Optimization of tensile method and specimen geometry in modified ring tensile test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitano, Koji; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Uetsuka, Hiroshi
2001-03-01
Several techniques in ring tensile test are proposed in order to evaluate mechanical properties of cladding under hoop loading condition caused by pellet/cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). In the modified techniques, variety of tensile methods and specimen geometry are being proposed in order to limit deformation within the gauge section. However, the tensile method and the specimen geometry were not determined in the modified techniques. In the present study, we have investigated the tensile method and the specimen geometry through finite element method (FEM) analysis of specimen deformation and tensile test on specimens with various gauge section geometries. In using two-piece tensile tooling, the mechanical properties under hoop loading condition can be correctly evaluated when deformation part (gauge section) is put on the top of a half-mandrel, and friction between the specimen and the half-mandrel is reduced with Teflon tape. In addition, we have shown the optimum specimen geometry for PWR 17 by 17 type cladding. (author)
Morphing methods to parameterize specimen-specific finite element model geometries.
Sigal, Ian A; Yang, Hongli; Roberts, Michael D; Downs, J Crawford
2010-01-19
Shape plays an important role in determining the biomechanical response of a structure. Specimen-specific finite element (FE) models have been developed to capture the details of the shape of biological structures and predict their biomechanics. Shape, however, can vary considerably across individuals or change due to aging or disease, and analysis of the sensitivity of specimen-specific models to these variations has proven challenging. An alternative to specimen-specific representation has been to develop generic models with simplified geometries whose shape is relatively easy to parameterize, and can therefore be readily used in sensitivity studies. Despite many successful applications, generic models are limited in that they cannot make predictions for individual specimens. We propose that it is possible to harness the detail available in specimen-specific models while leveraging the power of the parameterization techniques common in generic models. In this work we show that this can be accomplished by using morphing techniques to parameterize the geometry of specimen-specific FE models such that the model shape can be varied in a controlled and systematic way suitable for sensitivity analysis. We demonstrate three morphing techniques by using them on a model of the load-bearing tissues of the posterior pole of the eye. We show that using relatively straightforward procedures these morphing techniques can be combined, which allows the study of factor interactions. Finally, we illustrate that the techniques can be used in other systems by applying them to morph a femur. Morphing techniques provide an exciting new possibility for the analysis of the biomechanical role of shape, independently or in interaction with loading and material properties. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
LISSAC - size and geometry effects on the failure behaviour of notched specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seidenfuss, M.; Roos, E.
2004-01-01
In the current German design codes, mainly stress based concepts are used in the safety analysis of technical components. However, no reliable limit loads or safety margins can be defined with these concepts. Validated concepts on the basis of a tolerable limit strain are presently not available. In the context of the EU program LISSAC specimens with different geometry as well as geometrically similar specimens with a size ratio up to 1:50 are examined. On the basis of finite element simulations it is shown that damage models are able to predict the experimentally observed geometry and size effects on the failure strains. (orig.)
3D geometry measurement of hot cylindric specimen using structured light
Quentin, Lorenz; Beermann, Rüdiger; Pösch, Andreas; Reithmeier, Eduard; Kästner, Markus
2017-06-01
We present a fringe projection system to measure glowing hot hybrid components in between production processes. For this a high power green light projector, based on TI DLP technology, is used to create the highest possible contrast between fringes on the red glowing specimen. It has a resolution of 1140 x 912 pixels with a maximum frame rate of 120 images per second for fast measurement. We use a green bandpass filter (525 nm) on the camera lens to block unwanted incoming radiation from the specimen caused by self-emission. Commercial measurement standards are not calibrated for temperatures other than 20° C, so they cannot be used to validate measurement data at the required temperatures of up to 1000°C since thermal expansion invalidates the geometry specification from the calibration data sheet. In our first development we use a uniformly heated pipe made of stainless steel as a dummy specimen to examine the measured geometry data. A pyrometer measures the temperature of the pipe so the expansion can be easily calculated using the thermal expansion coefficient. Different impact and triangulation angles are investigated to identify the effects of hot ambient air on the measurement. The impact of the induced refractive index gradient is examined to check the need for pre-processing steps in the measurement routine.
Effect of sized and specimen geometry on the initiation and propagation of the ductile fracture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frund, J.M.; Marini, B.; Bethmont, M.
1994-02-01
Strength to the fracture of the pipe in PWR has to be justified with mechanical analyses. These tests are based on the strength to ductile fracture of steels which are tested in lab. The values of resistance to fracture are obtained through tensile tests on CT specimens (determination of J-R curves). The purpose of this study is to justify the sizes of the specimens which have to be used to characterize the strength to ductile fracture of steel in secondary pipes. Tests were conducted on 0,5T-CT, 1T-CT and 2T-CT specimens. Two materials with different suffer contents were studied. The test results show that the JO,2 values gotten from the different specimens are similar. But the strength to ductile fracture in 2T-CT specimens in lower than the one measured in 0,5t-CT and 1T-CT specimens. The surface of fracture of the different specimens displays splits perpendicular to the notch and parallel to the sheet surface. These splits are produced by the separation of the manganese sulfur inclusions. The effect notes on the J-R curves seems to be relevant to these splits. The reason why these splits might be responsible for a decrease of the tearing modulus are not clearly defined up to this point. The results which have been published show the importance of the geometry effects (presence or not of lateral notches...) and the loading mode on the strength to ductile fracture. We note that the curves determined from tests on CT specimens are conservative. A few preliminary studies showed that the geometry effects on resistance to fracture can be studied and explained by using local approach methods. The Rousselier modeling is useful to explain the behaviour of ferritic steels in ductile fracture. (authors). 20 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panowicz Robert
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A method of tensile testing of materials in dynamic conditions based on a slightly modified compressive split Hopkinson bar system using a shoulder is described in this paper. The main goal was to solve, with the use of numerical modelling, the problem of wave disturbance resulting from application of a shoulder, as well as the problem of selecting a specimen geometry that enables to study the phenomenon of high strain-rate failure in tension. It is shown that, in order to prevent any interference of disturbance with the required strain signals at a given recording moment, the positions of the strain gages on the bars have to be correctly chosen for a given experimental setup. Besides, it is demonstrated that - on the basis of simplified numerical analysis - an appropriate gage length and diameter of a material specimen for failure testing in tension can be estimated.
Lamb Wave Propagation in a Restricted Geometry Composite PI-Joint Specimen (Preprint)
2011-11-01
adhesive, and were located along the length and height of the specimen as depicted in Figure 3. The sensors were 6.35 mm round disks of PZT , with a...in both cases for R1, R2, and R3. 3D Finite Element Model Geometry 200mm length 50mm width 140mm height x z y PZT Actuation Sensor...health monitoring using scanning laser vibrometry: III. Lamb waves for fatigue crack detection”, Smart Mater. Struct., Vol. 14, No. 6, 2005. 16
Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.
1989-01-01
The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range -100 to 100 degree C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs
Design Analysis of the Mixed Mode Bending Sandwich Specimen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.
2010-01-01
A design analysis of the mixed mode bending (MMB) sandwich specimen for face–core interface fracture characterization is presented. An analysis of the competing failure modes in the foam cored sandwich specimens is performed in order to achieve face–core debond fracture prior to other failure modes...... for the chosen geometries and mixed mode loading conditions....
Influence of geometry of pipe on flow accelerated corrosion - a study under neutral pH condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madasamy, P.; Mukunthan, M.; Chandramohan, P.; Krishna Mohan, T.V.; Velmurugan, S.; Sylvanus, Andrews; Natarajan, E.
2015-01-01
The carbon steel piping material's degradation due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is one of the problems in nuclear power plant. FAC impacts plant operation and maintenance significantly. Wall thinning of structural materials should be predictable based on combined hydrodynamics analyses and experimental corrosion data. Such predictive tools help to take preventive measures before loss of material becomes a serious issue for plant operation. In order to develop predictive tools, data on the effect of various parameters that control FAC are required. As per existing literature, one of the important parameters that affect FAC is piping configuration (Geometry of flow path). Hence, experiments were carried out to assess the role played by the geometry of the piping in the FAC of carbon steel. In this study, experiments were conducted in simulation loop under neutral pH condition while varying the geometry parameter of bend such as bend angle and bend radius. Therefore, pipe specimen holder 15 NB bend with 58 °, 73 ° as bend angle and 4D, 2D bend radius was designed and fabricated. The experiments were carried out in order to quantify the wear rate (wall thickness measurement was by ultrasonic method) with a single phase flow velocity (7 m/s) under neutral pH conditions With the pipe specimen four experiments were conducted under neutral pH condition and at 120 DC. Wall thickness mapping was carried out by ultrasonic thickness gauge using a template before and after the experiment. High wall thickness reduction under neutral water chemistry enables easy measurement by ultrasonic thickness gauge. It was observed from the first two sets (2D 58°, 4D 58°) that the corrosion rate with 4D, 58 ° was 50% less than the corrosion with 2D 58°. Subsequently, another two sets of experiments (2D 73° and 4D 73°) was carried out in SIM loop at 7 m/s under neutral pH conditions for two months. Thus, this method of experiments enables us to understand the geometrical
The causes of geometry effects in ductile tearing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dexter, R.J.; Griesbach, T.J.
1993-01-01
An adequate understanding of geometry effects in ductile tearing can only be achieved when the different causes of the effects are distinguished and these geometry effects are linked to particular micromechanical fracture processes or global deformation mechanisms. It is shown that the micromechanical process of ductile (fibrous) fracture is dependent on achieving a critical strain, which is only slightly dependent on the stress state for the range of triaxiality conditions in pressure vessels and through-cracked plates. Under certain conditions, the crack tip strain can be shown to scale with the value of the J integral and there is a direct connection between J and the underlying micro mechanical process. This connection is lost for significant crack extension or large-scale plasticity. Nevertheless the J integral may still be use on an empirical basis under some conditions. Under fully-plastic conditions the primary source of geometry dependence in the J-R curves is due to the geometry dependence of the shape and volume of the plastic region that develops around the uncracked ligament. This occurs because J is essentially proportional to the total plastic work done on the specimen. If it can be assured that the fracture mode in both the test specimen and the structure will remain fully fibrous, it is conservative to extrapolate J-R curves generated from small compact specimens for the analysis of pressure vessel crack stability. 132 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajit Mondal
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Gas metal arc welding cladding becomes a popular surfacing technique in many modern industries as it enhances effectively corrosion resistance property and wear resistance property of structural members. Quality of weld cladding may be enhanced by controlling process parameters. If bead formation is found acceptable, cladding is also expected to be good. Weld bead characteristics are often assessed by bead geometry, and it is mainly influenced by heat input. In this paper, duplex stainless steel E2209 T01 is deposited on E250 low alloy steel specimens with 100% CO2 gas as shielding medium with different heats. Weld bead width, height of reinforcement and depth of penetration are measured. Regression analysis is done on the basis of experimental data. Results reveal that within the range of bead-on-plate welding experiments done, parameters of welding geometry are on the whole linearly related with heat input. A condition corresponding to 0.744 kJ/mm heat input is recommended to be used for weld cladding in practice.
On impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch type specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhail, A.S.; Nanstad, R.K.
1994-01-01
The potential for using subsize specimens to determine the actual properties of reactor pressure vessel steels is receiving increasing attention for improved vessel condition monitoring that could be beneficial for light-water reactor plant-life extension. This potential is made conditional upon, on the one hand, by the possibility of cutting samples of small volume from the internal surface of the pressure vessel for determination of actual properties of the operating pressure vessel. The plant-life extension will require supplemental surveillance data that cannot be provided by the existing surveillance programs. Testing of subsize specimens manufactured from broken halves of previously tested surveillance Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens offers an attractive means of extending existing surveillance programs. Using subsize CVN type specimens requires the establishment of a specimen geometry that is adequate to obtain a ductile-to-brittle transition curve similar to that obtained from full-size specimens. This requires the development of a correlation of transition temperature and upper-shelf toughness between subsize and full-size specimens. The present study was conducted under the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program. Different published approaches to the use of subsize specimens were analyzed and five different geometries of subsize specimens were selected for testing and evaluation. The specimens were made from several types of pressure vessel steels with a wide range of yield strengths, transition temperatures, and upper-shelf energies (USEs). Effects of specimen dimensions, including depth, angle, and radius of notch have been studied. The correlation of transition temperature determined from different types of subsize specimens and the full-size specimen is presented. A new procedure for transforming data from subsize specimens was developed and is presented
Condition For Strain-Hardening In Ecc Uniaxial Test Specimen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe
2006-01-01
and infinite sheets under uniaxial tension. The crack is assumed to be cohesive and the cohesive law applied takes into account fiber as well as mortar properties. It is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in various test specimen geometries is small, 20 m and also small......This paper discusses the adequateness of the steady state flat crack criterion for crack propagation in Engineered Cementitious Composites. The investigation is performed by use of a semi-analytical model as well as a Finite Element Model. The simulations are for one crack propagating in finite...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2016-01-01
This study reports on the effects of hydrogen isotopes, crack orientation, and specimen geometry on the fracture toughness of stainless steels. Fracture toughness variability was investigated for Type 21-6-9 stainless steel using the 7K0004 forging. Fracture toughness specimens were cut from the forging in two different geometric configurations: arc shape and disc shape. The fracture toughness properties were measured at ambient temperature before and after exposure to hydrogen gas and compared to prior studies. There are three main conclusions that can be drawn from the results. First, the fracture toughness properties of actual reservoir forgings and contemporary heats of steel are much higher than those measured in earlier studies that used heats of steel from the 1980s and 1990s and forward extruded forgings which were designed to simulate reservoir microstructures. This is true for as-forged heats as well as forged heats exposed to hydrogen gas. Secondly, the study confirms the well-known observation that cracks oriented parallel to the forging grain flow will propagate easier than those oriented perpendicular to the grain flow. However, what was not known, but is shown here, is that this effect is more pronounced, particularly after hydrogen exposures, when the forging is given a larger upset. In brick forgings, which have a relatively low amount of upset, the fracture toughness variation with specimen orientation is less than 5%; whereas, in cup forgings, the fracture toughness is about 20% lower than that forging to show how specimen geometry affects fracture toughness values. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) specifies minimum specimen section sizes for valid fracture toughness values. However, sub-size specimens have long been used to study tritium effects because of the physical limitation of diffusing hydrogen isotopes into stainless steel at mild temperatures so as to not disturb the underlying forged microstructure. This study shows
Adineh, Vahid R; Marceau, Ross K W; Chen, Yu; Si, Kae J; Velkov, Tony; Cheng, Wenlong; Li, Jian; Fu, Jing
2017-10-01
We present a novel approach for analysis of low-conductivity and insulating materials with conventional pulsed-voltage atom probe tomography (APT), by incorporating an ultrathin metallic coating on focused ion beam prepared needle-shaped specimens. Finite element electrostatic simulations of coated atom probe specimens were performed, which suggest remarkable improvement in uniform voltage distribution and subsequent field evaporation of the insulated samples with a metallic coating of approximately 10nm thickness. Using design of experiment technique, an experimental investigation was performed to study physical vapor deposition coating of needle specimens with end tip radii less than 100nm. The final geometries of the coated APT specimens were characterized with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and an empirical model was proposed to determine the optimal coating thickness for a given specimen size. The optimal coating strategy was applied to APT specimens of resin embedded Au nanospheres. Results demonstrate that the optimal coating strategy allows unique pulsed-voltage atom probe analysis and 3D imaging of biological and insulated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Effects of drying conditions, admixtures and specimen size on shrinkage strains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Saleh, Saleh A.; Al-Zaid, Rajeh Z.
2006-01-01
The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the effects of drying conditions, specimen size and presence of plasticizing admixture on the development of shrinkage strains. The measurements are taken in a harsh (50 deg. C and 5% R.H.) and a moderate environment (28 deg. C and 50% R.H.). The results include strain development at various levels of cross sections of concrete prisms. The drying conditions are found to be the dominant parameter affecting the shrinkage strain development particularly in specimens of smaller sizes. The effect of plasticizing admixture on shrinkage strains is negligible
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cox, B.L.; Pruess, K.; Persoff, P.
1990-01-01
A casting technique has been developed for making translucent replicas of the void space of natural rock fractures. Attenuation of light shined through the cast combined with digital image analysis provides a pointwise definition of fracture apertures. The technique has been applied to a fracture specimen from Dixie Valley, Nevada, and the measured void space geometry has been used to develop theoretical predictions of two-phase relative permeability. A strong anisotropy in relative permeabilities has been found, which is caused by highly anisotropic spatial correlations among fracture apertures. 16 refs., 6 figs.
Residual stress state in pipe cut ring specimens for fracture toughness testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Damjanovic, Darko [J.J. Strossmayer Univ. of Osijek, Slavonski Brod (Croatia). Mechanical Engineering Faculty; Kozak, Drazan [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. for Mechanical Design; Marsoner, Stefan [Materials Center, Leoben (Austria).; Gubeljak, Nenad [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Chair of Mechanics
2017-07-01
Thin-walled pipes are not suitable for measuring fracture toughness parameters of vital importance because longitudinal crack failure is the most common failure mode in pipes. This is due to the impossibility to manufacture standard specimens for measuring fracture toughness, such as SENB or CT specimens, from the thin wall of the pipe. Previous works noticed this problem, but until now, a good and convenient solution has not been found or developed. To overcome this problem, very good alternative solution was proposed, the so-called pipe ring notched bend specimen (PRNB) [1-5]. Until now, only the idealized geometry PRNB specimen is analyzed, i. e., a specimen which is not cut out from an actual pipe but produced from steel plate. Based on that, residual stresses are neglected along with the imperfections in geometry (elliptical and eccentricity). The aim of this research is to estimate the residual stress state(s) in real pipes used in the boiler industry produced by hot rolling technique. These types of pipes are delivered only in normalized condition, but not stress relieved. Therefore, there are residual stresses present due to the manufacturing technique, but also due to uneven cooling after the production process. Within this paper, residual stresses are estimated by three methods: the incremental hole drilling method (IHMD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the splitting method (SM). Knowing the residual stress state in the ring specimen, it is possible to assess their impact on fracture toughness measured on the corresponding PRNB specimen(s).
Residual stress state in pipe cut ring specimens for fracture toughness testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damjanovic, Darko; Kozak, Drazan; Marsoner, Stefan; Gubeljak, Nenad
2017-01-01
Thin-walled pipes are not suitable for measuring fracture toughness parameters of vital importance because longitudinal crack failure is the most common failure mode in pipes. This is due to the impossibility to manufacture standard specimens for measuring fracture toughness, such as SENB or CT specimens, from the thin wall of the pipe. Previous works noticed this problem, but until now, a good and convenient solution has not been found or developed. To overcome this problem, very good alternative solution was proposed, the so-called pipe ring notched bend specimen (PRNB) [1-5]. Until now, only the idealized geometry PRNB specimen is analyzed, i. e., a specimen which is not cut out from an actual pipe but produced from steel plate. Based on that, residual stresses are neglected along with the imperfections in geometry (elliptical and eccentricity). The aim of this research is to estimate the residual stress state(s) in real pipes used in the boiler industry produced by hot rolling technique. These types of pipes are delivered only in normalized condition, but not stress relieved. Therefore, there are residual stresses present due to the manufacturing technique, but also due to uneven cooling after the production process. Within this paper, residual stresses are estimated by three methods: the incremental hole drilling method (IHMD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the splitting method (SM). Knowing the residual stress state in the ring specimen, it is possible to assess their impact on fracture toughness measured on the corresponding PRNB specimen(s).
Influence of specimen design on the deformation and failure of zircaloy cladding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, D.W.; Koss, D.A.; Motta, A.T.; Majumdar, S.
2000-01-01
Experimental as well as computational analyses have been used to examine the deformation and failure behavior of ring-stretch specimens of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes. The results show that, at least for plastically anisotropic unirradiated cladding, specimens with a small gauge length l to width w ratio (l/w ∼ 1) exhibit pronounced non-uniform deformation along their length. As a result, specimen necking occurs upon yielding when the specimen is fully plastic. Finite element analysis indicates a minimum l/w of 4 before a significant fraction of the gauge length deforms homogeneously. A brief examination of the contrasting deformation and failure behavior between uniaxial and plane-strain ring tension tests further supports the use of the latter geometry for determining cladding failure ductility data that are relevant to certain reactivity-initiated accident conditions
Progress Report on Alloy 617 Notched Specimen Testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McMurtrey, Michael David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2016-08-01
Creep behavior of Alloy 617 has been extensively characterized to support the development of a draft Code Case to qualify Alloy 617 in Section III division 5 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will allow use of Alloy 617 in construction of nuclear reactor components at elevated temperatures and longer periods of time (up to 950°C and 100,000 hours). Prior to actual use, additional concerns not considered in the ASME code need to be addressed. Code Cases are based largely on uniaxial testing of smooth gage specimens. In service conditions, components will generally be under multi axial loading. There is also the concern of the behavior at discontinuities, such as threaded components. To address the concerns of multi axial creep behavior and at geometric discontinuities, notched specimens have been designed to create conditions representative of the states that service components experience. Two general notch geometries have been used for these series of tests: U notch and V notch specimens. The notches produce a tri axial stress state, though not uniform across the specimen. Characterization of the creep behavior of the U notch specimens and the creep rupture behavior of the V notch specimens provides a good approximation of the behavior expected of actual components. Preliminary testing and analysis have been completed and are reported in this document. This includes results from V notch specimens tested at 900°C and 800°C. Failure occurred in the smooth gage section of the specimen rather than at the root of the notch, though some damage was present at the root of the notch, where initial stress was highest. This indicates notch strengthening behavior in this material at these temperatures.
Small Scale Yielding Correction of Constraint Loss in Small Sized Fracture Toughness Test Specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Maan Won; Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang; Hong, Jun Hwa
2005-01-01
Fracture toughness data in the ductile-brittle transition region of ferritic steels show scatter produced by local sampling effects and specimen geometry dependence which results from relaxation in crack tip constraint. The ASTM E1921 provides a standard test method to define the median toughness temperature curve, so called Master Curve, for the material corresponding to a 1T crack front length and also defines a reference temperature, T 0 , at which median toughness value is 100 MPam for a 1T size specimen. The ASTM E1921 procedures assume that high constraint, small scaling yielding (SSY) conditions prevail at fracture along the crack front. Violation of the SSY assumption occurs most often during tests of smaller specimens. Constraint loss in such cases leads to higher toughness values and thus lower T 0 values. When applied to a structure with low constraint geometry, the standard fracture toughness estimates may lead to strongly over-conservative estimates. A lot of efforts have been made to adjust the constraint effect. In this work, we applied a small-scale yielding correction (SSYC) to adjust the constraint loss of 1/3PCVN and PCVN specimens which are relatively smaller than 1T size specimen at the fracture toughness Master Curve test
A Novel Geometry for Shear Test Using Axial Tensile Setup
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sibo Yuan
2018-05-01
Full Text Available This paper studies a novel geometry for the in-plane shear test performed with an axial electromechanical testing machine. In order to investigate the influence of the triaxiality rate on the mechanical behavior, different tests will be performed on the studied material: simple tensile tests, large tensile tests and shear tests. For the whole campaign, a common equipment should be employed to minimize the impact of the testing device. As a consequence, for the shear tests, the geometry of the specimen must be carefully designed in order to adapt the force value and make it comparable to the one obtained for the tensile tests. Like most of the existing shear-included tensile test specimens, the axial loading is converted to shear loading at a particular region through the effect of geometry. A symmetric shape is generally preferred, since it can restrict the in-plane rotation of the shear section, keep shear increasing in a more monotonic path and double the force level thanks to the two shear zones. Due to the specific experimental conditions, such as dimensions of the furnace and the clamping system, the position of the extensometer or the restriction of sheet thickness (related to the further studies of size effect at mesoscale and hot temperature, several geometries were brought up and evaluated in an iterative procedure via finite element simulations. Both the numerical and experimental results reveal that the final geometry ensures some advantages. For instance, a relatively low triaxiality in the shear zone, limited in-plane rotation and no necking are observed. Moreover, it also prevents any out-of-plane displacement of the specimen which seems to be highly sensitive to the geometry, and presents a very limited influence of the material and the thickness.
The effect of specimen and flaw dimensions on fracture toughness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nevalainen, M.J.
1997-06-01
The effect of the specimen size and geometry on fracture toughness has been investigated both by experimental tests and computational analyses. The methods for constraint description, namely T-stress, Q-parameter and Small-Scale Yielding Correction (SSYC) have been compared and applied for various geometries. A statistical treatment for the specimen thickness effect on cleavage fracture toughness has been investigated. Elliptical surface cracks were compared with straight-thickness cracks and a method for crack shape correction was presented. Based on the results, the differences in apparent fracture toughness values obtained from various specimen configurations can be better understood and taken into account
Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rintamaa, R.; Rahka, K.; Wallin, K.
1984-07-01
Owing to small and inexpensive specimens the Charpy impact test is widely used in quality control and alloy development. Limitations in power reactor survellance capsules it is also widely used for safety analysis purposes. Instrumenting the tup and computerizing data acquisition, makes dynamic fracture mechanics data measurement possible and convenient. However, the dynamic effects (inertia forces, specimen oscillations) in the impact test cause inaccuracies in the recorded load-time diagram and hence diminish the reliability of the calculated dynamic fracture mechanics parameters. To decrease inaccuracies a new pendulum type of instrumented impact test apparatus has been developed and constructed in the Metals Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. This tester is based on a new principle involving inverted test geometry. The purpose of the geometry inversion is to reduce inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Further, the new impact tester has some other novel features: e.g. the available initia impact energy is about double compared to the conventional standard (300 J) impact tester allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. Also, the rotation asix in the three point bending is nearly stationary making COD-measurements possible. An experimental test series is described in which the inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared in the conventional and new impact tester utilizing Charpy V-notch specimens. Comparison of the two test geometries is also made with the aid of an analytical model using finite element method (FEM) analysis. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valiente, A.
1996-01-01
Tensile circumferentially notched bars are examined as test specimens for measuring the yield and tensile strengths of nuclear pressure vessel steels under several conditions of irradiation and temperature that a vessel can experience during its service life, including recovery post-irradiation treatment. For all the vessel steels, notch geometries and conditions explored, it has been found that notched specimens fail by plastic collapse, and simple formulae have been derived that allow the yield and tensile strengths to be determined from the yielding and plastic collapse load of a notched specimen. Values measured in this way show good agreement with those measured by the standard tensile test method. (orig.)
Device for investigating subcritical crack growth of RPV steel specimens under BWR conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anders, D.; Ahlf, J.
1983-01-01
An experiment is being prepared to investigate the subcritical crack growth of RPV steel specimens under cyclic load and under the environmental conditions of a BWR with regard to primary water and irradiation. The experiment will be carried out in the VAK reactor Kahl which is a boiling water reactor operating at 71 bar, 286 0 C and generating 16 MW/sub e/. The experimental setup is composed of an open frame to which a string consisting of five compact tension speciments (40 mm thickness) and connecting links is fixed. The specimen chain is set under cyclic load by a pneumatically actuated bellows unit which is attached to the frame top. Specimen strain and crack opening are measured by linear differential transformers; for temperature distribution measurements in the specimens thermocouples are applied
Mesh-morphing algorithms for specimen-specific finite element modeling.
Sigal, Ian A; Hardisty, Michael R; Whyne, Cari M
2008-01-01
Despite recent advances in software for meshing specimen-specific geometries, considerable effort is still often required to produce and analyze specimen-specific models suitable for biomechanical analysis through finite element modeling. We hypothesize that it is possible to obtain accurate models by adapting a pre-existing geometry to represent a target specimen using morphing techniques. Here we present two algorithms for morphing, automated wrapping (AW) and manual landmarks (ML), and demonstrate their use to prepare specimen-specific models of caudal rat vertebrae. We evaluate the algorithms by measuring the distance between target and morphed geometries and by comparing response to axial loading simulated with finite element (FE) methods. First a traditional reconstruction process based on microCT was used to obtain two natural specimen-specific FE models. Next, the two morphing algorithms were used to compute mappings from the surface of one model, the source, to the other, the target, and to use this mapping to morph the source mesh to produce a target mesh. The microCT images were then used to assign element-specific material properties. In AW the mappings were obtained by wrapping the source and target surfaces with an auxiliary triangulated surface. In ML, landmarks were manually placed on corresponding locations on the surfaces of both source and target. Both morphing algorithms were successful in reproducing the shape of the target vertebra with a median distance between natural and morphed models of 18.8 and 32.2 microm, respectively, for AW and ML. Whereas AW-morphing produced a surface more closely resembling that of the target, ML guaranteed correspondence of the landmark locations between source and target. Morphing preserved the quality of the mesh producing models suitable for FE simulation. Moreover, there were only minor differences between natural and morphed models in predictions of deformation, strain and stress. We therefore conclude that
Effect of specimen geometry on the variability in fatigue crack growth rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hajime; Kondo, Tatsuo
1982-02-01
Fatigue crack growth tests on SA 533 grade B class 1 steel were conducted in air with both contoured double cantilever beam (CDCB) specimens and compact-tension (CT) specimens for comparison, which corresponded to the ΔK constant and ΔK increasing fatigue tests respectively. The variability of the measured values was examined statistically, and possible sources of the determined variability were discussed. The variability in the ΔK increasing fatigue tests with the CT specimens was found to be substantially greater than that in the ΔK constant fatigue tests with the CDCB specimens employed in the present study. In addition, the width of the scatter as well as in the degree of deviation from the expected linearity in da/dN versus ΔK plots were found to be varied depending on the level of ΔK in the CT specimen. Based on the results, a conclusion was drawn that constant ΔK type tests should be preferred in the tests where accuracy and reproducibility of crack growth rate measurement was of particular importance. (author)
The effect of specimen and flaw dimensions on fracture toughness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nevalainen, M.J. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)
1997-06-01
The effect of the specimen size and geometry on fracture toughness has been investigated both by experimental tests and computational analyses. The methods for constraint description, namely T-stress, Q-parameter and Small-Scale Yielding Correction (SSYC) have been compared and applied for various geometries. A statistical treatment for the specimen thickness effect on cleavage fracture toughness has been investigated. Elliptical surface cracks were compared with straight-thickness cracks and a method for crack shape correction was presented. Based on the results, the differences in apparent fracture toughness values obtained from various specimen configurations can be better understood and taken into account. 64 refs. The thesis includes also four previous publications by author.
An Inset CT Specimen for Evaluating Fracture in Small Samples of Material
Yahyazadehfar, M.; Nazari, A.; Kruzic, J.J.; Quinn, G.D.; Arola, D.
2013-01-01
In evaluations on the fracture behavior of hard tissues and many biomaterials, the volume of material available to study is not always sufficient to apply a standard method of practice. In the present study an inset Compact Tension (inset CT) specimen is described, which uses a small cube of material (approximately 2×2×2 mm3) that is molded within a secondary material to form the compact tension geometry. A generalized equation describing the Mode I stress intensity was developed for the specimen using the solutions from a finite element model that was defined over permissible crack lengths, variations in specimen geometry, and a range in elastic properties of the inset and mold materials. A validation of the generalized equation was performed using estimates for the fracture toughness of a commercial dental composite via the “inset CT” specimen and the standard geometry defined by ASTM E399. Results showed that the average fracture toughness obtained from the new specimen (1.23 ± 0.02 MPa•m0.5) was within 2% of that from the standard. Applications of the inset CT specimen are presented for experimental evaluations on the crack growth resistance of dental enamel and root dentin, including their fracture resistance curves. Potential errors in adopting this specimen are then discussed, including the effects of debonding between the inset and molding material on the estimated stress intensity distribution. Results of the investigation show that the inset CT specimen offers a viable approach for studying the fracture behavior of small volumes of structural materials. PMID:24268892
Specimen size effects in Charpy impact testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, D.J.; Klueh, R.L.
1989-01-01
Full-size , half-size, and third-size specimens from several different steels have been tested as part of an ongoing alloy development program. The smaller specimens permit more specimens to be made from small trail heats and are much more efficient for irradiation experiments. The results of several comparisons between the different specimen sizes have shown that the smaller specimens show qualitatively similar behavior to large specimens, although the upper-shelf energy level and ductile-to-ductile transition temperature are reduced. The upper-shelf energy levels from different specimen sizes can be compared by using a simple volume normalization method. The effect of specimen size and geometry on the ductile-to-ductile transition temperature is more difficult to predict, although the available data suggest a simple shift in the transition temperature due to specimen size changes.The relatively shallower notch used in smaller specimens alters the deformation pattern, and permits yielding to spread back to the notched surface as well as through to the back. This reduces the constraint and the peak stresses, and thus the initiation of cleavage is more difficult. A better understanding of the stress and strain distributions is needed. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soerensen, B.F.; Joergensen, K.; Oestergaard, R.C. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, T.K. [LM Glasfiber A/S, Lunderskov (Denmark)
2004-03-01
A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratio between the two applied moments, the full mode mixity range from pure mode I to pure mode II can be generated for the same specimen geometry. The specimen allows stable crack growth. In case of large scale crack bridging, mixed mode cohesive laws can be obtained by a J integral based approach. As a preliminary example, fracture of adhesive joints between two glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre cross over bridging, eventually reaching a steady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement. Cohesive stresses were determined by a J integral approach. The deducted shear stress was found to be relative high ({approx} = 20 MPa) in comparison with the normal stress ({approx} = 1 MPa). (au)
Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Miller, Carl S; Nazmi, Giseli; Pearlman, Mark D; Schneider, Lawrence W; Rupp, Jonathan D
2009-11-13
Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of fetal deaths resulting from maternal trauma in the United States, and placental abruption is the most common cause of these deaths. To minimize this injury, new assessment tools, such as crash-test dummies and computational models of pregnant women, are needed to evaluate vehicle restraint systems with respect to reducing the risk of placental abruption. Developing these models requires accurate material properties for tissues in the pregnant abdomen under dynamic loading conditions that can occur in crashes. A method has been developed for determining dynamic material properties of human soft tissues that combines results from uniaxial tensile tests, specimen-specific finite-element models based on laser scans that accurately capture non-uniform tissue-specimen geometry, and optimization techniques. The current study applies this method to characterizing material properties of placental tissue. For 21 placenta specimens tested at a strain rate of 12/s, the mean failure strain is 0.472+/-0.097 and the mean failure stress is 34.80+/-12.62 kPa. A first-order Ogden material model with ground-state shear modulus (mu) of 23.97+/-5.52 kPa and exponent (alpha(1)) of 3.66+/-1.90 best fits the test results. The new method provides a nearly 40% error reduction (p<0.001) compared to traditional curve-fitting methods by considering detailed specimen geometry, loading conditions, and dynamic effects from high-speed loading. The proposed method can be applied to determine mechanical properties of other soft biological tissues.
Elastic-plastic analysis of fracture mechanics test specimens. Part 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talja, H.; Wallin, K.
1984-12-01
This is second part of the report of the research program 'Comparisons between computational and experimental elastic-plastic results' started at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in 1981. The first part of the research program was reported earlier and contained a two dimensional linear elastic finite element analysis of four specimen geometries (CT, RCT, ASTM-3P and Charpy-V) and testing and elastic-plastic analysis of the specimen (EGF71; 1TCT, material A 542). In this report the second part of the program containing the testing and 2-D elastic-plastic analyses of five specimens is described. The four specimen geometries mentioned above and two different materials (stainless steel AISI 304 and ferrite pressure vessel steel A533B) are considered. The following comparisons are presented in the report: load vs. load displacement curves, J-integral, crack opening displacement (COD), J vs. COD and the size of the plastic zone. The agreement between the computational and experimental results is quite good. Complete agreement can be achieved only with 3-dimensional calculation models. (author)
Use of precracked Charpy and smaller specimens to establish the master curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, M.A.; McCabe, D.E.; Nanstad, R.K.; Davidov, Y.A.
1997-01-01
The current provisions used in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the determination of the fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels employs an assumption that there is a direct correlation between K Ic lower-bound toughness and the Charpy V-notch transition curve. Such correlations are subject to scatter from both approaches which weakens the reliability of fracture mechanics-based analyses. In this study, precracked Charpy and smaller size specimens are used in three-point static bend testing to develop fracture mechanics based K k values. The testing is performed under carefully controlled conditions such that the values can be used to predict the fracture toughness performance of large specimens. The concept of a universal transition curve (master curve) is applied. Data scatter that is characteristic of commercial grade steels and their weldments is handled by Weibull statistical modeling. The master curve is developed to describe the median K Jc fracture toughness for 1T size compact specimens. Size effects are modeled using weakest-link theory and are studied for different specimen geometries. It is shown that precracked Charpy specimens when tested within their confined validity limits follow the weakest-link size-adjustment trend and predict the fracture toughness of larger specimens. Specimens of smaller than Charpy sizes (5 mm thick) exhibit some disparities in results relative to weakest-link size adjustment prediction suggesting that application of such adjustment to very small specimens may have some limitations
FRACTURE MECHANICS APPROACH TO ESTIMATE FATIGUE LIVES OF WELDED LAP-SHEAR SPECIMENS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lam, P.; Michigan, J.
2014-04-25
A full range of stress intensity factor solutions for a kinked crack is developed as a function of weld width and the sheet thickness. When used with the associated main crack solutions (global stress intensity factors) in terms of the applied load and specimen geometry, the fatigue lives can be estimated for the laser-welded lap-shear specimens. The estimations are in good agreement with the experimental data. A classical solution for an infinitesimal kink is also employed in the approach. However, the life predictions tend to overestimate the actual fatigue lives. The traditional life estimations with the structural stress along with the experimental stress-fatigue life data (S-N curve) are also provided. In this case, the estimations only agree with the experimental data under higher load conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spaetig, P.; Campitelli, E.N.; Bonade, R.; Baluc, N.
2005-01-01
The primary mission of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to generate a material database to be used for the design of various components, for the licensing and for the assessment of the safe operation of a demonstration fusion reactor. IFMIF is an accelerator-based high-energy neutron source whose irradiation volume is quite limited (0.5 l for the high fluence volume). This requires the use of small specimens to measure the irradiation-induced changes on the physical and mechanical properties of materials. In this paper, we developed finite element models to better analyze the results obtained with two different small specimen test techniques applied to the tempered martensitic steel F82H-mod. First, one model was used to reconstruct the load-deflection curves of small ball punch tests, which are usually used to extract standard tensile parameters. It was shown that a reasonable assessment of the overall plastic flow can be done with small ball punch tests. Second, we investigated the stress field sensitivity at a crack tip to the constitutive behavior, for a crack modeled in plane strain, small-scale yielding and fracture mode I conditions. Based upon a local criterion for cleavage, that appears to be the basis to account for the size and geometry effects on fracture toughness, we showed that the details of the constitutive properties play a key role in modeling the irradiation-induced fracture toughness changes. Consequently, we suggest that much more attention and efforts have to be paid in investigating the post-yield behavior of the irradiated specimens and, in order to reach this goal, we recommend the use of not only tensile specimens but also that of compression ones in the IFMIF irradiation matrices. (author)
Effect of NaCl Solution Spraying on Fatigue Lives of Smooth and Slit Specimens of 0.37% Carbon Steel
Makabe, Chobin; Ferdous, Md. Shafiul; Shimabukuro, Akimichi; Murdani, Anggit
2017-07-01
The fatigue crack initiation life and growth rate are affected by experimental conditions. A corrosive environment can be created in a laboratory by means of dropping salt water onto the specimen surface, spraying chloride mist into the experimental chamber, etc. In the case of smooth specimens of some metals, fatigue life is shortened and the fatigue limit disappears under such corrosive experimental conditions. In this study, the effects of intermittent spraying of 3% NaCl solution-mist on corrosion fatigue behavior were investigated. The material used was 0.37% carbon steel. This is called JIS S35C in Japan. Spraying of 3% NaCl solution-mist attacked the surface layer of the specimen. It is well known that the pitting, oxidation-reduction reaction, etc. affect the fatigue strength of metals in a corrosive environment. We carried out corrosion fatigue tests with smooth specimens, holed specimens and slit specimens. Then the effects of such specimen geometry on the fatigue strength were investigated when the NaCl solution-mist was sprayed onto the specimen surface. In the case of lower stress amplitude application in slit specimens, the fatigue life in a corrosive atmosphere was longer than that in the open air. It is discussed that the behavior is related to the crack closure which happens when the oxide builds up and clogs the crack or slit.
3D analyses of the effect of weld orientation in Charpy specimens
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.
2004-01-01
. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when the average of the maximum principal stress over a specified volume attains a critical value. The weld analyzed here is overmatched, so that the yield strength for the weld is larger than that of the base material. Analyses are carried out for specimens where...... the notch is cut parallel to the surface of the test piece, as well as more complex geometries where the notched surface of the specimen is rotated relative to the surface of the test piece. It is found that even for a homogeneous material the brittle-ductile transition can be much affected by three...... dimensional effects; for example, curvature of the deformed free surface gives rise to a stress increase that promotes cleavage. Furthermore, for the rotated specimens the weld geometry relative to the notched specimen surface is so complex that only a full 3D analysis is able to account for the interaction...
Effect of loading condition, specimen geometry, size-effect and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur 495009, India; Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur 831014, India; Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India ...
LaMere, Brandon J; Howell, Renee; Fetterman, Barbara; Shieh, Jen; Castle, Philip E
2008-08-01
The impact of 6-month storage of cervical specimens under alkaline conditions that occurs as the result of Hybrid Capture 2 testing on human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping is not well documented. To examine this issue, 143 frozen hc2-positive specimens in specimen transport medium were selected at random from each of the following groups: specimens stored for 6 months, 4 months, and 2.5 months under alkaline pH (pH 12-13) and specimens stored 1 month at neutral pH (pH 6-7) as controls. Specimens were tested in a masked fashion for 20 HPV genotypes (HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73, and 82) using a prototype, research-use-only GP5+/6+ L1 consensus PCR method and multiplex hybridization using Luminex xMAP for detection of specific HPV genotypes One control specimen had missing test results. There were no statistical differences in the number of HPV genotypes detected, number of carcinogenic HPV genotypes detected, or in the signal strength among HPV-positive results across groups. Six-month frozen storage of cervical specimens at alkaline pH had little impact on testing for HPV genotypes among hc2-positive women using this HPV genotyping method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krieg, R.
2005-01-01
The local failure strains of essential design elements of a reactor vessel are investigated. The size influence of the structure is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial load. Within one test family the specimen geometry and the load conditions are similar, but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for the reactor vessel. A key problem is to determine the local failure strain. Here suitable methods had to be developed including the so-called 'vanishing gap method', and the 'forging die method'. They are based on post-test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields using finite element models. The results indicate that stresses versus dimensionless deformations are approximately size independent up to failure for specimens of similar geometry under similar load conditions. Local failure strains could be determined. The values are rather high and size dependent. Statistical evaluation allow the proposal of limit strains which are also size dependent. If these limit strains are not exceeded, the structures will not fracture
White, Robert M; Mitchell, John M; Hart, E Dale; Evans, Amy; Meaders, Meredith; Norsworthy, Sarah E; Hayes, Eugene D; Flegel, Ron; Maha, George C; Shaffer, Megan D; Hall, Erin M; Rogers, Kelley
2018-02-01
For forensic biological sample collections, the specimen donor is linked solidly to his or her specimen through a chain of custody (CoC) sometimes referenced as a chain of evidence. Rarely, a donor may deny that a urine or oral fluid (OF) specimen is his or her specimen even with a patent CoC. The goal of this pilot study was to determine the potential effects of short-term storage on the quality and quantity of DNA in both types of specimen under conditions that may be encountered with employment-related drug testing specimens. Fresh urine and freshly collected oral fluid all produced complete STR profiles. For the "pad" type OF collectors, acceptable DNA was extractable both from the buffer/preservative and the pad. Although fresh urine and OF produced complete STR profiles, partial profiles were obtained after storage for most samples. An exception was the DNA in the Quantisal OF collector, from which a complete profile was obtained for both freshly collected OF and stored OF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Some recent innovations in small specimen testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odette, G.R.; He, M.; Gragg, D.; Klingensmith, D.; Lucas, G.E.
2002-01-01
New innovative small specimen test techniques are described. Finite element simulations show that combinations of cone indentation pile-up geometry and load-penetration depth relations can be used to determine both the yield stress and strain-hardening behavior of a material. Techniques for pre-cracking and testing sub-miniaturized fracture toughness bend bars, with dimensions of 1.65x1.65x9 mm 3 , or less, are described. The corresponding toughness-temperature curves have a very steep transition slope, primarily due to rapid loss of constraint, which has advantages in some experiments to characterize the effects of specified irradiation variables. As one example of using composite specimens, an approach to evaluating helium effects is proposed, involving diffusion bonding small wires of a 54 Fe-based ferritic-martensitic alloy to a surrounding fracture specimen composed of an elemental Fe-based alloy. Finally, we briefly outline some potential approaches to multipurpose specimens and test automation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurlston, R.G.; Sherry, A.H.; James, P.; Sharples, J.K.
2015-01-01
The measurement of weld material fracture toughness properties is important for the structural integrity assessment of engineering components. However, welds can contain high levels of residual stress and these can be retained in fracture mechanics specimens, particularly when machined from non-stress relieved welds. Retained residual stresses can make the measurement of valid fracture toughness properties difficult. This paper describes the results of analytical work undertaken to investigate factors that can influence the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses retained in fracture mechanics specimen blanks extracted from as-welded ferritic and austenitic stainless steel plates. The results indicate that significant levels of residual stress can be retained in specimen blanks prior to notching, and that the magnitude and distribution of stress is dependent upon material properties, specimen geometry and size, and extraction location through the thickness of the weld. Finite element modelling is shown to provide a useful approach for estimating the level and distributions of retained residual stresses. A new stress partitioning approach has been developed to estimate retained stress levels and results compare favourably with FE analysis and available experimental data. The approach can help guide the selection of specimen geometry and machining strategies to minimise the level of residual stresses retained in fracture mechanics specimen blanks extracted from non stress-relieved welds and thus improve the measurement of weld fracture toughness properties. - Highlights: • A simplified method for generating realistic weld residual stresses has been developed. • It has been shown that significant levels of residual stress can be retained within laboratory fracture mechanics specimens. • The level and distribution is dependant upon material, specimen type, specimen size and extraction location. • A method has been developed to allow estimates of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spanrad, S. [Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Design Engineering, University of Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Tong, J., E-mail: jie.tong@port.ac.uk [Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Design Engineering, University of Portsmouth (United Kingdom)
2011-02-25
Research highlights: {yields} A study of deformation in a generic LSPed aerofoil specimen subjected to high speed head-on and 45 deg. impacts, and subsequently fatigue loading. {yields} Characterisation of damage features considering geometry of the projectile, impact angle and impact velocity. {yields} Onset and early crack growth due to FOD in LSPed samples compared to those without LSP subjected to cubical impacts under simulated service loading conditions. - Abstract: Foreign object damage (FOD) has been identified as one of the primary life limiting factors for fan and compressor blades, with the leading edge of aerofoils particularly susceptible to such damage. In this study, a generic aerofoil specimen of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was used. The specimens were treated by laser shock peening (LSP) to generate compressive residual stresses in the leading edge region prior to impact. FOD was simulated by firing a cubical projectile at the leading edge using a laboratory gas gun at 200 m/s, head-on; and at 250 m/s, at an angle of 45 deg. The specimens were then subjected to 4-point bend fatigue testing under high cycle (HCF), low cycle (LCF) and combined LCF and HCF loading conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterise the damage features due to FOD. Crack initiation and early crack growth due to FOD and subsequent fatigue growth were examined in detail. The results were compared between the two impact conditions; and with those from samples without LSP treatment as well as those impacted with spherical projectiles. The results seem to suggest that LSP has improved the crack growth resistance post FOD. Delayed onset of crack initiation was observed in LSPed samples compared to those without LSP under similar loading conditions. Damage features depend on the geometry of the projectile, the impact angle as well as the impact velocity.
Design and use of nonstandard tensile specimens for irradiated materials testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panayotou, N.F.
1984-10-01
Miniature, nonstandard, tensile-type specimens have been developed for use in radiation effects experiments at high energy neutron sources where the useful radiation volume is as small as a few cubic centimeters. The end result of our development is a sheet-type specimen, 12.7 mm long with a 5.1 mm long, 1.0 mm wide gage section, which is typically fabricated from 0.25 mm thick sheet stock by a punching technique. Despite this miniature geometry, it has been determined that the data obtained using these miniature specimens are in good agreement with data obtained using much larger specimens. This finding indicates that miniature tensile specimen data may by used for engineering design purposes. Furthermore, it is clear that miniature tensile specimen technology is applicable to fields other than the study of radiation effects. This paper describes the miniature specimen technology which was developed and compares the data obtained from these miniature specimens to data obtained from much larger specimens. 9 figures
Sadeghi, J.; Motieyan-Najar, M. E.; Zakeri, J. A.; Yousefi, B.; Mollazadeh, M.
2018-04-01
Ballast plays an important role in the stability of railway track systems. The effectiveness of the ballast in maintaining the track stability is very much dependent on its mechanical conditions. The available ballast maintenance approaches are mainly based on only track geometry conditions (such as track profile) which do not sufficiently reflect the ballast mechanical behaviors. That is, the ballast potential of degradation (i.e., ballast long term behaviors) has been omitted. This makes the effectiveness of the current ballast maintenance approach questionable, indicating a need for a more comprehensive and effective ballast conditions assessment technique. In response to this need, two ballast condition indices based on ballast geometry degradation (BGI) and the level of ballast fouling (BFI) as the main indicators of ballast mechanical behavior were developed. The BGI is a function of the standard deviations of track alignment, unevenness and twist. The BFI was developed based on the data obtained from the ground penetration radar (GPR). Making use of the new indices, a more reliable maintenance algorithm was developed. Through illustrations of the applicability of the new maintenance algorithm in a railway line, it was shown that the new algorithm causes a considerable improvement in the maintenance effectiveness and an increase in the life cycle of railway tracks by making more effective allocation of resources and more accurate maintenance planning.
Development of European creep crack growth testing code of practice for industrial specimens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dogan, B.; Nikbin, K. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Petrovski, B. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IFW)
2004-07-01
The integrity and residual life assessment of high temperature components require defects, detected or assumed to exist, through minimum allowable limits of detectable flaws using nondestructive testing methods. It relies on information obtained from the material's mechanical, uniaxial creep, creep crack initiation and growth properties. The information derived from experiments needs to be validated and harmonised following a Code of Practice that data variability between different institutions can be reduced to a minimum. The present paper reports on a Code of Practice (CoP) being prepared within the framework of the partially European Commission funded project CRETE. The novel aspect of the presented CoP is the inclusion of component relevant industrial specimen geometries. It covers testing and analysis of Creep Crack growth (CCG) in metallic materials at elevated temperature using six different cracked geometries that have been validated in. It aims to give advice on testing, measurements and analysis of creep crack growth data for a range of creep brittle to creep ductile materials using component service relevant specimen geometries and sizes. The CoP may be used for material selection criteria and inspection requirements for damage tolerant applications. In quantitative terms, these types of tests can be used to assess the individual and combined effects of metallurgical, fabrication, operating temperature, and loading conditions on creep crack growth life. Further issues will be addressed including material properties, damage and crack growth related constraint effect, stress relaxation and stress-strain fields, residual stresses, partitioning displacement, analysis of elasticcreep, elastic compliance measurements.
Development of European creep crack growth testing code of practice for industrial specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dogan, B.; Nikbin, K.; Petrovski, B.
2004-01-01
The integrity and residual life assessment of high temperature components require defects, detected or assumed to exist, through minimum allowable limits of detectable flaws using nondestructive testing methods. It relies on information obtained from the material's mechanical, uniaxial creep, creep crack initiation and growth properties. The information derived from experiments needs to be validated and harmonised following a Code of Practice that data variability between different institutions can be reduced to a minimum. The present paper reports on a Code of Practice (CoP) being prepared within the framework of the partially European Commission funded project CRETE. The novel aspect of the presented CoP is the inclusion of component relevant industrial specimen geometries. It covers testing and analysis of Creep Crack growth (CCG) in metallic materials at elevated temperature using six different cracked geometries that have been validated in. It aims to give advice on testing, measurements and analysis of creep crack growth data for a range of creep brittle to creep ductile materials using component service relevant specimen geometries and sizes. The CoP may be used for material selection criteria and inspection requirements for damage tolerant applications. In quantitative terms, these types of tests can be used to assess the individual and combined effects of metallurgical, fabrication, operating temperature, and loading conditions on creep crack growth life. Further issues will be addressed including material properties, damage and crack growth related constraint effect, stress relaxation and stress-strain fields, residual stresses, partitioning displacement, analysis of elastic creep, elastic compliance measurements
Limit strains for severe accident conditions. Final report of the EU-project LISSAC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krieg, R.; Seidenfuss, M.
2003-10-01
The local failure strains of essential reactor vessel components are investigated. The size influence of the components is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial static and dynamic loads. Within one test family the specimen geometries and the load conditions are similar, the temperature is the same; but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for reactor components. There are indications that for such non-uniform distributions size effects may be stronger than for uniform distributions. Thus size effects on the failure strains and failure processes are determined under realistic conditions. Several tests with nominal identical parameters are performed for small size specimens. In this way some information is obtained about the scatter. A reduced number of tests is carried out for medium size specimens and only a few tests are carried out for large size specimens to reduce the costs to an acceptable level. To manufacture all specimens sufficient material was available from the unused reactor pressure vessel Biblis C consisting of the material 22NiMoCr37. Thus variations of the mechanical material properties, which could impair the interpretation of the test results, are quite small. This has been confirmed by an adequate number of additional quality assurance tests. A key problem was the definition of failure and the determination of the local strains at failure for very different specimens under varying load conditions. Here appropriate methods had to be developed including the so-called 'vanishing gap method' and the 'forging die method'. They are based on post test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields
Laser cutting performances for thick steel specimens studied by molten metal removal conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamura, Koji; Toyama, Shin'ichi
2017-01-01
Laser cutting performances for thick carbon steel and stainless steel specimens up to 300 mm in thickness were studied to dismantle large steel objects. The cutting performances were summarized based on the assist gas flow rate and the front kerf width, and the range for appropriate cutting conditions was shown. Gas pressure in the kerf region required for molten metal removal was estimated from the pressure loss on the kerf surface, which depended on the gas flow rate and the kerf width. The relation to keep sufficient gas pressure in the kerf well corresponded to the experimental relations for appropriate cutting. Drag force to the molten metal on the kerf surface was also estimated, which varied by the structures and materials. The behaviors such as cavity formation and its expansion in the kerf region at the unsuccessful cutting trials were well explained. The results are informative for the development of the laser cutting technology applied to the thick steel specimen for the nuclear decommissioning. (author)
Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens
Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš
2018-01-01
Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified. PMID:29337867
Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens.
Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš
2018-01-16
Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified.
Service-cycle component-feature specimen TMF testing of steam turbine rotor steels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radosavljevic, M.; Holdsworth, S.R. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Mazza, E. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland); Grossmann, P.; Ripamonti, L. [ALSTOM Power (Switzerland) Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)
2010-07-01
This paper reviews the methodology adopted in a Swiss Research Collaboration to devise a component-feature representative specimen geometry and the TMF cycle parameters necessary to closely simulate arduous steam turbine operating duty. Implementation of these service-like experimental conditions provides a practical indication of the effectiveness of deformation and crack initiation endurance predictions. Comprehensive post test inspection provides evidence to demonstrate the physical realism of the laboratory simulations in terms of the creep-fatigue damage generated during the benchmark tests. Mechanical response results and physical damage observations are presented and their practical implications discussed for the example of a 2%CrMoNiWV rotor service cycle. (orig.)
Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon
2007-12-01
Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10 4 Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10 6 Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10 6 Gy)
Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum
2014-01-01
an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wallin, K; Valo, M; Rintamaa, R; Torronen, K [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Ahlstrand, R [Imatran Voima Oy (IVO), Helsinki (Finland)
1994-12-31
An extensive mechanical property evaluation has been carried out on various specimens (a Japanese steel plate (JRQ), a French forging material (FFA) and a Japanese forging material (JFL)) in the as-received and irradiated conditions. The mechanical properties measured at different temperatures include Charpy-V notch and instrumented pre-cracked Charpy data and static and dynamic elastic-plastic fracture toughness based on the J-integral, with various specimen size and geometry. Test analysis lead to conclusions regarding the use of small specimen fracture mechanical tests for investigating irradiation effects: CVN{sub pc} and RCT type specimens are suitable for determining the materials fracture toughness even in the ductile/brittle transition region provided the elastic-plastic parameter K{sub JC} is applied together with a statistical size correction. These two specimen types yield equivalent results for the fracture toughness transition shift. Charpy-V appears not to be suitable for estimating the static fracture toughness transition shift. 8 refs., 11 figs.
Influence of side-groove root radius on the ductile fracture toughness of miniature C(T) specimens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucon, E.; Scibetta, M.
2009-05-15
The use of miniature C(T) specimens, MC(T), for fracture toughness measurements in the upper shelf regime has been investigated at SCK-CEN since 2004, in the framework of the Electrabel/Tractebel SCK-CEN Convention (now General Framework Agreement SUEZ-SCK-CEN). This geometry has been used and validated on both unirradiated (2004-05) and irradiated (2006) materials, mainly reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. While side-grooved MC(T) specimens have shown in all conditions a systematically lower tearing resistance and ductile crack initiation toughness as compared to standard-size 1TC(T) samples, the only plain-sided MC(T) specimen tested in 2005 exhibited very high ductile fracture toughness, thus pointing at a strong influence of side-grooving on the upper shelf properties of MC(T) specimens. This study investigates the influence of side-grooving on the initiation toughness and tearing resistance of MC(T) specimens, as a function of the root radius of the side-groove (ranging from 0.1 to 1 mm) and in comparison with plain-sided MC(T) and reference 1TC(T) samples. The material used is the well characterized DIN 22NiMoCr37 RPV steel, which had been used in the European project which generated the famous EURO fracture toughness data set.
Transient heat transfer into superfluid helium under confined conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filippov, Yu.P.; Miklyaev, V.M.; Sergeev, I.A.
1988-01-01
Transient thermal processes at solid-HeII interface at input of step pulse of heat load was investigated. Particular attention is given to the study of influence of geometry of experimental specimen upon the heat transfer dynamics. Abrupt breakdown of highly efficient transfer modes caused by the developmet of superfluid turbulence under confined condition is revealed, and accompanying temperature shift is registered. Some characteristic parameters are selected, their dependence on experimental conditions is established
Evaluation on ductile tearing properties of girth weld pipelines using SE(T) and SE(B) specimens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mathias, Leonardo Luiz Siqueira; Ruggieri, Claudio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Oceanica
2012-07-01
Predictive methodologies aimed at quantifying the impact of defects in oil and gas pipelines play a key role in safety assessment procedures of in-service facilities. Current methodologies for structural integrity assessments advocate the use of geometry dependent resistance curves so that crack-tip constraint in the test specimen closely matches the crack tip constraint for the structural component. Testing standards now under development to measure fracture resistance of pipeline steels (J and CTOD) most often employ single edge notched specimens under tension (SENT) to match a postulated defect in the structural component. This paper presents an investigation of the ductile tearing properties for a girth weld of an API 5L X80 pipeline steel using experimentally measured crack growth resistance curves (J-R curves). Testing of the girth weld pipeline steels employed side-grooved, clamped SE(T) specimen with center-crack weld and side-grooved, three-point bending SE(B) (or SENB) specimens to determine the J-R curves. The methods were compared in terms of geometry, relative crack size and crack-tip constraint, and the results were applied to a case study, to evaluate the degree of conservativeness in defect acceptance criteria. The tests involving SE(B) specimens are usually considered conservative, however, the comparison between this two methods may point an accurate alternative for girth weld assessments, since adequate geometry is adopted to describe accurately the structure's behavior. (author)
Limit strains for severe accident conditions. Synthesis report of the EU-project LISSAC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krieg, R.; Seidenfuss, M.
2003-10-01
The local failure strains of essential reactor vessel components are investigated. The size influence of the components is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial static and dynamic loads. Within one test family the specimen geometry and the load conditions are similar, the temperature is the same; but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for reactor components. To manufacture all specimens sufficient material was available from the unused reactor pressure vessel Biblis C. Thus variations of the mechanical material properties, which could impair the interpretation of the test results, are rather small. This has been confirmed by an adequate number of additional quality assurance tests. A key problem was to determine the local strain at failure. Here suitable methods had to be developed including the so-called ''vanishing gap method'' and the ''forging die method''. They are based on post test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields using finite element calculations, for instance. To deepen the understanding of structural degradation and fracture and to allow extrapolations, advanced computational methods including damage models have been developed and validated. Several approaches were tried in parallel including so-called non-local concepts and descriptions of stochastic properties at grain size level. The experimental results indicate that stresses versus dimensionless deformations are approximately size independent up to failure for specimens of similar geometry under similar load conditions. Also the maximum stress is approximately size independent, if failure occurs after the maximum stress is reached
Progress report on irradiation experiment on small size specimens in high temperature flux module
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramesh, M.; Jacquet, P.; Chaouadi, R.
2011-02-15
This report describes the progress made in IFREC/DEMO Research and Development Program during the year 2010 at SCK/CEN. This task is part of demonstrating the possibility to irradiate small specimens in the HFTM modules that will be used in DEMO. Different small specimens of three candidate materials of DEMO fusion reactor will be irradiated with the objective of validating the specimen geometry and size to reliably characterize the mechanical properties of unirradiated and in future of irradiated materials.
Optimization of weld bead geometry of MS plate
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The considered specimen was checked to harmonize the optimum setting between input factors, for example, welding current, open circuit voltage, and thickness of plate, with respect to obtaining prosperous weld strength as well as bead geometry quality characteristics, for example, tensile strength, bead width, ...
Russo, Christopher J.; Passmore, Lori A.
2016-01-01
Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows structure determination of a wide range of biological molecules and specimens. All-gold supports improve cryo-EM images by reducing radiation-induced motion and image blurring. Here we compare the mechanical and electrical properties of all-gold supports to amorphous carbon foils. Gold supports are more conductive, and have suspended foils that are not compressed by differential contraction when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These measurements show how the choice of support material and geometry can reduce specimen movement by more than an order of magnitude during low-dose imaging. We provide methods for fabrication of all-gold supports and preparation of vitrified specimens. We also analyse illumination geometry for optimal collection of high resolution, low-dose data. Together, the support structures and methods herein can improve the resolution and quality of images from any electron cryomicroscope. PMID:26592474
Hafizzal, Y.; Nurulhuda, A.; Izman, S.; Khadir, AZA
2017-08-01
POM-copolymer bond breaking leads to change depending with respect to processing methodology and material geometries. This paper present the oversights effect on the material integrity due to different geometries and processing methodology. Thermo-analytical methods with reference were used to examine the degradation of thermomechanical while Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to judge the thermal stability of sample from its major decomposition temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) investigation performed to identify the thermal behaviour and thermal properties of materials. The result shown that plastic gear geometries with injection molding at higher tonnage machine more stable thermally rather than resin geometries. Injection plastic gear geometries at low tonnage machine faced major decomposition temperatures at 313.61°C, 305.76 °C and 307.91 °C while higher tonnage processing method are fully decomposed at 890°C, significantly higher compared to low tonnage condition and resin geometries specimen at 398°C. Chemical composition of plastic gear geometries with injection molding at higher and lower tonnage are compare based on their moisture and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) content, polymeric material content and the absence of filler. Results of higher moisture and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) content are report in resin geometries (0.120%) compared to higher tonnage of injection plastic gear geometries which is 1.264%. The higher tonnage of injection plastic gear geometry are less sensitive to thermo-mechanical degradation due to polymer chain length and molecular weight of material properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, fatigue strength and creep resistance.
Effect of a new specimen size on fatigue crack growth behavior in thick-walled pressure vessels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shariati, Mahmoud; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Masoudi Nejad, Reza
2017-01-01
Fatigue crack growth in thick-walled pressure vessels is an important factor affecting their fracture. Predicting the path of fatigue crack growth in a pressure vessel is the main issue discussed in fracture mechanics. The objective of this paper is to design a new geometrical specimen in fatigue to define the behavior of semi-elliptical crack growth in thick-walled pressure vessels. In the present work, the importance of the behavior of fatigue crack in test specimen and real conditions in thick-walled pressure vessels is investigated. The results of fatigue loading on the new specimen are compared with the results of fatigue loading in a cylindrical pressure vessel and a standard specimen. Numerical and experimental methods are used to investigate the behavior of fatigue crack growth in the new specimen. For this purpose, a three-dimensional boundary element method is used for fatigue crack growth under stress field. The modified Paris model is used to estimate fatigue crack growth rates. In order to verify the numerical results, fatigue test is carried out on a couple of specimens with a new geometry made of ck45. A comparison between experimental and numerical results has shown good agreement. - Highlights: • This paper provides a new specimen to define the behavior of fatigue crack growth. • We estimate the behavior of fatigue crack growth in specimen and pressure vessel. • A 3D finite element model has been applied to estimate the fatigue life. • We compare the results of fatigue loading for cylindrical vessel and specimens. • Comparison between experimental and numerical results has shown a good agreement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cui, Yi; Chen, Zengtao
2015-01-01
The effect of initial void geometry on damage progression in a thin aluminum film under uniaxial load is studied via molecular dynamics (MD) method. The embedded voids are with different initial geometries regarding shape, porosity and intervoid ligament distance (ILD). Major simulations are run upon twelve MD geometries with each containing 8–27 million atoms. The corresponding stress–strain relation is monitored during the microstructure evolution of the specimens. The critical stress to trigger the dislocation emission is found in line with the prediction of the Lubarda model. The simulation results reveal that the initial void geometry has substantial impact on the stress–strain relation especially for a specimen with larger initial porosity. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapuliot, S.; Marie, S.
1999-01-01
This article describes an experimental and numerical study of the initiation conditions of ductile tearing in ferritic materials. An initial criterion J i is determined experimentally using a sufficiently thick CT specimen. The numerical and experimental aspects are then discussed for thinner CT specimen and a method is proposed for determining it in thin test samples. The local ductile tear initiation criterion, which was determined on the basis of 3D finite element calculations, was applied to a cracked branch pipe geometry subjected to out-of-plane bending to compare the load estimates at the start of propagation and the values measured during the test. The results of the comparison were highly satisfactory: the criterion is predictive. (orig.)
Analysis of crack opening stresses for center- and edge-crack tension specimens
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tong Di-Hua
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Accurate determination of crack opening stress is of central importance to fatigue crack growth analysis and life prediction based on the crack-closure model. This paper studies the crack opening behavior for center- and edge-crack tension specimens. It is found that the crack opening stress is affected by the crack tip element. By taking the crack tip element into account, a modified crack opening stress equation is given for the center-crack tension specimen. Crack surface displacement equations for an edge crack in a semi-infinite plate under remote uniform tension and partially distributed pressure are derived by using the weight function method. Based on these displacements, a crack opening stress equation for an edge crack in a semi-infinite plate under uniform tension has been developed. The study shows that the crack opening stress is geometry-dependent, and the weight function method provides an effective and reliable tool to deal with such geometry dependence.
Accurate characterization of wafer bond toughness with the double cantilever specimen
Turner, Kevin T.; Spearing, S. Mark
2008-01-01
The displacement loaded double cantilever test, also referred to as the "Maszara test" and the "crack opening method" by the wafer bonding community, is a common technique used to evaluate the interface toughness or surface energy of direct wafer bonds. While the specimen is widely used, there has been a persistent question as to the accuracy of the method since the actual specimen geometry differs from the ideal beam geometry assumed in the expression used for data reduction. The effect of conducting the test on whole wafer pairs, in which the arms of cantilevers are wide plates rather than slender beams, is examined in this work using finite element analysis. A model is developed to predict the equilibrium shape of the crack front and to develop a corrected expression for calculating interface toughness from crack length measurements obtained in tests conducted on whole wafer pairs. The finite element model, which is validated through comparison to experiments, demonstrates that using the traditional beam theory-based expressions for data reduction can lead to errors of up to 25%.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shimizu, Ichiro; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels
2010-01-01
, during upsetting and strip drawing, by means of a rigid-viscoplastic finite-element formulation. Special emphasis is placed on the effect of pocket geometry on the build-up of hydrostatic pressure, which is responsible for the onset of micro-lubrication mechanisms. A good agreement is found between......Micro-lubricant pockets located in the surface of plastically deforming workpieces are recognised to improve the performance of fluid lubrication in a metal-forming process. This work investigates the joint influence of pocket geometry and process working conditions on micro-lubrication mechanisms...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodarzi, M.; Ramezanpour, R.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Alternative cross sections for natural draft cooling tower were proposed. • Numerical solution was applied to study thermal and hydraulic performances. • Thermal and hydraulic performances were assessed by comparative parameters. • Cooling tower with elliptical cross section had better thermal performance under crosswind. • It could successfully used at the regions with invariant wind direction. - Abstract: Cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower may significantly decrease under crosswind condition. Therefore, many researchers attempted to improve the cooling efficiency under this condition by using structural or mechanical facilities. In this article, alternative shell geometry with elliptical cross section is proposed for this type of cooling tower instead of usual shell geometry with circular cross section. Thermal performance and cooling efficiency of the two types of cooling towers are numerically investigated. Numerical simulations show that cooling tower with elliptical cross section improves the cooling efficiency compared to the usual type with circular cross section under high-speed wind moving normal to the longitudinal diameter of the elliptical cooling tower
Influence of specimen size/type on the fracture toughness of five irradiated RPV materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, Mikhail A; Lucon, Enrico
2015-01-01
The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program had previously irradiated five reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels/welds at fast neutron fluxes of about 4 to 8 x 10 11 n/cm 2 /s (>1 MeV) to fluences from 0.5 to 3.4 10 19 n/cm 2 and at 288 °C. The unirradiated fracture toughness tests were performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory with 12.7-mm and 25.4-mm thick (0.5T and 1T) compact specimens, while the HSSI Program provided tensile and 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens to SCK-CEN for irradiation in the in-pile section of the Belgian Reactor BR2 at fluxes > 10 13 n/cm 2 /s and subsequent testing by SCK-CEN. The BR2 irradiations were conducted at about 2 and 4 x 10 13 n/cm 2 /s with irradiation temperature between 295 °C and 300 °C (water temperature), and to fluences between 6 and 10 x 10 19 n/cm 2 . The irradiation-induced shifts of the Master Curve reference temperatures, ΔT 0 , for most of the materials deviated from the embrittlement correlations much more than expected, motivating the testing of 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens of all five materials in the unirradiated condition to eliminate specimen size and geometry as a variable. Tests of the unirradiated small bend specimens resulted in Master Curve reference temperatures, ΔT 0 , 25 °C to 53 °C lower than those from the larger compact specimens, meaning that the irradiation-induced reference temperature shifts, ΔT 0 , were larger than the initial measurements, resulting in much improved agreement between the measured and predicted fracture toughness shifts.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hwi Joo; Lee, Hee Gyoun [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soon Dong; Jun, Bung Hyack; Kim, Chan Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-09-15
This study presents that the orientation and the geometry of seed affect on the growth behavior of melt processed single grain REBCO bulk superconductor and its magnetic properties. The effects of seed geometry have been investigated for thin 30mm x 30mm rectangular powder compacts. Single grain REBCO bulk superconductors have been grown successfully by a top seed melt growth method for 8-mm thick vertical thin REBCO slab. Asymmetric structures have been developed at the front surface and at the rear surface of the specimen. Higher magnetic properties have been obtained for the specimen that c-axis is normal to the specimen surface. The relationships between microstructure, grain growth and magnetic properties have been discussed.
On the geometry of the fuel rod supports concerning a fretting wear failure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyung-Kyu; Lee, Young-Ho; Lee, Kang-Hee
2008-01-01
Geometrical conditions of spacer grid springs and dimples of a light water reactor fuel assembly are studied in this paper concerning a fuel rod's fretting wear failure. In this framework, the springs/dimples are categorized from the aspects of their orientation with respect to the fuel axis and the contact types. Possible motions on the contacts between the springs/dimples and fuel rods are estimated by conducting a flow-induced vibration test. Features of the wear scar and depth are investigated by independent fretting wear tests carried out with spring and dimple specimens of typical contact geometries. It is also attempted here to apply the contact mechanics theory to a fuel fretting wear analysis such as the prediction of a wear depth profile and its rate, which is influenced by the contact shape of the springs/dimples. It is shown that the theory can be applied to a dimensional control of a coining for the springs/dimples, which is usually carried out in a thin plate fabrication. From the results, the necessary conditions for a spring/dimple geometry for restraining a fretting wear failure are discussed
Weld investigations by 3D analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Allan
2005-01-01
The Charpy impact test is a standard procedure for determining the ductile-brittle transition in welds. The predictions of such tests have been investigated by full three dimensional transient analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens. The material response is characterised by an elastic...... parameters in the weld material differ from those in the base material, and the heat a®ected zone (HAZ) tends to be more brittle than the other material regions. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is an important issue. Some specimens, for which the notched surface is rotated relative...... to the surface of the test piece, have so complex geometry that only a full 3D analysis is able to account for the interaction of failure in the three different material regions, whereas ther specimens can be approximated in terms of a planar analysis....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mihalcea, Bogdan M., E-mail: bogdan.mihalcea@inflpr.ro; Vişan, Gina T.; Ganciu, Mihai [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Atomiştilor Str. Nr. 409, 077125 Măgurele, Ilfov (Romania); Giurgiu, Liviu C. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomistilor Str. Nr. 405, 077125 Măgurele (Romania); Stan, Cristina [Department of Physics, Politehnica University, 313 Splaiul Independenţei, RO-060042 Bucharest (Romania); Filinov, Vladimir; Lapitsky, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitrucho@yandex.ru; Deputatova, Lidiya; Syrovatka, Roman [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya Str. 13, Bd. 2, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-03-21
Trapping of microparticles and aerosols is of great interest for physics and chemistry. We report microparticle trapping in case of multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under standard ambient temperature and pressure conditions. An 8- and 12-electrode linear trap geometries have been designed and tested with an aim to achieve trapping for larger number of particles and to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. We report emergence of planar and volume ordered structures of microparticles, depending on the a.c. trapping frequency and particle specific charge ratio. The electric potential within the trap is mapped using the electrolytic tank method. Particle dynamics is simulated using a stochastic Langevin equation. We emphasize extended regions of stable trapping with respect to quadrupole traps, as well as good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalcea, Bogdan M.; Vişan, Gina T.; Ganciu, Mihai; Giurgiu, Liviu C.; Stan, Cristina; Filinov, Vladimir; Lapitsky, Dmitry; Deputatova, Lidiya; Syrovatka, Roman
2016-01-01
Trapping of microparticles and aerosols is of great interest for physics and chemistry. We report microparticle trapping in case of multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under standard ambient temperature and pressure conditions. An 8- and 12-electrode linear trap geometries have been designed and tested with an aim to achieve trapping for larger number of particles and to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. We report emergence of planar and volume ordered structures of microparticles, depending on the a.c. trapping frequency and particle specific charge ratio. The electric potential within the trap is mapped using the electrolytic tank method. Particle dynamics is simulated using a stochastic Langevin equation. We emphasize extended regions of stable trapping with respect to quadrupole traps, as well as good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winkler, Hanspeter; Taylor, Kenneth A.
2006-01-01
An image alignment method for electron tomography is presented which is based on cross-correlation techniques and which includes a simultaneous refinement of the tilt geometry. A coarsely aligned tilt series is iteratively refined with a procedure consisting of two steps for each cycle: area matching and subsequent geometry correction. The first step, area matching, brings into register equivalent specimen regions in all images of the tilt series. It determines four parameters of a linear two-dimensional transformation, not just translation and rotation as is done during the preceding coarse alignment with conventional methods. The refinement procedure also differs from earlier methods in that the alignment references are now computed from already aligned images by reprojection of a backprojected volume. The second step, geometry correction, refines the initially inaccurate estimates of the geometrical parameters, including the direction of the tilt axis, a tilt angle offset, and the inclination of the specimen with respect to the support film or specimen holder. The correction values serve as an indicator for the progress of the refinement. For each new iteration, the correction values are used to compute an updated set of geometry parameters by a least squares fit. Model calculations show that it is essential to refine the geometrical parameters as well as the accurate alignment of the images to obtain a faithful map of the original structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piscaglia F.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The implementation and the combination of advanced boundary conditions and subgrid scale models for Large Eddy Simulations are presented. The goal is to perform reliable cold flow LES simulations in complex geometries, such as in the cylinders of internal combustion engines. The implementation of an inlet boundary condition for synthetic turbulence generation and of two subgrid scale models, the local Dynamic Smagorinsky and the Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity SGS model ( WALE is described. The WALE model is based on the square of the velocity gradient tensor and it accounts for the effects of both the strain and the rotation rate of the smallest resolved turbulent fluctuations and it recovers the proper y3 near-wall scaling for the eddy viscosity without requiring dynamic pressure; hence, it is supposed to be a very reliable model for ICE simulation. Model validation has been performed separately on two steady state flow benches: a backward facing step geometry and a simple IC engine geometry with one axed central valve. A discussion on the completeness of the LES simulation (i.e. LES simulation quality is given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucon, E.; Scibetta, M.; Chaouadi, R.; Walle, E. van
2005-04-01
In the nuclear field, the importance of direct fracture toughness measurements on RPV materials has been nowadays widely recognized, as opposed to Charpy-based estimations. However, sample dimensions have to be kept small in order to optimize the use of available material (often in the form of previously broken Charpy specimens) or, in the case of new irradiations, make effective use of the limited space available inside irradiation facilities. One of the most appealing geometries for fracture toughness measurements is the miniature Compact Tension specimen, MC(T), which has the following dimensions: B = 4.15 mm, W = 8.3 mm, cross section 10 x 10 mm 2 . Four MC(T) specimens can be machined out of a broken half Charpy, and in the case of irradiation ten MC(T) samples occupy approximately the same volume as a full-size Charpy specimen. The MC(T) geometry was already successfully applied and qualified for fracture toughness assessments in the ductile-to-brittle transition regime, using the Master Curve method (ASTM E1921-03). A further, comprehensive investigation is presented in this report, aimed at assessing the applicability of MC(T) specimens to measure fracture toughness in fully ductile (upper shelf) conditions. In this study, 18 1TC(T) and 20 MC(T) specimens have been tested at different temperatures from three RPV steels and one low-alloy C-Mn steel. The results obtained clearly show that MC(T) samples exhibit lower fracture toughness properties, both in terms of initiation of ductile tearing (according to various test standards) and resistance to ductile crack propagation (J-R curve). The reduction of tearing resistance might be attributed to work hardening prevailing over loss of constraint in the uncracked ligament in a side-grooved specimen, or to the inadequacy of J-integral to represent ductile crack extension in very small specimens. Both arguments will have to be verified with further investigations. (author)
Development of fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nogami, Shuhei; Nishimura, Arata; Fujiwara, Masaharu; Hisaka, Tomoaki
2012-01-01
To develop the fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen, the investigation of the effect of specimen size and specimen shape on the fatigue life and the development of the fatigue testing machine, especially the extensometer, were carried out. The effect of specimen size on the fatigue life was almost negligible for the round-bar specimens. The shorter fatigue life at relatively low strain range conditions for the hourglass specimen that the standard specimen were observed. Therefore the miniature round-bar specimen was considered to be adequate for the fatigue life evaluation using small specimen. Several types of the extensometer system using a strain gauge and a laser has been developed for realizing the fatigue test of the miniature round-bar specimen at high temperature in vacuum. (author)
Validatin of miniaturised tensile testing on DMLS TI6AL4V (ELI specimens
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Van Zyl, Ian
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is a relatively new technology that is developing rapidly. Since DMLS material is created by melting/solidifying tracks and layers from powder, even building geometry can influence the mechanical properties. To certify a material, the testing specimens must be designed and manufactured according to the appropriate standards. Miniaturised tensile DMLS samples could be a good alternative for express quality control, and could reduce the cost of DMLS-specific testing. In this study, as-built and stress-relieved miniaturised tensile DMLS Ti6Al4V (ELI specimens with different surface qualities were investigated. The fracture surfaces and mechanical properties of the mini-tensile specimens were analysed and compared with standard full-sized specimens also manufactured by DMLS. The obtained data showed the applicability of mini-tensile tests for the express analysis of DMLS objects if a correction factor is applied for the calculation of the load-bearing cross-section of the specimen.
Convection in Slab and Spheroidal Geometries
Porter, David H.; Woodward, Paul R.; Jacobs, Michael L.
2000-01-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of compressible turbulent thermally driven convection, in both slab and spheroidal geometries, are reviewed and analyzed in terms of velocity spectra and mixing-length theory. The same ideal gas model is used in both geometries, and resulting flows are compared. The piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), with either thermal conductivity or photospheric boundary conditions, is used to solve the fluid equations of motion. Fluid motions in both geometries exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k(sup -5/3) range in their velocity spectra. The longest wavelength modes are energetically dominant in both geometries, typically leading to one convection cell dominating the flow. In spheroidal geometry, a dipolar flow dominates the largest scale convective motions. Downflows are intensely turbulent and up drafts are relatively laminar in both geometries. In slab geometry, correlations between temperature and velocity fluctuations, which lead to the enthalpy flux, are fairly independent of depth. In spheroidal geometry this same correlation increases linearly with radius over the inner 70 percent by radius, in which the local pressure scale heights are a sizable fraction of the radius. The effects from the impenetrable boundary conditions in the slab geometry models are confused with the effects from non-local convection. In spheroidal geometry nonlocal effects, due to coherent plumes, are seen as far as several pressure scale heights from the lower boundary and are clearly distinguishable from boundary effects.
Spinning geometry = Twisted geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freidel, Laurent; Ziprick, Jonathan
2014-01-01
It is well known that the SU(2)-gauge invariant phase space of loop gravity can be represented in terms of twisted geometries. These are piecewise-linear-flat geometries obtained by gluing together polyhedra, but the resulting geometries are not continuous across the faces. Here we show that this phase space can also be represented by continuous, piecewise-flat three-geometries called spinning geometries. These are composed of metric-flat three-cells glued together consistently. The geometry of each cell and the manner in which they are glued is compatible with the choice of fluxes and holonomies. We first remark that the fluxes provide each edge with an angular momentum. By studying the piecewise-flat geometries which minimize edge lengths, we show that these angular momenta can be literally interpreted as the spin of the edges: the geometries of all edges are necessarily helices. We also show that the compatibility of the gluing maps with the holonomy data results in the same conclusion. This shows that a spinning geometry represents a way to glue together the three-cells of a twisted geometry to form a continuous geometry which represents a point in the loop gravity phase space. (paper)
Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E., E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.br, E-mail: morcelliae@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-11-01
Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)
Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E.
2017-01-01
Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)
Kung, J.; Chien, Y. V.; Wu, W.; Dong, J.; Chang, Y.; Tsai, C.; Yang, M.; Wang, K.
2012-12-01
Previous studies showed that the voids and their geometry in the sedimentary rocks have great influence on the compressibility of rock, which reflects on its elastic velocities. Some models were developed to discuss the relations among velocity, porosity and void geometry. Therefore, the information of porosity, and void geometry and its distribution in rock is essential for understanding how the elastic properties of porous rocks affected by their poregeometry. In this study, we revisited a well-studied porous rock, Darley Dale sandstone, which has been studied by different groups with different purposes. Most of them are the deformation experiments. Different from previous studies, we measured the sound velocity of Darley dale sandstone under hydrostatic conditions. Also, we employed different techniques to investigate the pore geometry and porosity of Darley Dale sandstone to gain the insight of velocity changing behavior under the crustal conditions. Here, we measured a fully-dense copper block for a comparison. We performed X-ray CT scanning (XCT) to image the pore space of sandstone to construct the 3-D image of pore geometry, distribution and the pore size. The CT image data are allowed us to estimate the porosity of sandstone, too. One the other hand, the porosity of sample was measured using imbibitions method at ambient conditions and helium porosimeter at high pressure (up to 150 MPa). A set of specimens were cored from Darley Dale sandstone block. P and S wave velocities of specimens were measured at ambient conditions. We also performed high pressure velocity measurements on a selected rock specimen and a copper block up to 150 MPa under dry condition. Porosity of a set of rock specimens measured by imbibitions method was spanned from 6% to 15%, largely distributed within a range of 8%-11%. Compared the porosity obtained from three different techniques, imbibitions method, helium porosimeter and XCT, values from those measurements are in good agreement
Lefebvre, W; Hernandez-Maldonado, D; Moyon, F; Cuvilly, F; Vaudolon, C; Shinde, D; Vurpillot, F
2015-12-01
The geometry of atom probe tomography tips strongly differs from standard scanning transmission electron microscopy foils. Whereas the later are rather flat and thin (atom probe tomography specimens. Based on simulations (electron probe propagation and image simulations), the possibility to apply quantitative high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy to of atom probe tomography specimens has been tested. The influence of electron probe convergence and the benefice of deconvolution of electron probe point spread function electron have been established. Atom counting in atom probe tomography specimens is for the first time reported in this present work. It is demonstrated that, based on single projections of high angle annular dark field imaging, significant quantitative information can be used as additional input for refining the data obtained by correlative analysis of the specimen in APT, therefore opening new perspectives in the field of atomic scale tomography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osborne, I; Brownson, E; Eulisse, G; Jones, C D; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Lange, D J
2014-01-01
CMS faces real challenges with upgrade of the CMS detector through 2020 and beyond. One of the challenges, from the software point of view, is managing upgrade simulations with the same software release as the 2013 scenario. We present the CMS geometry description software model, its integration with the CMS event setup and core software. The CMS geometry configuration and selection is implemented in Python. The tools collect the Python configuration fragments into a script used in CMS workflow. This flexible and automated geometry configuration allows choosing either transient or persistent version of the same scenario and specific version of the same scenario. We describe how the geometries are integrated and validated, and how we define and handle different geometry scenarios in simulation and reconstruction. We discuss how to transparently manage multiple incompatible geometries in the same software release. Several examples are shown based on current implementation assuring consistent choice of scenario conditions. The consequences and implications for multiple/different code algorithms are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toivonen, A.; Moilanen, P.; Pyykkoenen, M.; Taehtinen, S.; Rintamaa, R.; Saario, T.
1998-01-01
Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of core materials has become an increasingly important issue of downtime and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. Small size specimens are necessary in stress corrosion testing of irradiated materials because of difficulties in handling high dose rate materials and because of restricted availability of the materials. The drawback of using small size specimens is that in some cases they do not fulfil the requirements of the relevant testing standards. Recently VTT has developed J-R testing with irradiated and non-irradiated sub size 3 PB specimens, both in inert and in LWR environments. Also, a new materials testing system which will enable simultaneous multiple specimen testing both in laboratory conditions and in operating reactor core is under development. The new testing system will utilize Charpy and sub size 3 PB specimens. The feasibility study of the system has been carried out using different materials. Fracture resistance curves of a Cu-Zr-Cr alloy are shown to be independent of the specimen geometry and size, to some extent. Results gained from tests in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water are presented for sensitized SIS 2333 stainless steel. The experimental results indicate that the size of the plastic zone or stress triaxiality must be further studied although no significant effect on the environmentally assisted crack growth rate was observed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toivonen, A.; Moilanen, P.; Pyykkoenen, M.; Taehtinen, S.; Rintamaa, R.; Saario, T. [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland)
1998-11-01
Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of core materials has become an increasingly important issue of downtime and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. Small size specimens are necessary in stress corrosion testing of irradiated materials because of difficulties in handling high dose rate materials and because of restricted availability of the materials. The drawback of using small size specimens is that in some cases they do not fulfil the requirements of the relevant testing standards. Recently VTT has developed J-R testing with irradiated and non-irradiated sub size 3 PB specimens, both in inert and in LWR environments. Also, a new materials testing system which will enable simultaneous multiple specimen testing both in laboratory conditions and in operating reactor core is under development. The new testing system will utilize Charpy and sub size 3 PB specimens. The feasibility study of the system has been carried out using different materials. Fracture resistance curves of a Cu-Zr-Cr alloy are shown to be independent of the specimen geometry and size, to some extent. Results gained from tests in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water are presented for sensitized SIS 2333 stainless steel. The experimental results indicate that the size of the plastic zone or stress triaxiality must be further studied although no significant effect on the environmentally assisted crack growth rate was observed. (orig.)
Influence of specimen size/type on the fracture toughness of five irradiated RPV materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sokolov, Mikhail A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lucon, Enrico [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)
2015-01-01
The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program had previously irradiated five reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels/welds at fast neutron fluxes of about 4 to 8 x 10^{11} n/cm^{2}/s (>1 MeV) to fluences from 0.5 to 3.4 10^{19} n/cm^{2} and at 288 °C. The unirradiated fracture toughness tests were performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory with 12.7-mm and 25.4-mm thick (0.5T and 1T) compact specimens, while the HSSI Program provided tensile and 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens to SCK-CEN for irradiation in the in-pile section of the Belgian Reactor BR2 at fluxes > 10^{13} n/cm^{2}/s and subsequent testing by SCK-CEN. The BR2 irradiations were conducted at about 2 and 4 x 10^{13} n/cm^{2}/s with irradiation temperature between 295 °C and 300 °C (water temperature), and to fluences between 6 and 10 x 10^{19}n/cm^{2}. The irradiation-induced shifts of the Master Curve reference temperatures, ΔT_{0}, for most of the materials deviated from the embrittlement correlations much more than expected, motivating the testing of 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens of all five materials in the unirradiated condition to eliminate specimen size and geometry as a variable. Tests of the unirradiated small bend specimens resulted in Master Curve reference temperatures, T_{0}, 25 °C to 53 °C lower than those from the larger compact specimens, meaning that the irradiation-induced reference temperature shifts, ΔT_{0}, were larger than the initial measurements, resulting in much improved agreement between the measured and predicted fracture toughness shifts.
Differential geometry and topology of curves
Animov, Yu
2001-01-01
Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petersen, Claudio Zen; Vilhena, Marco T.; Barros, Ricardo C.
2009-01-01
In this paper the application of the Laplace transform method is described in order to determine the energy-dependent albedo matrix that is used in the boundary conditions multigroup neutron diffusion eigenvalue problems in slab geometry for nuclear reactor global calculations. In slab geometry, the diffusion albedo substitutes without approximation the baffle-reflector system around the active domain. Numerical results to typical test problems are shown to illustrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the Chebysheff acceleration scheme. (orig.)
Fracture toughness evaluation of Eurofer'97 by testing small specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serrano, M.; Fernandez, P.; Lapena, J.
2006-01-01
The Eurofer'97 is the structural reference material that will be tested in the ITER modules. Its metallurgical properties have been well characterized during the last years. However, more investigations related with the fracture toughness of this material are necessary because this property is one of the most important to design structural components and to study their integrity assessment. In the case of structural materials for fusion reactor the small specimen technology (SSTT) are being actively developed to investigate the fracture toughness among other mechanical properties. The use of small specimens is due to the small available irradiation volume of IFMIF and also due to the high fluence expected in the fusion reactor. The aim of this paper is to determine the fracture toughness of the Eurofer'97 steel by testing small specimens of different geometry in the ductile to brittle transition region, with the application of the Master Curve methodology, and to evaluate this method to assess the decrease in fracture toughness due to neutron irradiation. The tests and data analysis have been performed following the Master Curve approach included in the ASTM Standard E1921-05. Specimen size effect and comparison of the fracture toughness results with data available in the literature are also considered. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carassou, S.; Le Saux, M.; Pizzanelli, J.P.; Rabouille, O.; Averty, X.; Poussard, C.; Cazalis, B.; Desquines, J.; Bernaudat, C.
2010-01-01
In this work, eight PST (Plan Strain Tensile) tests machined from a Zircaloy-4 (Zy-4) cladding irradiated up to 5 annual cycles have been performed at 280, 350 and 480 Celsius degrees. The specimen displacements during the tests were filmed and digitally recorded to allow the use of a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) analysis technique to experimentally determine the local strains on the outer surface of the specimens. The plane strain conditions have been verified and prevail over a wide area between the notches of the specimen, as expected from full 3D FE numerical analysis performed in support of the tests. For the first time, the location of the onset of fracture for this geometry on irradiated material has been experimentally observed: at 280 C.degrees, crack initiates in the vicinity of the notches, in an area where plane strain conditions are not fulfilled, and for a local circumferential strain value of about 5%. At 350 C. degrees and 480 C. degrees, cracks initiate at a location where plane strain conditions prevail, for circumferential strain values respectively close to 10% and greater than 50%. These results have been compared to results obtained previously by similar test on fresh and hydrided material, as well as tests performed as support to the study. At 350 C. degrees, the homogeneous 700 ppm hydrided Zy-4 and the Zy-4 irradiated during 5 annual cycles exhibit similar fracture behaviour, for both fracture hoop strain values (10%) and fracture mode (through-wall slant fracture). For the irradiated material, it has clearly been established that at 350 C. degrees, a brittle fracture occurs at the outer surface in the hydride rim. The crack propagates subsequently toward the inner surface and the notches, where final fracture occurs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Seitl
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The fracture mechanical properties of silicate based materials are determined from various fracture mechanicals tests, e.g. three- or four- point bending test, wedge splitting test, modified compact tension test etc. For evaluation of the parameters, knowledge about the calibration and compliance functions is required. Therefore, in this paper, the compliance and calibration curves for a novel test geometry based on combination of the wedge splitting test and three-point bending test are introduced. These selected variants exhibit significantly various stress state conditions at the crack tip, or, more generally, in the whole specimen ligament. The calibration and compliance curves are compared and used for evaluation of the data from pilot experimental measurement.
Replacement/Refurbishment of JSC/NASA POD Specimens
Castner, Willard L.
2010-01-01
The NASA Special NDE certification process requires demonstration of NDE capability by test per NASA-STD-5009. This test is performed with fatigue cracked specimens containing very small cracks. The certification test results are usually based on binomial statistics and must meet a 90/95 Probability of Detection (POD). The assumption is that fatigue cracks are tightly closed, difficult to detect, and inspectors and processes passing such a test are well qualified for inspecting NASA fracture critical hardware. The JSC NDE laboratory has what may be the largest inventory that exists of such fatigue cracked NDE demonstration specimens. These specimens were produced by the hundreds in the late 1980s and early 1990s. None have been produced since that time and the condition and usability of the specimens are questionable.
General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism
Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.
2002-01-01
It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...
Thermal compatibility of dental ceramic systems using cylindrical and spherical geometries
DeHoff, Paul H.; Barrett, Allyson A.; Lee, Robert B.; Anusavice, Kenneth J.
2009-01-01
Objective To test the hypothesis that bilayer ceramic cylinders and spheres can provide valid confirmation of thermal incompatibility stresses predicted by finite element analyses. Methods A commercial core ceramic and an experimental core ceramic were used to fabricate open-ended cylinders and core ceramic spheres. The core cylinders and spheres were veneered with one of four commercial dental ceramics representing four thermally compatible groups and four thermally incompatible groups. Axisymmetric thermal and viscoelastic elements in the ANSYS finite element program were used to calculate temperatures and stresses for each geometry and ceramic combination. This process required a transient heat transfer analysis for each combination to determine input temperatures for the structural model. Results After fabrication, each specimen was examined visually using fiberoptic transillumination for evidence of cracking. There were 100% failures of the thermally incompatible cylinders while none of the thermally compatible combinations failed. Among the spheres, 100% of the thermally incompatible systems failed, 16% of one of the thermally compatible systems failed, and none of the remaining compatible combinations failed. The calculated stress values were in general agreement with the experimental observations, i.e., low residual stresses for the specimens that did not fail and high residual stresses for the specimens that did fail. Significance Simple screening geometries can be used to identify highly incompatible ceramic combinations, but they do not identify marginally incompatible systems. PMID:17949805
Effect of target-fixture geometry on shock-wave compacted copper powders
Kim, Wooyeol; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Yoon, Jae Ik; Park, Lee Ju; Kim, Hyoung Seop
2018-01-01
In shock compaction with a single gas gun system, a target fixture is used to safely recover a powder compact processed by shock-wave dynamic impact. However, no standard fixture geometry exists, and its effect on the processed compact is not well studied. In this study, two types of fixture are used for the dynamic compaction of hydrogen-reduced copper powders, and the mechanical properties and microstructures are investigated using the Vickers microhardness test and electron backscatter diffraction, respectively. With the assistance of finite element method simulations, we analyze several shock parameters that are experimentally hard to control. The results of the simulations indicate that the target geometry clearly affects the characteristics of incident and reflected shock waves. The hardness distribution and the microstructure of the compacts also show their dependence on the geometry. With the results of the simulations and the experiment, it is concluded that the target geometry affects the shock wave propagation and wave interaction in the specimen.
Alfredo Dugès' type specimens of amphibians and reptiles revisited.
Flores-Villela, Oscar; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Magaña-Cota, Gloria E; Quezadas-Tapia, Néstor L
2016-03-14
The type specimens of amphibians and reptiles of the Museo de Historia Natural Alfredo Dugès, at the University of Guanajuato (MADUG) were reviewed following Smith & Necker's (1943) summary. Owing to this collection's eventful history and its historical importance as the oldest herpetological collection in Mexico, a review of its conservation status was needed. After many years, the collection has received proper recognition at the University of Guanajuato with a portion of the herpetological types considered "Precious Assets" of the university. We found 34 type specimens pertaining to 18 taxa; six are additional specimens to those previously reported; six herpetological types are missing, including the body of the type of Adelophis copei. All specimens are in good to reasonable condition except for the type of Rhinocheilus antonii, which has dried out completely. All specimens are illustrated to show their condition.
Effect of sample geometry on bulk relative density of hot-mix asphalt mixes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Anochie-Boateng, Joseph
2011-09-01
Full Text Available with different number of cut/cored surfaces. Significant variations in voids were observed in the HMA core and beam samples from the same compacted slabs. The objective of this paper is to present the findings of the effect of specimen geometry and cut surfaces...
Quantification of variability in bedform geometry
van der Mark, C.F.; Blom, Astrid; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.
2008-01-01
We analyze the variability in bedform geometry in laboratory and field studies. Even under controlled steady flow conditions in laboratory flumes, bedforms are irregular in size, shape, and spacing, also in case of well-sorted sediment. Our purpose is to quantify the variability in bedform geometry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranda, C.A.J.
2001-01-01
An experimental program was developed to characterize the transition region of an A508 cl3 steel. Some fracture mechanic specimens were tested in the transition region using three geometries with thickness B c values, the reference temperature values, To, associated with each geometry and test temperature, and the measured r wl distances and the theoretical ones. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herkenrath, H.; Hufschmidt, W.; Jung, U.; Weckermann, F.
1981-01-01
The enthalpy- and mass-flow-distribution at the outlet of two different 16-rod cluster test sections with uniform heating in axial and radial direction under steady state conditions has been measured for the first time by simultaneous sampling of 5 from 6 present characteristic subchannels in the bundle using the isokinetic technique and analysing the outlet quantities by a calorimetic method. The test-sections are provided with typical geometrical configurations for BWR s (70 bars; test section PELCO-S) and PWR s (160 bars; test-section EUROP). The latter has also been tested under BWR conditions (70 bars) to study the influence of geometry and pressure. The results showed the abnormal behaviour of the corner subchannel under BWR typical conditions (70 bars) which could not be found for PWR conditions (160 bars) and which is only an effect of pressure and not of geometry. The analysis of the experimental data confirms the usefullness of the subchannel sampling technique for the better understanding of the complex thermohydraulic phenomena under two-phase flow conditions in multirod bundles. Calculations of subchannel resistance coefficients for both types of spacers under one-phase flow conditions have been made with a special sub-structure method which showed a rather high local value of the corner subchannel. With the local drag coefficents the total resistance of the spacer has been evaluated and agreed well with measured values under adiabatic conditions. The measured subchannel data permit a direct valuation and examination of respective computer codes in a fundamental manner which are, however, not subject of this report
Gamma irradiation test report of simulated grout specimens for gas generation/liquid advection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinman, C.A.
1994-01-01
This report presents the results from an irradiation test performed on four specimens of grout that were fabricated from synthetic Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) liquid waste. The objective was to investigate the radiolytic generation of gases and the potential for advective rejection of waste liquids from the grout matrix and to provide experimental information for the validation of the C-Cubed calculated model. It has been demonstrated that a number of gases can be formed within the grout due to radiolytic decomposition of various chemical components that make up the grout. This observation leads to the conjecture that the potential exists for the rejection of a portion of the 60 vol% free liquid from the grout matrix driven by pressurization by these gases. It was found that, for the specimen geometries used in this test series, and for peak radiation dose accumulation rates on the order of 4 to 60 times of the initial rate expected in the grout vaults (300 Rads/hr), no liquid rejection was observed from 2% to 35% of the target exposure expected in the grout vaults (1E+08 Rads). When the irradiation rate exceeded the projected grout vault dose rate by a factor of 200 a small amount of liquid rejection was observed from one of two specimens that had received 20% more than the goal exposure. Because of the differences in the magnitudes of the relative radiation field strengths between this study and an actual grout vault, it is concluded that the potential for liquid rejection by internal gas pressurization from presently configured grout waste forms is very low for the expected conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Davi J.M.; Nunes, Carlos E.A.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: davijmsilva@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ceanunes@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Secretaria Municipal de Educacao de Itaborai, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Estacio de Sa (UNESA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Novra Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Departamento de Modelagem Computacional
2017-11-01
Discussed here is the accuracy of approximate albedo boundary conditions for energy multigroup discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) eigenvalue problems in two-dimensional rectangular geometry for criticality calculations in neutron fission reacting systems, such as nuclear reactors. The multigroup (S{sub N}) albedo matrix substitutes approximately the non-multiplying media around the core, e.g., baffle and reflector, as we neglect the transverse leakage terms within these non-multiplying regions. Numerical results to a typical model problem are given to illustrate the accuracy versus the computer running time. (author)
Influence of specimen design on the ductility of zircaloy cladding: Experiment and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, D. W.; Majumdar, S.; Koss, D. A.; Motta, A. T.
1999-01-01
In a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA), a control rod ejection or drop causes a sudden increase in reactor power, which in turn deposits a large amount of energy into the fuel. The resulting thermal expansion and fission gas release loads the cladding into the plastic regime and may cause it to fail. In order to predict cladding survivability, there has been considerable interest and effort in supplementing integral WA tests with separate-effects ring tests of cladding tubes. Such tests can give one insight into failure mechanisms and measure relevant mechanical properties (such as yield strength, uniform elongation, uniaxial stress-strain curve, etc.), for use in computer codes that attempt to predict cladding response during an RIA. The accuracy of such model predictions obviously depends on appropriate and accurate failure data. This study concerns itself with the proper development of ring tensile tests that (i) are similar to the loading conditions present in an RIA, (ii) measure the relevant mechanical properties and (iii) provide insight regarding the influence of the strain paths on the failure mechanisms present if Zircaloy cladding. Based on both experiments and computational modeling, the authors investigate the failure of Zircaloy tubing as a function of specimen geometry, and discuss the limitations of certain ring-test geometries in yielding failure ductility data that are applicable to RIA situations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hutli Ezddin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Based on visualization results of highly-submerged cavitating water jet obtained with digital camera, the influences of related parameters such as: injection pressure, nozzle diameter and geometry, nozzle mounting (for convergent / divergent flow, cavitation number and exit jet velocity, were investigated. In addition, the influence of visualization system position was also studied. All the parameters have been found to be of strong influence on the jet appearance and performance. Both hydro-dynamical and geometrical parameters are playing the main role in behavior and intensity of cavitation phenomenon produced by cavitating jet generator. Based on our considerable previous experience in working with cavitating jet generator, the working conditions were chosen in order to obtain measurable phenomenon. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35046
Preliminary investigation of candidate specimens for the Egyptian environmental specimen bank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shawky, S.; Amer, H.; Schladot, J.D.; Ostapczuk, P.; Emons, H.; Abou El-Nour, F.
2000-01-01
In the frame of establishing an environmental monitoring program related to environmental specimen banking in egypt, some candidate specimens from the aquatic environment (Fish muscle, fish liver; mussels) were investigated. The selection of specimens and sampling sites is described. Specimens are chemically characterised with respect to some major and trace elements and the results are compared with data obtained from comparable specimens collected in aquatic ecosystems of germany
Monolithic integration of nanoscale tensile specimens and MEMS structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kysar, Jeffrey W
2013-01-01
Nanoscale materials often have stochastic material properties due to a random distribution of material defects and an insufficient number of defects to ensure a consistent average mechanical response. Current methods to measure the mechanical properties employ MEMS-based actuators. The nanoscale specimens are typically mounted manually onto the load platform, so the boundary conditions have random variations, complicating the experimental measurement of the intrinsic stochasticity of the material properties. Here we show methods for monolithic integration of a nanoscale specimen co-fabricated with the loading platform. The nanoscale specimen is gold with dimensions of ∼40 nm thickness, 350 ± 50 nm width, and 7 μm length and the loading platform is an interdigitated electrode electrostatic actuator. The experiment is performed in a scanning electron microscope and digital image correlation is employed to measure displacements to determine stress and strain. The ultimate tensile strength of the nanocrystalline nanoscale specimen approaches 1 GPa, consistent with measurements made by other nanometer scale sample characterization methods on other material samples at the nanometer scale, as well as gold samples at the nanometer scale. The batch-compatible microfabrication method can be used to create nominally identical nanoscale specimens and boundary conditions for a broad range of materials. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seibel, Thomas
2014-01-01
In the present work the LCF (Low Cycle Fatigue) crack initiation life of the conventionally cast Ni-base alloy RENE 80 was analyzed as a function of specimen size and grain orientation. Five specimen geometries with distinctly different gauge sections were used: 3 geometries with cylindrical gauge section (G1-G3) and two notched geometries with a stress concentration factor of α 1 = 1,62 (KG1) and α 2 = 2,60 (KG2), resulting in a maximum difference of the damage relevant surface area up to a factor of approximately 72. Correction factors were determined by FEM calculations for all specimen geometries with highly reduced gauge sections where direct strain measurement was not possible. Additionally a uniform failure criterion with a relatively small crack size of 0,962 mm 2 was defined. Totally, 116 isothermal LCF tests were carried out at the different specimen types at a temperature of 850 C in total strain control with a load ratio (minimum strain / maximum strain) of R ε = -1. The load cycles were applied with triangular waveform at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for high strain amplitudes and 1 Hz for low strain amplitudes, respectively. After the LCF-Tests the fracture surfaces of all samples were analyzed in more detail by SEM to identify the crack initiation mechanisms as well as the crack initiation sites. In this context it could be shown, that fatigue cracks were generally initiated at slip bands in surface grains. Accordingly, the grain orientations at the crack initiation sites were measured by electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and the maximum shear stresses in the respective principal slip system (111) <110> was calculated using the Schmid approach. For this, longitudinal sections were be prepared exactly at the crack initiation sites of samples loaded with low strain amplitudes where clearly defined single crack initiation sites were observed. Afterwards the maximum shear stress in the principal slip system at the crack initiation site was correlated
Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2016-09-01
This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.
Photogrammetric analysis of concrete specimens and structures for condition assessment
D'Amico, Nicolas; Yu, Tzuyang
2016-04-01
Deterioration of civil infrastructure in America demands routine inspection and maintenance to avoid catastrophic failures from occurring. Among many other non-destructive evaluations (NDE), photogrammetry is an accessible and realistic approach used for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of a civil infrastructure systems. The objective of this paper is to explore the capabilities of photogrammetry for locating, sizing, and analyzing the remaining capacity of a specimen or system using point cloud data. Geometric interpretations, composed from up to 70 photographs are analyzed as a mesh or point cloud models. In this case study, concrete, which exhibits a large amount of surface texture features, was thoroughly examined. These evaluative techniques discussed were applied to concrete cylinder models as well as portions of civil infrastructure including buildings, retaining walls, and bridge abutments. In this paper, the aim is to demonstrate the basic analytical functionality of photogrammetry, as well as its applicability to in-situ civil infrastructure systems. In concrete specimens defect length and location can be evaluated in a fully defined model (one with the maximum amount of correctly acquired photographs) with less than 2% error. Error was found to be inversely proportional to the number of acceptable photographs acquired, remaining significantly under 10% error for any model with enough data to render. Furthermore, volumetric stress evaluations were applied using a cross sectional evaluation technique to locate the critical area, and determine the severity of damages. Finally, findings and the accuracy of the results are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yazid Bindar
2009-11-01
Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to introduce the method for optimizing the geometry of the unit process. The comprehensive unit process performances are generated by a CFD engine. The CFD engine can simulate the unit process performances at what ever conditions. Both design geometry and operating variables weree used on the CFD simulation. The burden on a simplified process was taken out from CFD simulation. A complex geometry of a unit process is represented by a secondary reformer. A secondary reformer has a conical volume as a space to undergo the combustion reaction before entering the catalyst bed. This complexity is added by the boundary of the porous solid surface as the top surface of catalyst bed. The spread angle affect the flow pattern in side the conical volume having a porous solid surface as a base. The spread angle above 65o results the disappearing of the recirculation flow. The inlet distance from the porous solid surface also can exhibit different characteristics of recirculation flow. The closer the distance to the porous solid surface, the stronger the recirculation is. The inlet velocity values have no significant effect on the flow pattern. The introduction of a solid volume inside the geometry creates the distortion of the flow pattern. In the application, the inserted solid volume is equivalent to a burner. It means that the use of the burner inherently produces some problems of the flow distribution
Sossinsky, A B
2012-01-01
The book is an innovative modern exposition of geometry, or rather, of geometries; it is the first textbook in which Felix Klein's Erlangen Program (the action of transformation groups) is systematically used as the basis for defining various geometries. The course of study presented is dedicated to the proposition that all geometries are created equal--although some, of course, remain more equal than others. The author concentrates on several of the more distinguished and beautiful ones, which include what he terms "toy geometries", the geometries of Platonic bodies, discrete geometries, and classical continuous geometries. The text is based on first-year semester course lectures delivered at the Independent University of Moscow in 2003 and 2006. It is by no means a formal algebraic or analytic treatment of geometric topics, but rather, a highly visual exposition containing upwards of 200 illustrations. The reader is expected to possess a familiarity with elementary Euclidean geometry, albeit those lacking t...
Fracture toughness of Charpy-size compound specimens and its application in engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, X.P.; Shi, Y.W.
1994-01-01
The use of a pre-cracked Charpy-size specimen with a side-groove to evaluate the fracture toughness of materials has been researched and considered. This method not only satisfies the demand for small-size specimens in surveillance tests of fracture toughness but also avoids using complicated physical methods to monitor the initial conditions of crack propagation. For most materials this method has solved the problem in which the small-size specimen did not satisfy the valid conditions of a fracture toughness measurement. In order to obtain more information from neutron-irradiated sample specimens and raise the reliability of fracture toughness surveillance tests, it has been considered more important to repeatedly exploit the broken Charpy-size specimen tested in the surveillance test, and to make it renewable. In this work, on the renewing design and utilization of Charpy-size specimens, nine data on fracture toughness can be obtained from one pre-cracked side-grooved Charpy-size specimen, while at present usually only one to three data on fracture toughness can be obtained from one Charpy-size specimen. Thus, it is found that the new method would improve the reliability of fracture toughness surveillance testing and evaluation. In addition, some factors that affect the optimum design of pre-cracked deep side-groove Charpy-size compound specimens have also been discussed. (author)
Impact of specimen adequacy on the assessment of renal allograft biopsy specimens.
Cimen, S; Geldenhuys, L; Guler, S; Imamoglu, A; Molinari, M
2016-01-01
The Banff classification was introduced to achieve uniformity in the assessment of renal allograft biopsies. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of specimen adequacy on the Banff classification. All renal allograft biopsies obtained between July 2010 and June 2012 for suspicion of acute rejection were included. Pre-biopsy clinical data on suspected diagnosis and time from renal transplantation were provided to a nephropathologist who was blinded to the original pathological report. Second pathological readings were compared with the original to assess agreement stratified by specimen adequacy. Cohen's kappa test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. Forty-nine specimens were reviewed. Among these specimens, 81.6% were classified as adequate, 6.12% as minimal, and 12.24% as unsatisfactory. The agreement analysis among the first and second readings revealed a kappa value of 0.97. Full agreement between readings was found in 75% of the adequate specimens, 66.7 and 50% for minimal and unsatisfactory specimens, respectively. There was no agreement between readings in 5% of the adequate specimens and 16.7% of the unsatisfactory specimens. For the entire sample full agreement was found in 71.4%, partial agreement in 20.4% and no agreement in 8.2% of the specimens. Statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test yielded a P value above 0.25 showing that - probably due to small sample size - the results were not statistically significant. Specimen adequacy may be a determinant of a diagnostic agreement in renal allograft specimen assessment. While additional studies including larger case numbers are required to further delineate the impact of specimen adequacy on the reliability of histopathological assessments, specimen quality must be considered during clinical decision making while dealing with biopsy reports based on minimal or unsatisfactory specimens.
Test of large-scale specimens and models as applied to NPP equipment materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timofeev, B.T.; Karzov, G.P.
1993-01-01
The paper presents the test results on low-cycle fatigue, crack growth rate and fracture toughness of large-scale specimens and structures, manufactured from steel, widely applied in power engineering industry and used for the production of NPP equipment with VVER-440 and VVER-1000 reactors. The obtained results are compared with available test results of standard specimens and calculation relations, accepted in open-quotes Calculation Norms on Strength.close quotes At the fatigue crack initiation stage the experiments were performed on large-scale specimens of various geometry and configuration, which permitted to define 15X2MFA steel fracture initiation resistance by elastic-plastic deformation of large material volume by homogeneous and inhomogeneous state. Besides the above mentioned specimen tests in the regime of low-cycle loading, the test of models with nozzles were performed and a good correlation of the results on fatigue crack initiation criterium was obtained both with calculated data and standard low-cycle fatigue tests. It was noted that on the Paris part of the fatigue fracture diagram a specimen thickness increase does not influence fatigue crack growth resistance by tests in air both at 20 and 350 degrees C. The estimation of the comparability of the results, obtained on specimens and models was also carried out for this stage of fracture. At the stage of unstable crack growth by static loading the experiments were conducted on specimens of various thickness for 15X2MFA and 15X2NMFA steels and their welded joints, produced by submerged arc welding, in as-produced state (the beginning of service) and after embrittling heat treatment, simulating neutron fluence attack (the end of service). The obtained results give evidence of the possibility of the reliable prediction of structure elements brittle fracture using fracture toughness test results on relatively small standard specimens. 35 refs., 23 figs
Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther
2005-01-01
Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2
Prasolov, V V
2015-01-01
This book provides a systematic introduction to various geometries, including Euclidean, affine, projective, spherical, and hyperbolic geometries. Also included is a chapter on infinite-dimensional generalizations of Euclidean and affine geometries. A uniform approach to different geometries, based on Klein's Erlangen Program is suggested, and similarities of various phenomena in all geometries are traced. An important notion of duality of geometric objects is highlighted throughout the book. The authors also include a detailed presentation of the theory of conics and quadrics, including the theory of conics for non-Euclidean geometries. The book contains many beautiful geometric facts and has plenty of problems, most of them with solutions, which nicely supplement the main text. With more than 150 figures illustrating the arguments, the book can be recommended as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in geometry.
Quantitative EDXS: Influence of geometry on a four detector system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraxner, Johanna; Schäfer, Margit; Röschel, Otto; Kothleitner, Gerald; Haberfehlner, Georg; Paller, Manuel; Grogger, Werner
2017-01-01
The influence of the geometry on quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) analysis is determined for a ChemiSTEM system (Super-X) in combination with a low-background double-tilt specimen holder. For the first time a combination of experimental measurements with simulations is used to determine the positions of the individual detectors of a Super-X system. These positions allow us to calculate the detector's solid angles and estimate the amount of detector shadowing and its influence on quantitative EDXS analysis, including absorption correction using the ζ-factor method. Both shadowing by the brass portions and the beryllium specimen carrier of the holder severely affect the quantification of low to medium atomic number elements. A multi-detector system is discussed in terms of practical consequences of the described effects, and a quantitative evaluation of a Fayalit sample is demonstrated. Corrections and suggestions for minimizing systematic errors are discussed to improve quantitative methods for a multi-detector system. - Highlights: • Geometrical issues for EDXS quantification on a Super-X system. • Realistic model of a specimen holder using X-ray computed tomography. • Determination of the exact detector positions of a Super-X system. • Influence of detector shadowing and Be specimen carrier on quantitative EDXS.
Thermo-mechanical Fatigue Failure of Thermal Barrier Coated Superalloy Specimen
Subramanian, Rajivgandhi; Mori, Yuzuru; Yamagishi, Satoshi; Okazaki, Masakazu
2015-09-01
Failure behavior of thermal barrier coated (TBC) Ni-based superalloy specimens were studied from the aspect of the effect of bond coat material behavior on low cycle fatigue (LCF) and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) at various temperatures and under various loading conditions. Initially, monotonic tensile tests were carried out on a MCrAlY alloy bond coat material in the temperature range of 298 K to 1273 K (25 °C to 1000 °C). Special attention was paid to understand the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Next, LCF and TMF tests were carried out on the thermal barrier coated Ni-based alloy IN738 specimen. After these tests, the specimens were sectioned to understand their failure mechanisms on the basis of DBTT of the bond coat material. Experimental results demonstrated that the LCF and TMF lives of the TBC specimen were closely related to the DBTT of the bond coat material, and also the TMF lives were different from those of LCF tests. It has also been observed that the crack density in the bond coat in the TBC specimen was significantly dependent on the test conditions. More importantly, not only the number of cracks but also the crack penetration probability into substrate were shown to be sensitive to the DBTT.
Study of The Effect of Draw-bead Geometry on Stretch Flange Formability
Orlov, O. S.; Winkler, S. L.; Worswick, M. J.; Lloyd, D. J.; Finn, M. J.
2004-06-01
A fully instrumented stretch flange press equipped with a back-up punch and draw-beads near the specimen cutout area is simulated. The utilization of different draw-bead geometries is examined numerically to determine the restraining forces, strains and amount of damage generated in stretch flanges during forming. Simulations of the forming process are conducted for 1mm AA5182 sheets with circular cutouts. The damage evolution with the deformed specimens is investigated using the explicit dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA, with a modified Gurson-based material model. It was found that double draw-beads can provide the same amount of restraining force as single draw-beads, but at reduced levels of damage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, M; Eifler, D
2010-01-01
To analyse interactions between single steps of process chains, variations in material properties, especially the microstructure and the resulting mechanical properties, specimens with tension screw geometry were manufactured with five process chains. The different process chains as well as their parameters influence the near surface condition and consequently the fatigue behaviour in a characteristic manner. The cyclic deformation behaviour of these specimens can be benchmarked equivalently with conventional strain measurements as well as with high-precision temperature and electrical resistance measurements. The development of temperature-values provides substantial information on cyclic load dependent changes in the microstructure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, M; Eifler, D, E-mail: klein@mv.uni-kl.d [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)
2010-07-01
To analyse interactions between single steps of process chains, variations in material properties, especially the microstructure and the resulting mechanical properties, specimens with tension screw geometry were manufactured with five process chains. The different process chains as well as their parameters influence the near surface condition and consequently the fatigue behaviour in a characteristic manner. The cyclic deformation behaviour of these specimens can be benchmarked equivalently with conventional strain measurements as well as with high-precision temperature and electrical resistance measurements. The development of temperature-values provides substantial information on cyclic load dependent changes in the microstructure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caire, Francois
2014-01-01
This PhD work concerns the development of fast numerical tools, dedicated to the computation of the electromagnetic interaction between a low frequency 3D current source and a complex conductor, presenting rough interfaces and/or conductivity variations. The main application concerns the simulation of the Eddy Current nondestructive testing process applied to complex specimens. Indeed, the semi-analytical models available today are restricted to canonical geometries. The proposed method is based on the covariant form of Maxwell's equations, which translates the physical equations and relationships in a non-orthogonal coordinate system depending on the geometry of the specimen. Historically, this method (Curvilinear Coordinate Method, CCM or C-method) has been developed in the framework of optical applications, particularly for the characterization of diffraction gratings. Here, we transpose this formalism into the quasi-static regime and we extend the Second Order Vector Potential formalism, initially dedicated to orthonormal curvilinear coordinates systems, to general curvilinear coordinate systems. Thanks to this change of base, we are able to determine numerically a set of modal solutions of the source-free Maxwell equations in the new coordinate system introduced, and this allows us to represent the unknown fields as modal expansions in source-free domains. Then, the coefficients of these expansions are computed by introducing the source fields and by enforcing the boundary conditions that the total fields must verify at interfaces between the different media. In order to tackle the case of a layered conductor presenting rough interfaces, the generalized SOVP formalism is coupled with a recursive routine called the S-matrix algorithm. On the other hand, the application case of a complex shape specimen with depth-varying physical properties is treated by coupling the modal method we developed with a high-order numerical method: pseudo-spectral method. The
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Seitl, Stanislav; Řoutil, L.; Klusák, Jan; Veselý, V.
2008-01-01
Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 123-132 ISSN 1802-680X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : three point bending specimens * cement based composites * fracture parameters * notch geometry * notch width Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics
Norris, G; McConnell, G
2010-03-01
A novel bi-directional pump geometry that nonlinearly increases the nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is reported. This bi-directional pumping method synchronizes the circulating signal pulse with two counter-propagating pump pulses within a linear OPO resonator. Through this pump scheme, an increase in nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of 22% was achieved at the signal wavelength, corresponding to a 95% overall increase in average power. Given an almost unchanged measured pulse duration of 260 fs under optimal performance conditions, this related to a signal wavelength peak power output of 18.8 kW, compared with 10 kW using the traditional single-pass geometry. In this study, a total effective peak intensity pump-field of 7.11 GW/cm(2) (corresponding to 3.55 GW/cm(2) from each pump beam) was applied to a 3 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, which had a damage threshold intensity of 4 GW/cm(2), without impairing crystal integrity. We therefore prove the application of this novel pump geometry provides opportunities for power-scaling of synchronously pumped OPO systems together with enhanced nonlinear conversion efficiency through relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clowers, Logan N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2017-11-01
In this report, we present the feasibility study of using pre-cracked miniature multi-notch bend bar specimens (M4CVN) with a dimension of 45mm (length) x 3.3mm (width) x 1.65mm (thickness) to characterize the transition fracture toughness of Eurofer97 based on the ASTM E1921 Master Curve method. From literature survey results, we did not find any obvious specimen size effects on the measured fracture toughness of unirradiated Eurofer97. Nonetheless, in order to exclude the specimen size effect on the measured fracture toughness of neutron irradiated Eurofer97, comparison of results obtained from larger size specimens with those from smaller size specimens after neutron irradiation is necessary, which is not practical and can be formidably expensive. However, limited literature results indicate that the transition fracture toughness of Eurofer97 obtained from different specimen sizes and geometries followed the similar irradiation embrittlement trend. We then described the newly designed experimental setup to be used for testing neutron irradiated Eurofer97 pre-cracked M4CVN bend bars in the hot cell. We recently used the same setup for testing neutron irradiated F82H pre-cracked miniature multi-notch bend bars with great success. Considering the similarity in materials, specimen types, and the nature of tests between Eurofer97 and F82H, we believe the newly designed experimental setup can be used successfully in fracture toughness testing of Eurofer97 pre-cracked M4CVN specimens.
Structural analysis of 177-FA redesigned surveillance specimen holder tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pryor, C.W.; Thoren, D.E.; Vames, G.J.; Harris, R.J.
1976-08-01
Because of in-service operational problems, the surveillance specimen holder tubes described in B and W topical report BAW-10051 have been redesigned. This report describes the new design and structural analysis for normal operation and upset loading conditions. The results of the analysis demonstrate the adequacy of the new surveillance specimen holder tubes for their design life of 40 years
Wang, Yingbing; Ebuoma, Lilian; Saksena, Mansi; Liu, Bob; Specht, Michelle; Rafferty, Elizabeth
2014-08-01
Use of mobile digital specimen radiography systems expedites intraoperative verification of excised breast specimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a such a system for verifying targets. A retrospective review included 100 consecutive pairs of breast specimen radiographs. Specimens were imaged in the operating room with a mobile digital specimen radiography system and then with a conventional digital mammography system in the radiology department. Two expert reviewers independently scored each image for image quality on a 3-point scale and confidence in target visualization on a 5-point scale. A target was considered confidently verified only if both reviewers declared the target to be confidently detected. The 100 specimens contained a total of 174 targets, including 85 clips (49%), 53 calcifications (30%), 35 masses (20%), and one architectural distortion (1%). Although a significantly higher percentage of mobile digital specimen radiographs were considered poor quality by at least one reviewer (25%) compared with conventional digital mammograms (1%), 169 targets (97%), were confidently verified with mobile specimen radiography; 172 targets (98%) were verified with conventional digital mammography. Three faint masses were not confidently verified with mobile specimen radiography, and conventional digital mammography was needed for confirmation. One faint mass and one architectural distortion were not confidently verified with either method. Mobile digital specimen radiography allows high diagnostic confidence for verification of target excision in breast specimens across target types, despite lower image quality. Substituting this modality for conventional digital mammography can eliminate delays associated with specimen transport, potentially decreasing surgical duration and increasing operating room throughput.
The response of pressure vessel steel specimens on drop weight loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winkler, S.; Kalthoff, J.F.; Gerscha, A.
1979-01-01
Load records obtained in instrumented impact tests in general are disturbed by inertia effects. The influence of mechanical damping provisions on these disturbing inertia effects is investigated. Precracked bend specimens are dynamically loaded in a drop weight testing system. The specimens of size 620 mm x 150 mm (25 mm or 50 mm thick) were machined from the pressure vessel steel 22 NiMoCr 37 which was heat treated to achieve a specially hardened condition. The tests were performed at two different low temperatures. The impact velocity was about 4 m/s. As it is usual in instrumented impact testing, the load at the tup of the impining striker is recorded as a function of time during the impact process. In addition the specimen is instrumented by a strain gage close to the crack tip in order to directly measure the stress intensification. Experiments were performed under pure and damped impact conditions. Damping was achieved by utilizing a soft aluminum plate between the striker and the specimen. (orig.)
Granular flows in constrained geometries
Murthy, Tejas; Viswanathan, Koushik
Confined geometries are widespread in granular processing applications. The deformation and flow fields in such a geometry, with non-trivial boundary conditions, determine the resultant mechanical properties of the material (local porosity, density, residual stresses etc.). We present experimental studies of deformation and plastic flow of a prototypical granular medium in different nontrivial geometries- flat-punch compression, Couette-shear flow and a rigid body sliding past a granular half-space. These geometries represent simplified scaled-down versions of common industrial configurations such as compaction and dredging. The corresponding granular flows show a rich variety of flow features, representing the entire gamut of material types, from elastic solids (beam buckling) to fluids (vortex-formation, boundary layers) and even plastically deforming metals (dead material zone, pile-up). The effect of changing particle-level properties (e.g., shape, size, density) on the observed flows is also explicitly demonstrated. Non-smooth contact dynamics particle simulations are shown to reproduce some of the observed flow features quantitatively. These results showcase some central challenges facing continuum-scale constitutive theories for dynamic granular flows.
Real tunneling geometries and the large-scale topology of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbons, G.W.; Hartle, J.B.
1990-01-01
If the topology and geometry of spacetime are quantum-mechanically variable, then the particular classical large-scale topology and geometry observed in our universe must be statistical predictions of its initial condition. This paper examines the predictions of the ''no boundary'' initial condition for the present large-scale topology and geometry. Finite-action real tunneling solutions of Einstein's equation are important for such predictions. These consist of compact Riemannian (Euclidean) geometries joined to a Lorentzian cosmological geometry across a spacelike surface of vanishing extrinsic curvature. The classification of such solutions is discussed and general constraints on their topology derived. For example, it is shown that, if the Euclidean Ricci tensor is positive, then a real tunneling solution can nucleate only a single connected Lorentzian spacetime (the unique conception theorem). Explicit examples of real tunneling solutions driven by a cosmological constant are exhibited and their implications for cosmic baldness described. It is argued that the most probable large-scale spacetime predicted by the real tunneling solutions of the ''no-boundary'' initial condition has the topology RxS 3 with the de Sitter metric
Strain Measurement System Developed for Biaxially Loaded Cruciform Specimens
Krause, David L.
2000-01-01
A new extensometer system developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field measures test area strains along two orthogonal axes in flat cruciform specimens. This system incorporates standard axial contact extensometers to provide a cost-effective high-precision instrument. The device was validated for use by extensive testing of a stainless steel specimen, with specimen temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1100 F. In-plane loading conditions included several static biaxial load ratios, plus cyclic loadings of various waveform shapes, frequencies, magnitudes, and durations. The extensometer system measurements were compared with strain gauge data at room temperature and with calculated strain values for elevated-temperature measurements. All testing was performed in house in Glenn's Benchmark Test Facility in-plane biaxial load frame.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, I.; Trautman, A.
1988-01-01
The geometry of classical physics is Lorentzian; but weaker geometries are often more appropriate: null geodesics and electromagnetic fields, for example, are well known to be objects of conformal geometry. To deal with a single null congruence, or with the radiative electromagnetic fields associated with it, even less is needed: flag geometry for the first, optical geometry, with which this paper is chiefly concerned, for the second. The authors establish a natural one-to-one correspondence between optical geometries, considered locally, and three-dimensional Cauchy-Riemann structures. A number of Lorentzian geometries are shown to be equivalent from the optical point of view. For example the Goedel universe, the Taub-NUT metric and Hauser's twisting null solution have an optical geometry isomorphic to the one underlying the Robinson congruence in Minkowski space. The authors present general results on the problem of lifting a CR structure to a Lorentz manifold and, in particular, to Minkowski space; and exhibit the relevance of the deviation form to this problem
Analysis of the truth loading conditions of a austenitic CT specimen during a SCC experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marie, S.; Guerre, C.; Herms, E.
2012-01-01
With the aim to investigate the influence of strain hardening on the stainless steels susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, tests were conducted in PWR environment on CT specimens, taken from a 316L stainless steel sheet cold rolled to 40% in thickness reduction. The initial cracks obtained by the fatigue pre-cracking have an atypical 'V' shape with smaller propagation in the center of the CT thickness compared to nominal propagation observed at both sides. The initial explanation was to consider a stress intensity factor derived from classical reference solution on the basis of a straight crack front, and considering the local value of the crack depth in the equation. This assumption raised several problems analyses in this paper. This particular shape of the initial defect may be related to several factors, and partly to the 40% cold rolling. It is likely that the hardening is not uniform, with a higher rate at the specimen sides than in the central area. In addition, significant residual stresses due to the gradient of mechanical properties are observed. Due to the high rate of work hardening by rolling of the sheet metal, a gradient of the mechanical properties through the thickness was determined, and the residual stresses profile induced by this process was measured. The variations obtained are consistent with each other: the material is more hardened in the vicinity of specimen surface and residual stresses are compressive in nature in the central part of the specimen and of tensile type on the flanks. All these data were firstly considered in order to assess their role regarding the particular form of the initial crack front obtained after fatigue: the 3D finite element calculations taking into account the true shape of the crack front demonstrate the relationship between the characteristics of the experimental crack front obtained after fatigue pre-cracking and the residual stresses. Moreover, from the residual stresses measured on the plate where
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vergara-Betancourt, A; Martí-Panameño, E; Luis-Ramos, A; Parada-Alfonso, R
2013-01-01
Based on numerical techniques, in this paper, we study light propagation in two types of waveguide arrays. One array contains hexagonal cells, and the second contains honeycomb cells. The waveguides demonstrate the well-confined mode condition and possess Kerr nonlinearity. The mathematical model is based on the modified discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which allows us to evaluate the influence of the array geometry on nonlinear light propagation, primarily the process of discrete soliton formation. The main conclusion involves the role of the coupling length; the greater the coupling length, the lower the power threshold required for discrete soliton formation. (paper)
16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Holder Supported in Specimen Rack ER25MR08.002 ...
Introducing geometry concept based on history of Islamic geometry
Maarif, S.; Wahyudin; Raditya, A.; Perbowo, K. S.
2018-01-01
Geometry is one of the areas of mathematics interesting to discuss. Geometry also has a long history in mathematical developments. Therefore, it is important integrated historical development of geometry in the classroom to increase’ knowledge of how mathematicians earlier finding and constructing a geometric concept. Introduction geometrical concept can be started by introducing the Muslim mathematician who invented these concepts so that students can understand in detail how a concept of geometry can be found. However, the history of mathematics development, especially history of Islamic geometry today is less popular in the world of education in Indonesia. There are several concepts discovered by Muslim mathematicians that should be appreciated by the students in learning geometry. Great ideas of mathematicians Muslim can be used as study materials to supplement religious character values taught by Muslim mathematicians. Additionally, by integrating the history of geometry in teaching geometry are expected to improve motivation and geometrical understanding concept.
Electrodynamics and Spacetime Geometry: Foundations
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2017-02-01
We explore the intimate connection between spacetime geometry and electrodynamics. This link is already implicit in the constitutive relations between the field strengths and excitations, which are an essential part of the axiomatic structure of electromagnetism, clearly formulated via integration theory and differential forms. We review the foundations of classical electromagnetism based on charge and magnetic flux conservation, the Lorentz force and the constitutive relations. These relations introduce the conformal part of the metric and allow the study of electrodynamics for specific spacetime geometries. At the foundational level, we discuss the possibility of generalizing the vacuum constitutive relations, by relaxing the fixed conditions of homogeneity and isotropy, and by assuming that the symmetry properties of the electro-vacuum follow the spacetime isometries. The implications of this extension are briefly discussed in the context of the intimate connection between electromagnetism and the geometry (and causal structure) of spacetime.
Analytic Coleman-de Luccia Geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Xi; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Harlow, Daniel; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2012-02-16
We present the necessary and sufficient conditions for a Euclidean scale factor to be a solution of the Coleman-de Luccia equations for some analytic potential V ({psi}), with a Lorentzian continuation describing the growth of a bubble of lower-energy vacuum surrounded by higher-energy vacuum. We then give a set of explicit examples that satisfy the conditions and thus are closed-form analytic examples of Coleman-de Luccia geometries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Seok Jong; Park, Goon Cherl; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
In Korea, subchannel analysis code, MATRA has been developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). MATRA has been used for reactor core T/H design and DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio) calculation. Also, the code has been successfully coupled with neutronics code and fuel analysis code. However, since major concern of the code is not the accident simulation, some features of the code are not optimized for the accident conditions, such as the homogeneous model for two-phase flow and spatial marching method for numerical scheme. For this reason, in the present study, application of CUPID for the subchannel scale T/H analysis in rod bundle geometry was conducted. CUPID is a component scale T/H analysis code which adopts three dimensional two-fluid three-field model developed by KAERI. In this paper, the validation results of the CUPID code for subchannel scale rod bundle analysis at single phase adiabatic conditions were presented. At first, the physical models required for a subchannel scale analysis were implemented to CUPID. In the future, the scope of validation tests will be extended to diabetic and two phase flow conditions and required models will be implemented into CUPID.
Sproul, John S; Maddison, David R
2017-11-01
Despite advances that allow DNA sequencing of old museum specimens, sequencing small-bodied, historical specimens can be challenging and unreliable as many contain only small amounts of fragmented DNA. Dependable methods to sequence such specimens are especially critical if the specimens are unique. We attempt to sequence small-bodied (3-6 mm) historical specimens (including nomenclatural types) of beetles that have been housed, dried, in museums for 58-159 years, and for which few or no suitable replacement specimens exist. To better understand ideal approaches of sample preparation and produce preparation guidelines, we compared different library preparation protocols using low amounts of input DNA (1-10 ng). We also explored low-cost optimizations designed to improve library preparation efficiency and sequencing success of historical specimens with minimal DNA, such as enzymatic repair of DNA. We report successful sample preparation and sequencing for all historical specimens despite our low-input DNA approach. We provide a list of guidelines related to DNA repair, bead handling, reducing adapter dimers and library amplification. We present these guidelines to facilitate more economical use of valuable DNA and enable more consistent results in projects that aim to sequence challenging, irreplaceable historical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Supersymmetric geometries of IIA supergravity III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gran, Ulf; Papadopoulos, George; Schultz, Christian von
2016-01-01
We find that (massive) IIA backgrounds that admit a G 2 ⋉ℝ 8 invariant Killing spinor must exhibit a null Killing vector field which leaves the Killing spinor invariant and that the rotation of the Killing vector field satisfies a certain g 2 instanton condition. This result together with those in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2014)024 and http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2015)113 complete the classification of geometries of all (massive) IIA backgrounds that preserve one supersymmetry. We also explore the geometry of a class of backgrounds which admit a G 2 ⋉ℝ 8 invariant Killing spinor and where in addition an appropriate 1-form bilinear vanishes. In all cases, we express the fluxes of the theory in terms of the geometry.
The influence of polyol type on cell geometry and the thermal stability of polyurethane foams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prendžov Slobodan J.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the influence of substituting defined amounts of polyol Voranol 3322 by polyol Voranol CP 1055 on the cell geometry and thermal stability of the synthesized flexible polyurethane foams. The influence of the amount of antipyrene on the cell geometry and their thermal stability was also investigated. The following components were used in the synthesis of the polyurethanes: a mixture of two polyols (Voranol 3322 with the hydroxyl number 47 mg KOH/g, mean molecular mass 3400 and Voranol CP 1055 with the hydroxyl number 156 mg KOH/g, mean molecular mass 1000, toluene discarnate as the isocyanate component, a combination of an organic-metallic compound and a tertiary amine as catalysts, surfactant and water as the coreactant. The thermal stability was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (in a nitrogen atmosphere. The cell geometry was analyzed by optical microscopy. Examination of the cell geometry revealed different cell shapes. The form factor as an indicator of cell deviation from spherical shape increased (more round forms were observed with increasing amount of Voranol CP 1055. The TG examination showed that specimens with 6 and 8 g of Voranol 3322 substituted by Voranol CP 1055 completely degraded at 350 °C, while foams with 10 and 12 g of Voranol 3322 substituted by Voranol CP 1055 displayed lower mass loss at higher temperatures and had residual masses of 46 % and 43 % at 600°C respectively. The addition of antipyrene in an amount of 1% (based on the amount of polyol contributed to improved thermal stability, no visible color change of the specimen tested at 210°C for 40 minutes, and to rounder cell forms. Considering the obtained results it can be concluded that an increase in the amount of Voranol CP 1055 yielded more spherically shaped cells and better thermal stability of the synthesized flexible polyurethane foams. The addition of antipyrene improves the thermal stability and the cell geometry.
Geometry through history Euclidean, hyperbolic, and projective geometries
Dillon, Meighan I
2018-01-01
Presented as an engaging discourse, this textbook invites readers to delve into the historical origins and uses of geometry. The narrative traces the influence of Euclid’s system of geometry, as developed in his classic text The Elements, through the Arabic period, the modern era in the West, and up to twentieth century mathematics. Axioms and proof methods used by mathematicians from those periods are explored alongside the problems in Euclidean geometry that lead to their work. Students cultivate skills applicable to much of modern mathematics through sections that integrate concepts like projective and hyperbolic geometry with representative proof-based exercises. For its sophisticated account of ancient to modern geometries, this text assumes only a year of college mathematics as it builds towards its conclusion with algebraic curves and quaternions. Euclid’s work has affected geometry for thousands of years, so this text has something to offer to anyone who wants to broaden their appreciation for the...
Stationary bubbles and their tunneling channels toward trivial geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Pisin; Yeom, Dong-han [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2016-04-01
In the path integral approach, one has to sum over all histories that start from the same initial condition in order to obtain the final condition as a superposition of histories. Applying this into black hole dynamics, we consider stable and unstable stationary bubbles as a reasonable and regular initial condition. We find examples where the bubble can either form a black hole or tunnel toward a trivial geometry, i.e., with no singularity nor event horizon. We investigate the dynamics and tunneling channels of true vacuum bubbles for various tensions. In particular, in line with the idea of superposition of geometries, we build a classically stable stationary thin-shell solution in a Minkowski background where its fate is probabilistically given by non-perturbative effects. Since there exists a tunneling channel toward a trivial geometry in the entire path integral, the entire information is encoded in the wave function. This demonstrates that the unitarity is preserved and there is no loss of information when viewed from the entire wave function of the universe, whereas a semi-classical observer, who can see only a definitive geometry, would find an effective loss of information. This may provide a resolution to the information loss dilemma.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland)
2004-07-01
One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Devrient, B.; Roth, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.
2004-01-01
One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)
Extraction of ultrashort DNA molecules from herbarium specimens.
Gutaker, Rafal M; Reiter, Ella; Furtwängler, Anja; Schuenemann, Verena J; Burbano, Hernán A
2017-02-01
DNA extracted from herbarium specimens is highly fragmented; therefore, it is crucial to use extraction protocols that retrieve short DNA molecules. Improvements in extraction and DNA library preparation protocols for animal remains have allowed efficient retrieval of molecules shorter than 50 bp. Here, we applied these improvements to DNA extraction protocols for herbarium specimens and evaluated extraction performance by shotgun sequencing, which allows an accurate estimation of the distribution of DNA fragment lengths. Extraction with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) buffer decreased median fragment length by 35% when compared with cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB); modifying the binding conditions of DNA to silica allowed for an additional decrease of 10%. We did not observe a further decrease in length for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) versus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) library preparation methods. Our protocol enables the retrieval of ultrashort molecules from herbarium specimens, which will help to unlock the genetic information stored in herbaria.
Cloaking of 2D particle geometries in a surface medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexopoulos, A., E-mail: Aris.Alexopoulos@dsto.defence.gov.au [Electronic Warfare and Radar Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), PO Box 1500, Edinburgh 5111 (Australia); Yau, K.S.B. [Electronic Warfare and Radar Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), PO Box 1500, Edinburgh 5111 (Australia)
2013-06-17
We theoretically examine the cloaking condition for two-dimensional particles with varying geometry embedded inside a surface medium. General solutions are obtained for multi-layer particle configurations with either all positive or partially negative constitutive parameters respectively. Cloaking of particle geometries that are large relative to the incident wavelength is demonstrated. Theoretical predictions are compared to full-wave numerical simulations for arrays of particles consisting of different geometries.
A Framework for Parallel Numerical Simulations on Multi-Scale Geometries
Varduhn, Vasco
2012-06-01
In this paper, an approach on performing numerical multi-scale simulations on fine detailed geometries is presented. In particular, the focus lies on the generation of sufficient fine mesh representations, whereas a resolution of dozens of millions of voxels is inevitable in order to sufficiently represent the geometry. Furthermore, the propagation of boundary conditions is investigated by using simulation results on the coarser simulation scale as input boundary conditions on the next finer scale. Finally, the applicability of our approach is shown on a two-phase simulation for flooding scenarios in urban structures running from a city wide scale to a fine detailed in-door scale on feature rich building geometries. © 2012 IEEE.
Stress-deformed state of cylindrical specimens during indirect tensile strength testing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Levan Japaridze
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this study, the interaction between cylindrical specimen made of homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic material and loading jaws of any curvature is considered in the Brazilian test. It is assumed that the specimen is diametrically compressed by elliptic normal contact stresses. The frictional contact stresses between the specimen and platens are neglected. The analytical solution starts from the contact problem of the loading jaws of any curvature and cylindrical specimen. The contact width, corresponding loading angle (2θ0, and elliptical stresses obtained through solution of the contact problems are used as boundary conditions for a cylindrical specimen. The problem of the theory of elasticity for a cylinder is solved using Muskhelishvili's method. In this method, the displacements and stresses are represented in terms of two analytical functions of a complex variable. In the main approaches, the nonlinear interaction between the loading bearing blocks and the specimen as well as the curvature of their surfaces and the elastic parameters of their materials are taken into account. Numerical examples are solved using MATLAB to demonstrate the influence of deformability, curvature of the specimen and platens on the distribution of the normal contact stresses as well as on the tensile and compressive stresses acting across the loaded diameter. Derived equations also allow calculating the modulus of elasticity, total deformation modulus and creep parameters of the specimen material based on the experimental data of radial contraction of the specimen.
Pottmann, Helmut
2014-11-26
Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.
Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, Amir; Wallner, Johannes
2014-01-01
Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.
50 CFR 31.12 - Sale of wildlife specimens.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sale of wildlife specimens. 31.12 Section 31.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Terms and Conditions of Wildlife...
Starnes, Daniel L; Jain, Ajay; Sahi, Shivendra V
2010-09-15
Unique properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be achieved by manipulating their geometries. However, it is not known if the shapes and sizes of AuNPs can be modulated in planta. Here, we evaluated the accumulation of gold across taxonomically diverse plant species (alfalfa, cucumber, red clover, ryegrass, sunflower, and oregano). Significant variations were detected in the uptake of gold in the roots ranging from 500 ppm (ryegrass) to 2500 ppm (alfalfa). Alfalfa was selected for subsequent studies due to its ability to accumulate relatively large quantities of gold in its roots. Temporal analysis revealed that most of the AuNPs formed within 6 h of treatment, and the majority of them fall within the size range of 10-30 nm. Spherical AuNPs (1-50 nm) were detected ubiquitously across different treatments. To elucidate the effects of growth variables on the geometries of in planta synthesized AuNPs, alfalfa was subjected to KAuCl(4) (50 ppm) treatment for 3d under different pH, temperature, and light regimes. Interestingly, manipulation of growth conditions triggered a noticeable shift in the relative abundance of spherical, triangular, hexagonal, and rectangular AuNPs providing empirical evidence toward the feasibility of their in planta engineering.
Two lectures on D-geometry and noncommutative geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, M.R.
1999-01-01
This is a write-up of lectures given at the 1998 Spring School at the Abdus Salam ICTP. We give a conceptual introduction to D-geometry, the study of geometry as seen by D-branes in string theory, and to noncommutative geometry as it has appeared in D-brane and Matrix theory physics. (author)
Splitting tests on rock specimens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davies, J D; Stagg, K G
1970-01-01
Splitting tests are described for a square-section sandstone specimens line loaded through steel or timber packings on the top face and supported on the bottom face either on similar packings (type A specimen) or directly on the lower platen plate of the testing machine (type B specimens). The stress distribution across the vertical central plane and the horizontal central plane were determined from a linear elastic finite element analysis for both types. Two solutions were obtained for the type B specimen: one assuming no friction between the base of the specimen and the platen plate and the other assuming no relative slip between the surfaces. Vertical and horizontal strains were measured at the center of the specimens for all loads up to failure.
van den Broek, P.M.
1984-01-01
The aim of this paper is to give a detailed exposition of the relation between the geometry of twistor space and the geometry of Minkowski space. The paper has a didactical purpose; no use has been made of differential geometry and cohomology.
THE PRINCIPLES OF METHODICAL SYSTEM OF TEACHING GEOMETRY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svetlana Feodosevna Miteneva
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the main components of methodical system of teaching geometry, including the developing spatial thinking, the process of creating images, the conditions for the organization of students cognitive activity. The author describes the scheme of formation of spatial understanding of geometric objects, marks the conditions of students activities organization aimed at creating a spatial image of the studied object, lists research skills to address geometric problems and ways to implement these skills into practice, gives a summary of methods of teaching geometry, including the principle of holistic approach priority, the principle of an open multi-valuedness, the principle of subjective experience accounting.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. In the previous article we looked at the origins of synthetic and analytic geometry. More practical minded people, the builders and navigators, were studying two other aspects of geometry- trigonometry and integral calculus. These are actually ...
The geometry of finite equilibrium sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich
2009-01-01
We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...... of equilibrium datasets is pathconnected when the equilibrium condition does impose restrictions on datasets, as for example when total resources are widely noncollinear....
Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
2015-03-01
The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and
Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.
Smorgick, Noam
2014-10-01
Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.
NASA Biological Specimen Repository
McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.
2010-01-01
The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.
Use of globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) to link herbarium specimen records to physical specimens.
Nelson, Gil; Sweeney, Patrick; Gilbert, Edward
2018-02-01
With the advent of the U.S. National Science Foundation's Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections program and related worldwide digitization initiatives, the rate of herbarium specimen digitization in the United States has expanded exponentially. As the number of electronic herbarium records proliferates, the importance of linking these records to the physical specimens they represent as well as to related records from other sources will intensify. Although a rich and diverse literature has developed over the past decade that addresses the use of specimen identifiers for facilitating linking across the internet, few implementable guidelines or recommended practices for herbaria have been advanced. Here we review this literature with the express purpose of distilling a specific set of recommendations especially tailored to herbarium specimen digitization, curation, and management. We argue that associating globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) with physical herbarium specimens and including these identifiers in all electronic records about those specimens is essential to effective digital data curation. We also address practical applications for ensuring these associations.
More on microstate geometries of 4d black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchi, M.; Morales, J.F.; Pieri, L.; Zinnato, N.
2017-01-01
We construct explicit examples of microstate geometries of four-dimensional black holes that lift to smooth horizon-free geometries in five dimensions. Solutions consist of half-BPS D-brane atoms distributed in ℝ 3 . Charges and positions of the D-brane centers are constrained by the bubble equations and boundary conditions ensuring the regularity of the metric and the match with the black hole geometry. In the case of three centers, we find that the moduli spaces of solutions includes disjoint one-dimensional components of (generically) finite volume.
More on microstate geometries of 4d black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bianchi, M. [Università di Roma Tor Vergata and I.N.F.N, Dipartimento di Fisica,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Morales, J.F. [I.N.F.N. - Sezione di Roma 2 and Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Pieri, L. [Università di Roma Tor Vergata and I.N.F.N, Dipartimento di Fisica,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Center for Research in String Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy,Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Zinnato, N. [Università di Roma Tor Vergata and I.N.F.N, Dipartimento di Fisica,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Rome (Italy)
2017-05-29
We construct explicit examples of microstate geometries of four-dimensional black holes that lift to smooth horizon-free geometries in five dimensions. Solutions consist of half-BPS D-brane atoms distributed in ℝ{sup 3}. Charges and positions of the D-brane centers are constrained by the bubble equations and boundary conditions ensuring the regularity of the metric and the match with the black hole geometry. In the case of three centers, we find that the moduli spaces of solutions includes disjoint one-dimensional components of (generically) finite volume.
Urine culture - catheterized specimen
Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...
Biomechanical evaluation of a corporectomy in porcine lumbar specimens using flexible polymer belts
Beltrán-Fernández, J. A.; Hernández-Gómez, L. H.; Ruiz-Muñoz, E.; González-Rebattú, A.; Rodríguez-Cañizo, R. G.; Urriolagoitia-Calderón, G.; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G.; Hernández-Moreno, H.
2009-08-01
This paper presents the experimental results of a biomechanical evaluation in lumbar porcine specimens (L2-L4), instrumented with flexible polymer belts, under fatigue and tensile loading. The clinical effect called facetary arthrosis is evaluated. An experimental analysis was carried on 3 lumbar porcine specimens. In two of them, polyamide belts are fixed on the interspinous ligament from L2 to L4. Specimens are taken from pigs which are 6 month old. For the present work, the stiffness reduction of the spine and the biomechanical behaviour of the belts in conjunction with the interspinous ligament are evaluated. The purpose is to determine the failure conditions for the elements of the specimen (vertebral disk, supra and intraspinous ligament and vertebral body). Under static loading, which is the base line case, the elements of the specimen failed as a typical healthy structure. While in the fatigue combined with static loading, the element failed in different order. Additionally, the stiffness changed in accordance with the fatigue loading conditions. Because of the simplicity of this alternative technique, a high level of the structural integrity is preserved, as no holes are made on the spinous process in order to insert the fixation screws. Furthermore, there is a cost reduction.
Biomechanical evaluation of a corporectomy in porcine lumbar specimens using flexible polymer belts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beltran-Fernandez, J A; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Ruiz-Munoz, E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Gonzalez-Rebattu, A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Hernandez-Moreno, H
2009-01-01
This paper presents the experimental results of a biomechanical evaluation in lumbar porcine specimens (L2-L4), instrumented with flexible polymer belts, under fatigue and tensile loading. The clinical effect called facetary arthrosis is evaluated. An experimental analysis was carried on 3 lumbar porcine specimens. In two of them, polyamide belts are fixed on the interspinous ligament from L2 to L4. Specimens are taken from pigs which are 6 month old. For the present work, the stiffness reduction of the spine and the biomechanical behaviour of the belts in conjunction with the interspinous ligament are evaluated. The purpose is to determine the failure conditions for the elements of the specimen (vertebral disk, supra and intraspinous ligament and vertebral body). Under static loading, which is the base line case, the elements of the specimen failed as a typical healthy structure. While in the fatigue combined with static loading, the element failed in different order. Additionally, the stiffness changed in accordance with the fatigue loading conditions. Because of the simplicity of this alternative technique, a high level of the structural integrity is preserved, as no holes are made on the spinous process in order to insert the fixation screws. Furthermore, there is a cost reduction.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....
Rodger, Alison
1995-01-01
Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans
The Geometry of Finite Equilibrium Datasets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich
We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...... of equilibrium datasets is pathconnected when the equilibrium condition does impose restrictions on datasets, as for example when total resources are widely non collinear....
Sample handling of clinical specimens for ultratrace element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornelis, R.
1987-01-01
Some simple logistics to an improved sample handling of clinical specimens are presented. This comprises clean room conditions, clean laboratory ware, ultra-pure reagents and good analytical practice. Sample handling procedures for blood, urine, soft tissues and pharmaceuticals are briefly discussed. (author) 26 refs
Eliashberg, Yakov; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Symplectic, Poisson, and Noncommutative geometry
2014-01-01
Symplectic geometry originated in physics, but it has flourished as an independent subject in mathematics, together with its offspring, symplectic topology. Symplectic methods have even been applied back to mathematical physics. Noncommutative geometry has developed an alternative mathematical quantization scheme based on a geometric approach to operator algebras. Deformation quantization, a blend of symplectic methods and noncommutative geometry, approaches quantum mechanics from a more algebraic viewpoint, as it addresses quantization as a deformation of Poisson structures. This volume contains seven chapters based on lectures given by invited speakers at two May 2010 workshops held at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute: Symplectic and Poisson Geometry in Interaction with Analysis, Algebra and Topology (honoring Alan Weinstein, one of the key figures in the field) and Symplectic Geometry, Noncommutative Geometry and Physics. The chapters include presentations of previously unpublished results and ...
Geometric Monte Carlo and black Janus geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bak, Dongsu, E-mail: dsbak@uos.ac.kr [Physics Department, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity & Strings, Institute for Basic Sciences, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chanju, E-mail: cjkim@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Kiu, E-mail: kimkyungkiu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, College of Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Hyunsoo, E-mail: hsmin@uos.ac.kr [Physics Department, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jeong-Pil, E-mail: jeong_pil_song@brown.edu [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)
2017-04-10
We describe an application of the Monte Carlo method to the Janus deformation of the black brane background. We present numerical results for three and five dimensional black Janus geometries with planar and spherical interfaces. In particular, we argue that the 5D geometry with a spherical interface has an application in understanding the finite temperature bag-like QCD model via the AdS/CFT correspondence. The accuracy and convergence of the algorithm are evaluated with respect to the grid spacing. The systematic errors of the method are determined using an exact solution of 3D black Janus. This numerical approach for solving linear problems is unaffected initial guess of a trial solution and can handle an arbitrary geometry under various boundary conditions in the presence of source fields.
Smalley, A. J.; Tessarzik, J. M.
1975-01-01
Effects of temperature, dissipation level and geometry on the dynamic behavior of elastomer elements were investigated. Force displacement relationships in elastomer elements and the effects of frequency, geometry and temperature upon these relationships are reviewed. Based on this review, methods of reducing stiffness and damping data for shear and compression test elements to material properties (storage and loss moduli) and empirical geometric factors are developed and tested using previously generated experimental data. A prediction method which accounts for large amplitudes of deformation is developed on the assumption that their effect is to increase temperature through the elastomers, thereby modifying the local material properties. Various simple methods of predicting the radial stiffness of ring cartridge elements are developed and compared. Material properties were determined from the shear specimen tests as a function of frequency and temperature. Using these material properties, numerical predictions of stiffness and damping for cartridge and compression specimens were made and compared with corresponding measurements at different temperatures, with encouraging results.
The effect of residual stresses induced by prestraining on fatigue life of notched specimens
Sadeler, R.; Ozel, A.; Kaymaz, I.; Totik, Y.
2005-06-01
The effect of tensile prestraining-induced residual stress on the fatigue life of notched steel parts was investigated. The study was performed on AISI 4140 steel. Rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out on semicircular notched specimens with different notch radii in the as-quenched and tempered conditions. Metallography of the specimens was performed by means of light optical microscopy. The finite-element method was used to evaluate the residual stress distribution near the notch region. Fatigue tests revealed fatigue life improvement for notched specimens, which changes depending on the notch radii and applied stress. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the fracture surfaces of the specimens.
Impregnation of soft biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers.
von Hagens, G
1979-06-01
A new method for impregnation of biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers is described. The method has the advantage that the original relief of the surface is retained. The impregnation is carried out by utilizing the difference between the high vapor tension of the intermedium (e.g., methylene chloride) and the low vapor tension of the solution to be polymerized. After impregnation, the specimen is subject to polymerization conditions without surrounding embedding material. The optical and mechanical properties can be selected by proper choice from various kinds of resins and different procedures, for example, by complete or incomplete impregnation. Acrylic resins, polyester resins, epoxy resins, polyurethanes and silicone rubber have been found suitable for the method. Excellent results have been obtained using transparent silicone rubber since after treatment the specimens are still flexible and resilient, and have retained their natural appearance.
Screen-film specimen radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shepard, S.J.; Hogan, J.; Schreck, B.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on the reproducibility and quality of biopsy specimen radiographs, a unique phototimed cabinet x-ray system is being developed. The system utilizes specially modified Kodal Min-R cassettes and will be compatible with current mammographic films. Tube voltages are in the 14-20-kVp range with 0.1-1.0-second exposure times. A top-hat type compression device is used (1) to compress the specimen to uniform thickness, (2) to measure the specimen thickness and determine optimum kVp, and (3) to superimpose a grid over the specimen for identification of objects of radiographic interest. The phototiming circuit developed specifically for this purpose will be described along with the modified Min-R cassette. Characteristics of the generator and cabinet will also be described. Tests will be performed on phantoms to evaluate the system limitations
50 CFR 23.55 - How may I use a CITES specimen after import into the United States?
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How may I use a CITES specimen after... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Application Procedures, Criteria, and Conditions § 23.55 How may I use a CITES specimen after import into the United States? You may use CITES specimens after...
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN GAP GEOMETRY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rothenstein, W.; Helholtz, J.
1963-11-15
The procedure for calculnting the monoenergetic angular flux density in lattice cells including voids between fuel and moderator is discussed. Boundary conditions describThe thermal energy of a nuclear reactor may be conserved by using as the reactor coolant a hydrocarbon fraction boiling within the range 220 to 650 deg C (preferably 340 to 550 deg C) and containing not more than 5% of extraneous materials having neutron cross sections of > 10 barns. The hot coolant may either be cracked outside of the reactor or used to heat another petroleum hydrocarbon which is to be converted. (D.L.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozaki, Tetsuhiro; Suzuki, Riichiro; Mashiko, Hiroyuki; Hibiki, Takashi
2013-01-01
The drift-flux model is one of the imperative concepts used to consider the effects of phase coupling on two-phase flow dynamics. Several drift-flux models are available that apply to rod bundle geometries and some of these are implemented in several nuclear safety analysis codes. However, these models are not validated by well-designed prototypic full bundle test data, and therefore, the scalability of these models has not necessarily been verified. The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) conducted void fraction measurement tests in Japan with prototypic 8 x 8 BWR (boiling water reactor) rod bundles under prototypic temperature and pressure conditions. Based on these NUPEC data, a new drift-flux model applicable to predicting the void fraction in a rod bundle geometry has been developed. The newly developed drift-flux model is compared with the other existing data such as the two-phase flow test facility (TPTF) data taken at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) [currently, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] and low pressure adiabatic 8 x 8 bundle test data taken at Purdue University in the United States. The results of these comparisons show good agreement between the test data and the predictions. The effects of power distribution, spacer grids, and the bundle geometry on the newly developed drift-flux model have been discussed using the NUPEC data. (author)
Test methodology and technology of fracture toughness for small size specimens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wakai, E.; Takada, F.; Ishii, T.; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Matsukawa, S. [JNE Techno-Research Co., Kanagawa-ken (Japan)
2007-07-01
Full text of publication follows: Small specimen test technology (SSTT) is required to investigate mechanical properties in the limited availability of effective irradiation volumes in test reactors and accelerator-based neutron and charged particle sources. The test methodology guideline and the manufacture processes for very small size specimens have not been established, and we would have to formulate it. The technology to control exactly the load and displacement is also required in the test technology under the environment of high dose radiation produced from the specimens. The objective of this study is to examine the test technology and methodology of fracture toughness for very small size specimens. A new bend test machine installed in hot cell has been manufactured to obtain fracture toughness and DBTT (ductile - brittle transition temperature) of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for small bend specimens of t/2-1/3PCCVN (pre-cracked 1/3 size Charpy V-notch) with 20 mm length and DFMB (deformation and fracture mini bend specimen) with 9 mm length. The new machine can be performed at temperatures from -196 deg. C to 400 deg. C under unloading compliance method. Neutron irradiation was also performed at about 250 deg. C to about 2 dpa in JMTR. After the irradiation, fracture toughness and DBTT were examined by using the machine. Checking of displacement measurement between linear gauge of cross head's displacement and DVRT of the specimen displacement was performed exactly. Conditions of pre-crack due to fatigue in the specimen preparation were also examined and it depended on the shape and size of the specimens. Fracture toughness and DBTT of F82H steel for t/2-1/3PCCVN, DFMB and 0.18DCT specimens before irradiation were examined as a function of temperature. DBTT of smaller size specimens of DFMB was lower than that of larger size specimen of t/2-1/3PCCVN and 0.18DCT. The changes of fracture toughness and DBTT due to irradiation were also
Arithmetic noncommutative geometry
Marcolli, Matilde
2005-01-01
Arithmetic noncommutative geometry denotes the use of ideas and tools from the field of noncommutative geometry, to address questions and reinterpret in a new perspective results and constructions from number theory and arithmetic algebraic geometry. This general philosophy is applied to the geometry and arithmetic of modular curves and to the fibers at archimedean places of arithmetic surfaces and varieties. The main reason why noncommutative geometry can be expected to say something about topics of arithmetic interest lies in the fact that it provides the right framework in which the tools of geometry continue to make sense on spaces that are very singular and apparently very far from the world of algebraic varieties. This provides a way of refining the boundary structure of certain classes of spaces that arise in the context of arithmetic geometry, such as moduli spaces (of which modular curves are the simplest case) or arithmetic varieties (completed by suitable "fibers at infinity"), by adding boundaries...
Tests of compressed geometry NEC acceleration tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raatz, J.E.; Rathmell, R.D.; Stelson, P.H.; Ziegler, N.F.
1985-01-01
Tests have been performed in the 3 MV Pelletron test machine at NEC on a compressed geometry tube which increases the insulating length of the tube by eliminating the heated electrode assemblies (approx.2.5 cm thick) at the end of each tube section. Some insert electrodes are changed to provide some trapping of secondary ions. The geometry tested provided an 18% increase in live ceramic in the tube. The compressed geometry tube allowed a terminal voltage of 3.55 MV on the 3 MV column at normal gradients of 30.3 kv/tube gap. The tube was also conditioned to more than 4 MV and remained stable in voltage with few sparks and with low x-ray levels for days at about 4 MV. This same performance could be achieved with or without arc discharge cleaning. 4 refs., 4 figs
Method of 10B determination in biological specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikitina, R.G.; Frolova, E.I.
1981-01-01
The paper is concerned with the methods of 10 B determination in biological specimens (blood, skin and tissues of rats). On the basis of investigations conducted there have been proposed films based on cellulose triacetate with optimal characteristics in terms of their possible utilization as solid detectors to record α-particles and recoil nuclei. The conditions of film staining are also discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weilian Qu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The low-cycle fatigue experiments of mild carbon Q235B steel and its related welded-metal specimens are performed under uniaxial, in-phase, and 90° out-of-phase loading conditions. Significant additional cyclic hardening for 90° out-of-phase loading conditions is observed for both base metal and its related weldment. Besides, welding process produces extra additional hardening under the same loading conditions compared with the base metal. Multiaxial low-cycle fatigue strength under 90° out-of-phase loading conditions is significantly reduced for both base-metal and welded-metal specimens. The weldment has lower fatigue life than the base metal under the given loading conditions, and the fatigue life reduction of weldment increases with the increasing strain amplitude. The KBM, FS, and MKBM critical plane parameters are evaluated for the fatigue data obtained. The FS and MKBM parameters are found to show better correlation with fatigue lives for both base-metal and welded-metal specimens.
Estimations of creep behavior and failure life for a circumferentially notched specimen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Ken-ichi; Yokobori, Toshimitsu; Kikuchi, Kenji.
1997-01-01
No method with which to characterize and/or illustrate total creep behavior for specimens with notches, holes or cracks has been proposed. In this paper it is proposed that most creep curves can be drawn with a master curve for each creep test whenever test conditions and failure modes are similar to each other, and the lifetime ratio normalized by the rupture time is introduced. Using smooth and circumferentially notched specimens of 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel, creep tests were performed at 600degC for examination of this concept. Furthermore, a θ projection method was used to describe creep curves for notched specimens and to extrapolate longer creep lives. Then, the whole creep curve shape for notched specimens could be easily drawn, except for that in the vicinity of the rupture point. However, longer creep lives of notched specimens were underestimated in comparison with a simple extrapolation of the experimental data. This resulted from the negative dependence of the parameter of θ 3 on the applied stress. (author)
Higher geometry an introduction to advanced methods in analytic geometry
Woods, Frederick S
2005-01-01
For students of mathematics with a sound background in analytic geometry and some knowledge of determinants, this volume has long been among the best available expositions of advanced work on projective and algebraic geometry. Developed from Professor Woods' lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it bridges the gap between intermediate studies in the field and highly specialized works.With exceptional thoroughness, it presents the most important general concepts and methods of advanced algebraic geometry (as distinguished from differential geometry). It offers a thorough study
Geometric Transformations in Engineering Geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. F. Borovikov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, for business purposes, in view of current trends and world experience in training engineers, research and faculty staff there has been a need to transform traditional courses of descriptive geometry into the course of engineering geometry in which the geometrical transformations have to become its main section. On the basis of critical analysis the paper gives suggestions to improve a presentation technique of this section both in the classroom and in academic literature, extend an application scope of geometrical transformations to solve the position and metric tasks and simulation of surfaces, as well as to design complex engineering configurations, which meet a number of pre-specified conditions.The article offers to make a number of considerable amendments to the terms and definitions used in the existing courses of descriptive geometry. It draws some conclusions and makes the appropriate proposals on feasibility of coordination in teaching the movement transformation in the courses of analytical and descriptive geometry. This will provide interdisciplinary team teaching and allow students to be convinced that a combination of analytical and graphic ways to solve geometric tasks is useful and reasonable.The traditional sections of learning courses need to be added with a theory of projective and bi-rational transformations. In terms of application simplicity and convenience it is enough to consider the central transformations when solving the applied tasks. These transformations contain a beam of sub-invariant (low-invariant straight lines on which the invariant curve induces non-involution and involution projectivities. The expediency of nonlinear transformations application is shown in the article by a specific example of geometric modeling of the interfacing surface "spar-blade".Implementation of these suggestions will contribute to a real transformation of a traditional course of descriptive geometry to the engineering geometry
Eisenhart, Luther Pfahler
2005-01-01
This concise text by a prominent mathematician deals chiefly with manifolds dominated by the geometry of paths. Topics include asymmetric and symmetric connections, the projective geometry of paths, and the geometry of sub-spaces. 1927 edition.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository
McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Pietrzyk, Robert a.; Johnson, Mary Anne
2008-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository (Repository) is a storage bank that is used to maintain biological specimens over extended periods of time and under well-controlled conditions. Samples from the International Space Station (ISS), including blood and urine, will be collected, processed and archived during the preflight, inflight and postflight phases of ISS missions. This investigation has been developed to archive biosamples for use as a resource for future space flight related research. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a platform to investigate the effects of microgravity on human physiology prior to lunar and exploration class missions. The storage of crewmember samples from many different ISS flights in a single repository will be a valuable resource with which researchers can study space flight related changes and investigate physiological markers. The development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository will allow for the collection, processing, storage, maintenance, and ethical distribution of biosamples to meet goals of scientific and programmatic relevance to the space program. Archiving of the biosamples will provide future research opportunities including investigating patterns of physiological changes, analysis of components unknown at this time or analyses performed by new methodologies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tkach, Y., E-mail: Yuri.Tkach@WGIM.com [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, School of MACE, UMIST/University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Burdekin, F.M., E-mail: mburdekin@aol.com [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, School of MACE, UMIST/University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)
2012-05-15
This paper reports the second stage of an extensive series of detailed three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analyses on the influence of fracture mechanics test specimen geometry and different material properties on constraint and triaxiality in the near crack tip region. The specimens studied were pre-cracked plain-sided and side-grooved Charpy sized specimens, plain-sided and side-grooved compact tension specimens of thickness B = 25 mm and plain-sided compact tension specimens of thickness B = 100 mm all with the ratio of the crack length to the specimen width a/W = 0.5. Stress-strain curves of materials of different yield strength and strain hardening behaviour spanning the range of practical interest for typical structural steels were implemented into the finite element models. The level of constraint in the specimens modelled has been characterised in terms of both the Q-stress parameter and the ratio of hydrostatic to the equivalent stress components. It has been established that in-plane constraint in the fracture toughness test pieces is significantly affected by the absolute ligament size of the specimen. It has also been shown that the strain hardening behaviour is one of the major material parameters defining constraint level in the fracture toughness specimen. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D FE analyses on plain and side-grooved Charpy sized and CT specimens of two sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crack tip constraint analysed for Q-stress and hydrostatic/equivalent stress ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-plane constraint is significantly affected by the absolute ligament size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constraint level is significantly affected by material strain hardening behaviour.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tkach, Y.; Burdekin, F.M.
2012-01-01
This paper reports the second stage of an extensive series of detailed three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analyses on the influence of fracture mechanics test specimen geometry and different material properties on constraint and triaxiality in the near crack tip region. The specimens studied were pre-cracked plain-sided and side-grooved Charpy sized specimens, plain-sided and side-grooved compact tension specimens of thickness B = 25 mm and plain-sided compact tension specimens of thickness B = 100 mm all with the ratio of the crack length to the specimen width a/W = 0.5. Stress–strain curves of materials of different yield strength and strain hardening behaviour spanning the range of practical interest for typical structural steels were implemented into the finite element models. The level of constraint in the specimens modelled has been characterised in terms of both the Q-stress parameter and the ratio of hydrostatic to the equivalent stress components. It has been established that in-plane constraint in the fracture toughness test pieces is significantly affected by the absolute ligament size of the specimen. It has also been shown that the strain hardening behaviour is one of the major material parameters defining constraint level in the fracture toughness specimen. - Highlights: ► 3D FE analyses on plain and side-grooved Charpy sized and CT specimens of two sizes. ► Crack tip constraint analysed for Q-stress and hydrostatic/equivalent stress ratio. ► In-plane constraint is significantly affected by the absolute ligament size. ► Constraint level is significantly affected by material strain hardening behaviour.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endo, Hideo; Seki, Masayuki; Ishibashi, Fujio; Hirako, Kazuhito; Tsukada, Tatsuya
2001-02-01
Mechanical strength in the position welded by resistance welding system was examined in 1999. The test specimens were destroyed in the welding position in a shorter time than expected in the creep test. Therefore, test specimens were prepared to evaluate the cause of destruction. Inner-pressure enclosed creep test specimens were prepared by resistance welding method. Cladding material with low deviation of thickness and high re-crystallization rate was used. Heat treatment after resistance welding was performed to remove the influence of residual stress and the precipitation of carbides. (1) Before preparation of specimens, the welding condition was fixed. Three test specimens were prepared. Two specimens without heat treatment were transported to MMS in Oarai Engineering Center on Aug. 4, 2000. One specimen with heat treatment was transported to MMS after evaluating the residual stress to get optimum heat treatment condition. (2) Specimens were prepared with welding end plugs to both ends of ferritic ODS cladding. Enclosing sides were welded with highly strong Ferritic/Martensitic steel end plugs. The other sides were welded with ferritic ODS end plugs. (3) Some kinds of electrical wave data were obtained during performing welding. Welding position was evaluated with supersonic detector after performing welding. (4) Mechanical strength of welding position in high temperature 800degC was confirmed to be equal to or larger than that of cladding material. The highly qualified specimens in the present were successfully prepared. (author)
Hiel, Clement C.; Sumich, Mark; Chappell, David P.
1991-01-01
A curved beam type of test specimen is evaluated for use in determining the through-the-thickness strength of laminated composites. Two variations of a curved beam specimen configuration (semicircular and elliptical) were tested to failure using static and fatigue loads. The static failure load for the semicircular specimens was found to be highly sensitive to flaw content, with the specimens falling into two distinct groups. This result supports the use of proof testing for structural validation. Static design allowables are derived based on the Weibull distribution. Fatigue data indicates no measured increase in specimen compliance prior to final fracture. All static and fatigue failures at room temperature dry conditions occurred catastrophically. The elliptical specimens demonstrated unusually high failure strengths indicating the presence of phenomena requiring further study. Results are also included for specimens exposed to a wet environment showing a matrix strength degradation due to moisture content. Further testing is underway to evaluate a fatigue methodology for matrix dominated failures based on residual static strength (wearout).
Performance study of a fin and tube heat exchanger with different fin geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Shobhana; Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph
2016-01-01
This study analyses the effect of different fin geometries on the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of a fin and tube heat exchanger. A numerical investigation is carried out on liquid–gas type double-finned tube heat exchanger under cross-flow condition. Three different cross......-sections namely: a) Rectangular, b) Trapezoidal, c) Triangular are adopted to define the fin geometry. The CFD simulations are performed to incorporate coupled steady state conjugate heat transfer with the turbulent flow phenomenon for the Reynolds number in the range of 5000-13000. Dimensionless heat transfer...... models show that triangular fin geometry can provide higher heat transfer performance in comparison to the fins with rectangular and trapezoidal geometry with lower pressure loss and a bonus of 7.27% reduction in weight under similar operating conditions....
Bárány, Imre; Vilcu, Costin
2016-01-01
This volume presents easy-to-understand yet surprising properties obtained using topological, geometric and graph theoretic tools in the areas covered by the Geometry Conference that took place in Mulhouse, France from September 7–11, 2014 in honour of Tudor Zamfirescu on the occasion of his 70th anniversary. The contributions address subjects in convexity and discrete geometry, in distance geometry or with geometrical flavor in combinatorics, graph theory or non-linear analysis. Written by top experts, these papers highlight the close connections between these fields, as well as ties to other domains of geometry and their reciprocal influence. They offer an overview on recent developments in geometry and its border with discrete mathematics, and provide answers to several open questions. The volume addresses a large audience in mathematics, including researchers and graduate students interested in geometry and geometrical problems.
Iversen, Birger
1992-01-01
Although it arose from purely theoretical considerations of the underlying axioms of geometry, the work of Einstein and Dirac has demonstrated that hyperbolic geometry is a fundamental aspect of modern physics
Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens
David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson
2006-01-01
Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2Ã4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurevich, L.Eh.; Gliner, Eh.B.
1978-01-01
Problems of investigating the Universe space-time geometry are described on a popular level. Immediate space-time geometries, corresponding to three cosmologic models are considered. Space-time geometry of a closed model is the spherical Riemann geonetry, of an open model - is the Lobachevskij geometry; and of a plane model - is the Euclidean geometry. The Universe real geometry in the contemporary epoch of development is based on the data testifying to the fact that the Universe is infinitely expanding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, Luiz Claudio Andrade; Zangirolami, Dante Marco; Maretti Junior, Fausto; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal
2011-01-01
The IPR-R1 TRIGA nuclear reactor is located in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, at the Nuclear Technology Development Center (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN) of the National Committee on Nuclear Energy (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, CNEN). One of its irradiation devices is the rotary specimen rack (RSR), outside the reactor core, with forty irradiation positions arranged in a cylindrical geometry. In a previous work, the neutron fluence rate distribution at the RSR and its variation under different irradiation conditions were evaluated by means of specific induced activity measurements in samples of Al-0.1%Au reference material. Since then the core's configuration has been altered with the (re)introduction of another irradiation device, the pneumatic transfer tube 1 (PT-1). This paper aims at identifying and quantifying any changes in neutron fluence that such modification may have caused. (author)
LPTR irradiation of LLL vanadium tensile specimens and LLL Nb--1Zr tensile specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacLean, S.C.; Rowe, C.L.
1977-01-01
The LPTR irradiation of 14 LLL vanadium tensile specimens and 14 LLL Nb-1Zr tensile specimens is described. Sample packaging, the irradiation schedule and neutron fluences for three energy ranges are given
Quantization of the Schwarzschild geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melas, Evangelos
2013-01-01
The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein-Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''.
Solving potential field problems in composite media with complicated geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, H.
1977-01-01
Recently, Yeh developed a method of solving potential field problems for complicated geometries and theorems of piecewise continuous eigenfunctions which can be used to solve boundary-value problems in composite media by the separation of variables. This paper shows that by a proper arrangement of matching conditions and boundary conditions, this method and these theorems can be applied simultaneously so that the problems in composite media with complicated geometries can be solved. To illustrate this, a heat-conduction problem in a composite cylinder with an abrupt change in cross-section area is solved. Also presented in this paper are the method of handling the nonhomogeneous boundary conditions for composite media and the extension of one of the above-mentioned theorems to include imperfect contact on material boundaries
Standard guide for preparation of metallographic specimens
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2011-01-01
1.1 The primary objective of metallographic examinations is to reveal the constituents and structure of metals and their alloys by means of a light optical or scanning electron microscope. In special cases, the objective of the examination may require the development of less detail than in other cases but, under nearly all conditions, the proper selection and preparation of the specimen is of major importance. Because of the diversity in available equipment and the wide variety of problems encountered, the following text presents for the guidance of the metallographer only those practices which experience has shown are generally satisfactory; it cannot and does not describe the variations in technique required to solve individual specimen preparation problems. Note 1—For a more extensive description of various metallographic techniques, refer to Samuels, L. E., Metallographic Polishing by Mechanical Methods, American Society for Metals (ASM) Metals Park, OH, 3rd Ed., 1982; Petzow, G., Metallographic Etchin...
Georeferencing Animal Specimen Datasets
van Erp, M.G.J.; Hensel, R.; Ceolin, D.; van der Meij, M.
2014-01-01
For biodiversity research, the field of study that is concerned with the richness of species of our planet, it is of the utmost importance that the location of an animal specimen find is known with high precision. Due to specimens often having been collected over the course of many years, their
Quantum entanglement as an aspect of pure spinor geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiosses, V
2014-01-01
Relying on the mathematical analogy of the pure states of a two-qubit system with four-component Dirac spinors, we provide an alternative consideration of quantum entanglement using the mathematical formulation of Cartan's pure spinors. A result of our analysis is that the Cartan equation of a two-qubit state is entanglement sensitive in the same way that the Dirac equation for fermions is mass sensitive. The Cartan equation for unentangled qubits is reduced to a pair of Cartan equations for single qubits as the Dirac equation for massless fermions separates into two Weyl equations. Finally, we establish a correspondence between the separability condition in qubit geometry and the separability condition in spinor geometry. (paper)
Vehicle response-based track geometry assessment using multi-body simulation
Kraft, Sönke; Causse, Julien; Coudert, Frédéric
2018-02-01
The assessment of the geometry of railway tracks is an indispensable requirement for safe rail traffic. Defects which represent a risk for the safety of the train have to be identified and the necessary measures taken. According to current standards, amplitude thresholds are applied to the track geometry parameters measured by recording cars. This geometry-based assessment has proved its value but suffers from the low correlation between the geometry parameters and the vehicle reactions. Experience shows that some defects leading to critical vehicle reactions are underestimated by this approach. The use of vehicle responses in the track geometry assessment process allows identifying critical defects and improving the maintenance operations. This work presents a vehicle response-based assessment method using multi-body simulation. The choice of the relevant operation conditions and the estimation of the simulation uncertainty are outlined. The defects are identified from exceedances of track geometry and vehicle response parameters. They are then classified using clustering methods and the correlation with vehicle response is analysed. The use of vehicle responses allows the detection of critical defects which are not identified from geometry parameters.
On organizing principles of discrete differential geometry. Geometry of spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobenko, Alexander I; Suris, Yury B
2007-01-01
Discrete differential geometry aims to develop discrete equivalents of the geometric notions and methods of classical differential geometry. This survey contains a discussion of the following two fundamental discretization principles: the transformation group principle (smooth geometric objects and their discretizations are invariant with respect to the same transformation group) and the consistency principle (discretizations of smooth parametrized geometries can be extended to multidimensional consistent nets). The main concrete geometric problem treated here is discretization of curvature-line parametrized surfaces in Lie geometry. Systematic use of the discretization principles leads to a discretization of curvature-line parametrization which unifies circular and conical nets.
Specimen size effect considerations for irradiation studies of SiC/SiC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Youngblood, G.E.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1996-10-01
For characterization of the irradiation performance of SiC/SiC, limited available irradiation volume generally dictates that tests be conducted on a small number of relatively small specimens. Flexure testing of two groups of bars with different sizes cut from the same SiC/SiC plate suggested the following lower limits for flexure specimen number and size: Six samples at a minimum for each condition and a minimum bar size of 30 x 6.0 x 2.0 mm{sup 3}.
DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.
Drábková, Lenka Záveská
2014-01-01
With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M. [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yavartanoo, H. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)
2016-09-15
Expanding upon [arXiv:1404.4472, arXiv:1511.06079], we provide a further detailed analysis of Banados geometries, the most general solutions to the AdS{sub 3} Einstein gravity with Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions. We analyze in some detail the causal, horizon, and boundary structure, and the geodesic motion on these geometries, as well as the two classes of symplectic charges one can associate with these geometries: charges associated with the exact symmetries and the Virasoro charges. We elaborate on the one-to-one relation between the coadjoint orbits of two copies of the Virasoro group and Banados geometries. We discuss that the information as regards the Banados geometries falls into two categories: ''orbit invariant'' information and ''Virasoro hairs''. The former concerns geometric quantities, while the latter are specified by the non-local surface integrals. We elaborate on multi-BTZ geometries which have a number of disconnected pieces at the horizon bifurcation curve. We study multi-BTZ black hole thermodynamics and discuss that the thermodynamic quantities are orbit invariants. We also comment on the implications of our analysis for a 2d CFT dual which could possibly be dual to AdS{sub 3} Einstein gravity. (orig.)
Tensorial spacetime geometries carrying predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivera Hernandez, Sergio
2012-01-01
Which tensor fields G on a smooth manifold M can serve as a spacetime structure? In the first part of this thesis, it is found that only a severely restricted class of tensor fields can provide classical spacetime geometries, namely those that can carry predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics. The obvious dependence of this characterization of admissible tensorial spacetime geometries on specific matter is not a weakness, but rather presents an insight: it was Maxwell theory that justified Einstein to promote Lorentzian manifolds to the status of a spacetime geometry. Any matter that does not mimick the structure of Maxwell theory, will force us to choose another geometry on which the matter dynamics of interest are predictive, interpretable and quantizable. These three physical conditions on matter impose three corresponding algebraic conditions on the totally symmetric contravariant coefficient tensor field P that determines the principal symbol of the matter field equations in terms of the geometric tensor G: the tensor field P must be hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing. Remarkably, these physically necessary conditions on the geometry are mathematically already sufficient to realize all kinematical constructions familiar from Lorentzian geometry, for precisely the same structural reasons. This we were able to show employing a subtle interplay of convex analysis, the theory of partial differential equations and real algebraic geometry. In the second part of this thesis, we then explore general properties of any hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing tensorial geometry. Physically most important are the construction of freely falling non-rotating laboratories, the appearance of admissible modified dispersion relations to particular observers, and the identification of a mechanism that explains why massive particles that are faster than some massless particles can radiate off energy until they are slower than all
Tensorial spacetime geometries carrying predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rivera Hernandez, Sergio
2012-02-15
Which tensor fields G on a smooth manifold M can serve as a spacetime structure? In the first part of this thesis, it is found that only a severely restricted class of tensor fields can provide classical spacetime geometries, namely those that can carry predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics. The obvious dependence of this characterization of admissible tensorial spacetime geometries on specific matter is not a weakness, but rather presents an insight: it was Maxwell theory that justified Einstein to promote Lorentzian manifolds to the status of a spacetime geometry. Any matter that does not mimick the structure of Maxwell theory, will force us to choose another geometry on which the matter dynamics of interest are predictive, interpretable and quantizable. These three physical conditions on matter impose three corresponding algebraic conditions on the totally symmetric contravariant coefficient tensor field P that determines the principal symbol of the matter field equations in terms of the geometric tensor G: the tensor field P must be hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing. Remarkably, these physically necessary conditions on the geometry are mathematically already sufficient to realize all kinematical constructions familiar from Lorentzian geometry, for precisely the same structural reasons. This we were able to show employing a subtle interplay of convex analysis, the theory of partial differential equations and real algebraic geometry. In the second part of this thesis, we then explore general properties of any hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing tensorial geometry. Physically most important are the construction of freely falling non-rotating laboratories, the appearance of admissible modified dispersion relations to particular observers, and the identification of a mechanism that explains why massive particles that are faster than some massless particles can radiate off energy until they are slower than all
Meyer, Walter J
2006-01-01
Meyer''s Geometry and Its Applications, Second Edition, combines traditional geometry with current ideas to present a modern approach that is grounded in real-world applications. It balances the deductive approach with discovery learning, and introduces axiomatic, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and transformational geometry. The text integrates applications and examples throughout and includes historical notes in many chapters. The Second Edition of Geometry and Its Applications is a significant text for any college or university that focuses on geometry''s usefulness in other disciplines. It is especially appropriate for engineering and science majors, as well as future mathematics teachers.* Realistic applications integrated throughout the text, including (but not limited to): - Symmetries of artistic patterns- Physics- Robotics- Computer vision- Computer graphics- Stability of architectural structures- Molecular biology- Medicine- Pattern recognition* Historical notes included in many chapters...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirilova, D.; Belousov, S.; Ilieva, K.
2011-01-01
The objective of this work is a generation of new version of the BGL multigroup cross-section to extend the region of its applicability. The existing library version is problem oriented for VVER-1000 type of reactors and was generated by collapsing of the VITAMIN-B6 problem independent cross-section fine-group library applying the VVER-1000 reactor middle plane spectrum in cylindrical geometry. The new version BGLex additionally contains cross-sections averaged on the corresponding spectra of the surveillance specimen's (SS) region for VVER-1000 type of reactors. Comparative analysis of the neutron spectra for different one-dimensional geometry models that could be applied for the cross-section collapsing using the software package SCALE, showed a high sensitivity of the results to the geometry model. That is why a neutron importance assessment was done for the SS region using the adjoint solution calculated by the two-dimensional code DORT and problem-independent library VITAMIN-B6. The one-dimensional geometry model applied to the cross-section collapsing were determined by the material limits above the reactor core in axial direction z as for every material a homogenization in radial direction was done. The material homogenization in radial direction was done by material weighing taking into account the adjoint solution as well as the neutron source. The one-dimensional geometry model comprising the homogenized weighed materials was applied for the cross-section generation of the fine-group library VITAMIN-B6 to the broad-group structure of BGL library. The new version BGLex was extended with cross-sections for the SS region. Verification and validation of the new version BGLex is forthcoming. It includes comparison between the calculated results with the new version BGLex and the libraries BGL and VITAMIN-B6 and comparison with experimental results. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirilova, D.; Belousov, S.; Ilieva, K.
2011-01-01
The objective of this work is a generation of new version of the BGL multigroup cross-section to extend the region of its applicability. The existing library version is problem oriented for VVER-1000 type of reactors and was generated by collapsing of the VITAMIN-B6 problem independent cross-section fine-group library applying the VVER-1000 reactor middle plane spectrum in cylindrical geometry. The new version BGLex additionally contains cross-sections averaged on the corresponding spectra of the surveillance specimen's (SS) region for VVER-1000 type of reactors. Comparative analysis of the neutron spectra for different one-dimensional geometry models that could be applied for the cross-section collapsing using the software package SCALE, showed a high sensitivity of the results to the geometry model. That is why a neutron importance assessment was done for the SS region using the adjoint solution calculated by the two-dimensional code DORT and problem-independent library VITAMIN-B6. The one-dimensional geometry model applied to the cross-section collapsing were determined by the material limits above the reactor core in axial direction z as for every material a homogenization in radial direction was done. The material homogenization in radial direction was done by material weighing taking into account the adjoint solution as well as the neutron source. The one-dimensional geometry model comprising the homogenized weighed materials was applied for the cross-section generation of the fine-group library VITAMIN-B6 to the broad-group structure of BGL library. The new version BGLex was extended with cross-sections for the SS region. Verification and validation of the new version BGLex is forthcoming. It includes comparison between the calculated results with the new version BGLex and the libraries BGL and VITAMIN-B6 and comparison with experimental results. (author)
Methodology for wind turbine blade geometry optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perfiliev, D.
2013-11-01
Nowadays, the upwind three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine is the leading player on the market. It has been found to be the best industrial compromise in the range of different turbine constructions. The current wind industry innovation is conducted in the development of individual turbine components. The blade constitutes 20-25% of the overall turbine budget. Its optimal operation in particular local economic and wind conditions is worth investigating. The blade geometry, namely the chord, twist and airfoil type distributions along the span, responds to the output measures of the blade performance. Therefore, the optimal wind blade geometry can improve the overall turbine performance. The objectives of the dissertation are focused on the development of a methodology and specific tool for the investigation of possible existing wind blade geometry adjustments. The novelty of the methodology presented in the thesis is the multiobjective perspective on wind blade geometry optimization, particularly taking simultaneously into account the local wind conditions and the issue of aerodynamic noise emissions. The presented optimization objective approach has not been investigated previously for the implementation in wind blade design. The possibilities to use different theories for the analysis and search procedures are investigated and sufficient arguments derived for the usage of proposed theories. The tool is used for the test optimization of a particular wind turbine blade. The sensitivity analysis shows the dependence of the outputs on the provided inputs, as well as its relative and absolute divergences and instabilities. The pros and cons of the proposed technique are seen from the practical implementation, which is documented in the results, analysis and conclusion sections. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young-Min Kim
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Specimen charging that is associated with the electron bombardment on the sample is a practical hindrance to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM analysis because it causes a severe loss of resolution in either diffraction or image data. Conductive thin film deposition on an insulating specimen has been proposed as an effective approach to the mitigation of the specimen charging; however, this method is generally not useful in HRTEM imaging of materials because the deposited film induces another artifact in the HRTEM image contrast. In this study, we propose practical methods to mitigate the specimen charging that takes place during the HRTEM of materials. For bulk-type specimens prepared by either an ion-thinning or focused-ion beam (FIB process, a plasma cleaning treatment is significantly effective in eliminating the charging phenomenon. In the case of low-dimensional nanomaterials such as nanowires and nanoparticles, the plasma cleaning is not feasible; however, the charging effect can be effectively eliminated by adjusting the electron illumination condition. The proposed methods facilitate a decrease in the buildup of specimen charging, thereby enhancing the quality of high-resolution images significantly.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Kregsamer, P.; Pepponi, G.; Pianetta, P.; Pahlke, S.; Fabry, L.
2000-01-01
The determination of low Z elements, like Na and Al at ultra trace levels on Si wafer surfaces is demanded by semiconductor industry. SR-TXRF is a promising method to fulfill the task, if a special energy dispersive detector with an ultra thin window is used. Synchrotron radiation is the ideal suited excitation source for TXRF of low Z elements due to its intensive, natural collimated and linear polarized radiation with wide spectral range down to low energies even below 1 keV. TXRF offers some advantages for wafer surface analysis like nondestructive investigation and mapping capability. Experiments have been performed at SSRL beamline 3-4, a bending magnet beamline using white (<3 keV) and monochromatic radiation, as well as on beamline 3-3, using a crystal monochromator as well as a multilayer monochromator. A comparison of excitation detection geometries was performed, using a sidelooking detector with vertical positioned wafer as well as a downlooking detector with a horizontally arranged wafer. The advantages and disadvantages of the various geometries and excitation conditions are presented and the results compared. Detection limits are in the 100 fg range for Na, determined with droplet samples on Si wafer surfaces. (author)
Maor, Eli
2014-01-01
If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur
An acceleration test for stress corrosion cracking using humped specimen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamaya, Masayuki; Fukumura, Takuya; Totsuka, Nobuo
2003-01-01
By using the humped specimen, which is processed by the humped die, in the slow strain rate technique (SSRT) test, fracture facet due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can be observed in relatively short duration. Although the cold work and concentrated stress and strain caused by the characteristic shape of the specimen accelerate the SCC, to date these acceleration effects have not been examined quantitatively. In the present study, the acceleration effects of the humped specimen were examined through experiments and finite element analyses (FEA). The experiments investigated the SCC of alloy 600 in the primary water environment of a pressurized water reactor. SSRT tests were conducted using two kinds of humped specimen: one was annealed after hump processing in order to eliminate the cold work, and the other was hump processed after the annealing treatment. The work ratio caused by the hump processing and stress/strain conditions during SSRT test were evaluated by FEA. It was found that maximum work ratio of 30% is introduced by the hump processing and that the distribution of the work ratio is not uniform. Furthermore, the work ratio is influenced by the friction between the specimen and dies as well as by the shape of dies. It was revealed that not only the cold work but also the concentrated stress and strain during SSRT test accelerate the crack initiation and growth of the SCC. (author)
O'Leary, Michael
2010-01-01
Guides readers through the development of geometry and basic proof writing using a historical approach to the topic. In an effort to fully appreciate the logic and structure of geometric proofs, Revolutions of Geometry places proofs into the context of geometry's history, helping readers to understand that proof writing is crucial to the job of a mathematician. Written for students and educators of mathematics alike, the book guides readers through the rich history and influential works, from ancient times to the present, behind the development of geometry. As a result, readers are successfull
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazunobu, Sakamoto; Eliichiro, Otsuka; Yoshiaki, Oka; Kosei, Taguchi; Michiyoshi, Yamamoto
2001-01-01
In order to develop the reconstitution technology to standardize surveillance test specimen reconstitution practices to deal with the extended service life of reactor pressure vessels, the Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carried out the project entrusted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). We focus on a correlation between the reduction of absorbed energy and the interaction of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the plastic zone, to establish applicable reconstitution conditions for Charpy specimens. The relationship between the plastic zone width and the absorbed energy has been obtained by estimating the plastic zone width from the hardness distribution of the Charpy specimens. Impact tests of reconstituted specimens with 10 mm-length insert using the surface activated joining method were performed and the test results were compared to those obtained by the standard specimens. By comparing the length of insert material to the sum of HAZ width and plastic zone width, it is clear that the interaction causes the reduction of the absorbed energy. Hence, the applicable conditions of reconstituted Charpy specimens could be assessed by comparing the insert length to the sum of HAZ width and plastic zone width. Moreover the effects of the possible deviations from the standard shape and size specimens for the reconstituted specimens were studied. (authors)
Analogy and Dynamic Geometry System Used to Introduce Three-Dimensional Geometry
Mammana, M. F.; Micale, B.; Pennisi, M.
2012-01-01
We present a sequence of classroom activities on Euclidean geometry, both plane and space geometry, used to make three dimensional geometry more catchy and simple. The activity consists of a guided research activity that leads the students to discover unexpected properties of two apparently distant geometrical entities, quadrilaterals and…
Ay, Nihat; Lê, Hông Vân; Schwachhöfer, Lorenz
2017-01-01
The book provides a comprehensive introduction and a novel mathematical foundation of the field of information geometry with complete proofs and detailed background material on measure theory, Riemannian geometry and Banach space theory. Parametrised measure models are defined as fundamental geometric objects, which can be both finite or infinite dimensional. Based on these models, canonical tensor fields are introduced and further studied, including the Fisher metric and the Amari-Chentsov tensor, and embeddings of statistical manifolds are investigated. This novel foundation then leads to application highlights, such as generalizations and extensions of the classical uniqueness result of Chentsov or the Cramér-Rao inequality. Additionally, several new application fields of information geometry are highlighted, for instance hierarchical and graphical models, complexity theory, population genetics, or Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The book will be of interest to mathematicians who are interested in geometry, inf...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ander Montero
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the feasibility of calculating strains in aged F114 steel specimens with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors and infrared thermography (IT techniques. Two specimens have been conditioned under extreme temperature and relative humidity conditions making comparative tests of stress before and after aging using different adhesives. Moreover, a comparison has been made with IT techniques and conventional methods for calculating stresses in F114 steel. Implementation of Structural Health Monitoring techniques on real aircraft during their life cycle requires a study of the behaviour of FBG sensors and their wiring under real conditions, before using them for a long time. To simulate aging, specimens were stored in a climate chamber at 70 °C and 90% RH for 60 days. This study is framed within the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM and Non Destructuve Evaluation (NDE research lines, integrated into the avionics area maintained by the Aeronautical Technologies Centre (CTA and the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU.
Development of Reconstitution Technology for Surveillance Specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasushi Atago; Shunichi Hatano; Eiichiro Otsuka
2002-01-01
The Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carrying out the project titled 'Nuclear Power Plant Integrated Management Technology (PLIM)' consigned by Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) since 1996FY as a 10-years project. As one of the project themes, development of reconstitution technology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV/RV) surveillance specimens, which are installed in RPVs to monitor the neutron irradiation embrittlement on RPV/RV materials, is now on being carried out to deal with the long-term operation of nuclear power plants. The target of this theme is to establish the technical standard for applicability of reconstituted surveillance specimens including the reconstitution of the Charpy specimens and Compact Tension (CT) specimens. With the Charpy specimen reconstitution, application of 10 mm length inserts is used, which enables the conversion of tests from the LT-direction to the TL-direction. This paper presents the basic data from Charpy and CT specimens of RPV materials using the surveillance specimens obtained for un-irradiated materials including the following. 1) Reconstitution Technology of Charpy Specimens. a) The interaction between plastic zone and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). b) The effects of the possible deviations from the standard specimens for the reconstituted specimens. 2) Reconstitution Technology of CT specimens. a) The correlation between fracture toughness and plastic zone width. Because the project is now in progress, this paper describes the outline of the results obtained as of the end of 2000 FY. (authors)
Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roomans, G.M.
1988-01-01
Qualitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens requires an approach that is somewhat different from that used in the materials sciences. The first step is deconvolution and background subtraction on the obtained spectrum. The further treatment depends on the type of specimen: thin, thick, or semithick. For thin sections, the continuum method of quantitation is most often used, but it should be combined with an accurate correction for extraneous background. However, alternative methods to determine local mass should also be considered. In the analysis of biological bulk specimens, the ZAF-correction method appears to be less useful, primarily because of the uneven surface of biological specimens. The peak-to-local background model may be a more adequate method for thick specimens that are not mounted on a thick substrate. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens generally requires the use of standards that preferably should resemble the specimen in chemical and physical properties. Special problems in biological microanalysis include low count rates, specimen instability and mass loss, extraneous contributions to the spectrum, and preparative artifacts affecting quantitation. A relatively recent development in X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens is the quantitative determination of local water content
Three theorems on near horizon extremal vanishing horizon geometries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Sadeghian
2016-02-01
Full Text Available EVH black holes are Extremal black holes with Vanishing Horizon area, where vanishing of horizon area is a result of having a vanishing one-cycle on the horizon. We prove three theorems regarding near horizon geometry of EVH black hole solutions to generic Einstein gravity theories in diverse dimensions. These generic gravity theories are Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton-Λ theories, and gauged or ungauged supergravity theories with U(1 Maxwell fields. Our three theorems are: (1 The near horizon geometry of any EVH black hole has a three dimensional maximally symmetric subspace. (2 If the energy momentum tensor of the theory satisfies strong energy condition either this 3d part is an AdS3, or the solution is a direct product of a locally 3d flat space and a d−3 dimensional part. (3 These results extend to the near horizon geometry of near-EVH black holes, for which the AdS3 part is replaced with BTZ geometry.
Perception of global facial geometry is modulated through experience
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meike Ramon
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Identification of personally familiar faces is highly efficient across various viewing conditions. While the presence of robust facial representations stored in memory is considered to aid this process, the mechanisms underlying invariant identification remain unclear. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that facial representations stored in memory are associated with differential perceptual processing of the overall facial geometry. Subjects who were personally familiar or unfamiliar with the identities presented discriminated between stimuli whose overall facial geometry had been manipulated to maintain or alter the original facial configuration (see Barton, Zhao & Keenan, 2003. The results demonstrate that familiarity gives rise to more efficient processing of global facial geometry, and are interpreted in terms of increased holistic processing of facial information that is maintained across viewing distances.
Face/core interface fracture characterization of mixed mode bending sandwich specimens
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, L.A.
2011-01-01
and PVC H45, H100 and H250 foam core materials were evaluated. A methodology to perform precracking on fracture specimens in order to achieve a sharp and representative crack front is outlined. The mixed mode loading was controlled in the mixed mode bending (MMB) test rig by changing the loading......Debonding of the core from the face sheets is a critical failure mode in sandwich structures. This paper presents an experimental study on face/core debond fracture of foam core sandwich specimens under a wide range of mixed mode loading conditions. Sandwich beams with E‐glass fibre face sheets...... application point (lever arm distance). Finite element analysis was performed to determine the mode‐mixity at the crack tip. The results showed that the face/core interface fracture toughness increased with increased mode II loading. Post failure analysis of the fractured specimens revealed that the crack...
Detection of electron magnetic circular dichroism signals under zone axial diffraction geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Dongsheng [National Center for Electron Microscopy in Beijing, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE) and The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Rusz, Jan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Cai, Jianwang [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhu, Jing, E-mail: jzhu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [National Center for Electron Microscopy in Beijing, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE) and The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2016-10-15
EMCD (electron magnetic circular dichroism) technique provides us a new opportunity to explore magnetic properties in the transmission electron microscope. However, specific diffraction geometry is the major limitation. Only the two-beam and three-beam case are demonstrated in the experiments until now. Here, we present the more general case of zone axial (ZA) diffraction geometry through which the EMCD signals can be detected even with the very strong sensitivity to dynamical diffraction conditions. Our detailed calculations and well-controlled diffraction conditions lead to experiments in agreement with theory. The effect of dynamical diffraction conditions on EMCD signals are discussed both in theory and experiments. Moreover, with the detailed analysis of dynamical diffraction effects, we experimentally obtain the separate EMCD signals for each crystallographic site in Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, which is also applicable for other materials and cannot be achieved by site-specific EMCD and XMCD technique directly. Our work extends application of more general diffraction geometries and will further promote the development of EMCD technique. - Highlights: • The zone axial (ZA) diffraction geometry is presented for EMCD technique. • The detailed calculations for EMCD signals under ZA case are conducted. • The EMCD signals are obtained under the ZA case in the experiments. • The effect of dynamical effect on EMCD signals under ZA case is discussed. • Site-specific EMCD signals of Fe in Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} are obtained by specific ZA conditions.
Geometry essentials for dummies
Ryan, Mark
2011-01-01
Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics - get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, W.L.
1979-10-01
Stress-corrosion cracking test specimens were prepared for Dow Nuclear Services for insertion in the Dresden 1 reactor during the chemical decontamination of the primary system, and for subsequent exposure under operating conditions when the station returns to service. The specimens consist of pressurized tubes fabricated from Type-304 and -304L stainless steel, Inconel 600, Incoloy 800, and Zircaloy 2. In addition, constant radius bent-beam specimens of 3/4 hard Type-410 stainless steel were also included. All specimens were stressed to, or slightly above, their respective 0.2% offset yield strengths at the temperatures of interest
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jason D. Merker
2013-07-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate the feasibility of using glass microbeads with a holographic barcode identifier to track DNA specimens in the molecular pathology laboratory. These beads can be added to peripheral blood specimens and are carried through automated DNA extraction protocols that use magnetic glass particles. We found that an adequate number of microbeads are consistently carried over during genomic DNA extraction to allow specimen identification, that the beads do not interfere with the performance of several different molecular assays, and that the beads and genomic DNA remain stable when stored together under regular storage conditions in the molecular pathology laboratory. The beads function as an internal, easily readable specimen barcode. This approach may be useful for identifying DNA specimens and reducing errors associated with molecular laboratory testing.
Effect of laser power and specimen temperature on atom probe analyses of magnesium alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh-ishi, K.; Mendis, C.L.; Ohkubo, T.; Hono, K.
2011-01-01
The influence of laser power, wave length, and specimen temperature on laser assisted atom probe analyses for Mg alloys was investigated. Higher laser power and lower specimen temperature led to improved mass and spatial resolutions. Background noise and mass resolutions were degraded with lower laser power and higher specimen temperature. By adjusting the conditions for laser assisted atom probe analyses, atom probe results with atomic layer resolutions were obtained from all the Mg alloys so far investigated. Laser assisted atom probe investigations revealed detailed chemical information on Guinier-Preston zones in Mg alloys. -- Research highlights: → We study performance of UV laser assisted atom probe analysis for Mg alloys. → There is an optimized range of laser power and specimen temperature. → Optimized UV laser enables atom probe data of Mg alloys with high special resolution.
Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.
2008-01-01
An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.
Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.
2008-09-15
An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.
Silva, Alessandro
1993-01-01
The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.
Differential geometry of CR-submanifolds of a normal almost para contact manifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shahid, M.H.
1992-12-01
The aim of this paper is to study the geometry of CR-submanifolds of a normal almost para contact manifold. We discuss the integrability conditions of distributions involved in the definition and geometry of leaves of CR-submanifolds, some results on CR-submanifolds with parallel structures and contact CR-product are also given. (author). 10 refs
Development of fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nogami, Shuhei; Nishimura, Arata; Wakai, Eichi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Itoh, Takamoto; Hasegawa, Akira
2013-01-01
For developing the fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen, the effect of specimen size and shape on the fatigue life of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (F82H-IEA, F82H-BA07 and JLF-1) was investigated by the fatigue test at room temperature in air using round-bar and hourglass specimens with various specimen sizes (test section diameter: 0.85–10 mm). The round-bar specimen showed no specimen size and no specimen shape effects on the fatigue life, whereas the hourglass specimen showed no specimen size effect and obvious specimen shape effect on it. The shorter fatigue life of the hourglass specimen observed under low strain ranges could be attributed to the shorter micro-crack initiation life induced by the stress concentration dependent on the specimen shape. On the basis of this study, the small round-bar specimen was an acceptable candidate for evaluating the fatigue life using small specimen
Simulation of a two phase boiling flow in Poseidon geometry with Astrid steam-water software
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larrauri, D.
1997-01-01
After different validation test runs in tube an annular geometries, the simulation of a subcooled boiling flow in a rod bundle geometry has been achieved with ASTRID Steam-Water software. The experiment we have simulated is the Poseidon experiment. It is a three heating tube geometry. The thermohydraulic conditions of the simulated flow are closed to the DNB conditions. The simulation results are analysed and compared against the available measurements of liquid and wall temperatures. ASTRID Steam-Water behaviour in such a geometry brings satisfaction. The wall and the liquid temperatures are well predicted in the different parts of the flow. The void fraction reaches 40 % in the vicinity of the heating rods. Besides, the evolution of the different calculated variables shows that a three-dimensional simulation gives capital information for the analyse of the physical phenomena involved in this kind of flow. The good results obtained in Poseidon geometry lead us to think about simulating and analyzing rod bundle flows with ASTRID Steam-Water code. (author)
Systematics of IIB spinorial geometry
Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.
2005-01-01
We reduce the classification of all supersymmetric backgrounds of IIB supergravity to the evaluation of the Killing spinor equations and their integrability conditions, which contain the field equations, on five types of spinors. This extends the work of [hep-th/0503046] to IIB supergravity. We give the expressions of the Killing spinor equations on all five types of spinors. In this way, the Killing spinor equations become a linear system for the fluxes, geometry and spacetime derivatives of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falkenberg, G.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.
2003-01-01
X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments in fluorescence mode have been performed in total reflection excitation geometry and conventional 45 deg. /45 deg. excitation/detection geometry for comparison. The experimental results have shown that XAFS measurements are feasible under normal total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) conditions, i.e. on droplet samples, with excitation in grazing incidence and using a TXRF experimental chamber. The application of the total reflection excitation geometry for XAFS measurements increases the sensitivity compared to the conventional geometry leading to lower accessible concentration ranges. However, XAFS under total reflection excitation condition fails for highly concentrated samples because of the self-absorption effect
The geometry of some natural conjugacies in ℂn dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John W. Robertson
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We show that under some simple conditions a topological conjugacy h between two holomorphic self-maps f1 and f2 of complex n-dimensional projective space ℙn lifts canonically to a topological conjugacy H between the two corresponding polynomial self-maps of ℂn+1, and this conjugacy relates the two Green functions of f1 and f2. These conjugacies are interesting because their geometry is not inherited entirely from the geometry of the conjugacy on ℙn. Part of the geometry of such a conjugacy is given (locally by a complex-valued function whose absolute value is determined by the Green functions for the two maps, but whose argument seems to appear out of thin air. We work out the local geometry of such conjugacies over the Fatou set and over Fatou varieties of the original map.
Zandbergen, H.W.; Latenstein van Voorst, A.; Westra, C.; Hoveling, G.H.
1996-01-01
A specimen holder for an electron microscope, comprising a bar-shaped body provided adjacent one end with means for receiving a specimen, with means being present for screening the specimen from the environment at least temporarily in airtight and moisture-proof manner in a first position, which
The effect of the geometry on the fluorescence radiation field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teodori, F.; Fernandez, J.E.; Molinari, V.
2000-01-01
In x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy a narrow photon beam is focused on the surface of the sample to stimulate the production of characteristic radiation which gives useful information about the composition of the target. Even if the interpretation of the measurement is simple, the quantification of the total emitted intensity is not straightforward because the primary photons are produced in the depth of the sample and only a fraction can reach the surface without colliding again with matter. In this work we show that the geometry of the system plays an important role in determining the properties of the 3D radiation field. By using the integral Boltzmann equation, we show that there exist a link among the source distribution, the boundary conditions, the emission points, the observation angles and the properties of the field of emitted radiation. To illustrate the influence of the geometry, the energy distribution of a continuos emission spectrum like the Compton one has been calculated, firstly. It is shown that the energy distribution of the Compton primary photons (coming out from a slab irradiated with an internal monochromatic and isotropic point source) changes with the orientation of the observation direction. Another example involves a second order effect which depends on a double collision in the specimen. It has been shown that the characteristic emission due to the photoelectric effect is accompanied by a (P,C) continuous contribution which introduces an asymmetry in the shape of the line. Computations in a 3D radiation field have shown that such asymmetry is strongly dependent on the observation direction with respect to the primary volume where the photoelectric effect is produced. This means that detection through a narrow collimator whose axis (assumed here as the observation direction) deviates from the centre of symmetry of the primary volume, will produce differently shaped characteristic lines depending on the extent and placement of the
Tensorial spacetime geometries and background-independent quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raetzel, Dennis
2012-01-01
Famously, Einstein read off the geometry of spacetime from Maxwell's equations. Today, we take this geometry that serious that our fundamental theory of matter, the standard model of particle physics, is based on it. However, it seems that there is a gap in our understanding if it comes to the physics outside of the solar system. Independent surveys show that we need concepts like dark matter and dark energy to make our models fit with the observations. But these concepts do not fit in the standard model of particle physics. To overcome this problem, at least, we have to be open to matter fields with kinematics and dynamics beyond the standard model. But these matter fields might then very well correspond to different spacetime geometries. This is the basis of this thesis: it studies the underlying spacetime geometries and ventures into the quantization of those matter fields independently of any background geometry. In the first part of this thesis, conditions are identified that a general tensorial geometry must fulfill to serve as a viable spacetime structure. Kinematics of massless and massive point particles on such geometries are introduced and the physical implications are investigated. Additionally, field equations for massive matter fields are constructed like for example a modified Dirac equation. In the second part, a background independent formulation of quantum field theory, the general boundary formulation, is reviewed. The general boundary formulation is then applied to the Unruh effect as a testing ground and first attempts are made to quantize massive matter fields on tensorial spacetimes.
Strength characterization of tubular ceramic materials by flexure of semi-cylindrical specimens
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwok, Kawai; Kiesel, Lutz; Frandsen, Henrik Lund
2014-01-01
Mechanical strength at elevated temperatures and operating atmospheres needs to be characterized during development of tubular ceramic components for advanced energy technologies. Typical procedures are time-consuming because a large number of tests are required for a reliable statistical strength...... characterization and every specimen has to be subjected to the process conditions individually. This paper presents an efficient strength characterization methodology for tubular ceramics. The methodology employs flexure of semi-cylindrical specimens as the strength test and implements the tests within a facility...... conducted on oxygen transport membrane materials at room temperature and 850°C....
Controlling electromagnetic fields at boundaries of arbitrary geometries
Teo, Jonathon Yi Han; Wong, Liang Jie; Molardi, Carlo; Genevet, Patrice
2016-08-01
Rapid developments in the emerging field of stretchable and conformable photonics necessitate analytical expressions for boundary conditions at metasurfaces of arbitrary geometries. Here, we introduce the concept of conformal boundary optics: a design theory that determines the optical response for designer input and output fields at such interfaces. Given any object, we can realize coatings to achieve exotic effects like optical illusions and anomalous diffraction behavior. This approach is relevant to a broad range of applications from conventional refractive optics to the design of the next-generation of wearable optical components. This concept can be generalized to other fields of research where designer interfaces with nontrivial geometries are encountered.
Wildlife specimen collection, preservation, and shipment
White, C. LeAnn; Dusek, Robert J.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.
2015-01-01
Specimens are used to provide supporting information leading to the determination of the cause of disease or death in wildlife and for disease monitoring or surveillance. Commonly used specimens for wildlife disease investigations include intact carcasses, tissues from carcasses, euthanized or moribund animals, parasites, ingested food, feces, or environmental samples. Samples from live animals or the environment (e.g., contaminated feed) in the same vicinity as a mortality event also may be helpful. The type of specimen collected is determined by availability of samples and biological objectives. Multiple fresh, intact carcasses from affected species are the most useful in establishing a cause for a mortality event. Submission of entire carcasses allows observation of gross lesions and abnormalities, as well as disease testing of multiple tissues. Samples from live animals may be more appropriate when sick animals cannot be euthanized (e.g., threatened or endangered species) or for research and monitoring projects examining disease or agents circulating in apparently healthy animals or those not exhibiting clinical signs. Samples from live animals may include collections of blood, hair, feathers, feces, or ectoparasites, or samples obtained by swabbing lesions or orifices. Photographs and videos are useful additions for recording field and clinical signs and conveying conditions at the site. Collection of environmental samples (e.g., feces, water, feed, or soil) may be appropriate when animals cannot be captured for sampling or the disease agent may persist in the environment. If lethal collection is considered necessary, biologists should refer to the policies, procedures, and permit requirements of their institution/facility and the agency responsible for species management (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or State natural resource agency) prior to use in the field. If threatened or endangered species are found dead, or there is evidence of illegal take, field
Bright field electron microscopy of biological specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johansen, B.V.
1976-01-01
A preirradiation procedure is described which preserves negatively stained morphological features in bright field electron micrographs to a resolution of about 1.2 nm. Prior to microscopy the pre-irradiation dose (1.6 x 10 -3 C cm -2 ) is given at low electron optical magnification at five different areas on the grid (the centre plus four 'corners'). This pre-irradiation can be measured either with a Faraday cage or through controlled exposure-developing conditions. Uranyl formate stained T2 bacteriophages and stacked disk aggregates of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) protein served as test objects. A comparative study was performed on specimens using either the pre-irradiation procedure or direct irradiation by the 'minimum beam exposure' technique. Changes in the electron diffraction pattern of the stain-protein complex and the disappearance of certain morphological features in the specimens were both used in order to compare the pre-irradiation method with the direct exposure technique. After identical electron exposures the pre-irradiation approach gave a far better preservation of specimen morphology. Consequently this procedure gives the microscopist more time to select and focus appropriate areas for imaging before deteriorations take place. The investigation also suggested that microscopy should be carried out between 60,000 and 100,000 times magnification. Within this magnification range, it is possible to take advantage of the phase contrast transfer characteristics of the objective lens while the electron load on the object is kept at a moderate level. Using the pre-irradiation procedure special features of the T2 bacteriophage morphology could be established. (author)
A dissipative particle dynamics method for arbitrarily complex geometries
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Tang, Yu-Hang; Karniadakis, George Em
2018-02-01
Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an effective Lagrangian method for modeling complex fluids in the mesoscale regime but so far it has been limited to relatively simple geometries. Here, we formulate a local detection method for DPD involving arbitrarily shaped geometric three-dimensional domains. By introducing an indicator variable of boundary volume fraction (BVF) for each fluid particle, the boundary of arbitrary-shape objects is detected on-the-fly for the moving fluid particles using only the local particle configuration. Therefore, this approach eliminates the need of an analytical description of the boundary and geometry of objects in DPD simulations and makes it possible to load the geometry of a system directly from experimental images or computer-aided designs/drawings. More specifically, the BVF of a fluid particle is defined by the weighted summation over its neighboring particles within a cutoff distance. Wall penetration is inferred from the value of the BVF and prevented by a predictor-corrector algorithm. The no-slip boundary condition is achieved by employing effective dissipative coefficients for liquid-solid interactions. Quantitative evaluations of the new method are performed for the plane Poiseuille flow, the plane Couette flow and the Wannier flow in a cylindrical domain and compared with their corresponding analytical solutions and (high-order) spectral element solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. We verify that the proposed method yields correct no-slip boundary conditions for velocity and generates negligible fluctuations of density and temperature in the vicinity of the wall surface. Moreover, we construct a very complex 3D geometry - the "Brown Pacman" microfluidic device - to explicitly demonstrate how to construct a DPD system with complex geometry directly from loading a graphical image. Subsequently, we simulate the flow of a surfactant solution through this complex microfluidic device using the new method. Its
Conformal boundary state for the rectangular geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bondesan, R., E-mail: roberto.bondesan@cea.fr [Institute de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); LPTENS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris (France); Institut Henri Poincare, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Dubail, J. [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Jacobsen, J.L. [LPTENS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris (France); Institut Henri Poincare, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Saleur, H. [Institute de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut Henri Poincare, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Physics Department, USC, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (United States)
2012-09-11
We discuss conformal field theories (CFTs) in rectangular geometries, and develop a formalism that involves a conformal boundary state for the 1+1d open system. We focus on the case of homogeneous boundary conditions (no insertion of a boundary condition changing operator), for which we derive an explicit expression of the associated boundary state, valid for any arbitrary CFT. We check the validity of our solution, comparing it with known results for partition functions, numerical simulations of lattice discretizations, and coherent state expressions for free theories.
Field study of dried blood spot specimens for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping.
Parry, C M; Parkin, N; Diallo, K; Mwebaza, S; Batamwita, R; DeVos, J; Bbosa, N; Lyagoba, F; Magambo, B; Jordan, M R; Downing, R; Zhang, G; Kaleebu, P; Yang, C; Bertagnolio, S
2014-08-01
Dried blood spots (DBS) are an alternative specimen type for HIV drug resistance genotyping in resource-limited settings. Data relating to the impact of DBS storage and shipment conditions on genotyping efficiency under field conditions are limited. We compared the genotyping efficiencies and resistance profiles of DBS stored and shipped at different temperatures to those of plasma specimens collected in parallel from patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Uganda. Plasma and four DBS cards from anti-coagulated venous blood and a fifth card from finger-prick blood were prepared from 103 HIV patients with a median viral load (VL) of 57,062 copies/ml (range, 1,081 to 2,964,191). DBS were stored at ambient temperature for 2 or 4 weeks or frozen at -80 °C and shipped from Uganda to the United States at ambient temperature or frozen on dry ice for genotyping using a broadly sensitive in-house method. Plasma (97.1%) and DBS (98.1%) stored and shipped frozen had similar genotyping efficiencies. DBS stored frozen (97.1%) or at ambient temperature for 2 weeks (93.2%) and shipped at ambient temperature also had similar genotyping efficiencies. Genotyping efficiency was reduced for DBS stored at ambient temperature for 4 weeks (89.3%, P = 0.03) or prepared from finger-prick blood and stored at ambient temperature for 2 weeks (77.7%, P blood and handled similarly. Resistance profiles were similar between plasma and DBS specimens. This report delineates the optimal DBS collection, storage, and shipping conditions and opens a new avenue for cost-saving ambient-temperature DBS specimen shipments for HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) surveillances in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amouyal, A; Tariel, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1966-07-01
Code name: January 1{sup st} SCEA 011S. 2) Computer: IBM 7094; Programme system: Fortran II, 2{sup nd} version. 3) Nature of the problem: resolution of cell problems with one space variable (planar, spherical and cylindrical geometries) and with one energy group, with isotropic sources in the double P{sub n} approximation (DP 1 and DP 3 approximation in planar and spherical geometries, DP 1 and DP 2 in cylindrical geometry). 4) Method used: the differential equations with limiting conditions are transformed into differential system with initial conditions which are integrated by a separate-step method. 5) Restrictions: number of physical media < 100, number of geometrical regions < 100, number of points < 1000. 6) Physical approximations: limiting conditions for reflection, black body or grey body (restrictions for spherical and cylindrical geometries). The diffusion can include an isotropy term in cylindrical geometry, 2 terms in the other geometries. Taking into account of macroscopic data. 7) Duration: calculation time for a network of 100 points: planar and spherical geometry: double P 1 1 second, D P 3 = 4 seconds; cylindrical geometry: double P 1 2 seconds, D P 2 = 4 seconds. To these times should be added the 3 seconds required for the output. 8) State of the programme under production. (authors) [French] 1) Nom du Code: Janvier 1 SCEA 011S. 2) Calculateur: IBM 7094; Systeme de programmation: Fortran II version-2. 3) Nature du probleme: resolution des problemes de cellule a une variable d'espace (geometries plane, spherique et cylindrique) et un groupe d'energie, avec sources isotropes, dans l'approxirnation double P{sub n} (Approximations DP 1 et DP 3 en geometrie plane et spherique, approximations DP 1 et DP 2 en geometrie cylindrique). Methode employee: les equations differentielles avec conditions aux limites sont transformees en systemes differentiels avec conditions initiales que l'on integre par une methode a pas separes. 5) Restrictions: nombre de
Stationary metrics and optical Zermelo-Randers-Finsler geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbons, G. W.; Warnick, C. M.; Herdeiro, C. A. R.; Werner, M. C.
2009-01-01
We consider a triality between the Zermelo navigation problem, the geodesic flow on a Finslerian geometry of Randers type, and spacetimes in one dimension higher admitting a timelike conformal Killing vector field. From the latter viewpoint, the data of the Zermelo problem are encoded in a (conformally) Painleve-Gullstrand form of the spacetime metric, whereas the data of the Randers problem are encoded in a stationary generalization of the usual optical metric. We discuss how the spacetime viewpoint gives a simple and physical perspective on various issues, including how Finsler geometries with constant flag curvature always map to conformally flat spacetimes and that the Finsler condition maps to either a causality condition or it breaks down at an ergo surface in the spacetime picture. The gauge equivalence in this network of relations is considered as well as the connection to analogue models and the viewpoint of magnetic flows. We provide a variety of examples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paredes Tobar, Lenin Marcelo; Ruggieri, Claudio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Oceanica
2009-12-19
This work presents an evaluation procedure to determine the elastic-plastic J-integral and CTOD for pin-loaded and clamped single edge notch tension (SE(T)) specimens based upon the eta-method. The primary objective is to derive estimation equations applicable to determine J and CTOD fracture parameters for a wide range of a/W-ratios and material flow properties. Very detailed non-linear finite element analyses for plane-strain and full-thickness, 3-D models provide the evolution of load with increased crack mouth opening displacement which is required for the estimation procedure. The present analyses, when taken together with previous studies provide a fairly extensive body of results which serve to determine parameters J and CTOD for different materials using tension specimens with varying geometries. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Tani, Junichi; Tanaka, Yukihisa
2016-01-01
Aluminum alloy remains in the Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLW) generated at nuclear facilities. It is well known that aluminum reactors to the alkaline component of cement, or water, generating hydrogen gas. For the saft management of radioactive waste disposal facilities, it is necessary to evaluate the corrosion behavior of aluminum and the hydrogen generation behavior in consideration with transition of the burial environment. In the present study, the corrosion behaviors of aluminum in the alkaline solutions at 15degC were evaluated. Pure aluminium was used as specimen. The test solutions used in this study were water in equilibrium with the cement paste grain produced from ordinary portland cement (OPC). The temperature and pH of solutions were 15degC and 11.5-12.5, respectively. In order to make a corrosion product on the surface, the specimens were immersed in the solution for about 3000 hours as pretreatment. The corrosion behaviors of pre-filmed specimen were evaluated after drying. The test results shows that the maximum in a corrosion rate appeared in early stages and it decrease to less than 1x10 -3 mm/y. The maximum did not appear when the corrosion products were formed in the OPC grain as conditions similar to actual environment. (author)
Non commutative geometry and super Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigatti, D.
1999-01-01
We aim to connect the non commutative geometry 'quotient space' viewpoint with the standard super Yang Mills theory approach in the spirit of Connes-Douglas-Schwartz and Douglas-Hull description of application of noncommutative geometry to matrix theory. This will result in a relation between the parameters of a rational foliation of the torus and the dimension of the group U(N). Namely, we will be provided with a prescription which allows to study a noncommutative geometry with rational parameter p/N by means of a U(N) gauge theory on a torus of size Σ/N with the boundary conditions given by a system with p units of magnetic flux. The transition to irrational parameter can be obtained by letting N and p tend to infinity with fixed ratio. The precise meaning of the limiting process will presumably allow better clarification. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Needle decompositions in Riemannian geometry
Klartag, Bo'az
2017-01-01
The localization technique from convex geometry is generalized to the setting of Riemannian manifolds whose Ricci curvature is bounded from below. In a nutshell, the author's method is based on the following observation: When the Ricci curvature is non-negative, log-concave measures are obtained when conditioning the Riemannian volume measure with respect to a geodesic foliation that is orthogonal to the level sets of a Lipschitz function. The Monge mass transfer problem plays an important role in the author's analysis.
Pedoe, Dan
1988-01-01
""A lucid and masterly survey."" - Mathematics Gazette Professor Pedoe is widely known as a fine teacher and a fine geometer. His abilities in both areas are clearly evident in this self-contained, well-written, and lucid introduction to the scope and methods of elementary geometry. It covers the geometry usually included in undergraduate courses in mathematics, except for the theory of convex sets. Based on a course given by the author for several years at the University of Minnesota, the main purpose of the book is to increase geometrical, and therefore mathematical, understanding and to he
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.
2004-01-01
A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...... glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre bridging, eventually reaching asteady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarin, P.; Yoon, W.; Jurkschat, K.; Zschack, P.; Kriven, W. M.
2006-01-01
A four-lamp thermal image furnace has been developed to conduct high temperature x-ray diffraction in reflection geometry on oxide ceramic powder samples in air at temperatures ≤2050 K using synchrotron radiation. A refractory crucible made of Pt20%Rh alloy was used as a specimen holder. A material with well characterized lattice expansion properties was used as an internal crystallographic thermometer to determine the specimen temperature and displacement. The performance of the apparatus was verified by measurement of the thermal expansion properties of CeO 2 , MgO, and Pt which were found to be within ±3% of the acceptable values. The advantages, limitations, and important considerations of the instrument developed are discussed
Kollár, János
1997-01-01
This volume contains the lectures presented at the third Regional Geometry Institute at Park City in 1993. The lectures provide an introduction to the subject, complex algebraic geometry, making the book suitable as a text for second- and third-year graduate students. The book deals with topics in algebraic geometry where one can reach the level of current research while starting with the basics. Topics covered include the theory of surfaces from the viewpoint of recent higher-dimensional developments, providing an excellent introduction to more advanced topics such as the minimal model program. Also included is an introduction to Hodge theory and intersection homology based on the simple topological ideas of Lefschetz and an overview of the recent interactions between algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, which involve mirror symmetry and string theory.
Recent advances in FIB-TEM specimen preparation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jian; Malis, T.; Dionne, S.
2006-01-01
Preparing high-quality transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens is of paramount importance in TEM studies. The development of the focused ion beam (FIB) microscope has greatly enhanced TEM specimen preparation capabilities. In recent years, various FIB-TEM foil preparation techniques have been developed. However, the currently available techniques fail to produce TEM specimens from fragile and ultra-fine specimens such as fine fibers. In this paper, the conventional FIB-TEM specimen preparation techniques are reviewed, and their advantages and shortcomings are compared. In addition, a new technique suitable to prepare TEM samples from ultra-fine specimens is demonstrated
Lathi, Ruth B; Gustin, Stephanie L F; Keller, Jennifer; Maisenbacher, Melissa K; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Tao, Rosina; Demko, Zach
2014-01-01
To examine the rate of maternal contamination in miscarriage specimens. Retrospective review of 1,222 miscarriage specimens submitted for chromosome testing with detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC). Referral centers requesting genetic testing of miscarriage specimens at a single reference laboratory. Women with pregnancy loss who desire complete chromosome analysis of the pregnancy tissue. Analysis of miscarriage specimens using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray technology with bioinformatics program to detect maternal cell contamination. Chromosome content of miscarriages and incidence of 46,XX results due to MCC. Of the 1,222 samples analyzed, 592 had numeric chromosomal abnormalities, and 630 were normal 46,XX or 46,XY (456 and 187, respectively). In 269 of the 46,XX specimens, MCC with no embryonic component was found. With the exclusion of maternal 46,XX results, the chromosomal abnormality rate increased from 48% to 62%, and the ratio for XX to XY results dropped from 2.6 to 1.0. Over half of the normal 46,XX results in miscarriage specimens were due to MCC. The use of SNPs in MCC testing allows for precise identification of chromosomal abnormalities in miscarriage as well as MCC, improving the accuracy of products of conception testing. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wicaksono, Sigit T.; Ardhyananta, Hosta; Rasyida, Amaliya; Hidayat, Mas Irfan P.
2018-04-01
Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies, the manufacturing technology with less time consuming including high precission and complicated structure of products, are now become high demanding technologies. Those technologies can be base on top-down or bottom-up approaches. One of the bottom-up approach of RP technology is 3D printing machine. In this research, we have succeed to apply the droplet-based 3D printer to make the structured PLA (Polylactic Acid) materials with different internal geometry structures. The internal geometry used are triangle and honeycomb structure with different size of each symmetry axis of 4.5 mm and 9 mm and the thickness varied of 1 mm and 2 mm as well. The mechanical properties of those structures including tensile and bending stregth are evaluated by using tensile and flexural test respectively. Test results show that the best performance obtained by measuring its tensile and flexural strength is the sampel with triangle geometry of 9 mm geometrical size and 2 mm of thickness. The tensile strength and flexural strength values of the specimens are 59.2996 MPa and 123 MPa respectively.
Design of specimen for weld residual stress simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jin Weon; Park, Jong Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo
2008-01-01
The objective of this study is to design a laboratory specimen for simulating residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe. Specimen type and method for residual stress generation were proposed based on the review of prior studies and parametric finite element simulation. To prove the proposed specimen type and loading method, the residual stress was generated using the designed specimen by applying proposed method and was measured. The measured residual stress using X-ray diffraction reasonably agreed with the results of finite element simulation considered in the specimen design. Comparison of residual strains measured at several locations of specimen and given by finite element simulation also showed good agreement. Therefore, it is indicated that the designed specimen can reasonably simulate the residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe
Muhassanah, Nuraini; Sujadi, Imam; Riyadi, Riyadi
2014-01-01
The objective of this research was to describe the VIII grade students geometry skills atSMP N 16 Surakarta in the level 0 (visualization), level 1 (analysis), and level 2 (informaldeduction) van Hiele level of thinking in solving the geometry problem. This research was aqualitative research in the form of case study analyzing deeply the students geometry skill insolving the geometry problem based on van Hiele level of thingking. The subject of this researchwas nine students of VIII grade at ...
TEM specimen preparation of semiconductor-PMMA-metal interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thangadurai, P.; Lumelsky, Yulia; Silverstein, Michael S.; Kaplan, Wayne D.
2008-01-01
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-section specimens of PMMA in contact with gold and Si were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) and compared with plan-view PMMA specimens prepared by a dip-coating technique. The specimens were characterized by TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In the cross-section specimens, the thin films of PMMA were located in a Si-PMMA-Au multilayer. Different thicknesses of PMMA films were spin-coated on the Si substrates. The thickness of the TEM specimens prepared by FIB was estimated using EELS to be 0.65 of the plasmon mean-free-path. Along the PMMA-Au interface, Au particle diffusion into the PMMA was observed, and the size of the Au particles was in the range of 2-4 nm. Dip-coating of PMMA directly on Cu TEM grids resulted in thin specimens with a granular morphology, with a thickness of 0.58 of the plasmon mean-free-path. The dip-coated specimens were free from ion milling induced artifacts, and thus serve as control specimens for comparison with the cross-sectioned specimens prepared by FIB
Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry
Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J
2008-01-01
In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its
Maza, Paul Sadiri
In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR
Kulczycki, Stefan
2008-01-01
This accessible approach features two varieties of proofs: stereometric and planimetric, as well as elementary proofs that employ only the simplest properties of the plane. A short history of geometry precedes a systematic exposition of the principles of non-Euclidean geometry.Starting with fundamental assumptions, the author examines the theorems of Hjelmslev, mapping a plane into a circle, the angle of parallelism and area of a polygon, regular polygons, straight lines and planes in space, and the horosphere. Further development of the theory covers hyperbolic functions, the geometry of suff
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seibel, Thomas
2014-07-01
In the present work the LCF (Low Cycle Fatigue) crack initiation life of the conventionally cast Ni-base alloy RENE 80 was analyzed as a function of specimen size and grain orientation. Five specimen geometries with distinctly different gauge sections were used: 3 geometries with cylindrical gauge section (G1-G3) and two notched geometries with a stress concentration factor of α{sub 1} = 1,62 (KG1) and α{sub 2} = 2,60 (KG2), resulting in a maximum difference of the damage relevant surface area up to a factor of approximately 72. Correction factors were determined by FEM calculations for all specimen geometries with highly reduced gauge sections where direct strain measurement was not possible. Additionally a uniform failure criterion with a relatively small crack size of 0,962 mm{sup 2} was defined. Totally, 116 isothermal LCF tests were carried out at the different specimen types at a temperature of 850 C in total strain control with a load ratio (minimum strain / maximum strain) of R{sub ε} = -1. The load cycles were applied with triangular waveform at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for high strain amplitudes and 1 Hz for low strain amplitudes, respectively. After the LCF-Tests the fracture surfaces of all samples were analyzed in more detail by SEM to identify the crack initiation mechanisms as well as the crack initiation sites. In this context it could be shown, that fatigue cracks were generally initiated at slip bands in surface grains. Accordingly, the grain orientations at the crack initiation sites were measured by electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and the maximum shear stresses in the respective principal slip system (111) <110> was calculated using the Schmid approach. For this, longitudinal sections were be prepared exactly at the crack initiation sites of samples loaded with low strain amplitudes where clearly defined single crack initiation sites were observed. Afterwards the maximum shear stress in the principal slip system at the crack initiation
Geometry on the space of geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christodoulakis, T.; Zanelli, J.
1988-06-01
We discuss the geometric structure of the configuration space of pure gravity. This is an infinite dimensional manifold, M, where each point represents one spatial geometry g ij (x). The metric on M is dictated by geometrodynamics, and from it, the Christoffel symbols and Riemann tensor can be found. A ''free geometry'' tracing a geodesic on the manifold describes the time evolution of space in the strong gravity limit. In a regularization previously introduced by the authors, it is found that M does not have the same dimensionality, D, everywhere, and that D is not a scalar, although it is covariantly constant. In this regularization, it is seen that the path integral measure can be absorbed in a renormalization of the cosmological constant. (author). 19 refs
Laser-driven planar impact of miniature specimens of HY-100 steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, David J.; Robbins, David L.
2002-01-01
The deformation and fracture behavior of HY-100, a high-strength steel, under high strain-rate planar-impact conditions, has been studied with the Laser-Driven Miniflyer apparatus. Cold-rolled copper flyers 3 mm in diameter and either 50 or 100 microns thick have been laser-launched against HY-100 targets, 200 microns thick and nominally 10 mm square. The target specimens were sectioned from the 25-mm-thick HY-100 plate in three mutually perpendicular orientations, either parallel or perpendicular to the plate rolling direction. The back-surface response of the HY-100 targets was monitored with dual VISARs. The flyer velocity was varied to produce a range of behavior, from deformation at low velocities, to damage formation at intermediate velocities, and finally to complete spall failure at the highest velocities. The target specimens were sectioned after testing to examine the microstructure and failure processes of the deformed material. Spall strengths were calculated from the VISAR signals. The VISAR traces showed well-defined elastic precursors, which were similar for all orientations of the specimens. The spall strengths, as estimated from the magnitude of the pullback signal, were also similar for all three orientations. The spall strength increased as the flyer impact velocity increased, to values of about 4.6 GPa. Metallographic examination revealed that damage occurred at lower impact velocities in specimens loaded in the through-thickness direction of the plate, as compared to specimens oriented parallel to the plate thickness, but this difference was not reflected in the pull-back signal or the spall strengths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grotz, Andreas
2011-10-07
In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grotz, Andreas
2011-01-01
In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.
Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...
Influence of Lithophysal Geometry on the Uniaxial Compression of Tuff-Like Rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rigby, Douglas B.
2007-01-01
A large portion of the rock of the high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain contains lithophysae or voids. These voids have a significant detrimental effect on the engineering properties of the rock mass and its performance. The lithophysae were formed at the time of volcanic deposition by pockets of gas trapped within the compressing and cooling pyroclastic flow material. Lithophysae vary by size, shape, and spatial frequency of occurrence. Due to the difficulties of testing actual lithophysal rock, the current mechanical property data set is limited and the numerical models of lithophysal rock are not well validated. The purpose of this task was to experimentally quantify the effect of void geometry in the mechanical compression of cubes of analog lithophysal-like rock. In this research the mechanical properties of the analog rock were systematically studied by examining various patterns of voids based on variables consisting of hole shape, size, and geometrical distribution. Each specified hole pattern was cast into 6 by 6 by 6-in. Hydro-StoneTB(reg s ign) specimens (produced in triplicate) and then tested under uniaxial compression. Solid Hydro-StoneTB(reg s ign) specimens exhibited similar mechanical properties to those estimated for rock mass solid specimens of Topopah Spring tuff. The results indicated that the compressive strength and Young's Modulus values decrease with increasing specimen void porosity. The modulus and strength with void porosity relationships are essentially linear over the 5 to 20 percent void porosity range. When zero void porosity (solid specimen) results are added, exponential functions do not provide a good fit to the data due to a significant sensitivity of strength and modulus to the presence of macro-sized voids. From solid specimens there is roughly a 60 percent drop in strength with about 7 percent void porosity, increasing to an 80 percent drop at about 20 percent void porosity. The percent change in modulus from
Amyloidosis diagnosed in cytology specimen of pleural effusion: A case report.
Manur, Rashmi; Lamzabi, Ihab
2018-06-01
Amyloidosis is a rare condition resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid, a fibrillary material derived from various precursor proteins. Involvement of the pleura by amyloidosis is a rare but serious complication. Pleural amyloidosis is primarily diagnosed by identifying amyloid deposition by histology on pleural biopsy specimens. Hereby, we report a case of systemic amyloidosis where we were able to identify amyloid in a pleural effusion specimen sent for cytopathology evaluation. A 59-year-old male with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and systemic amyloidosis underwent therapeutic thoracentesis. The H&E stained cell block sections revealed a single, less than one millimeter focus of waxy material surrounded by a rim of reactive mesothelial cells suspicious for amyloid deposit in a background of fibrin, lymphocytes, and reactive mesothelial cells. The focus stained salmon pink with Congo-red special stain and showed apple-green birefringence under polarized light. Our finding suggests that pleural involvement in patients with systemic amyloidosis can be identified on effusion specimens and avert the need for more invasive procedures like pleural or pulmonary parenchymal biopsies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Notch effects in uniaxial tension specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delph, T.J.
1979-03-01
Results of a literature survey on the effect of notches on the time-dependent failure of uniaxial tension specimens at elevated temperatures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the failure of notched specimens containing weldments
Museum genomics: low-cost and high-accuracy genetic data from historical specimens.
Rowe, Kevin C; Singhal, Sonal; Macmanes, Matthew D; Ayroles, Julien F; Morelli, Toni Lyn; Rubidge, Emily M; Bi, Ke; Moritz, Craig C
2011-11-01
Natural history collections are unparalleled repositories of geographical and temporal variation in faunal conditions. Molecular studies offer an opportunity to uncover much of this variation; however, genetic studies of historical museum specimens typically rely on extracting highly degraded and chemically modified DNA samples from skins, skulls or other dried samples. Despite this limitation, obtaining short fragments of DNA sequences using traditional PCR amplification of DNA has been the primary method for genetic study of historical specimens. Few laboratories have succeeded in obtaining genome-scale sequences from historical specimens and then only with considerable effort and cost. Here, we describe a low-cost approach using high-throughput next-generation sequencing to obtain reliable genome-scale sequence data from a traditionally preserved mammal skin and skull using a simple extraction protocol. We show that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the genome sequences obtained independently from the skin and from the skull are highly repeatable compared to a reference genome. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby
2002-01-01
The subject of this Ph.D.-thesis is somewhere in between continuous and discrete geometry. Chapter 2 treats the geometry of finite point sets in semi-Riemannian hyperquadrics,using a matrix whose entries are a trigonometric function of relative distances in a given point set. The distance...... to the geometry of a simplex in a semi-Riemannian hyperquadric. In chapter 3 we study which finite metric spaces that are realizable in a hyperbolic space in the limit where curvature goes to -∞. We show that such spaces are the so called leaf spaces, the set of degree 1 vertices of weighted trees. We also...... establish results on the limiting geometry of such an isometrically realized leaf space simplex in hyperbolic space, when curvature goes to -∞. Chapter 4 discusses negative type of metric spaces. We give a measure theoretic treatment of this concept and related invariants. The theory developed...
Tabachnikov, Serge
2005-01-01
Mathematical billiards describe the motion of a mass point in a domain with elastic reflections off the boundary or, equivalently, the behavior of rays of light in a domain with ideally reflecting boundary. From the point of view of differential geometry, the billiard flow is the geodesic flow on a manifold with boundary. This book is devoted to billiards in their relation with differential geometry, classical mechanics, and geometrical optics. The topics covered include variational principles of billiard motion, symplectic geometry of rays of light and integral geometry, existence and nonexistence of caustics, optical properties of conics and quadrics and completely integrable billiards, periodic billiard trajectories, polygonal billiards, mechanisms of chaos in billiard dynamics, and the lesser-known subject of dual (or outer) billiards. The book is based on an advanced undergraduate topics course (but contains more material than can be realistically taught in one semester). Although the minimum prerequisit...
Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Min, Duck Seok; Seo, Hang Seok; Min, Duck Kee; Koo, Dae Seo; Lee, Eun Pyo; Yang, Song Yeol
1999-04-01
Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods to perform efficient PIE is developed by analyzing the relation between requiring time of manufacturing specimen and manufacturing method in irradiated fuel rods. It takes within an hour to grind 1 mm of specimen thickness under 150 rpm in speed of grinding, 600 g gravity in force using no.120, no.240, no.320 of grinding paper. In case of no.400 of grinding paper, it takes more an hour to grind the same thickness as above. It takes up to a quarter to grind 80-130 μm in specimen thickness using no.400 of grinding paper. When grinding time goes beyond 15 minutes, the grinding thickness of specimen does not exist. The polishing of specimen with 150 Rpms in speed of grinding machine, 600 g gravity in force, 10 minutes in polishing time using diamond paste 15 μm on polishing cloths amounts to 50 μm in specimen thickness. In case of diamond paste 9 μm on polishing cloth, the polishing of specimen amounts to 20 μm. The polishing thickness of specimen with 15 minutes in polishing time using 6 μm, 3 μm, 1 μm, 1/4 μm does not exist. Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods will have application to the destructive examination of PIE. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs
Histopathological analysis of hysterectomy specimens: one year study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R Baral
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Backgound: The uterus is prone to develop several non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions during the life time of a woman. The aim of this study is to study the histopathological features of varied uterine lesions, their profile and distribution of different lesions in relation of age.Materials and Methods: This is a histopathological database analysis of hysterectomy specimen of one year 2011/12 in Patan Hospital. The variables studied were age and histopathological diagnosis. SPSS version 16 was used as an analytical tool.Results: A total of 3576 histopathology samples were received in this period. There were 1173 gynaecology samples during this period out of which 22% (261 cases were that of hysterectomy. Histopathology diagnosis showed Leiomyoma in 48.6% (127 cases, Adenomyosis was seen in 10.3% (27 cases, Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma was seen in 1.14% (3 cases.Conclusion: A large number of hysterectomy specimens had no significant findings. However, adenomyosis, leiomyomya and adenocarcinoma are also found which may be the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding.
Correlations between Standard and Miniaturised Charpy-V Specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucon, E.; Van Walle, E.; Fabry, A.; Puzzolante, J.-L.; Verstrepen, A.; Vosch, R.; Van de Velde, L.
1998-12-01
A total of 565 instrumented impact tests (232 performed on full-size and 333 on sub-size Charpy-V specimens) have been analysed in order to derive meaningful assumptions on the correlations existing between test results obtained on specimens of different size. Nine materials (pressure vessel steels) have been considered, in both as-received and irradiated state, for a total of 19 conditions examined. For the analysis of data, conventional as well novel approaches have been investigated; former ones, based on a review of the existing literature, include predictions of USE values by the use of normalization factors (NF), shifts of index temperatures related to energy/lateral expansion/shear fracture levels, and a combination of both approaches (scaling and shifting of energy curves). More original and recent proposals have also been verified, available in the literature but also proposed by SCK-CEN in the frame of enhanced surveillance of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Conclusions have been drawn regarding the applicability and reliability of these methodologies, and recommendations have been given for future developments of the activities on this topic
Using Figure and Concept Knowledge in Geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yavuz Karpuz
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this study, we aim to investigate how students build interaction between concepts and figure in geometry. For this purpose we developed two type data collection tool. First one called shapely is formed eight open ended question which has concepts and figure. Second one called shapeless is formed eight open ended question which has only concepts. To prepare this data collection tools’ difficulty level we took two math teachers’ opinions. Developed data collection tools were applied 120 students at 9th grade and 11th grade in Trabzon Gazi Anatolian High School. First of all we applied shapeless questions. One month later we applied shapely questions. We investigated students’ answer and the data showed that students more succeed in shapely questions than shapeless questions. We concluded that the difficulty of solving shapeless question result from students didn’t manage to draw figure representing concept knowledge or draw wrong figure, figure drawn by students can’t fulfıl generalizability condition and students who have little knowledge of concept in geometry is under the influence of prototype figure.Key Words: Figural concepts theory, geometrical reasoning, geometry teaching
Drawing Dynamic Geometry Figures Online with Natural Language for Junior High School Geometry
Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yin, Sheng-Kai; Yang, Chang-Zhe
2012-01-01
This paper presents a tool for drawing dynamic geometric figures by understanding the texts of geometry problems. With the tool, teachers and students can construct dynamic geometric figures on a web page by inputting a geometry problem in natural language. First we need to build the knowledge base for understanding geometry problems. With the…
Excitation of lower hybrid waves by electron beams in finite geometry plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoucri, M.m.; Gagne, R.R.J.
1978-01-01
The quasi-static lower hybrid eigenmodes of a plasma column in a cylindrical waveguide are determined, and their linear excitation by a small density electron beam is discussed for the cases of a hot electron beam as well as for a cold electron beam. It is shown that under certain conditions, finite geometry effects introduce important quantitative and qualitative differences with respect to the results obtained in an infinite geometry. (author)
Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.
1998-01-01
The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report
Time-dependent leak behavior of flawed Alloy 600 tube specimens at constant pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahn, Chi Bum, E-mail: bahn@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Harris, Charles [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)
2011-10-15
Leak rate testing has been performed using Alloy 600 tube specimens with throughwall flaws. Some specimens have shown time-dependent leak behavior at constant pressure conditions. Fractographic characterization was performed to identify the time-dependent crack growth mechanism. The fracture surface of the specimens showed the typical features of ductile fracture, as well as the distinct crystallographic facets, typical of fatigue crack growth at low {Delta}K level. Structural vibration appears to have been caused by the oscillation of pressure, induced by a high-pressure pump used in a test facility, and by the water jet/tube structure interaction. Analyses of the leak behaviors and crack growth indicated that both the high-pressure pump and the water jet could significantly contribute to fatigue crack growth. To determine whether the fatigue crack growth during the leak testing can occur solely by the water jet effect, leak rate tests at constant pressure without the high-pressure pump need to be performed. - Highlights: > Leak rate of flawed Alloy 600 tubing increased at constant pressure condition. > Fractography revealed two cases: ductile tearing and crystallographic facets. > Crystallographic facets are typical features of fatigue crack growth at low {Delta}K. > Fatigue source could be water jet-induced vibration and/or high-pressure pump pulsation.
Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J., E-mail: aandrade@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-01
Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)
Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J.
2017-01-01
Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)
Geometry of physical dispersion relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raetzel, Dennis; Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.
2011-01-01
To serve as a dispersion relation, a cotangent bundle function must satisfy three simple algebraic properties. These conditions are derived from the inescapable physical requirements that local matter field dynamics must be predictive and allow for an observer-independent notion of positive energy. Possible modifications of the standard relativistic dispersion relation are thereby severely restricted. For instance, the dispersion relations associated with popular deformations of Maxwell theory by Gambini-Pullin or Myers-Pospelov are not admissible. Dispersion relations passing the simple algebraic checks derived here correspond to physically admissible Finslerian refinements of Lorentzian geometry.
KEMAJUAN BELAJAR SISWA PADA GEOMETRI TRANSFORMASI MENGGUNAKAN AKTIVITAS REFLEKSI GEOMETRI
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irkham Ulil Albab
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kemajuan belajar siswa pada materi geometri transformasi yang didukung dengan serangkaian aktivitas belajar berdasarkan Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia. Penelitian didesain melalui tiga tahap, yaitu tahapan perancangan desain awal, pengujian desain melalui pembelajaran awal dan pembelajaran eksperimental, dan tahap analisis retrospektif. Dalam penelitian ini, Hypothetical Learning Trajectory, HLT (HLT berperan penting sebagai desain pembelajaran sekaligus instrumen penelitian. HLT diujikan terhadap 26 siswa kelas VII. Data dikumpulkan dengan teknik wawancara, pengamatan, dan catatan lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa desain pembelajaran ini mampu menstimulasi siswa untuk memberikan karakteristik refleksi dan transformasi geometri lainnya secara informal, mengklasifikasikannya dalam transformasi isometri pada level kedua, dan menemukan garis bantuan refleksi pada level yang lebih formal. Selain itu, garis bantuan refleksi digunakan oleh siswa untuk menggambar bayangan refleksi dan pola pencerminan serta memahami bentuk rotasi dan translasi sebagai kombinasi refleksi adalah level tertinggi. Keyword: transformasi geometri, kombinasi refleksi, rotasi, translasi, design research, HLT STUDENTS’ LEARNING PROGRESS ON TRANSFORMATION GEOMETRY USING THE GEOMETRY REFLECTION ACTIVITIES Abstract: This study was aimed at describing the students’ learning progress on transformation geometry supported by a set of learning activities based on Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education. The study was designed into three stages, that is, the preliminary design stage, the design testing through initial instruction and experiment, and the restrospective analysis stage. In this study, Hypothetical Learning Trajectory (HLT played an important role as an instructional design and a research instrument. HLT was tested to 26 seventh grade students. The data were collected through interviews
Stope gully support and sidings geometry at all depths and at varying dip.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Naidoo, K
2002-08-01
Full Text Available layout 149 5.4 Three dimensional analyses of gully layouts 152 5.4.1 Description of three – dimensional model geometries 152 5.4.2 Single step FLAC3D models 154 5.4.2.1 Analysis method 154 5.4.2.2 General comparison of ASG versus heading cases 154 5.4... ON UNDERGROUND INSPECTIONS 72 4.1 Introduction 72 4.2 Rating of gully conditions 72 4.3 Mining practice compliance with mine standards 72 4.4 Summary of observed gully behaviour resulting from geometry, stress state and ground conditions 80 4.4.1 Shallow...
Software Geometry in Simulations
Alion, Tyler; Viren, Brett; Junk, Tom
2015-04-01
The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) involves many detectors. The experiment's near detector (ND) facility, may ultimately involve several detectors. The far detector (FD) will be significantly larger than any other Liquid Argon (LAr) detector yet constructed; many prototype detectors are being constructed and studied to motivate a plethora of proposed FD designs. Whether it be a constructed prototype or a proposed ND/FD design, every design must be simulated and analyzed. This presents a considerable challenge to LBNE software experts; each detector geometry must be described to the simulation software in an efficient way which allows for multiple authors to easily collaborate. Furthermore, different geometry versions must be tracked throughout their use. We present a framework called General Geometry Description (GGD), written and developed by LBNE software collaborators for managing software to generate geometries. Though GGD is flexible enough to be used by any experiment working with detectors, we present it's first use in generating Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) files to interface with LArSoft, a framework of detector simulations, event reconstruction, and data analyses written for all LAr technology users at Fermilab. Brett is the other of the framework discussed here, the General Geometry Description (GGD).
Methods of information geometry
Amari, Shun-Ichi
2000-01-01
Information geometry provides the mathematical sciences with a new framework of analysis. It has emerged from the investigation of the natural differential geometric structure on manifolds of probability distributions, which consists of a Riemannian metric defined by the Fisher information and a one-parameter family of affine connections called the \\alpha-connections. The duality between the \\alpha-connection and the (-\\alpha)-connection together with the metric play an essential role in this geometry. This kind of duality, having emerged from manifolds of probability distributions, is ubiquitous, appearing in a variety of problems which might have no explicit relation to probability theory. Through the duality, it is possible to analyze various fundamental problems in a unified perspective. The first half of this book is devoted to a comprehensive introduction to the mathematical foundation of information geometry, including preliminaries from differential geometry, the geometry of manifolds or probability d...
Canonical quantization of static spherically symmetric geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christodoulakis, T; Dimakis, N; Terzis, P A; Doulis, G; Grammenos, Th; Melas, E; Spanou, A
2013-01-01
The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein–Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''
Developments in special geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen
2012-01-01
We review the special geometry of N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we discuss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.
Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Shijie; Zhao, Haiyang; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Geng, Yudi; Tao, Shan; Zhang, Guangqing; Chen, Mian
2018-02-01
Natural fractures have a significant influence on the propagation geometry of hydraulic fractures in fractured reservoirs. True triaxial volumetric fracturing experiments, in which random natural fractures are created by placing cement blocks of different dimensions in a cuboid mold and filling the mold with additional cement to create the final test specimen, were used to study the factors that influence the hydraulic fracture propagation geometry. These factors include the presence of natural fractures around the wellbore, the dimension and volumetric density of random natural fractures and the horizontal differential stress. The results show that volumetric fractures preferentially formed when natural fractures occurred around the wellbore, the natural fractures are medium to long and have a volumetric density of 6-9%, and the stress difference is less than 11 MPa. The volumetric fracture geometries are mainly major multi-branch fractures with fracture networks or major multi-branch fractures (2-4 fractures). The angles between the major fractures and the maximum horizontal in situ stress are 30°-45°, and fracture networks are located at the intersections of major multi-branch fractures. Short natural fractures rarely led to the formation of fracture networks. Thus, the interaction between hydraulic fractures and short natural fractures has little engineering significance. The conclusions are important for field applications and for gaining a deeper understanding of the formation process of volumetric fractures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joyce, James A.
1988-01-01
During the past three years a test method has been developed for dynamic testing of fracture mechanics specimens which is specifically designed for application to the upper transition temperature range. The method uses drop tower loading rates of 2.5 m/sec and obtains a J IC or a J-R curve using an analytical key curve approach verified by initial and final crack length measurements obtained from the fracture surface. A J-R curve is obtained from each specimen and contains crack growth corrections so that it is directly comparable with static results obtained in accordance with the ASTM E1152 J-R curve test method. The test procedure has been applied to A106 steel, A533B steel and US Navy HY80 and HY100 steels at temperatures from -200F to 150F. Standard 1T three point bend specimens were used for the A533B and the HY100 steel. Static test results have shown that the J at cleavage initiation (which is presently an unstandardized quantity) is specimen a/W independent throughout the ductile to brittle transition but of course demonstrates considerable statistical scatter in the vicinity of the ductile upper shelf. Dynamic J-R tests have shown an increase in J IC with test rate for most, but not for all, materials. Separation of J into elastic and plastic components shows that the elastic J component increases with test rate in a fashion consistent with the materials tensile sensitivity to test rate but the plastic J component decreases with test rate - an apparent visco-plastic phenomena. For A106 steel the plastic J decrease exceeds the elastic J increase and the upper shelf toughness falls - while the other materials have demonstrated a relatively larger increase in the elastic J component and a smaller decrease in the plastic J component giving an overall increase in upper shelf toughness. Separation of the J integral into elastic and plastic components has demonstrated that J EL is specimen scale and geometry dependent while J PL is relatively scale and geometry
Grain tracing and strain determination in a Be compact tension specimen using synchrotron radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varma, R.; Green, R.; Garcia, M.D.; Satyam, P.V.; Yun, W.B.; Maser, J.; Kai, Z.; Lai, B.; Sinha, S.K.
1999-01-01
X-ray synchrotron radiation of high (11 KeV) energy and high flux (10 10 photons per square centimeter per second) has been used to measure strains and polycrystallinity in 6-mm thick polycrystalline beryllium compact tension (CT) specimens at and around the crack tip (for fatigue-precracked sample) or at chevron notch point under load or no-load conditions. The authors demonstrated the feasibility strain field mapping as well as determining the polycrystallinity at or near the points of maximum load in beryllium CT specimens. The experimental techniques and results will be discussed
Lokoshchenko, A.; Teraud, W.
2018-04-01
The work describes an experimental research of creep of cylindrical tensile test specimens made of aluminum alloy D16T at a constant temperature of 400°C. The issue to be examined was the necking at different values of initial tensile stresses. The use of a developed noncontacting measuring system allowed us to see variations in the specimen shape and to estimate the true stress in various times. Based on the obtained experimental data, several criteria were proposed for describing the point of time at which the necking occurs (necking point). Calculations were carried out at various values of the parameters in these criteria. The relative interval of deformation time in which the test specimen is uniformly stretched was also determined.
The design of geometry teaching: learning from the geometry textbooks of Godfrey and Siddons
Fujita, Taro; Jones, Keith
2002-01-01
Deciding how to teach geometry remains a demanding task with one of major arguments being about how to combine the intuitive and deductive aspects of geometry into an effective teaching design. In order to try to obtain an insight into tackling this issue, this paper reports an analysis of innovative geometry textbooks which were published in the early part of the 20th Century, a time when significant efforts were being made to improve the teaching and learning of geometry. The analysis sugge...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Byung Jae Lee
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, adiabatic temperature rise tests depending on binder type and adiabatic specimen volume were performed, and the maximum adiabatic temperature rises and the reaction factors for each mix proportion were analyzed and suggested. The results indicated that the early strength low heat blended cement mixture had the lowest maximum adiabatic temperature rise (Q∞ and the ternary blended cement mixture had the lowest reaction factor (r. Also, Q and r varied depending on the adiabatic specimen volume even when the tests were conducted with a calorimeter, which satisfies the recommendations for adiabatic conditions. Test results show a correlation: the measurements from the 50 L specimens were consistently higher than those from the 6 L specimens. However, the Q∞ and r values of the 30 L specimen were similar to those of the 50 L specimen. Based on the above correlation, the adiabatic temperature rise of the 50 L specimen could be predicted using the results of the 6 L and 30 L specimens. Therefore, it is thought that this correlation can be used for on-site concrete quality control and basic research.
Lee, Byung Jae; Bang, Jin Wook; Shin, Kyung Joon; Kim, Yun Yong
2014-12-08
In this study, adiabatic temperature rise tests depending on binder type and adiabatic specimen volume were performed, and the maximum adiabatic temperature rises and the reaction factors for each mix proportion were analyzed and suggested. The results indicated that the early strength low heat blended cement mixture had the lowest maximum adiabatic temperature rise ( Q ∞ ) and the ternary blended cement mixture had the lowest reaction factor ( r ). Also, Q and r varied depending on the adiabatic specimen volume even when the tests were conducted with a calorimeter, which satisfies the recommendations for adiabatic conditions. Test results show a correlation: the measurements from the 50 L specimens were consistently higher than those from the 6 L specimens. However, the Q ∞ and r values of the 30 L specimen were similar to those of the 50 L specimen. Based on the above correlation, the adiabatic temperature rise of the 50 L specimen could be predicted using the results of the 6 L and 30 L specimens. Therefore, it is thought that this correlation can be used for on-site concrete quality control and basic research.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah M Hykin
Full Text Available For 150 years or more, specimens were routinely collected and deposited in natural history collections without preserving fresh tissue samples for genetic analysis. In the case of most herpetological specimens (i.e. amphibians and reptiles, attempts to extract and sequence DNA from formalin-fixed, ethanol-preserved specimens-particularly for use in phylogenetic analyses-has been laborious and largely ineffective due to the highly fragmented nature of the DNA. As a result, tens of thousands of specimens in herpetological collections have not been available for sequence-based phylogenetic studies. Massively parallel High-Throughput Sequencing methods and the associated bioinformatics, however, are particularly suited to recovering meaningful genetic markers from severely degraded/fragmented DNA sequences such as DNA damaged by formalin-fixation. In this study, we compared previously published DNA extraction methods on three tissue types subsampled from formalin-fixed specimens of Anolis carolinensis, followed by sequencing. Sufficient quality DNA was recovered from liver tissue, making this technique minimally destructive to museum specimens. Sequencing was only successful for the more recently collected specimen (collected ~30 ybp. We suspect this could be due either to the conditions of preservation and/or the amount of tissue used for extraction purposes. For the successfully sequenced sample, we found a high rate of base misincorporation. After rigorous trimming, we successfully mapped 27.93% of the cleaned reads to the reference genome, were able to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial genome, and recovered an accurate phylogenetic placement for our specimen. We conclude that the amount of DNA available, which can vary depending on specimen age and preservation conditions, will determine if sequencing will be successful. The technique described here will greatly improve the value of museum collections by making many formalin-fixed specimens
Hykin, Sarah M; Bi, Ke; McGuire, Jimmy A
2015-01-01
For 150 years or more, specimens were routinely collected and deposited in natural history collections without preserving fresh tissue samples for genetic analysis. In the case of most herpetological specimens (i.e. amphibians and reptiles), attempts to extract and sequence DNA from formalin-fixed, ethanol-preserved specimens-particularly for use in phylogenetic analyses-has been laborious and largely ineffective due to the highly fragmented nature of the DNA. As a result, tens of thousands of specimens in herpetological collections have not been available for sequence-based phylogenetic studies. Massively parallel High-Throughput Sequencing methods and the associated bioinformatics, however, are particularly suited to recovering meaningful genetic markers from severely degraded/fragmented DNA sequences such as DNA damaged by formalin-fixation. In this study, we compared previously published DNA extraction methods on three tissue types subsampled from formalin-fixed specimens of Anolis carolinensis, followed by sequencing. Sufficient quality DNA was recovered from liver tissue, making this technique minimally destructive to museum specimens. Sequencing was only successful for the more recently collected specimen (collected ~30 ybp). We suspect this could be due either to the conditions of preservation and/or the amount of tissue used for extraction purposes. For the successfully sequenced sample, we found a high rate of base misincorporation. After rigorous trimming, we successfully mapped 27.93% of the cleaned reads to the reference genome, were able to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial genome, and recovered an accurate phylogenetic placement for our specimen. We conclude that the amount of DNA available, which can vary depending on specimen age and preservation conditions, will determine if sequencing will be successful. The technique described here will greatly improve the value of museum collections by making many formalin-fixed specimens available for
Observation of fracture behavior of 3-D printed specimens under rolling contact fatigue in water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mizobe Koshiro
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Polymer bearing was widely used in the corrosive conditions because of its high corrosion durability. The polymer bearing had been formed using molding and machining until the new 3-D printing method was developed. In this study, we performed the rolling contact fatigue tests of the 3-D printed specimens in water and observed the fracture behaviour of the specimens. We found that the surface cracks are related to both the rolling direction and the lamination directions.
Metallographic analysis of irradiated RERTR-3 fuel test specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, M. K.; Hofman, G. L.; Strain, R. V.; Clark, C. R.; Stuart, J. R.
2000-01-01
The RERTR-3 irradiation test was designed to investigate the irradiation behavior of aluminum matrix U-MO alloy dispersion fuels under high-temperature, high-fission-rate conditions. Initial postirradiation examination of RERTR-3 fuel specimens has concentrated on binary U-MO atomized fuels. The rate of matrix aluminum depletion was found to be higher than predictions based on low temperature irradiation data. Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (WDS) indicates that aluminum is present in the interior of the fuel particles. WDS data is supported by a mass and volume balance calculation performed on the basis of image analysis results. The depletion of matrix aluminum seems to have no detrimental effects on fuel performance under the conditions tested to date
Sources of hyperbolic geometry
Stillwell, John
1996-01-01
This book presents, for the first time in English, the papers of Beltrami, Klein, and Poincaré that brought hyperbolic geometry into the mainstream of mathematics. A recognition of Beltrami comparable to that given the pioneering works of Bolyai and Lobachevsky seems long overdue-not only because Beltrami rescued hyperbolic geometry from oblivion by proving it to be logically consistent, but because he gave it a concrete meaning (a model) that made hyperbolic geometry part of ordinary mathematics. The models subsequently discovered by Klein and Poincaré brought hyperbolic geometry even further down to earth and paved the way for the current explosion of activity in low-dimensional geometry and topology. By placing the works of these three mathematicians side by side and providing commentaries, this book gives the student, historian, or professional geometer a bird's-eye view of one of the great episodes in mathematics. The unified setting and historical context reveal the insights of Beltrami, Klein, and Po...
Recommendations for Collection and Handling of Specimens From Group Breast Cancer Clinical Trials
Leyland-Jones, Brian R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bartlett, John; Ellis, Matthew J.C.; Enos, Rebecca A.; Raji, Adekunle; Pins, Michael R.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Forbes, John F.; Abramovitz, Mark; Braga, Sofia; Cardoso, Fatima; Harbeck, Nadia; Denkert, Carsten; Jewell, Scott D.
2008-01-01
Recommendations for specimen collection and handling have been developed for adoption across breast cancer clinical trials conducted by the Breast International Group (BIG)-sponsored Groups and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored North American Cooperative Groups. These recommendations are meant to promote identifiable standards for specimen collection and handling within and across breast cancer trials, such that the variability in collection/handling practices that currently exists is minimized and specimen condition and quality are enhanced, thereby maximizing results from specimen-based diagnostic testing and research. Three working groups were formed from the Cooperative Group Banking Committee, BIG groups, and North American breast cancer cooperative groups to identify standards for collection and handling of (1) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue; (2) blood and its components; and (3) fresh/frozen tissue from breast cancer trials. The working groups collected standard operating procedures from multiple group specimen banks, administered a survey on banking practices to those banks, and engaged in a series of discussions from 2005 to 2007. Their contributions were synthesized into this document, which focuses primarily on collection and handling of specimens to the point of shipment to the central bank, although also offers some guidance to central banks. Major recommendations include submission of an FFPE block, whole blood, and serial serum or plasma from breast cancer clinical trials, and use of one fixative and buffer type (10% neutral phosphate-buffered formalin, pH 7) for FFPE tissue across trials. Recommendations for proper handling and shipping were developed for blood, serum, plasma, FFPE, and fresh/frozen tissue. PMID:18955459
Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, D.J.
1992-01-01
Special fixtures and test methods are necessary to facilitate the fracture toughness testing of small disk compact specimens of irradiated candidate materials for first-wall fusion applications. New methods have been developed for both the unloading compliance and potential drop techniques of monitoring crack growth. Provisions have been made to allow the necessary probes and instrumentation to be installed remotely using manipulators for testing of irradiated specimens in a hot cell. Laboratory trials showed that both unloading compliance and potential drop gave useful results. Both techniques gave similar data, and predicted the final crack extension within allowable limits. The results from the small disk compact specimens were similar to results from conventional compact specimen 12.7 mm thick. However, the slopes of the J-R curves from the larger specimens were lower, suggesting that the smaller disk compact specimens may have lost some constraint due to their size. The testing shows that it should be possible to generate useful J-R curve fracture toughness data from the small disk compact specimens
Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, D.J.
1992-01-01
Special fixtures and test methods have been developed for testing small disk compact specimens (12.5 mm diam by 4.6 mm thick). Both unloading compliance and potential drop methods have been used to monitor crack extension during the J-integral resistance (J-R) curve testing. Provisions have been made to allow the necessary probes and instrumentation to be installed remotely using manipulators for testing of irradiated specimens in a hat cell. Laboratory trials showed that both unloading compliance and potential drop gave useful results. Both techniques gave similar data, and predicted the final crack extension within allowable limits. The results from the small disk compact specimens were similar to results from conventional compact specimens 12.7-mm thick. However, the slopes of the J-R curves from the larger specimens were lower, suggesting that the smaller disk compact specimens may have lost some constraint due to their size. The testing shows that it should be possible to generate useful J-R curve fracture toughness data from the small disk compact specimens
On the geometry of field lines in plasma flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagewadi, C.S.; Prasanna Kumar, K.N.
1988-01-01
Many research investigators have applied differential geometry to plasma. Intrinsic properties of fluid flows in streamline, vortex line geometries are we ll known under certain set of geometric conditions. Though this approach has yielded some interesting results but the most general properties of flows can be obtained, using eight geometric parameters ksub(s), tsub(s) θsub(ns), θsub(bs), phisub(s), Ωsub(s), div n, div b and the basic necessary conditions to be satisfied by the flow in general anholonomic co-ordinate system together with the conditions to be satisfied by the geometric parameters of triply orthogonal spatial curves of congruences. Adopting the above techniques for triply orthogonal spatial curves of congruences related to the lines of forces, Purushottam has studied the geometric properties of spatial hydromagnetic fluid flows. Again these results have been studied by him in general along the field lines. These results have been studied for plasma along field lines and the basic equations of plasma have been expressed in intrinsic decomposition forms. Furthe r complex lamellar magnetic field have been studied by introducing Lie surface. (a uthor)
7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen requirements. 97.8 Section 97.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... required by the examiner to furnish representative specimens of the variety, or its flower, fruit, or seeds...
The geometry description markup language
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chytracek, R.
2001-01-01
Currently, a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors. A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier. A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment. However, no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files, source code (C/C++/FORTRAN), to XML and database solutions. The XML (Extensible Markup Language) has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries, with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing. Therefore, interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present. The author introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions. Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data. Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML
Complex analysis and CR geometry
Zampieri, Giuseppe
2008-01-01
Cauchy-Riemann (CR) geometry is the study of manifolds equipped with a system of CR-type equations. Compared to the early days when the purpose of CR geometry was to supply tools for the analysis of the existence and regularity of solutions to the \\bar\\partial-Neumann problem, it has rapidly acquired a life of its own and has became an important topic in differential geometry and the study of non-linear partial differential equations. A full understanding of modern CR geometry requires knowledge of various topics such as real/complex differential and symplectic geometry, foliation theory, the geometric theory of PDE's, and microlocal analysis. Nowadays, the subject of CR geometry is very rich in results, and the amount of material required to reach competence is daunting to graduate students who wish to learn it. However, the present book does not aim at introducing all the topics of current interest in CR geometry. Instead, an attempt is made to be friendly to the novice by moving, in a fairly relaxed way, f...
Global aspects of complex geometry
Catanese, Fabrizio; Huckleberry, Alan T
2006-01-01
Present an overview of developments in Complex Geometry. This book covers topics that range from curve and surface theory through special varieties in higher dimensions, moduli theory, Kahler geometry, and group actions to Hodge theory and characteristic p-geometry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuda, Hitoshi; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Umemura, Shinobu; Yamamoto, Sohei; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Osamura, Robert Yoshiyuki
2010-01-01
Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2) status based on core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens is mandatory for identification of patients with primary breast cancer who will benefit from primary systemic therapy with trastuzumab. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of HER2 testing with CNB specimens from primary breast cancers in terms of interobserver reproducibility and comparison with surgically resected specimens. A total of 100 pairs of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CNB and surgically resected specimens of invasive breast carcinomas were cut into sections. All 100 paired sections were subjected to HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and 27 paired sections were subjected to that by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the results being evaluated by three and two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement levels in terms of judgment and the concordance of consensus scores between CNB samples and the corresponding surgically resected specimens were estimated as the percentage agreement and κ statistic. In CNB specimens, the percentage interobserver agreement of HER2 scoring by IHC was 76% (κ = 0.71) for 3 × 3 categories (0-1+ versus 2+ versus 3+) and 90% (κ = 0.80) for 2 × 2 categories (0-2+ versus 3+). These levels were close to the corresponding ones for the surgically resected specimens: 80% (κ = 0.77) for 3 × 3 categories and 92% (κ = 0.88) for 2 × 2 categories. Concordance of consensus for HER2 scores determined by IHC between CNB and the corresponding surgical specimens was 87% (κ = 0.77) for 3 × 3 categories, and 94% (κ = 0.83) for 2 × 2 categories. Among the 13 tumors showing discordance in the mean IHC scores between the CNB and surgical specimens, the results of consensus for FISH results were concordant in 11. The rate of successful FISH analysis and the FISH positivity rate in cases with a HER2 IHC score of 2+ differed among specimens processed at
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yamamoto Sohei
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2 status based on core needle biopsy (CNB specimens is mandatory for identification of patients with primary breast cancer who will benefit from primary systemic therapy with trastuzumab. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of HER2 testing with CNB specimens from primary breast cancers in terms of interobserver reproducibility and comparison with surgically resected specimens. Methods A total of 100 pairs of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CNB and surgically resected specimens of invasive breast carcinomas were cut into sections. All 100 paired sections were subjected to HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC and 27 paired sections were subjected to that by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, the results being evaluated by three and two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement levels in terms of judgment and the concordance of consensus scores between CNB samples and the corresponding surgically resected specimens were estimated as the percentage agreement and κ statistic. Results In CNB specimens, the percentage interobserver agreement of HER2 scoring by IHC was 76% (κ = 0.71 for 3 × 3 categories (0-1+ versus 2+ versus 3+ and 90% (κ = 0.80 for 2 × 2 categories (0-2+ versus 3+. These levels were close to the corresponding ones for the surgically resected specimens: 80% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories and 92% (κ = 0.88 for 2 × 2 categories. Concordance of consensus for HER2 scores determined by IHC between CNB and the corresponding surgical specimens was 87% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories, and 94% (κ = 0.83 for 2 × 2 categories. Among the 13 tumors showing discordance in the mean IHC scores between the CNB and surgical specimens, the results of consensus for FISH results were concordant in 11. The rate of successful FISH analysis and the FISH positivity rate in cases with a HER2 IHC score of
Guan, YaoYao; Gravitt, Patti E.; Howard, Roslyn; Eby, Yolanda J.; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Belinda; Feng, Changyan; Qiao, You-Lin; Castle, Philip E.
2016-01-01
The current method of transporting self-collected cervicovaginal specimen for HPV DNA testing relies on liquid based medium, which is challenging and expensive to transport. A novel, dry storage and transportation device, Whatman indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge, avoids some of the pitfalls of liquid-based medium. This method has been shown to be comparable to liquid-based collection medium, but relative performance of self-collected (SC) and clinician-collected (CC) samples onto FTA cards has not been reported. The objective of this study is to compare the analytic performance of self- and clinician-collected samples onto FTA cartridges for the detection of carcinogenic HPV using Linear Array. There was a 91% agreement, 69% positive agreement, and kappa of 0.75 between the clinician-collected and self-collected specimens for detection of any carcinogenic HPV genotype. When the HPV results were categorized hierarchically according to cervical cancer risk, there was no difference in the distribution of the HPV results for the clinician- and self-collected specimens (p = 0.7). This study concludes that FTA elute cartridge is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs considering using self-collected specimen and HPV testing. Larger studies with clinical endpoints are now needed to assess the clinical performance. PMID:23370404
Burdette, A C
1971-01-01
Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st
Robinson, Gilbert de B
2011-01-01
This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom
Molecular Auditing: An Evaluation of Unsuspected Tissue Specimen Misidentification.
Demetrick, Douglas J
2018-06-18
Context Specimen misidentification is the most significant error in laboratory medicine, potentially accounting for hundreds of millions of dollars in extra health care expenses and significant morbidity in patient populations in the United States alone. New technology allows the unequivocal documentation of specimen misidentification or contamination; however, the value of this technology currently depends on suspicion of the specimen integrity by a pathologist or other health care worker. Objective To test the hypothesis that there is a detectable incidence of unsuspected tissue specimen misidentification among cases submitted for routine surgical pathology examination. Design To test this hypothesis, we selected specimen pairs that were obtained at different times and/or different hospitals from the same patient, and compared their genotypes using standardized microsatellite markers used commonly for forensic human DNA comparison in order to identify unsuspected mismatches between the specimen pairs as a trial of "molecular auditing." We preferentially selected gastrointestinal, prostate, and skin biopsies because we estimated that these types of specimens had the greatest potential for misidentification. Results Of 972 specimen pairs, 1 showed an unexpected discordant genotype profile, indicating that 1 of the 2 specimens was misidentified. To date, we are unable to identify the etiology of the discordance. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, indeed, there is a low level of unsuspected tissue specimen misidentification, even in an environment with careful adherence to stringent quality assurance practices. This study demonstrates that molecular auditing of random, routine biopsy specimens can identify occult misidentified specimens, and may function as a useful quality indicator.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piovatto, R.R.; Carvalho, A.L.M.; Bose Filho, W.W.; Spinelli, D.; Rugieri, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], e-mail: betaopiovatto@gmail.com
2006-07-01
This aim of this work is to evaluate the fracture toughness of pipe lines under high internal pressure, used in the petroliferous industry for transportation of gas and oil. These ducts are produced from high strength low alloy steels, classified as API X60. Therefore, to simulate the stress and strain fields ahead of crack, the SE(T) specimens has been point out as the best specimen geometry. The linear load normalization technique, LLN, has been showed as a promissory technique for obtaining the J-R resistance curves. The J values were obtained following the ASTM 1820 and 1152 standards, with the coefficients modified for this specimen geometry. Side groves were executed to avoid crack tunneling and to maintaining the crack on the plane perpendicular to the loading direction. The J-R curves obtained are compatible for high ductility steels. However, the observed J values seems to high, and the factors affecting this result are discussed in this work. (author)
Physics- and engineering knowledge-based geometry repair system for robust parametric CAD geometries
Li, Dong
2012-01-01
In modern multi-objective design optimisation, an effective geometry engine is becoming an essential tool and its performance has a significant impact on the entire process. Building a parametric geometry requires difficult compromises between the conflicting goals of robustness and flexibility. The work presents a solution for improving the robustness of parametric geometry models by capturing and modelling relative engineering knowledge into a surrogate model, and deploying it automatically...
Thermal property testing technique on micro specimen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baba, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Isao; Taketoshi, Naoyuki
2000-01-01
This study aims at establishment of further development on some testing techniques on the nuclear advanced basic research accumulated by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology for ten years. For this purpose, a technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of less than 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness of micro specimen and technology to test heat diffusion ratio at micro area of less than 1 mm in area along cross section of less than 10 mm in diameter of column specimen were developed to contribute to common basic technology supporting the nuclear power field. As a result, as an element technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of the micro specimen, a specimen holding technique stably to hold a micro specimen with 3 mm in diameter could be developed. And, for testing the specific heat capacity by using the laser flush differential calorimetry, a technique to hold two specimen of 5 mm in diameter at their proximities was also developed. In addition, by promoting development of thermal property data base capable of storing thermal property data obtained in this study and with excellent workability in this 1998 fiscal year a data in/out-put program with graphical user interface could be prepared. (G.K.)
Comparative study on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourdiliau, B.; Decroix, G.-M.; Averty, X.; Wident, P.; Bienvenu, Y.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Welding processes are used to reconstitute previously tested Charpy specimens. → Stud welding is preferred for a quick installation, almost immediately operational. → Friction welding produces better quality welds, but requires a development effort. - Abstract: Reconstitution techniques are often used to allow material from previously fractured Charpy-V specimens to be reused for additional experiments. This paper presents a comparative experimental study of various reconstitution techniques and evaluates the feasibility of these methods for future use in shielded cells. The following techniques were investigated: arc stud welding, 6.0 kW CO 2 continuous wave laser welding, 4.5 kW YAG continuous wave laser welding and friction welding. Subsize Charpy specimens were reconstituted using a 400 W YAG pulsed wave laser. The best result was obtained with arc stud welding; the resilience of the reconstituted specimens and the load-displacement curves agreed well with the reference specimens, and the temperature elevation caused by the welding process was limited to the vicinity of the weld. Good results were also obtained with friction welding; this process led to the best quality welds. Laser welding seems to have affected the central part of the specimens, thus leading to different resilience values and load-displacement curves.
Numerical investigation of 3-D constraint effects on brittle fracture in SE(B) and C(T) specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nevalainen, M.; Dodds, R.H. Jr.
1996-07-01
This investigation employs 3-D nonlinear finite element analyses to conduct an extensive parametric evaluation of crack front stress triaxiality for deep notch SE(B) and C(T) specimens and shallow notch SE(B) specimens, with and without side grooves. Crack front conditions are characterized in terms of J-Q trajectories and the constraint scaling model for cleavage fracture toughness proposed previously by Dodds and Anderson. The 3-D computational results imply that a significantly less strict size/deformation limit, relative to the limits indicated by previous plane-strain computations, is needed to maintain small-scale yielding conditions at fracture by a stress- controlled, cleavage mechanism in deep notch SE(B) and C(T) specimens. Additional new results made available from the 3-D analyses also include revised η-plastic factors for use in experimental studies to convert measured work quantities to thickness average and maximum (local) J-values over the crack front
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Margrethe; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær
2016-01-01
% ethanol. The method was subsequently tested on wild-living preserved specimens and an archived specimen. The protease enzyme used was SavinaseH 16 L, Type EX from Novozymes A/S. The enzymatic screening test demands only simple laboratory equipment. The method is useful for natural history collections...
Emergent Geometry from Entropy and Causality
Engelhardt, Netta
In this thesis, we investigate the connections between the geometry of spacetime and aspects of quantum field theory such as entanglement entropy and causality. This work is motivated by the idea that spacetime geometry is an emergent phenomenon in quantum gravity, and that the physics responsible for this emergence is fundamental to quantum field theory. Part I of this thesis is focused on the interplay between spacetime and entropy, with a special emphasis on entropy due to entanglement. In general spacetimes, there exist locally-defined surfaces sensitive to the geometry that may act as local black hole boundaries or cosmological horizons; these surfaces, known as holographic screens, are argued to have a connection with the second law of thermodynamics. Holographic screens obey an area law, suggestive of an association with entropy; they are also distinguished surfaces from the perspective of the covariant entropy bound, a bound on the total entropy of a slice of the spacetime. This construction is shown to be quite general, and is formulated in both classical and perturbatively quantum theories of gravity. The remainder of Part I uses the Anti-de Sitter/ Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence to both expand and constrain the connection between entanglement entropy and geometry. The AdS/CFT correspondence posits an equivalence between string theory in the "bulk" with AdS boundary conditions and certain quantum field theories. In the limit where the string theory is simply classical General Relativity, the Ryu-Takayanagi and more generally, the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) formulae provide a way of relating the geometry of surfaces to entanglement entropy. A first-order bulk quantum correction to HRT was derived by Faulkner, Lewkowycz and Maldacena. This formula is generalized to include perturbative quantum corrections in the bulk at any (finite) order. Hurdles to spacetime emergence from entanglement entropy as described by HRT and its quantum
Contributions to the spectral theory of the linear Boltzmann operator for various geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Protopopescu, V.
1975-01-01
The linear monoenergetic Boltzmann operator with isotropic scattering is studied for various geometries and boundary conditions as the infinitesimal generator of a positivity preserving contractive semigroup in an appropriate Hilbert space. General results about the existence and the uniqueness of the solutions of the corresponding evolution problems are reviewed. The spectrum of the Boltzmann operator is analyzed for semi-infinite, slab and parallelepipedic geometries with vacuum, periodic, perfectly reflecting, generalized and diffusely reflecting boundary condition respectively. The main features of these spectra, their importance for determining the asymptotic evolution and possible generalizations to more realistic models are put together in a final section. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belkin, L.M.; Filimonov, G.N.; Belkin, M.Ya.; Vishnevskij, A.P.; Volkov, I.B.
1986-01-01
VP6 alloy is studied for its relaxation stability and fatigue strength. Results of the study are presented. Tests are carried out on the specimens with smooth working part to study relaxation properties of the material, with thread working part to determine stress relaxation in a loose thread, on the thread joints to study relaxation in the working thread. All the studied members of the thread joint under cyclic loading are shown to obey a common regularity. Characteristics of the relaxation material stability under different values on an average stress cycle are presented. Stress concentration associated with inhomogeneity in distribution of axial tensile stresses in a loose thread and nonuniformity in the working thread. All the studied members of the thread joint under cyclic loading are shown to obey a common regularity. Characteristics of the relaxation material stability under different values on an average stress cycle are presented. Stress concentration associated with inhomogeneity in distribution of axial tensile stresses in a loose thread and nonuniformity in the load on the working thread turns along the nut length are studied for their effect on the stress relaxation in the thread joint. Ultimate longevity of the materials under conditions of cyclic stress relaxation is evaluated allowing for relaxation and fatigue characteristics of the material
D-brane propagation in two-dimensional black hole geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakayama, Yu; Rey, Soo-Jong; Sugawara, Yuji
2005-01-01
We study propagation of D0-brane in two-dimensional lorentzian black hole backgrounds by the method of boundary conformal field theory of SL(2,R)/U(1) supercoset at level k. Typically, such backgrounds arise as near-horizon geometries of k coincident non-extremal NS5-branes, where 1/k measures curvature of the backgrounds in string unit and hence size of string worldsheet effects. At classical level, string worldsheet effects are suppressed and D0-brane propagation in the lorentzian black hole geometry is simply given by the Wick rotation of D1-brane contour in the euclidean black hole geometry. Taking account of string worldsheet effects, boundary state of the lorentzian D0-brane is formally constructible via Wick rotation from that of the euclidean D1-brane. However, the construction is subject to ambiguities in boundary conditions. We propose exact boundary states describing the D0-brane, and clarify physical interpretations of various boundary states constructed from different boundary conditions. As it falls into the black hole, the D0-brane radiates off to the horizon and to the infinity. From the boundary states constructed, we compute physical observables of such radiative process. We find that part of the radiation to infinity is in effective thermal distribution at the Hawking temperature. We also find that part of the radiation to horizon is in the Hagedorn distribution, dominated by massive, highly non-relativistic closed string states, much like the tachyon matter. Remarkably, such distribution emerges only after string worldsheet effects are taken exactly into account. From these results, we observe that nature of the radiation distribution changes dramatically across the conifold geometry k = 1 (k = 3 for the bosonic case), exposing the 'string - black hole transition' therein
Proton irradiation effects on tensile and bend-fatigue properties of welded F82H specimens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saito, S., E-mail: saito.shigeru@jaea.go.j [JAEA Tokai, J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kikuchi, K.; Hamaguchi, D. [JAEA Tokai, J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Usami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Nishino, Y.; Endo, S. [JAEA Tokai, Department of Hot Laboratories, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kawai, M. [KEK, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan); Dai, Y. [PSI, Spallation Source Division, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)
2010-03-15
In several institutes, research and development for an accelerator-driven transmutation system (ADS) have been progressed. Ferritic/martensitic (FM) steels are the candidate materials for the beam window of ADS. To evaluate of the mechanical properties of the irradiated materials, the post irradiation examination (PIE) work of the SINQ (Swiss spallation neutron source) target irradiation program (STIP) specimens was carried out at JAEA. In present study, the results of PIE on FM steel F82H and its welded joint have been reported. The present irradiation conditions of the specimens were as follows: proton energy was 580 MeV. Irradiation temperatures were ranged from 130 to 380 deg. C, and displacement damage level was ranged from 5.7 to 11.8 dpa. The results of tensile tests performed at 22 deg. C indicated that the irradiation hardening occurred with increasing the displacement damage up to 10.1 dpa at 320 deg. C irradiation. At higher dose (11.8 dpa) and higher temperature (380 deg. C), irradiation hardening was observed, but degradation of ductility was relaxed in F82H welded joint. In present study, all specimens kept its ductility after irradiation and fractured in ductile manner. The results on bend-fatigue tests showed that the fatigue life (N{sub f}) of F82H base metal irradiated up to 6.3 dpa was almost the same with that of unirradiated specimens. The N{sub f} of the specimens irradiated up to 9.1 dpa was smaller than that of unirradiated specimens. Though the number of specimen was limited, the N{sub f} of F82H EB (15 mm) and EB (3.3 mm) welded joints seemed to increase after irradiation and the fracture surfaces of the specimens showed transgranular morphology. While F82H TIG welded specimens were not fractured by 10{sup 7} cycles.
Connes, Alain
1994-01-01
This English version of the path-breaking French book on this subject gives the definitive treatment of the revolutionary approach to measure theory, geometry, and mathematical physics developed by Alain Connes. Profusely illustrated and invitingly written, this book is ideal for anyone who wants to know what noncommutative geometry is, what it can do, or how it can be used in various areas of mathematics, quantization, and elementary particles and fields.Key Features* First full treatment of the subject and its applications* Written by the pioneer of this field* Broad applications in mathemat
Berger, Marcel
2010-01-01
Both classical geometry and modern differential geometry have been active subjects of research throughout the 20th century and lie at the heart of many recent advances in mathematics and physics. The underlying motivating concept for the present book is that it offers readers the elements of a modern geometric culture by means of a whole series of visually appealing unsolved (or recently solved) problems that require the creation of concepts and tools of varying abstraction. Starting with such natural, classical objects as lines, planes, circles, spheres, polygons, polyhedra, curves, surfaces,
Discrete differential geometry. Consistency as integrability
Bobenko, Alexander I.; Suris, Yuri B.
2005-01-01
A new field of discrete differential geometry is presently emerging on the border between differential and discrete geometry. Whereas classical differential geometry investigates smooth geometric shapes (such as surfaces), and discrete geometry studies geometric shapes with finite number of elements (such as polyhedra), the discrete differential geometry aims at the development of discrete equivalents of notions and methods of smooth surface theory. Current interest in this field derives not ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sloane, Peter
2007-01-01
We adapt the spinorial geometry method introduced in [J. Gillard, U. Gran and G. Papadopoulos, 'The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds,' Class. Quant. Grav. 22 (2005) 1033 [ (arXiv:hep-th/0410155)
Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope
Zaluzec, Nestor J.
1996-01-01
An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.
Prediction of work piece geometry in electrochemical cavity sinking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riggs, J B; Muller, R H; Tobias, C W
1981-01-01
A computer-implemented model for predicting ECM work piece geometry has been developed and experimentally verified with a commercial ECM machine for cavity sinking in copper and 302-stainless steel with 2N KNO/sub 3/ electrolyte. Constant tool piece feed rates of 7-10 x 10/sup -4/ cm/s, and applied voltages of 11-25 V were used. The model predicts the dependence of work piece geometry on operating conditions and on the electrochemical and physical properties of the metal-electrolyte pair. Comparison of eight equilibrium and six unsteady state experimental cavity profiles in copper showed satisfactory agreement with predictions, as did five equilibrium profiles for cavity sinking in 302-stainless steel.
Comparison of analysis and experimental data for a unique crack arrest specimen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayres, D.J.; Fabi, R.J.; Schonenberg, R.Y.; Norris, D.M.
1988-01-01
A new fracture test specimen has been developed to study crack extension and arrest in nuclear reactor vessel steels subject to stress-intensity factor and toughness gradients similar to those in postulated pressurized thermal shock situations. A summary of the results of all the tests performed is presented to illustrate the range of crack arrest and crack reinitiation conditions observed. One test of this specimen with the corresponding stress analysis is described in detail. During this test the crack initiated, extended, arrested, reinitiated, extended again, and reached a final arrest. Comparison of detailed dynamic elastic-plastic finite-element analyses and dynamic strain and displacement measurements of the crack extension, arrest, and reinitiation events, combined with topographic analysis of the future surfaces, has led to a new understanding of the crack extension and arrest process. The results of the tests demonstrate crack arrest in rising stress-intensity field at near-upper-shelf temperature conditions and show that the toughness required for arrest is lower than would be predicted by the analysis procedures usually employed for pressurized thermal shock evaluations
An introduction to incidence geometry
De Bruyn, Bart
2016-01-01
This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end...
Intelligent Patching of Conceptual Geometry for CFD Analysis
Li, Wu
2010-01-01
the second surface. No two intersection relationships will result in a common intersection point of three surfaces. The output files of iPatch are IGES, d3m, and mapbc files that define the CFD geometry in VGRID format. The IGES file gives the NURBS definition of the outer mold line in the geometry. The d3m file defines how the outer mold line is broken into surface patches whose boundary curves are defined by points. The mapbc file specifies what the boundary condition is on each patch and the corresponding NURBS surface definition of each non-planar patch in the IGES file.
Guan, Yaoyao; Gravitt, Patti E; Howard, Roslyn; Eby, Yolanda J; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Belinda; Feng, Changyan; Qiao, You-Lin; Castle, Philip E
2013-04-01
The current method of transporting self-collected cervicovaginal specimen for HPV DNA testing relies on liquid based medium, which is challenging and expensive to transport. A novel, dry storage and transportation device, Whatman indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge, avoids some of the pitfalls of liquid-based medium. This method has been shown to be comparable to liquid-based collection medium, but relative performance of self-collected (SC) and clinician-collected (CC) samples onto FTA cards has not been reported. The objective of this study is to compare the analytic performance of self- and clinician-collected samples onto FTA cartridges for the detection of carcinogenic HPV using Linear Array. There was a 91% agreement, 69% positive agreement, and kappa of 0.75 between the clinician-collected and self-collected specimens for detection of any carcinogenic HPV genotype. When the HPV results were categorized hierarchically according to cervical cancer risk, there was no difference in the distribution of the HPV results for the clinician- and self-collected specimens (p=0.7). This study concludes that FTA elute cartridge is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs considering using self-collected specimen and HPV testing. Larger studies with clinical endpoints are now needed to assess the clinical performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sloane, Peter [Department of Mathematics, King' s College, University of London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2007-09-15
We adapt the spinorial geometry method introduced in [J. Gillard, U. Gran and G. Papadopoulos, 'The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds,' Class. Quant. Grav. 22 (2005) 1033 [ (arXiv:hep-th/0410155)
Introduction to non-Euclidean geometry
Wolfe, Harold E
2012-01-01
One of the first college-level texts for elementary courses in non-Euclidean geometry, this concise, readable volume is geared toward students familiar with calculus. A full treatment of the historical background explores the centuries-long efforts to prove Euclid's parallel postulate and their triumphant conclusion. Numerous original exercises form an integral part of the book.Topics include hyperbolic plane geometry and hyperbolic plane trigonometry, applications of calculus to the solutions of some problems in hyperbolic geometry, elliptic plane geometry and trigonometry, and the consistenc
Optical geometry across the horizon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonsson, Rickard
2006-01-01
In a recent paper (Jonsson and Westman 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to (a finite four-volume) of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework
Fleet size estimation for spreading operation considering road geometry, weather and traffic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven I-Jy Chien
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions(i.e. snow storm in winter time have caused significant travel disruptions and increased delay and traffic accidents. Snow plowing and salt spreading are the most common counter-measures for making our roads safer for motorists. To assist highway maintenance authorities with better planning and allocation of winter maintenance resources, this study introduces an analytical model to estimate the required number of trucks for spreading operation subjective to pre-specified service time constraints considering road geometry, weather and traffic. The complexity of the research problem lies in dealing with heterogeneous road geometry of road sections, truck capacities, spreading patterns, and traffic speeds under different weather conditions and time periods of an event. The proposed model is applied to two maintenance yards with seven road sections in New Jersey (USA, which demonstrates itself fairly practical to be implemented, considering diverse operational conditions.
A cylindrical specimen holder for electron cryo-tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmer, Colin M.; Löwe, Jan
2014-01-01
The use of slab-like flat specimens for electron cryo-tomography restricts the range of viewing angles that can be used. This leads to the “missing wedge” problem, which causes artefacts and anisotropic resolution in reconstructed tomograms. Cylindrical specimens provide a way to eliminate the problem, since they allow imaging from a full range of viewing angles around the tilt axis. Such specimens have been used before for tomography of radiation-insensitive samples at room temperature, but never for frozen-hydrated specimens. Here, we demonstrate the use of thin-walled carbon tubes as specimen holders, allowing the preparation of cylindrical frozen-hydrated samples of ribosomes, liposomes and whole bacterial cells. Images acquired from these cylinders have equal quality at all viewing angles, and the accessible tilt range is restricted only by the physical limits of the microscope. Tomographic reconstructions of these specimens demonstrate that the effects of the missing wedge are substantially reduced, and could be completely eliminated if a full tilt range was used. The overall quality of these tomograms is still lower than that obtained by existing methods, but improvements are likely in future. - Highlights: • The missing wedge is a serious problem for electron cryo-tomography. • Cylindrical specimens allow the missing wedge to be eliminated. • Carbon nanopipettes can be used as cylindrical holders for tomography of frozen-hydrated specimens. • Cryo-tomography of cylindrical biological samples demonstrates a reduction of deleterious effects associated with the missing wedge
An investigation on the fatigue behavior of DCB specimen bonded with aluminum foam at Mode III
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, J. H.; Cho, J. U. [Kongju University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, G [School of Aerospace, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian (China); Cho, C. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
Aluminum foam with its excellent physical and mechanical characteristics is a lightweight metallic material used with good quality in vehicle bumpers, internal shock absorbers on planes, as materials for vessel joints etc. On the contrary, when aluminum foam is used without sufficient investigation, there is the likelihood of damage or destruction of the machine or mechanical structure, and in extreme case it may cause to human casualties. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of adhesive structures with aluminum foam for the closed-type aluminum foam used primarily as shock absorbers. The fatigue analyses of the DCB test specimens at mode III with aluminum foam are verified through a fatigue experiment. As the analysis results, test specimen models with the thicknesses (t) of 35 mm, 45 mm and 55 mm showed the peak load occurrence approximately after the progress from 0 to 50 cycles. And afterwards the load gradually decreased as the cycles increased. The peak loads for each DCB test specimens were ±0.80 kN for the specimen thickness(t) of 35 mm, ±0.98 kN for the specimen thickness(t) of 45 mm and ±1.18 kN for the specimen thickness(t) of 55 mm. It is also shown that the peak load occurring on the specimen increased as specimen thickness increased. These study results are compared with the specimen thickness of 35 mm model as the basis. When the specimen thickness is increased as much as 10 mm, the peak load is increased approximately 1.25 times. When the specimen thickness is also increased as much as 20 mm, the peak load is increased 1.5 times. The analysis data and the real experiment data showed similar results each other. Therefore, it can be thought that the analysis data is applicable in real field. And it is estimated that the mechanical characteristics of the DCB test specimen at mode III during the fatigue load conditions can be systematically and efficiently analyzed.
Rudin, Sofia M; Murray, David W; Whitfeld, Timothy J S
2017-01-01
Herbarium specimens may provide a record of past environmental conditions, including heavy metal pollution. To explore this potential, we compared concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in historical and new collections from four sites in Rhode Island, USA. We compared historical specimens (1846 to 1916) to congener specimens collected in 2015 at three former industrial sites in Providence, Rhode Island, and one nonindustrial site on Block Island. Leaf material was prepared by UltraWAVE SRC Microwave Digestion, and heavy metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Heavy metal concentrations in the historical and new specimens were measurable for all elements tested, and levels of copper and zinc were comparable in the historical and 2015 collections. By contrast, the concentration of lead declined at all sites over time. Significant variability in heavy metal concentration was observed between taxa, reflecting their varied potential for elemental accumulation. It seems clear that herbarium specimens can be used to evaluate past levels of pollution and assess local environmental changes. With careful sampling effort, these specimens can be a valuable part of environmental science research. Broadening the possible applications for herbarium collections in this way increases their relevance in an era of reduced funding for collections-based research.
Teleparallel Lagrange geometry and a unified field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wanas, M I [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, CTP of the British University in Egypt (BUE) (Egypt); Youssef, Nabil L; Sid-Ahmed, A M, E-mail: wanas@frcu.eun.eg, E-mail: nyoussef@frcu.eun.e, E-mail: nlyoussef2003@yahoo.f, E-mail: amrs@mailer.eun.e, E-mail: amrsidahmed@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)
2010-02-21
In this paper, we construct a field theory unifying gravity and electromagnetism in the context of extended absolute parallelism (EAP) geometry. This geometry combines, within its structure, the geometric richness of the tangent bundle and the mathematical simplicity of absolute parallelism (AP) geometry. The constructed field theory is a generalization of the generalized field theory (GFT) formulated by Mikhail and Wanas. The theory obtained is purely geometric. The horizontal (resp. vertical) field equations are derived by applying the Euler-Lagrange equations to an appropriate horizontal (resp. vertical) scalar Lagrangian. The symmetric part of the resulting horizontal (resp. vertical) field equations gives rise to a generalized form of Einstein's field equations in which the horizontal (resp. vertical) energy-momentum tensor is purely geometric. The skew-symmetric part of the resulting horizontal (resp. vertical) field equations gives rise to a generalized form of Maxwell equations in which the electromagnetic field is purely geometric. Some interesting special cases, which reveal the role of the nonlinear connection in the obtained field equations, are examined. Finally, the condition under which our constructed field equations reduce to the GFT is explicitly established.
Complex and symplectic geometry
Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano
2017-01-01
This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.
Initiation to global Finslerian geometry
Akbar-Zadeh, Hassan
2006-01-01
After a brief description of the evolution of thinking on Finslerian geometry starting from Riemann, Finsler, Berwald and Elie Cartan, the book gives a clear and precise treatment of this geometry. The first three chapters develop the basic notions and methods, introduced by the author, to reach the global problems in Finslerian Geometry. The next five chapters are independent of each other, and deal with among others the geometry of generalized Einstein manifolds, the classification of Finslerian manifolds of constant sectional curvatures. They also give a treatment of isometric, affine, p
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, Peder; Segle, Peter; Samuelson, Lars Aa.
1999-04-01
A 3D finite element study of creep crack growth in cross-weld CT specimens with material properties of 2.25Cr1Mo at 550 deg C is carried out, where large strain and displacement theory is used. The creep crack growth rate is calculated using a creep ductility based damage model, in which the creep strain rate perpendicular to the crack plane ahead of the crack tip is integrated, considering the multiaxial stress state. The influence of specimen size on creep crack growth rate under constant load is given special attention, but the possibility to transfer results from cross-weld CT specimens to welded high temperature components is also investigated. The creep crack growth rate of a crack in a circumferentially welded pipe is compared with the creep crack growth rate of cross-weld CT specimens of three different sizes, cut out from the pipe. Although the constraint ahead of the crack tip is higher for a larger CT specimen, the creep crack growth rate is higher for a smaller specimen than for a larger one if they are loaded to attain the same stress intensity factor. If the specimens are loaded to the same C* value, however, a more complicated pattern occurs; depending on the material properties of the weldment constituents, the CT specimen with the intermediate size will either yield the highest or the lowest creep crack growth rate
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
algebraic geometry but also in related fields like number theory. ... every vector bundle on the affine space is trivial. (equivalently ... les on a compact Riemann surface to unitary rep- ... tial geometry and topology and was generalised in.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonsson, Rickard; Westman, Hans
2006-01-01
We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz M A and Lasota J-P 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. A 14 23-30). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson R 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1)) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity
Introduction to combinatorial geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabriel, T.A.; Emmett, M.B.
1985-01-01
The combinatorial geometry package as used in many three-dimensional multimedia Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, such as HETC, MORSE, and EGS, is becoming the preferred way to describe simple and complicated systems. Just about any system can be modeled using the package with relatively few input statements. This can be contrasted against the older style geometry packages in which the required input statements could be large even for relatively simple systems. However, with advancements come some difficulties. The users of combinatorial geometry must be able to visualize more, and, in some instances, all of the system at a time. Errors can be introduced into the modeling which, though slight, and at times hard to detect, can have devastating effects on the calculated results. As with all modeling packages, the best way to learn the combinatorial geometry is to use it, first on a simple system then on more complicated systems. The basic technique for the description of the geometry consists of defining the location and shape of the various zones in terms of the intersections and unions of geometric bodies. The geometric bodies which are generally included in most combinatorial geometry packages are: (1) box, (2) right parallelepiped, (3) sphere, (4) right circular cylinder, (5) right elliptic cylinder, (6) ellipsoid, (7) truncated right cone, (8) right angle wedge, and (9) arbitrary polyhedron. The data necessary to describe each of these bodies are given. As can be easily noted, there are some subsets included for simplicity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Veselý, V.; Frantík, P.; Sopek, J.; Malíková, L.; Seitl, Stanislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 2 (2015), s. 200-214 ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : near-crack tip fields * Williams series * higher-order terms * stress field * failure criterion * nonlinear zone * quasi-brittle fracture * splitting-bending geometry Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2015
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watteau, J H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes
1968-03-01
The plasma of a non-cylindrical z discharge is accumulated in the centre of a cusp geometry and then captured and confined by the rising cusp magnetic field. The cusp geometry is produced by two identical coaxial coils the currents of which are equal but in opposite directions. Stability and confinement properties of this zero minimum B geometry are recalled; in particular it is shown (the coils cross section being supposed punctual) that the magnetic well depth of the configuration without plasma is maximum for an optimum coils distance. Two modes of confinement are observed experimentally : - a collisional mode for which the plasma confinement is limited to 10 {mu}sec (temperature 5 eV, density 7 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) as a result of the gradual interpenetration of the plasma and of the magnetic field. - a collisionless mode (temperature 40 eV) where the radial leak thickness is of the order of the ion cyclotron radius. Plasma accumulation occurs even without confinement and is due to the non-cylindrical shape of the discharge chamber. The two-dimensional snow-plough model gives good account of the discharge dynamics. A comparison is made with plasma focus experiments: in particular experimental conditions (deuterium, pressure 1 torr,energy 3 kJ, current 100 kA) a 10{sup 7} neutron yield is detected which appears to be connected with the unstable behavior of the discharge. (authors) [French] Le plasma d'une decharge lineaire non-cylindrique s'accumule au centre d'une geometrie magnetique cuspidee ou il est capture et confine par l'induction croissante de la geometrie. On rappelle les proprietes de stabilite et de confinement de la geometrie cuspidee, geometrie a champ minimum nul produite par deux spires identiques, coaxiales et parcourues par des courants egaux et opposes; on montre en particulier que pour des spires de section ponctuelle la profondeur du puits magnetique de la geometrie sans plasma est maximum pour une distance optimum des spires. Deux
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Knitel
2016-12-01
Full Text Available A new inverse method was developed to derive the plastic flow properties of non-standard disk tensile specimens, which were so designed to fit irradiation rods used for spallation irradiations in SINQ (Schweizer Spallations Neutronen Quelle target at Paul Scherrer Institute. The inverse method, which makes use of MATLAB and the finite element code ABAQUS, is based upon the reconstruction of the load-displacement curve by a succession of connected small linear segments. To do so, the experimental engineering stress/strain curve is divided into an elastic and a plastic section, and the plastic section is further divided into small segments. Each segment is then used to determine an associated pair of true stress/plastic strain values, representing the constitutive behavior. The main advantage of the method is that it does not rely on a hypothetic analytical expression of the constitutive behavior. To account for the stress/strain gradients that develop in the non-standard specimen, the stress and strain were weighted over the volume of the deforming elements. The method was validated with tensile tests carried out at room temperature on non-standard flat disk tensile specimens as well as on standard cylindrical specimens made of the reduced-activation tempered martensitic steel Eurofer97. While both specimen geometries presented a significant difference in terms of deformation localization during necking, the same true stress/strain curve was deduced from the inverse method. The potential and usefulness of the inverse method is outlined for irradiated materials that suffer from a large uniform elongation reduction.
Effects of Geometry on the Steady Performance of Planing Hulls
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, M. K.; Andersen, Poul
2003-01-01
A vortex-lattice method is applied to planing hull forms. The geometry of the jet surfaces next to the wetted hull is estimated on the basis of the hull geometry while its sidewise extent has been found numerically applying a non-linear free-surface pressure condition in the jet region. The method...... is applied to practical hull forms with chines spray rails and with varying deadrise over the length of the boat. The deadrise variation has a large influence on lift and drag. For a design situation, where the total lift and centre of effort is given, the influence on the total drag is less due to change...
Horizon geometry for Kerr black holes with synchronized hair
Delgado, Jorge F. M.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen
2018-06-01
We study the horizon geometry of Kerr black holes (BHs) with scalar synchronized hair [1], a family of solutions of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system that continuously connects to vacuum Kerr BHs. We identify the region in parameter space wherein a global isometric embedding in Euclidean 3-space, E3, is possible for the horizon geometry of the hairy BHs. For the Kerr case, such embedding is possible iff the horizon dimensionless spin jH (which equals the total dimensionless spin, j ), the sphericity s and the horizon linear velocity vH are smaller than critical values, j(S ),s(S ),vH(S ), respectively. For the hairy BHs, we find that jHcondition for being embeddable in E3. Thus, the latter quantity provides the most faithful diagnosis for the existence of an E3 embedding within the whole family of solutions. We also observe that sufficiently hairy BHs are always embeddable, even if j —which for hairy BHs (unlike Kerr BHs) differs from jH—is larger than unity.
Xu, Jing; Hou, Zhaosheng; Yuan, Xiaojiao; Guo, Hong
2011-08-01
On the basis of our previous report that polymer emulsion with different viscosity can be investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we have developed an improved specimen preparation technique for obtaining particle morphology and size of colloidal silver, collagen, glutin, and polymer microspheres. In this study, we expect to provide a means for charactering the three-dimensional surface microstructure of colloidal particles. Dilution of the samples with appropriate volatile solvent like ethanol is effective for SEM specimen preparation. At a proper ratio between sample and ethanol, the colloidal particles are dispersed uniformly in ethanol and then deposited evenly on the substrate. Different drying methods are studied to search a proper drying condition, in which the small molecule solvent is removed without destroying the natural particle morphology. And the effects of ethanol in the specimen preparation process are described by analyzing the physicochemical properties of ethanol. The specimen preparation technique is simple and can be achieved in common laboratory for charactering the particle morphology of colloidal system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
High performance ultrasonic field simulation on complex geometries
Chouh, H.; Rougeron, G.; Chatillon, S.; Iehl, J. C.; Farrugia, J. P.; Ostromoukhov, V.
2016-02-01
Ultrasonic field simulation is a key ingredient for the design of new testing methods as well as a crucial step for NDT inspection simulation. As presented in a previous paper [1], CEA-LIST has worked on the acceleration of these simulations focusing on simple geometries (planar interfaces, isotropic materials). In this context, significant accelerations were achieved on multicore processors and GPUs (Graphics Processing Units), bringing the execution time of realistic computations in the 0.1 s range. In this paper, we present recent works that aim at similar performances on a wider range of configurations. We adapted the physical model used by the CIVA platform to design and implement a new algorithm providing a fast ultrasonic field simulation that yields nearly interactive results for complex cases. The improvements over the CIVA pencil-tracing method include adaptive strategies for pencil subdivisions to achieve a good refinement of the sensor geometry while keeping a reasonable number of ray-tracing operations. Also, interpolation of the times of flight was used to avoid time consuming computations in the impulse response reconstruction stage. To achieve the best performance, our algorithm runs on multi-core superscalar CPUs and uses high performance specialized libraries such as Intel Embree for ray-tracing, Intel MKL for signal processing and Intel TBB for parallelization. We validated the simulation results by comparing them to the ones produced by CIVA on identical test configurations including mono-element and multiple-element transducers, homogeneous, meshed 3D CAD specimens, isotropic and anisotropic materials and wave paths that can involve several interactions with interfaces. We show performance results on complete simulations that achieve computation times in the 1s range.
Graded geometry and Poisson reduction
Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M
2009-01-01
The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics
Geometry of multihadron production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjorken, J.D.
1994-10-01
This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions.
Geometry of multihadron production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjorken, J.D.
1994-10-01
This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions
Geometry of higher-dimensional black hole thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aaman, Jan E.; Pidokrajt, Narit
2006-01-01
We investigate thermodynamic curvatures of the Kerr and Reissner-Nordstroem (RN) black holes in spacetime dimensions higher than four. These black holes possess thermodynamic geometries similar to those in four-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamic geometries are the Ruppeiner geometry and the conformally related Weinhold geometry. The Ruppeiner geometry for a d=5 Kerr black hole is curved and divergent in the extremal limit. For a d≥6 Kerr black hole there is no extremality but the Ruppeiner curvature diverges where one suspects that the black hole becomes unstable. The Weinhold geometry of the Kerr black hole in arbitrary dimension is a flat geometry. For the RN black hole the Ruppeiner geometry is flat in all spacetime dimensions, whereas its Weinhold geometry is curved. In d≥5 the Kerr black hole can possess more than one angular momentum. Finally we discuss the Ruppeiner geometry for the Kerr black hole in d=5 with double angular momenta
Sensitivity analysis of the Two Geometry Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wichers, V.A.
1993-09-01
The Two Geometry Method (TGM) was designed specifically for the verification of the uranium enrichment of low enriched UF 6 gas in the presence of uranium deposits on the pipe walls. Complications can arise if the TGM is applied under extreme conditions, such as deposits larger than several times the gas activity, small pipe diameters less than 40 mm and low pressures less than 150 Pa. This report presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the TGM. The impact of the various sources of uncertainty on the performance of the method is discussed. The application to a practical case is based on worst case conditions with regards to the measurement conditions, and on realistic conditions with respect to the false alarm probability and the non detection probability. Monte Carlo calculations were used to evaluate the sensitivity for sources of uncertainty which are experimentally inaccessible. (orig.)
Application of subsize specimens in nuclear plant life extension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosinski, S.T.; Kumar, A.S.; Cannon, N.S.; Hamilton, M.L.
1993-01-01
The US Department of Energy is sponsoring a research effort through Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Missouri-Rolla to test a correlation for the upper shelf energy (USE) values obtained from the impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch specimens to those obtained from the testing of full-size samples. The program involves the impact testing of unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens. To verify the applicability of the correlation on LWR materials, unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens of a commercial pressure vessel steel (ASTM A533 Grade B) will be tested. The correlation methodology is based on the partitioning of the USE into crack initiation and crack propagation energies. To accomplish this partition, both precracked and notched-only specimens will be used. Whereas the USE of notched-only specimens is the sum of both crack initiation and crack propagation energies, the USE of precracked specimens reflects only the crack propagation component. The difference in the USE of the two types of specimens represents a measure of the crack initiation energy. Normalizing the values of the crack initiation energy to the fracture volume of the sample produces similar values for the full-, half-, and third-size specimens. In addition, the ratios of the USE and the crack propagation energy are also in agreement for full-, half-, and third-size specimens. These two observations will be used to predict the USE of full-size specimens based on subsize USE data. This paper provides details of the program and presents results obtained from the application of the developed correlation methodology to the impact testing of the unirradiated full-, half-, and third-size A533 Grade B Charpy V-notch specimens
Bury, Yannick; Lucas, Matthieu; Bonnaud, Cyril; Joly, Laurent; ISAE Team; Airbus Team
2014-11-01
We study numerically and experimentally the vortices that develop past a model geometry of a wing equipped with pylon-mounted engine at low speed/moderate incidence flight conditions. For such configuration, the presence of the powerplant installation under the wing initiates a complex, unsteady vortical flow field at the nacelle/pylon/wing junctions. Its interaction with the upper wing boundary layer causes a drop of aircraft performances. In order to decipher the underlying physics, this study is initially conducted on a simplified geometry at a Reynolds number of 200000, based on the chord wing and on the freestream velocity. Two configurations of angle of attack and side-slip angle are investigated. This work relies on unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes computations, oil flow visualizations and stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. The vortex dynamics thus produced is described in terms of vortex core position, intensity, size and turbulent intensity thanks to a vortex tracking approach. In addition, the analysis of the velocity flow fields obtained from PIV highlights the influence of the longitudinal vortex initiated at the pylon/wing junction on the separation process of the boundary layer near the upper wing leading-edge.
Optimizing conditions for an accelerated leach test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.
1988-01-01
An accelerated leach test for low-level radioactive waste forms is being developed to provide, in a short time, data that can be extrapolated to long time periods. The approach is to provide experimental conditions that will accelerate leaching without changing the dominant release mechanism. Experimental efforts have focused on combining individual factors that have been observed to accelerate leaching. These include elevated temperature, increased leachant volume, and reduced specimen size. The response of diffusion coefficients to various acceleration factors have been evaluated and provide information on experimental parameters that need to be optimized to increase leach rates. Preliminary modeling using a diffusion mechanism (allowing for depletion) of a finite cylinder geometry indicates that during early portions of experiments (daily sampling intervals), leaching is diffusion controlled and more rapid than later in the same experiments (weekly or greater sampling intervals). For cement waste forms, this reduction in rate may be partially controlled by changes in physical structure and chemistry (sometimes related to environmental influences such as CO 2 ), but it is more likely associated with the duration of the sampling interval. By using a combination of mathematical modeling and by experimentally investigating various leach rate controlling factors, a more complete understanding of leaching processes is being developed. This, in turn, is leading to optimized accelerating conditions for a leach test
Modeling cavities exhibiting strong lateral confinement using open geometry Fourier modal method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Häyrynen, Teppo; Gregersen, Niels
2016-01-01
We have developed a computationally eﬃcient Fourier-Bessel expansion based open geometry formalism for modeling the optical properties of rotationally symmetric photonic nanostructures. The lateral computation domain is assumed inﬁnite so that no artiﬁcial boundary conditions are needed. Instead,...... around a geometry speciﬁc dominant transverse wavenumber region. We will use the developed approach to investigate the Q factor and mode conﬁnement in cavities where top DBR mirror has small rectangular defect conﬁning the modes laterally on the defect region....
Lectures on Symplectic Geometry
Silva, Ana Cannas
2001-01-01
The goal of these notes is to provide a fast introduction to symplectic geometry for graduate students with some knowledge of differential geometry, de Rham theory and classical Lie groups. This text addresses symplectomorphisms, local forms, contact manifolds, compatible almost complex structures, Kaehler manifolds, hamiltonian mechanics, moment maps, symplectic reduction and symplectic toric manifolds. It contains guided problems, called homework, designed to complement the exposition or extend the reader's understanding. There are by now excellent references on symplectic geometry, a subset of which is in the bibliography of this book. However, the most efficient introduction to a subject is often a short elementary treatment, and these notes attempt to serve that purpose. This text provides a taste of areas of current research and will prepare the reader to explore recent papers and extensive books on symplectic geometry where the pace is much faster. For this reprint numerous corrections and cl...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shih, C.F.; Xia, L.; Hutchinson, J.W.
1995-02-01
In this report, Volume 2, Mode I crack initiation and growth under plane strain conditions in tough metals are computed using an elastic/plastic continuum model which accounts for void growth and coalescence ahead of the crack tip. The material parameters include the stress-strain properties, along with the parameters characterizing the spacing and volume fraction of voids in material elements lying in the plane of the crack. For a given set of these parameters and a specific specimen, or component, subject to a specific loading, relationships among load, load-line displacement and crack advance can be computed with no restrictions on the extent of plastic deformation. Similarly, there is no limit on crack advance, except that it must take place on the symmetry plane ahead of the initial crack. Suitably defined measures of crack tip loading intensity, such as those based on the J-integral, can also be computed, thereby directly generating crack growth resistance curves. In this report, the model is applied to five specimen geometries which are known to give rise to significantly different crack tip constraints and crack growth resistance behaviors. Computed results are compared with sets of experimental data for two tough steels for four of the specimen types. Details of the load, displacement and crack growth histories are accurately reproduced, even when extensive crack growth takes place under conditions of fully plastic yielding. A description of material resistance to crack initiation and subsequent growth is essential for assessing structural integrity such as nuclear pressure vessels and piping
A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens.
Shepherd, Lara D
2017-01-01
Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.
Miniature tensile test specimens for fusion reactor irradiation studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klueh, R.L.
1985-01-01
Three miniature sheet-type tensile specimens and a miniature rod-type specimen are being used to determine irradiated tensile properties for alloy development for fusion reactors. The tensile properties of type 316 stainless steel were determined with these different specimens, and the results were compared. Reasonably good agreement was observed. However, there were differences that led to recommendations on which specimens are preferred. 4 references, 9 figures, 6 tables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, F.C.
2001-01-01
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the energy absorption characteristics of plastically deformed inclined struts under impact loading. This information is needed to provide a usable method by which designers and analysts of shipping casks for radioactive or fissile materials can determine the energy absorption capabilities of external longitudinal fins on cylindrical casks under specified impact conditions. A survey of technical literature related to experimental determination of the dynamic plastic behavior of struts revealed no information directly applicable to the immediate problem, especially in the impact velocity ranges desired, and an experimental program was conducted to obtain the needed data. Mild-steel struts with rectangular cross sections were impacted by free-falling weights dropped from known heights. These struts or fin specimens were inclined at five different angles to simulate different angles of impact that fins on a shipping cask could experience under certain accident conditions. The resisting force of the deforming strut was measured and recorded as a function of time by using load cells instrumented with resistance strain gage bridges, signal conditioning equipment, an oscilloscope, and a Polaroid camera. The acceleration of the impacting weight was measured and recorded as a function of time during the latter portion of the testing program by using an accelerometer attached to the drop hammer, appropriate signal conditioning equipment, the oscilloscope, and the camera. A digital computer program was prepared to numerically integrate the force-time and acceleration-time data recorded during the tests to obtain deformation-time data. The force-displacement relationships were then integrated to obtain values of absorbed energy with respect to deformation or time. The results for various fin specimen geometries and impact angles are presented graphically, and these curves may be used to compute the energy absorption capacity of
Voronina, Marianna V.; Tretyakova, Zlata O.
2017-01-01
The article considers the peculiarities of training foreign students subject "Descriptive geometry and Engineering Graphics" in a modern engineering university of Russia. The relevance of the problem conditioned by the fact that virtually there are no special studies of teaching Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics in Russian…
Zheng, Fangyang
2002-01-01
The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...
Computational synthetic geometry
Bokowski, Jürgen
1989-01-01
Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...
1996-01-01
Designs and Finite Geometries brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area of mathematics. Designs and Finite Geometries serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.
10 CFR 26.165 - Testing split specimens and retesting single specimens.
2010-01-01
... (c), as applicable. If the specimen in Bottle A is free of any evidence of drugs or drug metabolites... suitable inquiry conducted under the provisions of § 26.63 or to any other inquiry or investigation... records must be provided to personnel conducting reviews, inquiries into allegations, or audits under the...
Ceresole, Anna; Gnecchi, Alessandra; Marrani, Alessio
2013-01-01
We analyze some properties of the four dimensional supergravity theories which originate from five dimensions upon reduction. They generalize to N>2 extended supersymmetries the d-geometries with cubic prepotentials, familiar from N=2 special K\\"ahler geometry. We emphasize the role of a suitable parametrization of the scalar fields and the corresponding triangular symplectic basis. We also consider applications to the first order flow equations for non-BPS extremal black holes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saghi, Zineb, E-mail: saghizineb@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Divitini, Giorgio [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Winter, Benjamin [Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy (CENEM), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstraße 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Leary, Rowan [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Spiecker, Erdmann [Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy (CENEM), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstraße 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Ducati, Caterina [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Midgley, Paul A., E-mail: pam33@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)
2016-01-15
Electron tomography is an invaluable method for 3D cellular imaging. The technique is, however, limited by the specimen geometry, with a loss of resolution due to a restricted tilt range, an increase in specimen thickness with tilt, and a resultant need for subjective and time-consuming manual segmentation. Here we show that 3D reconstructions of needle-shaped biological samples exhibit isotropic resolution, facilitating improved automated segmentation and feature detection. By using scanning transmission electron tomography, with small probe convergence angles, high spatial resolution is maintained over large depths of field and across the tilt range. Moreover, the application of compressed sensing methods to the needle data demonstrates how high fidelity reconstructions may be achieved with far fewer images (and thus greatly reduced dose) than needed by conventional methods. These findings open the door to high fidelity electron tomography over critically relevant length-scales, filling an important gap between existing 3D cellular imaging techniques. - Highlights: • On-axis electron tomography of a needle-shaped biological sample is presented. • A reconstruction with isotropic resolution is achieved. • Compressed sensing methods are compared to conventional reconstruction algorithms. • High fidelity reconstructions are achieved with greatly undersampled datasets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saghi, Zineb; Divitini, Giorgio; Winter, Benjamin; Leary, Rowan; Spiecker, Erdmann; Ducati, Caterina; Midgley, Paul A.
2016-01-01
Electron tomography is an invaluable method for 3D cellular imaging. The technique is, however, limited by the specimen geometry, with a loss of resolution due to a restricted tilt range, an increase in specimen thickness with tilt, and a resultant need for subjective and time-consuming manual segmentation. Here we show that 3D reconstructions of needle-shaped biological samples exhibit isotropic resolution, facilitating improved automated segmentation and feature detection. By using scanning transmission electron tomography, with small probe convergence angles, high spatial resolution is maintained over large depths of field and across the tilt range. Moreover, the application of compressed sensing methods to the needle data demonstrates how high fidelity reconstructions may be achieved with far fewer images (and thus greatly reduced dose) than needed by conventional methods. These findings open the door to high fidelity electron tomography over critically relevant length-scales, filling an important gap between existing 3D cellular imaging techniques. - Highlights: • On-axis electron tomography of a needle-shaped biological sample is presented. • A reconstruction with isotropic resolution is achieved. • Compressed sensing methods are compared to conventional reconstruction algorithms. • High fidelity reconstructions are achieved with greatly undersampled datasets.
Size effect studies on smooth tensile specimens at room temperature and 400 oC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krompholz, K.; Kamber, J.; Groth, E.; Kalkhof, D.
2000-06-01
One of the objectives of the REVISA project (REactor Vessel Integrity in Severe Accidents) is to assess the size effect related to deformation and failure models as well as material data under quasistatic and dynamic conditions in homogeneous and non-homogeneous states of strain. For these investigations the reactor pressure vessel material 20 MnMoNi 55 was selected. It was subjected to a size effect study on smooth scaled tensile specimens of three sizes. Two strain rates (2*10 -5 /s and 10 -3 /s) and two temperatures (room temperature and 400 o C) were selected. The investigations are aimed at a support for a gradient plasticity approach to size effects. Test on the small specimens (diameters 3 and 9 mm) were performed at an electromechanical test machine, while the large specimens (diameter 30 mm) had to be tested at a servohydraulical closed loop test machine with a force capacity of 1000 kN
Geometry success in 20 minutes a day
LLC, LearningExpress
2014-01-01
Whether you're new to geometry or just looking for a refresher, Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day offers a 20-step lesson plan that provides quick and thorough instruction in practical, critical skills. Stripped of unnecessary math jargon but bursting with geometry essentials, Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day: Covers all vital geometry skills, from the basic building blocks of geometry to ratio, proportion, and similarity to trigonometry and beyond Provides hundreds of practice exercises in test format Applies geometr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quiney, Z.; Bache, M.R.; Jones, J.P. [Swansea Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Structural Materials
2015-07-01
Hi-Nicalon SiC{sub f}/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) specimens have been inspected using laboratory based X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT) both prior and subsequent to isothermal fatigue assessment. The fatigue specimens were in the form of a dog bone-shaped geometry with a minimum cross-sectional area of 40 mm{sup 2}. Pre-test μCT inspections were conducted to identify the subsurface composite architecture and locate associated features introduced during the manufacturing process (e.g. isolated or conjoined porosity, matrix or interface discontinuities etc.). These μCT scans were subsequently correlated with matching post-test volumes in an attempt to determine the influence of such features upon damage accumulation and the ultimate failure position and cyclic damage mode(s). The relationship between μCT scan resolution and identification of critical features is also discussed. In typical cone-beam X-ray systems, resolution is proportional to the source-to-specimen distance, but for efficiency may also be chosen so as to minimise the number of scans needed to capture the whole area of interest. The investigations are intended to provide input into the future development of an in situ mechanical testing μCT facility using lab-based X-ray systems.
Roe, John
2003-01-01
Coarse geometry is the study of spaces (particularly metric spaces) from a 'large scale' point of view, so that two spaces that look the same from a great distance are actually equivalent. This point of view is effective because it is often true that the relevant geometric properties of metric spaces are determined by their coarse geometry. Two examples of important uses of coarse geometry are Gromov's beautiful notion of a hyperbolic group and Mostow's proof of his famous rigidity theorem. The first few chapters of the book provide a general perspective on coarse structures. Even when only metric coarse structures are in view, the abstract framework brings the same simplification as does the passage from epsilons and deltas to open sets when speaking of continuity. The middle section reviews notions of negative curvature and rigidity. Modern interest in large scale geometry derives in large part from Mostow's rigidity theorem and from Gromov's subsequent 'large scale' rendition of the crucial properties of n...
Introduction to tropical geometry
Maclagan, Diane
2015-01-01
Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...
Hartshorne, Robin
2000-01-01
In recent years, I have been teaching a junior-senior-level course on the classi cal geometries. This book has grown out of that teaching experience. I assume only high-school geometry and some abstract algebra. The course begins in Chapter 1 with a critical examination of Euclid's Elements. Students are expected to read concurrently Books I-IV of Euclid's text, which must be obtained sepa rately. The remainder of the book is an exploration of questions that arise natu rally from this reading, together with their modern answers. To shore up the foundations we use Hilbert's axioms. The Cartesian plane over a field provides an analytic model of the theory, and conversely, we see that one can introduce coordinates into an abstract geometry. The theory of area is analyzed by cutting figures into triangles. The algebra of field extensions provides a method for deciding which geometrical constructions are possible. The investigation of the parallel postulate leads to the various non-Euclidean geometries. And ...
Film boiling heat transfer and vapour film collapse for various geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jouhara, H.I.; Axcell, B.P.
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Film boiling heat transfer has application to the safe operation of water-cooled nuclear reactors under fault conditions and it has been studied using nickel-plated copper specimens in transient and steady state experiments. In the transient tests the specimens were held in a water flow; in the steady state investigation a specimen was mounted in an essentially quiescent pool of water. The transient investigation was conducted on two spheres with different diameters, two cylindrical specimens of different lengths in parallel flow, a short cylinder in cross flow and two flat plates with different lengths. The heat transfer coefficient, vapour film thickness (which was estimated from the heat transfer coefficient) and heat flux followed a similar behaviour with changing experimental conditions for all specimens studied. The heat transfer coefficient increased and the vapour film thickness and heat flux decreased as the specimen temperature decreased. As the water subcooling increased the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux increased while the vapour film thickness decreased. The water velocity was found to have little influence on the film boiling heat transfer results except for the short cylinder in cross flow. The sphere diameter was found to affect the heat transfer results; the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux were larger, for the larger sphere. No significant effect of the cylinder length on the heat transfer data was observed. However, the heat transfer coefficient was higher (and the average vapour film thinner) for the longer plate than for the shorter plate. Three vapour/liquid interface types were observed namely: 'smooth', 'rippled' and 'turbulent' depending largely on specimen and water temperatures. For all specimens, the maximum heat transfer coefficient, minimum heat flux and minimum film boiling temperature, occurring just before vapour film collapse, were found to increase as the water subcooling
Handling of biological specimens for electron microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bullock, G.
1987-01-01
There are many different aspects of specimen preparation procedure which need to be considered in order to achieve good results. Whether using the scanning or transmission microscope, the initial handling procedures are very similar and are selected for the information required. Handling procedures and techniques described are: structural preservation; immuno-and histo-chemistry; x-ray microanalysis and autoradiography; dehydration and embedding; mounting and coating specimens for scanning electron microscopy; and sectioning of resin embedded material. With attention to detail and careful choice of the best available technique, excellent results should be obtainable whatever the specimen. 6 refs
Rudin, Sofia M.; Murray, David W.; Whitfeld, Timothy J. S.
2017-01-01
Premise of the study: Herbarium specimens may provide a record of past environmental conditions, including heavy metal pollution. To explore this potential, we compared concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in historical and new collections from four sites in Rhode Island, USA. Methods: We compared historical specimens (1846 to 1916) to congener specimens collected in 2015 at three former industrial sites in Providence, Rhode Island, and one nonindustrial site on Block Island. Leaf material was prepared by UltraWAVE SRC Microwave Digestion, and heavy metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy. Results: Heavy metal concentrations in the historical and new specimens were measurable for all elements tested, and levels of copper and zinc were comparable in the historical and 2015 collections. By contrast, the concentration of lead declined at all sites over time. Significant variability in heavy metal concentration was observed between taxa, reflecting their varied potential for elemental accumulation. Discussion: It seems clear that herbarium specimens can be used to evaluate past levels of pollution and assess local environmental changes. With careful sampling effort, these specimens can be a valuable part of environmental science research. Broadening the possible applications for herbarium collections in this way increases their relevance in an era of reduced funding for collections-based research. PMID:28090410
Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumdar, S.
1998-01-01
Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior
Scanning transmission ion micro-tomography (STIM-T) of biological specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwertner, Michael; Sakellariou, Arthur; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman
2006-01-01
Computed tomography (CT) was applied to sets of Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) projections recorded at the LIPSION ion beam laboratory (Leipzig) in order to visualize the 3D-mass distribution in several specimens. Examples for a test structure (copper grid) and for biological specimens (cartilage cells, cygospore) are shown. Scanning Transmission Micro-Tomography (STIM-T) at a resolution of 260 nm was demonstrated for the first time. Sub-micron features of the Cu-grid specimen were verified by scanning electron microscopy. The ion energy loss measured during a STIM-T experiment is related to the mass density of the specimen. Typically, biological specimens can be analysed without staining. Only shock freezing and freeze-drying is required to preserve the ultra-structure of the specimen. The radiation damage to the specimen during the experiment can be neglected. This is an advantage compared to other techniques like X-ray micro-tomography. At present, the spatial resolution is limited by beam position fluctuations and specimen vibrations
Shafarevich, Igor Rostislavovich
1994-01-01
Shafarevich Basic Algebraic Geometry 2 The second edition of Shafarevich's introduction to algebraic geometry is in two volumes. The second volume covers schemes and complex manifolds, generalisations in two different directions of the affine and projective varieties that form the material of the first volume. Two notable additions in this second edition are the section on moduli spaces and representable functors, motivated by a discussion of the Hilbert scheme, and the section on Kähler geometry. The book ends with a historical sketch discussing the origins of algebraic geometry. From the Zentralblatt review of this volume: "... one can only respectfully repeat what has been said about the first part of the book (...): a great textbook, written by one of the leading algebraic geometers and teachers himself, has been reworked and updated. As a result the author's standard textbook on algebraic geometry has become even more important and valuable. Students, teachers, and active researchers using methods of al...
The Hounsfield value for cortical bone geometry in the proximal humerus - an in vitro study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim Fat, Daren; Kennedy, Jim; Galvin, Rose; O'Brien, Fergal; Mc Grath, Frank; Mullett, Hannan
2012-01-01
Fractures of the proximal humerus represent a major osteoporotic burden. Recent developments in CT imaging have emphasized the importance of cortical bone thickness distribution in the prevention and management of fragility fractures. We aimed to experimentally define the CT density of cortical bone in the proximal humerus for building cortical geometry maps. With ethical approval, we used ten fresh-frozen human proximal humeri. These were stripped of all soft tissue and high-resolution CT images were then taken. The humeral heads were then subsequently resected to allow access to the metaphyseal area. Using curettes, cancellous bone was removed down to hard cortical bone. Another set of CT images of the reamed specimen was then taken. Using CT imaging software and a CAD interface, we then compared cortical contours at different CT density thresholds to the reference inner cortical contour of our reamed specimens. Working with 3D model representations of these cortical maps, we were able to accurately make distance comparison analyses based on different CT thresholds. We could compute a single closest value at 700 HU. No difference was found in the HU-based contours generated along the 500-900 HU pixels (p = 1.000). The contours were significantly different from those generated at 300, 400, 1,000, and 1,100 HU. A Hounsfield range of 500-900 HU can accurately depict cortical bone geometry in the proximal humerus. Thresholding outside this range leads to statistically significant inaccuracies. Our results concur with a similar range reported in the literature for the proximal femur. Knowledge of regional variations in cortical bone thickness has direct implications for basic science studies on osteoporosis and its treatment, but is also important for the orthopedic surgeon since our decision for treatment options is often guided by local bone quality. (orig.)
Final Report: Posttest Analysis of Omega II Optical Specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newlander, C D; Fisher, J H
2007-01-01
Preliminary posttest analyses have been completed on optical specimens exposed during the Omega II test series conducted on 14 July 2006. The Omega Facility, located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester was used to produce X-ray environments through the interaction of intense pulsed laser radiation upon germanium-loaded silica aerogels. The optical specimen testing was supported by GH Systems through experiment design, pre- and post-test analyses, specimen acquisition, and overall technical experience. The test specimens were fabricated and characterized by Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), San Diego, CA and were simple protected gold coatings on silica substrates. Six test specimens were exposed, five filtered with thin beryllium foil filters, and one unfiltered which was exposed directly to the raw environment. The experimental objectives were: (1) demonstrate that tests of optical specimens could be performed at the Omega facility; (2) evaluate the use and survivability of beryllium foil filters as a function of thickness; (3) obtain damage data on optical specimens which ranged from no damage to damage; (4) correlate existing thermal response models with the damage data; (5) evaluate the use of the direct raw environment upon the specimen response and the ability/desirability to conduct sensitive optical specimen tests using the raw environment; and (6) initiate the development of a protocol for performing optical coatings/mirror tests. This report documents the activities performed by GH Systems in evaluating and using the environments provided by LLNL, the PUFFTFT analyses performed using those environments, and the calculated results compared to the observed and measured posttest data
Canonical differential geometry of string backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.
2006-01-01
String backgrounds and D-branes do not possess the structure of Lorentzian manifolds, but that of manifolds with area metric. Area metric geometry is a true generalization of metric geometry, which in particular may accommodate a B-field. While an area metric does not determine a connection, we identify the appropriate differential geometric structure which is of relevance for the minimal surface equation in such a generalized geometry. In particular the notion of a derivative action of areas on areas emerges naturally. Area metric geometry provides new tools in differential geometry, which promise to play a role in the description of gravitational dynamics on D-branes
State-Space Geometry, Statistical Fluctuations, and Black Holes in String Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Bellucci
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study the state-space geometry of various extremal and nonextremal black holes in string theory. From the notion of the intrinsic geometry, we offer a state-space perspective to the black hole vacuum fluctuations. For a given black hole entropy, we explicate the intrinsic geometric meaning of the statistical fluctuations, local and global stability conditions, and long range statistical correlations. We provide a set of physical motivations pertaining to the extremal and nonextremal black holes, namely, the meaning of the chemical geometry and physics of correlation. We illustrate the state-space configurations for general charge extremal black holes. In sequel, we extend our analysis for various possible charge and anticharge nonextremal black holes. From the perspective of statistical fluctuation theory, we offer general remarks, future directions, and open issues towards the intrinsic geometric understanding of the vacuum fluctuations and black holes in string theory.
Blood specimen labelling errors: Implications for nephrology nursing practice.
Duteau, Jennifer
2014-01-01
Patient safety is the foundation of high-quality health care, as recognized both nationally and worldwide. Patient blood specimen identification is critical in ensuring the delivery of safe and appropriate care. The practice of nephrology nursing involves frequent patient blood specimen withdrawals to treat and monitor kidney disease. A critical review of the literature reveals that incorrect patient identification is one of the major causes of blood specimen labelling errors. Misidentified samples create a serious risk to patient safety leading to multiple specimen withdrawals, delay in diagnosis, misdiagnosis, incorrect treatment, transfusion reactions, increased length of stay and other negative patient outcomes. Barcode technology has been identified as a preferred method for positive patient identification leading to a definitive decrease in blood specimen labelling errors by as much as 83% (Askeland, et al., 2008). The use of a root cause analysis followed by an action plan is one approach to decreasing the occurrence of blood specimen labelling errors. This article will present a review of the evidence-based literature surrounding blood specimen labelling errors, followed by author recommendations for completing a root cause analysis and action plan. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) will be presented as one method to determine root cause, followed by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) as a framework for implementation of strategies to reduce blood specimen labelling errors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.
1998-06-01
A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states.
Morris, Barbara H.
2004-01-01
This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…
Teaching Spatial Geometry in a Virtual World
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Förster, Klaus-Tycho
2017-01-01
Spatial geometry is one of the fundamental mathematical building blocks of any engineering education. However, it is overshadowed by planar geometry in the curriculum between playful early primary education and later analytical geometry, leaving a multi-year gap where spatial geometry is absent...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yeonho Park
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.
Trends and developments in computational geometry
Berg, de M.
1997-01-01
This paper discusses some trends and achievements in computational geometry during the past five years, with emphasis on problems related to computer graphics. Furthermore, a direction of research in computational geometry is discussed that could help in bringing the fields of computational geometry
SU-G-TeP3-02: Determination of Geometry-Specific Backscatter Factors for Radiobiology Studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viscariello, N; Culberson, W; Lawless, M; Kunugi, K; DeWerd, L [School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Radiation biology research relies on an accurate radiation dose delivered to the biological target. Large field irradiations in a cabinet irradiator may use the AAPM TG-61 protocol. This relies on an air-kerma measurement and conversion to absorbed dose to water (Dw) on the surface of a water phantom using provided backscatter factors. Cell or small animal studies differ significantly from this reference geometry. This study aims to determine the impact of the lack of full scatter conditions in four representative geometries that may be used in radiobiology studies. Methods: MCNP6 was used to model the Dw on the surface of a full scatter phantom in a validated orthovoltage x-ray reference beam. Dw in a cylindrical mouse, 100 mm Petri dish, 6-well and 96-well cell culture dishes was simulated and compared to this full scatter geometry. A reference dose rate was measured using the TG-61 protocol in a cabinet irradiator. This nominal dose rate was used to irradiate TLDs in each phantom to a given dose. Doses were obtained based on TLDs calibrated in a NIST-traceable beam. Results: Compared to the full scattering conditions, the simulated dose to water in the representative geometries were found to be underestimated by 12-26%. The discrepancy was smallest with the cylindrical mouse geometry, which most closely approximates adequate lateral- and backscatter. TLDs irradiated in the mouse and petri dish phantoms using the TG-61 determined dose rate showed similarly lower values of Dw. When corrected for this discrepancy, they agreed with the predicted Dw within 5%. Conclusion: Using the TG-61 in-air protocol and given backscatter factors to determine a reference dose rate in a biological irradiator may not be appropriate given the difference in scattering conditions between irradiation and calibration. Without accounting for this, the dose rate is overestimated and is dependent on irradiation geometry.
Tension test system for irradiated small specimens operated by remote control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okada, Akira
1993-01-01
A robot-based tension test system has been developed to aid in the mechanical testing of highly radioactive specimens. This system reduces radiation hazards from specimens and allows for the uniform precision of testing results independent of experimenters' skills. The robot system is designed to accommodate a miniaturized tension specimen with a gage section 5.5 by 1.2 mm, with a total length and width of 12.5 and 2.3 mm, respectively, and thickness of about 0.2 mm. The system is composed of a manipulating robot, a vibrational-type specimen feeder, a rotating-type specimen tray, a specimen observation system, a simulated tension text fixture, and a microcomputer for controlling the system. This system accomplishes specimen arrangement in the specimen tray, specimen transportation and loading to the test fixture and testing, and removal of the broken specimen from the fixture. These procedures are performed quickly, safely, and with uniform testing precision by computer control remotely by an unskilled experimenter
Acoustic Liner Drag: Measurements on Novel Facesheet Perforate Geometries
Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.
2016-01-01
Interest in characterization of the aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of centerline flow Mach number equals 0.3 and 0.5. Various perforate geometries and orientations are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of these resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 hertz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 decibels. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the impact of variations in perforate geometry on acoustic performance.
Lattice gas simulations of dynamical geometry in one dimension.
Love, Peter J; Boghosian, Bruce M; Meyer, David A
2004-08-15
We present numerical results obtained using a lattice gas model with dynamical geometry. The (irreversible) macroscopic behaviour of the geometry (size) of the lattice is discussed in terms of a simple scaling theory and obtained numerically. The emergence of irreversible behaviour from the reversible microscopic lattice gas rules is discussed in terms of the constraint that the macroscopic evolution be reproducible. The average size of the lattice exhibits power-law growth with exponent at late times. The deviation of the macroscopic behaviour from reproducibility for particular initial conditions ('rogue states') is investigated as a function of system size. The number of such 'rogue states' is observed to decrease with increasing system size. Two mean-field analyses of the macroscopic behaviour are also presented. Copyright 2004 The Royal Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.
1998-01-01
A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a prototypic, far-field. out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies. namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness, the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect
Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Le, Viet; Tang, Qixiang; Yu, Tzuyang
2016-04-01
Corrosion of steel reinforcing bars (rebars) is the primary cause for the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Traditional corrosion monitoring methods such as half-cell potential and linear polarization resistance can only detect the presence of corrosion but cannot quantify it. This study presents an experimental investigation of quantifying degree of corrosion of steel rebar inside cement mortar specimens using ultrasonic testing (UT). A UT device with two 54 kHz transducers was used to measure ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of cement mortar, uncorroded and corroded reinforced cement mortar specimens, utilizing the direct transmission method. The results obtained from the study show that UPV decreases linearly with increase in degree of corrosion and corrosion-induced cracks (surface cracks). With respect to quantifying the degree of corrosion, a model was developed by simultaneously fitting UPV and surface crack width measurements to a two-parameter linear model. The proposed model can be used for predicting the degree of corrosion of steel rebar embedded in cement mortar under similar conditions used in this study up to 3.03%. Furthermore, the modeling approach can be applied to corroded reinforced concrete specimens with additional modification. The findings from this study show that UT has the potential of quantifying the degree of corrosion inside reinforced cement mortar specimens.
Hillslope hydrological modeling : the role of bedrock geometry and hillslope-stream interaction
Shahedi, K.
2008-01-01
Keywords: Hillslope hydrology, hydrological modeling, bedrock geometry, boundary condition, numerical solution.
This thesis focuses on hillslope subsurface flow as a dominant control on the hydrological processes defining the catchment response to rainfall. Due to the difficulties
Tensile-Creep Test Specimen Preparation Practices of Surface Support Liners
Guner, Dogukan; Ozturk, Hasan
2017-12-01
Ground support has always been considered as a challenging issue in all underground operations. Many forms of support systems and supporting techniques are available in the mining/tunnelling industry. In the last two decades, a new polymer based material, Thin Spray-on Liner (TSL), has attained a place in the market as an alternative to the current areal ground support systems. Although TSL provides numerous merits and has different application purposes, the knowledge on mechanical properties and performance of this material is still limited. In laboratory studies, since tensile rupture is the most commonly observed failure mechanism in field applications, researchers have generally studied the tensile testing of TSLs with modification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-638 standards. For tensile creep testing, specimen preparation process also follows the ASTM standards. Two different specimen dimension types (Type I, Type IV) are widely preferred in TSL tensile testing that conform to the related standards. Moreover, molding and die cutting are commonly used specimen preparation techniques. In literature, there is a great variability of test results due to the difference in specimen preparation techniques and practices. In this study, a ductile TSL product was tested in order to investigate the effect of both specimen preparation techniques and specimen dimensions under 7-day curing time. As a result, ultimate tensile strength, tensile yield strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break values were obtained for 4 different test series. It is concluded that Type IV specimens have higher strength values compared to Type I specimens and moulded specimens have lower results than that of prepared by using die cutter. Moreover, specimens prepared by molding techniques have scattered test results. Type IV specimens prepared by die cutter technique are suggested for preparation of tensile test and Type I specimens prepared by die cutter technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weirick, L.J.
1976-07-01
The purpose of the corrosion compatibility program was to identify the effect of corrosion on the mechanical performance of the buttress-grooved section of the 105-mm penetrator, a section which must sustain a load during launch. It is important that the environment not deteriorate the mechanical integrity of these grooves during long-term storage. Both coated and uncoated test specimens which simulate both geometrical shape and residual stress patterns were exposed to corrosive environments of moist air, distilled water, and salt water. Some of these tests also incorporated the galvanic coupling caused by the aluminum sabot. After exposure to the corrosive environments, the specimens were pulled on a high strain rate tensile machine which simulated launch conditions. Results show that the galvanic coupling due to the aluminum sabot caused no deterioration of mechanical properties. Results do indicate that the coating applied caused a significant reduction in the fracture load. There was a dichotomy in the results as affected by the environment. Uncoated test specimens showed no change in fracture load with increasing severity of corrosion environment, whereas the coated specimens indicated a trend of decreasing load-bearing ability with increasing corrosion
AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Windes, William Enoch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cottle, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-08-01
This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hadi Haeri
Full Text Available The pre-existing cracks in the brittle substances seem to be the main cause of their failure under various loading conditions. In this study, a simultaneous analytical, experimental and numerical analysis of crack propagation, cracks coalescence and failure process of brittle materials has been performed. Brazilian disc tests are being carried out to evaluate the cracks propagation paths in rock-like Brazilian disc specimens containing single and double cracks (using rock-like specimens which are specially prepared from Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC, fine sands and water in a rock mechanics laboratory. The failure load of the pre-cracked disc specimens are measured showing the decreasing effects of the cracks and their orientation on the final failure load. The same specimens are numerically simulated by a higher order indirect boundary element method known as displacement discontinuity method. These numerical results are compared with the existing analytical and experimental results proving the accuracy and validity of the proposed numerical method. The numerical and experimental results obtained from the tested specimens are in good agreement and demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Виктор Семенович Корнилов
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In article methodical aspects, components of fundamental training of students of physical and mathematical specialties of higher educational institutions of fractal geometry are discussed. The attention to use in the course of such training of means of informatization is paid.
An approach for management of geometry data
Dube, R. P.; Herron, G. J.; Schweitzer, J. E.; Warkentine, E. R.
1980-01-01
The strategies for managing Integrated Programs for Aerospace Design (IPAD) computer-based geometry are described. The computer model of geometry is the basis for communication, manipulation, and analysis of shape information. IPAD's data base system makes this information available to all authorized departments in a company. A discussion of the data structures and algorithms required to support geometry in IPIP (IPAD's data base management system) is presented. Through the use of IPIP's data definition language, the structure of the geometry components is defined. The data manipulation language is the vehicle by which a user defines an instance of the geometry. The manipulation language also allows a user to edit, query, and manage the geometry. The selection of canonical forms is a very important part of the IPAD geometry. IPAD has a canonical form for each entity and provides transformations to alternate forms; in particular, IPAD will provide a transformation to the ANSI standard. The DBMS schemas required to support IPAD geometry are explained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bucur Florina
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study refers to an experimental and numerical evaluation of a polyurea coating layer influence on the dynamic behaviour of OL50 specimens. Mechanical quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests were performed in axial loading conditions, for 2 mm steel plate specimens. Several metallic specimens have been previously coated with 1.5 mm and 3 mm respectively thickness polyurea layer and tested in traction. The findings results indicate that the presence of polyurea changes the loading pattern of metallic material in the necking area. In terms of polyurea coated metal specimens fracture, there was clearly observed a change of fracture limit. One possible explanation of this phenomenon is the modification of triaxiality state in the necking zone, fact proven by the numerical simulations. Test results indicate that the presence of polyurea layer delays the necking onset phenomenon which precedes the OL50 metallic specimen fracture.
"WGL," a Web Laboratory for Geometry
Quaresma, Pedro; Santos, Vanda; Maric, Milena
2018-01-01
The role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education is nowadays well recognised. The "Web Geometry Laboratory," is an e-learning, collaborative and adaptive, Web environment for geometry, integrating a well known dynamic geometry system. In a collaborative session, teachers and students, engaged in solving…
Kemnitz, Arnfried
Der Grundgedanke der Analytischen Geometrie besteht darin, dass geometrische Untersuchungen mit rechnerischen Mitteln geführt werden. Geometrische Objekte werden dabei durch Gleichungen beschrieben und mit algebraischen Methoden untersucht.
Connections between algebra, combinatorics, and geometry
Sather-Wagstaff, Sean
2014-01-01
Commutative algebra, combinatorics, and algebraic geometry are thriving areas of mathematical research with a rich history of interaction. Connections Between Algebra, Combinatorics, and Geometry contains lecture notes, along with exercises and solutions, from the Workshop on Connections Between Algebra and Geometry held at the University of Regina from May 29-June 1, 2012. It also contains research and survey papers from academics invited to participate in the companion Special Session on Interactions Between Algebraic Geometry and Commutative Algebra, which was part of the CMS Summer Meeting at the University of Regina held June 2–3, 2012, and the meeting Further Connections Between Algebra and Geometry, which was held at the North Dakota State University, February 23, 2013. This volume highlights three mini-courses in the areas of commutative algebra and algebraic geometry: differential graded commutative algebra, secant varieties, and fat points and symbolic powers. It will serve as a useful resou...
A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.
2008-01-01
Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...
Open-geometry Fourier modal method: modeling nanophotonic structures in infinite domains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Häyrynen, Teppo; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Gregersen, Niels
2016-01-01
We present an open-geometry Fourier modal method based on a new combination of open boundary conditions and an efficient k-space discretization. The open boundary of the computational domain is obtained using basis functions that expand the whole space, and the integrals subsequently appearing due...
Kordestani, F.; Ashenai Ghasemi, F.; Arab, N. B. M.
2017-09-01
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process, which has successfully been applied in aerospace and automotive industries for joining materials. The friction stir tool is the key element in the FSW process. In this study, the effect of four different tool pin geometries on the mechanical properties of two types of polypropylene composite plates, with 30% glass and carbon fiber, respectively, were investigated. For this purpose, four pins of different geometry, namely, a threaded-tapered pin, square pin, four-flute threaded pin, and threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer were made and used to carry out the butt welding of 5-mm-thick plates. The standard tensile and Izod impact tests were performed to evaluate the tensile strength and impact toughness of welded specimens. The results indicated that the threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer produced welds with a better surface appearance and higher tensile and impact strengths. The tests also showed that, with the threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer, the impact strength of the glass- and carbon-fiber composite welds were about 40 and 50%, respectively, of that of the base materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
RodrIguez-MartInez, R; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Merchan-Cruz, E A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Sandoval-Pineda, J M
2009-01-01
In this paper, the case of Single Edge Notch (SEN) specimens subject to opening/compressive loading was analyzed; The loads are applied in several ratios to evaluate the influence of the specimen geometry, and the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) K 1 values on the directional stability of crack propagation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the behaviour of the fracture propagation, when modifying the geometry of the SEN specimen and different relationships of load tension/compression are applied. Additionally, the precision of the numerical and experimental analysis is evaluated to determine its reliability when solving this type of problems. The specimens are subjected to biaxial opening/compression loading; both results (numerical and experimental) are compared in order to evaluate the condition of directional stability on crack propagation. Finally, an apparent transition point related to the length of specimens was identified, in which the behaviour of values of SIF changes for different loading ratios.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
RodrIguez-MartInez, R; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Merchan-Cruz, E A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Sandoval-Pineda, J M, E-mail: rrodriguezm@ipn.m, E-mail: urrio332@hotmail.co, E-mail: guiurri@hotmail.co, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.co, E-mail: eamerchan@gmail.co, E-mail: ricname@hotmail.co, E-mail: jsandovalp@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME). Unidad profesional, AZCAPOTZALCO, Av. de las Granjas No. 682, Col. Sta. Catarina Azcapotzalco, C.P. 02550, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2009-08-01
In this paper, the case of Single Edge Notch (SEN) specimens subject to opening/compressive loading was analyzed; The loads are applied in several ratios to evaluate the influence of the specimen geometry, and the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) K{sub 1} values on the directional stability of crack propagation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the behaviour of the fracture propagation, when modifying the geometry of the SEN specimen and different relationships of load tension/compression are applied. Additionally, the precision of the numerical and experimental analysis is evaluated to determine its reliability when solving this type of problems. The specimens are subjected to biaxial opening/compression loading; both results (numerical and experimental) are compared in order to evaluate the condition of directional stability on crack propagation. Finally, an apparent transition point related to the length of specimens was identified, in which the behaviour of values of SIF changes for different loading ratios.
Mukta, K. N.; MacLaurin, J. N.; Robinson, P. A.
2017-11-01
Corticothalamic neural field theory is applied to a spherical geometry to better model neural activity in the human brain and is also compared with planar approximations. The frequency power spectrum, correlation, and coherence functions are computed analytically and numerically. The effects of cortical boundary conditions and resulting modal aspects of spherical corticothalamic dynamics are explored, showing that the results of spherical and finite planar geometries converge to those for the infinite planar geometry in the limit of large brain size. Estimates are made of the point at which modal series can be truncated and it is found that for physiologically plausible parameters only the lowest few spatial eigenmodes are needed for an accurate representation of macroscopic brain activity. A difference between the geometries is that there is a low-frequency 1 /f spectrum in the infinite planar geometry, whereas in the spherical geometry it is 1 /f2 . Another difference is that the alpha peak in the spherical geometry is sharper and stronger than in the planar geometry. Cortical modal effects can lead to a double alpha peak structure in the power spectrum, although the main determinant of the alpha peak is corticothalamic feedback. In the spherical geometry, the cross spectrum between two points is found to only depend on their relative distance apart. At small spatial separations the low-frequency cross spectrum is stronger than for an infinite planar geometry and the alpha peak is sharper and stronger due to the partitioning of the energy into discrete modes. In the spherical geometry, the coherence function between points decays monotonically as their separation increases at a fixed frequency, but persists further at resonant frequencies. The correlation between two points is found to be positive, regardless of the time lag and spatial separation, but decays monotonically as the separation increases at fixed time lag. At fixed distance the correlation has peaks
Fisher, D. M.; Repko, A. J.
1972-01-01
Tests of bend and compact specimens were conducted according to ASTM Tentative Method E 399-70T on a 200 grade maraging steel over a range of yield strengths from 123 to 234 ksi. The toughness of any given yield strength level was greater for the overaged condition than for the underaged. Some results which met the specimen size requirements of the method were distinctly lower than corresponding results from larger specimens. Inconsistencies in both validation and invalidation of results by the requirement for linearity of the test record were also noted.
Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory Summer School
Sarıoğlu, Celal; Soulé, Christophe; Zeytin, Ayberk
2017-01-01
This lecture notes volume presents significant contributions from the “Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory” Summer School, held at Galatasaray University, Istanbul, June 2-13, 2014. It addresses subjects ranging from Arakelov geometry and Iwasawa theory to classical projective geometry, birational geometry and equivariant cohomology. Its main aim is to introduce these contemporary research topics to graduate students who plan to specialize in the area of algebraic geometry and/or number theory. All contributions combine main concepts and techniques with motivating examples and illustrative problems for the covered subjects. Naturally, the book will also be of interest to researchers working in algebraic geometry, number theory and related fields.
Applications of Affine and Weyl geometry
García-Río, Eduardo; Nikcevic, Stana
2013-01-01
Pseudo-Riemannian geometry is, to a large extent, the study of the Levi-Civita connection, which is the unique torsion-free connection compatible with the metric structure. There are, however, other affine connections which arise in different contexts, such as conformal geometry, contact structures, Weyl structures, and almost Hermitian geometry. In this book, we reverse this point of view and instead associate an auxiliary pseudo-Riemannian structure of neutral signature to certain affine connections and use this correspondence to study both geometries. We examine Walker structures, Riemannia
The Idea of Order at Geometry Class.
Rishel, Thomas
The idea of order in geometry is explored using the experience of assignments given to undergraduates in a college geometry course "From Space to Geometry." Discussed are the definition of geometry, and earth measurement using architecture, art, and common experience. This discussion concludes with a consideration of the question of whether…
Thermodynamic geometry of black holes in f(R) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soroushfar, Saheb; Saffari, Reza; Kamvar, Negin
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider three types (static, static charged, and rotating charged) of black holes in f(R) gravity. We study the thermodynamical behavior, stability conditions, and phase transition of these black holes. It is shown that the number and type of phase transition points are related to different parameters, which shows the dependency of the stability conditions to these parameters. Also, we extend our study to different thermodynamic geometry methods (Ruppeiner, Weinhold, and GTD). Next, we investigate the compatibility of curvature scalar of geothermodynamic methods with phase transition points of the above black holes. In addition, we point out the effect of different values of the spacetime parameters on the stability conditions of mentioned black holes. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahanuma Shaik
2017-12-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies with a lifetime risk of 7-8%. The appendicectomy specimens operated upon clinically-suspected appendicitis often appear normal on gross examination, but histopathological evaluation may reveal a diverse underlying pathology. Therefore, for accurate diagnosis, histopathological examination of all appendicectomy specimens is mandatory. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of 175 appendicectomy cases operated over a period of two years. The clinical data and histopathological reports were reviewed and various histopathological findings are categorised. RESULTS Out of the total 175 appendicectomies, 155 emergency appendicectomy cases were included in the study, while 20 cases of incidental appendicectomy were excluded. The peak incidence was found in the 2nd and 3rd decades with male predominance. Among the 155 specimens, 96.8% had histological features of appendicitis and 1.9% were normal appendix. The unusual histopathological findings were Carcinoid tumour and Enterobius vermicularis. CONCLUSION The definitive diagnoses of appendicitis as well as the unusual incidental findings that were missed intraoperatively are established by histopathological examination. The study supports the histological examination of all resected appendicectomy specimens.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz S, A.; Castano M, V.
2007-01-01
A study of oxide film formed inside pre cracked CT specimens during a rising displacement test in high temperature water (288 C) was performed in this study, The environmental conditions used during the experiments were similar to these found in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR): Normal Water Condition (NWC - 200 ppb O 2 ) and Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC - 125 ppb H2). The oxide films formed were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In both cases the oxide film consisted of two layers identified as magnetite. In the case of HWC the results agree with previous reports that mention magnetite as a stable phase in reducing conditions. However the stable phase in oxidant conditions is hematite and this work shows the presence of magnetite crystals in the narrow crack of CT specimens in spite of the oxidant environmental condition. This situation confirms that inside the pre-cracked CT specimens the environmental conditions were different from the oxidant bulk, and probably a poor oxygen access and stagnant conditions within the narrow crack promoted a localized reducing environment that permitted the magnetite formation. Is evident that the crack growth studies should consider the conditions inside crack because they are significantly different. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strominger, A.
1990-01-01
A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Joo Hee
2006-02-01
There is growing interest in developing pebble bed reactors (PBRs) as a candidate of very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs). Until now, most existing methods of nuclear design analysis for this type of reactors are base on old finite-difference solvers or on statistical methods. But for realistic analysis of PBRs, there is strong desire of making available high fidelity nodal codes in three-dimensional (r,θ,z) cylindrical geometry. Recently, the Analytic Function Expansion Nodal (AFEN) method developed quite extensively in Cartesian (x,y,z) geometry and in hexagonal-z geometry was extended to two-group (r,z) cylindrical geometry, and gave very accurate results. In this thesis, we develop a method for the full three-dimensional cylindrical (r,θ,z) geometry and implement the method into a code named TOPS. The AFEN methodology in this geometry as in hexagonal geometry is 'robus' (e.g., no occurrence of singularity), due to the unique feature of the AFEN method that it does not use the transverse integration. The transverse integration in the usual nodal methods, however, leads to an impasse, that is, failure of the azimuthal term to be transverse-integrated over r-z surface. We use 13 nodal unknowns in an outer node and 7 nodal unknowns in an innermost node. The general solution of the node can be expressed in terms of that nodal unknowns, and can be updated using the nodal balance equation and the current continuity condition. For more realistic analysis of PBRs, we implemented em Marshak boundary condition to treat the incoming current zero boundary condition and the partial current translation (PCT) method to treat voids in the core. The TOPS code was verified in the various numerical tests derived from Dodds problem and PBMR-400 benchmark problem. The results of the TOPS code show high accuracy and fast computing time than the VENTURE code that is based on finite difference method (FDM)
Specimen-specific modeling of hip fracture pattern and repair.
Ali, Azhar A; Cristofolini, Luca; Schileo, Enrico; Hu, Haixiang; Taddei, Fulvia; Kim, Raymond H; Rullkoetter, Paul J; Laz, Peter J
2014-01-22
Hip fracture remains a major health problem for the elderly. Clinical studies have assessed fracture risk based on bone quality in the aging population and cadaveric testing has quantified bone strength and fracture loads. Prior modeling has primarily focused on quantifying the strain distribution in bone as an indicator of fracture risk. Recent advances in the extended finite element method (XFEM) enable prediction of the initiation and propagation of cracks without requiring a priori knowledge of the crack path. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to predict femoral fracture in specimen-specific models using the XFEM approach, to perform one-to-one comparisons of predicted and in vitro fracture patterns, and to develop a framework to assess the mechanics and load transfer in the fractured femur when it is repaired with an osteosynthesis implant. Five specimen-specific femur models were developed from in vitro experiments under a simulated stance loading condition. Predicted fracture patterns closely matched the in vitro patterns; however, predictions of fracture load differed by approximately 50% due to sensitivity to local material properties. Specimen-specific intertrochanteric fractures were induced by subjecting the femur models to a sideways fall and repaired with a contemporary implant. Under a post-surgical stance loading, model-predicted load sharing between the implant and bone across the fracture surface varied from 59%:41% to 89%:11%, underscoring the importance of considering anatomic and fracture variability in the evaluation of implants. XFEM modeling shows potential as a macro-level analysis enabling fracture investigations of clinical cohorts, including at-risk groups, and the design of robust implants. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Guven, Bulent
2012-01-01
This study examines the effect of dynamic geometry software (DGS) on students' learning of transformation geometry. A pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design was used. Participants in the study were 68 eighth grade students (36 in the experimental group and 32 in the control group). While the experimental group students were studying the…
Rummel, W. D.; Rathke, R. A.; Todd, P. H., Jr.; Mullen, S. J.
1975-01-01
Liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, eddy current and X-radiographic techniques were optimized and applied to the evaluation of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy test specimens in integrally stiffened panel, and weld panel configurations. Fatigue cracks in integrally stiffened panels, lack-of-fusion in weld panels, and fatigue cracks in weld panels were the flaw types used for evaluation. A 2319 aluminum alloy weld filler rod was used for all welding to produce the test specimens. Forty seven integrally stiffened panels containing a total of 146 fatigue cracks, ninety three lack-of-penetration (LOP) specimens containing a total of 239 LOP flaws, and one-hundred seventeen welded specimens containing a total of 293 fatigue cracks were evaluated. Nondestructive test detection reliability enhancement was evaluated during separate inspection sequences in the specimens in the 'as-machined or as-welded', post etched and post proof loaded conditions. Results of the nondestructive test evaluations were compared to the actual flaw size obtained by measurement of the fracture specimens after completing all inspection sequences. Inspection data were then analyzed to provide a statistical basis for determining the flaw detection reliability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takahiro Fukuhara
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We sought to elucidate the correlation between shear wave velocity (SWV and fibrosis in thyroid by precisely assessing pathological structures inside 5 × 5 mm2 regions of interest (ROIs of resected specimens, under conditions that excluded physical artifacts. The materials were unselected thyroid and lymph node specimens resected during thyroid surgery. Immediately after surgery, fresh unfixed thyroid and metastatic lymph node specimens were suspended in gel phantoms, and SWV was measured. Upon pathological examination of each specimen, the extent of fibrosis was graded as none, moderate, or severe. A total of 109 specimens were evaluated: 15 normal thyroid, 16 autoimmune thyroiditis, 40 malignant nodules, 19 benign thyroid nodules, and 19 metastatic lymph nodes. When all specimens were classified according to the degree of fibrosis determined by pathological imaging, the mean SWV was 1.49±0.39 m/s for no fibrosis, 2.13±0.66 m/s for moderate fibrosis, and 2.68±0.82 m/s for severe fibrosis. The SWVs of samples with moderate and severe fibrosis were significantly higher than those of samples without fibrosis. The results of this study demonstrate that fibrosis plays an important role in determining stiffness, as measured by SWV in thyroid.
Disformal transformation in Newton-Cartan geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Peng [Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Department of Information, Hangzhou (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Guangzhou (China); Yuan, Fang-Fang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)
2016-08-15
Newton-Cartan geometry has played a central role in recent discussions of the non-relativistic holography and condensed matter systems. Although the conformal transformation in non-relativistic holography can easily be rephrased in terms of Newton-Cartan geometry, we show that it requires a nontrivial procedure to arrive at the consistent form of anisotropic disformal transformation in this geometry. Furthermore, as an application of the newly obtained transformation, we use it to induce a geometric structure which may be seen as a particular non-relativistic version of the Weyl integrable geometry. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amouyal, A.; Tariel, H.
1966-01-01
Code name: January 1 st SCEA 011S. 2) Computer: IBM 7094; Programme system: Fortran II, 2 nd version. 3) Nature of the problem: resolution of cell problems with one space variable (planar, spherical and cylindrical geometries) and with one energy group, with isotropic sources in the double P n approximation (DP 1 and DP 3 approximation in planar and spherical geometries, DP 1 and DP 2 in cylindrical geometry). 4) Method used: the differential equations with limiting conditions are transformed into differential system with initial conditions which are integrated by a separate-step method. 5) Restrictions: number of physical media [fr
Evaluation of the Behavior of Technova Corporation Rod-Stiffened Stitched Compression Specimens
Jegley, Dawn C.
2013-01-01
Under Space Act Agreement 1347 between NASA and Technova Corporation, Technova designed and fabricated two carbon-epoxy crippling specimens and NASA loaded them to failure in axial compression. Each specimen contained a pultruded rod stiffener which was held to the specimen skin with through-the-thickness stitches. One of these specimens was designed to be nominally the same as pultruded rod stitched specimens fabricated by Boeing under previous programs. In the other specimen, the rod was prestressed in a Technova manufacturing process to increase its ability to carrying compressive loading. Experimental results demonstrated that the specimen without prestressing carried approximately the same load as the similar Boeing specimens and that the specimen with prestressing carried significantly more load than the specimen without prestressing.
Size effect studies on smooth tensile specimens at room temperature and 400 {sup o}C
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krompholz, K.; Kamber, J.; Groth, E.; Kalkhof, D
2000-06-15
One of the objectives of the REVISA project (REactor Vessel Integrity in Severe Accidents) is to assess the size effect related to deformation and failure models as well as material data under quasistatic and dynamic conditions in homogeneous and non-homogeneous states of strain. For these investigations the reactor pressure vessel material 20 MnMoNi 55 was selected. It was subjected to a size effect study on smooth scaled tensile specimens of three sizes. Two strain rates (2*10{sup -5}/s and 10{sup -3}/s) and two temperatures (room temperature and 400 {sup o}C) were selected. The investigations are aimed at a support for a gradient plasticity approach to size effects. Test on the small specimens (diameters 3 and 9 mm) were performed at an electromechanical test machine, while the large specimens (diameter 30 mm) had to be tested at a servohydraulical closed loop test machine with a force capacity of 1000 kN.
Yale, Paul B
2012-01-01
This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi
Optimizing solar-cell grid geometry
Crossley, A. P.
1969-01-01
Trade-off analysis and mathematical expressions calculate optimum grid geometry in terms of various cell parameters. Determination of the grid geometry provides proper balance between grid resistance and cell output to optimize the energy conversion process.
Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.
2011-09-01
Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.
Walsh, Edward T
2014-01-01
This introductory text is designed to help undergraduate students develop a solid foundation in geometry. Early chapters progress slowly, cultivating the necessary understanding and self-confidence for the more rapid development that follows. The extensive treatment can be easily adapted to accommodate shorter courses. Starting with the language of mathematics as expressed in the algebra of logic and sets, the text covers geometric sets of points, separation and angles, triangles, parallel lines, similarity, polygons and area, circles, space geometry, and coordinate geometry. Each chapter incl
Global affine differential geometry of hypersurfaces
Li, An-Min; Zhao, Guosong; Hu, Zejun
2015-01-01
This book draws a colorful and widespread picture of global affine hypersurface theory up to the most recent state. Moreover, the recent development revealed that affine differential geometry- as differential geometry in general- has an exciting intersection area with other fields of interest, like partial differential equations, global analysis, convex geometry and Riemann surfaces.
Synchrotron radiation microprobe quantitative analysis method for biomedical specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Qing; Shao Hanru
1994-01-01
Relative changes of trace elemental content in biomedical specimens are obtained easily by means of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis (SXRFM). However, the accurate assignment of concentration on a g/g basis is difficult. Because it is necessary to know both the trace elemental content and the specimen mass in the irradiated volume simultaneously. the specimen mass is a function of the spatial position and can not be weighed. It is possible to measure the specimen mass indirectly by measuring the intensity of Compton scattered peak for normal XRF analysis using a X-ray tube with Mo anode, if the matrix was consisted of light elements and the specimen was a thin sample. The Compton peak is not presented in fluorescence spectrum for white light SXRFM analysis. The continuous background in the spectrum was resulted from the Compton scattering with a linear polarization X-ray source. Biomedical specimens for SXRFM analysis, for example biological section and human hair, are always a thin sample for high energy X-ray, and they consist of H,C,N and O etc. light elements, which implies a linear relationship between the specimen mass and the Compton scattering background in the high energy region of spectrum. By this way , it is possible to carry out measurement of concentration for SXRFM analysis
Preserve specimens for reproducibility
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krell, F.-T.; Klimeš, Petr; Rocha, L. A.; Fikáček, M.; Miller, S. E.
2016-01-01
Roč. 539, č. 7628 (2016), s. 168 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reproducibility * specimen * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v539/n7628/full/539168b.html
Spectral dimension of quantum geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes
2014-01-01
The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)
Lefschetz, Solomon
2005-01-01
An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.
Charged thin-shell gravastars in noncommutative geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oevguen, Ali [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Eastern Mediterranean University, Physics Department, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus (Turkey); Banerjee, Ayan [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Jusufi, Kimet [State University of Tetovo, Physics Department, Tetovo (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Institute of Physics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)
2017-08-15
In this paper we construct a charged thin-shell gravastar model within the context of noncommutative geometry. To do so, we choose the interior of the nonsingular de Sitter spacetime with an exterior charged noncommutative solution by cut-and-paste technique and apply the generalized junction conditions. We then investigate the stability of a charged thin-shell gravastar under linear perturbations around the static equilibrium solutions as well as the thermodynamical stability of the charged gravastar. We find the stability regions, by choosing appropriate parameter values, located sufficiently close to the event horizon. (orig.)
Thermal expansion of epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Bridgman, C.
1986-01-01
The thermal expansion behavior of three epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens was measured from 20 to 120 0 C (70 to 250 0 F) using a fused quartz push-rod dilatometer. Billets produced by vacuum impregnating layers of two types of fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin were core-drilled to produce cylindrical specimens. These were used to study expansion perpendicular and parallel to the fiberglass layers. The dilatometer is held at a preselected temperature until steady-state is indicated by stable length and temperature data. Before testing the composite specimens, a reliability check of the dilatometer was performed using a copper secondary standard. This indicated thermal expansion coefficient (α) values within +-2% of expected values from 20 to 200 0 C
A geometry calibration method for rotation translation trajectory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jun; Yan Bin; Li Lei; Lu Lizhong; Zhang Feng
2013-01-01
In cone-beam CT imaging system, it is difficult to directly measure the geometry parameters. In this paper, a geometry calibration method for rotation translation trajectory is proposed. Intrinsic parameters are solved from the relationship built on geometry parameter of the system and projection trajectory of calibration object. Parameters of rotation axis are extrapolated from the unified intrinsic parameter, and geometry parameters of the idle trajectory are acquired too. The calibration geometry can be analytically determined using explicit formulae, it can avoid getting into local optimum in iterative way. Simulation experiments are carried out on misaligned geometry, experiment results indicate that geometry artifacts due to misaligned geometry are effectively depressed by the proposed method, and the image quality is enhanced. (authors)
Zhao, Dongsheng; Roberts, Gethin Wyn; Lau, Lawrence; Hancock, Craig M; Bai, Ruibin
2016-11-16
Twelve GPS Block IIF satellites, out of the current constellation, can transmit on three-frequency signals (L1, L2, L5). Taking advantages of these signals, Three-Carrier Ambiguity Resolution (TCAR) is expected to bring much benefit for ambiguity resolution. One of the research areas is to find the optimal combined signals for a better ambiguity resolution in geometry-free (GF) and geometry-based (GB) mode. However, the existing researches select the signals through either pure theoretical analysis or testing with simulated data, which might be biased as the real observation condition could be different from theoretical prediction or simulation. In this paper, we propose a theoretical and empirical integrated method, which first selects the possible optimal combined signals in theory and then refines these signals with real triple-frequency GPS data, observed at eleven baselines of different lengths. An interpolation technique is also adopted in order to show changes of the AR performance with the increase in baseline length. The results show that the AR success rate can be improved by 3% in GF mode and 8% in GB mode at certain intervals of the baseline length. Therefore, the TCAR can perform better by adopting the combined signals proposed in this paper when the baseline meets the length condition.
Influence of geometry variations on the gravitational focusing of timelike geodesic congruences
Seriu, Masafumi
2015-10-01
We derive a set of equations describing the linear response of the convergence properties of a geodesic congruence to arbitrary geometry variations. It is a combination of equations describing the deviations from the standard Raychaudhuri-type equations due to the geodesic shifts and an equation describing the geodesic shifts due to the geometry variations. In this framework, the geometry variations, which can be chosen arbitrarily, serve as probes to investigate the gravitational contraction processes from various angles. We apply the obtained framework to the case of conformal geometry variations, characterized by an arbitrary function f (x ), and see that the formulas get simplified to a great extent. We investigate the response of the convergence properties of geodesics in the latest phase of gravitational contractions by restricting the class of conformal geometry variations to the one satisfying the strong energy condition. We then find out that in the final stage, f and D .D f control the overall contraction behavior and that the contraction rate gets larger when f is negative and |f | is so large as to overwhelm |D .D f |. (Here D .D is the Laplacian operator on the spatial hypersurfaces orthogonal to the geodesic congruence in concern.) To get more concrete insights, we also apply the framework to the time-reversed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model as the simplest case of the singularity formations.
Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
JL Bump; RF Luther
2006-02-09
This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.
Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
JL Bump; RF Luther
2006-01-01
This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments
Geometry modeling for SAM-CE Monte Carlo calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinberg, H.A.; Troubetzkoy, E.S.
1980-01-01
Three geometry packages have been developed and incorporated into SAM-CE, for representing in three dimensions the transport medium. These are combinatorial geometry - a general (non-lattice) system, complex combinatorial geometry - a very general system with lattice capability, and special reactor geometry - a special purpose system for light water reactor geometries. Their different attributes are described
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoeckl, H.
1991-06-01
Numerical simulations of fracture-mechanical experiments with the aim of determining the stress intensity factor and its relation to the fracture velocity from the measured data of the crack length are problematic with the conventional DCB specimen loaded through wedge and bolt namely because of the not clearly definable limiting conditions. Experiments were therefore carried out with modified DCB specimens made of ARALDIT B, with the loading wedge pressed directly into the crack mouth. In the case of suitable specimen dimensions, K I already in the initial phase of crack propagation before arrival of the first reflected waves covers a great part of the relevant range. Numerical simulations agree well with the shadow-optical measurements in this phase. A specimen variant with T-shaped extension at the counterbearing is suitable especially for crack arrest investigations, since high fracture velocities and brief crack jump lengths can be combined in tests with this specimen. The constant member in the series development of the stress distribution at the crack tip according to Williams determines the directional stability of the crack. The theories established by Cotterell, Schindler, Streit and Finnie are discussed by means of the kinking cracks observed during some experiments. (orig.) [de
Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María-José Sanzana
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. When the environmental conditions change locally, the organisms and populations may also change in response to the selection pressure, so that the development of individuals may become affected in different degrees. There have been only a few studies in which the patterns of wing morphology variation have been looked into along a latitudinal gradient by means of geometric morphometrics. The aim of this work was to assess the morphologic differentiation of wing among butterfly populations of the species Auca coctei. For this purpose, 9 sampling locations were used which are representative of the distribution range of the butterfly and cover a wide latitudinal range in Chile. The wing morphology was studied in a total of 202 specimens of A. coctei (150 males and 52 females, based on digitization of 17 morphologic landmarks. The results show variation of wing shape in both sexes; however, for the centroid size there was significant variation only in females. Females show smaller centroid size at higher latitudes, therefore in this study the Bergmann reverse rule is confirmed for females of A. coctei. Our study extends morphologic projections with latitude, suggesting that wing variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly.
Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.
Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K
2011-01-01
Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.; Devrient, B.; Roth, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.
2004-01-01
One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)
2004-07-01
One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)
Molecular motion in restricted geometries
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time ...
Advances in discrete differential geometry
2016-01-01
This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...
Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.
2013-01-01
The NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) nonlinear simulation was used to investigate the effects of errors in sensor measurements, mass properties, and aircraft geometry on the accuracy of identified parameters in mathematical models describing the flight dynamics and determined from flight data. Measurements from a typical flight condition and system identification maneuver were systematically and progressively deteriorated by introducing noise, resolution errors, and bias errors. The data were then used to estimate nondimensional stability and control derivatives within a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on these results, recommendations are provided for maximum allowable errors in sensor measurements, mass properties, and aircraft geometry to achieve desired levels of dynamic modeling accuracy. Results using additional flight conditions and parameter estimation methods, as well as a nonlinear flight simulation of the General Dynamics F-16 aircraft, were compared with these recommendations
Street Geometry Factors Influence Urban Microclimate in Tropical Coastal Cities: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shafaghat Arezou
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Urban climatologists have moved smoothly towards urban geometry meso-scales as obstruction between buildings, streets, and urban environment. Urban climatologists and designers have expressed that urban geometry parameters affect urban microclimate conditions. Improper functioning of the geometry factors, particularly air temperature and wind speed, can increase the harshness of climate change and Urban Heat Island (UHI defects, which are more critical in coastal cities of tropical regions. In this regard, the current study aimed to identify the impact of each street geometry factor on urban microclimate through a critical literature review. The research determined a total of twenty seven (27 factors within three clusters; 1 geometry factors, 2 meteorological factors, and 3 streetscape factors. The content analysis calculated the Depth of Citation (DoC which refers to the cumulative importance level of each factor. The content analysis resulted air temperature (Ta (DoC = 18 out of 28 is the most important street geometry factor that should be extensively considered in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. In contrast, the factors (such as air pollution and traffic load have received a minimum Doc (1 out of 28. The research has also analyzed the importance level of clusters through an expert input study using Grounded Group Decision Making (GGDM method. The results show that meteorological cluster (92 %, streetscape cluster (86 %, and geometry cluster (85 % have to be respectively implemented in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. The research states there are new approaches have not yet been touched by urban climatologist affecting urban microclimate; included; surface materials, sea-borne dust and sand, user’s satisfaction, user’s thermal adaptive behavior. These approaches can potentially exacerbate UHI effects in coastal cities, which need further research.
2015-12-01
ARL-SR-0347 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary...US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to...from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, C.M.
1993-01-01
The geometric structure of theories with gauge fields of spins two and higher should involve a higher spin generalisation of Riemannian geometry. Such geometries are discussed and the case of W ∝ -gravity is analysed in detail. While the gauge group for gravity in d dimensions is the diffeomorphism group of the space-time, the gauge group for a certain W-gravity theory (which is W ∝ -gravity in the case d=2) is the group of symplectic diffeomorphisms of the cotangent bundle of the space-time. Gauge transformations for W-gravity gauge fields are given by requiring the invariance of a generalised line element. Densities exist and can be constructed from the line element (generalising √detg μν ) only if d=1 or d=2, so that only for d=1,2 can actions be constructed. These two cases and the corresponding W-gravity actions are considered in detail. In d=2, the gauge group is effectively only a subgroup of the symplectic diffeomorphisms group. Some of the constraints that arise for d=2 are similar to equations arising in the study of self-dual four-dimensional geometries and can be analysed using twistor methods, allowing contact to be made with other formulations of W-gravity. While the twistor transform for self-dual spaces with one Killing vector reduces to a Legendre transform, that for two Killing vectors gives a generalisation of the Legendre transform. (orig.)
Demonstration of Laser Cutting System for Tube Specimen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, H. M.; Ahn, S. B. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated fuel cladding and components interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, it was found that the mechanical testing data of the irradiated specimens with removal of oxide layer was less reliable than the specimens with oxide layer . The laser cutting system using Nd:YAG with fiber optic beam delivery has great potential in material processing applications of the irradiated fuel cladding and components due to non-contact process. Thus, the oxide layer doesn't interrupt the fabrication process during the laser cutting system. In the present study, the laser cutting system was designed to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding with and without oxide. The feasibility of the laser cutting system was demonstrated for the fabrication of various types of unirradiated specimens. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zirlo fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer. Based on the feasibility studies and demonstration, the design of the laser cutting machine for fully or partially automatic and remotely operable system will be proposed and made.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koskinen, L.; Meling, K.
1994-11-01
The work has two aims. Firstly, it completes the numerical modelling work for the groundwater flow at the Romuvaara site in Finland performed during the preliminary site investigations by varying geometries of the most significant fracture zones. The modified fracture zone geometries are selected within the uncertainties of the structure of the bedrock model. Secondly, the work studies the effects of several potential fracture zones. The locations and geometries of these zones are decided in such a way that either they offer potential or alternative hydrogeologic connections that would explain the anomalies in the results of the earlier field investigations or their existence has been implied by geophysical studies. The field results comprise the measured hydraulic head values under the natural conditions in boreholes KR1 -KRS, and the hydraulic head responses in the pumping test. The work employs the calibrated flow model developed in the preliminary site investigations as the base case, that is modified to correspond to the alternative geometries. Before the simulations with the alternative geometries, the boundary condition for the top of the flow model is partly changed in this work in order to revoke the modification motivated by incorrect field data that were used in the calibration of the flow model. (25 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.)
Fallow), Stray
2009-01-01
Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and
Corrosion testing of uranium silicide fuel specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourns, W.T.
1968-09-01
U 3 Si is the most promising high density natural uranium fuel for water-cooled power reactors. Power reactors fuelled with this material are expected to produce cheaper electricity than those fuelled with uranium dioxide. Corrosion tests in 300 o C water preceded extensive in-reactor performance tests of fuel elements and bundles. Proper heat-treatment of U-3.9 wt% Si gives a U 3 5i specimen which corrodes at less than 2 mg/cm 2 h in 300 o C water. This is an order of magnitude lower than the maximum corrosion rate tolerable in a water-cooled reactor. U 3 Si in a defected unbonded Zircaloy-2 sheath showed only a slow uniform sheath expansion in 300 o C water. All tests were done under isothermal conditions in an out-reactor loop. (author)
Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Triendl, Hagen Mathias
2010-08-15
This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)