storage.

  8. Vapor phase polymerization deposition of conducting polymer/graphene nanocomposites as high performance electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajie; Li, Shibin; Zhang, Luning; Xu, Jianhua; Yang, Wenyao; Jiang, Yadong

    2013-05-22

    In this paper, we report chemical vapor phase polymerization (VPP) deposition of novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/graphene nanocomposites as solid tantalum electrolyte capacitor cathode films. The PEDOT/graphene films were successfully prepared on porous tantalum pentoxide surface as cathode films through the VPP procedure. The results indicated that the high conductivity nature of PEDOT/graphene leads to the decrease of cathode films resistance and contact resistance between PEDOT/graphene and carbon paste. This nanocomposite cathode film based capacitor showed ultralow equivalent series resistance (ESR) ca. 12 mΩ and exhibited better capacitance-frequency performance than the PEDOT based capacitor. The leakage current investigation revealed that the device encapsulation process does not influence capacitor leakage current, indicating the excellent mechanical strength of PEDOT-graphene films. The graphene showed a distinct protection effect on the dielectric layer from possible mechanical damage. This high conductivity and mechanical strength graphene based conducting polymer nanocomposites indicated a promising application future for organic electrode materials.

  9. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  10. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur J.

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor overcoated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  11. Flexible and conductive waste tire-derived carbon/polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Boota, Muhammad; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-04-10

    A method of making a supercapacitor from waste tires, includes the steps of providing rubber pieces and contacting the rubber pieces with a sulfonation bath to produce sulfonated rubber; pyrolyzing the sulfonated rubber to produce a tire-derived carbon composite comprising carbon black embedded in rubber-derived carbon matrix comprising graphitized interface portions; activating the tire-derived carbon composite by contacting the tire-derived carbon composite with a specific surface area-increasing composition to increase the specific surface area of the carbon composite to provide an activated tire-derived carbon composite; and, mixing the activated tire-derived carbon composite with a monomer and polymerizing the monomer to produce a redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite. The redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite can be formed into a film. An electrode and a supercapacitor are also disclosed.

  12. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  13. Conductive polymer and Si nanoparticles composite secondary particles and structured current collectors for high loading lithium ion negative electrode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao

    2017-07-11

    Embodiments of the present invention disclose a composition of matter comprising a silicon (Si) nanoparticle coated with a conductive polymer. Another embodiment discloses a method for preparing a composition of matter comprising a plurality of silicon (Si) nanoparticles coated with a conductive polymer comprising providing Si nanoparticles, providing a conductive polymer, preparing a Si nanoparticle, conductive polymer, and solvent slurry, spraying the slurry into a liquid medium that is a non-solvent of the conductive polymer, and precipitating the silicon (Si) nanoparticles coated with the conductive polymer. Another embodiment discloses an anode comprising a current collector, and a composition of matter comprising a silicon (Si) nanoparticle coated with a conductive polymer.

  14. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  15. A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for catechol using conducting polymer reduced graphene oxide-metal oxide enzyme modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, V; Muthuraja, P; Anandha Raj, J; Manisankar, P

    2016-10-15

    The fabrication, characterization and analytical performances were investigated for a catechol biosensor, based on the PEDOT-rGO-Fe2O3-PPO composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The graphene oxide (GO) doped conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was prepared through electrochemical polymerization by potential cycling. Reduction of PEDOT-GO was carried out by amperometric method. Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol by hydrothermal method. The mixture of Fe2O3, PPO and glutaraldehyde was casted on the PEDOT-rGO electrode. The surface morphology of the modified electrodes was studied by FE-SEM and AFM. Cyclic voltammetric studies of catechol on the enzyme modified electrode revealed higher reduction peak current. Determination of catechol was carried out successfully by Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) technique. The fabricated biosensor investigated shows a maximum current response at pH 6.5. The catechol biosensor exhibited wide sensing linear range from 4×10(-8) to 6.20×10(-5)M, lower detection limit of 7×10(-9)M, current maxima (Imax) of 92.55µA and Michaelis-Menten (Km) constant of 30.48µM. The activation energy (Ea) of enzyme electrode is 35.93KJmol(-1) at 50°C. There is no interference from d-glucose and l-glutamic acid, ascorbic acid and o-nitrophenol. The PEDOT-rGO-Fe2O3-PPO biosensor was stable for at least 75 days when stored in a buffer at about 4°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly stable supercapacitors with conducting polymer core-shell electrodes for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xianbin; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wei, Nini; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    commercial application. Here, the development of nanostructured PAni-RuO2 core-shell arrays as electrodes for highly stable pseudocapacitors with excellent energy storage performance is reported. A thin layer of RuO2 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD

  17. Doping front migration in intrinsically conductive polymers and its electrochemical modulation by a separate electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, Afsaneh; Knoll, Meinhard

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We modify the doping front migration process. ► The migration velocity is controlled by a separate electrode. ► The process may be used in “best use before” labels. - Abstract: We demonstrate a new method of modifying the doping front migration process in multilayer structures, enabling the control of migration velocity. The presence of two interfaces in contact with the migration layer strongly affects the migration mechanism. Electrochemical switching of an electrode at one interface may be used to control the chemical doping front migration at the second interface. The process may be used to produce ultralow-cost devices acting as electronic “best use before” labels on food and drink or “use-by” labels on drugs. Control of the migration velocity may be used as a method for weighting storage conditions (i.e. opening of a package during the measurement period increases the migration velocity).

  18. Three novel electrochemical electrodes for the fabrication of conducting polymer/SWCNTs layered nanostructures and their thermoelectric performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Liu, Congcong; Jiang, Qinglin; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Baoyang; Jiang, Fengxing; Zhu, Zhengyou

    2015-06-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), PEDOT:PSS/SWCNTs, and SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS nanofilms were used as working electrodes to electrodeposit polyaniline (PANI) in a mixed alcohol solution of isopropyl alcohol (IPA), boron trifluoride ethyl ether (BFEE), and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The thermoelectric (TE) performances of the resulting nanofilms were systematically investigated. SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS/PANI nanofilms showed a relatively high electrical conductivity value of 232.0 S cm-1. The Seebeck coefficient was enhanced and exhibited the values of 33.8, 25.6, and 23.0 μV K-1 for the SWCNTs/PANI, PEDOT:PSS/SWCNTs/PANI, and SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS/PANI films, respectively. The maximum power factor achieved was 12.3 μW m-1 K-2. This technique offers a facile and versatile approach to a class of layered nanostructures, and it may provide a general strategy for fabricating a new generation of conducting polymer/SWCNTs materials for further practical applications.

  19. Three novel electrochemical electrodes for the fabrication of conducting polymer/SWCNTs layered nanostructures and their thermoelectric performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Hui; Liu, Congcong; Jiang, Qinglin; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Baoyang; Jiang, Fengxing; Zhu, Zhengyou

    2015-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), PEDOT:PSS/SWCNTs, and SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS nanofilms were used as working electrodes to electrodeposit polyaniline (PANI) in a mixed alcohol solution of isopropyl alcohol (IPA), boron trifluoride ethyl ether (BFEE), and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The thermoelectric (TE) performances of the resulting nanofilms were systematically investigated. SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS/PANI nanofilms showed a relatively high electrical conductivity value of 232.0 S cm"−"1. The Seebeck coefficient was enhanced and exhibited the values of 33.8, 25.6, and 23.0 μV K"−"1 for the SWCNTs/PANI, PEDOT:PSS/SWCNTs/PANI, and SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS/PANI films, respectively. The maximum power factor achieved was 12.3 μW m"−"1 K"−"2. This technique offers a facile and versatile approach to a class of layered nanostructures, and it may provide a general strategy for fabricating a new generation of conducting polymer/SWCNTs materials for further practical applications. (paper)

  20. Culture experiments on conductive polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells of the mouse connective tissue origin were sown on the surface of conductive polymer films (polypyrrole, PPy and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) in the cell culture medium, and the proliferative process of these cells was observed. Without changing the form, fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells were observed to proliferate almost similarly to the cell which cultured on a dish on the market and to maintain compatibility. In other word, it has been understood these two kinds of conductive polymers used in this study, the PEDOT films maintain the secretion function of the cell cultured on the surface of these polymers. Therefore, the PPy- and the PEDOT-coated electrode suggested the possibility usable as a nerve stimulation electrode with biocompatibility, because these polymers were effective to culture the cell.

  1. Fabrication of conducting polymer-gold nanoparticles film on electrodes using monolayer protected gold nanoparticles and its electrocatalytic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Palanisamy [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Dindigul (India); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, N1.3, B4-01, 70 Nanyang Drive, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); John, S. Abraham, E-mail: abrajohn@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Dindigul (India)

    2011-08-01

    We wish to report a simple and new strategy for the fabrication of gold nanoparticles-conducting polymer film on glassy carbon (GC) and indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces using 5-amino-2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole capped gold nanoparticles (AMT-AuNPs) in 0.01 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by electropolymerization. The presence of amine groups on the surface of the AuNPs was responsible for the deposition of the AMT-AuNPs film on the electrode surface. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies reveal that the fabricated p-AMT-AuNPs film showed homogeneously distributed AuNPs with a spherical shape of {approx}8 nm diameter. The XPS spectrum shows the binding energies at 83.8 and 87.5 eV in the Au 4f region corresponding to 4f{sub 7/2} and 4f{sub 5/2}, respectively. The position and difference between these two peaks (3.7 eV) exactly match the value reported for Au{sup 0}. The N1s XPS showed three binding energies at 396.7, 399.6 and 403.3 eV, corresponding to the =NH, -NH- and -N{sup +}H-, respectively, confirming that the electropolymerization proceeded through the oxidation of -NH{sub 2} groups present on the periphery of the AMT-AuNPs. The application of the present p-AMT-AuNPs modified electrode was demonstrated by studying the electro reduction of oxygen at pH 7.2. The p-AMT-AuNPs film enhanced the oxygen reduction current more than three times than that of p-AMT film prepared under identical conditions.

  2. A sensor for acetaminophen in a blood medium using a Cu(II)-conducting polymer complex modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathi, Mannan; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2004-01-01

    Complexation of Cu ions in a terthiophene carboxylic acid (TTCA) polymer film resulted an enhanced anodic current for acetaminophen oxidation when compared to polymer coated and bare glassy carbon electrodes in human blood and buffer media. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ESCA experiments indicate the involvement of copper in the electrocatalytic oxidation of acetaminophen. No interference was observed from other biologically important and phenolic compounds used with this modified electrode. Especially, the non-interference from N-acetylcysteine, an antidote for the treatment of acetaminophen poisoning, reveals the proposed method's superiority in medicinal applications. In addition, the present modified electrode avoids surface fouling at higher concentrations of acetaminophen. The calibration range obtained with CV was based between 2.0x10 -5 and 5.0x10 -3 M [r 2 =0.997 (n=5, R.S.D.=2.5%); DL=5.0x10 -6 M (S/N=3)]. The analytical utility of the modified electrode was achieved by analyzing the content of acetaminophen in different drugs without pretreatment using CV and amperometric techniques

  3. Conducting polymer hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 269-291 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aerogel * conducting polymers * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  4. Development of label-free impedimetric platform based on new conductive polyaniline polymer and three-dimensional interdigitated electrode array for biosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitechovič, E.; Bratov, A.; Abramova, N.; Razumienė, J.; Kirsanov, D.; Legin, A.; Lakshmi, D.; Piletsky, S.; Whitcombe, M.; Ivanova-Mitseva, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: Novel label-free impedimetric platform based on a three-dimensional interdigitated electrode array (3D-IDEA) sensor and new conductive polymer as a transducer for oxidoreductases is introduced. This platform is cost-effective, simple to construct and miniaturize. Monomer of conductive polymer N-(N’,N’-diethyldithiocarbamoylethylamidoethyl) aniline (AnD) was deposited onto 3D-IDEA by chemical polymerisation. It was found that the polymer film resistance depends on the redox-potential of the solution. For the first time polyAnD was used as enzyme immobilisation matrix. Pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ) dependent alcohol and glucose dehydrogenases were immobilized on 3D-IDEA covered with polyAnD by two different methods. 3D-IDEA sensors with enzymes, which were immobilised by physisorption on polyAnD layer, showed specific response in the presence of 1 μM of the corresponding substrates. Obtained results revealed that PQQ dependent dehydrogenases can re-oxidize on polyAnD via direct electron transfer (DET) from enzyme active site to the polymer surface. This process can be monitored by methods of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry. Presented study shows that EIS method gives a useful tool for research of re-oxidation process and interaction of electroactive enzymes with conducting materials giving information required to construct and develop analytical devices

  5. Modification of the Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Layer for Use in Silver Nanogrid Electrodes for Flexible Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Fei, Fei; Luo, Qun; Nie, Shuhong; Wu, Na; Chen, Xiaolian; Su, Wenming; Li, Yuanjie; Ma, Chang-Qi

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanogrid based flexible transparent electrode is recognized as the most promising alternative to ITO electrode for organic electronics, owing to its low production cost and excellent flexibility. Typically, a highly conductive thin film coating layer, such as highly conductive PEDOT:PSS (HC-PEDOT:PSS) is usually deposited onto the Ag-grid electrode to smooth the surface and to minimize the sheet resistance. In this paper, we found that inverted flexible polymer solar cells with structure of Ag-grid/HC-PEDOT:PSS/ZnO/photoactive layer/MoO 3 /Al generally exhibits strong S-shaped J-V curves, which could be eliminated by light-soaking treatment. Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) measurement proved that a large work function (WF) difference (0.70 eV) between HC-PEDOT:PSS and ZnO is the main reason for the formation of S-shape. White light soaking of the Ag-grid/HC-PEDOT:PSS gradually decreased the WF of HC-PEDOT:PSS from 5.10 to 4.60 eV, leading to a reduced WF difference between HC-PEDOT:PSS and ZnO from 0.70 to 0.38 eV. Such a WF difference decrease was believed to be the working mechanism for the light-soaking effect in this flexible device. Based on this finding, the HC-PEDOT:PSS solution was then modified by doping with polyethylenimine (PEI) and aqueous ammonia. The modified PEDOT:PSS film is characteristic of adjusting WF through varying PEI doping concentrations. By using such a modified PEDOT:PSS layer, light-soaking-free flexible inverted polymer solar cell with a power conversion efficiency of 6.58% was achieved for PTB7-Th:PC 71 BM cells. The current work provides a useful guideline for interfacial modification for Ag-grid based flexible electrode.

  6. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Conductive polymer composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a conductive polymer composition comprising graphene and the articles obtained by this process. The process comprises the following steps: A) contacting graphite oxide in an aqueous medium with a water-soluble or dispersible

  8. Design and synthesis of hierarchical MnO2 nanospheres/carbon nanotubes/conducting polymer ternary composite for high performance electrochemical electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ye; Cheng, Yingwen; Hobson, Tyler; Liu, Jie

    2010-07-14

    For efficient use of metal oxides, such as MnO(2) and RuO(2), in pseudocapacitors and other electrochemical applications, the poor conductivity of the metal oxide is a major problem. To tackle the problem, we have designed a ternary nanocomposite film composed of metal oxide (MnO(2)), carbon nanotube (CNT), and conducting polymer (CP). Each component in the MnO(2)/CNT/CP film provides unique and critical function to achieve optimized electrochemical properties. The electrochemical performance of the film is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, and constant-current charge/discharge cycling techniques. Specific capacitance (SC) of the ternary composite electrode can reach 427 F/g. Even at high mass loading and high concentration of MnO(2) (60%), the film still showed SC value as high as 200 F/g. The electrode also exhibited excellent charge/discharge rate and good cycling stability, retaining over 99% of its initial charge after 1000 cycles. The results demonstrated that MnO(2) is effectively utilized with assistance of other components (fFWNTs and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) in the electrode. Such ternary composite is very promising for the next generation high performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

  9. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  10. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  11. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  12. High-conductivity large-area semi-transparent electrodes for polymer photovoltaics by silk screen printing and vapour-phase deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, B.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    . We subsequently demonstrate the application of PEDOT electrodes to flexible polyethyleneterphthalate plastic substrates (PET) prepared by this procedure for polymer photovoltaic devices with active areas of 4.2cm(2) using a 1:4 w/w mixture of MEHPPV and PCBM. We obtain typical efficiencies of 0...

  13. Efficient recyclable organic solar cells on cellulose nanocrystal substrates with a conducting polymer top electrode deposited by film-transfer lamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinhua Zhou; Talha M. Khan; Jen-Chieh Liu; Canek Fuentes-Hernandez; Jae Won Shim; Ehsan Najafabadi; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Robert J. Moon; Bernard Kippelen

    2014-01-01

    We report on efficient solar cells on recyclable cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) substrates with a new device structure wherein polyethylenimine-modified Ag is used as the bottom electron-collecting electrode and high-conductivity poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, PH1000) is used as the semitransparent top holecollecting electrode. The...

  14. Smart Surface Chemistries of Conducting Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik

    In this thesis we investigate post-polymerization covalent modifications of poly(3,4-dioxythiophene (PEDOT)-type conducting polymers. The aim of the modifications is to gain specific control of the interaction between the material and living mammalian cells. The use of “click-chemistry” to modify...... a straightforward and in-expensive method for patterning conducting polymer thin films into microelectrodes, without losing control of the surface chemistry of the samples. On the contrary, the method provides direct control of the surface chemistry of both the fabricated micro-electrodes and the gaps between them....... The method is based on locally removing PEDOTtype polymers to expose underlying non-conducting functional polymer substrates. Thereby, multifunctional substrates are obtained. By applying this method, we are able to fabricate allpolymer micro-systems with multiple types of localized functional (bio...

  15. Interfaced conducting polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Savinov, Maxim; Petzelt, Jan; Prokeš, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 224, February (2017), s. 109-115 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : polyaniline * polypyrrole * poly(p-phenylenediamine) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Polymer science; Polymer science (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  16. Redox electrodes comprised of polymer-modified carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Emmett, Robert; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Physics Team; Clemson Chemical Engineering Team

    2013-03-01

    A shift in how we generate and use electricity requires new energy storage materials and systems compatible with hybrid electric transportation and the integration of renewable energy sources. Supercapacitors provide a solution to these needs by combining the high power, rapid switching, and exceptional cycle life of a capacitor with the high energy density of a battery. Our research brings together nanotechnology and materials chemistry to address the limitations of electrode materials. Paper electrodes fabricated with various forms of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, are modified with redox-polymers to increase the electrode's energy density while maintaining rapid discharge rates. In these systems, the carbon nanomaterials provide the high surface area, electrical conductivity, nanoscale and porosity, while the redox polymers provide a mechanism for charge storage through Faradaic charge transfer. The design of redox polymers and their incorporation into nanomaterial electrodes will be discussed with a focus on enabling high power and high energy density electrodes.

  17. Electrochemical properties of polypyrrole/polyfuran polymer composite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seong Keuck

    1998-01-01

    Poly pyrrole polymer(ppy) has an excellent electrical conductivity and can be easily polymerized on anode to give various morphology according to doped anion on electroactive sites. To improve the properties of brittleness, ageing and hydrophobicity, poly furan polymer(pfu) having a high initiation potential was anodically implanted in this porous ppy film matrix to get the Pt/ppy/pfu(x)type of polymer campsite electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance methods were used to these electrode, where PF 6 - , BF 4 - , and ClO 4 - ions were employed as dopants. The composition of the pfu(x) at the electrode was changed from 0 to 1.10, but the range was useful only at 0.1 to 0.2 as the redox electrode. The polymer composite electrode doped with PF 6 - was better in charge transfer resistance by a factor of 40 times and in double layer capacitance by a factor of 20 times than others. The charge transfer in the polymer film of the electrode was influenced on frequency change and equivalent circuit of this electrode had Warburg impedance including mass transfer

  18. Fabrication of Polymer Microneedle Electrodes Coated with Nanoporous Parylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaka, Yuya; Jun, Rina; Setia Prihandana, Gunawan; Miki, Norihisa

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of polymer microneedle electrodes covered with a nanoporous parylene film that can serve as flexible electrodes for a brain-machine interface. In brain wave measurement, the electric impedance of electrodes should be below 10 kΩ at 15 Hz, and the conductive layer needs to be protected to survive its insertion into the stratum corneum. Polymer microneedles can be used as substrates for flexible electrodes, which can compensate for the movement of the skin; however, the adhesion between a conductive metal film, such as a silver film, and a polymer, such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), is weak. Therefore, we coated the electrode surface with a nanoporous parylene film, following the vapor deposition of a silver film. When the porosity of the parylene film is appropriate, it protects the silver film while allowing the electrode to have sufficient conductivity. The porosity can be controlled by adjusting the amount of the parylene dimer used for the deposition or the parylene film thickness. We experimentally verified that a conductive membrane was successfully protected while maintaining a conductivity below 10 kΩ when the thickness of the parylene film was between 25 and 38 nm.

  19. Polymer-metal hybrid transparent electrodes for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongkyu; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Kwanghee

    2015-03-01

    Despite nearly two decades of research, the absence of ideal flexible and transparent electrodes has been the largest obstacle in realizing flexible and printable electronics for future technologies. Here we report the fabrication of ‘polymer-metal hybrid electrodes’ with high-performance properties, including a bending radius 95% and a sheet resistance solar cells that exhibit a high power conversion efficiency of 10% and polymer light-emitting diodes that can outperform those based on transparent conducting oxides.

  20. Electrode-Impregnable and Cross-Linkable Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Polymer Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity and a Large Voltage Window for Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Hee; Lee, Jang Yong; Suh, Dong Hack; Hong, Young Taik; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2017-10-04

    We present cross-linkable precursor-type gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) that have large ionic liquid uptake capability, can easily penetrate electrodes, have high ion conductivity, and are mechanically strong as high-performance, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (SC). Our polymer precursors feature a hydrophilic-hydrophobic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock main-chain structure and trifunctional silane end groups that can be multi-cross-linked with each other through a sol-gel process. The cross-linked solid-state electrolyte film with moderate IL content (200 wt %) shows a well-balanced combination of excellent ionic conductivity (5.0 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) and good mechanical stability (maximum strain = 194%). Moreover, our polymer electrolytes have various advantages including high thermal stability (decomposition temperature > 330 °C) and the capability to impregnate electrodes to form an excellent electrode-electrolyte interface due to the very low viscosity of the precursors. By assembling our GPE-impregnated electrodes and solid-state GPE film, we demonstrate an all-solid-state SC that can operate at 3 V and provides an improved specific capacitance (112.3 F g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), better rate capability (64% capacity retention until 20 A g -1 ), and excellent cycle stability (95% capacitance decay over 10 000 charge/discharge cycles) compared with those of a reference SC using a conventional PEO electrolyte. Finally, flexible SCs with a high energy density (22.6 W h kg -1 at 1 A g -1 ) and an excellent flexibility (>93% capacitance retention after 5000 bending cycles) can successfully be obtained.

  1. Actuator device utilizing a conductive polymer gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas A.; Irvin, David J.

    2004-02-03

    A valve actuator based on a conductive polymer gel is disclosed. A nonconductive housing is provided having two separate chambers separated by a porous frit. The conductive polymer is held in one chamber and an electrolyte solution, used as a source of charged ions, is held in the second chamber. The ends of the housing a sealed with a flexible elastomer. The polymer gel is further provide with electrodes with which to apply an electrical potential across the gel in order to initiate an oxidation reaction which in turn drives anions across the porous frit and into the polymer gel, swelling the volume of the gel and simultaneously contracting the volume of the electrolyte solution. Because the two end chambers are sealed the flexible elastomer expands or contracts with the chamber volume change. By manipulating the potential across the gel the motion of the elastomer can be controlled to act as a "gate" to open or close a fluid channel and thereby control flow through that channel.

  2. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  3. Electroencephalogram measurement using polymer-based dry microneedle electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Miyako; Nishinaka, Yuya; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report a successful electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement using polymer-based dry microneedle electrodes. The electrodes consist of needle-shaped substrates of SU-8, a silver film, and a nanoporous parylene protective film. Differently from conventional wet electrodes, microneedle electrodes do not require skin preparation and a conductive gel. SU-8 is superior as a structural material to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS; Dow Corning Toray Sylgard 184) in terms of hardness, which was used in our previous work, and facilitates the penetration of needles through the stratum corneum. SU-8 microneedles can be successfully inserted into the skin without breaking and could maintain a sufficiently low skin-electrode contact impedance for EEG measurement. The electrodes successfully measured EEG from the frontal pole, and the quality of acquired signals was verified to be as high as those obtained using commercially available wet electrodes without any skin preparation or a conductive gel. The electrodes are readily applicable to record brain activities for a long period with little stress involved in skin preparation to the users.

  4. Doped polymer electrodes for high performance ferroelectric capacitors on plastic substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, M. A.

    2012-10-03

    Flexible ferroelectric capacitors with doped polymer electrodes have been fabricated on plastic substrates with performance as good as metal electrodes. The effect of doping on the morphology of polymer electrodes and its impact on device performance have been studied. Improved fatigue characteristics using doped and undoped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes versus metal electrodes are observed. It is shown that the polymer electrodes follow classical ferroelectric and dielectric responses, including series resistance effects. The improved device characteristics obtained using highly conducting doped PEDOT:PSS suggest that it may be used both as an electrode and as global interconnect for all-polymer transparent circuits on flexible substrates.

  5. Method for producing nanowire-polymer composite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qibing; Yu, Zhibin

    2017-11-21

    A method for producing flexible, nanoparticle-polymer composite electrodes is described. Conductive nanoparticles, preferably metal nanowires or nanotubes, are deposited on a smooth surface of a platform to produce a porous conductive layer. A second application of conductive nanoparticles or a mixture of nanoparticles can also be deposited to form a porous conductive layer. The conductive layer is then coated with at least one coating of monomers that is polymerized to form a conductive layer-polymer composite film. Optionally, a protective coating can be applied to the top of the composite film. In one embodiment, the monomer coating includes light transducing particles to reduce the total internal reflection of light through the composite film or pigments that absorb light at one wavelength and re-emit light at a longer wavelength. The resulting composite film has an active side that is smooth with surface height variations of 100 nm or less.

  6. Molecular and supramolecular orientation in conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldissi, M.

    1987-01-01

    Intrinsic anisotropy in electrical and optical properties of conducting polymers constitutes a unique aspect that derives π-electron delocalization along the polymer backbone and from the weak inter-chain interaction. To acquire such an intrinsic property, conducting polymers have to be oriented macroscopically and microscopically (at the chain level). A review of the various techniques, including stretch-alignment of the polymer and of precursor polymers, polymerization in ordered media, i.e., in a liquid crystal solvent, and synthesis of liquid crystalline conducting polymers will be given. 29 refs

  7. Cu mesh for flexible transparent conductive electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Kyung; Lee, Seunghun; Hee Lee, Duck; Hee Park, In; Seong Bae, Jong; Woo Lee, Tae; Kim, Ji-Young; Hun Park, Ji; Chan Cho, Yong; Ryong Cho, Chae; Jeong, Se-Young

    2015-06-03

    Copper electrodes with a micromesh/nanomesh structure were fabricated on a polyimide substrate using UV lithography and wet etching to produce flexible transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs). Well-defined mesh electrodes were realized through the use of high-quality Cu thin films. The films were fabricated using radio-frequency (RF) sputtering with a single-crystal Cu target--a simple but innovative approach that overcame the low oxidation resistance of ordinary Cu. Hybrid Cu mesh electrodes were fabricated by adding a capping layer of either ZnO or Al-doped ZnO. The sheet resistance and the transmittance of the electrode with an Al-doped ZnO capping layer were 6.197 ohm/sq and 90.657%, respectively, and the figure of merit was 60.502 × 10(-3)/ohm, which remained relatively unchanged after thermal annealing at 200 °C and 1,000 cycles of bending. This fabrication technique enables the mass production of large-area flexible TCEs, and the stability and high performance of Cu mesh hybrid electrodes in harsh environments suggests they have strong potential for application in smart displays and solar cells.

  8. Electrode phenomena, tensor conductivity and electrode heating in seeded argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Z.; de Montardy, A.

    1963-04-15

    Contact potential drops along the electrodes often prevent measurements of ionized gas conductivity. In order to avoid such potential drops, a measurement cell using double probe technique was realized. By adding a third probe, it is also possible to measure the conductivity tensor components. Formulas commonly used are shown to be incorrect. In order to evaluate non- equilibrium conductivity, the excitation temperature of the seed is to be considered, rather than electron temperature, especially in small scale experiments, where charged particle losses by ambipolar diffusion are to be expected. (auth)

  9. Direct measurement of the microscale conductivity of conjugated polymer monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Grey, Francois; Hassenkam, T.

    2000-01-01

    The in-plane conductivity of conjugated polymer monolayers is mapped here for the first time on the microscale using a novel scanning micro four-point probe (see Figure). The probe allows the source, drain, and voltage electrodes to be positioned within the same domain and the mapping results...

  10. Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clare Kimblin; Kirk Miller; Bob Vogel; Bill Quam; Harry McHugh; Glen Anthony; Steve Jones; Mike Grover

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number

  11. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney; Burkhard, George F.; McGehee, Michael D.; Peumans, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2011-04-29

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Platform for Functional Conductive Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hoffmann, Christian; Lind, Johan Ulrik

    Conductive polymers have been studied extensively during recent years. In order to broaden the application field of conductive polymers different methods have been tested and recently an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-N3) was developed(1, 2). The azide functional...... conductive polymer can be postpolymerization functionalized to introduce a large number of functionalities through click chemistry(3). Through selection of reaction conditions it is possible control the depth of the reaction into the polymer film to the upper surface or the entire film(4). Thus a conductive...... polymer can be prepared with a subsurface layer of highly conductive polymer where only the upper surface has been grafted with functional groups to ensure selectivity of the surface layer for e.g. interaction with specific biospecies. The conductive polymer can be patterned using selective etching, which...

  14. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  15. An all-polymer micropump based on the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and a polyurethane channel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld; Hassager, Ole

    2007-01-01

    An all-polymer micropunlp was realized using the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDT) as the active cODlponent. The pUlnping effect originated fronl an ac potential applied to an aSylnlnetric array of interdigitat.ed electrodes. The PEDT electrodes were fabricated using...... of t.he conducting polylner electrodes by an insulating polYlTIer layer prevented electrode break-down at the cost of puolping efficiency. Continuous punlping for 40 nlin at 20 fJ..,m s-l without detectable pump degradation was delTIOnstrated in this configuration....

  16. EUGENOL POLYMER MODIFIED TITANIUM ELECTRODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CARBOCYSTEINE

    OpenAIRE

    S. EL QOUATLI; R. T. NGONO; R. NAJIH; A. CHTAINI

    2012-01-01

    A eugenol polymer immobilized electrode was developed for the assay of the carbocysteine compound. The electrochemical sensor was made by in situ electropolymerization of eugenol at titanium electrode. Cyclic voltamperometry at prepared electrode permitted to point out a reversible pattern for carbocysteine electrooxidation.

  17. EUGENOL POLYMER MODIFIED TITANIUM ELECTRODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CARBOCYSTEINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. EL QOUATLI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A eugenol polymer immobilized electrode was developed for the assay of the carbocysteine compound. The electrochemical sensor was made by in situ electropolymerization of eugenol at titanium electrode. Cyclic voltamperometry at prepared electrode permitted to point out a reversible pattern for carbocysteine electrooxidation.

  18. Prospects of conducting polymers in biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Bansi D.; Chaubey, Asha; Singh, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Applications of conducting polymers to biosensors have recently aroused much interest. This is because these molecular electronic materials offer control of different parameters such as polymer layer thickness, electrical properties and bio-reagent loading, etc. Moreover, conducting polymer based biosensors are likely to cater to the pressing requirements such as biocompatibility, possibility of in vivo sensing, continuous monitoring of drugs or metabolites, multi-parametric assays, miniaturization and high information density. This paper deals with the emerging trends in conducting polymer based biosensors during the last about 5 years

  19. Radiation cross-linking of PTC conductive polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doljack, F.A.; Jacobs, S.M.; Taylor, J.M.; McTavish, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical device comprising a PTC conductive polymer is irradiated so that it is very highly cross-linked. A dosage of at least 50 Mrads, preferably at least 80 Mrads, especially at least 120 Mrads is used except that where the device includes planar electrodes which are present during irradiation the minimum dose is 120 Mrads. In this way, for example, it is possible to make a circuit protection device which will continue to provide effective protection even after repeated exposure to a voltage of 200 volts. A PTC protection device may be produced by moulding carbon loaded polymer round three electrodes the centre one of which is then removed to leave an aperture between the other two electrodes. (author)

  20. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  1. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F., E-mail: Ferdinando-Bruno@uml.edu [US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Bernabei, Manuele [ITAF, Test Flight Centre, Chemistry Dept. Pratica di Mare AFB, 00071 Pomezia (Rome), Italy (UE) (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  2. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  3. Rapid synthesis of flexible conductive polymer nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, C O; Sotiriou, G A; Pratsinis, S E

    2015-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposite films with nanoparticle-specific properties are sought out in novel functional materials and miniaturized devices for electronic and biomedical applications. Sensors, capacitors, actuators, displays, circuit boards, solar cells, electromagnetic shields and medical electrodes rely on flexible, electrically conductive layers or films. Scalable synthesis of such nanocomposite films, however, remains a challenge. Here, flame aerosol deposition of metallic nanosliver onto bare or polymer-coated glass substrates followed by polymer spin-coating on them leads to rapid synthesis of flexible, free-standing, electrically conductive nanocomposite films. Their electrical conductivity is determined during their preparation and depends on substrate composition and nanosilver deposition duration. Accordingly, thin (<500 nm) and flexible nanocomposite films are made having conductivity equivalent to metals (e.g. 5  × 10 4 S cm −1 ), even during repetitive bending. (paper)

  4. Conducting polymer nanocomposite-based supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Soon Yee; Walsh, Darren A.; Chen, George Z.

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanocomposites of electronically-conducting polymers for supercapacitors has increased significantly over the past years, due to their high capacitances and abilities to withstand many charge-discharge cycles. We have recently been investigating the use of nanocomposites of electronically-conducting polymers containing conducting and non-conducting nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and cellulose nanocrystals, for use in supercapacitors. In this contribution, we provide a summa...

  5. Electrochemical Switching of Conductance with Diarylethene-Based Redox-Active Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logtenberg, Hella; van der Velde, Jasper H. M.; de Mendoza, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Reversible switching of conductance using redox triggered switching of a polymer-modified electrode is demonstrated. A bifunctional monomer comprising a central electroswitchable core and two bithiophene units enables formation of a film through anodic electropolymerization. The conductivity...... of the polymer can be switched electrochemically in a reversible manner by redox triggered opening and closing of the diarylethene unit. In the closed state, the conductivity of the modified electrode is higher than in the open state....

  6. Integration of conducting polymer network in non-conductive polymer substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Anew method for integration ofconjugated, inherently conducting polymers into non-conductive polymer substrates has been developed. Alayer of the conducting polymer is polymerised by chemical oxidation, e.g. using Fe(ID) p-toluene sulfonate (ferri tosylate) followed by washing with a solvent which...... simultaneously removes residual and spent oxidant and at the same time dissolves the top layer of the polymer substrate. This results in an integration of the conducting polymer into the surface layers of the polymer substrate. Several combinations of conducting polymers and substrates have been tested...... absorption during sequential reactive ion etching has allowed for analysis of the PEDOT distribution within the surface layer of thePMMA substrate. The surface resistance ofthe conducting polymer layer remains low while the surface layer at the same time adapts some of the mechanical properties...

  7. Conductive polymer/superconductor bilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDevitt, J.T.; Haupt, S.G.; Riley, D.R.; Zhao, J.; Grassi, J.; Lo, R.K.; Jones, C.

    1994-01-01

    The preparation of a hybrid conducting polymer/high-temperature superconductor device consisting of a polypyrrole-coated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-∂ microbridge is reported. Electrochemical techniques are exploited to alter the oxidation state of the polymer and, in doing so, it is found for the first time that superconductivity can be modulated in a controllable and reproducible fashion by a polymer layer. Whereas the neutral (insulating) polypyrrole only slightly influences the electrical properties of the underlying YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-∂ film, the oxidized (conductive) polymer depresses Tc by up to 50K. In a similar fashion, the oxidation state of the polymer is found to modulate reversibly the magnitude of J c , the superconducting critical current. Thus, a new type of molecular switch for controlling superconductivity is demonstrated. Electrochemical, resistance vs. temperature, conact resistance, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements are utilized to explore the polymer/superconductor interactions

  8. Interpenetrating networks of two conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of two conjugated polymers are prepared by a combination of a chemical oxidation step and a vapour phase polymerisation step on non-conducting surfaces. In this work ferric tosylate was used as the oxidant as it gives very smooth and homogeneous coatings, and beca......Interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of two conjugated polymers are prepared by a combination of a chemical oxidation step and a vapour phase polymerisation step on non-conducting surfaces. In this work ferric tosylate was used as the oxidant as it gives very smooth and homogeneous coatings......, and because its reaction products can be removed efficiently after the formation of the composite. Several combinations of polymers are demonstrated, and the versatility of the proposed method allows extensions to a wide range of conjugated polymers. The IPNs show optical and electrochemical characteristics......, which are sums of the characteristics from the participating conducting polymers....

  9. Conducting polymers as sorbents of influenza viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanova, V. T.; Garina, E. O.; Burtseva, E. I.; Kirillova, E. S.; Ivanova, M. V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Sapurina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 495-503 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14199 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : influenza viruses * conducting polymers * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  10. Electrochemical sensors based on polyconjugated conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotti, G. (Ist. di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy))

    1992-09-01

    An overview of the applications of polyconjugated conducting polymers to electrochemical sensors is given. Gas sensors, ion sensors, and biosensors (non-enzyme and enzyme sensors) are presented and discussed. The role of the polymer as enzyme host and mediator of charge transfer is particularly emphasized in the light of recent results. (orig.).

  11. Emerging Transparent Conducting Electrodes for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Bin Song

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs have attracted much attention in recent years as next generation lighting and displays, due to their many advantages, including superb performance, mechanical flexibility, ease of fabrication, chemical versatility, etc. In order to fully realize the highly flexible features, reduce the cost and further improve the performance of OLED devices, replacing the conventional indium tin oxide with better alternative transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs is a crucial step. In this review, we focus on the emerging alternative TCE materials for OLED applications, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs, metallic nanowires, conductive polymers and graphene. These materials are selected, because they have been applied as transparent electrodes for OLED devices and achieved reasonably good performance or even higher device performance than that of indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Various electrode modification techniques and their effects on the device performance are presented. The effects of new TCEs on light extraction, device performance and reliability are discussed. Highly flexible, stretchable and efficient OLED devices are achieved based on these alternative TCEs. These results are summarized for each material. The advantages and current challenges of these TCE materials are also identified.

  12. Inkjet Printing of Back Electrodes for Inverted Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Andriessen, Ronn

    2013-01-01

    in an otherwise fast roll-to-roll production line. In this paper, the applicability of inkjet printing in the ambient processing of back electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells with the structure ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ Ag is investigated. Furthermore, the limitation of screen printing, the commonly......Evaporation is the most commonly used deposition method in the processing of back electrodes in polymer solar cells used in scientifi c studies. However, vacuum-based methods such as evaporation are uneconomical in the upscaling of polymer solar cells as they are throughput limiting steps...... employed method in the ambient processing of back electrode, is demonstrated and discussed. Both inkjet printing and screen printing of back electrodes are studied for their impact on the photovoltaic properties of the polymer solar cells measured under 1000 Wm−2 AM1.5. Each ambient processing technique...

  13. Conductive polymer switch for controlling superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDevitt, J.T.; Haupt, S.G.; Riley, D.R.; Zhao, J.; Grassi, J.; Lo, K.; Jones, C.

    1994-01-01

    The preparation of a hybrid conducting polymer/high-temperature superconductor device consisting of a polypyrrole coated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ microbridge is reported. Electrochemical techniques are exploited to alter the oxidation state of the polymer and, in doing so, it is found for the first time that superconductivity can be modulated in a controllable and reproducible fashion by a polymer layout. Whereas the neutral (insulating) polypyrrole only slightly influences the electrical properties of the underlying YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ film, the oxidized (conductive) polymer depresses T c by up to 50K. In a similar fashion, the oxidation state of the polymer is found to reversibly modulate the magnitude of J c , the superconducting critical current. Thus, a new type of molecule switch for controlling superconductivity is demonstrated

  14. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conducting polymers; LB films; biosensor microactuators; monolayers. ... have been projected for applications for a wide range of biomolecular electronic devices such as optical, electronic, drug-delivery, memory and biosensing devices.

  15. Robust solid polymer electrolyte for conducting IPN actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festin, Nicolas; Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cédric; Teyssié, Dominique; Chevrot, Claude; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as first component and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as second component were synthesized and used as a solid polymer electrolyte film in the design of a mechanically robust conducting IPN actuator. IPN mechanical properties and morphologies were mainly investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. For 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (EMITFSI) swollen IPNs, conductivity values are close to 1 × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 ° C. Conducting IPN actuators have been synthesized by chemical polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) within the PEO/NBR IPN. A pseudo-trilayer configuration has been obtained with PEO/NBR IPN sandwiched between two interpenetrated PEDOT electrodes. The robust conducting IPN actuators showed a free strain of 2.4% and a blocking force of 30 mN for a low applied potential of ±2 V. (paper)

  16. Robust solid polymer electrolyte for conducting IPN actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festin, Nicolas; Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cédric; Teyssié, Dominique; Chevrot, Claude; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as first component and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as second component were synthesized and used as a solid polymer electrolyte film in the design of a mechanically robust conducting IPN actuator. IPN mechanical properties and morphologies were mainly investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. For 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (EMITFSI) swollen IPNs, conductivity values are close to 1 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 ° C. Conducting IPN actuators have been synthesized by chemical polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) within the PEO/NBR IPN. A pseudo-trilayer configuration has been obtained with PEO/NBR IPN sandwiched between two interpenetrated PEDOT electrodes. The robust conducting IPN actuators showed a free strain of 2.4% and a blocking force of 30 mN for a low applied potential of ±2 V.

  17. Functionalization of silicon nanowires by conductive and non-conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhousse, S.; Tighilt, F.-Z.; Sam, S.; Lasmi, K.; Hamdani, K.; Tahanout, L.; Megherbi, F.; Gabouze, N.

    2017-11-01

    The work reports on the development of hybrid devices based on silicon nanowires (SiNW) with polymers and the difference obtained when using conductive and non-conductive polymers. SiNW have attracted much attention due to their importance in understanding the fundamental properties at low dimensionality as well as their potential application in nanoscale devices as in field effect transistors, chemical or biological sensors, battery electrodes and photovoltaics. SiNW arrays were formed using metal assisted chemical etching method. This process is simple, fast and allows obtaining a wide range of silicon nanostructures. Hydrogen-passivated SiNW surfaces show relatively poor stability. Surface modification with organic species confers the desired stability and enhances the surface properties. For this reason, this work proposes a covalent grafting of organic material onto SiNW surface. We have chosen a non-conductive polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and conductive polymers polythiophene (PTh) and polypyrrole (PPy), in order to evaluate the electric effect of the polymers on the obtained materials. The hybrid structures were elaborated by the polymerization of the corresponding conjugated monomers by electrochemical route; this electropolymerization offers several advantages such as simplicity and rapidity. SiNW functionalization by conductive polymers has shown to have a huge effect on the electrical mobility. Hybrid surface morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and contact angle measurements.

  18. Conducting polymer nanowire arrays for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wu, Haiping; Meng, Yuena; Wei, Zhixiang

    2014-01-15

    This Review provides a brief summary of the most recent research developments in the fabrication and application of one-dimensional ordered conducting polymers nanostructure (especially nanowire arrays) and their composites as electrodes for supercapacitors. By controlling the nucleation and growth process of polymerization, aligned conducting polymer nanowire arrays and their composites with nano-carbon materials can be prepared by employing in situ chemical polymerization or electrochemical polymerization without a template. This kind of nanostructure (such as polypyrrole and polyaniline nanowire arrays) possesses high capacitance, superior rate capability ascribed to large electrochemical surface, and an optimal ion diffusion path in the ordered nanowire structure, which is proved to be an ideal electrode material for high performance supercapacitors. Furthermore, flexible, micro-scale, threadlike, and multifunctional supercapacitors are introduced based on conducting polyaniline nanowire arrays and their composites. These prototypes of supercapacitors utilize the high flexibility, good processability, and large capacitance of conducting polymers, which efficiently extend the usage of supercapacitors in various situations, and even for a complicated integration system of different electronic devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Efficient polymer solar cells on opaque substrates with a Laminated PEDOT : PSS top electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, D.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Solution processed polymer:fullerene solar cells on opaque substrates have been fabricated in conventional and inverted device configurations. Opaque substrates, such as insulated steel and metal covered glass, require a transparent conducting top electrode. We demonstrate that a high conducting

  20. Effect of porosity and tortuosity of electrodes on carbon polymer soft actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sunjai Nakshatharan; Punning, Andres; Johanson, Urmas; Aabloo, Alvo

    2018-01-01

    This work presents an electro-mechanical model and simulation of ionic electroactive polymer soft actuators with a porous carbon electrode, polymer membrane, and ionic liquid electrolyte. An attempt is made to understand the effects of specific properties of the porous electrodes such as porosity and tortuosity on the charge dynamics and mechanical performance of the actuator. The model uses porous electrode theory to study the electrochemical response of the system. The mechanical response of the whole laminate is attributed to the evolution of local stresses caused by diffusion of ions (diffusion-induced stresses or chemical stresses). The model indicates that in actuators with porous electrode, the diffusion coefficient of ions, conductivity of the electrodes, and ionic conductivity in both electrodes and separator are altered significantly. In addition, the model leads to an obvious deduction that the ions that are highly active in terms of mobility will dominate the whole system in terms of resulting mechanical deformation direction and rate of deformation. Finally, to validate the model, simulations are conducted using the finite element method, and the outcomes are compared with the experimental data. Significant effort has been put forward to experimentally measure the key parameters essential for the validation of the model. The results show that the model developed is able to well predict the behavior of the actuator, providing a comprehensive understanding of charge dynamics in ionic polymer actuator with porous electrodes.

  1. Conducting polymers: Synthesis and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Conducting Polymer project funded by the AIM Materials Program is developing new methods for the synthesis of electronically conducting polymers and is evaluating new industrial applications for these materials which will result in significant reductions in energy usage or industrial waste. The applications specifically addressed during FY 1994 are electrochemical capacitors and membranes for gas separation. As an active material in electrochemical capacitors, conducting polymers have the potential of storing large amounts of electrical energy in low cost materials. Such devices are needed in electronics for power failure back-up and peak power, in power supplies for filtering, and in electric vehicles for peak power and load leveling. As a gas electrically adapt the membrane for specific gas combinations. Potential energy savings in the US. for this application are estimated at 1 to 3 quads/yr.

  2. Electrical performance of polymer ferroelectric capacitors fabricated on plastic substrate using transparent electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj

    2012-09-01

    Polymer-based flexible ferroelectric capacitors have been fabricated using a transparent conducting oxide (ITO) and a transparent conducting polymer (PEDOT:PSS). It is found that the polarization fatigue performance with transparent oxide electrodes exhibits a significant improvement over the polymer electrodes (20% vs 70% drop in polarization after 10 6 cycles). This result can be explained based on a charge injection model that is controlled by interfacial band-offsets, and subsequent pinning of ferroelectric domain walls by the injected carriers. Furthermore, the coercive field (E c) of devices with our polymer electrodes is nearly 40% lower than reported values with similar polymer electrodes. Surprisingly, this difference was found to be related to the dry etching process used to define the top electrodes, which is reported for the first time by this group. The temperature dependence of relative permittivity of both devices shows a typical first order ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition, but with a reduced Curie temperature compared to reference devices fabricated on Pt. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrical performance of polymer ferroelectric capacitors fabricated on plastic substrate using transparent electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj; Khan, Yasser; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer-based flexible ferroelectric capacitors have been fabricated using a transparent conducting oxide (ITO) and a transparent conducting polymer (PEDOT:PSS). It is found that the polarization fatigue performance with transparent oxide electrodes exhibits a significant improvement over the polymer electrodes (20% vs 70% drop in polarization after 10 6 cycles). This result can be explained based on a charge injection model that is controlled by interfacial band-offsets, and subsequent pinning of ferroelectric domain walls by the injected carriers. Furthermore, the coercive field (E c) of devices with our polymer electrodes is nearly 40% lower than reported values with similar polymer electrodes. Surprisingly, this difference was found to be related to the dry etching process used to define the top electrodes, which is reported for the first time by this group. The temperature dependence of relative permittivity of both devices shows a typical first order ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition, but with a reduced Curie temperature compared to reference devices fabricated on Pt. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of conductive electroactive polymer polyaniline on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conductive electroactive polymer polyaniline is utilized to substitute conductive additive acetylene black in the LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 cathode for lithium ion batteries. Results show that LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 possesses stable structure and good performance. Percolation theory is used to optimize the content of conductive additive ...

  5. Advanced Proton Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han

    Research on solid electrochemical energy storage devices aims to provide high performance, low cost, and safe operation solutions for emerging applications from flexible consumer electronics to microelectronics. Polymer electrolytes, minimizing device sealing and liquid electrolyte leakage, are key enablers for these next-generation technologies. In this thesis, a novel proton-conducing polymer electrolyte system has been developed using heteropolyacids (HPAs) and polyvinyl alcohol for electrochemical capacitors. A thorough understanding of proton conduction mechanisms of HPAs together with the interactions among HPAs, additives, and polymer framework has been developed. Structure and chemical bonding of the electrolytes have been studied extensively to identify and elucidate key attributes affecting the electrolyte properties. Numerical models describing the proton conduction mechanism have been applied to differentiate those attributes. The performance optimization of the polymer electrolytes through additives, polymer structural modifications, and synthesis of alternative HPAs has achieved several important milestones, including: (a) high proton mobility and proton density; (b) good ion accessibility at electrode/electrolyte interface; (c) wide electrochemical stability window; and (d) good environmental stability. Specifically, high proton mobility has been addressed by cross-linking the polymer framework to improve the water storage capability at normal-to-high humidity conditions (e.g. 50-80% RH) as well as by incorporating nano-fillers to enhance the water retention at normal humidity levels (e.g. 30-60% RH). High proton density has been reached by utilizing additional proton donors (i.e. acidic plasticizers) and by developing different HPAs. Good ion accessibility has been achieved through addition of plasticizers. Electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte system has also been investigated and expanded by utilizing HPAs with different heteroatoms

  6. Conductivity behaviour of polymer gel electrolytes: Role of polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of a container that can hold a large amount of solvent and as a result possesses the ... having high value of conductivity results in polymer gel electrolytes. They are ..... the availability of free ions provided by the acid. It gene- rally reaches a ...

  7. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Characterization of conducting polymers has been considered to be very .... and CH4) on surface plasmon resonance of Langmuir–Blodgett films of ..... [37] D G Zhu, M C Petty, H Ancelin and J Yarwood, Thin Solid Films 176, 151 (1989).

  8. Nanomembranes and Nanofibers from Biodegradable Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Puiggalí

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a current status report of the field concerning preparation of fibrous mats based on biodegradable (e.g., aliphatic polyesters such as polylactide or polycaprolactone and conducting polymers (e.g., polyaniline, polypirrole or polythiophenes. These materials have potential biomedical applications (e.g., tissue engineering or drug delivery systems and can be combined to get free-standing nanomembranes and nanofibers that retain the better properties of their corresponding individual components. Systems based on biodegradable and conducting polymers constitute nowadays one of the most promising solutions to develop advanced materials enable to cover aspects like local stimulation of desired tissue, time controlled drug release and stimulation of either the proliferation or differentiation of various cell types. The first sections of the review are focused on a general overview of conducting and biodegradable polymers most usually employed and the explanation of the most suitable techniques for preparing nanofibers and nanomembranes (i.e., electrospinning and spin coating. Following sections are organized according to the base conducting polymer (e.g., Sections 4–6 describe hybrid systems having aniline, pyrrole and thiophene units, respectively. Each one of these sections includes specific subsections dealing with applications in a nanofiber or nanomembrane form. Finally, miscellaneous systems and concluding remarks are given in the two last sections.

  9. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  10. Gyroid nanoporous scaffold for conductive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Schulte, Lars; Zhang, Weimin

    2011-01-01

    Conductive nanoporous polymers with interconnected large surface area have been prepared by depositing polypyrrole onto nanocavity walls of nanoporous 1,2-polybutadiene films with gyroid morphology. Vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole was used to generate ultrathin films and prevent pore blocking...

  11. Conductive Polymer Functionalization by Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren; Hansen, Thomas Steen

    2008-01-01

    Click chemistry is used to obtain new conductive polymer films based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) from a new azide functional monomer. Postpolymerization, 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions in DMF, using a catalyst system of CUS04 and sodium ascorbate, and different alkynes are performed...

  12. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2017-10-17

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  13. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2015-07-21

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  14. Color combination of conductive polymers for black electrochromism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Haijin; Kim, Yuna; Bhuvana, Thiruvelu; Lee, Jiyea; Yang, Xu; Park, Cheolmin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2012-01-01

    Conducting polymers that absorb three primary colors, red, green, and blue (RGB), were introduced with a yellow electrochromic polymer (Y) for the preparation of black electrochromic devices. Red poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and blue poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were coated on one side of the electrode as a cathodically coloring electrochromic (EC) layer, while green poly(aniline-N-butylsulfonate) (PANBS) and yellow EC poly{[1,3-bis(9',9'-dihexylfluoren-20-yl)azulenyl]-alt-[2",7"-(9",9"-dihexylfluorenyl]} (PDHFA) were coated on the opposite electrode to complete a complementary EC device. The yellow PDHFA layer effectively compensated for absorption below 450 nm and above the 600 nm region, which was lacking in the RGB electrode. The resultant RGBY ECD provided a black color near the CIE black with L*, a*, and b* values of 32, -1.1, and 3.7, respectively, covering a broad absorption in the visible range in the colored state. The state of the black EC device was maintained, even after the electricity was turned off for 200 h, showing stable memory effect. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  16. A review study of (bio)sensor systems based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Murat

    2013-05-01

    This review article concentrates on the electrochemical biosensor systems with conducting polymers. The area of electro-active polymers confined to different electrode surfaces has attracted great attention. Polymer modified carbon substrate electrodes can be designed through polymer screening to provide tremendous improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, stability and reproducibility of the electrode response to detect a variety of analytes. The electro-active films have been used to entrap different enzymes and/or proteins at the electrode surface, but without obvious loss of their bioactivity for the development of biosensors. Electropolymerization is a well-known technique used to immobilize biomaterials to the modified electrode surface. Polymers might be covalently bonding to enzymes or proteins; therefore, thickness, permeation and charge transport characteristics of the polymeric films can be easily and precisely controlled by modulating the electrochemical parameters for various electrochemical techniques, such as chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, and differential pulse voltammetry. This review article is divided into three main parts as given in the table of contents related to the immobilization process of some important conducting polymers, polypyrrole, polythiophene, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), polycarbazole, polyaniline, polyphenol, poly(o-phenylenediamine), polyacetylene, polyfuran and their derivatives. A total of 216 references are cited in this review article. The literature reviewed covers a 7 year period beginning from 2005. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A practical multilayered conducting polymer actuator with scalable work output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Kimiya; John, Stephen; Yokoyama, Kazuo; Nagamitsu, Sachio

    2009-01-01

    Household assistance robots are expected to become more prominent in the future and will require inherently safe design. Conducting polymer-based artificial muscle actuators are one potential option for achieving this safety, as they are flexible, lightweight and can be driven using low input voltages, unlike electromagnetic motors; however, practical implementation also requires a scalable structure and stability in air. In this paper we propose and practically implement a multilayer conducting polymer actuator which could achieve these targets using polypyrrole film and ionic liquid-soaked separators. The practical work density of a nine-layer multilayer actuator was 1.4 kJ m −3 at 0.5 Hz, when the volumes of the electrolyte and counter electrodes were included, which approaches the performance of mammalian muscle. To achieve air stability, we analyzed the effect of air-stable ionic liquid gels on actuator displacement using finite element simulation and it was found that the majority of strain could be retained when the elastic modulus of the gel was kept below 3 kPa. As a result of this work, we have shown that multilayered conducting polymer actuators are a feasible idea for household robotics, as they provide a substantial practical work density in a compact structure and can be easily scaled as required

  18. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  19. Applications of oligomers for nanostructured conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Tran, Henry D; Kaner, Richard B

    2011-01-03

    This Feature Article provides an overview of the distinctive nanostructures that aniline oligomers form and the applications of these oligomers for shaping the nanoscale morphologies and chirality of conducting polymers. We focus on the synthetic methods for achieving such goals and highlight the underlying mechanisms. The clear advantages of each method and their possible drawbacks are discussed. Assembly and applications of these novel organic (semi)conducting nanomaterials are also outlined. We conclude this article with our perspective on the main challenges, new opportunities, and future directions for this nascent yet vibrant field of research. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Dielectric elastomers with novel highly-conducting electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, Holger; Uhl, Detlev

    2013-04-01

    Beside the characteristics of the elastomer material itself, the performance of dielectric elastomers in actuator, sensor as well as generator applications depends also on the properties of the electrode material. Various electrode materials based on metallic particles dispersed in a silicone matrix were manufactured and investigated. Anisotropic particles such as silver-coated copper flakes and silver-coated glass flakes were used for the preparation of the electrodes. The concentration of the metallic particles and the thickness of the electrode layers were varied. Specific conductivities derived from resistance measurements reached about 100 S/cm and surmount those of the reference materials based on graphite and carbon black by up to three orders of magnitude. The high conductivities of the new electrode materials can be maintained even at very large stretch deformations up to 200 %.

  1. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline, polypyrrole, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). As compared to conventional electrolytes, the redox-active electrolytes, prepared by simply adding a redox mediator to the conventional electrolyte, can significantly improve the energy storage capacity of pseudocapacitors with different conducting polymers. The results show that the specific capacitance of conducting polymer based pseudocapacitors can be increased by a factor of two by utilization of the redox-active electrolytes. In fact, this approach gives some of the highest reported specific capacitance values for electroactive conducting polymers. Moreover, our findings present a general and effective approach for the enhancement of energy storage performance of pseudocapacitors using a variety of polymeric electrode materials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Strain-dependent characterization of electrode and polymer network of electrically activated polymer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpper, Tino; Osmani, Bekim; Weiss, Florian M.; Winterhalter, Carla; Wohlfender, Fabian; Leung, Vanessa; Müller, Bert

    2015-04-01

    Fecal incontinence describes the involuntary loss of bowel content and affects about 45 % of retirement home residents and overall more than 12 % of the adult population. Artificial sphincter implants for treating incontinence are currently based on mechanical systems with failure rates resulting in revision after three to five years. To overcome this drawback, artificial muscle sphincters based on bio-mimetic electro-active polymer (EAP) actuators are under development. Such implants require polymer films that are nanometer-thin, allowing actuation below 24 V, and electrodes that are stretchable, remaining conductive at strains of about 10 %. Strain-dependent resistivity measurements reveal an enhanced conductivity of 10 nm compared to 30 nm sputtered Au on silicone for strains higher than 5 %. Thus, strain-dependent morphology characterization with optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy could demonstrate these phenomena. Cantilever bending measurements are utilized to determine elastic/viscoelastic properties of the EAP films as well as their long-term actuation behavior. Controlling these properties enables the adjustment of growth parameters of nanometer-thin EAP actuators.

  3. Effects of electric field and charge distribution on nanoelectronic processes involving conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Marta M.D.; Correia, Helena M.G.

    2006-01-01

    The injection of charge carriers in conducting polymer layers gives rise to local electric fields which should have serious implications on the charge transport through the polymer layer. The charge distribution and the related electric field inside the ensemble of polymer molecules, with different molecular arrangements at nanoscale, determine whether or not intra-molecular charge transport takes place and the preferential direction for charge hopping between neighbouring molecules. Consequently, these factors play a significant role in the competition between current flow, charge trapping and recombination in polymer-based electronic devices. By suitable Monte Carlo calculations, we simulated the continuous injection of electrons and holes into polymer layers with different microstructures and followed their transport through those polymer networks. Results of these simulations provided a detailed picture of charge and electric field distribution in the polymer layer and allowed us to assess the consequences for current transport and recombination efficiency as well as the distribution of recombination events within the polymer film. In the steady state we found an accumulation of electrons and holes near the collecting electrodes giving rise to an internal electric field which is greater than the external applied field close to the electrodes and lower than the one in the central region of the polymer layer. We also found that a strong variation of electric field inside the polymer layer leads to an increase of recombination events in regions inside the polymer layer where the values of the internal electric field are lower

  4. Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive Polymer Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Meng; Xiao, Xing-Cheng; Liu, Gao; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Wang, Chong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Electrode used in lithium-ion battery is invariably a composite of multifunctional components. The performance of the electrode is controlled by the interactive function of all components at mesoscale. Fundamental understanding of mesoscale phenomenon sets the basis for innovative designing of new materials. Here we report the achievement and origin of a significant performance enhancement of electrode for lithium ion batteries based on Si nanoparticles wrapped with conductive polymer. This new material is in marked contrast with conventional material, which exhibit fast capacity fade. In-situ TEM unveils that the enhanced cycling stability of the conductive polymer-Si composite is associated with mesoscale concordant function of Si nanoparticles and the conductive polymer. Reversible accommodation of the volume changes of Si by the conductive polymer allows good electrical contact between all the particles during the cycling process. In contrast, the failure of the conventional Si-electrode is probed to be the inadequate electrical contact. PMID:24418812

  5. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-01-01

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study

  6. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  7. Electrical and Electrochemical Properties of Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Hai Le

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers (CPs have received much attention in both fundamental and practical studies because they have electrical and electrochemical properties similar to those of both traditional semiconductors and metals. CPs possess excellent characteristics such as mild synthesis and processing conditions, chemical and structural diversity, tunable conductivity, and structural flexibility. Advances in nanotechnology have allowed the fabrication of versatile CP nanomaterials with improved performance for various applications including electronics, optoelectronics, sensors, and energy devices. The aim of this review is to explore the conductivity mechanisms and electrical and electrochemical properties of CPs and to discuss the factors that significantly affect these properties. The size and morphology of the materials are also discussed as key parameters that affect their major properties. Finally, the latest trends in research on electrochemical capacitors and sensors are introduced through an in-depth discussion of the most remarkable studies reported since 2003.

  8. Hybrid capacitor with activated carbon electrode, Ni(OH){sub 2} electrode and polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohara, Shinji; Asahina, Toshihide; Wada, Hajime; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Chiaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Sugoh, Nozomu; Iwasaki, Hideharu [Kurashiki Research Laboratory, Kuraray Co., Ltd., 2045-1 Sakazu, Kurashiki, Okayama 710-8691 (Japan)

    2006-06-19

    A new hybrid capacitor (HC) cell was assembled using an activated carbon (AC) negative electrode, an Ni(OH){sub 2} positive electrode and a polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from crosslinked potassium poly(acrylate) (PAAK) and KOH aqueous solution. The HC cell was characterized compared with an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) using two AC electrodes and the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. It was found that the HC cell successfully worked in the larger voltage range and exhibited ca. 2.4 times higher capacitance than the EDLC cell. High-rate dischargeability of the HC cell was also superior to that of the EDLC cell. These improved characteristics strongly suggest that the HC cell can be a promising system of capacitors with high energy and power densities. (author)

  9. Hybrid capacitor with activated carbon electrode, Ni(OH) 2 electrode and polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Shinji; Asahina, Toshihide; Wada, Hajime; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Sugoh, Nozomu; Iwasaki, Hideharu; Iwakura, Chiaki

    A new hybrid capacitor (HC) cell was assembled using an activated carbon (AC) negative electrode, an Ni(OH) 2 positive electrode and a polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from crosslinked potassium poly(acrylate) (PAAK) and KOH aqueous solution. The HC cell was characterized compared with an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) using two AC electrodes and the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. It was found that the HC cell successfully worked in the larger voltage range and exhibited ca. 2.4 times higher capacitance than the EDLC cell. High-rate dischargeability of the HC cell was also superior to that of the EDLC cell. These improved characteristics strongly suggest that the HC cell can be a promising system of capacitors with high energy and power densities.

  10. Biomimetic electrochemistry from conducting polymers. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, T.F.; Martinez, J.G.; Arias-Pardilla, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composition and properties of conducting polymers change during reactions. ► These properties are being exploited to develop biomimetic reactive and soft devices. ► The state of the art for artificial muscles sensing working conditions was reviewed. ► Smart membranes, drug delivery devices and nervous interfaces were also reviewed. - Abstract: Films of conducting polymers in the presence of electrolytes can be oxidized or reduced by the flow of anodic or cathodic currents. Ions and solvent are exchanged during a reaction for charge and osmotic pressure balance. A reactive conducting polymer contains ions and solvent. Such variation of composition during a reaction is reminiscent of the biological processes in cells. Along changes to the composition of the material during a reaction, there are also changes to other properties, including: volume (electrochemomechanical), colour (electrochromic), stored charge (electrical storage), porosity or permselectivity (electroporosity), stored chemicals, wettability and so on. Most of those properties mimic similar property changes in organs during their functioning. These properties are being exploited to develop biomimetic reactive and soft devices: artificial muscles and polymeric actuators; supercapacitors and all organic batteries; smart membranes; electron-ion transducers; nervous interfaces and artificial synapses, or drug delivery devices. In this review we focus on the state of the art for artificial muscles, smart membranes and electron-ion transducers. The reactive nature of those devices provide them with a unique advantage related to the present days technologies: any changes in the surrounding physical or chemical variable acting on the electrochemical reaction rate will be sensed by the device while working. Working under constant current (driving signal), the evolution of the device potential or the evolution of the consumed electrical energy (sensing signals) senses and quantifies the

  11. Spatially Selective Functionalization of Conducting Polymers by "Electroclick" Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymer microelectrodes can electrochemically generate the catalyst required for their own functionalization by "click chemistry" with high spatial resolution. Interdigitated microelectrodes prepared from an azide-containing conducting polymer are selectively functionalized in sequence...

  12. Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Next- Generation Microshutter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mary; Sultana, Mahmooda; Hess, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite. It is optically transparent and has high electron mobility, and thus has great potential to make transparent conductive electrodes. This invention contributes towards the development of graphene transparent conductive electrodes for next-generation microshutter arrays. The original design for the electrodes of the next generation of microshutters uses indium-tin-oxide (ITO) as the electrode material. ITO is widely used in NASA flight missions. The optical transparency of ITO is limited, and the material is brittle. Also, ITO has been getting more expensive in recent years. The objective of the invention is to develop a graphene transparent conductive electrode that will replace ITO. An exfoliation procedure was developed to make graphene out of graphite crystals. In addition, large areas of single-layer graphene were produced using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) with high optical transparency. A special graphene transport procedure was developed for transferring graphene from copper substrates to arbitrary substrates. The concept is to grow large-size graphene sheets using the LPCVD system through chemical reaction, transfer the graphene film to a substrate, dope graphene to reduce the sheet resistance, and pattern the film to the dimension of the electrodes in the microshutter array. Graphene transparent conductive electrodes are expected to have a transparency of 97.7%. This covers the electromagnetic spectrum from UV to IR. In comparison, ITO electrodes currently used in microshutter arrays have 85% transparency in mid-IR, and suffer from dramatic transparency drop at a wavelength of near-IR or shorter. Thus, graphene also has potential application as transparent conductive electrodes for Schottky photodiodes in the UV region.

  13. Conductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Kostecki, Robert; Wilcox, James; Lau, Grace

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for optimizing the carbon coatings on non-conductive battery cathode material powders has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The enhancement of the electronic conductivity of carbon coating enables minimization of the amount of carbon in the composites, allowing improvements in battery rate capability without compromising energy density. The invention is applicable to LiFePO 4 and other cathode materials used in lithium ion or lithium metal batteries for high power applications such as power tools and hybrid or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The market for lithium ion batteries in consumer applications is currently $5 billion/year. Additionally, lithium ion battery sales for vehicular applications are projected to capture 5% of the hybrid and electric vehicle market by 2010, and 36% by 2015 (http://www.greencarcongress.com). LiFePO 4 suffers from low intrinsic rate capability, which has been ascribed to the low electronic conductivity (10 -9 S cm -1 ). One of the most promising approaches to overcome this problem is the addition of conductive carbon. Co-synthesis methods are generally the most practical route for carbon coating particles. At the relatively low temperatures ( 4 , however, only poorly conductive disordered carbons are produced from organic precursors. Thus, the carbon content has to be high to produce the desired enhancement in rate capability, which decreases the cathode energy density

  14. A conducting polymer/ferritin anode for biofuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamuddin; Shin, Kwang Min; Kim, Sun I.; So, Insuk; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2009-01-01

    An enzyme anode for use in biofuel cells (BFCs) was constructed using an electrically connected bilayer based on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode immobilized with the conducting polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) as electron transfer enhancer, and with horse spleen ferritin protein (Frt) as electron transfer mediator. The surface-coupled redox system of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) catalyzed with diaphorase (Di) was used for the regeneration of NAD + in the inner layer and the NAD + -dependent enzyme catalyst glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the outer layer. The outer layer of the GC-Ppy-Frt-Di-NADH-GDH electrode effectively catalyzes the oxidation of glucose biofuel continuously; using the NAD + generated at the inner layer of the Di-catalyzed NADH redox system mediated by Frt and Ppy provides electrical communication with enhancement in electron transport. The electrochemical characteristics of the electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). This anode provides a current density of 1.2 mA cm -2 in a 45 mM glucose solution and offers a good possibility for application in biofuel cells.

  15. Engineering radical polymer electrodes for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Douglas R.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Wheeler, Dean R.

    2017-06-01

    In principle a wide range of organic materials can store energy in the form of reversible redox conversions of stable radicals. Such chemistry holds great promise for energy storage applications due to high theoretical capacities, high rate capabilities, intrinsic structural tunability, and the possibility of low-cost "green" syntheses from renewable sources. There have been steady improvements in the design of organic radical polymers, in which radicals are incorporated into the backbone and/or as pendant groups. This review highlights opportunities for improved redox molecule and polymer design along with the key challenges (e.g., transport phenomena, solubility, and reaction mechanisms) to transitioning known organic radicals into high-performance electrodes. Ultimately, organic-based batteries are still a nascent field with many open questions. Further advances in molecular design, electrode engineering, and device architecture will be required for these systems to reach their full potential and meet the diverse and increasing demands for energy storage.

  16. Spray-coated carbon nanotube carpets for creeping reduction of conducting polymer based artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simaite, Aiva; Delagarde, Aude; Tondu, Bertrand; Souères, Philippe; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Bergaud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    During cyclic actuation, conducting polymer based artificial muscles are often creeping from the initial movement range. One of the likely reasons of such behaviour is unbalanced charging during conducting polymer oxidation and reduction. To improve the actuation reversibility and subsequently the long time performance of ionic actuators, we suggest using spray-coated carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets on the surface of the conducting polymer electrodes. We show that carbon nanotubes facilitate a conducting polymer redox reaction and improve its reversibility. Consequently, in the long term, charge accumulation in the polymer film is avoided leading to a significantly improved lifetime performance during cycling actuation. To our knowledge, it is the first time a simple solution to an actuator creeping problem has been suggested.

  17. Bioelectrochemical control of neural cell development on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazos-Castro, Jorge E; Polo, José L; Hernández-Labrado, Gabriel R; Padial-Cañete, Vanesa; García-Rama, Concepción

    2010-12-01

    Electrically conducting polymers hold promise for developing advanced neuroprostheses, bionic systems and neural repair devices. Among them, poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) exhibits superior physicochemical properties but biocompatibility issues have limited its use. We describe combinations of electrochemical and molecule self-assembling methods to consistently control neural cell development on PEDOT:PSS while maintaining very low interfacial impedance. Electro-adsorbed polylysine enabled long-term neuronal survival and growth on the nanostructured polymer. Neurite extension was strongly inhibited by an additional layer of PSS or heparin, which in turn could be either removed electrically or further coated with spermine to activate cell growth. Binding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the heparin layer inhibited neurons but promoted proliferation and migration of precursor cells. This methodology may orchestrate neural cell behavior on electroactive polymers, thus improving cell/electrode communication in prosthetic devices and providing a platform for tissue repair strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ionic polymer metal composites with polypyrrole-silver electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, F.; Grillo, A.; Porfiri, M.

    2015-03-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a class of soft active materials that are finding increasing application in robotics, environmental sensing, and energy harvesting. In this letter, we demonstrate the fabrication of IPMCs via in-situ photoinduced polymerization of polypyrrole-silver electrodes on an ionomeric membrane. The composition, morphology, and sheet resistance of the electrodes are extensively characterized through a range of experimental techniques. We experimentally investigate IPMC electrochemistry through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and we propose a modified Randle's model to interpret the impedance spectrum. Finally, we demonstrate in-air dynamic actuation and sensing and assess IPMC performance against more established fabrication methods. Given the simplicity of the process and the short time required for the formation of the electrodes, we envision the application of our technique in the development of a rapid prototyping technology for IPMCs.

  19. Light harvesting by dye linked conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troensegaard Nielsen, K.

    2006-06-15

    The fact that the fossil fuel is finite and that the detrimental long-term effects of letting CO2 into our atmosphere exist, have created an enormous interest in developing new, cheap, renewable and less polluting energy resources. One of the most obvious abundant sources of energy in the solar system is the sun. Unfortunately the well developed silicon solar cells are very costly to produce. In an attempt to produce cheap and flexible solar cells, plastic solar cells have received a lot of attention in the last decades. There are still a lot of parameters to optimize if the plastic solar cell shall be able to compete with the silicon solar cells. One of the parameters is to ensure a high degree of charge carrier separation. Charge carrier separation can only happen at heterojunctions, which cover for example the interfaces between the polymers and the electrodes or the interface between an n-conductor and a p-conductor. The facts that the charge carrier separation only happens at the heterojunctions limits the thickness of the active layer in solar cells and thereby the effectiveness of the solar cells. In this project the charge carrier separation is attempted optimized by making plastic solar cells with a molecular heterojunction. The molecular heterojunction has been obtained by synthesizing a three domain super molecular assembly termed NPN. NPN consists of two poly[1-(2,5-dioctyltolanyl)ethynylene] chains (N-domains) coupled to the [10,20-bis(3,5-bistert-butylphenyl]-5,15-dibromoporphinato]zinc(II) (P-domain). It is shown that the N domains in NPN work as effective light harvesting antennas for the P domain and effectively transfer electrically generated excitons in the N domain to the P domain. Unfortunately the P domain does not separate the charge carriers but instead works as a charge carrier trap. This results in a performance of solar cells made of NPN that is much lower than the performance of solar cells made of pure poly[1-(2,5-dioctyltolanyl

  20. Characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate conductive polymer microelectrodes for transmitter detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Vreeland, Richard F.; Heien, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    applications such as capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and constant potential amperometry at living cells. Band electrodes with widths down to 3 μm were fabricated on polymer substrates using UV lithographic methods. The electrodes are electrochemically stable in a range......In this paper we investigate the physical and electrochemical properties of micropatterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) microelectrodes for neurochemical detection. PEDOT:tosylate is a promising conductive polymer electrode material for chip-based bioanalytical...... between −200 mV and 700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl and show a relatively low resistance. A wide range of transmitters is shown to oxidize readily on the electrodes. Kinetic rate constants and half wave potentials are reported. The capacitance per area was found to be high (1670 ± 130 μF cm−2) compared to other thin...

  1. Performance Improvement by Layout Designs of Conductive Polymer Microelectrode Based Impedimetric Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Giulio; Daprà, Johannes; Cherré, Solène

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a theoretical, computational, and experimental evaluation of the performance of an impedimetric biosensor based on interdigitated conductive polymer (PEDOT:TsO) microelectrodes in a microfluidic system. The influence of the geometry of the electrodes and microchannels on t...

  2. Improving the Performance of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries by Conductive Polymer Coating

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan; Yu, Guihua; Cha, Judy J.; Wu, Hui; Vosgueritchian, Michael; Yao, Yan; Bao, Zhenan; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Ah/g after 150 cycles at C/5 rate. We believe that this conductive polymer coating method represents an exciting direction for enhancing the device performance of Li-S batteries and can be applicable to other electrode materials in lithium ion batteries

  3. Correlation between ionic conductivity and fluidity of polymer gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ionic conductivity; ion aggregates; FTIR spectroscopy; gels; fluidity. 1. Introduction ... liquid and polymer gel electrolytes have been studied as functions of salt ..... Ratner M A 1987 in Polymer electrolyte reviews (eds) J R. MacCallum and C A ...

  4. Electrode Conduction Processes Segmented Electrode-Insulator Ratio Effects in MHD Power Generation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pain, H. J.; Fearn, D. G.; Distefano, E. [Imperial College. London (United Kingdom)

    1966-10-15

    (a) Electrode conduction processes have been investigated using a plasma produced in an electromagnetic shock tube operating with argon at 70 {mu}mHg pressure. Complete voltage-current characteristics were obtained by the variation of load and applied voltage. These indicated the existence of two conduction regimes with a complex transition region. In the first regime the current, controlled by ion mobility, rose linearly with voltage to saturate between 10 mA and 1 A depending on conditions. Electrode contamination was significant. The second regime involved large currents controlled by electron mobility and emission from the cathode. The current again increased linearly with voltage and reached 200 A. Observation of induced voltages in transverse magnetic fields and of plasma deceleration in non-uniform fields showed that in the electromagnetic shock tube the plasma was heated predominantly by the driver discharge. Its conductivity was calculated using properties measured by a Langmuir double probe. In both regimes the plasma conductivity was also found from the gradient of the voltage current characteristics using experimental electric field fringing factors and the experimental values were compared with theory. (b) Larger-scale experiments used a combustion-driven shock tube where argon plasma flow, magnetic field and induced current flow were mutually orthogonal. The supersonic flow velocity and thermodynamic parameters of the plasma were accurately known. The electrode channel consisted of a segmented system of 12 electrode pairs with an electrode insulator ratio ranging from 1 to 21, with electrode plus insulator length remaining constant, and with maximum Hall parameter values of unity. Different electrode load combinations (Faraday and Hall generators) have been studied in measuring the power generated and the flow of longitudinal currents between adjacent electrodes. A maximum power of 0,8 MW was obtained, the power output decreasing inversely with the

  5. Electrode Conduction Processes Segmented Electrode-Insulator Ratio Effects in MHD Power Generation Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, H.J.; Fearn, D.G.; Distefano, E.

    1966-01-01

    (a) Electrode conduction processes have been investigated using a plasma produced in an electromagnetic shock tube operating with argon at 70 μmHg pressure. Complete voltage-current characteristics were obtained by the variation of load and applied voltage. These indicated the existence of two conduction regimes with a complex transition region. In the first regime the current, controlled by ion mobility, rose linearly with voltage to saturate between 10 mA and 1 A depending on conditions. Electrode contamination was significant. The second regime involved large currents controlled by electron mobility and emission from the cathode. The current again increased linearly with voltage and reached 200 A. Observation of induced voltages in transverse magnetic fields and of plasma deceleration in non-uniform fields showed that in the electromagnetic shock tube the plasma was heated predominantly by the driver discharge. Its conductivity was calculated using properties measured by a Langmuir double probe. In both regimes the plasma conductivity was also found from the gradient of the voltage current characteristics using experimental electric field fringing factors and the experimental values were compared with theory. (b) Larger-scale experiments used a combustion-driven shock tube where argon plasma flow, magnetic field and induced current flow were mutually orthogonal. The supersonic flow velocity and thermodynamic parameters of the plasma were accurately known. The electrode channel consisted of a segmented system of 12 electrode pairs with an electrode insulator ratio ranging from 1 to 21, with electrode plus insulator length remaining constant, and with maximum Hall parameter values of unity. Different electrode load combinations (Faraday and Hall generators) have been studied in measuring the power generated and the flow of longitudinal currents between adjacent electrodes. A maximum power of 0,8 MW was obtained, the power output decreasing inversely with the

  6. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Lijia; Qiu, Hao; Dou, Chunmeng; Li, Yun; Pu, Lin; Xu, Jianbin; Shi, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template met...

  7. Tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles and cellulose and their applications as electrochemical electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhiming; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Wenjian; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Conductive hybrid films of metal nanoparticles and polymers have practical applications in the fields of sensing, microelectronics and catalysis, etc. Herein, we present the electrochemical availability of tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cellulose. The hybrid films were provided with stable tunnelling conductive properties with 12 nm GNPs of 12.7% (in weight). For the first time, the conductive hybrid films were used as substrates of electrochemical electrodes to load calmodulin (CaM) proteins for sensing of calcium cations. The electrodes of hybrid films with 20 nm GNPs of 46.7% (in weight) exhibited stable electrochemical properties, and showed significant responses to calcium cations with concentrations as low as 10 −9 M after being loaded with CaM proteins. (paper)

  8. An Intelligent Four-Electrode Conductivity Sensor for Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Jiaran; Li , Daoliang; Wang , Cong; Ding , Qisheng

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Conductivity is regard as a key technical parameter in modern intensive fish farming management. The water conductivity sensors are sophisticated devices used in the aquaculture monitoring field to understand the effects of climate changes on fish ponds. In this paper a new four-electrode smart sensor is proposed for water conductivity measurements of aquaculture monitoring.The main advantages of these sensors include a high precision, a good stability and an intrinsic...

  9. Cotton Fabric Coated with Conducting Polymers and its Application in Monitoring of Carnivorous Plant Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Bajgar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the electrical plant response to mechanical stimulation monitored with the help of conducting polymers deposited on cotton fabric. Cotton fabric was coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, in situ during the oxidation of respective monomers in aqueous medium. Thus, modified fabrics were again coated with polypyrrole or polyaniline, respectively, in order to investigate any synergetic effect between both polymers with respect to conductivity and its stability during repeated dry cleaning. The coating was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The resulting fabrics have been used as electrodes to collect the electrical response to the stimulation of a Venus flytrap plant. This is a paradigm of the use of conducting polymers in monitoring of plant neurobiology.

  10. Conducting polymer nanostructures: template synthesis and applications in energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lijia; Qiu, Hao; Dou, Chunmeng; Li, Yun; Pu, Lin; Xu, Jianbin; Shi, Yi

    2010-07-02

    Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  11. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Pan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  12. Colloid electrochemistry of conducting polymer: towards potential-induced in-situ drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankoh, Supannee; Vagin, Mikhail Yu.; Sekretaryova, Alina N.; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Mak, Wing Cheung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed electrode potential induced an in-situ drug release from dispersion of conducting polymer microcapsules. • Fast detection of the released drug within the colloid microenvironment. • Improved the efficiency of localized drug release at the electrode interface. - Abstract: Over the past decades, controlled drug delivery system remains as one of the most important area in medicine for various diseases. We have developed a new electrochemically controlled drug release system by combining colloid electrochemistry and electro-responsive microcapsules. The pulsed electrode potential modulation led to the appearance of two processes available for the time-resolved registration in colloid microenvironment: change of the electronic charge of microparticles (from 0.5 ms to 0.1 s) followed by the drug release associated with ionic equilibration (1–10 s). The dynamic electrochemical measurements allow the distinction of drug release associated with ionic relaxation and the change of electronic charge of conducting polymer colloid microparticles. The amount of released drug (methylene blue) could be controlled by modulating the applied potential. Our study demonstrated a surface-potential driven controlled drug release of dispersion of conducting polymer carrier at the electrode interfaces, while the bulk colloids dispersion away from the electrode remains as a reservoir to improve the efficiency of localized drug release. The developed new methodology creates a model platform for the investigations of surface potential-induced in-situ electrochemical drug release mechanism.

  13. 96X Screen-Printed Gold Electrode Platform to Evaluate Electroactive Polymers as Marine Antifouling Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, Hugues; Briand, Jean-François; Barry-Martinet, Raphaëlle; Duong, The Hy; Frère, Pierre; Gohier, Frédéric; Leriche, Philippe; Bressy, Christine

    2018-04-17

    Several alternatives are currently investigated to prevent and control the natural process of colonization of any seawater submerged surfaces by marine organisms. Since few years we develop an approach based on addressable electroactive coatings containing conducting polymers or polymers with lateral redox groups. In this article we describe the use of a screen-printed plate formed by 96 three-electrode electrochemical cells to assess the potential of these electroactive coatings to prevent the adhesion of marine bacteria. This novel platform is intended to control and record the redox properties of the electroactive coating in each well during the bioassay (15 h) and to allow screening its antiadhesion activity with enough replicates to support significant conclusions. Validation of this platform was carried out with poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as electroactive coating obtained by electropolymerization of EDOT monomer in artificial seawater electrolyte on the working electrode of each electrochemical cell of the 96-well microplate.

  14. Nanothorn electrodes for ionic polymer-metal composite artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmre, Viljar; Pugal, David; Kim, Kwang J; Leang, Kam K; Asaka, Kinji; Aabloo, Alvo

    2014-08-22

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have recently received tremendous interest as soft biomimetic actuators and sensors in various bioengineering and human affinity applications, such as artificial muscles and actuators, aquatic propulsors, robotic end-effectors, and active catheters. Main challenges in developing biomimetic actuators are the attainment of high strain and actuation force at low operating voltage. Here we first report a nanostructured electrode surface design for IPMC comprising platinum nanothorn assemblies with multiple sharp tips. The newly developed actuator with the nanostructured electrodes shows a new way to achieve highly enhanced electromechanical performance over existing flat-surfaced electrodes. We demonstrate that the formation and growth of the nanothorn assemblies at the electrode interface lead to a dramatic improvement (3- to 5-fold increase) in both actuation range and blocking force at low driving voltage (1-3 V). These advances are related to the highly capacitive properties of nanothorn assemblies, increasing significantly the charge transport during the actuation process.

  15. Large enhancement in neurite outgrowth on a cell membrane-mimicking conducting polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Luo, Shyh-Chyang; Zhao, Haichao; Lin, Hsing-An; Sekine, Jun; Nakao, Aiko; Chen, Chi; Yamashita, Yoshiro; Yu, Hsiao-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Although electrically stimulated neurite outgrowth on bioelectronic devices is a promising means of nerve regeneration, immunogenic scar formation can insulate electrodes from targeted cells and tissues, thereby reducing the lifetime of the device. Ideally, an electrode material capable of electrically interfacing with neurons selectively and efficiently would be integrated without being recognized by the immune system and minimize its response. Here we develop a cell membrane-mimicking conducting polymer possessing several attractive features. This polymer displays high resistance towards nonspecific enzyme/cell binding and recognizes targeted cells specifically to allow intimate electrical communication over long periods of time. Its low electrical impedance relays electrical signals efficiently. This material is capable to integrate biochemical and electrical stimulation to promote neural cellular behaviour. Neurite outgrowth is enhanced greatly on this new conducting polymer; in addition, electrically stimulated secretion of proteins from primary Schwann cells can also occur on it.

  16. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovar, Bryan S [Los Alamos, NM; Thorn, David L [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-09-01

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  17. Electro active polymers : novel bio-electrodes and implants for urinary continence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, S.; Sawan, M.; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour les systemes electrochimiques et energetiques

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented a technical solution to spinal cord injuries that result in urinary bladder dysfunction. It involves miniaturized implants based on polypyrrole, an electroactive polymer, as smart drug-eluting electrodes for neural stimulation to restore bladder function. The nerve-electrode interface is the most vulnerable point in the design and operation of neuro-electronic implants. The main disadvantages are decreased impedance and protein build-up at the stimulation site due to an inflammatory reaction. Polypyrrole is a naturally conducting polymer having both electron-conducting properties as well as actuating properties, rendering it suitable as a drug-eluting electrode for a neurostimulator. Polypyrrole electrochemically coated on platinum increases biocompatibility and reduces electric impedance by increasing the surface area of the electrode. When electrically stimulated, polypyrrole also serves as a matrix to release a negatively-charged anti-inflammatory drug fosfosal. This technology may prove useful in reconstructing a severely damaged bladder through electroactive biomaterials. Polyelectrolyte gels, such as poly(sodium) acrylate, reversibly contract and relax when activated electrically or under the influx of divalent ions. These artificial muscles can be connected to a polypyrrole strain sensor to alert the microcontroller to activate the sphincter muscle, thereby creating an artificial bladder.

  18. Carbon nanotube yarns as strong flexible conductive capacitive electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Gebben, B.; Otto, M.J.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn, consisting of 23 µm diameter CNT filaments, can be used as capacitive electrodes that are long, flexible, conductive and strong, for applications in energy and electrochemical water treatment. We measure the charge storage capacity as function of salt concentration, and

  19. Enhancing the Supercapacitor Performance of Graphene/MnO 2 Nanostructured Electrodes by Conductive Wrapping

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2011-10-12

    MnO2 is considered one of the most promising pseudocapactive materials for high-performance supercapacitors given its high theoretical specific capacitance, low-cost, environmental benignity, and natural abundance. However, MnO2 electrodes often suffer from poor electronic and ionic conductivities, resulting in their limited performance in power density and cycling. Here we developed a "conductive wrapping" method to greatly improve the supercapacitor performance of graphene/MnO2-based nanostructured electrodes. By three-dimensional (3D) conductive wrapping of graphene/MnO2 nanostructures with carbon nanotubes or conducting polymer, specific capacitance of the electrodes (considering total mass of active materials) has substantially increased by ∼20% and ∼45%, respectively, with values as high as ∼380 F/g achieved. Moreover, these ternary composite electrodes have also exhibited excellent cycling performance with >95% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles. This 3D conductive wrapping approach represents an exciting direction for enhancing the device performance of metal oxide-based electrochemical supercapacitors and can be generalized for designing next-generation high-performance energy storage devices. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Selective detection and recovery of gold at tannin-immobilized non-conducting electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, Khaleda, E-mail: kbanu@ucla.edu [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Venture Business Laboratory, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shimura, Takayoshi [Venture Business Laboratory, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Sadeghi, Saman, E-mail: samsadeghi@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective detection of gold at non-conducting (NC) polymer modified electrode. • Mimosa tannin oxidized on glassy carbon electrode surface as NC polymeric film. • Permselective diffusion and mediated electron transfer at NC electrode surface. • Chemical recovery of gold is due to the reducing ability of the NC polymeric film. • Adsorption capacity of Au(III) on carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g{sup −1} at 60 °C. - Abstract: A tannin-immobilized glassy carbon electrode (TIGC) was prepared via electrochemical oxidation of the naturally occurring polyphenolic mimosa tannin, which generated a non-conducting polymeric film (NCPF) on the electrode surface. The fouling of the electrode surface by the electropolymerized film was evaluated by monitoring the electrode response of ferricyanide ions as a redox marker. The NCPF was permselective to HAuCl{sub 4}, and the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} to metallic gold at the TIGC electrode was evaluated by recording the reduction current during cyclic voltammetry measurement. In the mixed electrolyte containing HAuCl{sub 4} along with FeCl{sub 3} and/or CuCl{sub 2}, the NCPF remained selective toward the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} into the metallic state. The chemical reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} into metallic gold was also observed when the NCPF was inserted into an acidic gold solution overnight. The adsorption capacity of Au(III) on tannin-immobilized carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g{sup −1} at 60 °C. In the presence of excess Cu(II) and Fe(III), tannin-immobilized NCPF proved to be an excellent candidate for the selective detection and recovery of gold through both electrochemical and chemical processes.

  1. Selective detection and recovery of gold at tannin-immobilized non-conducting electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Khaleda; Shimura, Takayoshi; Sadeghi, Saman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective detection of gold at non-conducting (NC) polymer modified electrode. • Mimosa tannin oxidized on glassy carbon electrode surface as NC polymeric film. • Permselective diffusion and mediated electron transfer at NC electrode surface. • Chemical recovery of gold is due to the reducing ability of the NC polymeric film. • Adsorption capacity of Au(III) on carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g −1 at 60 °C. - Abstract: A tannin-immobilized glassy carbon electrode (TIGC) was prepared via electrochemical oxidation of the naturally occurring polyphenolic mimosa tannin, which generated a non-conducting polymeric film (NCPF) on the electrode surface. The fouling of the electrode surface by the electropolymerized film was evaluated by monitoring the electrode response of ferricyanide ions as a redox marker. The NCPF was permselective to HAuCl 4 , and the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl 4 to metallic gold at the TIGC electrode was evaluated by recording the reduction current during cyclic voltammetry measurement. In the mixed electrolyte containing HAuCl 4 along with FeCl 3 and/or CuCl 2 , the NCPF remained selective toward the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl 4 into the metallic state. The chemical reduction of HAuCl 4 into metallic gold was also observed when the NCPF was inserted into an acidic gold solution overnight. The adsorption capacity of Au(III) on tannin-immobilized carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g −1 at 60 °C. In the presence of excess Cu(II) and Fe(III), tannin-immobilized NCPF proved to be an excellent candidate for the selective detection and recovery of gold through both electrochemical and chemical processes

  2. BF3-doped polyaniline: A novel conducting polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the past two decades, both fundamental and applied research in conducting polymers has grown enormously [1]. Polyaniline (PANI) owing to its ease of synthe- sis, remarkable environmental stability, and high conductivity in the doped form, has remained one of the most thoroughly studied conducting polymers.

  3. Angle-specific transparent conducting electrodes with metallic gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivolta, N. X. A., E-mail: nicolas.rivolta@umons.ac.be; Maes, B. [Micro- and Nanophotonic Materials Group, Faculty of Science, University of Mons, Avenue Maistriau 19, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2014-08-07

    Transparent conducting electrodes, which are not made from indium tin oxide, and which display a strong angular dependence are useful for various technologies. Here, we introduce a tilted silver grating that combines a large conductance with a strong and angle-specific transmittance. When the light incidence angle matches the tilt angle of the grating, transmittance is close to the maximum along a very broadband range. We explain the behavior through simulations that show in detail the plasmonic and interference effects at play.

  4. Theoretical voltammetric response of electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Marín, Ana M.; Hernández-Ortíz, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Discretized model for an interface of covered electrodes. • Two limiting behaviors are capture: double-layer and conductive interfaces. • Additional phenomena are included easily: acid/base equilibrium, ion mobility. • The model provides explanations to observed phenomena that is vaguely explained in the literature. • Implications on electrodes in fuel cells are given and it opens avenues to understand and design such systems. - Abstract: A model for the differential capacitance of metal electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes, with acid/base groups attached to the membrane backbone, and in contact with an electrolyte solution is developed. With proper model parameters, the model is able to predict a limit response, given by Mott–Schottky or Gouy–Chapman–Stern theories depending on the dissociation degree and the density of ionizable acid/base groups. The model is also valid for other ionic membranes with proton donor/acceptor molecules as membrane counterions. Results are discussed in light of the electron transfer rate at membrane-coated electrodes for electrochemical reactions that strongly depend on the double layer structure. In this sense, the model provides a tool towards the understanding of the electro-catalytic activity on modified electrodes. It is shown that local maxima and minima in the differential capacitance as a function of the electrode potential may occur as consequence of the dissociation of acid/base molecular species, in absence of specific adsorption of immobile polymer anions on the electrode surface. Although the model extends the conceptual framework for the interpretation of cyclic voltammograms for these systems and the general theory about electrified interfaces, structural features of real systems are more complex and so, presented results only are qualitatively compared with experiments

  5. Unconventional High Density Vertically Aligned Conducting Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-21

    gravimetric values of an electrode. As shown in Table 1, there is a close correlation between the specific gravimetric performance in terms of the whole...to 10nm, exhibit nearly ideal capacitive behavior (so that the Coulombic efficiency shows only a slight decrease, and is overall very close to 100...PEDOT thickness while avoiding keyhole formation (i.e., PEDOT blocking the ion channels), is a viable route towards increasing electrode performance

  6. Decohesion Kinetics of PEDOT:PSS Conducting Polymer Films

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Novoa, Fernando; Voroshazi, Eszter; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2013-01-01

    The highly conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS is a widely used hole transport layer and transparent electrode in organic electronic devices. To date, the mechanical and fracture properties of this conductive polymer layer are not well understood. Notably, the decohesion rate of the PEDOT:PSS layer and its sensitivity to moist environments has not been reported, which is central in determining the lifetimes of organic electronic devices. Here, it is demonstrated that the decohesion rate is highly sensitive to the ambient moisture content, temperature, and mechanical stress. The kinetic mechanisms are elucidated using atomistic bond rupture models and the decohesion process is shown to be facilitated by a chemical reaction between water molecules from the environment and strained hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are the predominant bonding mechanism between individual PEDOT:PSS grains within the layer and cause a significant loss in cohesion when they are broken. Understanding the decohesion kinetics and mechanisms in these films is essential for the mechanical integrity of devices containing PEDOT:PSS layers and yields general guidelines for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices. Decohesion rate in PEDOT:PSS conducting films is studied under varied environmental conditions. The moisture content in the environment is the most important factor accelerating the decohesion in the PEDOT:PSS layer, which is detrimental for device reliability. The findings on the decohesion rate and mechanisms, elucidated by atomic kinetic models, are essential for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices containting PEDOT:PSS layers. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Decohesion Kinetics of PEDOT:PSS Conducting Polymer Films

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2013-10-17

    The highly conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS is a widely used hole transport layer and transparent electrode in organic electronic devices. To date, the mechanical and fracture properties of this conductive polymer layer are not well understood. Notably, the decohesion rate of the PEDOT:PSS layer and its sensitivity to moist environments has not been reported, which is central in determining the lifetimes of organic electronic devices. Here, it is demonstrated that the decohesion rate is highly sensitive to the ambient moisture content, temperature, and mechanical stress. The kinetic mechanisms are elucidated using atomistic bond rupture models and the decohesion process is shown to be facilitated by a chemical reaction between water molecules from the environment and strained hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are the predominant bonding mechanism between individual PEDOT:PSS grains within the layer and cause a significant loss in cohesion when they are broken. Understanding the decohesion kinetics and mechanisms in these films is essential for the mechanical integrity of devices containing PEDOT:PSS layers and yields general guidelines for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices. Decohesion rate in PEDOT:PSS conducting films is studied under varied environmental conditions. The moisture content in the environment is the most important factor accelerating the decohesion in the PEDOT:PSS layer, which is detrimental for device reliability. The findings on the decohesion rate and mechanisms, elucidated by atomic kinetic models, are essential for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices containting PEDOT:PSS layers. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Design of lithium cobalt oxide electrodes with high thermal conductivity and electrochemical performance using carbon nanotubes and diamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eungje; Salgado, Ruben Arash; Lee, Byeongdu; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Rajh, Tijana; Johnson, Christopher; Balandin, Alexander A.; Shevchenko, Elena V.

    2018-04-01

    Thermal management remains one of the major challenges in the design of safe and reliable Li-ion batteries. We show that composite electrodes assembled from commercially available 100 μm long carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and LiCoO2 (LCO) particles demonstrate the in-plane thermal conductivity of 205.8 W/m*K. This value exceeds the thermal conductivity of dry conventional laminated electrodes by about three orders of magnitude. The cross-plane thermal conductivity of CNT-based electrodes is in the same range as thermal conductivities of conventional laminated electrodes. The CNT-based electrodes demonstrate a similar capacity to conventional laminated design electrodes, but revealed a better rate performance and stability. The introduction of diamond particles into CNT-based electrodes further improves the rate performance. Our lightweight, flexible electrode design can potentially be a general platform for fabricating polymer binder- and aluminum and copper current collector- free electrodes from a broad range of electrochemically active materials with efficient thermal management.

  9. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set...

  10. Conductive MOF electrodes for stable supercapacitors with high areal capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheberla, Dennis; Bachman, John C; Elias, Joseph S; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Shao-Horn, Yang; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-02-01

    Owing to their high power density and superior cyclability relative to batteries, electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have emerged as an important electrical energy storage technology that will play a critical role in the large-scale deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources, smart power grids, and electrical vehicles. Because the capacitance and charge-discharge rates of EDLCs scale with surface area and electrical conductivity, respectively, porous carbons such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and crosslinked or holey graphenes are used exclusively as the active electrode materials in EDLCs. One class of materials whose surface area far exceeds that of activated carbons, potentially allowing them to challenge the dominance of carbon electrodes in EDLCs, is metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The high porosity of MOFs, however, is conventionally coupled to very poor electrical conductivity, which has thus far prevented the use of these materials as active electrodes in EDLCs. Here, we show that Ni 3 (2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene) 2 (Ni 3 (HITP) 2 ), a MOF with high electrical conductivity, can serve as the sole electrode material in an EDLC. This is the first example of a supercapacitor made entirely from neat MOFs as active materials, without conductive additives or other binders. The MOF-based device shows an areal capacitance that exceeds those of most carbon-based materials and capacity retention greater than 90% over 10,000 cycles, in line with commercial devices. Given the established structural and compositional tunability of MOFs, these results herald the advent of a new generation of supercapacitors whose active electrode materials can be tuned rationally, at the molecular level.

  11. Conductive MOF electrodes for stable supercapacitors with high areal capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheberla, Dennis; Bachman, John C.; Elias, Joseph S.; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Shao-Horn, Yang; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-02-01

    Owing to their high power density and superior cyclability relative to batteries, electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have emerged as an important electrical energy storage technology that will play a critical role in the large-scale deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources, smart power grids, and electrical vehicles. Because the capacitance and charge-discharge rates of EDLCs scale with surface area and electrical conductivity, respectively, porous carbons such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and crosslinked or holey graphenes are used exclusively as the active electrode materials in EDLCs. One class of materials whose surface area far exceeds that of activated carbons, potentially allowing them to challenge the dominance of carbon electrodes in EDLCs, is metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The high porosity of MOFs, however, is conventionally coupled to very poor electrical conductivity, which has thus far prevented the use of these materials as active electrodes in EDLCs. Here, we show that Ni3(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)2 (Ni3(HITP)2), a MOF with high electrical conductivity, can serve as the sole electrode material in an EDLC. This is the first example of a supercapacitor made entirely from neat MOFs as active materials, without conductive additives or other binders. The MOF-based device shows an areal capacitance that exceeds those of most carbon-based materials and capacity retention greater than 90% over 10,000 cycles, in line with commercial devices. Given the established structural and compositional tunability of MOFs, these results herald the advent of a new generation of supercapacitors whose active electrode materials can be tuned rationally, at the molecular level.

  12. Realization and characterization of a cellulose and conducting polymer-based ultrathin films composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Christelle

    1998-01-01

    This work was dedicated to the realization and the characterization of an organic composite material in order to obtain organized ultrathin films with high conductivity and good mechanical properties. In this purpose, the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of a crosslinked alkyl cellulose (rigid-rod polymer) was used as a host matrix for the electro-polymerization of alkyl thiophene and pyrrole. The first interesting result was the synthesis of a bigger amount of conducting alkyl polymer in the presence of cellulose. With the help of a photo-patterning technique, we were able to form contacts more or less conducting on the substrate. We have also shown that the conducting polymer grows beyond the electrode area until distances never described up to now in the literature. A preferential orientation of the conducting polymer chains along the LB dipping direction of the cellulose has been observed in some cases. Even for the films without molecular orientation, we have systematically observed a microscopic or macroscopic anisotropy. This phenomenon appears as domains concentrated in conducting polymers with anisotropic shapes oriented along the dipping direction. Finally, we have noticed that cellulose doesn't change the conductivity and the electrochromic properties of the conducting polymer. Beyond the keeping of these intrinsic properties, the matrix allows to stabilize the film when it is in contact with an organic solvent. (author) [fr

  13. Modified conductivity of polymer materials with proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shinji; Seki, Miharu; Shima, Kunihiro; Ishihara, Toyoyuki

    2001-01-01

    Ionic conductivity of polymer materials is of increasing interest in many scientific fields. Industrial applications seem to be promising. In the present investigation, we used proton bombardment to modify the characteristic properties of polymers, especially for improvement in conductivity and hardening gel polymers. Particle beam bombardment is known to produce many scissions by particle passages and new bonds by bridge connection. These effects may modify various properties in many ways. We examined the modification of conductivity in solid polymers composed of polyethylene oxide and polyurethane and the surface appearance of gel polymers with bombardment by a proton beam using the accelerator facility of Tsukuba University. The results indicated proton bombardment induced conductivity changes in various ways according to particle range and polymer properties. (author)

  14. Solid Polymer Fuel Cells. Electrode and membrane performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller-Holst, S.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis studies aspects of fuel cell preparation and performance. The emphasis is placed on preparation and analysis of low platinum-loading solid polymer fuel cell (SPEC) electrodes. A test station was built and used to test cells within a wide range of real operating conditions, 40-150{sup o}C and 1-10 bar. Preparation and assembling equipment for single SPFCs was designed and built, and a new technique of spraying the catalyst layer directly onto the membrane was successfully demonstrated. Low Pt-loading electrodes (0.1 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}) prepared by the new technique exhibited high degree of catalyst utilization. The performance of single cells holding these electrodes is comparable to state-of-the-art SPFCs. Potential losses in single cell performance are ascribed to irreversibilities by analysing the efficiency of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by means of the second law of thermodynamics. The water management in membranes is discussed for a model system and the results are relevant to fuel cell preparation and performance. The new spray deposition technique should be commercially interesting as it involves few steps as well as techniques that are adequate for larger scale production. 115 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Solid Polymer Fuel Cells. Electrode and membrane performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller-Holst, S

    1997-12-31

    This doctoral thesis studies aspects of fuel cell preparation and performance. The emphasis is placed on preparation and analysis of low platinum-loading solid polymer fuel cell (SPEC) electrodes. A test station was built and used to test cells within a wide range of real operating conditions, 40-150{sup o}C and 1-10 bar. Preparation and assembling equipment for single SPFCs was designed and built, and a new technique of spraying the catalyst layer directly onto the membrane was successfully demonstrated. Low Pt-loading electrodes (0.1 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}) prepared by the new technique exhibited high degree of catalyst utilization. The performance of single cells holding these electrodes is comparable to state-of-the-art SPFCs. Potential losses in single cell performance are ascribed to irreversibilities by analysing the efficiency of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by means of the second law of thermodynamics. The water management in membranes is discussed for a model system and the results are relevant to fuel cell preparation and performance. The new spray deposition technique should be commercially interesting as it involves few steps as well as techniques that are adequate for larger scale production. 115 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. “Electro-Click” on Conducting Polymer Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Lind, Johan Ulrik; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    for their own functionalization with high spatial resolution. Interdigitated microelectrodes prepared from the azide-containing conducting polymer were selectively functionalized in sequence by two alkyne-modified fluorophores by control of the applied potentials. “Electro-click” on conducting polymer films......An azide substituted 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene monomer is polymerised to yield a PEDOT like polymer with available azide groups (Figure 1). The azide groups enable post polymerization functionalization of the conducting polymer using a 1,3 dipolar cycloaddition reaction – also denoted “click...

  17. Mechanistic interaction study of thin oxide dielectric with conducting organic electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Himani; Sethi, Kanika; Raj, P. Markondeya; Gerhardt, R.A.; Tummala, Rao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thin film-oxide dielectric-organic electrode interface studies for investigating the leakage mechanism. ► XPS to elucidate chemical-structural changes on dielectric oxide surface. ► Correlates structural characterization data with capacitor leakage current and impedance spectroscopy characteristics. - Abstract: This paper aims at understanding the interaction of intrinsic conducting polymer, PEDT, with ALD-deposited Al 2 O 3 and thermally oxidized Ta 2 O 5 dielectrics, and the underlying mechanisms for increase in leakage currents in PEDT-based capacitors. Conducting polymers offer several advantages as electrodes for high surface area capacitors because of their lower resistance, self-healing and enhanced conformality. However, capacitors with in situ polymerized PEDT show poor electrical properties that are attributed to the interfacial interaction between the organic electrode and the oxide dielectric. This study focuses on characterizing these interactions. A combination of compositional, structural and electrical characterization techniques was applied to polymer-solid-state-capacitor to understand the interfacial chemical behavior and dielectric property deterioration of alumina and tantalum-oxide films. XPS and impedance studies were employed to understand the stiochiometric and compositional changes that occur in the dielectric film on interaction with in situ deposited PEDT. Based on the observations from several complimentary techniques, it is concluded that tantalum-pentoxide has more resistance towards chemical interaction with in situ polymerized PEDT. The thermally oxidized Ta 2 O 5 -PEDT system showed leakage current of 280 nA μF −1 at 3 V with a breakdown voltage of 30 V. On the other hand, Al 2 O 3 -PEDT capacitor showed leakage current of 50 μA μF −1 and a breakdown voltage of 40 V. The study reports direct evidence for the mechanism of resistivity drop in alumina dielectric with in situ polymerized PEDT electrode.

  18. Nobel Prize 2000: from conducting polymers to molecular electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pron, A.; Rannou, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the development of conducting organic polymers is reviewed. Poly(3-alkylthiophenes) with regioregularity exceeding 99% are especially interesting because if used as a thin semiconducting layer in the field effect transistor (FET) configuration they become superconducting at 2.35 K. This is the first example of the superconductivity of an organic polymer. Fields of use of conducting polymers are reviewed, too

  19. Electrode structures of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). An electron microscopy approach to the characterization of the electrode structure of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheiba, Frieder

    2009-01-28

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) have a complex electrode structure, which usually consists of a catalyst, a catalyst support, a polymer electrolyte and pores. The materials used are largely amorphous, have a strong defective structure or have particle diameter of only a few nanometers. In the electrode the materials form highly disordered aggregated structures. Both aspects complicate a systematic structural analysis significantly. However, thorough knowledge of the electrode structure, is needed for systematic advancement of fuel cell technology and to obtain a better understanding of mass and charge carrier transport processes in the electrode. Because of the complex structure of the electrode, an approach based on the examination of electrode thin-sections by electron microscopy was chosen in this work to depicting the electrode structure experimentally. The present work presents these studies of the electrode structure. Some fundamental issues as the influence of the polymer electrolyte concentration and the polarity of the solvent used in the electrode manufacturing process were addressed. During the analysis particular attention was payed to the distribution and structure of the polymer electrolyte. A major problem to the investigations, were the low contrast between the polymer electrolyte, the catalyst support material and the embedding resin. Therefore, dilerent techniques were investigated in terms of their ability to improve the contrast. In this context, a computer-assisted acquisition procedure for energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) was developed. The acquisition procedure permits a significant extension of the imageable sample. At the same time, it was possible to substantially reduce beam damage of the specimen and to minimize drift of the sample considerably. This allowed unambiguous identification of the polymer electrolyte in the electrode. It could further be shown, that the polymer electrolyte not only coats the

  20. Charge transport kinetics in a robust radical-substituted polymer/nanocarbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kan; Oyaizu, Kenichi; Nishide, Hiroyuki

    We have reported a series of organic radical-substituted polymers as new-type charge storage and transport materials which could be used for energy related devices such as batteries and solar cells. Redox-active radical moieties introduced to the non-conjugated polymer backbones enable the rapid electron transfer among the adjacent radical sites, and thus large diffusive flux of electrical charge at a bulk scale. Here we present the elucidated charge transport kinetics in a radical polymer/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite electrode. The synergetic effect of electrical conduction by a three-dimensional SWNT network and electron self-exchange reaction by radical polymers contributed to the 105-fold (per 1 g of added SWNT) boosting of electrochemical reactions and exceptionally large current density (greater than 1 A/cm2) as a rechargeable electrode. A totally organic-based secondary battery with a submicron thickness was fabricated to demonstrate the splendid electrochemical performances. Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 24225003, 15J00888) and the Leading Graduate Program in Science and Engineering, from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  1. Cellulose nanocrystal: electronically conducting polymer nanocomposites for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Soon Yee

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of cellulose nanocrystals for the fabrication of porous nanocomposites with electronic conducting polymers for electrochemical supercapacitor applications. The exceptional strength and negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals are utilised in these nanocomposites. The negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals allow their simultaneous incorporation into electropolymerised, positively charged conducting polymer ...

  2. Pedot and PPy Conducting Polymer Bilayer and Trilayer Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainudeen, Umer Lebbe; Careem, Mohamed Abdul; Skaarup, Steen

    2008-01-01

    attempts have been made to improve the actuator performance. We report electromechanical measurements on actuators of bilayer and trilayer free standing films prepared with polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conducting polymers. Both types of conducting polymer are pre...

  3. Soft capacitor fibers using conductive polymers for electronic textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian Feng; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-11-01

    A novel, highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. In its cross section the fiber features a periodic sequence of hundreds of conductive and isolating plastic layers positioned around metallic electrodes. The fiber is fabricated using the fiber drawing method, where a multi-material macroscopic preform is drawn into a sub-millimeter capacitor fiber in a single fabrication step. Several kilometers of fibers can be obtained from a single preform with fiber diameters ranging between 500 and 1000 µm. A typical measured capacitance of our fibers is 60-100 nF m-1 and it is independent of the fiber diameter. Analysis of the fiber frequency response shows that in its simplest interrogation mode the capacitor fiber has a transverse resistance of 5 kΩ m L-1, which is inversely proportional to the fiber length L and is independent of the fiber diameter. Softness of the fiber materials, the absence of liquid electrolyte in the fiber structure, ease of scalability to large production volumes and high capacitance of our fibers make them interesting for various smart textile applications ranging from distributed sensing to energy storage.

  4. Soft capacitor fibers using conductive polymers for electronic textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Jian Feng; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    A novel, highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. In its cross section the fiber features a periodic sequence of hundreds of conductive and isolating plastic layers positioned around metallic electrodes. The fiber is fabricated using the fiber drawing method, where a multi-material macroscopic preform is drawn into a sub-millimeter capacitor fiber in a single fabrication step. Several kilometers of fibers can be obtained from a single preform with fiber diameters ranging between 500 and 1000 µm. A typical measured capacitance of our fibers is 60–100 nF m −1 and it is independent of the fiber diameter. Analysis of the fiber frequency response shows that in its simplest interrogation mode the capacitor fiber has a transverse resistance of 5 kΩ m L −1 , which is inversely proportional to the fiber length L and is independent of the fiber diameter. Softness of the fiber materials, the absence of liquid electrolyte in the fiber structure, ease of scalability to large production volumes and high capacitance of our fibers make them interesting for various smart textile applications ranging from distributed sensing to energy storage

  5. Porous palladium coated conducting polymer nanoparticles for ultrasensitive hydrogen sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Kim, Sung Gun; Cho, Sunghun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, is of key importance to various industrial applications, including fuel cells and in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, hydrogen gas is odorless, colorless, and highly flammable; thus appropriate safety protocol implementation and monitoring are essential. Highly sensitive hydrogen leak detection and surveillance sensor systems are needed; additionally, the ability to maintain uniformity through repetitive hydrogen sensing is becoming increasingly important. In this report, we detail the fabrication of porous palladium coated conducting polymer (3-carboxylate polypyrrole) nanoparticles (Pd@CPPys) to detect hydrogen gas. The Pd@CPPys are produced by means of facile alkyl functionalization and chemical reduction of a pristine 3-carboxylate polypyrrole nanoparticle-contained palladium precursor (PdCl2) solution. The resulting Pd@CPPy-based sensor electrode exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity (0.1 ppm) and stability toward hydrogen gas at room temperature due to the palladium sensing layer.Hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, is of key importance to various industrial applications, including fuel cells and in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, hydrogen gas is odorless, colorless, and highly flammable; thus appropriate safety protocol implementation and monitoring are essential. Highly sensitive hydrogen leak detection and surveillance sensor systems are needed; additionally, the ability to maintain uniformity through repetitive hydrogen sensing is becoming increasingly important. In this report, we detail the fabrication of porous palladium coated conducting polymer (3-carboxylate polypyrrole) nanoparticles (Pd@CPPys) to detect hydrogen gas. The Pd@CPPys are produced by means of facile alkyl functionalization and chemical reduction of a pristine 3-carboxylate polypyrrole nanoparticle-contained palladium precursor (PdCl2) solution. The resulting Pd@CPPy-based sensor electrode exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity (0.1 ppm

  6. Electrode of solid state polymer electrolyte type electrochemical cell; Kobunshi kotai denkaisitsugata denki kagaku seru yo denkyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M [Yamanashi, (Japan); Inoue, M [Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-12

    The solid state polymer electrolyte type electrochemical cell (PEMFC) has such problem that the gas diffusion from the resin surface to the catalyst surface is prevented when the coating thickness of cation exchange resin on the catalyst particle and the number of micropores which conduct the gas flow in the catalyst layer are reduced. Resultingly, a sufficiently large current cannot be taken out of the cell. This invention solves the problem. The catalyst layer of electrode of PEMFC consists of a mixture of the conductive catalyst carrier coated with cation exchange resin and the conductive carrier coated with fluorinated hydrocarbon polymer. Adding the water repellent material to the electrode in this way improves the air-passing porosity. As for the cation exchange resin, perfluorocarbon sulfonate or perfluorocarbon carboxylate can be used. For the fluorinated hydrocarbon polymer, fluorinated polyethylene is preferably used. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Bipolar Electrode Array Embedded in a Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Chen, Shulun; AlTal, Faleh; Hu, Shiyu; Bouffier, Laurent; Wantz, Guillaume

    2017-09-20

    A linear array of aluminum discs is deposited between the driving electrodes of an extremely large planar polymer light-emitting electrochemical cell (PLEC). The planar PLEC is then operated at a constant bias voltage of 100 V. This promotes in situ electrochemical doping of the luminescent polymer from both the driving electrodes and the aluminum discs. These aluminum discs function as discrete bipolar electrodes (BPEs) that can drive redox reactions at their extremities. Time-lapse fluorescence imaging reveals that p- and n-doping that originated from neighboring BPEs can interact to form multiple light-emitting p-n junctions in series. This provides direct evidence of the working principle of bulk homojunction PLECs. The propagation of p-doping is faster from the BPEs than from the positive driving electrode due to electric field enhancement at the extremities of BPEs. The effect of field enhancement and the fact that the doping fronts only need to travel the distance between the neighboring BPEs to form a light-emitting junction greatly reduce the response time for electroluminescence in the region containing the BPE array. The near simultaneous formation of multiple light-emitting p-n junctions in series causes a measurable increase in cell current. This indicates that the region containing a BPE is much more conductive than the rest of the planar cell despite the latter's greater width. The p- and n-doping originating from the BPEs is initially highly confined. Significant expansion and divergence of doping occurred when the region containing the BPE array became more conductive. The shape and direction of expanded doping strongly suggest that the multiple light-emitting p-n junctions, formed between and connected by the array of metal BPEs, have functioned as a single rod-shaped BPE. This represents a new type of BPE that is formed in situ and as a combination of metal, doped polymers, and forward-biased p-n junctions connected in series.

  8. Electromagnetic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in an insulating matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnouf, Stephane

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the electronic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in zeolite. We studied two kinds of polymers: intrinsic conducting polymers (poly-pyrrole) and pyrolyzed polymers (polyacrylonitrile and poly-furfuryl alcohol). These systems were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance and microwave conductivity measurements. In the first part, we present the preparation and the characterization of encapsulated poly-pyrrole. Conductivity measurements show that the encapsulated material is insulating, certainly because a strong interaction with the zeolite traps the charge carriers. In the second part, we focus on pyrolyzed encapsulated polyacrylonitrile. This system has a metal-like susceptibility at room temperature and a relatively high microwave conductivity. These results demonstrate the formation during the pyrolysis of extended aromatic clusters. Finally, we study pyrolyzed encapsulated poly-furfuryl alcohol. We show that the only effect of the pyrolysis is to fragment the polymers. We also discuss the spin relaxation and the EPR line broadening. (author) [fr

  9. Conducting Polymer Actuators: Prospects and Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    Actuators constructed with a conjugated polymer as the active part have been predicted to have a number of highly desirable properties: Large mechanical strength, high power density, i.e. high actuation speeds possible, sufficient maximum strain values, high reversibility and safe, low voltages (...

  10. Radiation induced synthesis of conducting polymer nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    irradiation dose is increased, a gradual red shift in was observed. This indicates formation of larger particles with increasing irradiation dose. With increase in Ag concentration the absorption maximum shifts towards longer wavelengths (larger particle size formation). The XRD pattern of irradiated PANI exhibits four new diffraction peaks, corresponding to face centered cubic structure (fcc) of silver. With increasing of either AgNO 3 concentration or irradiation dose the particle size was increased. FTIR spectra of Ag/PANI nano composites illustrate that the incorporation of silver nanoparticles in poly aniline matrix leads to small shift of some peaks to the higher wavelengths and also decreases in the intensity of other peaks, which indicates that the structural change of polymer occurs with doping. The variation of dc electrical conductivity for pure PANI and irradiated Ag/PANI nano composites showed that the dc electrical conductivity of the irradiated Ag/PANI nano composites is higher than that of pure PANI and also it increases with increasing either irradiation dose or AgNO 3 concentrations. Catalytic evaluation of Ag/PANI and Ag/PVA in the reduction of 4-Nitro phenol (4-NP) showed that, either Ag/PANI or Ag/PVA is successive catalyst for a reduction of 4-nitrophenol which a carcinogenic material present in waste water and some petroleum product.

  11. Construction of ferrocene modified conducting polymer based amperometric urea biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Dervisevic, Esma; Senel, Mehmet; Cevik, Emre; Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir; Camurlu, Pınar

    2017-07-01

    Herein, an electrochemical urea sensing bio-electrode is reported that has been constructed by firstly electropolymerizing 4-(2,5-Di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline monomer (SNS-Aniline) on Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE), then modifying the polymer coated electrode surface with di-amino-Ferrocene (DAFc) as the mediator, and lastly Urease enzyme through glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The effect of pH, temperature, polymer thickness, and applied potential on the electrode current response was investigated besides performing storage and operational stability experiments with the interference studies. The resulting urea biosensor's amperometric response was linear in the range of 0.1-8.5mM with the sensitivity of 0.54μA/mM, detection limit of 12μM, and short response time of 2s. The designed bio-electrode was tested with real human blood and urine samples where it showed excellent analytical performance with insignificant interference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemical sensor for catechol and dopamine based on a catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer-conducting polymer hybrid recognition element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Dhana; Bossi, Alessandra; Whitcombe, Michael J; Chianella, Iva; Fowler, Steven A; Subrahmanyam, Sreenath; Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-05-01

    One of the difficulties with using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and other electrically insulating materials as the recognition element in electrochemical sensors is the lack of a direct path for the conduction of electrons from the active sites to the electrode. We have sought to address this problem through the preparation and characterization of novel hybrid materials combining a catalytic MIP, capable of oxidizing the template, catechol, with an electrically conducting polymer. In this way a network of "molecular wires" assists in the conduction of electrons from the active sites within the MIP to the electrode surface. This was made possible by the design of a new monomer that combines orthogonal polymerizable functionality; comprising an aniline group and a methacrylamide. Conducting films were prepared on the surface of electrodes (Au on glass) by electropolymerization of the aniline moiety. A layer of MIP was photochemically grafted over the polyaniline, via N,N'-diethyldithiocarbamic acid benzyl ester (iniferter) activation of the methacrylamide groups. Detection of catechol by the hybrid-MIP sensor was found to be specific, and catechol oxidation was detected by cyclic voltammetry at the optimized operating conditions: potential range -0.6 V to +0.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl), scan rate 50 mV/s, PBS pH 7.4. The calibration curve for catechol was found to be linear to 144 microM, with a limit of detection of 228 nM. Catechol and dopamine were detected by the sensor, whereas analogues and potentially interfering compounds, including phenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, serotonin, and ascorbic acid, had minimal effect (< or = 3%) on the detection of either analyte. Non-imprinted hybrid electrodes and bare gold electrodes failed to give any response to catechol at concentrations below 0.5 mM. Finally, the catalytic properties of the sensor were characterized by chronoamperometry and were found to be consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

  13. Facile 3D Metal Electrode Fabrication for Energy Applications via Inkjet Printing and Shape Memory Polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R C; Wu, J; Li, D C; Hau, N Y; Chang, Y H; Feng, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple 3D metal electrode fabrication technique via inkjet printing onto a thermally contracting shape memory polymer (SMP) substrate. Inkjet printing allows for the direct patterning of structures from metal nanoparticle bearing liquid inks. After deposition, these inks require thermal curing steps to render a stable conductive film. By printing onto a SMP substrate, the metal nanoparticle ink can be cured and substrate shrunk simultaneously to create 3D metal microstructures, forming a large surface area topology well suited for energy applications. Polystyrene SMP shrinkage was characterized in a laboratory oven from 150-240°C, resulting in a size reduction of 1.97-2.58. Silver nanoparticle ink was patterned into electrodes, shrunk, and the topology characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Zinc-Silver Oxide microbatteries were fabricated to demonstrate the 3D electrodes compared to planar references. Characterization was performed using 10M potassium hydroxide electrolyte solution doped with zinc oxide (57g/L). After a 300s oxidation at 3Vdc, the 3D electrode battery demonstrated a 125% increased capacity over the reference cell. Reference cells degraded with longer oxidations, but the 3D electrodes were fully oxidized for 4 hours, and exhibited a capacity of 5.5mA-hr/cm 2 with stable metal performance

  14. Structural design of flexible Au electrode to enable shape memory polymer for electrical actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haibao; Lei, Ming; Zhao, Chao; Xu, Ben; Leng, Jinsong; Fu, Y. Q.

    2015-04-01

    An effective resistive Joule heating approach was conducted to improve the electrical actuation and shape-recovery performance of a shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposite. Two types of gold (Au) film patterns were deposited to be used as electrodes to drive thermal-responsive SMPs and achieve a uniform temperature distribution during electro-activated shape recovery. Furthermore, the sensing capability of the Au electrode to both mechanical and thermal stimuli applied to the SMP nanocomposite was experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed. It was found that the change in the electrical resistance of the Au electrode could be used as an indication of shape-recovery performance. The linear response of the electrical resistance to strain was identified mainly due to the opening/closing of microcracks and their propagations in the Au electrodes during out-of-plane deformations. With an increment of thermomechanical bending cycles, the electrical resistance was increased exponentially, but it returned back to the original reading when the SMP nanocomposite returned back to its permanent shape. Finally, the flexible Au electrode enabled the actuation of the SMP nanocomposite under an electric voltage of 13.4 V, with an improved shape-recovery performance and temperature distribution.

  15. Polyfuran Conducting Polymers: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications.

    OpenAIRE

    González-Tejera, M.J.; Sánchez de la Blanca, Emilia; Carrillo Ramiro, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    In this review, polyfuran (PFu) synthesis methods and the nucleation mechanism; the electrochemical, structural, morphological, and magnetic properties of PFu; thermal behavior; theoretical calculations on PFu, as well as its applications reported to date, have been compiled. Not only PFu homopolymers have been reviewed, but also PFu co-polymers, PFu bipolymers, and PFu composites. The results are listed, discussed, and compared. It is hoped that this assembly of all the relevant data might e...

  16. Highly conductive interwoven carbon nanotube and silver nanowire transparent electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Stapleton, Rakesh A Afre, Amanda V Ellis, Joe G Shapter, Gunther G Andersson, Jamie S Quinton and David A Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodes fabricated using commercially available silver nanowires (AgNWs and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs produced sheet resistances in the range 4–24 Ω squ−1 with specular transparencies up to 82 %. Increasing the aqueous dispersibility of SWCNTs decreased the bundle size present in the film resulting in improved SWCNT surface dispersion in the films without compromising transparency or sheet resistance. In addition to providing conduction pathways between the AgNW network, the SWCNTs also provide structural support, creating stable self-supporting films. Entanglement of the AgNWs and SWCNTs was demonstrated to occur in solution prior to deposition by monitoring the transverse plasmon resonance mode of the AgNWs during processing. The interwoven AgNW/SWCNT structures show potential for use in optoelectronic applications as transparent electrodes and as an ITO replacement.

  17. Low-bias negative differential conductance controlled by electrode separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Ran; Bi, Jun-Jie; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Chuan-Kui; Li, Zong-Liang

    2016-12-01

    The electronic transport properties of a single thiolated arylethynylene molecule with 9,10-dihydroanthracene core, denoted as TADHA, is studied by using non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism combined with ab initio calculations. The numerical results show that the TADHA molecule exhibits excellent negative differential conductance (NDC) behavior at lower bias regime as probed experimentally. The NDC behavior of TADHA molecule originates from the Stark effect of the applied bias voltage, by which the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the HOMO-1 are pulled apart and become localized. The NDC behavior of TADHA molecular system is tunable by changing the electrode distance. Shortening the electrode separation can enhance the NDC effect which is attributed to the possible increase of coupling between the two branches of TADHA molecule. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374195 and 11405098) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2013FM006).

  18. Low-bias negative differential conductance controlled by electrode separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Xiao-Hua; Liu Ran; Bi Jun-Jie; Jiao Yang; Wang Chuan-Kui; Li Zong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of a single thiolated arylethynylene molecule with 9,10-dihydroanthracene core, denoted as TADHA, is studied by using non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism combined with ab initio calculations. The numerical results show that the TADHA molecule exhibits excellent negative differential conductance (NDC) behavior at lower bias regime as probed experimentally. The NDC behavior of TADHA molecule originates from the Stark effect of the applied bias voltage, by which the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the HOMO-1 are pulled apart and become localized. The NDC behavior of TADHA molecular system is tunable by changing the electrode distance. Shortening the electrode separation can enhance the NDC effect which is attributed to the possible increase of coupling between the two branches of TADHA molecule. (paper)

  19. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. PMID:25664436

  20. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers (CPs are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.

  1. Highly conductive polymers: superconductivity in nanochannels or an experimental artifact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Harley; Park, Seongho; Zhirnov, Victor; Cavin, Ralph; Kohl, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant body of literature concerning the potential formation of electrically conductive moieties in polymeric materials. The conductive path is not associated with conjugation (such as in the case of 'conductive polymers') but rather associated with a new conductivity route. The objective of the experiments reported herein was to provide insight into the phenomenon of unusually high electrical conductivity in polymers that have been reported by several research groups. In some experiments, the test apparatus did indeed indicate high levels of conductance. Arguments pro and con for high conductivity based on known physical phenomena and the collected data were examined.

  2. Design and synthesis of polymer, carbon and composite electrodes for high energy and high power supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila Velez, Margarita Rosa

    Supercapacitors (SCs) are promising energy storage devices because they deliver energy faster than Li-ion batteries and store larger amounts of charge compared to dielectric capacitors. SCs are classified in electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) and pseudocapacitors, based on their charge storage mechanism. EDLCs store charge electrostatically, i.e. by physical charge separation. This mechanism limits the storable amount of energy to the available surface area of the electrode, typically made of carbon materials, but grants good cycling stability of the SC device. Pseudocapacitor electrodes, commonly made of conducting polymers or metal oxides, store charge faradaically, i.e. through redox reactions throughout the bulk material, which allows them to store significantly larger amounts of energy than EDLCs, but their stability is compromised due to the partial irreversibility of the faradaic processes. To accomplish the commercialization of SCs, devices must show a combination of high charge storage capacities and long-term stability, besides being cost-effective. To tackle the current issues of SCs, this field of study has taken mainly two directions: 1) the development of new architectures and nanostructures of the active materials, which has shown to increase the surface area, enhance stability, and facilitate ion diffusion; and 2) fabrication of composites between non-faradaic (carbon), faradaic materials, and/or redox-active components to achieve a balance between the amount of energy stored and the stability. Following the first approach, a continuous process to grow vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) on cost-effective aluminum foil was developed. The resulting electrodes were analyzed as SC electrodes and in symmetric cells, and the influence of the arrangement of the nanotubes and the synthesis conditions was studied. The performance of the VACNTs produced continuously showed similar performance to the VACNTs produced stationarily and the

  3. Effects of the operational conditions on the membrane and electrode properties of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos Raimundo R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the operational conditions on the membrane and electrode properties on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC were investigated as a function of the cell and the gas humidifiers temperatures, the thickness of the membrane, the impregnation with phosphotungstic acid (PWA, and the variation of the Nafion and Teflon contents in the gas diffusion electrodes. An increase of the membrane resistance was observed when the PEFC is operated at temperatures equal or higher than those of the gas humidifiers, and this is more apparent for thicker electrolyte films. In the presence of PWA, the physicochemical properties of the membrane do not appreciably change with temperature. However, in this case, a lower humidification temperature affects the electrode performance. Changes on the Nafion loading in the electrodes do not lead to any significant effect in the electrode and membrane properties. For high Teflon contents there is a small lowering of the membrane conductivity.

  4. Fast prototyping of conducting polymer microelectrodes using resistance-controlled high precision drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert; Geschke, Oliver; Skaarup, Steen

    2011-01-01

    We present a straightforward method for fast prototyping of microelectrode arrays in the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Microelectrode arrays were produced by electrical resistance-controlled microdrilling through an insulating polymer layer (TOPAS® 5013...... approach the steady state currents predicted from modeling, but at a much slower rate than expected. This is shown to be caused by the use of electroactive PEDOT electrodes. Subtraction of the latter contribution gives approach to steady state currents within a few seconds, which is in very good agreement...

  5. Microwave assisted click chemistry on a conductive polymer film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hansen, Thomas S.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2011-01-01

    Microwave (MW) irradiation has been used to accelerate the functionalization of an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film by click chemistry. The absorption of MW energy by the conductive polymer has been exploited for localized activation of the reaction on the polymer surface...

  6. Functional Conducting Polymers in the Application of SPR Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapiphun Janmanee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymers have emerged as one of the most promising transducers for both chemical, sensors and biosensors owing to their unique electrical, electrochemical and optical properties that can be used to convert chemical information or biointeractions into electrical or optical signals, which can easily be detected by modern techniques. Different approaches to the application of conducting polymers in chemo- or biosensing applications have been extensively studied. In order to enhance the application of conducting polymers into the area of biosensors, one approach is to introduce functional groups, including carboxylic acid, amine, sulfonate, or thiol groups, into the conducting polymer chain and to form a so-called “self-doped” or by doping with negatively charged polyelectrolytes. The functional conducting polymers have been successfully utilized to immobilize enzymes for construction of biosensors. Recently, the combination of SPR and electrochemical, known as electrochemical-surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR, spectroscopy, has been used for in situ investigation of optical and electrical properties of conducting polymer films. Moreover, EC-SPR spectroscopy has been applied for monitoring the interaction between biomolecules and electropolymerized conjugated polymer films in biosensor and immunosensor applications. In this paper, recent development and applications on EC-SPR in biosensors will be reviewed.

  7. Micro-pseudocapacitors with Electroactive Polymer Electrodes: Towards Ac-Line Filtering Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2016-05-05

    In this study, we investigate the frequency response of microsupercapacitors based on pseudocapacitive conducting polymer electrodes such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY) and polyaniline (PANI). It is shown that by proper choice of polymeric material and device structure, mainiturized microsupercapacitors based on electroactive polymers can match the frequency response of commercial bulky electrolytic capacitors. Specifically, we shsow that PEDOT-based microsupercapacitors exhibit phase angle of -80.5º at 120 Hz which is comparable to commercial bulky electrolytic capacitors, but with an order of magnitude higher capacitance density (3 FV/cm3). The trade-off between the areal capacitance (CA) and frequency response in the 2D architecture (CA = 0.3 mF/cm2, phase angle of -80.5º at 120 Hz) is improved by designing 3D thin film architecture (CA = 3 mF/cm2, phase angle of -60º at 120 Hz). Our work demonstrates that fast frequency response can be achieved using electroactive polymer electrodes.

  8. Micro-pseudocapacitors with Electroactive Polymer Electrodes: Towards Ac-Line Filtering Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Jiang, Qiu; Syed, Ahad; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the frequency response of microsupercapacitors based on pseudocapacitive conducting polymer electrodes such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY) and polyaniline (PANI). It is shown that by proper choice of polymeric material and device structure, mainiturized microsupercapacitors based on electroactive polymers can match the frequency response of commercial bulky electrolytic capacitors. Specifically, we shsow that PEDOT-based microsupercapacitors exhibit phase angle of -80.5º at 120 Hz which is comparable to commercial bulky electrolytic capacitors, but with an order of magnitude higher capacitance density (3 FV/cm3). The trade-off between the areal capacitance (CA) and frequency response in the 2D architecture (CA = 0.3 mF/cm2, phase angle of -80.5º at 120 Hz) is improved by designing 3D thin film architecture (CA = 3 mF/cm2, phase angle of -60º at 120 Hz). Our work demonstrates that fast frequency response can be achieved using electroactive polymer electrodes.

  9. A cold plasma plume with a highly conductive liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangliang; Chen Wenxing; Chen Shihua; Yang Size

    2008-01-01

    A cold dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma plume with one highly conductive liquid electrode has been developed to treat thermally sensitive materials, and its preliminary discharging characteristics have been studied. The averaged electron temperature and density is estimated to be 0.6eV and 10 11 /cm 3 , respectively. The length of plasma plume can reach 5 cm with helium gas (He), and the conductivity of the outer electrode affects the plume length obviously. This plasma plume could be touched by bare hand without causing any burning or painful sensation, which may provide potential application for safe aseptic skin care. Moreover, the oxidative particles (e.g., OH, O * , O 3 ) in the downstream oxygen (O2) gas of the plume have been applied to treat the landfill leachate. The results show that the activated O 2 gas can degrade the landfill leachate effectively, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and suspended solid (SS) can be decreased by 52%, 57%, 76% and 92%, respectively. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  10. Conducting Polymers Functionalized with Phthalocyanine as Nitrogen Dioxide Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Deshpande

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole and polythiophene were functionalized with copper phthalocyanine using chemical oxidation method. The obtained polymers viz. PANI-CuPc, PPy-CuPc and PT-CuPc were studied as chemical sensors by their response characteristics after exposure to various chemical vapors such as methanol, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The results obtained showed that these polymers have moderate sensitivity towards the methanol as well as ammonia vapors whereas they show tremendous sensitivity towards nitrogen dioxide vapors. The sensitivity factor of as high as 50,000 was obtained for PT-CuPc polymers in nitrogen dioxide. In comparison to this, the sensitivity factors of about 100 and 40 were obtained, when these polymers were exposed to ammonia and methanol vapors. The very high selectivity towards the nitrogen dioxide was explained on the basis of charge transfer complex formed between, the phthalocyanine donor and nitrogen dioxide acceptor molecules. On the other hand, ammonia becomes a competing electron donor in CuPc containing conducting polymers. The very low response towards the methanol may be explained on the basis very little charge transfer / interaction between CuPc containing polymers and methanol. Thus, CuPc incorporated conducting polymers have much higher selectivity than their original homopolymer.

  11. All-organic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light-valves integrated with electroactive anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films as driving electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pen-Cheng; Yu, Jing-Yu; Li, Kuan-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fabrication of flexible semi-transparent all-polymer electrodes under ambient conditions without using a CVD system. → Characterization of the above electrodes based on anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films. → Demonstration of all-organic liquid crystal light-valves with polypyrrole thin films as the driving electrodes. - Abstract: All-organic PDLC (polymer-dispersed liquid crystal) light-valves using all-polymer conductive substrates containing thin films of polypyrrole doped with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQSA - ) as the driving electrodes were fabricated in this study. The all-polymer conductive substrates were prepared under ambient conditions by in situ depositing polypyrrole thin films on blank flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate), or PET, substrates from aqueous media in which oxidative polymerization of pyrrole was taking place. The obtained flexible all-polymer conductive substrates were semi-transparent with cohesive coatings of AQSA - doped polypyrrole thin films (thickness ∼55 nm). The all-polymer flexible conductive substrates had sheet resistivity ∼40 kΩ □ -1 and T% transparency against air ∼78% at 600 nm. The light-valves fabricated using the above all-polymer conductive substrates showed ∼50% transparency against air at 600 nm when 4 V μm -1 electric field was applied.

  12. Current Trends in Sensors Based on Conducting Polymer Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonseok Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers represent an important class of functional organic materials for next-generation electronic and optical devices. Advances in nanotechnology allow for the fabrication of various conducting polymer nanomaterials through synthesis methods such as solid-phase template synthesis, molecular template synthesis, and template-free synthesis. Nanostructured conducting polymers featuring high surface area, small dimensions, and unique physical properties have been widely used to build various sensor devices. Many remarkable examples have been reported over the past decade. The enhanced sensitivity of conducting polymer nanomaterials toward various chemical/biological species and external stimuli has made them ideal candidates for incorporation into the design of sensors. However, the selectivity and stability still leave room for improvement.

  13. Current Trends in Sensors Based on Conducting Polymer Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2013-01-01

    Conducting polymers represent an important class of functional organic materials for next-generation electronic and optical devices. Advances in nanotechnology allow for the fabrication of various conducting polymer nanomaterials through synthesis methods such as solid-phase template synthesis, molecular template synthesis, and template-free synthesis. Nanostructured conducting polymers featuring high surface area, small dimensions, and unique physical properties have been widely used to build various sensor devices. Many remarkable examples have been reported over the past decade. The enhanced sensitivity of conducting polymer nanomaterials toward various chemical/biological species and external stimuli has made them ideal candidates for incorporation into the design of sensors. However, the selectivity and stability still leave room for improvement. PMID:28348348

  14. Ionic motion in PEDOT and PPy conducting polymer bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainudeen, Umer L.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Conducting polymer bilayers with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polypyrrole (PPy), each containing dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) as immobile dopant species, were synthesized galvanostatically. The electrochemical behaviour of the bilayers was investigated using cyclic voltammetry...

  15. Biofunctionalized conductive polymers enable efficient CO2 electroreduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Halime; Aljabour, Abdalaziz; De Luna, Phil; Farka, Dominik; Greunz, Theresia; Stifter, David; Kus, Mahmut; Zheng, Xueli; Liu, Min; Hassel, Achim W.; Schöfberger, Wolfgang; Sargent, Edward H.; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Stadler, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Selective electrocatalysts are urgently needed for carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels, thereby closing the carbon cycle. To date, noble metals have achieved the best performance in energy yield and faradaic efficiency and have recently reached impressive electrical-to-chemical power conversion efficiencies. However, the scarcity of precious metals makes the search for scalable, metal-free, CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) catalysts all the more important. We report an all-organic, that is, metal-free, electrocatalyst that achieves impressive performance comparable to that of best-in-class Ag electrocatalysts. We hypothesized that polydopamine—a conjugated polymer whose structure incorporates hydrogen-bonded motifs found in enzymes—could offer the combination of efficient electrical conduction, together with rendered active catalytic sites, and potentially thereby enable CO2RR. Only by developing a vapor-phase polymerization of polydopamine were we able to combine the needed excellent conductivity with thin film–based processing. We achieve catalytic performance with geometric current densities of 18 mA cm−2 at 0.21 V overpotential (−0.86 V versus normal hydrogen electrode) for the electrosynthesis of C1 species (carbon monoxide and formate) with continuous 16-hour operation at >80% faradaic efficiency. Our catalyst exhibits lower overpotentials than state-of-the-art formate-selective metal electrocatalysts (for example, 0.5 V for Ag at 18 mA cm−1). The results confirm the value of exploiting hydrogen-bonded sequences as effective catalytic centers for renewable and cost-efficient industrial CO2RR applications. PMID:28798958

  16. The effect of microwave drying on polymer electrolyte conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, R.J. (Dept. of Chemistry, De Montfort Univ., Gateway, Leicester (United Kingdom)); Linford, R.G. (Dept. of Chemistry, De Montfort Univ., Gateway, Leicester (United Kingdom)); Pynenburg, R.A.J. (Dept. of Chemistry, De Montfort Univ., Gateway, Leicester (United Kingdom))

    1993-03-01

    The morphology and conductivity of polymer electrolytes based on PEO are often substantially modified by the presence of water. A number of different approaches have commonly been used to eliminate water from polymer electrolyte films. The work reported here extends our earlier investigations of the use of microwaves for the rapid drying of solvent cast polymer electrolyte films. Films of PEO[sub n]:NiBr[sub 2] and PEO[sub n]:ZnCl[sub 2] have been prepared by normal casting techniques and then studied using EXAFS, DSC and ac conductivity measurements. (orig.)

  17. Evaluating conducting network based transparent electrodes from geometrical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ankush [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, 560064 Bangalore (India); Kulkarni, G. U., E-mail: guk@cens.res.in [Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, 560013 Bangalore (India)

    2016-01-07

    Conducting nanowire networks have been developed as viable alternative to existing indium tin oxide based transparent electrode (TE). The nature of electrical conduction and process optimization for electrodes have gained much from the theoretical models based on percolation transport using Monte Carlo approach and applying Kirchhoff's law on individual junctions and loops. While most of the literature work pertaining to theoretical analysis is focussed on networks obtained from conducting rods (mostly considering only junction resistance), hardly any attention has been paid to those made using template based methods, wherein the structure of network is neither similar to network obtained from conducting rods nor similar to well periodic geometry. Here, we have attempted an analytical treatment based on geometrical arguments and applied image analysis on practical networks to gain deeper insight into conducting networked structure particularly in relation to sheet resistance and transmittance. Many literature examples reporting networks with straight or curvilinear wires with distributions in wire width and length have been analysed by treating the networks as two dimensional graphs and evaluating the sheet resistance based on wire density and wire width. The sheet resistance values from our analysis compare well with the experimental values. Our analysis on various examples has revealed that low sheet resistance is achieved with high wire density and compactness with straight rather than curvilinear wires and with narrower wire width distribution. Similarly, higher transmittance for given sheet resistance is possible with narrower wire width but of higher thickness, minimal curvilinearity, and maximum connectivity. For the purpose of evaluating active fraction of the network, the algorithm was made to distinguish and quantify current carrying backbone regions as against regions containing only dangling or isolated wires. The treatment can be helpful in

  18. Evaluating conducting network based transparent electrodes from geometrical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ankush; Kulkarni, G. U.

    2016-01-01

    Conducting nanowire networks have been developed as viable alternative to existing indium tin oxide based transparent electrode (TE). The nature of electrical conduction and process optimization for electrodes have gained much from the theoretical models based on percolation transport using Monte Carlo approach and applying Kirchhoff's law on individual junctions and loops. While most of the literature work pertaining to theoretical analysis is focussed on networks obtained from conducting rods (mostly considering only junction resistance), hardly any attention has been paid to those made using template based methods, wherein the structure of network is neither similar to network obtained from conducting rods nor similar to well periodic geometry. Here, we have attempted an analytical treatment based on geometrical arguments and applied image analysis on practical networks to gain deeper insight into conducting networked structure particularly in relation to sheet resistance and transmittance. Many literature examples reporting networks with straight or curvilinear wires with distributions in wire width and length have been analysed by treating the networks as two dimensional graphs and evaluating the sheet resistance based on wire density and wire width. The sheet resistance values from our analysis compare well with the experimental values. Our analysis on various examples has revealed that low sheet resistance is achieved with high wire density and compactness with straight rather than curvilinear wires and with narrower wire width distribution. Similarly, higher transmittance for given sheet resistance is possible with narrower wire width but of higher thickness, minimal curvilinearity, and maximum connectivity. For the purpose of evaluating active fraction of the network, the algorithm was made to distinguish and quantify current carrying backbone regions as against regions containing only dangling or isolated wires. The treatment can be helpful in

  19. Conductivity hysteresis in polymer electrolytes incorporating poly(tetrahydrofuran)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbulut, Ozge; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Mayes, Anne M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kumar, Sundeep; Shao-Horn, Yang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Conductivity hysteresis and room temperature ionic conductivities >10{sup -3}S/cm were recently reported for electrolytes prepared from blends of an amphiphilic comb copolymer, poly[2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxapentadecamethylene (5-hexadecyloxy-1,3-phenylene)] (polymer I), and a linear multiblock copolymer, poly(oligotetrahydrofuran-co-dodecamethylene) (polymer II), following thermal treatment [F. Chia, Y. Zheng, J. Liu, N. Reeves, G. Ungar, P.V. Wright, Electrochim. Acta 43 (2003) 1939]. To investigate the origin of these effects, polymers I and II were synthesized in this work, and the conductivity and thermal properties of the individual polymers were investigated. AC impedance measurements were conducted on I and II doped with LiBF{sub 4} or LiClO{sub 4} during gradual heating to 110{sup o}C and slow cooling to room temperature. Significant conductivity hysteresis was seen for polymer II, and was similarly observed for poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF) homopolymer at equivalent doping levels. From thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, both polymer II and PTHF were found to partially decompose to THF during heat treatment, resulting in a self-plasticizing effect on conductivity. (author)

  20. Uniformly embedded silver nanomesh as highly bendable transparent conducting electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choo, Soyoung; Jung, Pil-Hoon; Shin, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Yang-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Ag-nanomesh-based highly bendable conducting electrodes are developed using a combination of metal nanotransfer printing and embossing for the 6-inch wafer scale. Two Ag nanomeshes, including pitch sizes of 7.5 and 10 μm, are used to obtain highly transparent (approximately 85% transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm) and electrically conducting properties (below 10 Ω sq −1 ). The Ag nanomeshes are also distinguished according to the fabrication process, which is called transferred or embedded Ag nanomesh on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate, in order to compare their stability against bending stress. Then the enhancement of bending stability when the Ag nanomesh is embedded in the PET substrate is confirmed. (paper)

  1. Uniformly embedded silver nanomesh as highly bendable transparent conducting electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choo, Soyoung; Jung, Pil-Hoon; Shin, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Yang-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2015-02-01

    Ag-nanomesh-based highly bendable conducting electrodes are developed using a combination of metal nanotransfer printing and embossing for the 6-inch wafer scale. Two Ag nanomeshes, including pitch sizes of 7.5 and 10 μm, are used to obtain highly transparent (approximately 85% transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm) and electrically conducting properties (below 10 Ω sq-1). The Ag nanomeshes are also distinguished according to the fabrication process, which is called transferred or embedded Ag nanomesh on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate, in order to compare their stability against bending stress. Then the enhancement of bending stability when the Ag nanomesh is embedded in the PET substrate is confirmed.

  2. Conducting Polymers and Their Applications in Diabetes Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in conducting polymers (CPs have promoted the development of diabetic monitoring and treatment, which is of great significance in human healthcare and modern medicine. CPs are special polymers with physical and electrochemical features resembling metals, inorganic semiconductors and non-conducting polymers. To improve and extend their properties, the fabrication of CPs and CP composites has attracted intensive attention in recent decades. Some CPs are biocompatible and suitable for biomedical use. Thus, the intriguing properties of CPs make wearable, noninvasive, continuous diabetes managing devices and other potential applications in diabetes possible in the near future. To highlight the recent advances of CPs and their derived materials (especially in conducting polymer hydrogels, here we discuss their fabrication and characterization, review the current state-of-the-art research in diabetes management based on these materials and describe current challenges as well as future potential research directions.

  3. Phonon studies of intercalated conductive polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prassides, K; Bell, C J [School of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dianoux, A J [Inst. Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France); Chunguey, Wu; Kanatzidis, M G [Dept. of Chemistry, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The phonon density-of-states of FeOCl, the conductive form of polyaniline and the intercalation compound (polyaniline)[sub 0.20]FeOCl(I) have been measured by the neutron time-of-flight technique. The results are discussed in the light of the conducting and structural properties of the materials. Compound I is oxidised by standing in air and the neutron measurements reveal substantial changes in the inorganic host skeleton. (orig.).

  4. High-resolution and high-conductive electrode fabrication on a low thermal resistance flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bongchul; Kno, Jinsung; Yang, Minyang

    2011-01-01

    Processes based on the liquid-state pattern transfer, like inkjet printing, have critical limitations including low resolution and low electrical conductivity when fabricating electrodes on low thermal resistance flexible substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Those are due to the nonlinear transfer mechanism and the limit of the sintering temperature. Although the laser direct curing (LDC) of metallic inks is an alternative process to improve the resolution, it is also associated with the disadvantages of causing thermal damage to the polymer substrate. This paper suggests the laser induced pattern adhesion transfer method to fabricate electrodes of both high electrical conductivity and high resolution on a PET substrate. First, solid patterns are cost-effectively created by the LDC of the organometallic silver ink on a glass that is optically and thermally stable. The solid patterns sintered on the glass are transferred to the PET substrate by the photo-thermally generated adhesion force of the substrate. Therefore, we achieved electrodes with a minimum line width of 10 µm and a specific resistance of 3.6 μΩcm on the PET substrate. The patterns also showed high mechanical reliability

  5. High-resolution and high-conductive electrode fabrication on a low thermal resistance flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bongchul; Kno, Jinsung; Yang, Minyang

    2011-07-01

    Processes based on the liquid-state pattern transfer, like inkjet printing, have critical limitations including low resolution and low electrical conductivity when fabricating electrodes on low thermal resistance flexible substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Those are due to the nonlinear transfer mechanism and the limit of the sintering temperature. Although the laser direct curing (LDC) of metallic inks is an alternative process to improve the resolution, it is also associated with the disadvantages of causing thermal damage to the polymer substrate. This paper suggests the laser induced pattern adhesion transfer method to fabricate electrodes of both high electrical conductivity and high resolution on a PET substrate. First, solid patterns are cost-effectively created by the LDC of the organometallic silver ink on a glass that is optically and thermally stable. The solid patterns sintered on the glass are transferred to the PET substrate by the photo-thermally generated adhesion force of the substrate. Therefore, we achieved electrodes with a minimum line width of 10 µm and a specific resistance of 3.6 μΩcm on the PET substrate. The patterns also showed high mechanical reliability.

  6. Cytotoxicity evaluation of polymer-derived ceramics for pacemaker electrode applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossenbacher, Jonas; Gullo, Maurizio R; Dalcanale, Federico; Blugan, Gurdial; Kuebler, Jakob; Lecaudé, Stéphanie; Tevaearai Stahel, Hendrik; Brugger, Juergen

    2015-11-01

    Ceramics are known to be chemically stable, and the possibility to electrically dope polymer-derived ceramics makes it a material of interest for implantable electrode applications. We investigated cytotoxic characteristics of four polymer-derived ceramic candidates with either electrically conductive or insulating properties. Cytotoxicity was assessed by culturing C2C12 myoblast cells under two conditions: by exposing them to material extracts and by putting them directly in contact with material samples. Cell spreading was optically evaluated by comparing microscope observations immediately after the materials insertion and after 24 h culturing. Cell viability (MTT) and mortality (LDH) were quantified after 24-h incubation in contact with the materials. Comparison was made with biocompatible positive references (alumina, platinum, biocompatible stainless steel 1.4435), negative references (latex, stainless steel 1.4301) and controls (no material present in the culture wells). We found that the cytotoxic properties of tested ceramics are comparable to established reference materials. These ceramics, which are reported to be very stable, can be microstructured and electrically doped to a wide range of conductivity and are thus excellent candidates for implantable electrode applications including pacemakers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Enhanced thermal conductance of polymer composites through embeddingaligned carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale K. Hensley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this work is to find a more efficient method of enhancing the thermal conductance of polymer thin films. This work compares polymer thin films embedded with randomly oriented carbon nanotubes to those with vertically aligned carbon nanofibers. Thin films embedded with carbon nanofibers demonstrated a similar thermal conductance between 40–60 μm and a higher thermal conductance between 25–40 μm than films embedded with carbon nanotubes with similar volume fractions even though carbon nanotubes have a higher thermal conductivity than carbon nanofibers.

  8. Graphene network organisation in conductive polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syurik, Y.V.; Ghislandi, M.G.; Tkalya, E.; Paterson, G.; McGrouther, D.; Ageev, O.A.; Loos, J.

    2012-01-01

    A latex technique is used to prepare graphene/polystyrene and graphene/poly(propylene) composites with varying GR loadings. Their electrical properties and the corresponding volume organisation of GR networks are studied. Percolation thresholds for conduction are found to be about 0.9 and 0.4 wt%

  9. Fabrication of a sulfite biosensor by the use of conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, M.; Bahmani, B; Moztarzadeh, F.; Rabiee, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this research, an enzyme modified electrode has been produced during the electro polymerization of aniline through incorporation of Sulfite oxidase into a conducting polymer. Then the bioelectrochemical response of resulted sulfite biosensor was investigated at different experimental conditions. Study of the stability of the resulted sulfite biosensor revealed that formation of a passive film on the aluminum surface causes improved stability of the electro active films formed on the electrode surface. The bioelectrochemical response of the enzyme-modified electrode as a sulfite biosensor was investigated at different experimental conditions. The optimum p H and temperature were 8.5 and 35 d eg C , respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant and the activation energy of the enzyme catalyzed reaction were calculated

  10. Thermal Conductivities of Some Polymers and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    conductivities (Kt) of epoxies, polyurethanes, and hydrocarbons of interest to the Army. The study explores the effects of different curing agents...obtained. 4.12 p-DCPD P-DCPD is currently of interest for composite armor applications because of its unusual ballistic properties and its high TG...the matrix, and recalling that Kt for the fiber does not dominate in the simple model above, a reasonable upper bound for Kt for a 50 volume

  11. Whole plantar nerve conduction study with disposable strip electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Shoji; Kurokawa, Katsumi; Nagai, Taiji; Okamoto, Toshio; Murakami, Tatsufumi; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2016-02-01

    A new method to evaluate whole plantar nerve conduction with disposable strip electrodes (DSEs) is described. Whole plantar compound nerve action potentials (CNAPs) were recorded at the ankle. DSEs were attached to the sole for simultaneous stimulation of medial and lateral plantar nerves. We also conducted medial plantar nerve conduction studies using an established method and compared the findings. Whole plantar CNAPs were recorded bilaterally from 32 healthy volunteers. Mean baseline to peak amplitude for CNAPs was 26.9 ± 11.8 μV, and mean maximum conduction velocity was 65.8 ± 8.3 m/s. The mean amplitude of CNAPs obtained by our method was 58.2% higher than that of CNAPs obtained by the Saeed method (26.9 μV vs. 17.0 μV; P < 0.0001). The higher mean amplitude of whole plantar CNAPs obtained by our method suggests that it enables CNAPs to be obtained easily, even in elderly people. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Polymer-Assisted Direct Deposition of Uniform Carbon Nanotube Bundle Networks for High Performance Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.; Lee, Hang Woo; Bao, Zhenan

    2009-01-01

    Flexible transparent electrodes are crucial for touch screen, flat panel display, and solar cell technologies. While carbon nanotube network electrodes show promise, characteristically poor dispersion properties have limited their practicality. We report that addition of small amounts of conjugated polymer to nanotube dispersions enables straightforward fabrication of uniform network electrodes by spin-coating and simultaneous tuning of parameters such as bundle size and density. After treatment in thionyl chloride, electrodes have sheet resistances competitive with other reported carbon nanotube based transparent electrodes to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. Polymer-Assisted Direct Deposition of Uniform Carbon Nanotube Bundle Networks for High Performance Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.

    2009-06-23

    Flexible transparent electrodes are crucial for touch screen, flat panel display, and solar cell technologies. While carbon nanotube network electrodes show promise, characteristically poor dispersion properties have limited their practicality. We report that addition of small amounts of conjugated polymer to nanotube dispersions enables straightforward fabrication of uniform network electrodes by spin-coating and simultaneous tuning of parameters such as bundle size and density. After treatment in thionyl chloride, electrodes have sheet resistances competitive with other reported carbon nanotube based transparent electrodes to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Method of forming electronically conducting polymers on conducting and nonconducting substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor); Clarke, Eric T. (Inventor); Miller, David L. (Inventor); Parker, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides electronically conducting polymer films formed from photosensitive formulations of pyrrole and an electron acceptor that have been selectively exposed to UV light, laser light, or electron beams. The formulations may include photoinitiators, flexibilizers, solvents and the like. These solutions can be used in applications including printed circuit boards and through-hole plating and enable direct metallization processes on non-conducting substrates. After forming the conductive polymer patterns, a printed wiring board can be formed by sensitizing the polymer with palladium and electrolytically depositing copper.

  15. Mediating conducting polymer growth within hydrogels by controlling nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Patton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the efficacy of primary and secondary nucleation for electrochemical polymerisation of conductive polymers within poly(vinyl alcohol methacrylate hydrogels. The two methods of nucleation investigated were a primary heterogeneous mechanism via introduction of conductive bulk metallic glass (Mg64Zn30Ca5Na1 particles and a secondary mechanism via introduction of “pre-polymerised” conducting polymer within the hydrogel (PEDOT:PSS. Evidence of nucleation was not seen in the bulk metallic glass loaded gels, however, the PEDOT:PSS loaded gels produced charge storage capacities over 15 mC/cm2 when sufficient polymer was loaded. These studies support the hypothesis that secondary nucleation is an efficient approach to producing stand-alone conducting hydrogels.

  16. A nonconjugated radical polymer glass with high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yongho; Agarkar, Varad; Sung, Seung Hyun; Savoie, Brett M.; Boudouris, Bryan W.

    2018-03-01

    Solid-state conducting polymers usually have highly conjugated macromolecular backbones and require intentional doping in order to achieve high electrical conductivities. Conversely, single-component, charge-neutral macromolecules could be synthetically simpler and have improved processibility and ambient stability. We show that poly(4-glycidyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), a nonconjugated radical polymer with a subambient glass transition temperature, underwent rapid solid-state charge transfer reactions and had an electrical conductivity of up to 28 siemens per meter over channel lengths up to 0.6 micrometers. The charge transport through the radical polymer film was enabled with thermal annealing at 80°C, which allowed for the formation of a percolating network of open-shell sites in electronic communication with one another. The electrical conductivity was not enhanced by intentional doping, and thin films of this material showed high optical transparency.

  17. Preparation of Electrospun Polymer Fibers Using a Copper Wire Electrode in a Capillary Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbo, Kazunari; Onozuka, Shintaro; Hoshino, Rikiya; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2010-04-01

    Polymer fibers were prepared by an electrospinning method utilizing a copper wire electrode in a capillary tube. The morphology of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers was observed, and was found to be dependent on the wire electrode tip position in the capillary tube, the concentration of the polymer solution, the distance between the electrodes, and the applied voltage. By using the wire electrode, the experimental setup is simple and the distance between the electrodes and the applied voltage can be easily reduced. Furthermore, the preparation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) fibers was carried out. P3HT fibers were successfully prepared by mixing poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in P3HT solution. Orientation control was also carried out by depositing the fibers on a rotating collector electrode, and the alignment of the P3HT:PEO fibers was confirmed. Anisotropy of the optical absorption spectra was also observed for the aligned fibers.

  18. Effect of electrode geometry on photovoltaic performance of polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Meng; Ma, Heng; Liu, Hairui; Wu, Dongge; Niu, Heying; Cai, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of electrode geometry on the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The negative electrodes with equal area (0.09 cm 2 ) but different shape (round, oval, square and triangular) are evaluated with respect to short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power conversion efficiency of PSCs. The results show that the device with round electrodes gives the best photovoltaic performance; in contrast, the device with triangular electrodes reveals the worst properties. A maximum of almost a 19% increase in power conversion efficiency with a round electrode is obtained in the devices compared with that of the triangular electrode. To conclude, the electrode boundary curvature has a significant impact on the performance of PSCs. The larger curvature, i.e. sharper electrodes edges, perhaps has a negative effect on exciton separation and carrier transport in photoelectric conversion processes. (paper)

  19. Reprotonation of aniline: A route to various conducting polymer materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Prokeš, B.; Trchová, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 9 (2008), s. 1355-1361 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0419; GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : acids * conductivity * conducting polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.039, year: 2008

  20. Electron transfer between a quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase and an electrode via a redox polymer network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, E.C.A.; Jong, G.A.H. de; Jongejan, J.A.; Duine, J.A.; Lugt, J.P. van der; Somers, W.A.C.

    1996-01-01

    A quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (QH-EDH) from Comamonas testosteroni was immobilized on an electrode in a redox polymer network consisting of a polyvinylpyridine partially N-complexed with osmiumbis-(bipyridine)chloride. The enzyme effectively transfers electrons to the electrode via the

  1. Electrical characterization of proton conducting polymer electrolyte based on bio polymer with acid dopant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaiselvimary, J.; Pradeepa, P.; Sowmya, G.; Edwinraj, S.; Prabhu, M. Ramesh, E-mail: email-mkram83@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 004, India. (India)

    2016-05-06

    This study describes the biodegradable acid doped films composed of chitosan and Perchloric acid with different ratios (2.5 wt %, 5 wt %, 7.5 wt %, 10 wt %) was prepared by the solution casting technique. The temperature dependence of the proton conductivity of complex electrolytes obeys the Arrhenius relationship. Proton conductivity of the prepared polymer electrolyte of the bio polymer with acid doped was measured to be approximately 5.90 × 10{sup −4} Scm{sup −1}. The dielectric data were analyzed using Complex impedance Z*, Dielectric loss ε’, Tangent loss for prepared polymer electrolyte membrane with the highest conductivity samples at various temperature.

  2. Corrosion Protection of Steels by Conducting Polymer Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohtsuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection of steels by conducting polymer coating is reviewed. The conducting polymer such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophen works as a strong oxidant to the steel, inducing the potential shift to the noble direction. The strongly oxidative conducting polymer facilitates the steel to be passivated. A bilayered PPy film was designed for the effective corrosion protection. It consisted of the inner layer in which phosphomolybdate ion, PMo12O3−40 (PMo, was doped and the outer layer in which dodecylsulfate ion (DoS was doped. The inner layer stabilized the passive oxide and the outer possessed anionic perm-selectivity to inhibit the aggressive anions such as chloride from penetrating through the PPy film to the substrate steel. By the bilayered PPy film, the steel was kept passive for about 200 h in 3.5% sodium chloride solution without formation of corrosion products.

  3. Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in Optoelectronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Catrysse, Peter B.; Fan, Shanhui

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of nanopatterned metallic films as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices. We find that the physics of nanopatterned electrodes, which are often optically thin metallic films, differs from

  4. Self-aligned inkjet printing of highly conducting gold electrodes with submicron resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ni; Chiesa, Marco; Sirringhaus, Henning; Li, Yuning; Wu, Yiliang; Ong, Beng

    2007-03-01

    Self-aligned printing is a recently developed bottom-up printing technique which utilizes the unique droplet motion on heterogeneous surfaces to define sub-100-nm critical features and surpasses the resolution which can commonly be achieved by direct printing by two orders of magnitude. Here we extend this method, which was originally implemented with conductive polymer inks, to fabrication of functional conductive nanostructures with gold nanoparticle ink. We also designed a configuration where the ink was printed between two lithographically defined patterns to facilitate the study of the channel formation. Channel lengths from 4μm down to 60nm were achieved by controlling the surface tension and drying time of the ink. A fluid dynamical model is presented to explain the mechanism by which the channel forms in the self-aligned printing technique. Field-effect transistors fabricated using gold self-aligned printed source-drain electrodes exhibit significantly improved output currents than those using conducting polymers. Unambiguous evidence for the submicrometer channel dimension is obtained by imaging the potential drop along the channel using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy.

  5. Flexible conductive-bridging random-access-memory cell vertically stacked with top Ag electrode, PEO, PVK, and bottom Pt electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Kyoung-Cheol; Lee, Gon-Sub; Park, Jea-Gun

    2014-10-01

    Flexible conductive-bridging random-access-memory (RAM) cells were fabricated with a cross-bar memory cell stacked with a top Ag electrode, conductive polymer (poly(n-vinylcarbazole): PVK), electrolyte (polyethylene oxide: PEO), bottom Pt electrode, and flexible substrate (polyethersulfone: PES), exhibiting the bipolar switching behavior of resistive random access memory (ReRAM). The cell also exhibited bending-fatigue-free nonvolatile memory characteristics: i.e., a set voltage of 1.0 V, a reset voltage of -1.6 V, retention time of >1 × 105 s with a memory margin of 9.2 × 105, program/erase endurance cycles of >102 with a memory margin of 8.4 × 105, and bending-fatigue-free cycles of ˜1 × 103 with a memory margin (Ion/Ioff) of 3.3 × 105.

  6. Synthesis of modified polymer inclusion membranes for photo-electrodeposition of cadmium using polarized electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia Cherif, Asma [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Arous, Omar, E-mail: omararous@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Center of Research in Physical and Chemical Analysis CRAPC, BP 248 Algiers, RP 16004, Algiers (Algeria); Amara, Mourad [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Omeiri, Said [Center of Research in Physical and Chemical Analysis CRAPC, BP 248 Algiers, RP 16004, Algiers (Algeria); Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Kerdjoudj, Hacene [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Trari, Mohamed [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous PIM membranes containing water soluble polymers have been obtained under new experimental conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoelectrodeposition of 'Cd' has been carried out using WO{sub 3} and CuFeO{sub 2} as electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using both photo-polarized electrodes enhances transference of cadmium compared to one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane with poly-phosphoric acid (PPA) give a rise of transferred amount of Cd. - Abstract: In this work, we have developed a novel class of polymeric inclusion membranes (PIMs) for the cations separation. The membrane is made up of cellulose triacetate modified by poly-electrolytes (poly-phosphoric acid, polyvinyl pyrolidone, polyacrylic acid, polyvinyl alcohol and poly-anetholsulfonic acid) using 2-hydroxy-5-dodecylbenzaldehyde incorporated into the polymer as carrier and tris ethyl hexyl phosphate or glycerine as plasticizers. Different PIMs are synthesized and characterized by the Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the membrane nature is studied using supports with different physical characteristics (porosity, thickness, hydrophobia). As application, the transport of Cd{sup 2+} using PIMs coupled with photo-electrodes is investigated. The photo-catalytic results indicate that the combined system p-CuFeO{sub 2}/membrane/n-WO{sub 3} enhances considerably the electrons transfer toward the delafossite CuFeO{sub 2}. The position of the conduction band of CuFeO{sub 2} is looked to be the key issue for the photo electrochemical Cd{sup 2+} reduction.

  7. Solid state double layer capacitor based on a polyether polymer electrolyte blend and nanostructured carbon black electrode composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavall, Rodrigo L.; Borges, Raquel S.; Calado, Hallen D.R.; Welter, Cezar; Trigueiro, Joao P.C.; Silva, Glaura G. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Rieumont, Jacques [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, Habana 10400 (Cuba); Neves, Bernardo R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2008-03-01

    An all solid double layer capacitor was assembled by using poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) blend (PEO-NPPP) and LiClO{sub 4} as polymer electrolyte layer and PEO-NPPP-carbon black (CB) as electrode film. High molecular weight PEO and the block copolymer NPPP with molecular mass of 2000 Da were employed, which means that the design is safe from the point of view of solvent or plasticizer leakage and thus, a separator is not necessary. Highly conductive with large surface area nanostructured carbon black was dispersed in the polymer blend to produce the electrode composite. The electrolyte and electrode multilayers prepared by spray were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity as a function of temperature was fitted with the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, which indicates a conductivity mechanism typical of solid polymer electrolyte. AFM images of the nanocomposite electrode showed carbon black particles of approximately 60 nm in size well distributed in a semicrystalline and porous polymer blend coating. The solid double layer capacitor with 10 wt.% CB was designed with final thickness of approximately 130 {mu}m and delivered a capacitance of 17 F g{sup -1} with a cyclability of more than 1000 cycles. These characteristics make possible the construction of a miniature device in complete solid state which will avoid electrolyte leakage and present a performance superior to other similar electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) presented in literature, as assessed in specific capacitance by total carbon mass. (author)

  8. Versatile and Tunable Transparent Conducting Electrodes Based on Doped Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed E.

    2016-11-25

    The continued growth of the optoelectronics industry and the emergence of wearable and flexible electronics will continue to place an ever increasing pressure on replacing ITO, the most widely used transparent conducting electrode (TCE). Among the various candidates, graphene shows the highest optical transmittance in addition to promising electrical transport properties. The currently available large-scale synthesis routes of graphene result in polycrystalline samples rife with grain boundaries and other defects which limit its transport properties. Chemical doping of graphene is a viable route towards increasing its conductivity and tuning its work function. However, dopants are typically present at the surface of the graphene sheet, making them highly susceptible to degradation in environmental conditions. Few-layers graphene (FLG) is a more resilient form of graphene exhibiting higher conductivity and performance stability under stretching and bending as contrasted to single-layer graphene. In addition FLG presents the advantage of being amenable bulk doping by intercalation. Herein, we explore non-covalent doping routes of CVD FLG, such as surface doping, intercalation and combination thereof, through in-depth and systematic characterization of the electrical transport properties and energy levels shifts. The intercalation of FLG with Br2 and FeCl3 is demonstrated, showing the highest improvements of the figure of merit of TCEs of any doping scheme, which results from up to a five-fold increase in conductivity while maintaining the transmittance within 3% of that for the pristine value. Importantly the intercalation yields TCEs that are air-stable, due to encapsulation of the intercalant in the bulk of FLG. Surface doping with novel solution-processed metal-organic molecular species (n- and p-type) is demonstrated with an unprecedented range of work function modulation, resulting from electron transfer and the formation of molecular surface dipoles. However

  9. Conducting Polymers in the Fields of Energy, Environmental Remediation, and Chemical-Chiral Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G; Rincón, Marina E; Gutierrez-Granados, Silvia; Chahma, M'hamed; Jaramillo-Quintero, Oscar A; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A

    2018-05-09

    Conducting polymers (CPs), thanks to their unique properties, structures made on-demand, new composite mixtures, and possibility of deposit on a surface by chemical, physical, or electrochemical methodologies, have shown in the last years a renaissance and have been widely used in important fields of chemistry and materials science. Due to the extent of the literature on CPs, this review, after a concise introduction about the interrelationship between electrochemistry and conducting polymers, is focused exclusively on the following applications: energy (energy storage devices and solar cells), use in environmental remediation (anion and cation trapping, electrocatalytic reduction/oxidation of pollutants on CP based electrodes, and adsorption of pollutants) and finally electroanalysis as chemical sensors in solution, gas phase, and chiral molecules. This review is expected to be comprehensive, authoritative, and useful to the chemical community interested in CPs and their applications.

  10. Improving the Performance of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries by Conductive Polymer Coating

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2011-11-22

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for next-generation high-performance energy storage systems because of their high theoretical specific energy, low materials cost, and environmental safety. One of the major obstacles for its commercialization is the rapid capacity fading due to polysulfide dissolution and uncontrolled redeposition. Various porous carbon structures have been used to improve the performance of Li-S batteries, as polysulfides could be trapped inside the carbon matrix. However, polysulfides still diffuse out for a prolonged time if there is no effective capping layer surrounding the carbon/sulfur particles. Here we explore the application of conducting polymer to minimize the diffusion of polysulfides out of the mesoporous carbon matrix by coating poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) onto mesoporous carbon/sulfur particles. After surface coating, coulomb efficiency of the sulfur electrode was improved from 93% to 97%, and capacity decay was reduced from 40%/100 cycles to 15%/100 cycles. Moreover, the discharge capacity with the polymer coating was ∼10% higher than the bare counterpart, with an initial discharge capacity of 1140 mAh/g and a stable discharge capacity of >600 mAh/g after 150 cycles at C/5 rate. We believe that this conductive polymer coating method represents an exciting direction for enhancing the device performance of Li-S batteries and can be applicable to other electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Enhanced electrical conductivity in Xe ion irradiated CNT based transparent conducting electrode on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbhi; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Satyavir; Garg, Priyanka; Asokan, K.; Sachdev, Kanupriya

    2018-02-01

    An investigation of MWCNT-based hybrid electrode films with improved electrical conductivity after Xe ion irradiation is reported. A multilayer hybrid structure of Ag-MWCNT layer embedded in between two ZnO layers was fabricated and evaluated, pre and post 100 keV Xe ion irradiation, for their performance as Transparent Conducting Electrode in terms of their optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction pattern exhibits highly c-axis oriented ZnO films with a small variation in lattice parameters with an increase in ion fluence. There is no significant change in the surface roughness of these films. Raman spectra were used to confirm the presence of CNT. The pristine multilayer films exhibit an average transmittance of ˜70% in the entire visible region and the transmittance increases with Xe ion fluence. A significant enhancement in electrical conductivity post-Xe ion irradiation viz from 1.14 × 10-7 Ω-1 cm-1 (pristine) to 7.04 × 103 Ω-1 cm-1 is seen which is due to the high connectivity in the top layer with Ag-CNT hybrid layer facilitating the smooth transfer of electrons.

  12. Functionalised hybrid materials of conducting polymers with individual wool fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Fern M; Johnston, James H; Borrmann, Thomas; Richardson, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Composites of natural protein materials, such as merino wool, with the conducting polymers polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) have been successfully synthesised. In doing so, hybrid materials have been produced in which the mechanical strength and flexibility of the fibers is retained whilst also incorporating the desired chemical and electrical properties of the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy shows PPy coatings to comprise individual polymer spheres, approximately 100 to 150 nm in diameter. The average size of the polymer spheres of PAn was observed to be approximately 50 to 100 nm in diameter. These spheres fuse together in a continuous sheet to coat the fibers in their entirety. The reduction of silver ions to silver metal nanoparticles onto the redox active polymer surface has also been successful and thus imparts anti-microbial properties to the hybrid materials. This gives rise to further applications requiring the inhibition of microbial growth. The chemical and physical characterisation of such products has been undertaken through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the testing of their anti-microbial activity.

  13. A New Ultra Fast Conduction Mechanism in Insulating Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brand new phenomenon, namely, electrical conduction via soliton-like ultra fast space charge pulses, recently identified in unfilled cross-linked polyethylene, is shown for the first time to occur in insulating polymer nanocomposites and its characteristics correlated with the electromechanical properties of nanostructured materials. These charge pulses are observed to cross the insulation under low electrical field in epoxy-based nanocomposites containing nanosilica particles with relative weights of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% at speeds orders of magnitude higher than those expected for carriers in insulating polymers. The characteristics of mobility, magnitude and repetition rate for both positive and negative charge pulses are studied in relation to nanofiller concentration. The results show that the ultra fast charge pulses (packets are affected significantly by the concentration of nanoparticles. An explanation is presented in terms of a new conduction mechanism where the mechanical properties of the polymer and movement of polymer chains play an important role in the injection and transport of charge in the form of pulses. Here, the charge transport is not controlled by traps. Instead, it is driven by the contribution of polarization and the resultant electromechanical compression, which is substantially affected by the introduction of nanoparticles into the base polymer.

  14. Universal Scaling in Highly Doped Conducting Polymer Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronemeijer, A. J.; Huisman, E. H.; Katsouras, I.; van Hal, P. A.; Geuns, T. C. T.; Blom, P. W. M.; van der Molen, S. J.; de Leeuw, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical transport of a highly doped disordered conducting polymer, viz. poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene stabilized with poly-4-styrenesulphonic acid, is investigated as a function of bias and temperature. The transport shows universal power-law scaling with both bias and temperature. All

  15. Universal scaling in highly doped conducting polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronemeijer, A.J.; Huisman, E.H.; Katsouras, I.; Hal, P.A. van; Geuns, T.C.T.; Blom, P.W.M.; Molen, S.J. van der; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2010-01-01

    Electrical transport of a highly doped disordered conducting polymer, viz. poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene stabilized with poly-4-styrenesulphonic acid, is investigated as a function of bias and temperature. The transport shows universal power-law scaling with both bias and temperature. All

  16. Characterization of PEDOT-Quinone Conducting Redox Polymers for Water Based Secondary Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterby, Mia; Emanuelsson, Rikard; Huang, Xiao; Gogoll, Adolf; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion technologies show great promise to meet the demands that the transition towards renewable energy sources and the electrification of the transport sector put forward. However, concerns regarding lithium-ion batteries, including limited material resources, high energy consumption during production, and flammable electrolytes, necessitate research on alternative technologies for electrochemical energy storage. Organic materials derived from abundant building blocks and with tunable properties, together with water based electrolytes, could provide safe, inexpensive and sustainable alternatives. In this study, two conducting redox polymers based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and a hydroquinone pendant group have been synthesized and characterized in an acidic aqueous electrolyte. The polymers were characterized with regards to kinetics, pH dependence, and mass changes during oxidation and reduction, as well as their conductance. Both polymers show redox matching, i.e. the quinone redox reaction occurs within the potential region where the polymer is conducting, and fast redox conversion that involves proton cycling during pendant group redox conversion. These properties make the presented materials promising candidates as electrode materials for water based all-organic batteries.

  17. Pyroelectric response of perovskite heterostructures incorporating conductive oxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles Wesley, IV

    2000-10-01

    The use of imaging technologies has become pervasive in many applications as the demand for situational awareness information has increased over the last decade. No better example of the integration of these technologies can be found than that of infrared or thermal imaging. This dissertation, in the field of thermal imaging, has been motivated by the desire to advance the technology of uncooled, thin-film pyroelectric sensors and focuses on the materials and structures from which the detector elements will be built. This work provides a detailed study of the pyroelectric response of the La-Sr-Co-O/Pb-La-Zr-Ti-O/La-Sr-Co-O (LPL) structure. The LPL structure was chosen based on the needs of thin film detectors, the unique properties of the conductive oxide La-Sr-Co-O (LSCO), and the broad applicability of the Pb-La-Zr-Ti-O (PLZT) material system. Epitaxial heterostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition on single-crystal oxide substrates. Using the oxygen pressure during cooling and heating of the LSCO layer as a key variable, we have been able to produce structures that have a pronounced internal field in the as-grown state. In these capacitors, where the bottom electrode has a large concentration of oxygen vacancies, we have discovered very large pyroelectric responses that are 10 to 30 times larger than expected of PLZT-based pyroelectric materials (typical values are 20 to 40 nCcm-2K -1). The enhanced pyroelectric responses are very repeatable, stable over time, and distinctly different from responses attributed to thermally stimulated currents. Detailed positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements reveal that there is indeed an oxygen concentration gradient across the capacitor. Based on the results of this study, I will present an analysis of the enhanced pyroelectric response. Although the enhanced response has been correlated with high concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the PLZT film and LSCO electrodes, the mechanism by which the large

  18. Conductive polymer/metal composites for interconnect of flexible devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Jin; Hashimoto Shinoda, Yasuo; Shuto, Takanori; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2015-06-01

    An interconnect of flexible and foldable devices based on advanced electronics requires high electrical conductivity, flexibility, adhesiveness on a plastic substrate, and efficient productivity. In this study, we investigated the applicability of a conductive polymer/metal composite to the interconnect of flexible devices. By combining an inkjet process and a photochemical reaction, micropatterns of a polypyrrole/silver composite were formed on flexible plastic substrates with an average linewidth of approximately 70 µm within 10 min. The conductivity of the composite was improved to 6.0 × 102 Ω-1·cm-1. From these results, it is expected that the conducting polymer/metal composite can be applied to the microwiring of flexible electronic devices.

  19. Semi-metallic, strong conductive polymer microfiber, method and fast response rate actuators and heating textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Er Qiang; Lubineau, Gilles; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Mulle, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    A method comprising: providing at least one first composition comprising at least one conjugated polymer and at least one solvent, wet spinning the at least one first composition to form at least one first fiber material, hot-drawing the at least one fiber to form at least one second fiber material. In lead embodiments, high-performance poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy- thiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) conjugated polymer microfibers were fabricated via wet- spinning followed by hot-drawing. In these lead embodiments, due to the combined effects of the vertical hot-drawing process and doping/de-doping the microfibers with ethylene glycol (EG), a record electrical conductivity of 2804 S · cm-1 was achieved. This is believed to be a six-fold improvement over the best previously reported value for PEDOT/PSS fibers (467 S · cm-1) and a twofold improvement over the best values for conductive polymer films treated by EG de-doping (1418 S · cm-1). Moreover, these lead, highly conductive fibers experience a semiconductor-metal transition at 313 K. They also have superior mechanical properties with a Young's modulus up to 8.3 GPa, a tensile strength reaching 409.8 MPa and a large elongation before failure (21%). The most conductive fiber also demonstrates an extraordinary electrical performance during stretching/unstretching: the conductivity increased by 25% before the fiber rupture point with a maximum strain up to 21%. Simple fabrication of the semi-metallic, strong and stretchable wet-spun PEDOT/PSS microfibers can make them available for conductive smart electronics. A dramatic improvement in electrical conductivity is needed to make conductive polymer fibers viable candidates in applications such as flexible electrodes, conductive textiles, and fast-response sensors and actuators.

  20. Semi-metallic, strong conductive polymer microfiber, method and fast response rate actuators and heating textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-06-09

    A method comprising: providing at least one first composition comprising at least one conjugated polymer and at least one solvent, wet spinning the at least one first composition to form at least one first fiber material, hot-drawing the at least one fiber to form at least one second fiber material. In lead embodiments, high-performance poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy- thiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) conjugated polymer microfibers were fabricated via wet- spinning followed by hot-drawing. In these lead embodiments, due to the combined effects of the vertical hot-drawing process and doping/de-doping the microfibers with ethylene glycol (EG), a record electrical conductivity of 2804 S · cm-1 was achieved. This is believed to be a six-fold improvement over the best previously reported value for PEDOT/PSS fibers (467 S · cm-1) and a twofold improvement over the best values for conductive polymer films treated by EG de-doping (1418 S · cm-1). Moreover, these lead, highly conductive fibers experience a semiconductor-metal transition at 313 K. They also have superior mechanical properties with a Young\\'s modulus up to 8.3 GPa, a tensile strength reaching 409.8 MPa and a large elongation before failure (21%). The most conductive fiber also demonstrates an extraordinary electrical performance during stretching/unstretching: the conductivity increased by 25% before the fiber rupture point with a maximum strain up to 21%. Simple fabrication of the semi-metallic, strong and stretchable wet-spun PEDOT/PSS microfibers can make them available for conductive smart electronics. A dramatic improvement in electrical conductivity is needed to make conductive polymer fibers viable candidates in applications such as flexible electrodes, conductive textiles, and fast-response sensors and actuators.

  1. Mechanisms of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikerling, M.; Kornyshev, A. A.; Kuznetsov, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    We provide a phenomenological description of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes, based on contemporary views of proton transfer processes in condensed media and a model for heterogeneous polymer electrolyte membrane structure. The description combines the proton transfer events...... in a single pore with the total pore-network performance and, thereby, relates structural and kinetic characteristics of the membrane. The theory addresses specific experimentally studied issues such as the effect of the density of proton localization sites (equivalent weight) of the membrane material...

  2. New secondary batteries utilizing electronically conductive polymer cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to characterize the transport properties in electronically conductive polymers and to assess the utility of these films as cathodes in lithium/polymer secondary batteries. During this research period, progress has been made in a literature survey of the historical background, methods of preparation, the physical and chemical properties, and potential technological applications of polythiophene. Progress has also been made in the characterization of polypyrrole flat films and fibrillar films. Cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronocoulometry were used to gain information on peak currents and potentials switching reaction rates, charge capacity, and charge retention. Battery charge/discharge studies were also performed.

  3. Mechanism of actuation in conducting polymers: Osmotic expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Jacobsen, Torben; West, Keld

    2001-01-01

    Conducting polymers expand or contract when their redox state is changed. This expansion/contraction effect can be separated in an intrinsic part because of changes of the polymer backbone on reduction/oxidation and a part depending on the surrounding electrolyte phase, because of osmotic expansion...... is compared with measurements on PPy(DBS) films. The experiments show that the expansion decreases as the electrolyte concentration is increased. This means that a considerable part of the total expansion is due to the osmotic effect. The osmotic effect should be taken into account when interpreting...

  4. Solution-processed parallel tandem polymer solar cells using silver nanowires as intermediate electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Kubis, Peter; Li, Ning; Przybilla, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard; Stubhan, Tobias; Ameri, Tayebeh; Butz, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J

    2014-12-23

    Tandem architecture is the most relevant concept to overcome the efficiency limit of single-junction photovoltaic solar cells. Series-connected tandem polymer solar cells (PSCs) have advanced rapidly during the past decade. In contrast, the development of parallel-connected tandem cells is lagging far behind due to the big challenge in establishing an efficient interlayer with high transparency and high in-plane conductivity. Here, we report all-solution fabrication of parallel tandem PSCs using silver nanowires as intermediate charge collecting electrode. Through a rational interface design, a robust interlayer is established, enabling the efficient extraction and transport of electrons from subcells. The resulting parallel tandem cells exhibit high fill factors of ∼60% and enhanced current densities which are identical to the sum of the current densities of the subcells. These results suggest that solution-processed parallel tandem configuration provides an alternative avenue toward high performance photovoltaic devices.

  5. Development of a polymer based fully flexible electrode tip for neuronal micro-stimulation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Romain; Miki, Norihisa

    2017-06-01

    Neural stimulation systems design is highly impacted by the overall resolution and adaptability of the device to the targeted application and area to stimulate. In this paper, we report a novel design for neural micro-stimulation electrode presenting high resolution and adaptability to any targeted area via a high flexibility. We propose the use of liquid metal micro-channels encapsulated into a polymer volume, achieving micro-stimulation pads at the tip of the channels. It presents a high degree of patternability to match different possible targeted applications, and good flexibility and mechanic properties to make it insertable and adaptable into soft tissues. A stable fabrication process, including insertion of the liquid alloy into 50 µm half-channels, the necessity of the U-shape to produce functional conductive micro-channels and the mechanical integrity of the device are discussed.

  6. Graphene-polyethylenedioxythiophene conducting polymer nanocomposite based supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, Farah; Ram, Manoj K.; Basnayaka, Punya A.; Stefanakos, Elias; Goswami, Yogi; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagrams of an electrochemical double layer type capacitor showing the charged (left) and discharged (right) states. Highlights: → The Graphene-PEDOT nanocomposite based smart coating has shown the excellent redox properties in acidic, organic electrolytes, which is promising for suprecapcitor application. → The electrochemical impedance studies have also been estimated which clearly indicates the high conductivity and less charge transfer resistance in the synthesized material. → The specific capacitance of 380F/g have been calculated for G-Pedot material, also it shows the columbic efficiency of 95% for 800 cycles, which tells the remarkable stability of synthesized material. - Abstract: We present here the synthesis, characterization and application of graphene (G)-polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor applications. The G-PEDOT nanocomposite was synthesized using a chemical oxidative polymerization technique, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray-diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The electrochemical charge/discharge characteristics of G-PEDOT nanocomposites were investigated in different electrolytic media, and the specific discharge capacitance was estimated to be 374 Farad/gram (F/gm). This manuscript presents the capacitance studies on supercapacitor G-PEDOT electrode with respect to stability of material, specific capacitance, electrical conductivity and specific charge/discharge properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. Our study has revealed that the G-PEDOT nanocomposite could be a transformable and viable electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  7. Integration of Polymer Micro-Electrodes for Bio-Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Tanzi, Simone

    We present the fabrication of PEDOT and pyrolyzed micro-electrodes for the detection of neurotransmitter exocytosis from single cells. The patterns of the electrodes are defined with photolithography. The micro-electro-fluidic-chips were fabricated by bonding two injection molded TOPAS parts. Pol...

  8. Mesoscopic layered structure in conducting polymer thin film fabricated by potential-programmed electropolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitsuka, Mamoru (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Nakahara, Reiko (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Iyoda, Tomokazu (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Shimidzu, Takeo (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Tomita, Shigehisa (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Hatano, Yayoi (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Soeda, Fusami (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Ishitani, Akira (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Tsuchiya, Hajime (Nitto Technical Information Center Co., Ltd., Shimohozumi Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Ohtani, Akira (Central Research Lab., Nitto Denko Co., Ltd., Shimohozumi Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Mesoscopic layered structures in conducting polymer thin films are fabricated by the potential-programmed electropolymerization method. High lateral quality in the layered structure is realized by the improvement of polymerization conditions, i.e., a mixture of pyrrole and bithiophene as monomers, a silicon single-crystal wafer as a working electrode and propylene carbonate as a solvent. SIMS depth profiling of the resulting layered films indicates a significant linear correlation between the electric charge passed and the thickness of the individual layers on a 100 A scale. (orig.)

  9. Cationic Polymers Inhibit the Conductance of Lysenin Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fologea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pore-forming toxin lysenin self-assembles large and stable conductance channels in natural and artificial lipid membranes. The lysenin channels exhibit unique regulation capabilities, which open unexplored possibilities to control the transport of ions and molecules through artificial and natural lipid membranes. Our investigations demonstrate that the positively charged polymers polyethyleneimine and chitosan inhibit the conducting properties of lysenin channels inserted into planar lipid membranes. The preservation of the inhibitory effect following addition of charged polymers on either side of the supporting membrane suggests the presence of multiple binding sites within the channel's structure and a multistep inhibition mechanism that involves binding and trapping. Complete blockage of the binding sites with divalent cations prevents further inhibition in conductance induced by the addition of cationic polymers and supports the hypothesis that the binding sites are identical for both multivalent metal cations and charged polymers. The investigation at the single-channel level has shown distinct complete blockages of each of the inserted channels. These findings reveal key structural characteristics which may provide insight into lysenin’s functionality while opening innovative approaches for the development of applications such as transient cell permeabilization and advanced drug delivery systems.

  10. An electroactive conducting polymer actuator based on NBR/RTIL solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, H. J.; Nam, J. D.; Choi, H. R.; Koo, J. C.; Lee, Y.

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of a dry-type conducting polymer actuator using nitrile rubber (NBR) as the base material in a solid polymer electrolyte. The conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), was synthesized on the surface of the NBR layer by using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique. Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) based on imidazolium salts, e.g. 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium X (where X = BF4-, PF6-, (CF3SO2)2N-), were absorbed into the composite film. The compatibility between the ionic liquids and the NBR polymer was confirmed by DMA. The effect of the anion size of the ionic liquids on the displacement of the actuator was examined. The displacement increased with increasing anion size of the ionic liquids. The cyclic voltammetry responses and the redox switching dynamics of the actuators were examined in different ionic liquids.

  11. Synthesis of polymer nanostructures with conductance switching properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kai; Nuraje, Nurxat; Zhang, Lingzhi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Yang, Nan Loh

    2015-03-03

    The present invention is directed to crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles comprising a conductive organic polymer; wherein the crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles have a size of from 10 nm to 200 nm and exhibits two current-voltage states: (1) a high resistance current-voltage state, and (2) a low resistance current-voltage state, wherein when a first positive threshold voltage (V.sub.th1) or higher positive voltage, or a second negative threshold voltage (V.sub.th2) or higher negative voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the low-resistance current-voltage state, and when a voltage less positive than the first positive threshold voltage or a voltage less negative than the second negative threshold voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the high-resistance current-voltage state. The present invention is also directed methods of manufacturing the nanoparticles using novel interfacial oxidative polymerization techniques.

  12. Design, fabrication and skin-electrode contact analysis of polymer microneedle-based ECG electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Conor; Grygoryev, Konstantin; Ciarlone, Antonio; Giannoni, Giuseppe; Kenthao, Anan; Galvin, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Microneedle-based ‘dry’ electrodes have immense potential for use in diagnostic procedures such as electrocardiography (ECG) analysis, as they eliminate several of the drawbacks associated with the conventional ‘wet’ electrodes currently used for physiological signal recording. To be commercially successful in such a competitive market, it is essential that dry electrodes are manufacturable in high volumes and at low cost. In addition, the topographical nature of these emerging devices means that electrode performance is likely to be highly dependent on the quality of the skin-electrode contact. This paper presents a low-cost, wafer-level micromoulding technology for the fabrication of polymeric ECG electrodes that use microneedle structures to make a direct electrical contact to the body. The double-sided moulding process can be used to eliminate post-process via creation and wafer dicing steps. In addition, measurement techniques have been developed to characterize the skin-electrode contact force. We perform the first analysis of signal-to-noise ratio dependency on contact force, and show that although microneedle-based electrodes can outperform conventional gel electrodes, the quality of ECG recordings is significantly dependent on temporal and mechanical aspects of the skin-electrode interface.

  13. Design, fabrication and skin-electrode contact analysis of polymer microneedle-based ECG electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Mahony, Conor; Grygoryev, Konstantin; Ciarlone, Antonio; Giannoni, Giuseppe; Kenthao, Anan; Galvin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Microneedle-based ‘dry’ electrodes have immense potential for use in diagnostic procedures such as electrocardiography (ECG) analysis, as they eliminate several of the drawbacks associated with the conventional ‘wet’ electrodes currently used for physiological signal recording. To be commercially successful in such a competitive market, it is essential that dry electrodes are manufacturable in high volumes and at low cost. In addition, the topographical nature of these emerging devices means that electrode performance is likely to be highly dependent on the quality of the skin-electrode contact.This paper presents a low-cost, wafer-level micromoulding technology for the fabrication of polymeric ECG electrodes that use microneedle structures to make a direct electrical contact to the body. The double-sided moulding process can be used to eliminate post-process via creation and wafer dicing steps. In addition, measurement techniques have been developed to characterize the skin-electrode contact force. We perform the first analysis of signal-to-noise ratio dependency on contact force, and show that although microneedle-based electrodes can outperform conventional gel electrodes, the quality of ECG recordings is significantly dependent on temporal and mechanical aspects of the skin-electrode interface. (paper)

  14. Interdiffusion and Spinodal Decomposition in Electrically Conducting Polymer Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Takala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of phase morphology in electrically conducting polymer composites has become essential for the efficiency of the various functional applications, in which the continuity of the electroactive paths in multicomponent systems is essential. For instance in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, where the light-induced electron transfer through photon absorption creating excitons (electron-hole pairs, the control of diffusion of the spatially localized excitons and their dissociation at the interface and the effective collection of holes and electrons, all depend on the surface area, domain sizes, and connectivity in these organic semiconductor blends. We have used a model semiconductor polymer blend with defined miscibility to investigate the phase separation kinetics and the formation of connected pathways. Temperature jump experiments were applied from a miscible region of semiconducting poly(alkylthiophene (PAT blends with ethylenevinylacetate-elastomers (EVA and the kinetics at the early stages of phase separation were evaluated in order to establish bicontinuous phase morphology via spinodal decomposition. The diffusion in the blend was followed by two methods: first during a miscible phase separating into two phases: from the measurement of the spinodal decomposition. Secondly the diffusion was measured by monitoring the interdiffusion of PAT film into the EVA film at elected temperatures and eventually compared the temperature dependent diffusion characteristics. With this first quantitative evaluation of the spinodal decomposition as well as the interdiffusion in conducting polymer blends, we show that a systematic control of the phase separation kinetics in a polymer blend with one of the components being electrically conducting polymer can be used to optimize the morphology.

  15. Solid-state, polymer-based fiber solar cells with carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Yan; Bian, Zuqiang; Zhang, Luhui; Shang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Xinyuan; Zhang, Sen; Yun, Daqin; Liu, Zhiwei; Cao, Anyuan; Huang, Chunhui

    2012-12-21

    Most previous fiber-shaped solar cells were based on photoelectrochemical systems involving liquid electrolytes, which had issues such as device encapsulation and stability. Here, we deposited classical semiconducting polymer-based bulk heterojunction layers onto stainless steel wires to form primary electrodes and adopted carbon nanotube thin films or densified yarns to replace conventional metal counter electrodes. The polymer-based fiber cells with nanotube film or yarn electrodes showed power conversion efficiencies in the range 1.4% to 2.3%, with stable performance upon rotation and large-angle bending and during long-time storage without further encapsulation. Our fiber solar cells consisting of a polymeric active layer sandwiched between steel and carbon electrodes have potential in the manufacturing of low-cost, liquid-free, and flexible fiber-based photovoltaics.

  16. Effect of fractal silver electrodes on charge collection and light distribution in semiconducting organic polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamousis, RL; Chang, LL; Watterson, WJ; Montgomery, RD; Taylor, RP; Moule, AJ; Shaheen, SE; Ilan, B; van de Lagemaat, J; Osterloh, FE

    2014-08-21

    Living organisms use fractal structures to optimize material and energy transport across regions of differing size scales. Here we test the effect of fractal silver electrodes on light distribution and charge collection in organic semiconducting polymer films made of P3HT and PCBM. The semiconducting polymers were deposited onto electrochemically grown fractal silver structures (5000 nm x 500 nm; fractal dimension of 1.71) with PEDOT:PSS as hole-selective interlayer. The fractal silver electrodes appear black due to increased horizontal light scattering, which is shown to improve light absorption in the polymer. According to surface photovoltage spectroscopy, fractal silver electrodes outperform the flat electrodes when the BHJ film thickness is large (>400 nm, 0.4 V photovoltage). Photocurrents of up to 200 microamperes cm(-2) are generated from the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photoelectrodes under 435 nm LED (10-20 mW cm(-2)) illumination in acetonitrile solution containing 0.005 M ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate as the electron acceptor. The low IPCE values (0.3-0.7%) are due to slow electron transfer to ferrocenium ion and due to shunting along the large metal-polymer interface. Overall, this work provides an initial assessment of the potential of fractal electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells.

  17. Electrosynthesis and catalytic activity of polymer-nickel particles composite electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melki, Tahar; Zouaoui, Ahmed; Bendemagh, Barkahoum; Oliveira, Ione M.F. de; Oliveira, Gilver F. de; Lepretre, Jean-Claude; Bucher, Christophe; Mou tet, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Nickel-polymer composite electrode materials have been synthesized using various strategies, all comprising the electrochemical reduction of nickel(II) cations or complexes, incorporated by either ion-exchange or complexation into various poly(pyrrole-carboxylate) thin films coated by oxidative electropolymerization onto carbon electrodes. The electrocatalytic activity and the stability of the different composites have been then evaluated in the course of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation of ketones and enones in aqueous electrolytes. The best results were obtained using nickel-polymer composites synthesized by electroreduction of nickel(II) ions complexed into polycarboxylate films, which are characterized by a high catalytic activity and a good operational stability. (author)

  18. Electrosynthesis and catalytic activity of polymer-nickel particles composite electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melki, Tahar; Zouaoui, Ahmed; Bendemagh, Barkahoum [Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif (Algeria). Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur. Dept. du Tronc Commun; Oliveira, Ione M.F. de; Oliveira, Gilver F. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lepretre, Jean-Claude [UMR-5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France). Lab. d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et Interfaces; Bucher, Christophe; Mou tet, Jean-Claude [Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1 (France). Dept. de Chimie Moleculaire], e-mail: Jean-Claude.Moutet@ujf-grenoble.fr

    2009-07-01

    Nickel-polymer composite electrode materials have been synthesized using various strategies, all comprising the electrochemical reduction of nickel(II) cations or complexes, incorporated by either ion-exchange or complexation into various poly(pyrrole-carboxylate) thin films coated by oxidative electropolymerization onto carbon electrodes. The electrocatalytic activity and the stability of the different composites have been then evaluated in the course of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation of ketones and enones in aqueous electrolytes. The best results were obtained using nickel-polymer composites synthesized by electroreduction of nickel(II) ions complexed into polycarboxylate films, which are characterized by a high catalytic activity and a good operational stability. (author)

  19. COMMUNICATION: Toward a self-deploying shape memory polymer neuronal electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew A.; Panchawagh, Hrishikesh V.; Ortega, Alicia; Artale, Ryan; Richardson-Burns, Sarah; Finch, Dudley S.; Gall, Ken; Mahajan, Roop L.; Restrepo, Diego

    2006-12-01

    The widespread application of neuronal probes for chronic recording of brain activity and functional stimulation has been slow to develop partially due to long-term biocompatibility problems with existing metallic and ceramic probes and the tissue damage caused during probe insertion. Stiff probes are easily inserted into soft brain tissue but cause astrocytic scars that become insulating sheaths between electrodes and neurons. In this communication, we explore the feasibility of a new approach to the composition and implantation of chronic electrode arrays. We demonstrate that softer polymer-based probes can be inserted into the olfactory bulb of a mouse and that slow insertion of the probes reduces astrocytic scarring. We further present the development of a micromachined shape memory polymer probe, which provides a vehicle to self-deploy an electrode at suitably slow rates and which can provide sufficient force to penetrate the brain. The deployment rate and composition of shape memory polymer probes can be tailored by polymer chemistry and actuator design. We conclude that it is feasible to fabricate shape memory polymer-based electrodes that would slowly self-implant compliant conductors into the brain, and both decrease initial trauma resulting from implantation and enhance long-term biocompatibility for long-term neuronal measurement and stimulation.

  20. Recent Development of Nanomaterial-Doped Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyraf, Mohammad; Anwar, Mahmood; Sheng, Law Ming; Danquah, Michael K.

    2017-12-01

    Conductive polymers (CPs) have received significant research attention in material engineering for applications in microelectronics, micro-scale sensors, electromagnetic shielding, and micro actuators. Numerous research efforts have been focused on enhancing the conductivity of CPs by doping. Various conductive materials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon-based nanoparticles, and structures, such as silver nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets, have been converted into polypyrrole and polypyrrole compounds as the precursors to developing hybrids, conjugates, or crystal nodes within the matrix to enhance the various structural properties, particularly the electrical conductivity. This article reviews nanomaterial doping of conductive polymers alongside technological advancements in the development and application of nanomaterial-doped polymeric systems. Emphasis is given to conductive nanomaterials such as nano-silver particles and carbon-based nanoparticles, graphene nano-sheets, fullerene, and carbon nanotubes (CNT) as dopants for polypyrrole-based CPs. The nature of induced electrical properties including electromagnetic absorption, electrical capacitance, and conductivities of polypyrrole systems is also discussed. The prospects and challenges associated with the development and application of CPs are also presented.

  1. Proton-conducting polymer electrolytes based on methacrylates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiter, Jakub; Velická, Jana; Míka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 26 (2008), s. 7769-7774 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/04/1279; GA AV ČR KJB400320701; GA MŠk LC523; GA ČR(CZ) GA104/06/1471 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : polymer electrolyte * proton conductivity * phosporic acid Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.078, year: 2008

  2. Study of growth mechanism of conducting polymers by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coletta, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Today conductive polymers have many applications in several devices. For these reasons they have received much attention in recent years. Despite intensive research, the mechanism of conducting polymers growth is still poorly understood and the methods of polymerization are limited to two principal ways: chemical and electrochemical synthesis. On the other hand, the complex properties of polymers can be controlled only if a good knowledge of polymerization process is acquired. In this case, it is possible to control the process during the synthesis (functionalization, hydrophilicity, chain length, doping level), and consequently to improve the conductive properties of the synthesized polymers. Water radiolysis represents an easy and efficient method of synthesis comparing to chemical and electrochemical polymerization routes. It enables the polymerization under soft conditions: ambient temperature and pressure, without any external dopant. Among all conductive polymers, poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene) (PEDOT, a derivative of poly-thiophene) and poly-Pyrrole (PPy) have gained some large scale applications for their chemical and physical proprieties. The aim of the present work was the synthesis of PEDOT and PPy in aqueous solution and the study of their growth mechanism by pulsed radiolysis. Thanks to the electron accelerator ELYSE, the use of pulsed radiolysis coupled with time-resolved absorption spectroscopy allowed to study the kinetics of polymerization. The first transient species involved in the mechanism were identified by time resolved spectroscopy and the rate constants were determined. First, the reaction of hydroxyl radicals onto EDOT and Py monomers was studied, as well as the corresponding radiation induced polymerization. Then, the study was transposed to others oxidizing radicals such as CO3 .- , N 3 . and SO 4 .- at different pHs. This approach allowed to check and to highlight the influence of oxidizing species onto the first transient species

  3. A study of metalized electrode self-clearing in electroactive polymer (EAP) based actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saad; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2016-04-01

    Electroactive polymer (EAP) based technologies have shown promise in areas such as artificial muscles, actuator, aerospace, medical and soft robotics. Still challenges remain such as low induced forces and defects-driven electrical breakdown, which impede the practical implementation of this technology. Multilayered or stacked configuration can address the low induced force issue whereas self-clearing can be a technique to improve breakdown limit of EAP based actuators. Self-clearing refers to the partial local breakdown of dielectric medium due to the presence of impurities, which in turn results in the evaporation of some of the metalized electrode. After this evaporation, the impurity is cleared and any current path would be safely cut off, which means the actuator continues to perform. It is a widely studied concept in the capacitor community, while it has not been studied much for EAP technologies. In this paper we report a systematic approach to precondition a silver-metalized electroactive polymer (EAP), more specifically P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) terpolymer, using self-clearing concept. First, we show improvement in the dielectric breakdown strength of EAP based unimorph actuators after pre-clearing the impurities using low electric field (lower than dielectric breakdown of the terpolymer). Inspired by this improvement, we used Weibull statistics to systematically estimate the self-clearing/ preconditioning field needed to clear the defects. Then electrical breakdown experiments are conducted with and without preconditioning the samples to investigate its effect on the breakdown strength of the sample.

  4. Application of nano-structured conducting polymers to humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pilyeon

    Nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanocolumns, and nanotubes, have attracted a lot of attention because of their huge potential impact on a variety of applications. For sensor applications, nanostructures provide high surface area to volume ratios. The high surface area to volume ratio allows more reaction areas between target species and detection materials and also improves the detection sensitivity and response time. The main goal of this research was to exploit the advantages and develop innovative methods to accomplish the synthesis of nanowires and nano-coulmn conducting polymers used in humidity detection. To accomplish this, two fabrication methods are used. The first one utilizes the geometric confinement effect of a temporary nanochannel template to orient, precisely position, and assemble Polyaniline (PANI) nanowires as they are synthesized. The other approach is to simply spin-coat a polymer onto a substrate, and then oxygen plasma etch to generate a nano-columned Polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) thin film. 200 nm silicon oxide coated wafers with embedded platinum electrodes are used as a substrate for both fabrication methods. The biggest advantage of this first method is that it is simple, requires a single-step, i.e., synthesizing and positioning procedures are carried out simultaneously. The second method is potentially manufacturable and economic yet environmentally safe. These two methods do not produce extra nano-building materials to discard or create a health hazard. Both PANI nanowires and nano-columned PEDOT films have been tested for humidity detection using a system designed and built for this research to monitor response (current changes) to moisture, To explain the surface to volume ratio effect, 200 nm PANI nanowires and 10 microm PANI wires were directly compared for detecting moisture, and it was shown that the PANI nanowire had a better sensitivity. It was found difficult to monitor the behaviors of the PEDOT reaction to varying

  5. Transparent conductive-polymer strain sensors for touch input sheets of flexible displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Seiichi; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Muraki, Masato; Iwase, Eiji; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2010-01-01

    A transparent conductive polymer-based strain-sensor array, designed especially for touch input sheets of flexible displays, was developed. A transparent conductive polymer, namely poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), was utilized owing to its strength under repeated mechanical bending. PEDOT:PSS strain sensors with a thickness of 130 nm exhibited light transmittance of 92%, which is the same as the transmittance of ITO electrodes widely used in flat panel displays. We demonstrated that the sensor array on a flexible sheet was able to sustain mechanical bending 300 times at a bending radius of 5 mm. The strain sensor shows a gauge factor of 5.2. The touch point on a flexible sheet could be detected from histograms of the outputs of the strain sensors when the sheet was pushed with an input force of 5 N. The touch input could be detected on the flexible sheet with a curved surface (radius of curvature of 20 mm). These results show that the developed transparent conductive polymer-based strain-sensor array is applicable to touch input sheets of mechanically bendable displays.

  6. Selenium containing conducting polymer based pyranose oxidase biosensor for glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglan, Tugba Ceren; Soylemez, Saniye; Kesik, Melis; Toksabay, Sinem; Toppare, Levent

    2015-04-01

    A novel amperometric pyranose oxidase (PyOx) biosensor based on a selenium containing conducting polymer has been developed for the glucose detection. For this purpose, a conducting polymer; poly(4,7-bis(thieno[3,2-b]thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5] selenadiazole) (poly(BSeTT)) was synthesized via electropolymerisation on gold electrode to examine its matrix property for glucose detection. For this purpose, PyOx was used as the model enzyme and immobilised via physical adsorption technique. Amperometric detection of consumed oxygen was monitored at -0.7 V vs Ag reference electrode in a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.0). K(M)(app), Imax, LOD and sensitivity were calculated as 0.229 mM, 42.37 nA, 3.3 × 10(-4)nM and 6.4 nA/mM cm(2), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques were used to monitor changes in surface morphologies and to run electrochemical characterisations. Finally, the constructed biosensor was applied for the determination of glucose in beverages successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polymer Coatings of Cochlear Implant Electrode Surface - An Option for Improving Electrode-Nerve-Interface by Blocking Fibroblast Overgrowth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Hadler

    Full Text Available Overgrowth of connective tissue and scar formation induced by the electrode array insertion increase the impedance and, thus, diminish the interactions between neural probes as like cochlear implants (CI and the target tissue. Therefore, it is of great clinical interest to modify the carrier material of the electrodes to improve the electrode nerve interface for selective cell adhesion. On one side connective tissue growth needs to be reduced to avoid electrode array encapsulation, on the other side the carrier material should not compromise the interaction with neuronal cells. The present in vitro-study qualitatively and quantitatively characterises the interaction of fibroblasts, glial cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGN with ultrathin poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide (PDMAA, poly(2-ethyloxazoline (PEtOx and poly([2-methacryloyloxyethyl]trimethylammoniumchlorid (PMTA films immobilised onto glass surfaces using a photoreactive anchor layer. The layer thickness and hydrophilicity of the polymer films were characterised by ellipsometric and water contact angle measurement. Moreover the topography of the surfaces was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The neuronal and non-neuronal cells were dissociated from spiral ganglions of postnatal rats and cultivated for 48 h on top of the polymer coatings. Immunocytochemical staining of neuronal and intermediary filaments revealed that glial cells predominantly attached on PMTA films, but not on PDMAA and PEtOx monolayers. Hereby, strong survival rates and neurite outgrowth were only found on PMTA, whereas PDMAA and PEtOx coatings significantly reduced the SG neuron survival and neuritogenesis. As also shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM SGN strongly survived and retained their differentiated phenotype only on PMTA. In conclusion, survival and neuritogenesis of SGN may be associated with the extent of the glial cell growth. Since PMTA was the only of the polar polymers used in this study

  8. Patterning and Conductivity Modulation of Conductive Polymers by UV Light Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edberg, Jesper; Iandolo, Donata; Brooke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    to control the conductivity in the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate by more than six orders of magnitude in addition to producing high-resolution patterns and optical gradients. The mechanism behind the modulation in the polymerization kinetics by UV light irradiation as well...

  9. Assessing a novel polymer-wick based electrode for EEG neurophysiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, Rita; Paiva, Tiago O; Pedrosa, Paulo; Gaspar, Hugo; Vasconcelos, Beatriz; Martins, Ana C; Amaral, Maria H; Nóbrega, João M; Páscoa, Ricardo; Fonseca, Carlos; Barbosa, Fernando

    2016-07-15

    The EEG technique has decades of valid applications in clinical and experimental neurophysiology. EEG equipment and data analysis methods have been characterized by remarkable developments, but the skin-to-electrode signal transfer remains a challenge for EEG recording. A novel quasi-dry system - the polymer wick-based electrode - was developed to overcome the limitations of conventional dry and wet silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes for EEG recording. Nine participants completed an auditory oddball protocol with simultaneous EEG acquisition using both the conventional Ag/AgCl and the wick electrodes. Wick system successfully recorded the expected P300 modulation. Standard ERP analysis, residual random noise analysis, and single-trial analysis of the P300 wave were performed in order to compare signal acquired by both electrodes. It was found that the novel wick electrode performed similarly to the conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes. The developed wick electrode appears to be a reliable alternative for EEG research, representing a promising halfway alternative between wet and dry electrodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Better Proton-Conducting Polymers for Fuel-Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri; Reddy, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid has been proposed as a basis for development of improved proton-conducting polymeric materials for solid-electrolyte membranes in hydrogen/air fuel cells. Heretofore, the proton-conducting membrane materials of choice have been exemplified by a family of perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymers (Nafion7 or equivalent). These materials are suitable for operation in the temperature of 75 to 85 C, but in order to reduce the sizes and/or increase the energy-conversion efficiencies of fuel-cell systems, it would be desirable to increase temperatures to as high as 120 C for transportation applications, and to as high as 180 C for stationary applications. However, at 120 C and at relative humidity values below 50 percent, the loss of water from perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymer membranes results in fuel-cell power densities too low to be of practical value. Therefore, membrane electrolyte materials that have usefully high proton conductivity in the temperature range of 180 C at low relative humidity and that do not rely on water for proton conduction at 180 C would be desirable. The proposed polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid-based materials have been conjectured to have these desirable properties. These materials would be free of volatile or mobile acid constituents. The generic molecular structure of these materials is intended to exploit the fact, demonstrated in previous research, that materials that contain ionizable acid and base groups covalently attached to thermally stable polymer backbones exhibit proton conduction even in the anhydrous state.

  11. Nano-composite of PtRu alloy electrocatalyst and electronically conducting polymer for use as the anode in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongho Choi; Kyungwon Park; Hyekyung Lee; Youngmin Kim; Jaesuk Lee; Yungeun Sung [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju (Korea)

    2003-08-15

    Nano-composites comprised of PtRu alloy nanoparticles and an electronically conducting polymer for the anode electrode in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were prepared. Two conducting polymers of poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and poly(9-(4-vinyl-phenyl)carbazole) were used for the nano-composite electrodes. Structural analyses were carried out using Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, AC impedance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrocatalytic activities were investigated by voltammetry and chronoamperometry in a 2 M CH{sub 3}OH/{sub 0.5} M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and the data compared with a carbon-supported PtRu electrode. XRD patterns indicated good alloy formation and nano-composite formation was confirmed by TEM. Electrochemical measurements and DMFC unit-cell tests indicate that the nano-composites could be useful in a DMFC, but its performance would be slightly lower than that of a carbon-supported electrode. The interfacial property between the PtRu-polymer nano-composite anode and the polymer electrolyte was good, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. For better performance in a DMFC, a higher electric conductivity of the polymer and a lower catalyst loss are needed in nano-composite electrodes. (Author)

  12. Structure of Polymer Fibers Fabricated by Electrospinning Method Utilizing a Metal Wire Electrode in a Capillary Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Shintaro; Hoshino, Rikiya; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Shinbo, Kazunari; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    We fabricated electrospun poly (vinylalcohol) (PVA) fibers using a copper wire electrode in Teflon capillary tube, and the SEM images were observed. The apparatus in this method is reasonable, and needed volume of polymer solution and distance between the electrodes can be largely reduced compared to conventional method. The wire electrode tip position in the capillary tube is also important in this method and should be close to the polymer solution surface.

  13. New transparent conductive metal based on polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Jamali, Mohammad [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Strunkus, Thomas; Zaporochentko, Vladimir; Faupel, Franz [Multicomponent Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Elbahri, Mady [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Institute of Polymer Research, Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Currently great efforts are made to develop new kind of transparent conductors (TCs) to replace ITO. In this regard different materials and composites have been proposed and studied including conductive polymers, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metal grids, and random networks of metallic nanowires. But so far none of them could be used as a replacing material, since either they are either fragile and brittle or their electrical conductivity is below the typical ITO. Thin metallic films due to their high electrical conductivity could be one of the best replacing materials for ITO, however their poor transparency makes their application as TCs limited. Here we design and fabricate a new polymeric composite coating which enhances the transparency of the thin metal film up to 100% relative to the initial value while having a high electrical conductivity of typical metals. Therefore our proposed device has a great potential to be used as new transparent conductor.

  14. Conductivity of oriented bis-azo polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apitz, D.; Bertram, R.P.; Benter, N.

    2006-01-01

    The conductivity properties of electro-optic photoaddressable, dense bis-ozo chromophore polymer films are investigated by using samples corona poled at various temperatures. A dielectric spectrometer is applied to measure the frequency dependence of the conductivity at different temperatures...... before and after heating the material to above the glass transition temperature. The results show that the orientation of the chromophores changes the charge-carrier mobility. Ionic conductivity dominates in a more disordered configuration of the material, while the competing process of hole hopping...... takes over as a transition to a liquid-crystalline phase occurs when the material is heated to much higher than the gloss transition temperature. Such micro-crystallization strongly enhances the conductivity....

  15. Long-term biocompatibility of implanted polymer-based intrafascicular electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, Stephen M; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Horch, Kenneth W

    2002-01-01

    Polymer-based longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (polyLIFEs) were chronically implanted into the sciatic nerve of white New Zealand rabbits (n=8) for a period of 6 months (hereafter referred to as the long-term group). The impact of the implantation procedure, as observed 6 months post surge...

  16. Digital simulation of chronoamperometry at a disk electrode under a flat polymer film containing an enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Dieter; Strutwolf, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Current-time and steady state current behaviour were simulated for an ultramicrodisk electrode (UMDE) inlaid flush with an insulating plane and overlaid by a flat film of polymer containing an enzyme, of various film thicknesses and essentially infinite extent. Steady state currents go through a maxim...

  17. Fabrication of Polymer Solar Cells Using Aqueous Processing for All Layers Including the Metal Back Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar; Helgesen, Martin; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of printing all layers in polymer solar cells from aqueous solution are met by design of inks for the electron-, hole-, active-, and metallic back electrode-layers. The conversion of each layer to an insoluble state after printing enables multilayer formation from the same solvent...

  18. Organic against inorganic electrodes grown onto polymer substrates for flexible organic electronics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logothetidis, S.; Laskarakis, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most challenging topics in the area of organic electronic devices is the growth of transparent electrodes onto flexible polymeric substrates that will be characterized by enhanced conductivity in combination with high optical transparency. An essential aspect for these materials is their synthesis and/or microstructure which define the transparency, the stability and the interfacial chemistry which in turn determine the performance and stability of the organic electronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaics, etc. In this work, we will discuss the latest advances in the growth of organic (e.g. PEDOT:PSS) and inorganic (e.g. zinc oxide-ZnO, indium tin oxide-ITO) conductive materials and their deposition onto flexible polymeric substrates. We will compare the optical, structural, nano-mechanical and nano-topographical properties of the inorganic and organic materials and we investigate the effect of their structure on their properties and functionality. In the case of the organic conductive materials, we will discuss the effects of PEDOT:PSS weight ratios and the various spin speeds on their optical and electrical properties. Furthermore, in the case of ZnO the growth mechanisms, interface phenomena, crystallinity and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown onto polymer and hybrid (inorganic-organic) flexible substrates will be also discussed.

  19. Thermal conductivity of polymer composites with oriented boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hong Jun; Eoh, Young Jun; Park, Sung Dae; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity depended on the orientation of BN in the polymer matrices. • Hexagonal boron nitride (BN) particles were treated by C 27 H 27 N 3 O 2 and C 14 H 6 O 8 . • Amphiphilic-agent-treated BN particles are more easily oriented in the composite. • BN/PVA composites with C 14 H 6 O 8 -treated BN showed the highest thermal conductivity. • Thermal conductivity of the composites was compared with several theoretical models. - Abstract: Thermal conductivity of boron nitride (BN) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and/or polyvinyl butyral (PVB) was investigated as a function of the degree of BN orientation, the numbers of hydroxyl groups in the polymer matrices and the amphiphilic agents used. The composites with in-plane orientation of BN showed a higher thermal conductivity than the composites with out-of-plane orientation of BN due to the increase of thermal pathway. For a given BN content, the composites with in-plane orientation of BN/PVA showed higher thermal conductivity than the composites with in-plane orientation of BN/PVB. This result could be attributed to the improved degree of orientation of BN, caused by a larger number of hydroxyl groups being present. Those treated with C 14 H 6 O 8 amphiphilic agent demonstrated a higher thermal conductivity than those treated by C 27 H 27 N 3 O 2 . The measured thermal conductivity of the composites was compared with that predicted by the several theoretical models

  20. Water-Enabled Healing of Conducting Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiming; Cicoira, Fabio

    2017-10-01

    The conducting polymer polyethylenedioxythiophene doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) has become one of the most successful organic conductive materials due to its high air stability, high electrical conductivity, and biocompatibility. In recent years, a great deal of attention has been paid to its fundamental physicochemical properties, but its healability has not been explored in depth. This communication reports the first observation of mechanical and electrical healability of PEDOT:PSS thin films. Upon reaching a certain thickness (about 1 µm), PEDOT:PSS thin films damaged with a sharp blade can be electrically healed by simply wetting the damaged area with water. The process is rapid, with a response time on the order of 150 ms. Significantly, after being wetted the films are transformed into autonomic self-healing materials without the need of external stimulation. This work reveals a new property of PEDOT:PSS and enables its immediate use in flexible and biocompatible electronics, such as electronic skin and bioimplanted electronics, placing conducting polymers on the front line for healing applications in electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Liquid metals as electrodes in polymer light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, G.G.; Gommans, H.H.P.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; Brongersma, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that liquid metals can be used as cathodes in light emitting diodes (pLEDs). The main difference between the use of liquid cathodes and evaporated cathodes is the sharpness of the metal–polymer interface. Liquid metal cathodes result in significantly sharper metal–organic interfaces

  2. Organic ferroelectric memory devices with inkjet-printed polymer electrodes on flexible substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj

    2013-05-01

    Drop-on-demand piezoelectric inkjet-printing technique has been used to fabricate a functional cross-bar array of all-organic ferroelectric memory devices. The polymer-ferroelectric-polymer device consists of a ferroelectric copolymer P(VDF-TrFE) film sandwiched between inkjet-patterned, continuous, orthogonal lines of PEDOT:PSS polymer as the bottom and top electrodes. These devices exhibit well-saturated hysteresis curves with a maximum remnant polarization (Pr) = 6.7 μC/cm2, coercive field (E c) = 55 MV/m and a peak capacitance density of 45 nF/cm2. Our polarization fatigue measurements show that these devices retain ∼100% and 45% of their initial Pr values after 103 and 10 5 stress cycles, respectively. The overall performance and polarization retention characteristics of these ferroelectric capacitors with inkjet-printed polymer electrodes are comparable to metal and spin-cast polymer electrodes suggesting their potential use in large-area flexible electronics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvements and artifact analysis in conductivity images using multiple internal electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Adnan; McEwan, Alistair Lee; Woo, Eung Je; Oh, Tong In; Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography is an attractive functional imaging method. It is currently limited in resolution and sensitivity due to the complexity of the inverse problem and the safety limits of introducing current. Recently, internal electrodes have been proposed for some clinical situations such as intensive care or RF ablation. This paper addresses the research question related to the benefit of one or more internal electrodes usage since these are invasive. Internal electrodes would be able to reduce the effect of insulating boundaries such as fat and bone and provide improved internal sensitivity. We found there was a measurable benefit with increased numbers of internal electrodes in saline tanks of a cylindrical and complex shape with up to two insulating boundary gel layers modeling fat and muscle. The internal electrodes provide increased sensitivity to internal changes, thereby increasing the amplitude response and improving resolution. However, they also present an additional challenge of increasing sensitivity to position and modeling errors. In comparison with previous work that used point sources for the internal electrodes, we found that it is important to use a detailed mesh of the internal electrodes with these voxels assigned to the conductivity of the internal electrode and its associated holder. A study of different internal electrode materials found that it is optimal to use a conductivity similar to the background. In the tank with a complex shape, the additional internal electrodes provided more robustness in a ventilation model of the lungs via air filled balloons. (paper)

  4. Relaxation model of radiation-induced conductivity in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhutayeva, Yu. R.; Khatipov, S. A.

    1999-05-01

    The paper suggests a relaxation model of radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in polymers. According to the model, the transfer of charges generated in the polymer volume by ionizing radiation takes place with the participation of molecular relaxation processes. The mechanism of electron transport consists in the transfer of the charge directly between traps when they draw close to one another due to the rotation of macromolecule segments. The numerical solutions of the corresponding kinetic equations for different distribution functions Q( τ) of the times of molecular relaxation and for different functions of the probability P( τ, τ') of charge transfer in the `overlapping' regions of the diffusion spheres of the segments are analyzed. The relaxation model provides an explanation of the non-Arrhenius behavior of the RIC temperature dependence, the power dependence of RIC on the dose rate with a power index in the interval 0.5-1.0, the appearance of maxima in the curves of the RIC temporal dependence and their irreversible character in the region of large dose rates (more than 1 Gy/s). The model can be used for interpreting polymer RIC in conditions of kinetic mobility of macromolecules.

  5. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Composite poypropilene-Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betha; Mashuri; Sudirman; Karo Karo, Aloma

    2001-01-01

    Thermal conductivity composite materials polypropylene (PP)-sand have been investigated. PP composite with sand to increase thermal conductivity from the polymer. The composite in this observation is done by mixing matrix (PP melt flow 2/10)and filler sand)by means tool labo plastomil. The result of thermal conductivity is composite of PP-sand which is obtained increase and followed by the raising of filler particle volume fraction. The analysis of thermal conductivity based on the model Cheng and Vachon, model Lewis and Nielsen where this model has the function to support experiment finding. It is proved that Lewis' and Nielsen's model almost approach experiment result. And then thermal conductivity raising will be analyzed by the model of pararel-series conductive with the two (2)phases system. It is showed that sand in PP MF 2 composite have the big role to increase the thermal conductivity than sand in PP MF 10 composition, but it is not easy to shape conductive medium

  6. Digital simulation of chronoamperometry at an electrode within a hemispherical polymer drop containing an enzyme: comparison of a hemispherical with a flat disk electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Dieter; Strutwolf, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    . As well, a cylindrical electrode with length much greater than its diameter and coated with a layer of polymer/enzyme was treated. The ratio of steady state currents at the hemispherical to the disk electrode is not, as has sometimes been assumed, always equal to π/2; indeed this is only approached...

  7. Effect of dose on radiation-induced conductivity in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutnev, A.P.; Saenko, V.S.; Pozhidaev, E.D.; Ikhsanov, R.Sh.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulation of radiation-induced conductivity in polymers upon long-term irradiation on the basis of the generalized Rose-Fowler-Vaisberg model, which allows for both dipolar carrier transport and generation of radiation traps during irradiation, was performed. The unusual properties of radiation-induced conductivity, such as the appearance of a maximum on current transients, the absence of a steady state, and a substantial difference between these curves for the first and subsequent irradiation, are rationalized in terms of the formation of free radicals, the major feature of radiolysis in the chemical aspect. This interpretation does not require the involvement of degradation or crosslinking processes, unlike other interpretations that appear in the literature. With the use of low-density polyethylene as an example, it was shown that radiation-induced conductivity both upon pulse and continuous irradiation can satisfactorily be described with the unified set of parameters of the generalized Rose-Fowler-Vaisberg model [ru

  8. Temperature dependence of nonsteady radiation conductivity of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutnev, A.P.; Saenko, V.S.; Dunaev, A.F.; Sichkar', V.P.; Vannikov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of temperature on non-steady radiation conductivity (NRC) of polymeric dielectrics is investigated. It is revealed that the temperature effects first of all delayed NRC constituent. Temperature increase up to 100 deg C is followed by certain slowing down the rate of current drop of induced conductivity, in this case the nature of the volt-ampere characteristic of delayed NRC constituent does not essentially change, as a rule. The obtained experimental results interpreted in the frames of the band model permitted to make conclusions on the effect of chemical structure of the polymer on its NRC. Presence of carbazole or phenylic groups in the elementary chain is shown to increase the delayed constituent of induced conductivity and to ensure prevailing yield of free charges. Appearance of methyl groups in the composition of the chain essentially suppresses the delayed constituent and results in high values of activation energy and rather slowed down current drop

  9. Dioxythiophene-based polymer electrodes for supercapacitor modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David Y; Reynolds, John R

    2010-12-01

    We report on the electrochemical and capacitive behaviors of poly(2,2-dimethyl-3,4-propylene-dioxythipohene) (PProDOT-Me2) films as polymeric electrodes in Type I electrochemical supercapacitors. The supercapacitor device displays robust capacitive charging/discharging behaviors with specific capacitance of 55 F/g, based on 60 μg of PProDOT-Me2 per electrode, that retains over 85% of its storage capacity after 32 000 redox cycles at 78% depth of discharge. Moreover, an appreciable average energy density of 6 Wh/kg has been calculated for the device, along with well-behaved and rapid capacitive responses to 1.0 V between 5 to 500 mV s(-1). Tandem electrochemical supercapacitors were assembled in series, in parallel, and in combinations of the two to widen the operating voltage window and to increase the capacitive currents. Four supercapacitors coupled in series exhibited a 4.0 V charging/discharging window, whereas assembly in parallel displayed a 4-fold increase in capacitance. Combinations of both serial and parallel assembly with six supercapacitors resulted in the extension of voltage to 3 V and a 2-fold increase in capacitive currents. Utilization of bipolar electrodes facilitated the encapsulation of tandem supercapacitors as individual, flexible, and lightweight supercapacitor modules.

  10. Conductive polymer sensor arrays for smart orthopaedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micolini, Carolina; Holness, F. B.; Johnson, James A.; Price, Aaron D.

    2017-04-01

    This study proposes and demonstrates the design, implementation, and characterization of a 3D-printed smartpolymer sensor array using conductive polyaniline (PANI) structures embedded in a polymeric substrate. The piezoresistive characteristics of PANI were studied to evaluate the efficacy of the manufacturing of an embedded pressure sensor. PANI's stability throughout loading and unloading cycles together with the response to incremental loading cycles was investigated. It is demonstrated that this specially developed multi-material additive manufacturing process for polyaniline is a good candidate for the manufacture of implant components with smart-polymer sensors embedded for the analysis of joint loads in orthopaedic implants.

  11. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Xia, Chuan; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline

  12. Morphology and Electrical Conductivity of Carbon Nanocoatings Prepared from Pyrolysed Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Molenda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conductive carbon nanocoatings (conductive carbon layers—CCL were formed on α-Al2O3 model support using three different polymer precursors and deposition methods. This was done in an effort to improve electrical conductivity of the material through creating the appropriate morphology of the carbon layers. The best electrical properties were obtained with use of a precursor that consisted of poly-N-vinylformamide modified with pyromellitic acid (PMA. We demonstrate that these properties originate from a specific morphology of this layer that showed nanopores (3-4 nm capable of assuring easy pathways for ion transport in real electrode materials. The proposed, water mediated, method of carbon coating of powdered supports combines coating from solution and solid phase and is easy to scale up process. The optimal polymer carbon precursor composition was used to prepare conductive carbon nanocoatings on LiFePO4 cathode material. Charge-discharge tests clearly show that C/LiFePO4 composites obtained using poly-N-vinylformamide modified with pyromellitic acid exhibit higher rechargeable capacity and longer working time in a battery cell than standard carbon/lithium iron phosphate composites.

  13. High-throughput screening of ionic conductivity in polymer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Pedro; Basak, Pratyay; Carson Meredith, J.

    2009-01-01

    Combinatorial and high-throughput techniques have been successfully used for efficient and rapid property screening in multiple fields. The use of these techniques can be an advantageous new approach to assay ionic conductivity and accelerate the development of novel materials in research areas such as fuel cells. A high-throughput ionic conductivity (HTC) apparatus is described and applied to screening candidate polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications. The device uses a miniature four-point probe for rapid, automated point-to-point AC electrochemical impedance measurements in both liquid and humid air environments. The conductivity of Nafion 112 HTC validation standards was within 1.8% of the manufacturer's specification. HTC screening of 40 novel Kynar poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/acrylic polyelectrolyte (PE) membranes focused on varying the Kynar type (5x) and PE composition (8x) using reduced sample sizes. Two factors were found to be significant in determining the proton conducting capacity: (1) Kynar PVDF series: membranes containing a particular Kynar PVDF type exhibited statistically identical mean conductivity as other membranes containing different Kynar PVDF types that belong to the same series or family. (2) Maximum effective amount of polyelectrolyte: increments in polyelectrolyte content from 55 wt% to 60 wt% showed no statistically significant effect in increasing conductivity. In fact, some membranes experienced a reduction in conductivity.

  14. Laser patterned polymer/nanotube composite electrodes for nanowire transistors on flexible substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliatis, Michail

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication techniques such as laser patterning offer excellent potential for low cost and large area device fabrication. Conductive polymers can be used to replace expensive metallic inks such as silver and gold nanoparticles for printing technology. Electrical conductivity of the polymers can...

  15. Transparent conductive oxides and alternative transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaics and OLEDs; Transparente leitfaehige Elektroden. Oxide und alternative Materialien fuer die organische Photovoltaik und OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Meskamp, Lars; Sachse, Christoph; Kim, Yong Hyun; Furno, Mauro [Technische Univ. Dresden (DE). Inst. fuer Angewandte Photophysik (IAPP); May, Christian [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Photonische Mikrosysteme (IPMS), Dresden (Germany); Leo, Karl [Technische Univ. Dresden (DE). Inst. fuer Angewandte Photophysik (IAPP); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Photonische Mikrosysteme (IPMS), Dresden (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Organic, photoactive devices, such as OLEDs or organic solar cells, currently use indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent electrode. Whereas ITO is industry-proven for many years and shows very good electrical and optical properties, its application for low-cost and flexible devices might not be optimal. For such applications innovative technologies such as network-based metal nanowire or carbon nanotube electrodes, graphene, conductive polymers, metal thin-films and alternative transparent conductive oxides emerge. Although some of these technologies are rather experimental and far from application, some of them have the potential to replace ITO in selected applications. (orig.)

  16. Highly processable method for the construction of miniature conducting polymer moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Scott T.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2005-02-01

    A polymer blend incorporating polyaniline (PAn) was used as a sensing medium in the construction of a resistance based humidity sensor. Aniline monomer was polymerised to PAn emeraldine salt (ES) in the presence of poly (butyl acrylate-co-vinyl acetate) and the processable blend was developed by redissolving 1-2 w/w% of the resulting sensing polymer residue in dichloromethane (DCM). Some of this residue was washed in ammonia solution to de-dope the PAn to emeraldine base (EB) to act as a protective layer on the surface of the sensing polymer. This residue was then washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was realised with the waste water, dried and redissolved in DCM at 1-2 w/w% to create a processable blend barrier polymer solution. The final sensor design utilised 125μm polyester insulated platinum wire as conducting electrodes that were dip coated in the PAn ES blend solution and dried in a desiccator. A protective coating was then applied by dip coating in the EB blend solution. The sensors had an overall final thickness of less than 200μm and showed high sensitivity to humidity, low resistance, and good reversibility without hysteresis. The EB protective layer was shown to give more stable and predictable responses to the sensors when placed inside curing epoxies. Polymer based thin film humidity sensors have the advantage that the high processability of the material allows for simple fabrication of a range of geometries including smaller sensor designs. Such sensors may find uses in detecting water content in a number of areas including composite materials, electronic textiles, food/electronics packaging and corrosion detection.

  17. Synthesis, ionic conductivity, and thermal properties of proton conducting polymer electrolyte for high temperature fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Takahito; Hamaguchi, Yohei; Uno, Takahiro; Kubo, Masataka [Department of Chemistry for Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurima Machiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Aihara, Yuichi; Sonai, Atsuo [Samsung Yokohama Research Institute, 2-7 Sugasawa-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0027 (Japan)

    2006-01-16

    Hyperbranched polymer (poly-1a) with sulfonic acid groups at the end of chains was successfully synthesized. Interpenetration reaction of poly-1a with a hyperbranched polymer with acryloyl groups at the end of chains (poly-1b) as a cross-linker afforded a tough electrolyte membrane. The poly-1a and the resulting electrolyte membrane showed the ionic conductivities of 7x10{sup -4} and 8x10{sup -5} S/cm, respectively, at 150C under dry condition. The ionic conductivities of the poly-1a and the electrolyte membrane exhibited the VTF type temperature dependence. And also, both poly-1a and the resulting electrolyte membrane were thermally stable up to 200C. (author)

  18. Enhancement in ionic conductivity on solid polymer electrolytes containing large conducting species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, D. [Department of Physics, Amrita Viswha Vidyapeetham, Bangalore, India, E-mail: d-praveen@blr.amrita.edu (India); Damle, Ramakrishna [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India. E-mail: ramkrishnadamle@bub.ernet.in (India)

    2016-05-23

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) lack better conducting properties at ambient temperatures. Various methods to enhance their ionic conductivity like irradiation with swift heavy ions, γ-rays, swift electrons and quenching at low temperature etc., have been explored in the literature. Among these, one of the oldest methods is incorporation of different conducting species into the polymer matrix and/or addition of nano-sized inert particles into SPEs. Various new salts like LiBr, Mg(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, NH{sub 4}I etc., have already been tried in the past with some success. Also various nanoparticles like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} etc., have been tried in the past. In this article, we have investigated an SPE containing Rubidium as a conducting species. Rubidium has a larger ionic size compared to lithium and sodium ions which have been investigated in the recent past. In the present article, we have investigated the conductivity of large sized conducting species and shown the enhancement in the ionic conductivity by addition of nano-sized inert particles.

  19. Enhancement in ionic conductivity on solid polymer electrolytes containing large conducting species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen, D.; Damle, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) lack better conducting properties at ambient temperatures. Various methods to enhance their ionic conductivity like irradiation with swift heavy ions, γ-rays, swift electrons and quenching at low temperature etc., have been explored in the literature. Among these, one of the oldest methods is incorporation of different conducting species into the polymer matrix and/or addition of nano-sized inert particles into SPEs. Various new salts like LiBr, Mg(ClO_4)_2, NH_4I etc., have already been tried in the past with some success. Also various nanoparticles like Al_2O_3, TiO_2 etc., have been tried in the past. In this article, we have investigated an SPE containing Rubidium as a conducting species. Rubidium has a larger ionic size compared to lithium and sodium ions which have been investigated in the recent past. In the present article, we have investigated the conductivity of large sized conducting species and shown the enhancement in the ionic conductivity by addition of nano-sized inert particles.

  20. Potentiometric measurement of polymer-membrane electrodes based on lanthanum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saefurohman, Asep, E-mail: saefurohman.asep78@Gmail.com; Buchari,, E-mail: saefurohman.asep78@Gmail.com; Noviandri, Indra, E-mail: saefurohman.asep78@Gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia); Syoni [Department of Metallurgy Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Quantitative analysis of rare earth elements which are considered as the standard method that has a high accuracy, and detection limits achieved by the order of ppm is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). But these tools are expensive and valuable analysis of the high cost of implementation. In this study be made and characterized selective electrode for the determination of rare earth ions is potentiometric. Membrane manufacturing techniques studied is based on immersion (liquid impregnated membrane) in PTFE 0.5 pore size. As ionophores to be used tri butyl phosphate (TBP) and bis(2-etylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate. There is no report previously that TBP used as ionophore in polymeric membrane based lanthanum. Some parameters that affect the performance of membrane electrode such as membrane composition, membrane thickness, and types of membrane materials studied in this research. Manufacturing of Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) Lanthanum (La) by means of impregnation La membrane in TBP in kerosene solution has been done and showed performance for ISE-La. FTIR spectrum results for PTFE 0.5 pore size which impregnated in TBP and PTFE blank showed difference of spectra in the top 1257 cm{sup −1}, 1031 cm{sup −1} and 794.7 cm{sup −1} for P=O stretching and stretching POC from group −OP =O. The result showed shift wave number for P =O stretching of the cluster (−OP=O) in PTFE-TBP mixture that is at the peak of 1230 cm{sup −1} indicated that no interaction bond between hydroxyl group of molecules with molecular clusters fosforil of TBP or R{sub 3}P = O. The membrane had stable responses in pH range between 1 and 9. Good responses were obtained using 10{sup −3} M La(III) internal solution, which produced relatively high potential. ISE-La showed relatively good performances. The electrode had a response time of 29±4.5 second and could be use for 50 days. The linear range was between 10{sup −5} and 10{sup −1} M.

  1. Antibody Immobilization on Conductive Polymer Coated Nonwoven Fibers for Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K. MCGRAW

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is being performed to develop rapid and novel electrochemical biosensors for foodborne pathogen detection. This research focuses on electrotextile platforms to perform both capture and sensing functions in a single component. The biosensor uses nonwoven fiber membranes coated with conductive polymer and functionalized with antibodies for biological capture. This study examines three methods for antibody immobilization: passive adsorption, glutaraldehyde cross-linking, and EDC/Sulfo-NHS cross-linking. Antibodies are immobilized onto the conductive fiber surfaces for the specific capture of a target pathogen. The immobilization and capture capabilities of each method are analyzed through the use of two different fluorescent reporters: FITC and PicoGreen DNA stain. Fluorescence is measured using a fluorescent plate reader and then imaged using a fluorescent microscope. The effect of a blocking agent on specificity is also evaluated. It is found that glutaraldehyde with blocking is the best immobilization method with PicoGreen being the best fluorescent reporter.

  2. Multiscale Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of Polymer/Carbon Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was used to estimate the interfacial thermal (Kapitza) resistance between nanoparticles and amorphous and crystalline polymer matrices. Bulk thermal conductivities of the nanocomposites were then estimated using an established effective medium approach. To study functionalization, oligomeric ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers were chemically bonded to a single wall carbon nanotube. The results, in a poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) matrix, are similar to those obtained previously for grafted linear hydrocarbon chains. To study the effect of noncovalent functionalization, two types of polyethylene matrices. -- aligned (extended-chain crystalline) vs. amorphous (random coils) were modeled. Both matrices produced the same interfacial thermal resistance values. Finally, functionalization of edges and faces of plate-like graphite nanoparticles was found to be only modestly effective in reducing the interfacial thermal resistance and improving the composite thermal conductivity

  3. Mesoporous silicon oxide films and their uses as templates in obtaining nanostructured conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, R.; Arteaga, G. C.; Arias, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining conductive polymers (CPs) for the manufacture of OLEDs, solar cells, electrochromic devices, sensors, etc., has been possible through the use of electrochemical techniques that allow obtaining films of controlled thickness with positive results in different applications. Current trends point towards the manufacture of nanomaterials, and therefore it is necessary to develop methods that allow obtaining CPs with nanostructured morphology. This is possible by using a porous template to allow the growth of the polymeric materials. However, prior and subsequent treatments are required to separate the material from the template so that it can be evaluated in the applications mentioned above. This is why mesoporous silicon oxide films (template) are essential for the synthesis of nanostructured polymers since both the template and the polymer are obtained on the electrode surface, and therefore it is not necessary to separate the material from the template. Thus, the material can be evaluated directly in the applications mentioned above. The dimensions of the resulting nanostructures will depend on the power, time and technique used for electropolymerization as well as the monomer and the surfactant of the mesoporous film.

  4. Theoretical voltammetric response of electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marín, Ana M; Hernández-Ortíz, Juan P

    2014-09-24

    A model for the differential capacitance of metal electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes, with acid/base groups attached to the membrane backbone, and in contact with an electrolyte solution is developed. With proper model parameters, the model is able to predict a limit response, given by Mott-Schottky or Gouy-Chapman-Stern theories depending on the dissociation degree and the density of ionizable acid/base groups. The model is also valid for other ionic membranes with proton donor/acceptor molecules as membrane counterions. Results are discussed in light of the electron transfer rate at membrane-coated electrodes for electrochemical reactions that strongly depend on the double layer structure. In this sense, the model provides a tool towards the understanding of the electro-catalytic activity on modified electrodes. It is shown that local maxima and minima in the differential capacitance as a function of the electrode potential may occur as consequence of the dissociation of acid/base molecular species, in absence of specific adsorption of immobile polymer anions on the electrode surface. Although the model extends the conceptual framework for the interpretation of cyclic voltammograms for these systems and the general theory about electrified interfaces, structural features of real systems are more complex and so, presented results only are qualitatively compared with experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Drastic modification of the piezoresistive behavior of polymer nanocomposites by using conductive polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Zhou, Jian; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    We obtained highly conductive nanocomposites by adding conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to pristine insulating Polycarbonate. Because the PEDOT/PSS ensures efficient charge transfer both along and between the CNTs, we could attribute the improvement in electrical conductivity to coating. In addition to improving the electrical conductivity, the coating also modified the piezoresistive behavior of the nanocomposites compared to the material with pristine uncoated CNTs: whereas CNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited a very strong piezoresistive effect, PEDOT/PSS-coated MWCNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited very little piezoresistivity. We studied this change in piezoresistive behavior in detail by investigating various configurations of filler content. We investigated how this observation could be explained by changes in the microstructure and in the conduction mechanism in the interfacial regions between the nanofillers. Our study suggests that tailoring the piezoresistive response to specific application requirements is possible.

  6. Drastic modification of the piezoresistive behavior of polymer nanocomposites by using conductive polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar

    2015-07-21

    We obtained highly conductive nanocomposites by adding conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to pristine insulating Polycarbonate. Because the PEDOT/PSS ensures efficient charge transfer both along and between the CNTs, we could attribute the improvement in electrical conductivity to coating. In addition to improving the electrical conductivity, the coating also modified the piezoresistive behavior of the nanocomposites compared to the material with pristine uncoated CNTs: whereas CNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited a very strong piezoresistive effect, PEDOT/PSS-coated MWCNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited very little piezoresistivity. We studied this change in piezoresistive behavior in detail by investigating various configurations of filler content. We investigated how this observation could be explained by changes in the microstructure and in the conduction mechanism in the interfacial regions between the nanofillers. Our study suggests that tailoring the piezoresistive response to specific application requirements is possible.

  7. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on redox polymer/carbon nanotube modified electrodes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Madalina M; Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this review is to present the contributions to the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on polyphenazine or polytriphenylmethane redox polymers together with carbon nanotubes (CNT) during recent years. Phenazine polymers have been widely used in analytical applications due to their inherent charge transport properties and electrocatalytic effects. At the same time, since the first report on a CNT-based sensor, their application in the electroanalytical chemistry field has demonstrated that the unique structure and properties of CNT are ideal for the design of electrochemical (bio)sensors. We describe here that the specific combination of phenazine/triphenylmethane polymers with CNT leads to an improved performance of the resulting sensing devices, because of their complementary electrical, electrochemical and mechanical properties, and also due to synergistic effects. The preparation of polymer/CNT modified electrodes will be presented together with their electrochemical and surface characterization, with emphasis on the contribution of each component on the overall properties of the modified electrodes. Their importance in analytical chemistry is demonstrated by the numerous applications based on polymer/CNT-driven electrocatalytic effects, and their analytical performance as (bio) sensors is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation of conductive polymers using nitrosyl ion as an oxidizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Jung, Yongju; Singh, Nikhilendra

    2016-06-07

    A method of forming a conductive polymer deposit on a substrate is disclosed. The method may include the steps of preparing a composition comprising monomers of the conductive polymer and a nitrosyl precursor, contacting the substrate with the composition so as to allow formation of nitrosyl ion on the exterior surface of the substrate, and allowing the monomer to polymerize into the conductive polymer, wherein the polymerization is initiated by the nitrosyl ion and the conductive polymer is deposited on the exterior surface of the substrate. The conductive polymer may be polypyrrole.

  9. Electrochemically deposited conducting polymers for reliable biomedical interfacing materials: Formulation, mechanical characterization, and failure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jing

    Conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) are of interest for a variety of applications including interfaces between electronic biomedical devices and living tissue. These polymers provide an improved interface compared to metal and semiconducting electrodes because of their ionic conductivity, relatively lower stiffness, and ability to incorporate biological molecules. Even though the signal transfer and biocompatibility of conjugated polymers are superior compared as the biointerfacing materials, the durability has been the weakest part for the long-term applications. Even though some efforts have been made to improve the durability of conjugated polymers, little quantitative information of the improved cohesion, adhesion and durability has been reported. In this thesis, the methods of improving the durability of conjugated polymer films, especially PEDOT, were investigated, including alternating the processing methods and components in synthesis. The 7-month in vivo testing showed that the durability of PEDOT films still needed to be improved. As a coating for biosignal transfer, the cohesion, adhesion and electrochemical stability of PEDOT are vital to determine the long-term performance. Not much information hd been developed around the cohesion and adhesion. A thin film cracking method was developed to measure the stiffness, strength and the interfacial shear strength (adhesion) of electrochemically deposited PEDOT. The estimated Young’s modulus of the PEDOT films was 2.6 ± 1.4 GPa, and the strain to failure was around 2%. The tensile strength was measured to be 56 ± 27 MPa. The effectiveness of crosslinker and adhesion promoter was demonstrated by this method. It was shown that 5 mole% addition of a tri-functional EDOT crosslinker (EPh) increased the tensile strength of the films to 283 ± 67 MPa, while the strain to failure remained about the same (2%). With the modification of EDOT-acid to the surface of stainless steel

  10. Reverse iontophoresis of lithium: electrode formulation using a thermoreversible polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascotte, Valentine; Leboulanger, Benoît; Guy, Richard H; Begoña Delgado-Charro, M

    2005-01-01

    This work investigated the use of a thermoreversible gel as a collector vehicle in reverse iontophoresis applications. A 20% (w/w) aqueous gel of Pluronic F127 was a suitable receptor medium to be used at the cathodal chamber. In vitro iontophoresis experiments investigated the simultaneous extraction of lithium (analyte of interest) and sodium (used as an internal standard) into either a control buffer or a gelled receptor. The gelification process at room temperature provided a suitable consistency and contact with the skin surface during the iontophoresis experiments. Subsequent cooling of the gelled solution to 4 degrees C allows an easy recovery of lithium and sodium for later quantification. Both the lithium extraction fluxes and the lithium to sodium ratio of extraction fluxes were linearly related to the subdermal lithium concentration. On the whole, the results show that thermoreversible polymer solutions offer a simple and convenient way to handle samples in reverse iontophoresis studies.

  11. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, M; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, Amit K; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi; Gogotsi, Y

    2015-11-01

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m(2)  g(-1)) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π-π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life-a key challenge for redox active polymers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Formation of nanotubes in poly (vinylidene fluoride): Application as solid polymer electrolyte in DSC fabricated using carbon counter electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthuraaman, B. [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Maruthamuthu, P., E-mail: pmaruthu@yahoo.com [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Incorporation of a {pi}-electron donor compound as dopant in poly(vinylidene fluoride) along with redox couple (I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -}) which forms brush like nanotubes. > Investigations about the use of conducting carbon coated FTO as a durable counter electrode and its effects in DSC. > High charge separation and the channelized flow of electrons in the nanotubes in electrolyte favors stable performance. - Abstract: In the present work, we report the incorporation of 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) along with the redox couple (I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -}). When ABTS, a {pi}-electron donor, is used to dope PVDF, the polymer composite forms brush-like nanotubes and has been successfully used as a solid polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells. Under the given conditions, the electrolyte composition forms nanotubes while it is doped with ABTS, a {pi}-electron donor. With this new electrolyte, a dye-sensitized solar cell was fabricated using N3 dye adsorbed over TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as the photoanode and conducting carbon cement coated FTO as counter electrode.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and DC conductivity studies of conducting polyaniline/PVA/Fly ash polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanasiddappa, M.; Swamy, D. Siddalinga; Vinay, K.; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Raghavendra, S. C.

    2018-05-01

    The present work is an investigation of dc conduction behaviour of conducting polyaniline/fly ash nano particles blended in polyvinyl Alcohol (PANI/PVA/FA) synthesized via in-situ polymerization technique using (NH4)2S2O8 as an oxidising agent with varying fly ash cenosphere by 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt%. The structural characterization of the synthesised polymer composites was examined using FT-IR, XRD and SEM techniques. Dc conductivity as a function of temperature has been measured in the temperature range from 302K - 443K. The increase of conductivity with increasing temperature reveals semiconducting behaviour of the composites and shows an evidence for the transport properties of the composites.

  14. Use of array of conducting polymers for differentiation of coconut oil products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rañola, Rey Alfred G; Santiago, Karen S; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2016-01-01

    An array of chemiresistors based on conducting polymers was assembled for the differentiation of coconut oil products. The chemiresistor sensors were fabricated through the potentiostatic electrodeposition of polyaniline (PANi), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3-methylthiophene) (P-3MTp) on the gap separating two planar gold electrodes set on a Teflon substrate. The change in electrical resistance of the sensors was measured and observed after exposing the array to the headspace of oil samples. The sensor response was found rapid, reversible and reproducible. Different signals were obtained for each coconut oil sample and pattern recognition techniques were employed for the analysis of the data. The developed system was able to distinguish virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached & deodorised coconut oil (RBDCO), flavoured VCO, homemade VCO, and rancid VCO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrical conductivity of polyaniline doped PVC–PMMA polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which has now become one of the hot topics of research. (Radhakrishnan 2001). ... and sensitive methods for studying the polymer structure. (Ferraro and Walkar ... acceptor mixed polymers doped with polyaniline, was measured to identify ...

  16. Doped polymer electrodes for high performance ferroelectric capacitors on plastic substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, M. A.; Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj; Zhang, Xixiang; Saleh, Moussa M.; Odeh, Ihab; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    classical ferroelectric and dielectric responses, including series resistance effects. The improved device characteristics obtained using highly conducting doped PEDOT:PSS suggest that it may be used both as an electrode and as global interconnect for all

  17. Ultrathin and stable Nickel films as transparent conductive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilli, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.grilli@enea.it [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Di Sarcina, I. [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Bossi, S. [ENEA, Robotics Laboratory, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); The Biorobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Pisa (Italy); Rinaldi, A.; Pilloni, L.; Piegari, A. [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2015-11-02

    Ultrathin stable transparent conductive nickel films were deposited on quartz substrates by radio frequency sputtering at room temperature. Such films showed visible transmittance up to 80% and conductivity up to 1.8 × 10{sup 4} S/cm, further increased to 2,3 × 10{sup 5} S/cm by incorporation of a micrometric silver grid. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed quite compact, smooth and low surface roughness films. Excellent film stability, ease, fast and low cost process fabrication make these films highly competitive compared to indium tin oxide alternative transparent conductors. Films were characterized regarding their morphological, optical and electrical properties. - Highlights: • Indium-free transparent conductors are proposed. • Ultrathin Ni films are fabricated with a very fast process at room temperature. • Films have conductivity values up to 1.8 × 10{sup 4} S/cm. • Ni ultrathin films are good candidates for UV and NIR optoelectronic applications.

  18. Virus-Assembled Flexible Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces for Enhanced Polymer-Based Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-aspect-ratio cobalt-oxide-coated Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV- assembled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE nonstick surfaces were integrated with a solvent-free polymer electrolyte to create an anode-electrolyte interface for use in lithium-ion batteries. The virus-assembled PTFE surfaces consisted primarily of cobalt oxide and were readily intercalated with a low-molecular-weight poly (ethylene oxide (PEO based diblock copolymer electrolyte to produce a solid anode-electrolyte system. The resulting polymer-coated virus-based system was then peeled from the PTFE backing to produce a flexible electrode-electrolyte component. Electrochemical studies indicated the virus-structured metal-oxide PEO-based interface was stable and displayed robust charge transfer kinetics. Combined, these studies demonstrate the development of a novel solid-state electrode architecture with a unique peelable and flexible processing attribute.

  19. Bromination of Graphene: A New Route to Making High Performance Transparent Conducting Electrodes with Low Optical Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2015-07-22

    The unique optical and electrical properties of graphene have triggered great interest in its application as a transparent conducting electrode material and significant effort has been invested in achieving high conductivity while maintaining transparency. Doping of graphene has been a popular route for reducing its sheet resistance, but this has typically come at a significant cost in optical transmission. We demonstrate doping of few layers graphene with bromine as a means of enhancing the conductivity via intercalation without major optical losses. Our results demonstrate the encapsulation of bromine leads to air-stable transparent conducting electrodes with five-fold improvement of sheet resistance reaching at the cost of only 2-3% loss of optical transmission. The remarkably low tradeoff in optical transparency leads to the highest enhancements in the figure of merit reported thus far for FLG. Furthermore, we tune the workfunction by up to 0.3 eV by tuning the bromine content. These results should help pave the way for further development of graphene as a potential substitute to transparent conducting polymers and metal oxides used in optoelectronics, photovoltaics and beyond.

  20. Conductive Polymer Porous Film with Tunable Wettability and Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Teng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A conductive polymer porous film with tunable wettability and adhesion was fabricated by the chloroform solution of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyricacid-methyl-ester (PCBM via the freeze drying method. The porous film could be obtained from the solution of 0.8 wt%, whose pore diameters ranged from 50 nm to 500 nm. The hydrophobic porous surface with a water contact angle (CA of 144.7° could be transferred into a hydrophilic surface with CA of 25° by applying a voltage. The water adhesive force on the porous film increased with the increase of the external voltage. The electro-controllable wettability and adhesion of the porous film have potential application in manipulating liquid collection and transportation.

  1. Preparation of polymer composite nanomembranes with a conductivity asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, L.I.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Satulu, B.; Mitu, B.; Dinescu, G.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and charge transport properties of the poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membrane modified by a pyrrole plasma have been studied. It was found that polymer deposition on the surface of a track membrane via the plasma polymerization of pyrrole results in the creation of a composite nanomembrane that, in the case of the formation of a semipermeable layer covering the pores, possesses conductivity asymmetry in electrolyte solutions - a rectification effect similar to that of a p-n junction in semiconductors. It is caused by presence in the membrane of two layers with different functional groups and also by the pore geometry. Such a type of membranes can be used for creation of chemical and biochemical sensors

  2. Conducting polymer based DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus group species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Arshak, Khalil; Korostynska, Olga; Oliwa, Kamila; Adley, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Biosensor designs are emerging at a significant rate and play an increasingly important role in foodborne pathogen detection. Conducting polymers are excellent tools for the fabrication of biosensors and polypyrrole has been used in the detection of biomolecules due to its unique properties. The prime intention of this paper was to pioneer the design and fabrication of a single-strand (ss) DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus (B.cereus) group species. Growth of B. cereus, results in production of several highly active toxins. Therefore, consumption of food containing >106 bacteria/gm may results in emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is found in liquid food products, milk powder, mixed food products and is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. The electrochemical deposition technique, such as cyclic voltammetry, was used to develop and test a model DNA-based biosensor on a gold electrode electropolymerized with polypyrrole. The electrically conducting polymer, polypyrrole is used as a platform for immobilizing DNA (1μg) on the gold electrode surface, since it can be more easily deposited from neutral pH aqueous solutions of pyrrolemonomers. The average current peak during the electrodeposition event is 288μA. There is a clear change in the current after hybridization of the complementary oligonucleotide (6.35μA) and for the noncomplementary oligonucleotide (5.77μA). The drop in current after each event was clearly noticeable and it proved to be effective.

  3. Flexible probe for measuring local conductivity variations in Li-ion electrode films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Emilee; Clement, Derek; Vogel, John; Wheeler, Dean; Mazzeo, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Li-ion battery performance is governed by electronic and ionic properties of the battery. A key metric that characterizes Li-ion battery cell performance is the electronic conductivity of the electrodes, which are metal foils with thin coatings of electrochemically active materials. To accurately measure the spatial variation of electronic conductivity of these electrodes, a micro-four-line probe (μ4LP) was designed and used to non-destructively measure the properties of commercial-quality Li-ion battery films. This previous research established that the electronic conductivity of film electrodes is not homogeneous throughout the entirety of the deposited film area. In this work, a micro-N-line probe (μNLP) and a flexible micro-flex-line probe (μFLP) were developed to improve the non-destructive micro-scale conductivity measurements that we can take. These devices were validated by comparing test results to that of the predecessor, the micro-four-line probe (μ4LP), on various commercial-quality Li-ion battery electrodes. Results show that there is significant variation in conductivity on a millimeter and even micrometer length scale through the electrode film. Compared to the μ4LP, the μNLP and μFLP also introduce additional measurement configuration possibilities, while providing a more robust design. Researchers and manufacturers can use these probes to identify heterogeneity in their electrodes during the fabrication process, which will lead to the development of better batteries.

  4. Performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with thin film catalyst electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Gab; Kim, Chang Soo; Peck, Dong Hyun; Shin, Dong Ryul [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    In order to develop a kW-class polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), several electrodes have been fabricated by different catalyst layer preparation procedures and evaluated based on the cell performance. Conventional carbon paper and carbon cloth electrodes were fabricated using a ptfe-bonded Pt/C electrol catalyst by coating and rolling methods. Thin-film catalyst/ionomer composite layers were also formed on the membrane by direct coating and transfer printing techniques. The performance evaluation with catalyst layer preparation methods was carried out using a large or small electrode single cell. Conventional and thin film membrane and electrode assemblies (MEAs) with small electrode area showed a performance of 350 and 650 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V, respectively. The performance of direct coated thin film catalyst layer with 300 cm{sup 2} MEAs was higher than those of the conventional and transfer printing technique MEAs. The influence of some characteristic parameters of the thin film electrode on electrochemical performance was examined. Various other aspects of overall operation of PEMFC stacks were also discussed. (orig.)

  5. Simulation and optimization of a polymer directional coupler electro-optic switch with push pull electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuan-Tao; Ma, Chun-Sheng; Yan, Xin; Wang, Xian-Yin; Zhang, Da-Ming

    2008-07-01

    Structural model and design technique are proposed for a polymer directional coupler electro-optic switch with rib waveguides and push-pull electrodes, of which the electric field distribution is analyzed by the conformal transforming method and image method. In order to get the minimum mode loss and the minimum switching voltage, the parameters of the waveguide and electrode are optimized, such as the core with, core thickness, buffer layer between the core and the electrode, coupling gap between the waveguides, electrode thickness, electrode width and electrode gap. Switching Characteristics are analyzed, which include the output power, insertion loss, and crosstalk. To realize normal switching function, the fabrication error, spectrum shift, and coupling loss between a single mode fiber (SMF) and the waveguide are discussed. Simulation results show that the coupling length is 3082 μm, push-pull switching voltage is 2.14 V, insertion loss is less than 1.17 dB, and crosstalk is less than -30 dB for the designed device.

  6. Development of carbon paste electrodes modified by molecularly imprinted polymer as potentiometry sensor of uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, Miratul; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko; Widayanti, Nesti; Kadmi, Yassine; Elmsellem, Hicham; Kusuma, Heri Septya

    The development of carbon paste electrodes modified by molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the potentiometric analysis of uric acid was carried out in this study. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum composition of the electrode constituent material, the optimum pH of the uric acid solution, and the performance of the electrode, which was measured by its response time, measurement range, Nernst factor, detection limits, selectivity coefficient, precision, accuracy, and life time. MIP was made from methyl methacrylate as the monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and uric acid as the template. Electrodes that give optimum performance were produced from carbon, MIP, and paraffin with a ratio of 40:25:35 (% w/w). The obtained results show that the measurement of uric acid solution gives optimum results at pH 5, Nernst factor of 30.19 mV/decade, and a measurement range of 10-6-10-3 M. The minimum detection limit of this method was 3.03.10-6 M, and the precision and accuracy toward uric acid with concentration of 10-6-10-3 M ranged between 1.36-2.03% and 63.9-166%. The selectivity coefficient value was less than 1, which indicated that the electrode was selective against uric acid and not interfered with by urea. This electrode has a response time of less than 2 min; its life time is 8 weeks with 104 usage times.

  7. Electroluminescence and electrical degradation of insulating polymers at electrode interfaces under divergent fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Qi; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Bo; He, Jinliang

    2018-04-01

    Electrical degradation of insulating polymers at electrode interfaces is an essential factor in determining long-term reliability. A critical challenge is that the exact mechanism of degradation is not fully understood, either experimentally or theoretically, due to the inherent complex processes. Consequently, in this study, we investigate electroluminescence (EL) at the interface of an electrode and insulator, and determine the relationship between EL and electrical degradation. Using a tip-plate electrode structure, the unique features of EL under a highly divergent field are investigated. The voltage type (alternating or direct current), the polymer matrix, and the time of pressing are also investigated separately. A study of EL from insulators under a divergent field is provided, and the relationship between EL spectra and degradation is discussed. It is shown that EL spectra under a divergent field have unique characteristics compared with EL spectra from polymer films under a uniform field and the most obvious one is the UV emission. The results obtained in the current investigation bring us a step closer to understanding the process of electrical degradation and provide a potential way to diagnose insulator defects.

  8. Energy harvesting using ionic electro-active polymer thin films with Ag-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S V; Arvind, K; Bharath, P; Roy Mahapatra, D

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we employ the phenomenon of bending deformation induced transport of cations via the polymer chains in the thickness direction of an electro-active polymer (EAP)–metal composite thin film for mechanical energy harvesting. While EAPs have been applied in the past in actuators and artificial muscles, promising applications of such materials in hydrodynamic and vibratory energy harvesting are reported in this paper. For this, functionalization of EAPs with metal electrodes is the key factor in improving the energy harvesting efficiency. Unlike Pt-based electrodes, Ag-based electrodes have been deposited on an EAP membrane made of Nafion. The developed ionic metal polymer composite (IPMC) membrane is subjected to a dynamic bending load, hydrodynamically, and evaluated for the voltage generated against an external electrical load. An increase of a few orders of magnitude has been observed in the harvested energy density and power density in air, deionized water and in electrolyte solutions with varying concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) as compared to Pt-based IPMC performances reported in the published literature. This will have potential applications in hydrodynamic and residual environmental energy harvesting to power sensors and actuators based on micro-and nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) for biomedical, aerospace and oceanic applications

  9. Versatile and Tunable Transparent Conducting Electrodes Based on Doped Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we explore non-covalent doping routes of CVD FLG, such as surface doping, intercalation and combination thereof, through in-depth and systematic characterization of the electrical transport properties and energy levels shifts. The intercalation of FLG with Br2 and FeCl3 is demonstrated, showing the highest improvements of the figure of merit of TCEs of any doping scheme, which results from up to a five-fold increase in conductivity while maintaining the transmittance within 3% of that for the pristine value. Importantly the intercalation yields TCEs that are air-stable, due to encapsulation of the intercalant in the bulk of FLG. Surface doping with novel solution-processed metal-organic molecular species (n- and p-type) is demonstrated with an unprecedented range of work function modulation, resulting from electron transfer and the formation of molecular surface dipoles. However, the conductivity increases compared modestly to intercalation as the electron transfer is limited to the uppermost graphene layers. Finally, a novel and universal multi-modal doping strategy is developed, thanks to the unique platform offered by FLG, where surface and intercalation doping are combined to mutually achieve high conductivity with an extended tunability of the work function. This work presents doped-FLG as a prospective and versatile candidate among emerging TCEs, given the need for efficient and stable doping routes capable of controllably tuning its properties to meet the criteria of a broad range of applications.

  10. PATTERN RECOGNITION STUDIES OF HALOGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING CONDUCTING POLYMER SENSOR ARRAYS. (R825323)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct measurement of volatile and semivolatile halogenated organic compounds of environmental interest was carried out using arrays of conducting polymer sensors. Mathematical expressions of the sensor arrays using microscopic polymer network model is described. A classical, non...

  11. Moving beyond mass-based parameters for conductivity analysis of sulfonated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pivovar, Bryan [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Proton conductivity of polymer electrolytes is critical for fuel cells and has therefore been studied in significant detail. The conductivity of sulfonated polymers has been linked to material characteristics in order to elucidate trends. Mass based measurements based on water uptake and ion exchange capacity are two of the most common material characteristics used to make comparisons between polymer electrolytes, but have significant limitations when correlated to proton conductivity. These limitations arise in part because different polymers can have significantly different densities and conduction happens over length scales more appropriately represented by volume measurements rather than mass. Herein, we establish and review volume related parameters that can be used to compare proton conductivity of different polymer electrolytes. Morphological effects on proton conductivity are also considered. Finally, the impact of these phenomena on designing next generation sulfonated polymers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is discussed.

  12. Metal-free polymer/MWCNT composite fiber as an efficient counter electrode in fiber shape dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Mujtaba Shah, Syed; Bozar, Sinem; Kazici, Mehmet; Keskin, Bahadır; Kaleli, Murat; Akyürekli, Salih; Günes, Serap

    2016-09-01

    Highly aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as fiber were modified with a conducting polymer via a simple dip coating method. Modified MWCNT exhibited admirable improvement in electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of tri-iodide in dye sensitized solar cells. Scanning electron microscopy images confirm the successful deposition of polymer on MWCNT. Cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies were carried out to investigate the inner mechanism for the charge transfer behaviour. Results from bare and modified electrodes revealed that the MWCNT/(poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) composite electrode is much better at catalysing the {{{{I}}}3}-/{{{I}}}- redox couple compared to the pristine fiber electrode. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.03% for the modified MWCNT electrodes was comparable with that of the conventional Pt-based electrode. The scientific results of this study reveal that MWCNT/PEDOT:PSS may be a better choice for the replacement of cost intensive electrode materials such as platinum. Good performance even after bending up to 90° and in-series connection to enhance the output voltage were also successfully achieved, highlighting the practical application of this novel device.

  13. Amperometric morphine sensing using a molecularly imprinted polymer-modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, W.-M.; Ho, K.-C.

    2005-01-01

    This study incorporates morphine into a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the amperometric detection of morphine. The polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, is an electroactive film that catalyzes morphine oxidation and lowers the oxidization potential on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The MIP-PEDOT modified electrode is prepared by electropolymerizing PEDOT onto an ITO electrode in a 0.1 M LiClO 4 solution with template addition (morphine). After template molecule extraction, the oxidizing current of the MIP-PEDOT modified electrode is measured in a 0.1 M KCl solution (pH = 5.3) at 0.75 V (versus Ag/AgCl/sat'd KCl) with the morphine concentration varying in the 0.1-5 mM range. A linear range, displaying the relationship between steady-state currents and morphine concentrations, from 0.1 to 1 mM, is obtained. The proposed amperometric sensor could be used for morphine detection with a sensitivity of 91.86 μA/cm 2 per mM. A detection limit of 0.2 mM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 is achieved. Moreover, the proposed method can discriminate between morphine and its analogs, such as codeine

  14. Creatinine sensor based on a molecularly imprinted polymer-modified hanging mercury drop electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Dhana; Prasad, Bhim Bali; Sharma, Piyush Sindhu

    2006-09-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) have been elucidated to work as artificial receptors. In our present study, a MIP was applied as a molecular recognition element to a chemical sensor. We have constructed a creatinine sensor based on a MIP layer selective for creatinine and its differential pulse, cathodic stripping voltammetric detection (DPCSV) on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The creatinine sensor was fabricated by the drop coating of dimethylformamide (DMF) solution of a creatinine-imprinted polymer onto the surface of HMDE. The modified-HMDE, preanodised in neutral medium at +0.4V versus Ag/AgCl for 120s, exhibited a marked enhancement in DPCSV current in comparison to the less anodised (polymer-modified electrode did not show linear response to creatinine. The imprinting factor as high as 9.4 implies that the imprinted polymer exclusively acts as a recognition element of creatinine sensor. The proposed procedure can be used to determine creatinine in human blood serum without any preliminary treatment of the sample in an accurate, rapid and simple way.

  15. Development of multilayer conducting polymer actuator for power application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikushima, Kimiya; Kudoh, Yuji; Hiraoka, Maki; Yokoyama, Kazuo; Nagamitsu, Sachio

    2009-03-01

    In late years many kinds of home-use robot have been developed to assist elderly care and housework. Most of these robots are designed with conventional electromagnetic motors. For safety it is desirable to replace these electromagnetic motors with artificial muscle. However, an actuator for such a robot is required to have simple structure, low driving voltage, high stress generation, high durability, and operability in the air. No polymer actuator satisfying all these requirements has been realized yet. To meet these we took following two approaches focusing on conducting polymer actuators which can output high power in the air. (Approach 1) We have newly developed an actuator by multiply laminating ionic liquid infiltrated separators and polypyrrole films. Compared with conventional actuator that is driven in a bath of ionic liquid, the new actuator can greatly increase generated stress since the total sectional area is tremendously small. In our experiment, the new actuator consists of minimum unit with thickness of 128um and has work/weight ratio of 0.92J/kg by laminating 9 units in 0.5Hz driving condition. In addition, the driving experiment has shown a stable driving characteristic even for 10,000 cycles durability test. Furthermore, from our design consideration, it has been found that the work/weight ratio can be improved up to 8J/kg (1/8 of mammalian muscle of 64J/kg) in 0.1Hz by reducing the thickness of each unit to 30um. (Approach 2) In order to realize a simplified actuator structure in the air without sealing, we propose the use of ionic liquid gel. The actuation characteristic of suggested multilayered actuator using ionic liquid gel is simulated by computer. The result shows that performance degradation due to the use of ionic liquid gel is negligible small when ionic liquid gel with the elasticity of 3kPa or less is used. From above two results it is concluded that the proposed multilayerd actuator is promising for the future robotic applications

  16. Structure-conductivity studies in polymer electrolytes containing multivalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.

    1996-05-01

    Understanding the structure - conductivity relationship is of paramount importance for the development of polymer electrolytes. The present studies present the techniques found useful in the elucidation of structure - conductivity relationship in PEO n :ZnBr 2 (n = 8, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000) and PEO n :FeBr x (n= 8, 20 and 50; x = 2 and 3). Local structural studies have been undertaken using X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS) which includes extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). EXAFS provides interatomic distance and coordination numbers of the nearest neighbours and results from the EXAFS studies showed that high conductivity is associated with stretched M - O interatomic distance. In the studies on ultra dilute Zn samples it was found that the cation is highly solvated by the heteroatom forming a tightly bound environment which inhibits local segmental motion thus impeding ion migration. XANES studies on the PEO and modified PEO complexes of NiBr 2 revealed the sensitivity of XANES to the structural differences. XANES on Zn and Fe samples also revealed the sensitivity to changes in interatomic distances reflected in shifts of the white line. The complementary nature of EXAFS and XANES was reflected in the studies conducted. Morphological studies were undertaken employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), variable temperature polarising microscopy (VTPM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). DSC evidences helped to explain the texture of the iron samples during the drying process, and showed transitions between low melting, PEO and high melting spherulites, and VTPM is able to visualise the spherulites present in the samples. AFM has successfully imaged the as cast PEO 8 :FeBr 2 sample and the surface effect causing extra resistance in the impedance spectra could be seen. Conductivity studies were carried out using a.c. impedance spectra. Fe(ll) samples exhibit the typical semicircle

  17. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  18. Structure and size of ions electrochemically doped in conducting polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneto, Keiichi; Hata, Fumito; Uto, Sadahito

    2018-05-01

    Among electroactive polymers (EAPs) for softactuators, conducting polymers have been intensively studied because of the large strain and stress caused by a low voltage operation. A larger deformation is desirable to extend their cycle life by reducing the operation voltage, and this is advantageous for their potential use in wider applications. The deformation is generated by the insertion of ions by electrochemical oxidation; hence, the magnitude of the strain depends on the bulkiness of the ions in the electrolytes. It is important, therefore, to clarify the structure and size of the ions during the electrochemical cycle, in order to achieve better performance of actuation. Anion and cation sizes (radii) in polypyrrole (PPy) film have been estimated using the precise measurement of strain against the amount of charge injected during the electrochemical cycles, assuming isotropic deformation of the film. The anion size was estimated using an anion-drive film, which was electrodeposited in TBABF4/methyl benzoate. The film was electrochemically cycled in sodium electrolytes, and the strain was measured simultaneously using a laser displacement meter. The cation size was obtained using a cation-drive film, being electropolymerized in aqueous dodecylbenzene sulfonic (DBS) acid. The cation-drive film was cycled in chloride electrolytes and measured the strain. The Cl-, Br-, NO3- , BF4- , and ClO4- radii were found to be approximately 235, 245, 250, 270 and 290 pm, respectively. The radii of K+, Na+ and Li+ were approximately 230, 237 and 274 pm, respectively. The results were discussed and took the crystalline ion radius and hydrated ion radius (Stokes radius) into consideration. It was found that the structure and size of the anions were slightly larger than the crystalline ion radius. Contrary to the anions, the cation radii were close to the hydrated ion radius, being larger than the crystalline ion radius.

  19. Conducting polymer networks synthesized by photopolymerization-induced phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yuki; Komori, Kana; Murata, Tasuku; Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Norisuye, Tomohisa; Yamao, Takeshi; Tran-Cong-Miyata, Qui

    2018-03-01

    Polymer mixtures composed of double networks of a polystyrene derivative (PSAF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were alternatively synthesized by using ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) light. The PSAF networks were generated by UV irradiation to photodimerize the anthracene (A) moieties labeled on the PSAF chains, whereas PMMA networks were produced by photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer and the cross-link reaction using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) under Vis light irradiation. It was found that phase separation process of these networks can be independently induced and promptly controlled by using UV and Vis light. The characteristic length scale distribution of the resulting co-continuous morphology can be well regulated by the UV and Vis light intensity. In order to confirm and utilize the connectivity of the bicontinuous morphology observed by confocal microscopy, a very small amount, 0.1 wt%, of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was introduced into the mixture and the current-voltage (I-V) relationship was subsequently examined. Preliminary data show that MWCNTs are preferentially dispersed in the PSAF-rich continuous domains and the whole mixture became electrically conducting, confirming the connectivity of the observed bi-continuous morphology. The experimental data obtained in this study reveal a promising method to design various scaffolds for conducting soft matter taking advantages of photopolymerization-induced phase separation.

  20. Single-molecule conductance with nitrile and amino contacts with Ag or Cu electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dong-Fang; Mao, Jin-Chuan; Chen, De-Li; Chen, Fang; Ze-Wen, Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Ya-Hao; Zhou, Xiao-Shun; Niu, Zhen-Jiang; Maisonhaute, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The single-molecule conductance of 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB), 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA) and 4,4'-biphenyldicarbonitrile (BPDC) with Ag and/or Cu electrodes is measured by electrochemical jump-to-contact STM-break junction. All single-molecule junctions present three sets of conductance values revealing different contact geometries. We observe that the single-molecule conductance of Ag-BDA-Ag junction is larger that of Ag-DCB-Ag junction, and DCB with Ag contacts are more conductive than that with Cu ones. This is related to a different electronic coupling between the molecules and the electrodes. Tunneling decay constants of 1.70 and 1.68 per phenyl group were found for Ag and Cu electrodes, respectively. The present study therefore shows that nitrile and amino groups can also be used as effective anchors for other metals than gold

  1. A conducting polymer artificial muscle with 12% linear strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Sommer-Larsen, P.

    2003-01-01

    in a freely suspended polymer foil in response to a potential change and it includes attention to the composition of the polymer, to the synthesis conditions, and involves microstructuring of the polymer. As such, an analysis of the influence of the alkyl chain length on the properties of PPy doped with ABSs...... has shown that the obtainable strain decreases with increasing chain length for alkyl chains longer than C$-8$/....

  2. Nanocomposites of iridium oxide and conducting polymers as electroactive phases in biological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral-Vico, J; Sánchez-Redondo, S; Lichtenstein, M P; Suñol, C; Casañ-Pastor, N

    2014-05-01

    Much effort is currently devoted to implementing new materials in electrodes that will be used in the central nervous system, either for functional electrostimulation or for tests on nerve regeneration. Their main aim is to improve the charge capacity of the electrodes, while preventing damaging secondary reactions, such as peroxide formation, occurring while applying the electric field. Thus, hybrids may represent a new generation of materials. Two novel hybrid materials are synthesized using three known biocompatible materials tested in the neural system: polypyrrole (PPy), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and iridium oxide (IrO2). In particular, PPy-IrO2 and PEDOT-IrO2 hybrid nanocomposite materials are prepared by chemical polymerization in hydrothermal conditions, using IrO2 as oxidizing agent. The reaction yields a significant ordered new hybrid where the conducting polymer is formed around the IrO2 nanoparticles, encapsulating them. Scanning electron microscopy and backscattering techniques show the extent of the encapsulation. Both X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies identify the components of the phases, as well as the absence of impurities. Electrochemical properties of the final phases in powder and pellet form are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Biocompatibility is tested with MTT toxicity tests using primary cultures of cortical neurons grown in vitro for 6 and 9days. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  4. Synthesis and surface characterization of electroactive conducting polymers and polyurethane coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Chur Kalec

    The direct electrodeposition of electroactive conducting polymers (ECPs) on active metals such as iron, steel, and aluminum is complicated by the concomitant metal oxidation that occurs at the positive potentials required for polymer formation. In the case of aluminum and its alloys, the oxide layer that forms is an insulator that blocks electron transfer and impedes polymer formation and deposition. As a result, only patchy, nonuniform polymer films are obtained. Electron transfer mediation is a well-known technique for overcoming kinetic limitations of electron transfer at metal electrodes. In this dissertation, we report the use of electron transfer mediation for the direct electrodeposition of polypyrrole onto aluminum and onto Al 2024-T3 alloy. The first few chapters focus on the electrochemistry and use of Tiron RTM (4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid disodium salt) as the mediator. Electroactive conductive polymers (ECPs) were also being investigated for corrosion protection of Al alloys, with a view toward replacement of chromate-based coating systems. The use of electrochemical methods clearly indicated that the electrodeposited Ppy coatings had altered the corrosion behavior of the Al alloy. Degradation mechanisms for self-priming (unicoat), high-gloss, and fluorinated polyurethane aircraft coatings exposed to QUV/H2O radiation were carried out using linear and step-scan photoacoustic (S2-PA) FTIR spectroscopy (Chapters 7--9). FTIR spectroscopic analysis indicated that, as the depth of sampling increased from film-air to film-substrate, an increase of free carbonyl components was observed. These free carbonyl groups are indicative of polyurethane components. Exposure of the polyurethane coating to prolonged periods of extreme weathering conditions indicated a loss of both polyurethane/polyurea components at the air interface, which has lead to an increase of disordered hydrogen-bonding formations. Contact angle measurement further indicated that as

  5. Conductivity in redox modified conducting polymers. In-situ conductivity of poly(cyclopentadithiophenes) bearing p-nitrophenyl and 4-N-methylpyridinium groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotti, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, (Italy). Istituto di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa; Berlin, A. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale; Pagani, G. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale; Schiavon, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, (Italy). Istituto di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa; Zecchin, S. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, (Italy). Istituto di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa

    1995-01-01

    Redox-modified polythiophenes exhibiting the highest mixed-valence conductivities of any polymer containing a pendant redox group are reported. The ordering of the polymer, in which the backbone has been oxidized to a bipolaron conducting state and the redox sites have been reduced to a mixed-valence conducting state, encourages inter-site hopping and results in the high conductivities. Electron interactions are shown not have an influence on the conduction. (orig.)

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymer based electrochemical detection of L-cysteine at carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswini, K K; Vinu Mohan, A M; Biju, V M

    2014-04-01

    A methacrylic acid (MAA) based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) was developed for electrochemical detection of L-cysteine (Cys). Characterisation of MIP was done with FTIR and the modified electrode with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). CV, DPV and impedance analysis demonstrated that the modified electrode is responsive towards the target molecule. The optimum percentage composition of MIP for MIP/CPE and the effect of pH towards the electrode response for Cys were studied. The detection of Cys in the range of 2×10(-8) to 18×10(-8)M at MIP/CPE was monitored by DPV with a limit of detection of 9.6nM and R(2) of 0.9974. Also, various physiological interferents such as ascorbic acid, L-tryptophan, D-glucose, D-cysteine and L-cysteine were found to have little effect on DPV response at MIP/CPE. The utility of the electrode was proved by the effective detection of Cys from tap water and human blood plasma samples with reproducible results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation sweep rate cyclic voltammetry on the capacitance electrode activated carbon/PVDF with polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmawati, L.; Setyarsih, W.; Nurjannah, T.

    2018-03-01

    Sweep rate of the process voltammetry cyclic characterization is very influential towards the electrode capacitance value, especially on activated carbon electrodes/PVDF. A simple method of this research by use a mixing for electrode activated carbon/10 wt. % PVDF and the separator is made of a polymer electrolyte (PVA/H3PO4) by a sol gel method. The prototype supercapacitor is made in the form of a sandwich with a separator placed between two electrodes. Electrodes and separators are arranged in layers at a pressure of 1500 psi, then heated at 50°C for 10 minutes. Next done cyclic voltammetry in a potential range of -1 V to 1 V with a sweep rate of 5 mV/s, 10 mV/s, 20 mV/s, 25 mV/s and 50 mV/s. This results of curves voltammogram is reversible, the most wide curve on the sweep rate of 5 mV/s and most narrow curve on a sweep rate of 50 mV/s. Supercapacitor capacitance values obtained by 86 F/g, 43 F/g, 21 F/g, 16 F/g, and 8 F/g.

  8. Conductive Hydrogel Electrodes for Delivery of Long-Term High Frequency Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi A. Staples

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve block waveforms require the passage of large amounts of electrical energy at the neural interface for extended periods of time. It is desirable that such waveforms be applied chronically, consistent with the treatment of protracted immune conditions, however current metal electrode technologies are limited in their capacity to safely deliver ongoing stable blocking waveforms. Conductive hydrogel (CH electrode coatings have been shown to improve the performance of conventional bionic devices, which use considerably lower amounts of energy than conventional metal electrodes to replace or augment sensory neuron function. In this study the application of CH materials was explored, using both a commercially available platinum iridium (PtIr cuff electrode array and a novel low-cost stainless steel (SS electrode array. The CH was able to significantly increase the electrochemical performance of both array types. The SS electrode coated with the CH was shown to be stable under continuous delivery of 2 mA square pulse waveforms at 40,000 Hz for 42 days. CH coatings have been shown as a beneficial electrode material compatible with long-term delivery of high current, high energy waveforms.

  9. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Jonas; Nascimento, Henry M.; Yamauchi, Elaine Y.; Li, Rosamaria W.C.; Esteves, Carlos H.A.; Rehder, Gustavo P.; Gaylarde, Christine C.; Shirakawa, Márcia A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s. - Highlights: • Early detection of Penicillium digitatum in oranges • Low cost electronic nose based on conductive polymers • Efficient distinction between good and poor quality fruits

  10. All-Solid-State Textile Batteries Made from Nano-Emulsion Conducting Polymer Inks for Wearable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Ryhänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rollable and all-solid-state textile lithium battery based on fabric matrix and polymer electrolyte that allows flexibility and fast-charging capability is reported. When immerged into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT nano-emulsion inks, an insulating fabric is converted into a conductive battery electrode for a fully solid state lithium battery with the highest specific energy capacity of 68 mAh/g. This is superior to most of the solid-state conducting polymer primary and/or secondary batteries reported. The bending radius of such a textile battery is less than 1.5 mm while lightening up an LED. This new material combination and inherent flexibility is well suited to provide an energy source for future wearable and woven electronics.

  11. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Jonas, E-mail: jogruber@iq.usp.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Henry M. [Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yamauchi, Elaine Y. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Li, Rosamaria W.C. [Centro Universitário Estácio Radial São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Esteves, Carlos H.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rehder, Gustavo P. [Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gaylarde, Christine C. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Shirakawa, Márcia A. [Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s. - Highlights: • Early detection of Penicillium digitatum in oranges • Low cost electronic nose based on conductive polymers • Efficient distinction between good and poor quality fruits.

  12. A phenyl-sulfonic acid anchored carbon-supported platinum catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvarani, G.; Sahu, A.K.; Choudhury, N.A.; Sridhar, P.; Pitchumani, S.; Shukla, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    A method, to anchor phenyl-sulfonic acid functional groups with the platinum catalyst supported onto a high surface-area carbon substrate, is reported. The use of the catalyst in the electrodes of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) helps enhancing its performance. Characterization of the catalyst by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and point-of-zero-charge (PZC) studies suggests that the improvement in performance of the PEFC is facilitated not only by enlarging the three-phase boundary in the catalyst layer but also by providing ionic-conduction paths as well as by imparting negative charge to platinum sites with concomitant oxidation of sulfur present in the carbon support. It is argued that the negatively charged platinum sites help repel water facilitating oxygen to access the catalyst sites. The PEFC with modified carbon-supported platinum catalyst electrodes exhibits 40% enhancement in its power density as compared to the one with unmodified carbon-supported platinum catalyst electrodes

  13. New Secondary Batteries Using Electronically Conductive Polymer Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    A Li/Polypyrrole secondary battery was designed and built, and the effect of controlling the morphology of the polymer on enhancement of counterion diffusion in the polymer phase was explored. The experimental work was done at Colorado State University, while the mathematical modeling of the battery was done at Texas A and M University. Manuscripts and publications resulting from the project are listed.

  14. Performance of polymer nano composite membrane electrode assembly using Alginate as a dopant in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell [Journal of Physics. Conference Series (Online), v. 795(1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulijani, S.

    2017-01-01

    Polymer membrane and composite polymer for membrane electrode assembly (MEAs) are synthesized and studied for usage in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). In this study, we prepared 3 type of MEAs, polystyrene (PS), sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) and composite polymer SPS-alginat membrane via catalyst hot pressed method. The performance and properties of prepared MEAs were evaluated and analyzed by impedance spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result showed that, water up take of MEA composite polymer SPS-alginate was obtained higher than that in SPS and PS. The proton conductivity of MEA-SPS-alginate was also higher than that PS and PSS. SEM characterization revealed that the intimate contact between the carbon catalyst layers (CL) and the membranes, and the uniformly porous structure correlate positively with the MEAs prepared by hot pressed method, exhibiting high performances for DMFC. (paper)

  15. A conducting polymer nucleation scheme for efficient solid-state supercapacitors on paper

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Park, Jihoon; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a thin nucleation layer is used to tune the morphology of conducting polymer electrodes and to optimize the performance of paper based solid-state supercapacitors. It is found that using an acid-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nucleation layer, prior to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, electrochemical deposition, gives 5-6 times higher areal capacitance compared to a gold metal nucleation layer. Specifically, PEDOT supercapacitors with a high volumetric capacitance of 327 F cm-3, higher than any other PEDOT based supercapacitors reported in the literature, is achieved on the PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer; for the same devices, an areal capacitance of 242 mF cm-2 and an energy density of 14.5 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 350 mW cm-3 are obtained. Furthermore, these optimized PEDOT/PEDOT:PSS/paper electrodes are employed to fabricate solid-state supercapacitors using aqueous and ion gel electrolytes, with 32 and 11 mF cm-2 cell capacitance, respectively. The solid-state PEDOT device showed an energy density of 1.5 mW h cm-3 (normalised to the volume of the whole cell, including both the electrodes and the electrolyte), which is higher than the best reported ppy/paper (E = 1 mW h cm-3) and PAni/pencil/paper (E = 0.32 mW h cm-3) solid-state devices. The cycling performance showed that capacitance retention up to 80% is achieved after 10000 cycles. This journal is

  16. A conducting polymer nucleation scheme for efficient solid-state supercapacitors on paper

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2014-08-19

    In this study, a thin nucleation layer is used to tune the morphology of conducting polymer electrodes and to optimize the performance of paper based solid-state supercapacitors. It is found that using an acid-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nucleation layer, prior to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, electrochemical deposition, gives 5-6 times higher areal capacitance compared to a gold metal nucleation layer. Specifically, PEDOT supercapacitors with a high volumetric capacitance of 327 F cm-3, higher than any other PEDOT based supercapacitors reported in the literature, is achieved on the PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer; for the same devices, an areal capacitance of 242 mF cm-2 and an energy density of 14.5 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 350 mW cm-3 are obtained. Furthermore, these optimized PEDOT/PEDOT:PSS/paper electrodes are employed to fabricate solid-state supercapacitors using aqueous and ion gel electrolytes, with 32 and 11 mF cm-2 cell capacitance, respectively. The solid-state PEDOT device showed an energy density of 1.5 mW h cm-3 (normalised to the volume of the whole cell, including both the electrodes and the electrolyte), which is higher than the best reported ppy/paper (E = 1 mW h cm-3) and PAni/pencil/paper (E = 0.32 mW h cm-3) solid-state devices. The cycling performance showed that capacitance retention up to 80% is achieved after 10000 cycles. This journal is

  17. Effect of complexing salt on conductivity of PVC/PEO polymer blend ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    composite polymer, a blend-based polymer electrolyte, composed of two conductive ... LiClO4 electrolytes with various methacrylic and acrylic polymers used as additives .... Z real vs Z imaginary plot for PVC : PEO : LiBF4 at room temperature.

  18. Using artificial intelligence methods to design new conducting polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Giro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the possibility of creating new conducting polymers exploring the concept of copolymerization (different structural monomeric units has attracted much attention from experimental and theoretical points of view. Due to the rich carbon reactivity an almost infinite number of new structures is possible and the procedure of trial and error has been the rule. In this work we have used a methodology able of generating new structures with pre-specified properties. It combines the use of negative factor counting (NFC technique with artificial intelligence methods (genetic algorithms - GAs. We present the results for a case study for poly(phenylenesulfide phenyleneamine (PPSA, a copolymer formed by combination of homopolymers: polyaniline (PANI and polyphenylenesulfide (PPS. The methodology was successfully applied to the problem of obtaining binary up to quinternary disordered polymeric alloys with a pre-specific gap value or exhibiting metallic properties. It is completely general and can be in principle adapted to the design of new classes of materials with pre-specified properties.

  19. Nonlinear Tracking Control of a Conductive Supercoiled Polymer Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Tuan Anh; Cho, Kyeong Ho; Song, Min Geun; Koo, Ja Choon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Moon, Hyungpil

    2018-04-01

    Artificial muscle actuators made from commercial nylon fishing lines have been recently introduced and shown as a new type of actuator with high performance. However, the actuators also exhibit significant nonlinearities, which make them difficult to control, especially in precise trajectory-tracking applications. In this article, we present a nonlinear mathematical model of a conductive supercoiled polymer (SCP) actuator driven by Joule heating for model-based feedback controls. Our efforts include modeling of the hysteresis behavior of the actuator. Based on nonlinear modeling, we design a sliding mode controller for SCP actuator-driven manipulators. The system with proposed control law is proven to be asymptotically stable using the Lyapunov theory. The control performance of the proposed method is evaluated experimentally and compared with that of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller through one-degree-of-freedom SCP actuator-driven manipulators. Experimental results show that the proposed controller's performance is superior to that of a PID controller, such as the tracking errors are nearly 10 times smaller compared with those of a PID controller, and it is more robust to external disturbances such as sensor noise and actuator modeling error.

  20. Method of bonding a conductive layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Jeffrey C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    1989-01-01

    A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer 26 is bonded onto a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure 16, optionally supported by a ceramic support 22, by (A) providing an air electrode surface, (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface 24, without the use of pressure, particles of LaCrO.sub.3 doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Sr, Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, and mixtures thereof, where the particles have a deposit on their surface comprising calcium oxide and chromium oxide; (C) heating the particles with the oxide surface deposit in an oxidizing atmosphere at from 1,300.degree. C. to 1,550.degree. C., without the application of pressure, to provide a dense, sintered, interconnection material 26 bonded to the air electrode 16, where calcium and chromium from the surface deposit are incorporated into the structure of the LaCrO.sub.3. A solid electrolyte layer 18 can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode 20 can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell 10.

  1. Low temperature formation of electrode having electrically conductive metal oxide surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Simone; Anders, Andre; Brown, Ian G.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Kong, Fanping

    1998-01-01

    A low temperature process is disclosed for forming metal suboxides on substrates by cathodic arc deposition by either controlling the pressure of the oxygen present in the deposition chamber, or by controlling the density of the metal flux, or by a combination of such adjustments, to thereby control the ratio of oxide to metal in the deposited metal suboxide coating. The density of the metal flux may, in turn, be adjusted by controlling the discharge current of the arc, by adjusting the pulse length (duration of on cycle) of the arc, and by adjusting the frequency of the arc, or any combination of these parameters. In a preferred embodiment, a low temperature process is disclosed for forming an electrically conductive metal suboxide, such as, for example, an electrically conductive suboxide of titanium, on an electrode surface, such as the surface of a nickel oxide electrode, by such cathodic arc deposition and control of the deposition parameters. In the preferred embodiment, the process results in a titanium suboxide-coated nickel oxide electrode exhibiting reduced parasitic evolution of oxygen during charging of a cell made using such an electrode as the positive electrode, as well as exhibiting high oxygen overpotential, resulting in suppression of oxygen evolution at the electrode at full charge of the cell.

  2. Carbon paste electrode modified molecularly imprinted polymer as a sensor for creatinine analysis by stripping voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, M.; Darmokoesoemo, H.; Rizki, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    Modification of carbon paste electrode with molecularly imprinted polymer (CP-MIP) as a voltammetric sensor for creatinine has been developed. MIP was synthesized by reacting melamine, chloranil and creatinine with a mole ratio of 1:1:0.1. Creatinine was extracted from polymer chain by using hot water to form a specific imprinted for creatinine molecule. Carbon paste-MIP electrode was prepared by mixing activated carbon, solid paraffin, and MIP in a 45:40:15(w/w %) ratio. The optimum conditions of creatinine analysis by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) using the developed electrode were the accumulation potential -1000 mV during 90 s at pH 5. The precision of the method for 0.1-0.5 μlg/L creatinine was 88.7-96.3%, while the detection limit of this method was 0.0315 μlg/L. The accuracy compared by spectrophotometric method was 95.3-103.6%

  3. TiN-conductive carbon black composite as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.R.; Wang, F.; Song, J.; Xiong, F.Y.; Gao, X.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The TiN nanoparticles are highly dispersed on conductive carbon black matrix (CCB). ► The well dispersion of TiN nanoparticles can improve electrochemical performance. ► The TiN/CCB shows a high photovoltaic performance with high conversion efficiency. - Abstract: TiN-conductive carbon black (CCB)/Ti electrodes are prepared by the nitridation of TiO 2 –CCB mixtures filmed on metallic Ti substrate in ammonia atmosphere. It is demonstrated from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that TiN nanoparticles are highly dispersed on the CCB matrix in the composites. TiN–CCB/Ti electrodes show outstanding electrochemical performances as compared to individual TiN/Ti and CCB/Ti electrodes. In particular, the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using TiN–CCB (1:1, mass ratio)/Ti electrode presents an energy conversion efficiency of 7.92%, which is higher than that (6.59%) of the device using Pt/FTO (fluorine doped tin oxide) electrode measured under the same test conditions. Based on the analysis of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), the enhancements for the electrochemical and photochemical performance of TiN–CCB/Ti electrodes are attributed to the fact that the dispersed TiN nanoparticles in the CCB matrix provide an improved electrocatalytic activity and a facilitated diffusion for triiodine ions. This work shows a facile approach to develop metal nitrides–carbon composites as counter electrodes for DSSCs. High energy conversion efficiency and low lost will make the composites have significant potential for replacing the conventional Pt/FTO electrodes in DSSCs.

  4. Electric double-layer capacitors with tea waste derived activated carbon electrodes and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, M.; Deraman, M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Omar, R.; Hashim, M. A.; Basri, N. H.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Jasni, M. R. M.

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel configuration of symmetrical electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) comprising a plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) based flexible polymer gel electrolyte, incorporated with sodium trifluoromethane sulfonate (NaTf) immobilised in a host polymer poly (vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP). The cost-effective activated carbon powder possessing a specific surface area (SSA) of ~ 1700 m2g-1 containing a large proportion of meso-porosity has been derived from tea waste to use as supercapacitor electrodes. The high ionic conductivity (~3.6×10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature) and good electrochemical stability render the gel polymer electrolyte film a suitable candidate for the fabrication of EDLCs. The performance of the EDLCs has been tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The performance of the EDLC cell is found to be promising in terms of high values of specific capacitance (~270 F g-1), specific energy (~ 36 Wh kg-1), and power density (~ 33 kW kg-1).

  5. Electric double-layer capacitors with tea waste derived activated carbon electrodes and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, M; Deraman, M; Othman, M A R; Omar, R; Basri, N H; Nor, N S M; Dolah, B N M; Hanappi, M F Y M; Hamdan, E; Sazali, N E S; Tajuddin, N S M; Jasni, M R M; Hashim, M A

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel configuration of symmetrical electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) comprising a plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) based flexible polymer gel electrolyte, incorporated with sodium trifluoromethane sulfonate (NaTf) immobilised in a host polymer poly (vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP). The cost-effective activated carbon powder possessing a specific surface area (SSA) of ∼ 1700 m 2 g -1 containing a large proportion of meso-porosity has been derived from tea waste to use as supercapacitor electrodes. The high ionic conductivity (∼3.6×10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature) and good electrochemical stability render the gel polymer electrolyte film a suitable candidate for the fabrication of EDLCs. The performance of the EDLCs has been tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The performance of the EDLC cell is found to be promising in terms of high values of specific capacitance (∼270 F g -1 ), specific energy (∼ 36 Wh kg -1 ), and power density (∼ 33 kW kg -1 ). (paper)

  6. Fabrication of multilayered conductive polymer structures via selective visible light photopolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Andrew T.; Price, Aaron D.

    2017-04-01

    Electropolymerization of pyrrole is commonly employed to fabricate intrinsically conductive polymer films that exhibit desirable electromechanical properties. Due to their monolithic nature, electroactive polypyrrole films produced via this process are typically limited to simple linear or bending actuation modes, which has hindered their application in complex actuation tasks. This initiative aims to develop the specialized fabrication methods and polymer formulations required to realize three-dimensional conductive polymer structures capable of more elaborate actuation modes. Our group has previously reported the application of the digital light processing additive manufacturing process for the fabrication of three-dimensional conductive polymer structures using ultraviolet radiation. In this investigation, we further expand upon this initial work and present an improved polymer formulation designed for digital light processing additive manufacturing using visible light. This technology enables the design of novel electroactive polymer sensors and actuators with enhanced capabilities and brings us one step closer to realizing more advanced electroactive polymer enabled devices.

  7. A comparative study on electrochemical co-deposition and capacitance of composite films of conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chuang; Jin Jun; Chen, George Z.

    2007-01-01

    Composite films of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPY) or poly[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene] (PEDOT) were prepared via electrochemical co-deposition from solutions containing acid treated CNTs and the corresponding monomer. In the cases of PPY and PEDOT, CNTs served as the charge carriers during electro-deposition, and also acted as both the backbone of a three-dimensional micro- and nano-porous structure and the effective charge-balancing dopant within the polymer. All the composites showed improved mechanical integrity, higher electronic and ionic conductivity (even when the polymer was reduced), and exhibited larger electrode specific capacitance than the polymer alone. Under similar conditions, the capacitance was enhanced significantly in as-prepared PPY-CNT and PEDOT-CNT films. However, the fresh PANI-CNT film was electrochemically similar to PANI, but PPY-CNT and PEDOT-CNT differed noticeably from the respective polymers alone. In continuous potential cycling tests, unlike the pure polymer and other composite films, PANI-CNT performed much better in retaining the capacitance of the as-prepared film, and the possible cause is analysed

  8. Evaluation of Aquatic Environments Using a Sensorial System Based on Conducting Polymers and its Potential Application in Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Consolin Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A sensor array consisted of interdigitated gold electrodes modified with nanostructured ultra-thin films of conducting polymers was used to evaluate different water samples from three distinct reservoirs, located in the São Paulo State, Brazil, according to their eutrophic level, i.e. oligotrophic, eutrophic and hypereutrophic. These reservoirs samples presented different eutrophic levels. The sensor array data were processed and analyzed by using PCA (principal component analysis. In the near future, this will be a reliable and straightforward method to analyze water samples based on the concept of global selectivity and electrochemical impedance.

  9. Synthesis and characterization thin films of conductive polymer (PANI) for optoelectronic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, Amer N.; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi; Ahmed, Nasser M.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we report preparation and investigation of structural and optical properties of polyaniline conducting polymer. By using sol-gel in spin coating technique to synthesize thin films of conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI). Conducting polymer polyaniline was synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers. The thin films were characterized by technique: Hall effect, High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. Polyaniline conductive polymer exhibit amorphous nature as confirmed by HR-XRD. The presence of characteristic bonds of polyaniline was observed from FTIR spectroscopy technique. Electrical and optical properties revealed that (p-type) conductivity PANI with room temperature, the conductivity was 6.289×10-5 (Ω.cm)-1, with tow of absorption peak at 426,805 nm has been attributed due to quantized size of polyaniline conducting polymer.

  10. Synthesis and characterization thin films of conductive polymer (PANI) for optoelectronic device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarad, Amer N., E-mail: amer78malay@yahoo.com.my; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi, E-mail: kamarul@usm.my; Ahmed, Nasser M., E-mail: nas-tiji@yahoo.com [Nano-optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory School of physics, University of Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this work we report preparation and investigation of structural and optical properties of polyaniline conducting polymer. By using sol-gel in spin coating technique to synthesize thin films of conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI). Conducting polymer polyaniline was synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers. The thin films were characterized by technique: Hall effect, High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. Polyaniline conductive polymer exhibit amorphous nature as confirmed by HR-XRD. The presence of characteristic bonds of polyaniline was observed from FTIR spectroscopy technique. Electrical and optical properties revealed that (p-type) conductivity PANI with room temperature, the conductivity was 6.289×10{sup −5} (Ω.cm){sup −1}, with tow of absorption peak at 426,805 nm has been attributed due to quantized size of polyaniline conducting polymer.

  11. Novel, Solvent-Free, Single Ion Conductive Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florjanczyk, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    This project report concerns studies on the synthesis of new polymer electrolytes for application in lithium and lithium-ion batteries characterized by limited participation of anions in the transport...

  12. Conductive polymer composites with carbonic fillers: Shear induced electrical behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Zdeněk; Krückel, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 139, 14 March (2018), s. 52-59 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05654S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer-matrix composites * carbon fibres * electrical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer sci ence Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  13. Electrochemically oxidized electronic and ionic conducting nanostructured block copolymers for lithium battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrayesh N; Javier, Anna E; Balsara, Nitash P

    2013-07-23

    Block copolymers that can simultaneously conduct electronic and ionic charges on the nanometer length scale can serve as innovative conductive binder material for solid-state battery electrodes. The purpose of this work is to study the electronic charge transport of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3HT-PEO) copolymers electrochemically oxidized with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt in the context of a lithium battery charge/discharge cycle. We use a solid-state three-terminal electrochemical cell that enables simultaneous conductivity measurements and control over electrochemical doping of P3HT. At low oxidation levels (ratio of moles of electrons removed to moles of 3-hexylthiophene moieties in the electrode), the electronic conductivity (σe,ox) increases from 10(-7) S/cm to 10(-4) S/cm. At high oxidation levels, σe,ox approaches 10(-2) S/cm. When P3HT-PEO is used as a conductive binder in a positive electrode with LiFePO4 active material, P3HT is electrochemically active within the voltage window of a charge/discharge cycle. The electronic conductivity of the P3HT-PEO binder is in the 10(-4) to 10(-2) S/cm range over most of the potential window of the charge/discharge cycle. This allows for efficient electronic conduction, and observed charge/discharge capacities approach the theoretical limit of LiFePO4. However, at the end of the discharge cycle, the electronic conductivity decreases sharply to 10(-7) S/cm, which means the "conductive" binder is now electronically insulating. The ability of our conductive binder to switch between electronically conducting and insulating states in the positive electrode provides an unprecedented route for automatic overdischarge protection in rechargeable batteries.

  14. Evaluation of solid polymer electrolytes for use in conducting polymer/nanotube actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Trevor W.; Kim, B. C.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2000-06-01

    The stringent requirements for a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) in solid state devices such as batteries or supercapacitors are even more demanding when used in electromechanical actuators. Not only is the SPE expected to exhibit good conductivity, mechanical properties, adhesion and mechanical/electrical stability, but it must also be flexible, maintained good adhesion while flexing, be easily processible and be able to function in air. In this work polyacrylonitrile and Kynar based non-aqueous SPEs and water based polyacrylamide hydrogel ion source/sinks containing various perchlorate salts were tested for their applicability to polypyrrole and carbon nanotube actuators and supercapacitors. The results indicate that the optimum SPE for both polypyrrole and carbon nanotube actuators would be a polyacrylonitrile plasticized with propylene carbonate and ethylene carbonate containing 1.0M NaClO4. It is also apparent that the same SPE would be the most suitable for supercapacitor applications with these materials.

  15. Extended width in discontinuously connected polymer-free carbon nanotubes grown between electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wen-Teng; Yang, Fu-Siang

    2015-01-01

    Polymer-free carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown between single-gap (SG) and interdigital-gap (IG) electrodes were used to develop miniature strain gauges. The strain and stress of the gauges were approximated according to the distance lift of a screw on a cantilever silicon substrate. In our preliminary study, electrical characterization indicated the gauge factors (GFs) of SG and IG devices to be approximately 36 and 1500, respectively. This result suggests that an extended width in IG electrodes, generating a larger amount of CNTs, provides a smaller minimum tunneling distance than does the width in SG electrodes. The distance shift under a small distance is expected to generate a high ratio of tunneling resistance change. The sparser and denser distributions of CNTs in SG and IG electrodes probably caused the gauges to exhibit capacitive and inductive features, respectively. Despite having substantial GFs, the gauge may require improvement in packaging to resist environmental effects and the growth of homogeneous CNTs and, thus, be reproducible

  16. Enhanced charging kinetics of porous electrodes: surface conduction as a short-circuit mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Gibou, Frederic; Squires, Todd M

    2014-08-29

    We use direct numerical simulations of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations to study the charging kinetics of porous electrodes and to evaluate the predictive capabilities of effective circuit models, both linear and nonlinear. The classic transmission line theory of de Levie holds for general electrode morphologies, but only at low applied potentials. Charging dynamics are slowed appreciably at high potentials, yet not as significantly as predicted by the nonlinear transmission line model of Biesheuvel and Bazant. We identify surface conduction as a mechanism which can effectively "short circuit" the high-resistance electrolyte in the bulk of the pores, thus accelerating the charging dynamics and boosting power densities. Notably, the boost in power density holds only for electrode morphologies with continuous conducting surfaces in the charging direction.

  17. FDTD simulation of transmittance characteristics of one-dimensional conducting electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kilbock; Song, Seok Ho; Ahn, Jinho

    2014-03-24

    We investigated transparent conducting electrodes consisting of periodic one-dimensional Ag or Al grids with widths from 25 nm to 5 μm via the finite-difference time-domain method. To retain high transmittance, two grid configurations with opening ratios of 90% and 95% were simulated. Polarization-dependent characteristics of the transmission spectra revealed that the overall transmittance of micron-scale grid electrodes may be estimated by the sum of light power passing through the uncovered area and the light power penetrating the covered metal layer. However, several dominant physical phenomena significantly affect the transmission spectra of the nanoscale grids: Rayleigh anomaly, transmission decay in TE polarized mode, and localized surface plasmon resonance. We conclude that, for applications of transparent electrodes, the critical feature sizes of conducting 1D grids should not be less than the wavelength scale in order to maintain uniform and predictable transmission spectra and low electrical resistivity.

  18. The influence of conductive additives and inter-particle voids in carbon EDLC electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandolfo, A.G.; Wilson, G.J.; Huynh, T.D.; Hollenkamp, A.F. [CSIRO - Energy Technology, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Through the interpretation of porosity and intrusion data, and correlation to the electrochemical response, this study has confirmed that are not only carbon blacks (CBs) very effective in improving the electrical connectivity of a carbon electrode coating, but they also significantly modify the porosity of the electrode coating and thereby also influence ionic diffusion. CBs are more effective conductive fillers than graphites in EDLC electrodes. The highly branched structure of CBs allows multiple electrical contact points and results in a lower electrode electronic resistance. CBs can decrease inter-particle porosity (both volume and size) and introduce additional porosity that is characteristic of the type of carbon employed. It is observed that electrode coatings prepared from a carbon slurry have a highly macroporous structure and that electrolyte accessibility to individual activated carbon particles is unlikely to be the limiting factor to accessing capacitance. Electrochemical testing has confirmed the strong relationship between bulk electrode resistance and the accessibility of capacitance at different rates. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Molecular motion in polymer electrolytes. An investigation of methods for improving the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Mark Ian

    2002-01-01

    Three methods were explored with a view to enhancing the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes; namely the addition of an inert, inorganic filler, the addition of a plasticizer and the incorporation of the electrolyte in the pores of silica matrices. There have been a number of reports, which suggest the addition of nanocrystalline oxides to polymer electrolytes increases the ionic conductivities by about a factor of two. In this thesis studies of the polymer electrolyte NaSCN.P(EO) 8 with added nanocrystalline alumina powder are reported which show no evidence of enhanced conductivity. The addition of a plasticizer to polymer electrolytes will increase the ionic conductivity. A detailed study was made of the polymer electrolytes LiT.P(EO) 10 and LiClO 4 .P(EO) 10 with added ethylene carbonate plasticizer. The conductivities showed an enhancement, however this disappeared on heating under vacuum. The present work suggests that the plasticised system is not thermodynamically stable and will limit the applications of the material. A series of samples were prepared from the polymer electrolyte LiT.P(EO) 8 and a range of porous silicas. The silicas were selected to give a wide range of pore size and included Zeolite Y, ZSM5, mesoporous silica and a range of porous glasses. This gave pore sizes from less than one nm to 50 nm. A variety of experiments, including X-ray diffraction, DSC and NMR, showed that the polymer electrolyte entered to pores of the silica. As a result the polymer was amorphous and the room temperature conductivity was enhanced. The high temperature conductivity was not increased above that for the pure electrolyte. The results suggest that this could be employed in applications, however would require higher conducting electrolytes to be of practical benefit. (author)

  20. Ultra-low power, highly uniform polymer memory by inserted multilayer graphene electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byung Chul; Kim, Jong Yun; Koo, Beom Jun; Yang, Sang Yoon; Choi, Sung-Yool; Seong, Hyejeong; Im, Sung Gap; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Filament type resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on polymer thin films is a promising device for next generation, flexible nonvolatile memory. However, the resistive switching nonuniformity and the high power consumption found in the general filament type RRAM devices present critical issues for practical memory applications. Here, we introduce a novel approach not only to reduce the power consumption but also to improve the resistive switching uniformity in RRAM devices based on poly(1,3,5-trimethyl-3,4,5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane) by inserting multilayer graphene (MLG) at the electrode/polymer interface. The resistive switching uniformity was thereby significantly improved, and the power consumption was markedly reduced by 250 times. Furthermore, the inserted MLG film enabled a transition of the resistive switching operation from unipolar resistive switching to bipolar resistive switching and induced self-compliance behavior. The findings of this study can pave the way toward a new area of application for graphene in electronic devices. (paper)

  1. Enhanced catalytic and dopamine sensing properties of electrochemically reduced conducting polymer nanocomposite doped with pure graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenting; Xu, Guiyun; Cui, Xinyan Tracy; Sheng, Ge; Luo, Xiliang

    2014-08-15

    Significantly enhanced catalytic activity of a nanocomposite composed of conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with graphene oxide (GO) was achieved through a simple electrochemical reduction process. The nanocomposite (PEDOT/GO) was electrodeposited on an electrode and followed by electrochemical reduction, and the obtained reduced nanocomposite (PEDOT/RGO) modified electrode exhibited lowered electrochemical impedance and excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of dopamine. Based on the excellent catalytic property of PEDOT/RGO, an electrochemical sensor capable of sensitive and selective detection of DA was developed. The fabricated sensor can detect DA in a wide linear range from 0.1 to 175μM, with a detection limit of 39nM, and it is free from common interferences such as uric acid and ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential of thermally conductive polymers for the cooling of mechatronic parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinle, C.; Drummer, D.

    Adding thermally conductive fillers to polymers the thermal conductivity can be raised significantly. Thermal conductive polymers (TC-plastics) open up a vast range of options to set up novel concepts of polymer technological system solutions in the area of mechatronics. Heating experiment of cooling ribs show the potential in thermal management of mechatronic parts with TC-polymers in comparison with widely used reference materials copper and aluminum. The results demonstrate that especially for certain thermal boundary conditions comparable performance between these two material grades can be measured.

  3. Investigating and optimizing charge transfer between graphene and metal by using double layer electrode and polymer-free transfer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-You; Li, Chia-Shuo; Wen, Luo-Hong; Chou, Ang-Sheng; Ho, Mon-Shu; Wu, Chih-I.

    2017-06-01

    Achieving low contact resistance between graphene and metals is crucial to the further development of high-performance graphene field effect transistors. Increasing the number of conduction modes is the key issue in improving the contact between graphene and metals. This study characterized the work function between graphene and metal contacts using in situ thermal evaporation and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Silver produces weak n-type doping and gold produces heavy p-type doping in graphene. The use of a polymer-free transfer method and a double electrode contact structure produced gold contacts with a resistance value of 352.8 Ω · µm, which is 2.7 times lower than that obtained using conventional methods. This method also produced silver contacts with a resistance value of 958.6 Ω · µm, which represents a 180% improvement over conventional methods.

  4. Electrode stabilizing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Odom, Susan A.

    2015-11-03

    An electrolyte includes a polar aprotic solvent; an alkali metal salt; and an electrode stabilizing compound that is a monomer, which when polymerized forms an electrically conductive polymer. The electrode stabilizing compound is a thiophene, a imidazole, a anilines, a benzene, a azulene, a carbazole, or a thiol. Electrochemical devices may incorporate such electrolytes.

  5. Silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conductive electrodes for highly efficient inverted organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Neng; Yan, Jielin; Xie, Shuang; Kong, Yuhan; Liang, Tao; Chen, Hongzheng; Xu, Mingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) and graphene are both promising candidates as a transparent conductive electrode (TCE) to replace expensive and fragile indium tin oxide (ITO) TCE. A synergistically optimized performance is expected when the advantages of AgNWs and graphene are combined. In this paper, the AgNW-graphene hybrid electrode is constructed by depositing a graphene layer on top of the network of AgNWs. Compared with the pristine AgNWs electrode, the AgNW-graphene TCE exhibits reduced sheet resistance, lower surface roughness, excellent long-term stability, and corrosion resistance in corrosive liquids. The graphene layer covering the AgNWs provides additional conduction pathways for electron transport and collection by the electrode. Benefiting from these advantages of the hybrid electrodes, we achieve a power conversion efficiency of 8.12% of inverted organic solar cells using PTB7:PC71BM as the active layer, which is compared to that of the solar cells based on standard ITO TCE but about 10% higher than that based on AgNWs TCE.

  6. Reconstruction of conductivity changes and electrode movements based on EIT temporal sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Tao; Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Adler, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstructs a conductivity change image within a body from electrical measurements on the body surface; while it has relatively low spatial resolution, it has a high temporal resolution. One key difficulty with EIT measurements is due to the movement and position uncertainty of the electrodes, especially due to breathing and posture change. In this paper, we develop an approach to reconstruct both the conductivity change image and the electrode movements from the temporal sequence of EIT measurements. Since both the conductivity change and electrode movement are slow with respect to the data frame rate, there are significant temporal correlations which we formulate as priors for the regularized image reconstruction model. Image reconstruction is posed in terms of a regularization matrix and a Jacobian matrix which are augmented for the conductivity change and electrode movement, and then further augmented to concatenate the d previous and future frames. Results are shown for simulation, phantom and human data, and show that the proposed algorithm yields improved resolution and noise performance in comparison to a conventional one-step reconstruction method

  7. Digital grayscale printing for patterned transparent conducting Ag electrodes and their applications in flexible electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Ritu; Hösel, Markus; Jensen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Grayscale (halftone) laser printing is developed as a low-cost and solution processable fabrication method for ITO-free, semi-transparent and conducting Ag electrodes extendable over large area on a flexible substrate. The transmittance and sheet resistance is easily tunable by varying the graysc...

  8. Conductive plastic film electrodes for Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment : A proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Hatt, V.; Wouters, P.C.; Coronel, P.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment of food needs to be performed prior to packaging, either hygienic or aseptic packaging is necessary. New techniques for PEF treatment after packaging can be considered when plastic conductive (film) electrodes can be integrated within the package, so

  9. Applications of Silver Nanowires on Transparent Conducting Film and Electrode of Electrochemical Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Jun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowire has potential applications on transparent conducting film and electrode of electrochemical capacitor due to its excellent conductivity. Transparent conducting film (G-film was prepared by coating silver nanowires on glass substrate using Meyer rod method, which exhibited better performance than carbon nanotube and graphene. The conductivity of G-film can be improved by increasing sintering temperature. Electrode of electrochemical capacitor (I-film was fabricated through the same method with G-film on indium tin oxide (ITO. CV curves of I-film under different scanning rates had obvious redox peaks, which indicated that I-film exhibited excellent electrochemical pseudocapacitance performance and good reversibility during charge/discharge process. In addition, the specific capacitance of I-film was measured by galvanostatic charge/discharge experiments, indicating that I-film exhibits high special capacitance and excellent electrochemical stability.

  10. Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in Optoelectronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Catrysse, Peter B.

    2010-08-11

    We investigate the use of nanopatterned metallic films as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices. We find that the physics of nanopatterned electrodes, which are often optically thin metallic films, differs from that of optically thick metallic films. We analyze the optical properties when performing a geometrical transformation that maintains the electrical properties. For one-dimensional patterns of metallic wires, the analysis favors tall and narrow wires. Our design principles remain valid for oblique incidence and readily carry over to two-dimensional patterns. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Electrografting of conductive oligomers and polymers using diazonium electroreduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Jean Christophe; Trippe-Allard, Gaelle; Ghilane, Jalal; Martin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the attachment of conjugated oligomers onto electrode surface through the reduction of diazonium compounds. In this connection some properties of conjugated oligomers and of layers grafted through diazonium electroreduction will first be briefly presented. The electrochemical behavior of conjugated oligomers grafted on a surface using diazonium electroreduction will then be discussed. (paper)

  12. Electrografting of conductive oligomers and polymers using diazonium electroreduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Jean Christophe; Trippe-Allard, Gaelle; Ghilane, Jalal; Martin, Pascal

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the attachment of conjugated oligomers onto electrode surface through the reduction of diazonium compounds. In this connection some properties of conjugated oligomers and of layers grafted through diazonium electroreduction will first be briefly presented. The electrochemical behavior of conjugated oligomers grafted on a surface using diazonium electroreduction will then be discussed.

  13. Mass and Charge Transport in Electronically Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-02

    This method is based on coating an electrode surface with an insulating nitrile butadiene rubber ( NBR ). The electrolyte for polymerization (LiCIO4...in acetonitrile) etches channels through the NBR ; pyrrole is then polymerized in these channels. After polymerization the NBR is extracted away with

  14. Original Conductive Nano-Co3O4 Investigated as Electrode Material for Hybrid Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Godillot, Gérôme; Guerlou-Demourgues, Liliane; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Delmas, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt oxides have been extensively used as conductive additives for Ni-MH batteries. We report in this paper the performances of an original nanometric cobalt oxide, close to Co3O4, as electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors. This spinel type phase contains hydrogen, lithium, cobalt vacancies, and especially Co4þ ions within the structure, leading to a high electronic conductivity. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy measurements show interesting capacitance (320 F/g in 8M-KO...

  15. Electrochemical Synthesis of a Microporous Conductive Polymer Based on a Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chunjing; Ben, Teng; Xu, Shixian; Qiu, Shilun

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to preparing 3D microporous conductive polymer has been demonstrated in the electrochemical synthesis of a porous polyaniline network with the utilization of a MOF thin film supported on a conducting substrate. The prepared porous

  16. A transparent conductive oxide electrode with highly enhanced flexibility achieved by controlled crystallinity by incorporating Ag nanoparticles on substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triambulo, Ross E.; Cheong, Hahn-Gil; Lee, Gun-Hwan; Yi, In-Sook; Park, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a composite transparent electrode with Ag nanoparticles and indium-tin-oxide. • Transmittance of AgNPs was improved by formation of oxide layers by O 2 plasma treatment. • Ag nanoparticles became crystalline seeds to grow strong ITO with a uniform growth orientation. • The hybrid electrode is highly more conductive and stable under bending than ITO. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of highly flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) on a polymer substrate whose surface was engineered by oxide-coated Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) smaller than 20 nm in diameter. Polyimide (PI) substrates were spin coated with Ag ion ink and were subsequently heat treated to form AgNP coatings. The Ag oxide was formed by O 2 plasma treatment to reduce the light absorbance by AgNPs. ITO was dc magnetron sputter-deposited atop the AgNPs. The ITO on the AgNPs was crystalline grown primarily with (2 2 2) growth orientation. This contrasts to the typical microstructure of ITO grown on the polymer, which is that growing c-ITO nucleates are embedded in an amorphous ITO (a-ITO) matrix like a particulate composite. The surface roughness of ITO on AgNPs was as small as the ITO on PI without AgNPs. The crystalline nature of the ITO on the AgNP-coated polymer resulted in the decrease of electric resistivity (ρ) by 65% compared to that of ITO on the bare PI. Furthermore, an electric resistivity change (Δρ) of the ITO on the AgNPs was only 8% at a bending radius (r b ) down to 4 mm, whereas the ITO on the non-coated polymer became almost insulating at an r b of 10 mm, owing to a drastic increase in the number of cracks. To validate the potential application in the displays, flexible organic light emitting diodes (f-OLEDs) were fabricated on the ITO on AgNPs and the performances was compared with the f-OLED on ITO on the bare PI

  17. A transparent conductive oxide electrode with highly enhanced flexibility achieved by controlled crystallinity by incorporating Ag nanoparticles on substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triambulo, Ross E.; Cheong, Hahn-Gil [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gun-Hwan [Advanced Thin Film Research Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, In-Sook [R and D Center, InkTec Co., Ltd., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo, E-mail: jwpark09@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • We developed a composite transparent electrode with Ag nanoparticles and indium-tin-oxide. • Transmittance of AgNPs was improved by formation of oxide layers by O{sub 2} plasma treatment. • Ag nanoparticles became crystalline seeds to grow strong ITO with a uniform growth orientation. • The hybrid electrode is highly more conductive and stable under bending than ITO. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of highly flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) on a polymer substrate whose surface was engineered by oxide-coated Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) smaller than 20 nm in diameter. Polyimide (PI) substrates were spin coated with Ag ion ink and were subsequently heat treated to form AgNP coatings. The Ag oxide was formed by O{sub 2} plasma treatment to reduce the light absorbance by AgNPs. ITO was dc magnetron sputter-deposited atop the AgNPs. The ITO on the AgNPs was crystalline grown primarily with (2 2 2) growth orientation. This contrasts to the typical microstructure of ITO grown on the polymer, which is that growing c-ITO nucleates are embedded in an amorphous ITO (a-ITO) matrix like a particulate composite. The surface roughness of ITO on AgNPs was as small as the ITO on PI without AgNPs. The crystalline nature of the ITO on the AgNP-coated polymer resulted in the decrease of electric resistivity (ρ) by 65% compared to that of ITO on the bare PI. Furthermore, an electric resistivity change (Δρ) of the ITO on the AgNPs was only 8% at a bending radius (r{sub b}) down to 4 mm, whereas the ITO on the non-coated polymer became almost insulating at an r{sub b} of 10 mm, owing to a drastic increase in the number of cracks. To validate the potential application in the displays, flexible organic light emitting diodes (f-OLEDs) were fabricated on the ITO on AgNPs and the performances was compared with the f-OLED on ITO on the bare PI.

  18. Electrochemical supercapacitors of cobalt hydroxide nanoplates grown on conducting cadmium oxide base-electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailas K. Tehare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dopant-free and cost-effective sprayed cadmium oxide (CdO conducting base-electrodes, obtained at different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M, characterized for their structures, morphologies and conductivities by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements, respectively, are employed as base-electrodes for growing cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH2 nanoplates using a simple electrodeposition method which further are envisaged for electrochemical supercapacitor application. Polycrystalline nature and mushroom-like plane-views are confirmed from the structure and morphology analyses. Both CdO and CdO–Co(OH2 electrodes reveal specific capacitances as high as 312 F g−1 and 1119 F g−1, respectively, in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte at 10 mV s−1 sweep rate. Optimized Co(OH2–CdO configuration electrode demonstrates energy density of 98.83 W h kg−1 and power density of 0.75 kW kg−1. In order to investigate the charge transfer kinematics electrochemical impedance measurements are carried out and explored.

  19. Features of Random Metal Nanowire Networks with Application in Transparent Conducting Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Maloth, Thirupathi

    2017-05-01

    Among the alternatives to conventional Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) used in making transparent conducting electrodes, the random metal nanowire (NW) networks are considered to be superior offering performance at par with ITO. The performance is measured in terms of sheet resistance and optical transmittance. However, as the electrical properties of such random networks are achieved thanks to a percolation network, a minimum size of the electrodes is needed so it actually exceeds the representative volume element (RVE) of the material and the macroscopic electrical properties are achieved. There is not much information about the compatibility of this minimum RVE size with the resolution actually needed in electronic devices. Furthermore, the efficiency of NWs in terms of electrical conduction is overlooked. In this work, we address the above industrially relevant questions - 1) The minimum size of electrodes that can be made based on the dimensions of NWs and the material coverage. For this, we propose a morphology based classification in defining the RVE size and we also compare the same with that is based on macroscopic electrical properties stabilization. 2) The amount of NWs that do not participate in electrical conduction, hence of no practical use. The results presented in this thesis are a design guide to experimentalists to design transparent electrodes with more optimal usage of the material.

  20. Binderless electrodes for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Santiago Martin; Li, Qingfeng; Steenberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A new electrode concept was proved with no polymeric binder in the catalyst layer for acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane fuel cells. It shows that a stable interface between the membrane and the catalyst layer can be retained when a proton conducting acid phase is established. The absenc...

  1. Characterization of self-assembled redox polymer and antibody molecules on thiolated gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, E J; Danilowicz, C; Lagier, C M; Manrique, J; Otero, M

    2004-05-15

    Multilayer immobilization of antibody and redox polymer molecules on a gold electrode was achieved, as a strategy for the potential development of an amperometric immunosensor. The step-by-step assembly of antibiotin IgG on Os(bpy)(2)ClPyCH(2)NH poly(allylamine) redox polymer (PAH-Os) adsorbed on thiolated gold electrodes was proved by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments, confirming the electrochemical evidence. The increase of redox charge during the layer-by-layer deposition demonstrated that charge propagation within the layers is feasible. The multilayer structure proved to be effective for the molecular recognition of horseradish peroxidase-biotin conjugate (HRP-biotin), as confirmed by the QCM measurements and the electrocatalytic reduction current obtained upon H(2)O(2) addition. The catalytic current resulting from PAH-Os mediation was shown to increase with the number of assembled layers. Furthermore, the inventory of IgG molecules on the supramolecular self-assembled structure and the specific and non-specific binding of HRP-biotin conjugate were confirmed by the QCM transient studies, giving information on the kinetics of IgG deposition and HRP-biotin conjugate binding to the IgG.

  2. High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low Cost Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-01

    This factsheet describes a project that identified and evaluated commercially available and state-of-the-art polymer-based material options for manufacturing industrial and commercial non-metallic heat exchangers. A heat exchanger concept was also developed and its performance evaluated with heat transfer modeling tools.

  3. Selective detection and recovery of gold at tannin-immobilized non-conducting electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Khaleda; Shimura, Takayoshi; Sadeghi, Saman

    2015-01-01

    A tannin-immobilized glassy carbon electrode (TIGC) was prepared via electrochemical oxidation of the naturally occurring polyphenolic mimosa tannin, which generated a non-conducting polymeric film (NCPF) on the electrode surface. The fouling of the electrode surface by the electropolymerized film was evaluated by monitoring the electrode response of ferricyanide ions as a redox marker. The NCPF was permselective to HAuCl4, and the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl4 to metallic gold at the TIGC electrode was evaluated by recording the reduction current during cyclic voltammetry measurement. In the mixed electrolyte containing HAuCl4 along with FeCl3 and/or CuCl2, the NCPF remained selective toward the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl4 into the metallic state. The chemical reduction of HAuCl4 into metallic gold was also observed when the NCPF was inserted into an acidic gold solution overnight. The adsorption capacity of Au(III) on tannin-immobilized carbon fiber was 29±1.45 mg g(-1) at 60°C. In the presence of excess Cu(II) and Fe(III), tannin-immobilized NCPF proved to be an excellent candidate for the selective detection and recovery of gold through both electrochemical and chemical processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod

    2003-12-02

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  5. Optimal Electrode Selection for Electrical Resistance Tomography in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona Galvis, Luis Waldo; Diaz-Montiel, Paulina; Venkataraman, Satchi

    2017-01-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) offers a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that takes advantage of the inherent electrical properties in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites for internal damage characterization. This paper investigates a method of optimum selection of sensing configurations for delamination detection in thick cross-ply laminates using ERT. Reduction in the number of sensing locations and measurements is necessary to minimize hardware and computational effort. The present work explores the use of an effective independence (EI) measure originally proposed for sensor location optimization in experimental vibration modal analysis. The EI measure is used for selecting the minimum set of resistance measurements among all possible combinations resulting from selecting sensing electrode pairs. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to obtain a spectral representation of the resistance measurements in the laminate for subsequent EI based reduction to take place. The electrical potential field in a CFRP laminate is calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) applied on models for two different laminate layouts considering a set of specified delamination sizes and locations with two different sensing arrangements. The effectiveness of the EI measure in eliminating redundant electrode pairs is demonstrated by performing inverse identification of damage using the full set and the reduced set of resistance measurements. This investigation shows that the EI measure is effective for optimally selecting the electrode pairs needed for resistance measurements in ERT based damage detection. PMID:28772485

  6. Nitric Oxide Detection with Glassy Carbon Electrodes Coated with Charge-different Polymer Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Lei

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace amounts of nitric oxide (NO have been determined in aqueous phosphate buffersolutions (pH=7.4 by using a glassy carbon electrode coated with three charge-different polymerfilms. The glassy carbon electrode was coated first with negatively charged Nafion film containingtetrakis(pentafluorophenylporphyrin iron(III chloride (Fe(IIITPFPP as the NO oxidation catalyst,and then with positively charged poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PADDAand with neutral poly(dimethylsiloxane (silicone at the outermost layer. This polymer-coatedelectrode showed an excellent selectivity towards NO against possible concomitants in blood such asnitrite, ascorbic acid, uric acid, and dopamine. All current ratios between each concomitant and NOat the cyclic voltammogram was in 10-3 ~ 10-4. This type of electrode showed a detection limit of80 nM for NO. It was speculated from the electrochemical study in methanol that high-valent oxoiron(IV of Fe(TPFPP participated in the catalytic oxidation of NO.

  7. Enzymatic logic calculation systems based on solid-state electrochemiluminescence and molecularly imprinted polymer film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wenjing; Liang, Jiying; Shen, Li; Jin, Yue; Liu, Hongyun

    2018-02-15

    The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) films were electropolymerized on the surface of Au electrodes with luminol and pyrrole (PY) as the two monomers and ampicillin (AM) as the template molecule. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity peak of polyluminol (PL) of the AM-free MIP films at 0.7V vs Ag/AgCl could be greatly enhanced by AM rebinding. In addition, the ECL signals of the MIP films could also be enhanced by the addition of glucose oxidase (GOD)/glucose and/or ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH) 2 ) in the testing solution. Moreover, Fc(COOH) 2 exhibited cyclic voltammetric (CV) response at the AM-free MIP film electrodes. Based on these results, a binary 3-input/6-output biomolecular logic gate system was established with AM, GOD and Fc(COOH) 2 as inputs and the ECL responses at different levels and CV signal as outputs. Some functional non-Boolean logic devices such as an encoder, a decoder and a demultiplexer were also constructed on the same platform. Particularly, on the basis of the same system, a ternary AND logic gate was established. The present work combined MIP film electrodes, the solid-state ECL, and the enzymatic reaction together, and various types of biomolecular logic circuits and devices were developed, which opened a novel avenue to construct more complicated bio-logic gate systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cycling Performance of Li4Ti5O12 Electrodes in Ionic Liquid-Based Gel Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong Won; Kang, Yong Ku

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the cycling behavior of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 electrode in a cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte based on non-flammable ionic liquid consisting of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide and vinylene carbonate. The Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 electrodes in ionic liquid-based gel polymer electrolytes exhibited reversible cycling behavior with good capacity retention. Cycling data and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses revealed that the optimum content of the cross-linking agent necessary to ensure both acceptable initial discharge capacity and good capacity retention was about 8 wt %

  9. A comparative study on electrochemical performances of the electrodes with different nanocarbon conductive additives for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Taiqiang; Pan, Likun; Liu, Xinjuan; Sun, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Three nanocarbon materials (0 D acetylene black (AB), 1 D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2 D reduced graphene oxide (RGO)) were used as conductive additives (CAs) in the mesocarbon microbead anodes for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were investigated. The results show that the CAs have a significant impact on the electrode performance because they can influence the electron conduction and lithium ion transportation within the electrode. The electrode with RGO achieves a maximum capacity of 387 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g −1 , much higher than those of the electrodes with AB (334 mAh g −1 ) and CNTs (319 mAh g −1 ). The improvement should be mainly ascribed to the “plane-to-point” conducting network formed in the electrode with 2 D RGO which can favor the electron conduction and enhance the lithium ion transportation. - Highlights: • Three carbon materials were used as additives in the electrodes of Li ion battery. • The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were comparatively investigated. • The carbon additives have a significant impact on the electrode performance. • RGO additive acts as a bridge to form a “plane-to-point” conducting network. • The electrode with RGO exhibits better performance than those with other additives

  10. Degradation studies of transparent conductive electrodes on electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride for uric acid measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa F Cardoso, Pedro Martins, Gabriela Botelho, Luis Rebouta, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez and Graca Minas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical analysis of physiological fluids using, for example, lab-on-a-chip devices requires accurate mixing of two or more fluids. This mixing can be assisted by acoustic microagitation using a piezoelectric material, such as the β-phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride (β-PVDF. If the analysis is performed using optical absorption spectroscopy and β-PVDF is located in the optical path, the material and its conductive electrodes must be transparent. Moreover, if, to improve the transmission of the ultrasonic waves to the fluids, the piezoelectric transducer is placed inside the fluidic structures, its degradation must be assessed. In this paper, we report on the degradation properties of transparent conductive oxides, namely, indium tin oxide (ITO and aluminum-doped zinc oxide, when they are used as electrodes for providing acoustic microagitation. The latter promotes mixing of chemicals involved in the measurement of uric acid concentration in physiological fluids. The results are compared with those for aluminum electrodes. We find that β-PVDF samples with ITO electrodes do not degrade either with or without acoustic microagitation.

  11. Degradation studies of transparent conductive electrodes on electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride) for uric acid measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanessa F; Minas, Graca; Martins, Pedro; Rebouta, Luis; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu; Botelho, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Biochemical analysis of physiological fluids using, for example, lab-on-a-chip devices requires accurate mixing of two or more fluids. This mixing can be assisted by acoustic microagitation using a piezoelectric material, such as the β-phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (β-PVDF). If the analysis is performed using optical absorption spectroscopy and β-PVDF is located in the optical path, the material and its conductive electrodes must be transparent. Moreover, if, to improve the transmission of the ultrasonic waves to the fluids, the piezoelectric transducer is placed inside the fluidic structures, its degradation must be assessed. In this paper, we report on the degradation properties of transparent conductive oxides, namely, indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide, when they are used as electrodes for providing acoustic microagitation. The latter promotes mixing of chemicals involved in the measurement of uric acid concentration in physiological fluids. The results are compared with those for aluminum electrodes. We find that β-PVDF samples with ITO electrodes do not degrade either with or without acoustic microagitation.

  12. Polymer Photovoltaic Cell Using TiO2/G-PEDOT Nanocomplex Film as Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Xie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using TiO2/G-PEDOT (PEDOT/PSS doped with glycerol nanocomplex film as a substitute for metal electrode in organic photovoltaic cell is described. Indium tin oxide (ITO worked as cathode and TiO2/G-PEDOT nanocomplex works as anode. The thickness of TiO2 layer in nanocomplex greatly affects the act of this nonmetallic electrode of the device. To enhance its performance, this inverted organic photovoltaic cell uses another TiO2 layer as electron selective layer contacted to ITO coated glass substrates. All films made by solution processing techniques are coated on the transparent substrate (glass with a conducting film ITO. The efficiency of this solar cell is compared with the conventional device using Al as electrode.

  13. Effect of ionic conductivity of zirconia electrolytes on polarization properties of various electrodes in SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Manabu [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been intensively investigated because, in principle, their energy conversion efficiency is fairly high. Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs from 1000{degrees}C to around 800{degrees}C is desirable for reducing serious problems such as physical and chemical degradation of the constructing materials. The object of a series of the studies is to find a clue for achieving higher electrode performances at a low operating temperature than those of the present level. Although the polarization loss at electrodes can be reduced by using mixed-conducting ceria electrolytes, or introducing the mixed-conducting (reduced zirconia or ceria) laver on the conventional zirconia electrolyte surface, no reports are available on the effect of such an ionic conductivity of electrolytes on electrode polarizations. High ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, of course, reduces the ohmic loss. However, we have found that the IR-free polarization of a platinum anode attached to zirconia electrolytes is greatly influenced by the ionic conductivity, {sigma}{sub ion}, of the electrolytes used. The higher the {sigma}{sub ion}, the higher the exchange current density, j{sub 0}, for the Pt anode in H{sub 2} at 800 {approximately} 1000{degrees}C. It was indicated that the H{sub 2} oxidation reaction rate was controlled by the supply rate of oxide ions through the Pt/zirconia interface which is proportional to the {sigma}{sub ion}. Recently, we have proposed a new concept of the catalyzed-reaction layers which realizes both high-performances of anodes and cathodes for medium-temperature operating SOFCs. We present the interesting dependence of the polarization properties of various electrodes (the SDC anodes with and without Ru microcatalysts, Pt cathode, La(Sr)MnO{sub 3} cathodes with and without Pt microcatalysts) on the {sigma}{sub ion} of various zirconia electrolytes at 800 {approximately} 1000{degrees}C.

  14. The effects of porosity, electrode and barrier materials on the conductivity of piezoelectric ceramics in high humidity and dc electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, P M; Cain, M G; Stewart, M; Anson, A; Franks, J; Lipscomb, I P; McBride, J W; Zheng, D; Swingler, J

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged operation of piezoelectric ceramic devices under high dc electric fields promotes leakage currents between the electrodes. This paper investigates the effects of ceramic porosity, edge conduction and electrode materials and geometry in the development of low resistance conduction paths through the ceramic. Localized changes in the ceramic structure and corresponding microscopic breakdown sites are shown to be associated with leakage currents and breakdown processes resulting from prolonged operation in harsh environments. The role of barrier coatings in mitigating the effects of humidity is studied, and results are presented on improved performance using composite diamond-like carbon/polymer coatings. In contrast to the changes in the electrical properties of the ceramic, the measurements of the piezoelectric properties showed no significant effect of humidity. (paper)

  15. New, Efficient, and Reliable Air Electrode Material for Proton-Conducting Reversible Solid Oxide Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Daoming; Shi, Nai; Zhang, Lu; Tan, Wenzhou; Xie, Yun; Wang, Wanhua; Xia, Changrong; Peng, Ranran; Lu, Yalin

    2018-01-17

    Driven by the demand to minimize fluctuation in common renewable energies, reversible solid oxide cells (RSOCs) have drawn increasing attention for they can operate either as fuel cells to produce electricity or as electrolysis cells to store electricity. Unfortunately, development of proton-conducting RSOCs (P-RSOCs) faces a major challenge of poor reliability because of the high content of steam involved in air electrode reactions, which could seriously decay the lifetime of air electrode materials. In this work, a very stable and efficient air electrode, SrEu 2 Fe 1.8 Co 0.2 O 7-δ (SEFC) with layer structure, is designed and deployed in P-RSOCs. X-ray diffraction analysis and High-angle annular dark-filed scanning transmission electron microscopy images of SEFC reveal that Sr atoms occupy the center of perovskite slabs, whereas Eu atoms arrange orderly in the rock-salt layer. Such a special structure of SEFC largely depresses its Lewis basicity and therefore its reactivity with steam. Applying the SEFC air electrode, our button switches smoothly between both fuel cell and electrolysis cell (EC) modes with no obvious degradation over a 135 h long-term test under wet H 2 (∼3% H 2 O) and 10% H 2 O-air atmospheres. A record of over 230 h is achieved in the long-term stability test in the EC mode, doubling the longest test that had been previously reported. Besides good stability, SEFC demonstrates great catalytic activity toward air electrode reactions when compared with traditional La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3-δ air electrodes. This research highlights the potential of stable and efficient P-RSOCs as an important part in a sustainable new energy power system.

  16. Roll type conducting polymer legs for rigid-flexible thermoelectric generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teahoon Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A roll-type conducting polymer film was explored as a flexible organic p-type thermoelectric leg using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT doped with tosylate. The PEDOT films were prepared through solution casting polymerization and rolled up for a roll-type leg. Due to the high flexibility, the roll-type PEDOT leg enabled easy contact to both top and bottom electrodes. Simulation on the dynamic heat transfer and convective cooling for a vertically roosted rod- and roll-type PEDOT leg showed that the temperature difference (ΔT between the hot and cold sides of the leg was much higher in the roll than that of the rod. The PEDOT legs were integrated with n-type Bi2Te3 blocks, to give a 36-couple rigid-flexible thermoelectric generator (RF-TEG. The maximum output voltage from the 36-couple RF-TEG under a ΔT of 7.9 K was determined as 36.7 mV along with a high output power of 115 nW. A wearable RF-TEG was prepared upon the combination of the 36-couple RF-TEG with an arm warmer, to afford an output voltage of 10.6 mV, which was generated constantly and steadily from human wrist heat.

  17. Bionic Ears: Their Development and Future Advances Using Neurotrophins and Inherently Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M. Clark

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the multiple-channel bionic ear for hearing and speech understanding in profoundly deaf people is the result of integrating biological and physical sciences with engineering. It is the first clinically successful restoration of sensory and brain function, and brings electronic technology into a direct functional relationship with human consciousness. It presently transmits essential place and coarse temporal information for the coding of frequency, but the fine temporal and place excitation of groups of nerve fibres is inadequate for high-fidelity sound. This is required for adequate musical appreciation and hearing in noise. Research has demonstrated that nerve growth factors preserve the peripheral processes of the auditory nerves so that an electrode array placed close to these fibres could produce this fine temporal and spatial coding. The nerve growth factors can be incorporated into inherently conducting polymers that are part of the array so the peripheral processes can be preserved at the same time as they are electrically stimulated.

  18. Force control of a tri-layer conducting polymer actuator using optimized fuzzy logic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itik, Mehmet; Sabetghadam, Mohammadreza; Alici, Gursel

    2014-01-01

    Conducting polymers actuators (CPAs) are potential candidates for replacing conventional actuators in various fields, such as robotics and biomedical engineering, due to their advantageous properties, which includes their low cost, light weight, low actuation voltage and biocompatibility. As these actuators are very suitable for use in micro-nano manipulation and in injection devices in which the magnitude of the force applied to the target is of crucial importance, the force generated by CPAs needs to be accurately controlled. In this paper, a fuzzy logic (FL) controller with a Mamdani inference system is designed to control the blocking force of a trilayer CPA with polypyrrole electrodes, which operates in air. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is employed to optimize the controller’s membership function parameters and therefore enhance the performance of the FL controller. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model, which can capture the nonlinear dynamics of the actuator, is utilized in the optimization process. The optimized Mamdani FL controller is then implemented on the CPA experimentally, and its performance is compared with a non-optimized fuzzy controller as well as with those obtained from a conventional PID controller. The results presented indicate that the blocking force at the tip of the CPA can be effectively controlled by the optimized FL controller, which shows excellent transient and steady state characteristics but increases the control voltage compared to the non-optimized fuzzy controllers. (paper)

  19. Depositing bulk or micro-scale electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Tolosa, Vanessa; Tooker, Angela C.; Sheth, Heeral J.; Felix, Sarah H.; Delima, Terri L.

    2016-11-01

    Thicker electrodes are provided on microelectronic device using thermo-compression bonding. A thin-film electrical conducting layer forms electrical conduits and bulk depositing provides an electrode layer on the thin-film electrical conducting layer. An insulating polymer layer encapsulates the electrically thin-film electrical conducting layer and the electrode layer. Some of the insulating layer is removed to expose the electrode layer.

  20. Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Jae; Mastro, Michael A; Hite, Jennifer; Eddy, Charles R; Kim, Jihyun

    2010-10-25

    We report a graphene-based transparent conductive electrode for use in ultraviolet (UV) GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). A few-layer graphene (FLG) layer was mechanically deposited. UV light at a peak wavelength of 368 nm was successfully emitted by the FLG layer as transparent contact to p-GaN. The emission of UV light through the thin graphene layer was brighter than through the thick graphene layer. The thickness of the graphene layer was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Our results indicate that this novel graphene-based transparent conductive electrode holds great promise for use in UV optoelectronics for which conventional ITO is less transparent than graphene.

  1. Ion conducting polymers and polymer blends for alkali metal ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Pandya, Ashish; Wong, Dominica; Vitale, Alessandra

    2017-08-29

    Electrolyte compositions for batteries such as lithium ion and lithium air batteries are described. In some embodiments the compositions are liquid compositions comprising (a) a homogeneous solvent system, said solvent system comprising a perfluropolyether (PFPE) and polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal salt dissolved in said solvent system. In other embodiments the compositions are solid electrolyte compositions comprising: (a) a solid polymer, said polymer comprising a crosslinked product of a crosslinkable perfluropolyether (PFPE) and a crosslinkable polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal ion salt dissolved in said polymer. Batteries containing such compositions as electrolytes are also described.

  2. Thermoelectric Properties of Solution-Processed n-Doped Ladder-Type Conducting Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Suhao; Sun, Hengda; Ail, Ujwala

    2016-01-01

    Ladder-type "torsion-free" conducting polymers (e.g., polybenzimidazobenzophenanthroline (BBL)) can outperform "structurally distorted" donor-acceptor polymers (e.g., P(NDI2OD-T2)), in terms of conductivity and thermoelectric power factor. The polaron delocalization length is larger in BBL than...... in P(NDI2OD-T2), resulting in a higher measured polaron mobility. Structure-function relationships are drawn, setting material-design guidelines for the next generation of conducting thermoelectric polymers....

  3. Conducting polymer colloids, hydrogels, and cryogels: common start to various destinations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 296, č. 5 (2018), s. 989-994 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * colloidal dispersion Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  4. Molybdenum and tungsten disulfides surface-modified with a conducting polymer, polyaniline, for application in electrorheology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Mrlík, M.; Plachý, T.; Trchová, Miroslava; Kovářová, Jana; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, November (2017), s. 30-37 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04109S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : molybdenum sulfide * polyaniline * conducting polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2016

  5. An Integrated Laboratory Approach toward the Preparation of Conductive Poly(phenylene vinylene) Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoerzer, Timm A.; Balaich, Gary J.; Miller, Hannah A.; Iacono, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(phenylene vinylene) (PPV) represents an important class of conjugated, conducting polymers that have been readily exploited in the preparation of organic electronic materials. In this experiment, students prepare a PPV polymer via a facile multistep synthetic sequence with robust spectroscopic evaluation of synthetic intermediates and the…

  6. Regiochemistry of Poly(3-Hexylthiophene): Synthesis and Investigation of a Conducting Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappenfus, Ted M.; Hermanson, David L.; Kohl, Stuart G.; Melby, Jacob H.; Thoma, Laura M.; Carpenter, Nancy E.; Filho, Demetrio A. da Silva; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments for undergraduate laboratory courses (e.g., organic, polymer, inorganic) have been developed. These experiments focus on understanding the regiochemistry of the conducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The substitution patterns in P3HTs control their conformational features, which, in turn, dictates the [pi]…

  7. Micropatterning of Functional Conductive Polymers with Multiple Surface Chemistries in Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik; Acikgöz, Canet; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2012-01-01

    A versatile procedure is presented for fast and efficient micropatterning of multiple types of covalently bound surface chemistry in perfect register on and between conductive polymer microcircuits. The micropatterning principle is applied to several types of native and functionalized PEDOT (poly(3...... functionalized conjugated polymer systems....

  8. Dip-pen nanopatterning of photosensitive conducting polymer using a monomer ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Aslam, Mohammed; Fu, Lei; Wu, Nianqiang; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2004-05-01

    Controlled patterning of conducting polymers at a micro- or nanoscale is the first step towards the fabrication of miniaturized functional devices. Here, we introduce an approach for the nanopatterning of conducting polymers using an improved monomer "ink" in dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The nominal monomer "ink" is converted, in situ, to its conducting solid-state polymeric form after patterned. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed with acid-promoted polymerization of pyrrole in a less reactive environment (tetrahydrofuran). The ratios of reactants are optimized to give an appropriate rate to match the operation of DPN. A similar synthesis process for the same polymer in its bulk form shows a high conductance and crystalline structure. The miniaturized conducting polymer sensors with light detection ability are fabricated by DPN using the improved ink formula, and exhibit excellent response, recovery, and sensitivity parameters.

  9. Dip-pen nanopatterning of photosensitive conducting polymer using a monomer ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Ming; Aslam, Mohammed; Fu Lei; Wu Nianqiang; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2004-01-01

    Controlled patterning of conducting polymers at a micro- or nanoscale is the first step towards the fabrication of miniaturized functional devices. Here, we introduce an approach for the nanopatterning of conducting polymers using an improved monomer 'ink' in dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The nominal monomer 'ink' is converted, in situ, to its conducting solid-state polymeric form after patterned. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed with acid-promoted polymerization of pyrrole in a less reactive environment (tetrahydrofuran). The ratios of reactants are optimized to give an appropriate rate to match the operation of DPN. A similar synthesis process for the same polymer in its bulk form shows a high conductance and crystalline structure. The miniaturized conducting polymer sensors with light detection ability are fabricated by DPN using the improved ink formula, and exhibit excellent response, recovery, and sensitivity parameters

  10. Conductivity studies of PEG based polymer electrolyte for applications as electrolyte in ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ravikumar V.; Praveen, D.; Damle, R.

    2018-05-01

    Development of lithium ion batteries employing solid polymer electrolytes as electrolyte material has led to efficient energy storage and usage in many portable devices. However, due to a few drawbacks like lower ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), studies on SPEs for improvement in conductivity still have a good scope. In the present paper, we report the conductivity studies of a new SPE with low molecular weight poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as host polymer in which a salt with larger anion Lithium trifluro methane sulphonate (LTMS). XRD studies have revealed that the salt completely dissociates in the polymer giving a good stable electrolyte at lower salt concentration. Conductivity of the SPEs has been studied as a function of temperature and we reiterate that the conductivity is a thermally activated process and follows Arrhenius type behavior.

  11. All Inkjet-Printed Amperometric Multiplexed Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conductive Hydrogel Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanlan; Pan, Lijia; Ma, Zhong; Yan, Ke; Cheng, Wen; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2018-02-12

    Multiplexing, one of the main trends in biosensors, aims to detect several analytes simultaneously by integrating miniature sensors on a chip. However, precisely depositing electrode materials and selective enzymes on distinct microelectrode arrays remains an obstacle to massively produced multiplexed sensors. Here, we report on a "drop-on-demand" inkjet printing process to fabricate multiplexed biosensors based on nanostructured conductive hydrogels in which the electrode material and several kinds of enzymes were printed on the electrode arrays one by one by employing a multinozzle inkjet system. The whole inkjet printing process can be finished within three rounds of printing and only one round of alignment. For a page of sensor arrays containing 96 working electrodes, the printing process took merely ∼5 min. The multiplexed assays can detect glucose, lactate, and triglycerides in real time with good selectivity and high sensitivity, and the results in phosphate buffer solutions and calibration serum samples are comparable. The inkjet printing process exhibited advantages of high efficiency and accuracy, which opens substantial possibilities for massive fabrication of integrated multiplexed biosensors for human health monitoring.

  12. ITO with embedded silver grids as transparent conductive electrodes for large area organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhushan R.; Mirsafaei, Mina; Piotr Cielecki, Paweł; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Fiutowski, Jacek; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    2017-10-01

    In this work, development of semi-transparent electrodes for efficient large area organic solar cells (OSCs) has been demonstrated. Electron beam evaporated silver grids were embedded in commercially available ITO coatings on glass, through a standard negative photolithography process, in order to improve the conductivity of planar ITO substrates. The fabricated electrodes with embedded line and square patterned Ag grids reduced the sheet resistance of ITO by 25% and 40%, respectively, showing optical transmittance drops of less than 6% within the complete visible light spectrum for both patterns. Solution processed bulk heterojunction OSCs based on PTB7:[70]PCBM were fabricated on top of these electrodes with cell areas of 4.38 cm2, and the performance of these OSCs was compared to reference cells fabricated on pure ITO electrodes. The Fill Factor (FF) of the large-scale OSCs fabricated on ITO with embedded Ag grids was enhanced by 18% for the line grids pattern and 30% for the square grids pattern compared to that of the reference OSCs. The increase in the FF was directly correlated to the decrease in the series resistance of the OSCs. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs was measured to be 4.34%, which is 23% higher than the PCE of the reference OSCs. As the presented method does not involve high temperature processing, it could be considered a general approach for development of large area organic electronics on solvent resistant, flexible substrates.

  13. Rapid Voltammetric Measurements at Conducting Polymer Microelectrodes Using Ultralow-Capacitance Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Tosylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Adam R.; Matteucci, Marco; Vreeland, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    . The adsorption characteristics of dopamine at the polymer electrode were fit to a Langmuir isotherm. The low apparent capacitance and the microlithographic processes for electrode design make PEDOT:tosylate an attractive material for future applications as an implantable biosens9r for FSCV measurements...

  14. Polymer solution, fiber mat, and nanofiber membrane-electrode-assembly therewith, and method of fabricating same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    of fibers. The fibers may further include particles of a catalyst. The fiber mat may be used to form an electrode or a membrane. In a further aspect, a fuel cell membrane-electrode-assembly has an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a membrane disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode...... electrode. Each of the anode electrode, the cathode electrode and the membrane may be formed with a fiber mat....

  15. Process modeling of conductivity in nanocomposites based on reticulated polymers and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgoshej, V.B.; Korskanov, V.V.; Karpova, I.L.; Bardash, L.V.

    2012-01-01

    The dependences of electric conductivities of thermosetting polymer nanocomposites based on epoxy polymer and polycyanurate filled by carbon nanotubes were investigated. Low values of percolation threshold at volume fraction of carbon nanotubes from 0.001 to 0.002 were observed for all samples.Absolute values of the percolation threshold are in good agreement with the results of mathematical modeling. It is established that electrical properties of thermosetting polymer nanocomposites can be characterized in the frame of the same theoretical model despite difference in polymers properties

  16. Bromination of Graphene: A New Route to Making High Performance Transparent Conducting Electrodes with Low Optical Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed; Dey, Sukumar; Amassian, Aram; Tanielian, Minas H.

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical and electrical properties of graphene have triggered great interest in its application as a transparent conducting electrode material and significant effort has been invested in achieving high conductivity while maintaining

  17. Bromination of graphene: a new route to making high performance transparent conducting electrodes with low optical losses

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed; Amassian, Aram; Tanielian, Minas H.

    2015-01-01

    The high optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, flexibility and chemical stability of graphene have triggered great interest in its application as a transparent conducting electrode material and as a potential replacement for indium doped

  18. FISH & CHIPS: Four Electrode Conductivity / Salinity Sensor on a Silicon Multi-sensor chip for Fisheries Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Anders; Olafsdottir, Iris; Olesen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a single chip silicon salinity, temperature, pressure and light multisensor is presented. The behavior 2- and 4-electrode conductivity microsensors are described and methods for precise determination of water conductivity are given......The design and fabrication of a single chip silicon salinity, temperature, pressure and light multisensor is presented. The behavior 2- and 4-electrode conductivity microsensors are described and methods for precise determination of water conductivity are given...

  19. Printed metal back electrodes for R2R fabricated polymer solar cells studied using the LBIC technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Søndergaard, Roar; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    The performance of printable metal back electrodes for polymer solar cells were investigated using light beam induced current (LBIC) mapping of the final solar cell device after preparation to identify the causes of poor performance. Three different types of silver based printable metal inks were...

  20. Bulk heterojunction polymer memory devices with reduced graphene oxide as electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juqing; Yin, Zongyou; Cao, Xiehong; Zhao, Fei; Lin, Anping; Xie, Linghai; Fan, Quli; Boey, Freddy; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Wei

    2010-07-27

    A unique device structure with a configuration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) /P3HT:PCBM/Al has been designed for the polymer nonvolatile memory device. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the fabricated device showed the electrical bistability with a write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory effect. The memory device exhibits a high ON/OFF ratio (10(4)-10(5)) and low switching threshold voltage (0.5-1.2 V), which are dependent on the sheet resistance of rGO electrode. Our experimental results confirm that the carrier transport mechanisms in the OFF and ON states are dominated by the thermionic emission current and ohmic current, respectively. The polarization of PCBM domains and the localized internal electrical field formed among the adjacent domains are proposed to explain the electrical transition of the memory device.

  1. Investigation of ionic conduction in PEO-PVDF based blend polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patla, Subir Kumar; Ray, Ruma; Asokan, K.; Karmakar, Sanat

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effect of blend host polymer on solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) films doped with ammonium iodide (NH4I) salt using a variety of experimental techniques. Structural studies on the composite SPEs show that the blending of Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymers in a suitable ratio enhances the amorphous fraction of the polymer matrix and facilitates fast ion conduction through it. We observe that the addition of a small amount of PVDF in the PEO host polymer enhances the ion - polymer interaction leading to more ion dissociation. As a result, the effective number of mobile charge carriers within the polymer matrix increases. Systematic investigation in these blend SPEs shows that the maximum conductivity (1.01 × 10-3 S/cm) is obtained for PEO - rich (80 wt. % PEO, 20 wt. % PVDF) composites at 35 wt. % NH4I concentration at room temperature. Interestingly, at higher salt concentrations (above 35 wt. %), the conductivity is found to decrease in this system. The reduction of conductivity at higher salt concentrations is the consequence of decrease in the carrier concentration due to the formation of an ion pair and ion aggregates. PVDF-rich compositions (20 wt. % PEO and 80 wt. % PVDF), on the other hand, show a very complex porous microstructure. We also observe a much lower ionic conductivity (maximum ˜ 10-6 S/cm at 15 wt. % salt) in these composite systems relative to PEO-rich composites.

  2. First-principles study of high-conductance DNA sequencing with carbon nanotube electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, X.

    2012-03-26

    Rapid and cost-effective DNA sequencing at the single nucleotide level might be achieved by measuring a transverse electronic current as single-stranded DNA is pulled through a nanometer-sized pore. In order to enhance the electronic coupling between the nucleotides and the electrodes and hence the current signals, we employ a pair of single-walled close-ended (6,6) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrodes. We then investigate the electron transport properties of nucleotides sandwiched between such electrodes by using first-principles quantum transport theory. In particular, we consider the extreme case where the separation between the electrodes is the smallest possible that still allows the DNA translocation. The benzene-like ring at the end cap of the CNT can strongly couple with the nucleobases and therefore it can both reduce conformational fluctuations and significantly improve the conductance. As such, when the electrodes are closely spaced, the nucleobases can pass through only with their base plane parallel to the plane of CNT end caps. The optimal molecular configurations, at which the nucleotides strongly couple to the CNTs, and which yield the largest transmission, are first identified. These correspond approximately to the lowest energy configurations. Then the electronic structures and the electron transport of these optimal configurations are analyzed. The typical tunneling currents are of the order of 50 nA for voltages up to 1 V. At higher bias, where resonant transport through the molecular states is possible, the current is of the order of several μA. Below 1 V, the currents associated to the different nucleotides are consistently distinguishable, with adenine having the largest current, guanine the second largest, cytosine the third and, finally, thymine the smallest. We further calculate the transmission coefficient profiles as the nucleotides are dragged along the DNA translocation path and investigate the effects of configurational variations

  3. Sensitization of nano-porous ZnO photo-anode by a conjugated conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirimanne, P.M. [Nano-Science Laboratory, Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Road, Kandy (Sri Lanka); Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Premalal, E.V.A. [Nano-Science Laboratory, Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Road, Kandy (Sri Lanka); Minoura, H. [Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Hybrid ZnO films are prepared via one-step electrochemical process. Extraction of organic component from hybrid films results tiny wires like ZnO columns perpendicular to the substrate. Visible light sensitive-conjugated polymer poly(2-methoxy-5-[2 ethylhexyloxy]-1-4-phenylenevinylene, MEH-PPV) was embedded in highly porous ZnO ceramic by a solvent vaporization technique. An attempt was made to fabricate polymer sensitized photovoltaic cell by coupling polymer embedded ZnO electrodes with an electrolyte. Maximum photovoltage of 490 mV is observed for the cell with the configuration of ZnO vertical stroke MEH-PPV vertical stroke I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} cell. (author)

  4. Electrochemistry of conductive polymers 39. Contacts between conducting polymers and noble metal nanoparticles studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shin Hyo; Park, Su-Moon

    2006-12-28

    Electrical properties of contacts formed between conducting polymers and noble metal nanoparticles have been examined using current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM). Contacts formed between electrochemically prepared pi-conjugated polymer films such as polypyrrole (PPy), poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MeT), as well as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and noble metal nanoparticles including platinum (Pt), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) have been examined. The Pt nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited on a pre-coated PPy film surface by reducing a platinum precursor (PtCl62-) at a constant potential. Both current and scanning electron microscopic images of the film showed the presence of Pt islands. The Au and Ag nanoparticles were dispersed on the P3MeT and PEDOT film surfaces simply by dipping the polymer films into colloid solutions containing Au or Ag particles for specified periods (5 to approximately 10 min). The deposition of Au or Ag particles resulted from either their physical adsorption or chemical bonding between particles and the polymer surface depending on the polymer. When compared with PPy, P3MeT and PEDOT showed a stronger binding to Au or Ag nanoparticles when dipped in their colloidal solutions for the same period. This indicates that Au and Ag particles are predominantly linked with the sulfur atoms via chemical bonding. Of the two, PEDOT was more conductive at the sites where the particles are connected to the polymer. It appears that PEDOT has better aligned sulfur atoms on the surface and is strongly bonded to Au and Ag nanoparticles due to their strong affinity to gold and silver. The current-voltage curves obtained at the metal islands demonstrate that the contacts between these metal islands and polymers are ohmic.

  5. Ionic conductivity of polymer gels deriving from alkali metal ionic liquids and negatively charged polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Wataru; Sun Jiazeng; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    We have prepared polymer gel electrolytes with alkali metal ionic liquids (AMILs) that inherently contain alkali metal ions. The AMIL consisted of sulfate anion, imidazolium cation, and alkali metal cation. AMILs were mixed directly with poly(3-sulfopropyl acrylate) lithium salt or poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) lithium salt to form polymer gels. The ionic conductivity of these gels decreased with increasing polymer fraction, as in general ionic liquid/polymer mixed systems. At low polymer concentrations, these gels displayed excellent ionic conductivity of 10 -4 to 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature. Gelation was found to cause little change in the 7 Li diffusion coefficient of the ionic liquid, as measured by pulse-field-gradient NMR. These data strongly suggest that the lithium cation migrates in successive pathways provided by the ionic liquids

  6. Proton Conducting Polymer Membrane Comprised of 2-Acrylamido-2-Methylpropanesulfonic Acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Charles

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify a proton-conducting polymer membrane suitable for replacing Nafion 117 in direct methanol fuel cells, we prepared a cross-linked copolymer of hydrophilic 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS...

  7. Microtexturing of the conductive PEDOT:PSS Polymer for superhydrophobic organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco; Coppedè , Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Villani, Marco; Calestani, Davide; Candeloro, Patrizio; Iannotta, Salvatore; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can

  8. Conducting Polymer Scaffolds for Hosting and Monitoring 3D Cell Culture

    KAUST Repository

    Inal, Sahika

    2017-05-03

    This work reports the design of a live-cell monitoring platform based on a macroporous scaffold of a conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate). The conducting polymer scaffolds support 3D cell cultures due to their biocompatibility and tissue-like elasticity, which can be manipulated by inclusion of biopolymers such as collagen. Integration of a media perfusion tube inside the scaffold enables homogenous cell spreading and fluid transport throughout the scaffold, ensuring long term cell viability. This also allows for co-culture of multiple cell types inside the scaffold. The inclusion of cells within the porous architecture affects the impedance of the electrically conducting polymer network and, thus, is utilized as an in situ tool to monitor cell growth. Therefore, while being an integral part of the 3D tissue, the conducting polymer is an active component, enhancing the tissue function, and forming the basis for a bioelectronic device with integrated sensing capability.

  9. Conductive Polymer Microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of transmitter release from living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Matteucci, Marco; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    driven cell trapping inside closed chip devices. Conductive polymer microelectrodes were used to measure transmitter release using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. By measuring the oxidation current at a cyclic voltammogram, the concentration...

  10. Anticorrosion efficiency of zinc-filled epoxy coatings containing conducting polymers and pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalendová, A.; Veselý, D.; Kohl, M.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, January (2015), s. 1-20 ISSN 0300-9440 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * zinc metal * organic coating Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.632, year: 2015

  11. Development of 3D carbon nanotube interdigitated finger electrodes on polymer substrate for flexible capacitive sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chih-Fan; Wang, Jhih-Yu; Fang, Weileun; Liu, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Ming-Han

    2013-01-01

    This study reports a novel approach to the implementation of 3D carbon nanotube (CNT) interdigitated finger electrodes on flexible polymer, and the detection of strain, bending curvature, tactile force and proximity distance are demonstrated. The merits of the presented CNT-based flexible sensor are as follows: (1) the silicon substrate is patterned to enable the formation of 3D vertically aligned CNTs on the substrate surface; (2) polymer molding on the silicon substrate with 3D CNTs is further employed to transfer the 3D CNTs to the flexible polymer substrate; (3) the CNT–polymer composite (∼70 μm in height) is employed to form interdigitated finger electrodes to increase the sensing area and initial capacitance; (4) other structures such as electrical routings, resistors and mechanical supporters are also available using the CNT–polymer composite. The preliminary fabrication results demonstrate a flexible capacitive sensor with 50 μm high CNT interdigitated electrodes on a poly-dimethylsiloxane substrate. The tests show that the typical capacitance change is several dozens of fF and the gauge factor is in the range of 3.44–4.88 for strain and bending curvature measurement; the sensitivity of the tactile sensor is 1.11% N −1 ; a proximity distance near 2 mm away from the sensor can be detected. (paper)

  12. Effect of Dimethyl Carbonate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity of Methyl Cellulose-Based Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.F.; Ridwan, N.I.M.; Hatta, F.F.; Yahya, M.Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Influences of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) plasticizer on ionic conductivity, dielectric permittivity and electrical modulus formalism of methyl cellulose (MC)-based polymer electrolytes have been studied. The room temperature electrical conductivity as measured by impedance spectroscopy shows that a methyl cellulose film has a conductivity of ∼10 -10 S cm -1 . In this study, other than KOH ionic dopant, DMC plasticizer is also added to the polymer with the aim of enhancing the electrical conductivity of the polymer. The highest room temperature conductivity of the plasticised sample is ∼10 -5 S cm -1 . The plot of log σ versus 10 3 / T for the highest conducting sample obeys Arrhenius rule indicating that the conductivity occurs by thermally activated mechanism. (author)

  13. Charge transfer processes on electrodes modified by polymer films of metal complexes with Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, O.V.; Karushev, M.P.; Timonov, A.M.; Alekseeva, E.V.; Zhang, Shuanghua; Malev, V.V.

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical properties of glassy carbon electrodes modified by two polymer films of different nickel complexes with Schiff base ligands containing methoxy substituents in their aromatic parts were studied in acetonitrile solutions with cyclic voltammetry, quartz crystal microbalance, atomic force microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. It was observed that introduction of such substituents leads to a noticeable splitting of cycling voltammetric curves into at least two ox/red transitions. In addition, solvent flows accompanying the counter-ions ones during charging/discharge processes within the films appeared significantly greater than those observed in the case of non-substituted ligands. The obtained impedance results as a whole were satisfactorily treated in scope of the so-called model of homogeneous films with two kinds of charge carriers. However, determinations of the Warburg constant as a function of the electrode potential require additional verifications, at least in the ranges of overlapping ox/red transitions. In particular, it was established that in this region the impedance frequency dependence was some superposition of the diffusion (Warburg) and the pseudo-capacitive constituents. This, most likely, resulted from the presence of three kinds of charge carriers in the film interior

  14. Energy harvesting efficiency of piezoelectric polymer film with graphene and metal electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghoon; Kim, Yura; Jung, Hyosub; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung; Seo, Yongho

    2017-12-11

    In this study, we investigated an energy harvesting effect of tensile stress using piezoelectric polymers and flexible electrodes. A chemical-vapor-deposition grown graphene film was transferred onto both sides of the PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) films simultaneously by means of a conventional wet chemical method. Output voltage induced by sound waves was measured and analyzed when a mechanical tension was applied to the device. Another energy harvester was made with a metallic electrode, where Al and Ag were deposited by using an electron-beam evaporator. When acoustic vibrations (105 dB) were applied to the graphene/PVDF/graphene device, an induced voltage of 7.6 V pp was measured with a tensile stress of 1.75 MPa, and this was increased up to 9.1 V pp with a stress of 2.18 MPa for the metal/P(VDF-TrFE)/metal device. The 9 metal/PVDF/metal layers were stacked as an energy harvester, and tension was applied by using springs. Also, we fabricated a full-wave rectifying circuit to store the electrical energy in a 100 μF capacitor, and external vibration generated the electrical charges. As a result, the stored voltage at the capacitor, obtained from the harvester via a bridge diode rectifier, was saturated to ~7.04 V after 180 s charging time.

  15. 3D printing of CNT- and graphene-based conductive polymer nanocomposites by fused deposition modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanasekaran, K.; Heijmans, T.; van Bennekom, S.; Woldhuis, H.; Wijnia, S.; de With, G.; Friedrich, H.

    2017-01-01

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is limited by the availability of application specific functional materials. Here we illustrate printing of non-conventional polymer nanocomposites (CNT- and graphene-based polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)) on a commercially available desktop 3D printer leading toward printing of electrically conductive structures. The printability, electrical conductivity and mechanical stability of the polymer nanocomposites before and after 3D printing was evaluated. The res...

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cell with natural gel polymer electrolytes and f-MWCNT as counter-electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-05-01

    Samples of DSSCs were made with gel polymer electrolytes using agar, gelatin and DNA as the polymer hosts. Anthocyanine dye from Hildegardia barteri flower is used to sensitize the TiO2 electrode, and the spectrum of the dye indicates strong absorptions in the blue region of the solar spectrum. The XRD pattern of the TiO2 shows that the adsorption of the dye did not affect the crystallinity of the electrode. The f-MWCNT indicates graphite structure of the MWCNTs were acid oxidized without significant damage. Efficiencies of 3.38 and 0.1% were obtained using gelatin and DNA gel polymer electrolytes, respectively, for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells.

  17. Highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode using multilayer film structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Dohong; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a high performance flexible component that serves as a color filter and an electrode simultaneously is suggested. The suggested highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode (CFE) has a multilayer film structure composed of silver (Ag) and tungsten trioxide (WO3). The CFE maintained its color filtering capability even when the films were bent on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Low sheet resistance of the CFE was obtained using WO3 as a bridge layer that connects two Ag layers electrically. The sheet resistance was less than 2 Ω/sq. and it was negligibly changed after bending the film, confirming the flexibility of the CFE. The CFE can be easily fabricated using a thermal evaporator and is easily patterned by photolithography or a shadow mask. The proposed CFE has enormous potential for applications involving optical devices including large area devices and flexible devices.

  18. Exploring novel silicon-containing polymers---From preceramic polymers to conducting polymers with nonlinear optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yi.

    1991-10-07

    Several new types of silicon-containing preceramic polymers, i.e., poly(diorganosilacetylene) and poly(diorganosilvinylene) have been synthesized with molecular weights from 10,000 to 120,000. These polymers could be thermally converted to SiC with a moderate to high char yields. Ready solubility and good processability made these types of polymers attractive in their applications to ceramics. The thermal polymerization of diethynyldiphenyl-silane, which was reported in 1968 to afford poly(diphenylsilyldiacetylene) via dehydrogenation, was reinvestigated. Spectroscopic studies showed that the polymer had a structure of polyacetylene type not diacetylene. Diphenyldiethynylgermane and a series of diorganodiethynylsilances were synthesized. These could be polymerized in the presence of MoCl{sub 5} or WCl{sub 6} to afford a soluble, violet material with Mw as high as 108,000. 100 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. In-situ Plasticized Cross-linked Polymer Composite Electrolyte Enhanced with Lithium-ion Conducting Nanofibers for Ambient All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Zhu, Pei; Jia, Hao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Selvan, R. Kalai; Li, Ya; Dong, Xia; Du, Zhuang; Angunawela, Indunil; Wu, Nianqiang; Dirican, Mahmut

    2018-04-29

    Solid electrolytes have been gaining attention recently for the development of next-generation Li-ion batteries due to the substantial improvements in stability and safety. Among various types of solid electrolytes, composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) exhibit both high ionic conductivity and excellent interfacial contact with the electrodes. Incorporating active nanofibers into the polymer matrix demonstrates an effective method to fabricate CSEs. However, current CSEs based on traditional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer suffer from the poor ionic conductivity of PEO and agglomeration effect of inorganic fillers at high concentrations, which limit further improvements in Li+ conductivity and electrochemical stability. Herein, we synthesize a novel PEO based cross-linked polymer (CLP) as the polymer matrix with naturally amorphous structure and high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 2.40 × 10-4 S cm-1. Li0.3La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanofibers incorporated composite solid electrolytes (L-CLPCSE) exhibit enhanced ionic conductivity without showing filler agglomeration. The high content of Li-conductive nanofibers improves the mechanical strength, ensures the conductive networks, and increases the total Li+ conductivity to 3.31 × 10-4 S cm-1. The all-solid-state Li|LiFePO4 batteries with L-CLPCSE are able to deliver attractive specific capacity of 147 mAh g-1 at room temperature, and no evident dendrite is found at the anode/electrolyte interface after 100 cycles.

  20. The conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte upon addition of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Farzana Abd.; Salleh, Fauzani Md.; Mohamed, Nor Sabirin

    2017-12-01

    The effect of graphene composition on the conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte was studied. These polymer composite solid electrolytes were synthesized by sol gel method and prepared via the solution-casting technique. The compositions of graphene were varied between 10 wt% to 70 wt%. The changes in the functional group of polymer composite after the addition of graphene were characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted at ambient temperature in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz to study the conductivity of the polymer composite. The highest conductivity was obtained at 60 wt% graphene with the value of 2.85×10-4 Scm-1. Sample without the addition of graphene showed the lowest conductivity value of 1.77×10-7 Scm-1 and acts as an insulator. The high conductivity at 60 wt% graphene loading is related to dehydration of cellulose. This is supported by the FTIR spectrum where the absorption peaks of C-O stretching vibrations of polymer composite is weakened and the hydroxyl group is slightly shifted compared to the FTIR spectrum without the addition of graphene. Linear sweep voltammetry results demonstrated that the polymer composite solid electrolyte exhibited electrochemical stability up to 3.2 V.

  1. Electrode Materials, Thermal Annealing Sequences, and Lateral/Vertical Phase Separation of Polymer Solar Cells from Multiscale Molecular Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Cheng-Kuang

    2014-12-10

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The nanomorphologies of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer of polymer solar cells are extremely sensitive to the electrode materials and thermal annealing conditions. In this work, the correlations of electrode materials, thermal annealing sequences, and resultant BHJ nanomorphological details of P3HT:PCBM BHJ polymer solar cell are studied by a series of large-scale, coarse-grained (CG) molecular simulations of system comprised of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al layers. Simulations are performed for various configurations of electrode materials as well as processing temperature. The complex CG molecular data are characterized using a novel extension of our graph-based framework to quantify morphology and establish a link between morphology and processing conditions. Our analysis indicates that vertical phase segregation of P3HT:PCBM blend strongly depends on the electrode material and thermal annealing schedule. A thin P3HT-rich film is formed on the top, regardless of bottom electrode material, when the BHJ layer is exposed to the free surface during thermal annealing. In addition, preferential segregation of P3HT chains and PCBM molecules toward PEDOT:PSS and Al electrodes, respectively, is observed. Detailed morphology analysis indicated that, surprisingly, vertical phase segregation does not affect the connectivity of donor/acceptor domains with respective electrodes. However, the formation of P3HT/PCBM depletion zones next to the P3HT/PCBM-rich zones can be a potential bottleneck for electron/hole transport due to increase in transport pathway length. Analysis in terms of fraction of intra- and interchain charge transports revealed that processing schedule affects the average vertical orientation of polymer chains, which may be crucial for enhanced charge transport, nongeminate recombination, and charge collection. The present study establishes a more detailed link between processing and morphology by combining multiscale molecular

  2. A Route for Polymer Nanocomposites with Engineered Electrical Conductivity and Percolation Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence T. Drzal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposites with engineered electrical properties can be made by tuning the fabrication method, processing conditions and filler’s geometric and physical properties. This work focuses on investigating the effect of filler’s geometry (aspect ratio and shape, intrinsic electrical conductivity, alignment and dispersion within the polymer, and polymer crystallinity, on the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of polypropylene based nanocomposites. The conductive reinforcements used are exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets, carbon black, vapor grown carbon fibers and polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers. The composites are made using melt mixing followed by injection molding. A coating method is also employed to improve the nanofiller’s dispersion within the polymer and compression molding is used to alter the nanofiller’s alignment.

  3. Studies on AC Electrical Conductivity of CdCl2 Doped PVA Polymer Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Nanda Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PVA-based polymer electrolytes were prepared with various concentrations of CdCl2 using solvent casting method. Prepared polymer films were investigated using line profile analysis employing X-ray diffraction (XRD data. XRD results show that the crystallite size decreases and then increases with increase in CdCl2. AC conductivity in these polymer increases films first and then decreases. These observations are in agreement with XRD results. The highest ionic conductivity of 1.68E − 08 Scm−1 was observed in 4% of CdCl2 in PVA polymer blend. Crystallite ellipsoids for different concentrations of CdCl2 are computed here using whole pattern powder fitting (WPPF indicating that crystallite area decreases with increase in the ionic conductivity.

  4. Gamma Radiation Induced Preparation of Functional Conducting Polymer Hollow Spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. -P.; Gopalan, A. I.; Philips, M. F.; Jeong, K.M., E-mail: kplee@knu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, Teacher' s College, Kyungpook National University 1370, Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    New materials are sought for applications in many of the emerging fields that include catalysis, sensors, biomedical, optics and electronic application. With the advent of nanotechnology, innovative materials with novel properties are being synthesized towards target applications. Changing the sizes of particles, chemical, optical, and mechanical properties of the materials can often be tailored according to the specific needs of the application. Nanocrystalline, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanoporous materials, nanofibers, nanowires, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanosprings, nanobelts, dendrimers and nanospheres, ets, are few of the nanostructured materials. The examples of nanostructured materials include semiconducting nanowire quantum dots for gas sensing and self-assembled flower-like architectures. Self-assembly of nanoparticles can result in specific structures with unique and useful electronic, optical, and magnetic properties. Self or induced assemby of simple nanoparticles and rods could result into complex geometries, such as nanoflowers, binary superlattices, optical grating. Over the past decade, hollow spherical nanomaterials have received considerable attention due to their interesting properties such as low density, high surface area and good permeation. Various methods like solvothermal, self-assembly, sonochemical, solvent evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, microwave-assisted aqueous hydrothermal and electrochemical are being pursued for the production of hollow spherical materials. Polymer capsules and hollow spheres have increasingly received interest because of their large surface area and potential applications in catalysis, controlled delivery, artificial cells, light fillers and photonics.

  5. Gamma Radiation Induced Preparation of Functional Conducting Polymer Hollow Spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.-P.; Gopalan, A.I.; Philips, M.F.; Jeong, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    New materials are sought for applications in many of the emerging fields that include catalysis, sensors, biomedical, optics and electronic application. With the advent of nanotechnology, innovative materials with novel properties are being synthesized towards target applications. Changing the sizes of particles, chemical, optical, and mechanical properties of the materials can often be tailored according to the specific needs of the application. Nanocrystalline, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanoporous materials, nanofibers, nanowires, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanosprings, nanobelts, dendrimers and nanospheres, ets, are few of the nanostructured materials. The examples of nanostructured materials include semiconducting nanowire quantum dots for gas sensing and self-assembled flower-like architectures. Self-assembly of nanoparticles can result in specific structures with unique and useful electronic, optical, and magnetic properties. Self or induced assemby of simple nanoparticles and rods could result into complex geometries, such as nanoflowers, binary superlattices, optical grating. Over the past decade, hollow spherical nanomaterials have received considerable attention due to their interesting properties such as low density, high surface area and good permeation. Various methods like solvothermal, self-assembly, sonochemical, solvent evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, microwave-assisted aqueous hydrothermal and electrochemical are being pursued for the production of hollow spherical materials. Polymer capsules and hollow spheres have increasingly received interest because of their large surface area and potential applications in catalysis, controlled delivery, artificial cells, light fillers and photonics

  6. Conducting polymer-based multilayer films for instructive biomaterial coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, John G; Li, Hetian; Chow, Jacqueline K; Geissler, Sydney A; McElroy, Austin B; Nguy, Lindsey; Hernandez, Derek S; Schmidt, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the design, fabrication and testing of conformable conducting biomaterials that encourage cell alignment. Materials & methods: Thin conducting composite biomaterials based on multilayer films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derivatives, chitosan and gelatin were prepared in a layer-by-layer fashion. Fibroblasts were observed with fluorescence microscopy and their alignment (relative to the dipping direction and direction of electrical current passed through the films)...

  7. A stretchable polymer-carbon nanotube composite electrode for flexible lithium-ion batteries: porosity engineering by controlled phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hojun; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Jung, Yeon Sik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Material R and D Department, LG Display Co., Ltd., Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ho [Icheon Branch, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kisuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Flexible energy-storage devices have attracted growing attention with the fast development of bendable electronic systems. However, it still remains a challenge to find reliable electrode materials with both high mechanical flexibility/toughness and excellent electron and lithium-ion conductivity. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of highly porous, stretchable, and conductive polymer nanocomposites embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for application in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The systematic optimization of the porous morphology is performed by controllably inducing the phase separation of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and removing PMMA, in order to generate well-controlled pore networks. It is demonstrated that the porous CNT-embedded PDMS nanocomposites are capable of good electrochemical performance with mechanical flexibility, suggesting these nanocomposites could be outstanding anode candidates for use in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The optimization of the pore size and the volume fraction provides higher capacity by nearly seven-fold compared to a nonporous nanocomposite. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Enhancement of electrical conductivity of ion-implanted polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of ion-implanted films of Nylon 66, Polypropylene (PP), Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Teflon) and mainly Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was determined by DC measurements at voltages up to 4500 V and compared with the corresponding values of pristine films. Measurements were made at 21 0 C +/- 1 0 C and 65 +/- 2% RH. The electrical conductivity of PET films implanted with F + , Ar + , or As + ions at energies of 50 keV increases by seven orders of magnitude as the fluence increases from 1 x 10 18 to 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 . The conductivity of films implanted with As + was approximately one order greater than those implanted with Ar + , which in turn was approximately one-half order greater than those implanted with F + . The conductivity of the most conductive film ∼1 S/m) was almost 14 orders of magnitude greater than the pristine PET film. Except for the three PET samples implanted at fluences near 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 with F + , Ar + , and As + ions, all implanted films were ohmic up to an electric field strength of 600 kV/m. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the three PET films implanted near a fluence of 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 was measured over the range of 80 K < T < 300 K

  9. Enhancing ionic conductivity in composite polymer electrolytes with well-aligned ceramic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lee, Seok Woo; Lin, Dingchang; Shi, Feifei; Wang, Shuang; Sendek, Austin D.; Cui, Yi

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to conventional organic liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability and chemical stability issues, solid electrolytes are widely considered as a promising candidate for the development of next-generation safe lithium-ion batteries. In solid polymer electrolytes that contain polymers and lithium salts, inorganic nanoparticles are often used as fillers to improve electrochemical performance, structure stability, and mechanical strength. However, such composite polymer electrolytes generally have low ionic conductivity. Here we report that a composite polymer electrolyte with well-aligned inorganic Li+-conductive nanowires exhibits an ionic conductivity of 6.05 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 30 ∘C, which is one order of magnitude higher than previous polymer electrolytes with randomly aligned nanowires. The large conductivity enhancement is ascribed to a fast ion-conducting pathway without crossing junctions on the surfaces of the aligned nanowires. Moreover, the long-term structural stability of the polymer electrolyte is also improved by the use of nanowires.

  10. Effect of the Linker in Terephthalate-Functionalized Conducting Redox Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Huang, Xiao; Gogoll, Adolf; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The combination of high capacity redox active pendent groups and conducting polymers, realized in conducting redox polymers (CRPs), provides materials with high charge storage capacity that are electronically conducting which makes CRPs attractive for electrical energy storage applications. In this report, six polythiophene and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT)-based CRPs with a diethyl terephthalate unit covalently bound to the polymer chain by various linkers have been synthesized and characterized electrochemically. The effects of the choice of polymer backbone and of the nature of the link on the electrochemistry, and in particular the cycling stability of these polymers, are discussed. All CRPs show both the doping of the polymer backbone as well as the redox behavior of the pendent groups and the redox potential of the pendent groups in the CRPs is close to that of corresponding monomer, indicating insignificant interaction between the pendant and the polymer backbone. While all CRPs show various degrees of charge decay upon electrochemical redox conversion, the PEDOT-based CRPs show significantly improved stability compared to the polythiophene counterparts. Moreover, we show that by the right choice of link the cycling stability of diethyl terephthalate substituted PEDOT-based CRPs can be significantly improved.

  11. Highly Conductive Transparent and Flexible Electrodes Including Double-Stacked Thin Metal Films for Transparent Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Do-Hong; Jeong, Eun Gyo; Lee, Tae-Woo; Lee, Myung Keun; Park, Jeong Woo; Lee, Hoseung; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2017-05-17

    To keep pace with the era of transparent and deformable electronics, electrode functions should be improved. In this paper, an innovative structure is suggested to overcome the trade-off between optical and electrical properties that commonly arises with transparent electrodes. The structure of double-stacked metal films showed high conductivity (electronics are expected.

  12. Conductive polymers for controlled release and treatment of central nervous system injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, Rajiv

    As one of the most devastating forms of neurotrauma, spinal cord injury remains a challenging clinical problem. The difficulties in treatment could potentially be resolved by better technologies for therapeutic delivery. In order to develop new approaches to treating central nervous system injury, this dissertation focused on using electrically-conductive polymers, controlled drug release, and stem cell transplantation. We first sought to enhance the therapeutic potential of neural stem cells by electrically increasing their production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), important molecules for neuronal cell survival, differentiation, synaptic development, plasticity, and growth. We fabricated a new cell culture device for growing neural stem cells on a biocompatible, conductive polymer. Electrical stimulation via the polymer led to upregulation of NTF production by neural stem cells. This approach has the potential to enhance stem cell function while avoiding the pitfalls of genetic manipulation, possibly making stem cells more viable as a clinical therapy. Seeing the therapeutic potential of conductive polymers, we extended our studies to an in vivo model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a novel fabrication and extraction technique, a conductive polymer was fabricated to fit to the characteristic pathology that follows contusive SCI. Assessed via quantitative analysis of MR images, the conductive polymer significantly reduced compression of the injured spinal cord. Further characterizing astroglial and neuronal response of injured host tissue, we found significant neuronal sparing as a result of this treatment. The in vivo studies also demonstrated improved locomotor recovery mediated by a conductive polymer scaffold over a non-conductive control. We next sought to take advantage of conductive polymers for local, electronically-controlled release of drugs. Seeking to overcome reported limitations in drug delivery via polypyrrole, we first embedded drugs in poly

  13. Preparation of new conductive polymer nanocomposites for cadmium removal from industrial wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoleikani, Leila; Issazadeh, Hossein; ZareNezhad, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Different conductive polymer nanocomposites have been synthesized, characterized and tested, regarding the removal of cadmium from industrial wastewaters. The chemical structure and morphology are studied by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cadmium removal performance, using the produced polypyrrole, polyaniline and polythiophene nanocomposites, are about 40.2 %, 59 % and 99.94 %, respectively, suggesting the superior performance of synthesized polythiophene conductive nanocomposite for cadmium removal from industrial wastewaters. It is shown that the Langmuir adsorption model can be used for accurate description of cadmium removal mechanism using different synthesized conductive nanocomposites. Keywords : wastewater, nanocomposite, polythiophene, cadmium removal, conductive polymer.

  14. Low polymer hydraulic fracturing applications in Reconcavo basin wells can reduce cost and improve conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzart, Joao Walter Pereira; Araujo, Paulo Fernando de

    2000-01-01

    Gels used for hydraulic-fracturing treatments generally contain high concentrations of polymer. The polymer helps the fracturing fluid achieve the level of viscosity necessary for transporting proppant through the rock matrix. However, high-polymer gels leave greater amounts of residue in the formation and can therefore cause formation damage. This paper describes how low polymer (L P) gels can be used for hydraulic-fracturing operations to reduce job costs and increase conductivity by reducing formation damage while maintaining the characteristics of a high-polymer gel. The L P fluid system has a low p H and contains an appropriate breaker concentration. Operators have achieved positive results with this system, which allows them to measure robust gel breaks and reduces the necessity for well cleaning. Consequently, formation damage can be significantly reduced. (author)

  15. Coulomb Blockade in a Two-Dimensional Conductive Polymer Monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai-Kasaya, M; Okuaki, Y; Nagano, S; Mitani, T; Kuwahara, Y

    2015-11-06

    Electronic transport was investigated in poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) monolayers. At low temperatures, nonlinear behavior was observed in the current-voltage characteristics, and a nonzero threshold voltage appeared that increased with decreasing temperature. The current-voltage characteristics could be best fitted using a power law. These results suggest that the nonlinear conductivity can be explained using a Coulomb blockade (CB) mechanism. A model is proposed in which an isotropic extended charge state exists, as predicted by quantum calculations, and percolative charge transport occurs within an array of small conductive islands. Using quantitatively evaluated capacitance values for the islands, this model was found to be capable of explaining the observed experimental data. It is, therefore, suggested that percolative charge transport based on the CB effect is a significant factor giving rise to nonlinear conductivity in organic materials.

  16. Thickness resonances dispersion characteristics of a lossy piezoceramic plate with electrodes of arbitrary conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezheritsky, Alex A; Mezheritsky, Alex V

    2007-12-01

    A theoretical description of the dissipative phenomena in the wave dispersion related to the "energytrap" effect in a thickness-vibrating, infinite thicknesspolarized piezoceramic plate with resistive electrodes is presented. The three-dimensional (3-D) equations of linear piezoelectricity were used to obtain symmetric and antisymmetric solutions of plane harmonic waves and investigate the eigen-modes of thickness longitudinal (TL) up to third harmonic and shear (TSh) up to ninth harmonic vibrations of odd- and even-orders. The effects of internal and electrode energy dissipation parameters on the wave propagation under regimes ranging from a short-circuit (sc) condition through RC-type relaxation dispersion to an opencircuit (oc) condition are examined in detail for PZT piezoceramics with three characteristic T -mode energy-trap figure-of-merit c-(D)(33)/c-(E)(44) values - less, near equal and higher 4 - when the second harmonic spurious TSh resonance lies below, inside, and above the fundamental TL resonanceantiresonance frequency interval. Calculated complex lateral wave number dispersion dependences on frequency and electrode resistance are found to follow the universal scaling formula similar to those for dielectrics characterization. Formally represented as a Cole-Cole diagram, the dispersion branches basically exhibit Debye-like and modified Davidson Cole dependences. Varying the dissipation parameters of internal loss and electrode conductivity, the interaction of different branches was demonstrated by analytical and numerical analysis. For the purposes of dispersion characterization of at least any thickness resonance, the following theorem was stated: the ratio of two characteristic determinants, specifically constructed from the oc and sc boundary conditions, in the limit of zero lateral wave number, is equal to the basic elementary-mode normalized admittance. As was found based on the theorem, the dispersion near the basic and nonbasic TL and TSh

  17. Sensing of environmental pollutant by conductive composite from prepared from hyperbranched polymer-grafted carbon black and crystalline polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Chen, J.; Ogawa, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Shimizu, H.; Tsubokawa, N.; Maekawa, Y.; Yoshida, M.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The hyperbranched (HB) polymer-grafted (PG) carbon blacks (CB) have the possibility of utilizing as a support of catalyst and enzyme, and a curing agent of epoxy resin, because they have much terminal amino or hydroxyl groups. The postgrafting of crystalline polymer onto HB PG CB and the sensing of environmental pollutant by the conductive composite prepared from the polymer-postgrafted CB was discussed. The grafting of poly(amidoamide) onto CB surface was achieved by repeating either Michael addition of methyl acrylate to amino group on the surface or the amidation of the resulting terminal methyl ester group with ethylene diamine. HB polyester onto CB surface was grafted by stepwise growth of 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA) from surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on CB as a core in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The one-pot grafting of HB polyester onto CB as core was also achieved by the polycondensation of bis-MPA in the presence of p-TSA. Postgrafting of crystalline polymer onto HB polymer-grafted CB was achieved by the reaction of terminal amino or hydroxyl groups of grafted chain with COCl-terminated crystalline polymer. The electric resistance of the composite prepared from crystalline polymer-postgrafted CB was found to increase drastically in hexane, containing environmental pollutant, such as chloroform and trichloroethane, and returned immediately to the initial resistance when it was transferred into pure hexane. Based on the above results, it is concluded that the composite can be used as a novel sensor for environmental pollutant in solution

  18. A study on nanocomposites made of a conducting polymer and metallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed Ahmed Khalil, Rania [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany); Multicomponent Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany); Abdelaziz Mahmoud Abdelaziz, Ramzy [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany); Strunkus, Thomas; Faupel, Franz [Multicomponent Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany); Elbahri, Mady [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Institute of Polymer Research, Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Conducting polymers offer a unique combination of properties that makes them attractive materials for many electronic applications. PEDOT:PSS is one of the most successful conductive materials which is considered to be highly stable and resisting degradation under typical ambient conditions. In this study, we have prepared two sets of conducting polymer nano-composites. The first set is composed of PEDOT:PSS doped with different aspect ratios of gold nanorod and the other one is PEDOT:PSS doped with different sizes of gold nanosphere. The chemical reduction method was used for preparing the nano-particles. Indeed, gold nanorods and nanosphere which exhibit tunable absorption as a function of their size and aspect ratio, respectively, have tuned the absorption coefficient for PEDOT: PSS. The nature of the dopant as well as the degree of doping has played a significant role in the improvement of the electrical conductivity of conducting polymer.

  19. Ultrathin Graphite Foam: A Three-Dimensional Conductive Network for Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, HX; Zhang, LL; Pettes, MT; Li, HF; Chen, SS; Shi, L; Piner, R; Ruoff, RS

    2012-05-01

    We report the use of free-standing, lightweight, and highly conductive ultrathin graphite foam (UGF), loaded with lithium iron phosphate (LFP), as a cathode in a lithium ion battery. At a high charge/discharge current density of 1280 mA g(-1), the specific capacity of the LFP loaded on UGF was 70 mAh g(-1), while LFP loaded on Al foil failed. Accounting for the total mass of the electrode, the maximum specific capacity of the UGF/LFP cathode was 23% higher than that of the Al/LFP cathode and 170% higher than that of the Ni-foam/LFP cathode. Using UGF, both a higher rate capability and specific capacity can be achieved simultaneously, owing to its conductive (similar to 1.3 x 10(5) S m(-1) at room temperature) and three-dimensional lightweight (similar to 9.5 mg cm(-3)) graphitic structure. Meanwhile, UGF presents excellent electrochemical stability comparing to that of Al and Ni foils, which are generally used as conductive substrates in lithium ion batteries. Moreover, preparation of the UGF electrode was facile, cost-effective, and compatible with various electrochemically active materials.

  20. Local Structure and Ionic Conduction at Interfaces of Electrode and Solid Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hirotsohi; Oga, Yusuke; Saruwatari, Isamu; Moriguchi, Isamu

    2012-01-01

    All solid state batteries are attracting interests as next generation energy storage devices. However, little is known on interfaces between active materials and solid electrolytes, which may affect performance of the devices. In this study, interfacial phenomena between electrodes and solid electrolytes of all solid state batteries were investigated by using nano-composites of Li 2SiO 3-TiO 2, Li 2SiO 3-LiTiO 2, and Li 2SiO 3-FePO 4. Studies on ionic conductivity of these composites revealed...