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Sample records for conditions controlling fungal

  1. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO......2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  2. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  3. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  4. Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensah-Attipoe, Jacob [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Saari, Sampo [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Veijalainen, Anna-Maria; Pasanen, Pertti [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Keskinen, Jorma [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Leskinen, Jari T.T. [SIB Labs, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1E, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Reponen, Tiina, E-mail: reponeta@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    on elemental composition, most fragments originated from fungi, but also fragments from growth material were detected. - Highlights: • Increased air velocity increased fragment release, but decreased F/S-ratios. • Fragments release may occur in conditions where spore release is not favorable. • Mechanical break-up of fungal structures is the main process for fragment formation. • Detection of N and P was used to differentiate the origin of fragments released.

  5. Climate Controls AM Fungal Distributions from Global to Local Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, S. N.; Hawkes, C.; Muscarella, R.; Treseder, K. K.; Kazenel, M.; Lynn, J.; Rudgers, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have key functions in terrestrial biogeochemical processes; thus, determining the relative importance of climate, edaphic factors, and plant community composition on their geographic distributions can improve predictions of their sensitivity to global change. Local adaptation by AM fungi to plant hosts, soil nutrients, and climate suggests that all of these factors may control fungal geographic distributions, but their relative importance is unknown. We created species distribution models for 142 AM fungal taxa at the global scale with data from GenBank. We compared climate variables (BioClim and soil moisture), edaphic variables (phosphorus, carbon, pH, and clay content), and plant variables using model selection on models with (1) all variables, (2) climatic variables only (including soil moisture) and (3) resource-related variables only (all other soil parameters and NPP) using the MaxEnt algorithm evaluated with ENMEval. We also evaluated whether drivers of AM fungal distributions were phylogenetically conserved. To test whether global correlates of AM fungal distributions were reflected at local scales, we then surveyed AM fungi in nine plant hosts along three elevation gradients in the Upper Gunnison Basin, Colorado, USA. At the global scale, the distributions of 55% of AM fungal taxa were affected by both climate and soil resources, whereas 16% were only affected by climate and 29% were only affected by soil resources. Even for AM fungi that were affected by both climate and resources, the effects of climatic variables nearly always outweighed those of resources. Soil moisture and isothermality were the main climatic and NPP and soil carbon the main resource related factors influencing AM fungal distributions. Distributions of closely related AM fungal taxa were similarly affected by climate, but not by resources. Local scale surveys of AM fungi across elevations confirmed that climate was a key driver of AM fungal

  6. Species associations overwhelm abiotic conditions to dictate the structure and function of wood-decay fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Daniel S; Covey, Kristofer R; Crowther, Thomas W; Sokol, Noah W; Morrison, Eric W; Frey, Serita D; van Diepen, Linda T A; Bradford, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Environmental conditions exert strong controls on the activity of saprotrophic microbes, yet abiotic factors often fail to adequately predict wood decomposition rates across broad spatial scales. Given that species interactions can have significant positive and negative effects on wood-decay fungal activity, one possibility is that biotic processes serve as the primary controls on community function, with abiotic controls emerging only after species associations are accounted for. Here we explore this hypothesis in a factorial field warming- and nitrogen-addition experiment by examining relationships among wood decomposition rates, fungal activity, and fungal community structure. We show that functional outcomes and community structure are largely unrelated to abiotic conditions, with microsite and plot-level abiotic variables explaining at most 19% of the total variability in decomposition and fungal activity, and 2% of the variability in richness and evenness. In contrast, taxonomic richness, evenness, and species associations (i.e., co-occurrence patterns) exhibited strong relationships with community function, accounting for 52% of the variation in decomposition rates and 73% in fungal activity. A greater proportion of positive vs. negative species associations in a community was linked to strong declines in decomposition rates and richness. Evenness emerged as a key mediator between richness and function, with highly even communities exhibiting a positive richness-function relationship and uneven communities exhibiting a negative or null response. These results suggest that community-assembly processes and species interactions are important controls on the function of wood-decay fungal communities, ultimately overwhelming substantial differences in abiotic conditions. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Seed treatments to control seedborne fungal pathogens of vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Valeria; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2014-06-01

    Vegetable crops are frequently infected by fungal pathogens, which can include seedborne fungi. In such cases, the pathogen is already present within or on the seed surface, and can thus cause seed rot and seedling damping-off. Treatment of vegetable seeds has been shown to prevent plant disease epidemics caused by seedborne fungal pathogens. Furthermore, seed treatments can be useful in reducing the amounts of pesticides required to manage a disease, because effective seed treatments can eliminate the need for foliar application of fungicides later in the season. Although the application of fungicides is almost always effective, their non-target environmental impact and the development of pathogen resistance have led to the search for alternative methods, especially in the past few years. Physical treatments that have already been used in the past and treatments with biopesticides, such as plant extracts, natural compounds and biocontrol agents, have proved to be effective in controlling seedborne pathogens. These have been applied alone or in combination, and they are widely used owing to their broad spectrum in terms of disease control and production yield. In this review, the effectiveness of different seed treatments against the main seedborne pathogens of some important vegetable crops is critically discussed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Comparison of methods to evaluate the fungal biomass in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyeyeme Bi Mve, Marie-Jeanne; Cloutier, Yves; Lacombe, Nancy; Lavoie, Jacques; Debia, Maximilien; Marchand, Geneviève

    2016-12-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems contain dust that can be contaminated with fungal spores (molds), which may have harmful effects on the respiratory health of the occupants of a building. HVAC cleaning is often based on visual inspection of the quantity of dust, without taking the mold content into account. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to estimate fungal contamination of dust in HVAC systems. Comparisons of different analytical methods were carried out on dust deposited in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber. Sixty samples were analyzed using four methods: culture, direct microscopic spore count (DMSC), β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) dosing and qPCR. For each method, the limit of detection, replicability, and repeatability were assessed. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the methods were also evaluated. Depending on the analytical method, mean spore concentrations per 100 cm 2 of dust ranged from 10,000 to 682,000. Limits of detection varied from 120 to 217,000 spores/100 cm 2 . Replicability and repeatability were between 1 and 15%. Pearson correlation coefficients varied from -0.217 to 0.83. The 18S qPCR showed the best sensitivity and precision, as well as the best correlation with the culture method. PCR targets only molds, and a total count of fungal DNA is obtained. Among the methods, mold DNA amplification by qPCR is the method suggested for estimating the fungal content found in dust of HVAC systems.

  9. Fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii following cataract surgery: a presumed operating room air-conditioning system contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Ahti; Raivio, Virpi; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Tommila, Petri; Ralli, Reijo; Merenmies, Lauri; Immonen, Ilkka

    2004-04-01

    To report a case of delayed fungal endophthalmitis by Paecilomyces variotii following uncomplicated cataract surgery. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of postoperative endophthalmitis by this species. We report the longterm clinical follow-up of an 83-year-old female who underwent uncomplicated sutureless, small-incision cataract surgery. She developed recurring uveitis 4 months after surgery. Vitreous tap and finally complete vitrectomy with removal of the capsular bag including the intraocular lens were performed. Fungi were studied by histopathology and culture. At histopathological examination, the fungi were found to be closely related with the capsular bag. A few mononuclear inflammatory cells were encountered. At culture, Paecilomyces variotii, a common ubiquitous non-pathogenic saprophyte, was identified. Despite systemic, intravitreal and topical antifungal therapy after vitrectomy the uveitis recurred several times, but no fungal organisms were isolated from the repeat intraocular specimen. At 18 months postoperatively the subject's visual acuity was finger counting at 2 metres. At the time of surgery the operating room air-conditioning system was undergoing repairs. Cases of fungal endophthalmitis after contamination from air-conditioning ventilation systems have been reported before, but none of the cases reported have been caused by P. variotii. P. variotii, a non-pathogenic environmental saprophyte, may be disastrous if introduced into the eye. International recommendations on the environmental control of the operating room air-conditioning ventilation system should be strictly followed. No intraoperative surgery should be undertaken while the air-conditioning system is undergoing repairs or service.

  10. Fungal diseases of tree stands under urbanized conditions of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Oksana G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytosanitary and ecological estimation of tree-stands has been con­ducted at the Forest Experimental Station of Moscow Agricultural Academy and parks of Northeast of Moscow in 2007-2011. Fomes fomentarius was proved to be a very serious pathogen of trees under conditions of Moscow, Piptoporus betulinus, Phellinus igniarius, and Fomitopsis pinicola also occurred and caused damage to trees. This rather bad phytosanitary situation depends on alarming ecological situation in Moscow. At the Forest Experimental Station of Moscow Agricultural Academy a number and cover of lichens decreased. In general, all trees in Moscow are in dynamic equilibrium with the urbanized environment. In connection with this, the following classification of tree-stands was proposed for the urbanized environment: 1 - healthy trees, 2 - affected trees which can be managed, 3 - dry woods, 3a - very diseased. Many tree-stands in investigated regions of Moscow are found to belong to the groups 2 and 3c. All tree-stands must be carefully monitored and managed in order to provide a well-timed decision on the support system for preservation of trees as ‘lungs of city’ and avoid unpredictable tree falling which put people and traffic at risk.

  11. [Airborne Fungal Aerosol Concentration and Distribution Characteristics in Air- Conditioned Wards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-ling; Feng, He-hua; Fang, Zi-liang; Wang, Ben-dong; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    The effects of airborne fungus on human health in the hospital environment are related to not only their genera and concentrations, but also their particle sizes and distribution characteristics. Moreover, the mechanisms of aerosols with different particle sizes on human health are different. Fungal samples were obtained in medicine wards of Chongqing using a six-stage sampler. The airborne fungal concentrations, genera and size distributions of all the sampling wards were investigated and identified in detail. Results showed that airborne fungal concentrations were not correlated to the diseases or personnel density, but were related to seasons, temperature, and relative humidity. The size distribution rule had roughly the same for testing wards in winter and summer. The size distributions were not related with diseases and seasons, the percentage of airborne fungal concentrations increased gradually from stage I to stage III, and then decreased dramatically from stage V to stage VI, in general, the size of airborne fungi was a normal distribution. There was no markedly difference for median diameter of airborne fungi which was less 3.19 μm in these wards. There were similar dominant genera in all wards. They were Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp and Alternaria spp. Therefore, attention should be paid to improve the filtration efficiency of particle size of 1.1-4.7 μm for air conditioning system of wards. It also should be targeted to choose appropriate antibacterial methods and equipment for daily hygiene and air conditioning system operation management.

  12. Effects of Different Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Inoculates on the Growth of Pinus tabulaeformis Seedlings under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The tree species Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. (P. tabulaeformis is commonly planted in China due to its economic and ecological value. In order to identify one or more ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal species for future P. tabulaeformis afforestation, we investigated the effects of five ECM fungal species: Laccaria laccata, Boletus edulis, Gomphidius viscidus, Suillus grevillei, and Suillus luteus on the growth of P. tabulaeformis seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The growth parameters of P. tabulaeformis seedlings were evaluated 90 days following fungal colonisation. The majority of seedlings were significantly affected by ECM inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculated seedlings were taller, had more lateral roots, and a greater biomass compared with the non-mycorrhizal (CK seedlings. With the exception of G. viscidus, inoculated seedlings exhibited higher phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen content compared with the CK seedlings. In addition, ECM colonisation increased the enzymatic activity of catalase, acidic phosphatase, protease, and the urease content in the rhizosphere soil. Our study showed that Laccaria laccata, Suillus grevillei, and Suillus luteus may be useful for improving the growth and cultivation of P. tabulaeformis seedlings. Furthermore, we observed that S. luteus inoculation increased the gas exchange parameters of P. tabulaeformis seedlings under field conditions.

  13. Combining fungal biopesticides and insecticide-treated bednets to enhance malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Penelope A

    2009-10-01

    In developing strategies to control malaria vectors, there is increased interest in biological methods that do not cause instant vector mortality, but have sublethal and lethal effects at different ages and stages in the mosquito life cycle. These techniques, particularly if integrated with other vector control interventions, may produce substantial reductions in malaria transmission due to the total effect of alterations to multiple life history parameters at relevant points in the life-cycle and transmission-cycle of the vector. To quantify this effect, an analytically tractable gonotrophic cycle model of mosquito-malaria interactions is developed that unites existing continuous and discrete feeding cycle approaches. As a case study, the combined use of fungal biopesticides and insecticide treated bednets (ITNs) is considered. Low values of the equilibrium EIR and human prevalence were obtained when fungal biopesticides and ITNs were combined, even for scenarios where each intervention acting alone had relatively little impact. The effect of the combined interventions on the equilibrium EIR was at least as strong as the multiplicative effect of both interventions. For scenarios representing difficult conditions for malaria control, due to high transmission intensity and widespread insecticide resistance, the effect of the combined interventions on the equilibrium EIR was greater than the multiplicative effect, as a result of synergistic interactions between the interventions. Fungal biopesticide application was found to be most effective when ITN coverage was high, producing significant reductions in equilibrium prevalence for low levels of biopesticide coverage. By incorporating biological mechanisms relevant to vectorial capacity, continuous-time vector population models can increase their applicability to integrated vector management.

  14. Fungal Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Fungal endocarditis is a rare and fatal condition. The Candida and Aspergillus species are the two most common etiologic fungi found responsible for fungal endocarditis. Fever and changing heart murmur are the most common clinical manifestations. Some patients may have a fever of unknown origin as the onset symptom. The diagnosis of fungal endocarditis is challenging, and diagnosis of prosthetic valve fungal endocarditis is extremely difficult. The optimum antifungal therapy still remains debatable. Treating Candida endocarditis can be difficult because the Candida species can form biofilms on native and prosthetic heart valves. Combined treatment appears superior to monotherapy. Combination of antifungal therapy and surgical debridement might bring about better prognosis.

  15. Fungal/mycotic diseases of poultry-diagnosis, treatment and control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Shambhu Dayal

    2013-12-01

    Fungal/mycotic diseases cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry either due to their direct infectious nature or due to production of mycotoxins, the secondary fungal metabolites produced in grains or poultry feed. Several fungi have created havoc in the poultry industry and some of them cause direct harm to human health due to their zoonotic implications. They are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young birds and cause stunted growth and diarrhea; and fatal encephalitis. Mycotic dermatitis is a possible health hazard associated with poultry houses. Mycotoxins are the leading cause of producing immunosuppression in birds, which makes them prone to several bacterial and viral infections leading to huge economic losses to the poultry industry. In comparison to bacterial and viral diseases, advances in diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of fungal diseases in poultry has not taken much attention. Recently, molecular biological tools have been explored for rapid and accurate diagnosis of important fungal infections. Effective prevention and control measures include: appropriate hygiene, sanitation and disinfection, strict biosecurity programme and regular surveillance/monitoring of fungal infections as well as following judicious use of anti-fungal drugs. Precautionary measures during crop production, harvesting and storing and in feed mixing plants can help to check the fungal infections including health hazards of mycotoxins/mycotoxicosis. The present review describes the fungal pathogens causing diseases in poultry/birds, especially focusing to their diagnosis, prevention and control measures, which would help in formulating appropriate strategies to have a check and control on these unwanted troubles to the poultry producers/farmers.

  16. Building and environmental factors that influence bacterial and fungal loading on air conditioning cooling coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, A; Siegel, J A; Mendell, M J; Peccia, J

    2018-05-30

    We investigated bacterial and fungal concentrations on cooling coils of commercial AC units and quantified associations between microbial loads and AC unit or building operational parameters. A field campaign was conducted to sample 25 AC units in the humid, subtropical climate of Southern CT, USA and 15 AC units in the hot-summer Mediterranean climate of Sacramento, CA, USA. Median concentrations (with interquartile range) of bacteria and fungi on the cooling coils were 1.2 × 10 7 (5.1 × 10 6 -3.9 × 10 7 ) cells/m 2 and 7.6 × 10 5 (5.6 × 10 4 -4.4 × 10 6 ) spore equivalents (SE)/m 2 , respectively. Concentrations varied among units with median unit concentrations ranging three orders of magnitude for bacteria and seven orders of magnitude for fungi. Controlled comparisons and multivariable regressions indicate that dominant factors associated with AC coil loading include the nominal efficiency of upstream filters (P = .008 for bacteria and P < .001 for fungi) and coil moisture, which was reflected in fungal loading differences between top and bottom halves of the AC coils in Southern CT (P = .05) and the dew points of the two climates considered (P = .04). Environmental and building characteristics explained 42% (P < .001) of bacterial concentration variability and 66% (P < .001) of fungal concentration variability among samples. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles to control fungal infections in indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyá, Cecilia; Bellotti, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Fungi grow especially in dark and moist areas, deteriorating the indoor environment and causing infections that particularly affect immunosuppressed individuals. Antimicrobial coatings have as principal objective to prevent biofilm formation and infections by incorporation of bioactive additives. In this sense, metallic nanoparticles, such as silver, have proven to be active against different microorganisms specially bacteria. Biosynthesized method is a promising environmentally friendly option to obtain nanoparticles. The aim of this research was assess the employment of plants extracts of Aloysia triphylla (cedrón), Laurelia sempervirens (laurel) and Ruta chalepensis (ruda) to obtain silver nanoparticles to be used as an antimicrobial additive to a waterborne coating formulation. The products obtained were assessed against fungal isolates from biodeteriorated indoor coatings. The fungi were identified by conventional and molecular techniques as Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternate. The results revealed that the coating with silver nanoparticles obtained with L. sempervirens extract at 60 °C with a size of 9.8 nm was the most efficient against fungal biofilm development.

  18. Fungal colonization of air filters for use in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R B; Crow, S A

    1995-01-01

    New and used cellulosic air filters for HVAC systems including those treated with antimicrobials were suspended in vessels with a range of relative humidities (55-99%) and containing non-sterile potting soil which stimulates fungal growth. Most filters yielded fungi prior to suspension in the chambers but only two of 14 nontreated filters demonstrated fungal colonization following use in HVAC systems. Filters treated with antimicrobials, particularly a phosphated amine complex, demonstrated markedly less fungal colonization than nontreated filters. In comparison with nontreated cellulosic filters, fungal colonization of antimicrobial-treated cellulosic filters was selective and delayed.

  19. Reactivity of bacterial and fungal laccases with lignin under alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Raquel; Saastamoinen, Päivi; Hernández, Manuel; Suurnäkki, Anna; Arias, Enriqueta; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa

    2011-11-01

    The ability of Streptomyces ipomoea laccase to polymerize secoisolariciresinol lignan and technical lignins was assessed. The reactivity of S. ipomoea laccase was also compared to that of low redox fungal laccase from Melanocarpus albomyces using low molecular mass p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acid as well as natural (acetosyringone) and synthetic 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) mediators as substrates. Oxygen consumption measurement, MALDI-TOF MS and SEC were used to follow the enzymatic reactions at pH 7, 8, 9 and 10 at 30°C and 50°C. Polymerization of lignins and lignan by S. ipomoea laccase under alkaline reaction conditions was observed, and was enhanced in the presence of acetosyringone almost to the level obtained with M. albomyces laccase without mediator. Reactivities of the enzymes towards acetosyringone and TEMPO were similar, suggesting exploitation of the compounds and low redox laccase in lignin valorization under alkaline conditions. The results have scientific impact on basic research of laccases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of defined mixed-culture fungal fermentation starter granulate for controlled production of rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    As a first step in the development of defined fungal starter granules for controlled winemaking from purple glutinous rice, the interaction of moulds and yeasts isolated from Vietnamese rice wine starters and the effect of some representative oriental herbs on the growth of moulds and yeasts were

  1. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  2. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Albaek, Mads O; Cassells, Benny; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-07-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes with four different sets of process operating conditions for the stirrer speed, headspace pressure, and aeration rate. The start fills were tested with eight pilot scale experiments using a reference process operation. An on-line control strategy was then developed, utilizing the mechanistic model which is recursively updated using on-line measurements. The model was applied in order to predict the current system states, including the biomass concentration, and to simulate the expected future trajectory of the system until a specified end time. In this way, the desired feed rate is updated along the progress of the batch taking into account the oxygen mass transfer conditions and the expected future trajectory of the mass. The final results show that the target fill was achieved to within 5% under the maximum fill when tested using eight pilot scale batches, and over filling was avoided. The results were reproducible, unlike the reference experiments which show over 10% variation in the final tank fill, and this also includes over filling. The variance of the final tank fill is

  3. Controlling fungal biofilms with functional drug delivery denture biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianchuan; Jiang, Fuguang; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Sun, Yuyu

    2016-04-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS), caused by colonization and biofilm-formation of Candida species on denture surfaces, is a significant clinical concern. We show here that modification of conventional denture materials with functional groups can significantly increase drug binding capacity and control drug release rate of the resulting denture materials for potentially managing CADS. In our approach, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based denture resins were surface grafted with three kinds of polymers, poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) (PNVP), poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), through plasma-initiated grafting polymerization. With a grafting yield as low as 2 wt%, the three classes of new functionalized denture materials showed significantly higher drug binding capacities toward miconazole, a widely used antifungal drug, than the original PMMA denture resin control, leading to sustained drug release and potent biofilm-controlling effects against Candida. Among the three classes of functionalized denture materials, PNVP-grafted resin provided the highest miconazole binding capability and the most powerful antifungal and biofilm-controlling activities. Drug binding mechanisms were studied. These results demonstrated the importance of specific interactions between drug molecules and functional groups on biomaterials, shedding lights on future design of CADS-managing denture materials and other related devices for controlled drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial control of Asian longhorned beetles - what are fungal bands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann E. Hajek; Thomas Dubois; Jennifer Lund; Ryan Shanley; Leah Bauer; Michael Smith; Peng Fan; Huang Bo; Hu Jiafu; Zengzhi Li

    2007-01-01

    In Japan, the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii is grown in nonwoven fiber bands that are placed around trunks of orchard trees for control of numerous cerambycid pests, including Anoplophora chinensis (= A. malasiaca). The Japanese company producing bands, Nitto Denko in Osaka, markets bands...

  5. Biomimicry of volatile-based microbial control for managing emerging fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, K T; Joseph Sexton, D; Cornelison, C T

    2018-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be produced by a wide range of micro-organisms and for a number of purposes. Volatile-based microbial inhibition in environments such as soil is well-founded, with numerous antimicrobial VOCs having been identified. Inhibitory VOCs are of interest as microbial control agents, as low concentrations of gaseous VOCs can elicit significant antimicrobial effects. Volatile organic compounds are organic chemicals typically characterized as having low molecular weight, low solubility in water, and high vapour pressure. Consequently, VOCs readily evaporate to the gaseous phase at standard temperature and pressure. This contact-independent antagonism presents unique advantages over traditional, contact-dependent microbial control methods, including increased surface exposure and reduced environmental persistence. This approach has been the focus of our recent research, with positive results suggesting it may be particularly promising for the management of emerging fungal pathogens, such as the causative agents of white-nose syndrome of bats and snake fungal disease, which are difficult or impossible to treat using traditional approaches. Here, we review the history of volatile-based microbial control, discuss recent progress in formulations that mimic naturally antagonistic VOCs, outline the development of a novel treatment device, and highlight areas where further work is needed to successfully deploy VOCs against existing and emerging fungal pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Methods of Controlling Invasive Fungal Infections Using CD8+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappanaicken R. Kumaresan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections (IFIs cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Pattern-recognition receptors present on the surfaces of innate immune cells recognize fungal pathogens and activate the first line of defense against fungal infection. The second line of defense is the adaptive immune system which involves mainly CD4+ T cells, while CD8+ T cells also play a role. CD8+ T cell-based vaccines designed to prevent IFIs are currently being investigated in clinical trials, their use could play an especially important role in acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. So far, none of the vaccines used to treat IFI have been approved by the FDA. Here, we review current and future antifungal immunotherapy strategies involving CD8+ T cells. We highlight recent advances in the use of T cells engineered using a Sleeping Beauty vector to treat IFIs. Recent clinical trials using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T-cell therapy to treat patients with leukemia have shown very promising results. We hypothesized that CAR T cells could also be used to control IFI. Therefore, we designed a CAR that targets β-glucan, a sugar molecule found in most of the fungal cell walls, using the extracellular domain of Dectin-1, which binds to β-glucan. Mice treated with D-CAR+ T cells displayed reductions in hyphal growth of Aspergillus compared to the untreated group. Patients suffering from IFIs due to primary immunodeficiency, secondary immunodeficiency (e.g., HIV, or hematopoietic transplant patients may benefit from bioengineered CAR T cell therapy.

  7. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial and fungal biomass and carbon dioxide production in Louisiana coastal swamp forest sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal and bacterial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production/emission was determined under a range of redox conditions in sediment from a Louisiana swamp forest used for wastewater treatment. Sediment was incubated in microcosms at 6 Eh levels (-200, -100, 0, + 100, + 250 and + 400 mV) covering the anaerobic range found in wetland soil and sediment. Carbon dioxide production was determined by the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) inhibition method. Cycloheximide (C 15 H 23 NO 4 ) was used as the fungal inhibitor and streptomycin (C 21 H 39 N 7 O 12 ) as the bacterial inhibitor. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh > + 250 mV), fungi contributed more than bacteria to the CO 2 production. Under highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), bacteria contributed more than fungi to the total CO 2 production. The fungi/bacteria (F/B) ratios varied between 0.71-1.16 for microbial biomass C, and 0.54-0.94 for microbial biomass N. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the F/B ratios for microbial biomass C and N were higher than that for highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV). In moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 13.54-14.26) was slightly higher than for bacteria (C/N: 9.61-12.07). Under highly reducing redox conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 10.79-12.41) was higher than for bacteria (C/N: 8.21-9.14). For bacteria and fungi, the C/N microbial biomass ratios under moderately reducing conditions were higher than that in highly reducing conditions. Fungal CO 2 production from swamp forest could be of greater ecological significance under moderately reducing sediment conditions contributing to the greenhouse effect (GHE) and the global warming potential (GWP). However, increases in coastal submergence associated with global sea level rise and resultant decrease in sediment redox potential from increased flooding would likely shift CO 2 production to bacteria

  8. Diversity of endophytic fungal and bacterial communities in Ilex paraguariensis grown under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Laura; Collavino, Mónica Mariana; Sansberro, Pedro Alfonso; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Galdeano, Ernestina

    2016-04-01

    The composition and diversity of the endophytic community associated with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) was investigated using culture-depending methods. Fungi were identified based on their micromorphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis; for bacteria 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used. Fungal and bacterial diversity did not show significant differences between organ age. The highest fungal diversity was registered during fall season and the lowest in winter. Bacterial diversity was higher in stems and increased from summer to winter, in contrast with leaves, which decreased. The most frequently isolated fungus was Fusarium, followed by Colletotrichum; they were both present in all the sampling seasons and organ types assayed. Actinobacteria represented 57.5 % of all bacterial isolates. The most dominant bacterial taxa were Curtobacterium and Microbacterium. Other bacteria frequently found were Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, Herbiconiux and Bacillus. Nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization activity, ACC deaminase production and antagonism against plant fungal pathogens were assayed in endophytic bacterial strains. In the case of fungi, strains of Trichoderma, Penicillium and Aspergillus were assayed for antagonism against pathogenic Fusarium sp. All microbial isolates assayed showed at least one growth promoting activity. Strains of Bacillus, Pantoea, Curtobacterium, Methylobacterium, Brevundimonas and Paenibacillus had at least two growth-promoting activities, and Bacillus, Paenibacillus and the three endophytic fungi showed high antagonistic activity against Fusarium sp. In this work we have made a wide study of the culturable endophytic community within yerba mate plants and found that several microbial isolates could be considered as potential inoculants useful for improving yerba mate production.

  9. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albaek, Mads O.

    2017-01-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved...... is recursively updated using on-line measurements. The model was applied in order to predict the current system states, including the biomass concentration, and to simulate the expected future trajectory of the system until a specified end time. In this way, the desired feed rate is updated along the progress...

  10. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adam

    Full Text Available The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such "multi-purpose" bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses.

  11. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed; Heuer, Holger; Hallmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such "multi-purpose" bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses.

  12. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Linnakoski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce (Picea abies is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. It is commonly infected by the fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, and we hypothesized that damage caused to trees will increase under future climate change predictions. To test this hypothesis an in vivo greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a changed growing environment on E. polonica infected Norway spruce seedlings, comparing ambient conditions to predicted temperatures and CO2 levels in Finland for the years 2030 and 2100. In total, 450 seedlings were randomized amongst the three treatments, with 25 seedlings from each allocated to inoculation with one of five different fungal strains or mock-inoculation. Seedlings were monitored throughout the thermal growing season for mortality, and lesion length and depth indices were measured at the experiment conclusion. Disease severity (mortality and lesions was consistently greater in fungal-inoculated than mock-inoculated seedlings. However, substantial differences were observed among fungal strains in response to climate scenarios. For example, although overall seedling mortality was highest under the most distant (and severe climate change expectations, of the two fungal strains with the highest mortality counts (referred to as F4 and F5, one produced greater mortality under the 2030 and 2100 scenarios than ambient conditions, whereas climate scenario had no effect on the other. This study contributes

  13. Relationship between fungal contamination and ergosterol content and control of wheat grain spoilage by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.M.; Mahrous, S.R.; Aziz, N.H.; El-Zeany, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The fungal flora and the ergosterol content of wheat grains were determined and the effect of gamma-irradiation on some important grain fungi to control mould spoilage of wheat grains was also investigated. At the start of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of wheat grains were 3.3μg/g and 3x10 3 /g, respectively and the technological values as germinative capacity and fat acidity were wholly satisfactory. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of the grains were 45.5 μg/g and 80x10 5 /g, respectively and all the germinative capacity and fat acidity values were not satisfactory. The ergosterol content of wheat grains irradiated at a dose level 3 kGy was 0.5 μg/g and the number of moulds were 8x10 2 /g. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content of the 3 kGy irradiated grains was 0.90 μg/g and the number of moulds were 15x10 2 /g and all the technological values were satisfactory. The fungal biomass and the ergosterol content of some grains fungi were decreased by increasing the irradiation dose levels. At irradiation dose level 4 kGy, there was no ergosterol in wheat grains and the moulds were completely inhibited and the technological values are wholly satisfactory over 50 days of storage

  14. Characterization and control of fungal morphology for improved production performance in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Rainer; Wucherpfennig, Thomas; Esfandabadi, Manely Eslahpazir; Walisko, Robert; Melzer, Guido; Hempel, Dietmar C; Kampen, Ingo; Kwade, Arno; Wittmann, Christoph

    2013-01-20

    Filamentous fungi have been widely applied in industrial biotechnology for many decades. In submerged culture processes, they typically exhibit a complex morphological life cycle that is related to production performance--a link that is of high interest for process optimization. The fungal forms can vary from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia. The resulting morphology has been shown to be influenced strongly by process parameters, including power input through stirring and aeration, mass transfer characteristics, pH value, osmolality and the presence of solid micro-particles. The surface properties of fungal spores and hyphae also play a role. Due to their high industrial relevance, the past years have seen a substantial development of tools and techniques to characterize the growth of fungi and obtain quantitative estimates on their morphological properties. Based on the novel insights available from such studies, more recent studies have been aimed at the precise control of morphology, i.e., morphology engineering, to produce superior bio-processes with filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrient demand and fungal access to resources control the carbon allocation to the symbiotic partners in tripartite interactions of Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Arjun; Garcia, Kevin; Wang, Xiurong; Pfeffer, Philip E; Strahan, Gary D; Bücking, Heike

    2018-06-02

    Legumes form tripartite interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobia, and both root symbionts exchange nutrients against carbon from their host. The carbon costs of these interactions are substantial, but our current understanding of how the host controls its carbon allocation to individual root symbionts is limited. We examined nutrient uptake and carbon allocation in tripartite interactions of Medicago truncatula under different nutrient supply conditions, and when the fungal partner had access to nitrogen, and followed the gene expression of several plant transporters of the SUT and SWEET family. Tripartite interactions led to synergistic growth responses and stimulated the phosphate and nitrogen uptake of the plant. Plant nutrient demand but also fungal access to nutrients played an important role for the carbon transport to different root symbionts, and the plant allocated more carbon to rhizobia under nitrogen demand, but more carbon to the fungal partner when nitrogen was available. These changes in carbon allocation were consistent with changes in the SUT and SWEET expression. Our study provides important insights into how the host plant controls its carbon allocation under different nutrient supply conditions and changes its carbon allocation to different root symbionts to maximize its symbiotic benefits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Upgrading the antioxidant potential of cereals by their fungal fermentation under solid-state cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja Dey, T; Kuhad, R C

    2014-11-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) at 30°C for 72 h with four generally recognized as safe (GRAS) filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 1212, Aspergillus awamori MTCC No. 548, Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215 and Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012) showed high efficiency for the improvement of water-soluble total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant properties including ABTS(●+) [2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] and DPPH(●) (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging capacities of four whole grain cereals, namely wheat, brown rice, maize and oat. A maximum 14-fold improvement in TPC (11·61 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) grain) was observed in A. oryzae fermented wheat, while extract of R. oryzae fermented wheat (ROFW) showed maximum of 6·6-fold and fivefold enhancement of DPPH(●) scavenging property (8·54 μmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) grain) and ABTS(●+) scavenging activity (19·5 μmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) grain), respectively. The study demonstrates that SSF is an efficient method for the improvement of antioxidant potentials of cereals and R. oryzae RCK2012 fermented wheat can be a powerful source of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant-rich food products are getting popularity day by day. In this study, potential of solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been studied for the improvement of antioxidant potential of different cereals by GRAS micro-organisms. The comparative evaluation of the antioxidant potential of various fungal fermented products derived from whole grain cereals, such as wheat, brown rice, oat and maize, has been carried out. Among these, Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012-fermented wheat was observed as a potent source of natural antioxidants. A diet containing fermented cereals would be useful for the prevention of free radical-mediated diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Physical Conditions Regulate the Fungal to Bacterial Ratios of a Tropical Suspended Soil

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    Julian Donald

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a source of ‘suspended soils’, epiphytes contribute large amounts of organic matter to the canopy of tropical rain forests. Microbes associated with epiphytes are responsible for much of the nutrient cycling taking place in rain forest canopies. However, soils suspended far above the ground in living organisms differ from soil on the forest floor, and traditional predictors of soil microbial community composition and functioning (nutrient availability and the activity of soil organisms are likely to be less important. We conducted an experiment in the rain forest biome at the Eden Project in the U.K. to explore how biotic and abiotic conditions determine microbial community composition and functioning in a suspended soil. To simulate their natural epiphytic lifestyle, bird’s nest ferns (Asplenium nidus were placed on a custom-built canopy platform suspended 8 m above the ground. Ammonium nitrate and earthworm treatments were applied to ferns in a factorial design. Extracellular enzyme activity and Phospholipid Fatty Acid (PLFA profiles were determined at zero, three and six months. We observed no significant differences in either enzyme activity or PLFA profiles between any of the treatments. Instead, we observed decreases in β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activity, and an increase in phenol oxidase activity across all treatments and controls over time. An increase in the relative abundance of fungi during the experiment meant that the microbial communities in the Eden Project ferns after six months were comparable with ferns sampled from primary tropical rain forest in Borneo.

  18. Evaluation of Antagonistic of the some Fungal isolates on Golden Potato Cyst Nematode (Globoderarostochiensis in vitro and Greenhouse Conditions in Hamedan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Abbasi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Potato (Solanumtuberosum is one of the most important crops used as a source of human food. Iran is the third-largest producer of potato in Asia, where the production rate in 2015 was estimated to be about 5 million tonnes. Potato producers inHamedan province produce 21.3% oftotal potato harvestedinIran. Golden potato cyst nematode, Globoderarostochiensis is the most destructive potato pathogen. As the chitin is a dominant composition in middle layer of the eggshell, using the chitinases produced as chitin-degrading enzymes in a wide range of fungiis a good strategy for biological control of the golden potato cyst nematode. We assessedthe ability of various antagonistic fungi to control Globoderarostochiensisunder in vitro and greenhouse conditions. Materials and Methods: Thirty four fungal isolates obtained from infected eggs of the potato cyst nematode, Globoderarostochiensisin potato fieldsofHamedan were evaluated in two chitin-agar and water-agar mediums under in vitro and greenhouse conditions.The ability of thechitinase enzyme production was assessedin chitin-agar medium with colloidal chitin as substrate, so the chitin was used as exclusive source of carbon.Colloidal chitin was prepared based onthe procedure of Seyedasliet al. (2004 with 10 g of powder chitin from practical-grade crab shell chitin (Sigma in 100 ml of 85% H3PO4. Water was added to the above mixtureand was filtered with cheese cloth. To completely remove acid, water addition and filtrationrepeated for several times. The produced unguent materialwas dried and powdered and then used as carbon source in the medium. 0.5 percent of colloidal chitin was added to the medium. Afterwards, a 5 mm disk from the edges of 5days old was placed in the center of Petridish and all of them were kept for 5 days at 25º C. Chitinase detection medium (chitin-agar was directly supplemented with colloidal chitin (5 g/l and bromocresol purple (0.15 g/l. The ability of antagonistic

  19. Relative Abundance in Bacterial and Fungal Gut Microbes in Obese Children: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Alessandra; Lassandro, Carlotta; Riva, Enrica; Morace, Giulia; Borghi, Elisa

    2017-02-01

    Differences in relative proportions of gut microbial communities in adults have been correlated with intestinal diseases and obesity. In this study we evaluated the gut microbiota biodiversity, both bacterial and fungal, in obese and normal-weight school-aged children. We studied 28 obese (mean age 10.03 ± 0.68) and 33 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children. BMI z-scores were calculated, and the obesity condition was defined according to the WHO criteria. Fecal samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA amplification followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to quantify the most representative microbial species and genera. DGGE profiles showed high bacterial biodiversity without significant correlations with BMI z-score groups. Compared to bacterial profiles, we observed lower richness in yeast species. Sequence of the most representative bands gave back Eubacterium rectale, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and C. glabrata as present in all samples. Debaryomyces hansenii was present only in two obese children. Obese children revealed a significantly lower abundance in Akkermansia muciniphyla, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides/Prevotella group, Candida spp., and Saccharomyces spp. (P = 0.031, P = 0.044, P = 0.003, P = 0.047, and P = 0.034, respectively). Taking into account the complexity of obesity, our data suggest that differences in relative abundance of some core microbial species, preexisting or diet driven, could actively be part of its etiology. This study improved our knowledge about the fungal population in the pediatric school-age population and highlighted the need to consider the influence of cross-kingdom relationships.

  20. Strain Identity of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor Is More Important than Richness in Regulating Plant and Fungal Performance under Nutrient Rich Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hazard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biodiversity on productivity are more likely to be expressed when there is greater potential for niche complementarity. In soil, chemically complex pools of nutrient resources should provide more opportunities for niche complementarity than chemically simple pools. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal genotypes can exhibit substantial variation in nutrient acquisition traits and are key components of soil biodiversity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increasing the chemical complexity and forms of soil nutrients would enhance the effects of intraspecific ECM diversity on host plant and fungal productivity. In pure culture, we found substantial variation in growth of strains of the ECM fungus Laccaria bicolor on a range of inorganic and organic forms of nutrients. Subsequent experiments examined the effects of intraspecific identity and richness using Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris seedlings colonized with different strains of L. bicolor growing on substrates supplemented with either inorganic or organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Intraspecific identity effects on plant productivity were only found under the inorganic nutrient amendment, whereas intraspecific identity affected fungal productivity to a similar extent under both nutrient treatments. Overall, there were no significant effects of intraspecific richness on plant and fungal productivity. Our findings suggest soil nutrient composition does not interact strongly with ECM intraspecific richness, at least under experimental conditions where mineral nutrients were not limiting. Under these conditions, intraspecific identity of ECM fungi becomes more important than richness in modulating plant and fungal performance.

  1. Plant Signals Disrupt (regulate?) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Growth Under Enhanced Ozone and CO2 Growing Conditions for Populus tremuloides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. M.; Podila, G. K.

    2008-12-01

    An understanding of the genetic determinants of keystone symbiotic relationships is essential to elucidating adaptive mechanisms influencing higher-order processes, including shifts in community composition following environmental perturbations. The Aspen FACE project offers a unique opportunity to address adaptive processes with an imposed three way interaction experiment composed of the atmospheric pollutant ozone (eO3), elevated CO2 (eCO2) fumigations, five Populus tremuloides (aspen) genotypes, and both arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungal interactions. The 10 year time span of this experiment has allowed for a realistic and mechanistic understanding of above ground responses of the aspen genotypes to eCO2, eO3 and the interaction effects of eCO2 and eO3. Even so, treatment influences to the below ground, including carbon allocation to roots and associated mycorrhizal symbionts, and rhizosphere dynamics are just beginning to be understood. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal responses to eCO2, eO3, and the interaction effects of eCO2+eO3 are conditioned by the degree of response of their aspen hosts. We intend to describe the molecular mechanisms of an important critical interaction between host and fungus using microarray analysis of expression profiles, as well as metabolic profiling of aspen roots and their associated mycorrhizal partner, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices, under eCO2, eO3 and eCO2+eO3. We present evidence that host-derived factors, expressed in response to eCO2+eO3, trigger responses in Glomus leading to the partitioning or metabolic shift in lipid biosynthesis that is associated with reduced extraradical hyphae growth and altered lipid metabolism. We then scale these lower-level responses to give better insight to fungal intraradical and extraradical allocation of biomass and fungal and root lipid and carbohydrate content in association with aspen genotype responses to the imposed treatments. By

  2. Light-regulated promoters for tunable, temporal, and affordable control of fungal gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kevin K; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J

    2018-05-01

    Regulatable promoters are important genetic tools, particularly for assigning function to essential and redundant genes. They can also be used to control the expression of enzymes that influence metabolic flux or protein secretion, thereby optimizing product yield in bioindustry. This review will focus on regulatable systems for use in filamentous fungi, an important group of organisms whose members include key research models, devastating pathogens of plants and animals, and exploitable cell factories. Though we will begin by cataloging those promoters that are controlled by nutritional or chemical means, our primary focus will rest on those who can be controlled by a literal flip-of-the-switch: promoters of light-regulated genes. The vvd promoter of Neurospora will first serve as a paradigm for how light-driven systems can provide tight, robust, tunable, and temporal control of either autologous or heterologous fungal proteins. We will then discuss a theoretical approach to, and practical considerations for, the development of such promoters in other species. To this end, we have compiled genes from six previously published light-regulated transcriptomic studies to guide the search for suitable photoregulatable promoters in your fungus of interest.

  3. Impact of sowing time, hybrid and environmental conditions on the contamination of maize by emerging mycotoxins and fungal metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Blandino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites represent the most insidious safety risks to cereal food and the feed chain. Optimising agronomic practices is one of the main strategies adopted to minimise the contents of these undesirable substances in grain-based commodities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of sowing times and hybrids on the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins and fungal metabolites in maize. Field experiments were carried out in 2 sowing times (early vs late and 3 maize hybrids were compared in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Overall, 37 fungal metabolites produced by Fusarium and Alternaria species were detected. Apart from fumonisins type B (FBs, other metabolites produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, such as fumonisins type A, fusaric acid, bikaverin and fusaproliferin, were also detected in all of the samples. Fusarin C was found in 61% of the samples. Deoxynivalenol (DON, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, culmorin and zearalenone, all of which are produced prevalently by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, were found in all the samples. Their contents were clearly affected by the meteorological trend: the highest contamination was detected in the 2014 growing season, which was characterised by abundant rainfall and lower temperatures from flowering to maize ripening. Among the mycotoxins produced by other Fusarium species, aurofusarin was found to clearly be associated with DON, while moniliformin and beauvericin followed the same behaviour as the FBs. A late sowing time significantly increased the FBs and fumonisin- associated mycotoxins in both growing seasons. The increase in contamination with the delay of sowing was more pronounced in the 2015 growing season, as the environmental conditions were less favourable to the infection of other Fusarium species. The effect of sowing time on DON and DON-associated mycotoxins produced conflicting results for the two growing

  4. Identification of Biocontrol Agents to Control the Fungal Pathogen, Geomyces destructans, in Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, S.; Cheng, T.

    2013-12-01

    The fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) causes the disease White-nose Syndrome (WNS) in bats and is estimated to have killed millions of bats since its emergence in North America in 2006. Gd is predicted to cause the local extinction of at least three bat species if rates of decline continue unabated. Given the devastating impacts of Gd to bat populations, identifying a viable method for controlling the pathogen is pertinent for conservation of affected bat species. Our work focuses on identifying naturally-occurring skin bacteria on bats that are antagonistic to Gd that could potentially be used as a biocontrol. We cultured bacteria from skin swabs taken from wild bats (Myotis lucifugus, Eptesicus fuscus, Myotis sodalis, Perimyotis subflavus). We conducted challenge experiments to identify bacterial strains that inhibited Gd growth. Bacteria that exhibited antifungal properties were identified using 16S and gyrB markers. Our methods identified several bacteria in the Pseudomonas fluorescens complex as potential biocontrol agents. Future work will continue to test the viability of these bacteria as biocontrol agents via experimental treatments with live captive bats. The failure of previous non-biocontrol methods highlights the importance of developing these bacteria as a biologically-friendly method for controlling Gd. A bat infected with Geomyces destructans. Photo by West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Bacterial culture from the swab of a bat's wings

  5. Effectiveness of some substances in the control of carrot and parsley roots against fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out in the years 2005 and 2006 on carrot cv. 'Koral' and 'Perfekcja', and parsley cv. 'Berlinska' and 'Cukrowa'. Effectiveness of substances: Biochikol 020 PC (biologically active substances BAS--chitosan 20 g/dm3), Bioczos BR (extract of garlic 10 g/1 brick) and Biosept 33 SL (extract of grapefruit 33%) on seedling roots of carrot and parsley was studied. As the standard fungicide Zaprawa Funaben T (carbendazim 20% + tiuram 45%) was used. Roots of carrot and parsley were treated one of tested substances spring immediately before planting seedling roots. During vegetation period the growth of seedling shoots and setting of seeds, and their infestation by fungal and bacterial pathogens was noticed. Among substances used for spring dressing of carrot and also parsley seedling roots, the best efficacy exhibited Zaprawa Funaben T in both years of observation. The highest yield of carrot seeds had combination roots cv. 'Koral' and parsley seeds roots cvs 'Berlińska' and 'Cukrowa' dressed Zaprawa Funaben T. Effectiveness of biopreparates Biochikol and Biosept was lower in comparison with the standard fungicide, but their protective effect was significantly higher than in control. Bioczos had the lowest control efficacy.

  6. Exploring polyamine metabolism of Alternaria alternata to target new substances to control the fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiarte, N; Crespo-Sempere, A; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2017-08-01

    Polyamines are essential for all living organisms as they are involved in several vital cell functions. The biosynthetic pathway of polyamines and its regulation is well established and, in this sense, the ornithine descarboxylase (ODC) enzyme acts as one of the controlling factors of the entire pathway. In this work we assessed the inhibition of the ODC with D, l-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on Alternaria alternata and we observed that fungal growth and mycotoxin production were reduced. This inhibition was not completely restored by the addition of exogenous putrescine. Actually, increasing concentrations of putrescine on the growth media negatively affected mycotoxin production, which was corroborated by the downregulation of pksJ and altR, both genes involved in mycotoxin biosynthesis. We also studied the polyamine metabolism of A. alternata with the goal of finding new targets that compromise its growth and its mycotoxin production capacity. In this sense, we tested two different polyamine analogs, AMXT-2455 and AMXT-3016, and we observed that they partially controlled A. alternata's viability in vitro and in vivo using tomato plants. Finding strategies to design new fungicide substances is becoming a matter of interest as resistance problems are emerging. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on color stability of fungal pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Machado, Diederich; Morales-Oyervides, Lourdes; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Aguilar, Cristóbal; Méndez-Zavala, Alejandro; Raso, Javier; Montañez, Julio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on the color stability of a red pigment extract produced by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2 suspended in a buffer solution (pH 6) and in a beverage model system (pH 4). Color stability of pigmented extract was evaluated in the range of 60-90 ℃. The degradation pattern of pigments was well described by the first-order (fractional conversion) and Bigelow model. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.009 and 0.088 min -1 in systems evaluated. Significant differences in the rate constant values of the ohmic heating-treated samples in comparison with conventional thermal treatment suggested a possible effect of the oscillating electric field generated during ohmic heating. The thermodynamic analysis also indicated differences in the color degradation mechanism during ohmic heating specifically when the pigment was suspended in the beverage model system. In general, red pigments produced by P. purpurogenum GH2 presented good thermal stability under the range of the evaluated experimental conditions, showing potential future applications in pasteurized food matrices using ohmic heating treatment.

  8. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  9. Conditional control in visual selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, Wieske; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Donk, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Attention and eye movements provide a window into the selective processing of visual information. Evidence suggests that selection is influenced by various factors and is not always under the strategic control of the observer. The aims of this tutorial review are to give a brief introduction to eye

  10. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiatou Ba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain. The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91% and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%. Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize.

  11. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  12. Impact of different cropping conditions and tillage practices on the soil fungal abundance of a Phaeozem luvico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, R.P.; Aulicino, M.B.; Mónaco, C.I.; Kripelz, N.; Cordo, C.A.

    2015-07-01

    Fungal diversity seems to be a good indicator of ecosystem disturbance and functioning. The purpose of this work was to quantify the fungal population as a sensitive indicator of the changes caused by stubble placement in two tillage systems: reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) with and without cropping. To this end, we determined the effect of soil disturbances such as N fertilization, tillage practice, and cropped area on the soil fungal communities of a Phaeozem luvico of the El Salado river basin (Argentina). Soil samples (at 0-10 cm depth) were collected from a field cultivated with wheat at post-harvest, before sowing and at tillering. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was studied on Nash Snyder and Oxgall agar media after different treatments and assessed as colony forming units (CFU/gof soil). The diversity of the fungal population was studied by Shannon´s index (H). The tillage system showed a marked effect only at post-harvest and the number of propagules was highest under RT for both culture media. The largest values of H were found only at post-harvest when Oxgall agar was used. A significant decrease in the values of H was observed when CT and high fertilization was applied in the wheat cropped area. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was different in soils under the different tillage practices. (Author)

  13. Capability of pentavalent arsenic bioaccumulation and biovolatilization of three fungal strains under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Shiming; Li, Lianfang; Bai, Lingyu; Zhang, Yanrong [Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment and Climate Change, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China); Jiang, Xiliang [Key Laboratory for Biological Control, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China); Zeng, Xibai

    2010-03-15

    In order to control and remediate arsenic (As) contaminated soil, sediment or water, fungi are used to investigate their potential accumulation and volatilization of As. In this study, after cultivation for 2 days, the dry weights of mycelia for Trichoderma asperellum, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium janthinellum all show an increased trend when the As(V) concentration ranges from 0-50, 0-50, 0-80 mg/L, respectively. When the culture system is loaded with 2500 {mu}g As(V), which represents 50 mg/L As, and cultivated for 5 days, P. janthinellum presents the highest efficiency of 87.0 {mu}g/g for As bioaccumulation, and the order of the efficiency for As bioaccumulation is P. janthinellum > T. asperellum > F. oxysporum. However, the order of the amount of volatilized As is F. oxysporum > P. janthinellum > T. asperellum, and the highest amount of volatilized As is observed for F. oxysporum at 181.0 {mu}g. Thus, the ability of As bioaccumulation and biovolatilization for T. asperellum and P. janthinellum is reported for the first time in this study. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  15. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewska B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr Wąż,4 Małgorzata Myśliwiec3 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068, duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787, or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432 and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823, systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483, or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345.Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1

  16. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some fungal control agents on the greasy cut- worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EL- Wahed, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    attention by scientists for their potential for biological control of pests. Some insect pathogenic fungi have restricted host ranges while other fungal species have a wide host range for example, Beauveria bassiana ,Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Many researchers have focused on the selection of virulent strains for target pests and their development as biological control agents.

  17. Top-down control of soil fungal community composition by a globally distributed keystone consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crowther, T. W.; Stanton, D.G.W.; Thomas, S.M.; A'Bear, A.D.; Hiscox, J.; Jones, T.H.; Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr; Boddy, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 11 (2013), s. 2518-2528 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : decomposition * fungal energy channel * keystone species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.000, year: 2013

  18. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  19. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  20. Influence of gamma-rays and some cultural conditions on the enhancement of cellulase production by some fungal strains isolated from cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N.H.; Abo-State, M.A.; Girigs, A.M.P.; Youssef, Kh.A.; El-Mahalawy, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, out of 51 fungal strains isolated from the cellulosic wastes, only 19 were CMCase-producers. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were the most common fungal genera isolated from the cellulosic wastes. Fusarium neoceras, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporium produced CMCase activity than Trichoderma viride. Out of 23 gamma-irradiated survivors from A.fumigatus and F. neoceras showing CMCase production, only two mutant strains A.fumigatus 8G-2 and F. neoceras 4G-2 produced the highest levels of CMCase than the parent strains. The results indicated that the maximum level of of CMCase activity was produced by A.fumigatus and F. neoceras strains under optiminizing conditions.

  1. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucedo-Lucero, J.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Quijano, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Arriaga, S. [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Muñoz, R., E-mail: mutora@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • A fungal biofilter/photoreactor was evaluated in terms of hexane and spore removal. • Biofilter supported elimination capacities of ≈35 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and CO{sub 2} yields of ≈75%. • The photocatalytic process slightly boosted the hexane abatement performance. • Biofilter emitted fungal spores at concentrations of 2.4 × 10{sup 3}–9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. • Photo-assisted post-treatments resulted in spore deactivation efficiencies of 98%. - Abstract: The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14 min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115 ± 5 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30–40 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60–90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48 h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4 × 10{sup 3} to 9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of

  2. IRIDOID GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA GENISTIFOLIA (L. MILL. IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF SOIL-BORNE FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF WHEAT AND SOME STRUCTURE CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of the iridoid glycosides extract from Linaria genistifolia (L. Mill. has been investigated, namely its influence on the resistance of the winter wheat Odesschi 51 plant to the caused by the Fusarium oxysporum and Helminthosporium avenae pathogenic fungi root rot. Our results indicate that summary iridoid glycosides from this plant, containing four major known compounds: 5-O-allosylantirrinoside, antirrinoside, linarioside and 6-β-hidroxiantirride, can be successfully employed in biological control of the afore-mentioned wheat pathogens: it stimulates wheat grains germination and embryonic root growth in conditions of fungal infection. 1H and 13C NMR characteristics of 5-O-allosylantirrinoside in Py-d5 are for the first time presented. Structures of two conformers of 5-O-allosylantirrinoside in D2O and Py-d5 solutions are proposed, based on the experimental NMR evidence and molecular modelling studies.

  3. Amphotericin B versus fluconazole for controlling fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Helle Krogh; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systemic fungal infection is considered to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients, particularly those with neutropenia. Antifungal drugs are often given prophylactically, or empirically to patients with persistent fever. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect...... of fluconazole and amphotericin B on morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer complicated by neutropenia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched PubMed from 1966 to 7 July 2014 and the reference lists of identified articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials comparing fluconazole with amphotericin B...

  4. Fungal pathogens of Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) from Brazil, with reference to classical biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Claudine D S; Barreto, Robert W; Killgore, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    A survey of fungal pathogens of Miconia calvescens was carried out in Brazil aimed at finding potential classical biocontrol agents for management of this invasive alien weed in Hawaii. Coccodiella miconiae, Glomerella cingulata (= Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. miconiae) and the new species Guignardia miconiae and Korunomyces prostratus were found associated with foliar diseases and are described herein. Two previously undescribed spore stages of Coccodiella miconiae also were obtained allowing a complete description of this species. Pseudocercospora tamonae associated with leaf spots of other species of Miconia also was collected and also was proven to be pathogenic to M. calvescens.

  5. Essential Oils as Biocides for the Control of Fungal Infections and Devastating Pest (Tuta absoluta) of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayad Alam, Samira; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Tabti, Boufeldja; Gaouar Benyelles, Nassira; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-07-01

    Thymus capitatus and Tetraclinis articulata essential oils as well their major components (carvacrol and α-pinene) were evaluated for their antifungal and insecticidal activities. Both oils showed good in vitro antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Alternaria alternata, and Botrytis cinerea, the fungi causing tomato rot. In vivo results indicate the efficacies of both essential oils and carvacrol of reduce postharvest fungal pathogens, such as B. cinerea and Al. alternata that are responsible of black and gray rot of tomato fruit. Disease incidence of Al. alternata and B. cinerea decreased on average from 55% to 80% with essential oil of Th. capitatus and pure carcvacrol, while Te. articulata essential oil exhibited inhibition of fungal growth of 55% and 25% against Al. alternata and B. cinerea, respectively, with concentration of 0.4 μl/l air. The insecticidal activity of Th. capitatus and Te. articulata essential oils exhibited also a good insecticidal activity. At the concentration of 0.2 μl/ml air, the oils caused mortality over 80% for all larval stages of Tuta absoluta and 100% mortality for the first-instar after 1.5 h only of exposure. α-Pinene presented lower insecticidal and antifungal activities compared to essential oils of Th. capitatus, Te. articulata and pure carvacrol. Thus, these essential oils can be used as a potential source to develop control agents to manage some of the main pests and fungal diseases of tomato crops. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Influence of storage on fungal infestation in spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    The present work was carried out to study the influence of storage and gamma radiation on fungal control in spices. The spices were irradiated with 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and stored under ambient conditions for 12 months. Fungal infestation decreased to undetectable levels upon irradiation of these spices especially at higher doses and increased with advanced storage period both the irradiated and unirradiated samples. (orig. /A.B.)

  7. Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waithaka, Paul Njenga; Gathuru, Eliud Mugu; Githaiga, Benson Muriuki; Kimani, Salome Nduta

    2017-01-01

    Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis ) and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus agglomerata ) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary ( r = 0.99) and eucalyptus ( r = 0.99). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus ( P = 0.08). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus ( P = 0.000438). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale.

  8. Strain improvement of fungal insecticides for controlling insect pests and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weiguo; Azimzadeh, Philippe; St Leger, Raymond J

    2012-06-01

    Insect pathogenic fungi play an important natural role in controlling insect pests. However, few have been successfully commercialized due to low virulence and sensitivity to abiotic stresses that produce inconsistent results in field applications. These limitations are inherent in most naturally occurring biological control agents but development of recombinant DNA techniques has made it possible to significantly improve the insecticidal efficacy of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions, including UV. These advances have been achieved by combining new knowledge derived from basic studies of the molecular biology of these pathogens, technical developments that enable very precise regulation of gene expression, and genes encoding insecticidal proteins from other organisms, particularly spiders and scorpions. Recent coverage of genomes is helping determine the identity, origin, and evolution of traits needed for diverse lifestyles and host switching. In future, such knowledge combined with the precision and malleability of molecular techniques will allow design of multiple pathogens with different strategies and host ranges to be used for different ecosystems, and that will avoid the possibility of the host developing resistance. With increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides, these new types of biological insecticides offer a range of environmental-friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of different physicochemical conditions on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using fungal cell filtrate of Aspergillus oryzae (MTCC No. 1846) and their antibacterial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanjom, Probin; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different physicochemical conditions like concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO3), pH and temperature, using fungal cell filtrate of Aspergillus oryzae (MTCC No. 1846) and its antibacterial properties were demonstrated. When fungal cell filtrate having neutral pH was exposed to different concentrations of aqueous solution AgNO3 (1-10 mM), formation of stable AgNPs of different sizes was observed. The size of the AgNPs decreased with the increase of AgNO3 concentration from 1 mM to 8 mM, however, the particles size increased with the increase of AgNO3 concentration from 9 mM to 10 mM. When fungal cell filtrate exposed to aqueous solution of 1 mM AgNO3 at different pH (4-10), the silver ions (Ag+) were reduced leading to the formation of stable AgNPs of different sizes. The size of the AgNPs decreased with the increase of alkaline conditions. When aqueous solution of 1mM AgNO3 with fungal cell filtrate, having neutral pH, was exposed to different temperatures (10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 °С), formation of stable AgNPs having different sizes were obtained. The size of the AgNPs decreased with the increase of temperature. Synergetic effect with antibiotics and size dependent antibacterial activities were also demonstrated against Escherichia coli (MTCC 1687), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441) and Klebseilla pneumoniae (MTCC 4030). The formation AgNPs was characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed the sizes of the obtained nanoparticles. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectrum confirmed the formation of metallic silver. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of protein as stabilizing agent around AgNPs. Scanning electron microscope (TEM) confirmed the morphological changes in the treated bacterial organisms.

  10. Bioactivities of Ketones Terpenes: Antifungal Effect on F. verticillioides and Repellents to Control Insect Fungal Vector, S. zeamais

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzolitto, Romina P.; Herrera, Jimena M.; Zaio, Yesica P.; Dambolena, Jose S.; Zunino, Maria P.; Gallucci, Mauro N.; Zygadlo, Julio A.

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one the most important staple foods in the world. However, numerous pests, such as fungal pathogens, e.g., Fusarium verticillioides, and insects, such as Sitophlilus zeamais, attack maize grains during storage. Many F. verticillioides strains produce fumonisins, one of the most important mycotoxin that causes toxic effects on human and animal health. This situation is aggravated by the insect fungal vector, Sitophlilus zeamais, which contributes to the dispersal of fungal spores, and...

  11. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  12. Effect of Extracts and Bacteria from Korean Fermented Foods on the Control of Sesame Seed-Borne Fungal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ki Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to control seed-borne diseases, we obtained extracts from commercial fermented food products of Kimchi, Gochujang, Doenjang, Ganjang and Makgeolli and their suppressive effects against seed-borne diseases were studied. In addition, the suppressive effects of bacterial strains isolated from the fermented foods were screened in vitro and in vivo. Among fifty food extracts, twenty food-extracts suppressed more than 92% incidence of seedling rots in vitro and seven food extracts increased 58.3-66.8% of healthy seedling in the greenhouse. Among 218 isolates from the fermented foods, 29 isolates showing high antifungal activity against seven seed-borne fungal pathogens were selected. Among 29 isolates, 13 isolates significantly reduced seedling rot and increased healthy seedlings. Sixteen isolates with high antifungal activity and suppressive effect against sesame seedling rots were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Fourteen of sixteen isolates were identified as Bacillus spp. and the other two isolates from Makgeolli were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was confirmed that B. amyloliquifaciens was majority in the effective bacterial population of Korean fermented foods. In addition, when the bioformulations of the two selected effective microorganisms, B. amyloliquifacien Gcj2-1 and B. amyloliquifacien Gcj3-1, were prepared in powder forms using bentonite, kaolin, talc and zeolite, talc- and kaolin-bioformulation showed high control efficacy against sesame seed-borne disease, followed by zeolite-bioformulation. Meanwhile control efficacy of each bentonite-bioformulation of B. amyloliquifacien Gcj2-1 and B. amyloliquifacien Gcj3-1 was lower than that of bacterial suspension of them. It was found that the selected effective microorganisms from Korean fermented foods were effective for controlling seed-borne diseases of sesame in vitro and in the greenhouse. We think that Korean fermented food extracts and useful microorganisms

  13. External access to ALICE controls conditions data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadlovský, J; Jadlovská, A; Sarnovský, J; Jajčišin, Š; Čopík, M; Jadlovská, S; Papcun, P; Bielek, R; Čerkala, J; Kopčík, M; Chochula, P; Augustinus, A

    2014-01-01

    ALICE Controls data produced by commercial SCADA system WINCCOA is stored in ORACLE database on the private experiment network. The SCADA system allows for basic access and processing of the historical data. More advanced analysis requires tools like ROOT and needs therefore a separate access method to the archives. The present scenario expects that detector experts create simple WINCCOA scripts, which retrieves and stores data in a form usable for further studies. This relatively simple procedure generates a lot of administrative overhead – users have to request the data, experts needed to run the script, the results have to be exported outside of the experiment network. The new mechanism profits from database replica, which is running on the CERN campus network. Access to this database is not restricted and there is no risk of generating a heavy load affecting the operation of the experiment. The developed tools presented in this paper allow for access to this data. The users can use web-based tools to generate the requests, consisting of the data identifiers and period of time of interest. The administrators maintain full control over the data – an authorization and authentication mechanism helps to assign privileges to selected users and restrict access to certain groups of data. Advanced caching mechanism allows the user to profit from the presence of already processed data sets. This feature significantly reduces the time required for debugging as the retrieval of raw data can last tens of minutes. A highly configurable client allows for information retrieval bypassing the interactive interface. This method is for example used by ALICE Offline to extract operational conditions after a run is completed. Last but not least, the software can be easily adopted to any underlying database structure and is therefore not limited to WINCCOA.

  14. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  15. Effect of environmental conditions on the mechanical properties and fungal degradation of polycaprolactone/microcrystalline cellulose/wood flour composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Liwei Jin; Nicole Stark; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), wood flour (WF), or both were characterized before and after exposure to various environmental conditions for 60 days. PCL/WF composites had the greatest tensile strength and modulus compared to neat PCL or PCL composites containing MCC. Electron microscopy indicated better adhesion between WF...

  16. Evaluation of environmentally friendly products for control of fungal diseases of grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Schilder, A.M.C.; Gillett, J.M.; Sysak, R.W.; Wise, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Various environmentally friendly products were tested for efficacy in controlling powdery mildew, downy mildew, black rot, Phomopsis, and Botrytis bunch rot in grapes over several years. The products tested were: JMS stylet oil (paraffinic oil), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis), Croplife (citrus and coconut extract) + Plant food (foliar fertilizer), Armicarb (potassium bicarbonate), Elexa (chitosan), Milsana (giant knotweed extract), and AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqua/is). JMS Stylet Oil, Armicarb, Se...

  17. Efficacy Of Some Fungal Isolates And Their Applications For Controlling The Immature Stages Of The Medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) Before And During Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OUDA, S.M.; EL-AKHDAR, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) needs a suitable and effective cheap method alternative to chemical pesticides for suppressing or controlling the population density of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wi ed.). The effectiveness of five different fungal isolates: Trichoderma longibranchiatum, T. harzianum, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger and Penicillium oxalicum was evaluated against the immature stages of med fly. Filtrate and three spore suspension concentrations (104, 106 and 108 spores/ml) of each fungal isolate were applied to both 3 rd larval instar and pupae at two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Percentage pupation, pupal mortality, adult emergence and sex ratio were studied. The percentage of pupation of 3 rd larval instar was not affected. However, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the percentage of pupal mortality as well as in adult emergence from pupae 2 and 8 days-old at all fungal treatments. Pupae (2 days-old) were more susceptible than pupae (8 days-old) to all fungal treatments. The microbial biomass of both A. terreus and P. oxalicum was selected to apply with different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 w/w) on the pupae at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Best results were recorded with biomass at 20% concentration of both fungal isolates. Percentage of mortality was significantly higher (P<0.05) than 50% at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old) for both fungi. A significant decrease (P<0.05) was obtained in adult females emergence resulted in a reduction in the number of eggs deposited and subsequently the punctures on fruits. Chitinase enzyme (important for degradation of chitin which is a component of insect cuticle) and cellulase enzyme (used for improving soil fertility) were determined. The microbial biomass by A. terreus was appeared to be safe to human and animals and can be used for combating immature stages of medfly.

  18. Economical effectiveness of fungal diseases control of winter wheat in 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jaczewska-Kalicka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat is a very susceptible species to infection by pathogenic fungi requires the application of plant protection products. Their effectiveness and profitability of application depend on numerous factors. The most important of them are: weather and environmental conditions, managing and organisation of production, the intensity of oc-currence and harmfulness of occurring pathogenes, the amount of obtained yield, costs of protection and grain selling prices. Presented research results are derived from plot ex-periments conducted in the Field Experimental Station IOR-PIB Grodzisk Mazowiecki, on the fields of Agricultural Experimental Station SGGW Chylice, mazowieckie voivode-ship, in 2000-2008 on winter wheat. A high differentiation was stated in profitability of applying particular fungicides, as well as considerable differences between particular vegetative seasons of winter wheat cultivation. In each year, except 2000, protection treatments were profitable, in spite of high costs being on average 10% of the value of protected crop.

  19. Diesel soot oxidation under controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haiwen

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 11/12/2003. In order to improve understanding of diesel soot oxidation, an experimental rig was designed and set up, in which the soot oxidation conditions, such as temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and CO2 partial pressure, could be varied independently of each other. The oxidizing gas flow in the oxidizer was under laminar condition. This test rig comprised a naturally-aspirated single ...

  20. Use of biocides for the control of fungal outbreaks in subterranean environments: The case of the Lascaux Cave in France

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martín-Sánchez, P.M.; Nováková, Alena; Bastian, F.; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 7 (2012), s. 3762-3770 ISSN 0013-936X Grant - others:Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (ES) TCP CSD2007-00058 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fungal outbreaks * subterranean environments * Lascaux Cave Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.257, year: 2012

  1. Determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildesø, J.; Wurtz, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2003-01-01

    The release and transport of fungal spores from water-damaged building materials is a key factor for understanding the exposure to particles of fungal origin as a possible cause of adverse health effects associated to growth of fungi indoors. In this study, the release of spores from nine species...... of typical indoor fungi has been measured under controlled conditions. The fungi were cultivated for a period of 4-6 weeks on sterilized wet wallpapered gypsum boards at a relative humidity (RH) of approximately 97%. A specially designed small chamber (P-FLEC) was placed on the gypsum board. The release...

  2. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  3. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Hospital Functions § 482.42 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospital must provide a... be an active program for the prevention, control, and investigation of infections and communicable... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control. 482...

  4. Microcomputer control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.K.; Steigerwald, R.L.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputer-based control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system is described. The microcomputer is responsible for array current feedback control, maximum power tracking control, array safe zone steering control, phase-locked reference wave synthesis, sequencing control, and some diagnostics. The control functions are implemented using Intel 8751 single-chip microcomputer-based hardware and software. The controller has been tested in the laboratory with the prototype power conditioner and shows excellent performance.

  5. Microcomputer control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.K.; Steigerwald, R.L.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1985-09-01

    Microcomputer-based control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system is described. The microcomputer is responsible for array current feedback control, maximum power tracking control, array safe zone steering control, phase-locked reference wave synthesis, sequencing control, and some diagnostics. The control functions are implemented using Intel 8751 single-chip microcomputer-based hardware and software. The controller has been tested in the laboratory with the prototype power conditioner and shows excellent performance.

  6. Weed control and cover crop management affect mycorrhizal colonization of grapevine roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore populations in a California vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Kendra; Smith, Richard F; Bettiga, Larry

    2005-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi naturally colonize grapevines in California vineyards. Weed control and cover cropping may affect AM fungi directly, through destruction of extraradical hyphae by soil disruption, or indirectly, through effects on populations of mycorrhizal weeds and cover crops. We examined the effects of weed control (cultivation, post-emergence herbicides, pre-emergence herbicides) and cover crops (Secale cereale cv. Merced rye, x Triticosecale cv.Trios 102) on AM fungi in a Central Coast vineyard. Seasonal changes in grapevine mycorrhizal colonization differed among weed control treatments, but did not correspond with seasonal changes in total weed frequency. Differences in grapevine colonization among weed control treatments may be due to differences in mycorrhizal status and/or AM fungal species composition among dominant weed species. Cover crops had no effect on grapevine mycorrhizal colonization, despite higher spring spore populations in cover cropped middles compared to bare middles. Cover crops were mycorrhizal and shared four AM fungal species (Glomus aggregatum, G. etunicatum, G. mosseae, G. scintillans) in common with grapevines. Lack of contact between grapevine roots and cover crop roots may have prevented grapevines from accessing higher spore populations in the middles.

  7. Fungal contamination in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L; Sartini, M; Spagnolo, A M; Dallera, M; Ottria, G; Lombardi, R; Grimaldi, M; Orlando, P

    2006-01-01

    To assess the degree of fungal contamination in hospital environments and to evaluate the ability of air conditioning systems to reduce such contamination. We monitored airborne microbial concentrations in various environments in 10 hospitals equipped with air conditioning. Sampling was performed with a portable Surface Air System impactor with replicate organism detection and counting plates containing a fungus-selective medium. The total fungal concentration was determined 72-120 hours after sampling. The genera most involved in infection were identified by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The mean concentration of airborne fungi in the set of environments examined was 19 +/- 19 colony-forming units (cfu) per cubic meter. Analysis of the fungal concentration in the different types of environments revealed different levels of contamination: the lowest mean values (12 +/- 14 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in operating theaters, and the highest (45 +/- 37 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in kitchens. Analyses revealed statistically significant differences between median values for the various environments. The fungal genus most commonly encountered was Penicillium, which, in kitchens, displayed the highest mean airborne concentration (8 +/- 2.4 cfu/m(3)). The percentage (35%) of Aspergillus documented in the wards was higher than that in any of the other environments monitored. The fungal concentrations recorded in the present study are comparable to those recorded in other studies conducted in hospital environments and are considerably lower than those seen in other indoor environments that are not air conditioned. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of air-handling systems in reducing fungal contamination.

  8. Increased evapotranspiration demand in a Mediterranean climate might cause a decline in fungal yields under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ágreda, Teresa; Águeda, Beatriz; Olano, José M; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Fernández-Toirán, Marina

    2015-09-01

    Wild fungi play a critical role in forest ecosystems, and its recollection is a relevant economic activity. Understanding fungal response to climate is necessary in order to predict future fungal production in Mediterranean forests under climate change scenarios. We used a 15-year data set to model the relationship between climate and epigeous fungal abundance and productivity, for mycorrhizal and saprotrophic guilds in a Mediterranean pine forest. The obtained models were used to predict fungal productivity for the 2021-2080 period by means of regional climate change models. Simple models based on early spring temperature and summer-autumn rainfall could provide accurate estimates for fungal abundance and productivity. Models including rainfall and climatic water balance showed similar results and explanatory power for the analyzed 15-year period. However, their predictions for the 2021-2080 period diverged. Rainfall-based models predicted a maintenance of fungal yield, whereas water balance-based models predicted a steady decrease of fungal productivity under a global warming scenario. Under Mediterranean conditions fungi responded to weather conditions in two distinct periods: early spring and late summer-autumn, suggesting a bimodal pattern of growth. Saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi showed differences in the climatic control. Increased atmospheric evaporative demand due to global warming might lead to a drop in fungal yields during the 21st century. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. An Automatic Control System for Conditioning 30 GHz Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A

    2008-01-01

    A software application programme has been developed to allow fast and automatic high-gradient conditioning of accelerating structures at 30 GHz in CTF3. The specificity of the application is the ability to control the high-power electron beam which produces the 30 GHz RF power used to condition the accelerating structures. The programme permits operation round the clock with minimum manpower requirements. In this paper the fast control system, machine control system, logging system, graphical user control interface and logging data visualization are described. An outline of the conditioning control system itself and of the feedback controlling peak power and pulse length is given. The software allows different types of conditioning strategies to be programmed

  10. An Investigation into Rumen Fungal and Protozoal Diversity in Three Rumen Fractions, during High-Fiber or Grain-Induced Sub-Acute Ruminal Acidosis Conditions, with or without Active Dry Yeast Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; AlZahal, Ousama; Walker, Nicola; McBride, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a gastrointestinal functional disorder in livestock characterized by low rumen pH, which reduces rumen function, microbial diversity, host performance, and host immune function. Dietary management is used to prevent SARA, often with yeast supplementation as a pH buffer. Almost nothing is known about the effect of SARA or yeast supplementation on ruminal protozoal and fungal diversity, despite their roles in fiber degradation. Dairy cows were switched from a high-fiber to high-grain diet abruptly to induce SARA, with and without active dry yeast (ADY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) supplementation, and sampled from the rumen fluid, solids, and epimural fractions to determine microbial diversity using the protozoal 18S rRNA and the fungal ITS1 genes via Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Diet-induced SARA dramatically increased the number and abundance of rare fungal taxa, even in fluid fractions where total reads were very low, and reduced protozoal diversity. SARA selected for more lactic-acid utilizing taxa, and fewer fiber-degrading taxa. ADY treatment increased fungal richness (OTUs) but not diversity (Inverse Simpson, Shannon), but increased protozoal richness and diversity in some fractions. ADY treatment itself significantly ( P PERMANOVA, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0452, P = 0.0068, Monte Carlo correction, respectively, and location was a significant factor ( P = 0.001, Monte Carlo correction) for protozoa. Diet-induced SARA shifts diversity of rumen fungi and protozoa and selects against fiber-degrading species. Supplementation with ADY mitigated this reduction in protozoa, presumptively by triggering microbial diversity shifts (as seen even in the high-fiber diet) that resulted in pH stabilization. ADY did not recover the initial community structure that was seen in pre-SARA conditions.

  11. Adaptive neural network motion control for aircraft under uncertainty conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A. V.; Tiaglik, M. S.; Tiumentsev, Yu V.

    2018-02-01

    We need to provide motion control of modern and advanced aircraft under diverse uncertainty conditions. This problem can be solved by using adaptive control laws. We carry out an analysis of the capabilities of these laws for such adaptive systems as MRAC (Model Reference Adaptive Control) and MPC (Model Predictive Control). In the case of a nonlinear control object, the most efficient solution to the adaptive control problem is the use of neural network technologies. These technologies are suitable for the development of both a control object model and a control law for the object. The approximate nature of the ANN model was taken into account by introducing additional compensating feedback into the control system. The capabilities of adaptive control laws under uncertainty in the source data are considered. We also conduct simulations to assess the contribution of adaptivity to the behavior of the system.

  12. Combined heat and gamma-irradiation treatments for the control of strawberry diseases under market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thomas, A.C.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Terblanche, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    The spoilage of strawberries under local market conditions was investigated. It was confirmed that the major losses are due to 'leak' disease caused by Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.) Lind. It was also established that further fruit losses in summer are due to anthracnose caused by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds. This is the first time that the latter pathogen has been isolated and identified and recognised as a problem on strawberries in South Africa. Studies with R. stolonifer in culture showed that 46 degrees Celsius for 20 min (the previous international standard heat treatment for fruit) was disappointing, while a treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 min effectively inhibited spore germination. Irradiation studies with cultures of R. stolonifer and C. acutatum showed that a dose of 200 and 100 krad, respectively, resulted in excellent inhibition of spore germination. However, irradiating in nitrogen gas resulted in a tenfold reduction in the effectiveness of the irradiation treatments. The use of nitrogen during irradiation, therefore, cannot be considered, especially where an effective control of the fungal pathogens is desired. Investigations with different cultivars clearly demonstrated the synergistic effect on disease control obtained when combining heat and irradiation treatments. The combination treatment (moist heat at 50-52 degrees Celsius for 10 min plus 200 krad), besides effectively controlling both diseases in strawberries, did not adversely affect berry quality. In simulated transport tests it was shown that a minimal amount of berry softening did occur with this treatment, but this adverse effect was negligible compared with the beneficial effect obtained from disease control. In semi-commercial experiments it was shown that the combination heat and irradiation treatment effectively controlled spoilage diseases for a period of several days from picking, thus allowing sufficient time to market the fruit under local market

  13. An Investigation into Rumen Fungal and Protozoal Diversity in Three Rumen Fractions, during High-Fiber or Grain-Induced Sub-Acute Ruminal Acidosis Conditions, with or without Active Dry Yeast Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Ishaq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA is a gastrointestinal functional disorder in livestock characterized by low rumen pH, which reduces rumen function, microbial diversity, host performance, and host immune function. Dietary management is used to prevent SARA, often with yeast supplementation as a pH buffer. Almost nothing is known about the effect of SARA or yeast supplementation on ruminal protozoal and fungal diversity, despite their roles in fiber degradation. Dairy cows were switched from a high-fiber to high-grain diet abruptly to induce SARA, with and without active dry yeast (ADY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation, and sampled from the rumen fluid, solids, and epimural fractions to determine microbial diversity using the protozoal 18S rRNA and the fungal ITS1 genes via Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Diet-induced SARA dramatically increased the number and abundance of rare fungal taxa, even in fluid fractions where total reads were very low, and reduced protozoal diversity. SARA selected for more lactic-acid utilizing taxa, and fewer fiber-degrading taxa. ADY treatment increased fungal richness (OTUs but not diversity (Inverse Simpson, Shannon, but increased protozoal richness and diversity in some fractions. ADY treatment itself significantly (P < 0.05 affected the abundance of numerous fungal genera as seen in the high-fiber diet: Lewia, Neocallimastix, and Phoma were increased, while Alternaria, Candida Orpinomyces, and Piromyces spp. were decreased. Likewise, for protozoa, ADY itself increased Isotricha intestinalis but decreased Entodinium furca spp. Multivariate analyses showed diet type was most significant in driving diversity, followed by yeast treatment, for AMOVA, ANOSIM, and weighted UniFrac. Diet, ADY, and location were all significant factors for fungi (PERMANOVA, P = 0.0001, P = 0.0452, P = 0.0068, Monte Carlo correction, respectively, and location was a significant factor (P = 0.001, Monte Carlo correction for protozoa

  14. Distributed automatic control of technological processes in conditions of weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtenko, A. I.; Merkulov, V. I.; Samoylenko, Y. I.; Ladikov-Royev, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    Some problems associated with the automatic control of liquid metal and plasma systems under conditions of weightlessness are examined, with particular reference to the problem of stability of liquid equilibrium configurations. The theoretical fundamentals of automatic control of processes in electrically conducting continuous media are outlined, and means of using electromagnetic fields for simulating technological processes in a space environment are discussed.

  15. Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper developed artificial intelligence technique adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller for air conditioning systems at different pressures. The first order Sugeno fuzzy inference system was implemented and utilized for modeling and controller design. In addition, the estimation of the heat transfer rate and water mass flow rate ...

  16. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wen, Hai; Liao, Wanqing

    2003-09-01

    To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation. An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990 - 2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles. Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: (1) disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; (2) opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient's conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  17. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L.) and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, J P; Sacramento, L V S; Carlos, I Z

    2017-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America), is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines' production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12) and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  18. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L. and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L. is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America, is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines’ production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12 and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  19. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  20. Measuring Effectiveness of Persuasive Games Using an Informative Control Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Soekarjo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research about the effectiveness of persuasive games is still emerging. This article presents a literature review of studies that empirically evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive games. The review concluded that limited empirical evidence is currently available to prove their effectiveness in attitude change. It further revealed that almost no study employed an informative control condition, making it difficult to conclude that the game was more effective than a control condition. Next, in a pretest-posttest design an empirical study tested whether change in attitude was different for people playing the persuasive game "EnerCities" compared to a control condition where participants read a document with highly similar information. No significant differences in increase of attitude or knowledge between participants that played the game and participants in the informative control condition were found. Based on the results of the literature review and the empirical study presented, it hence cannot be concluded that playing a game leads to a greater change in attitude or knowledge acquisition than experiencing conventional media would. Future work should employ designs with proper control conditions and focus on which game features lead to significant effects.

  1. Overview of impurity control and wall conditioning in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Maingi, R.; Wampler, W.; Barry, R.E.; Bell, M.; Blanchard, W.; Gates, D.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Maqueda, R.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.M.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.; Skinner, C. H.; Sabbagh, S.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Wilson, J. R.; Zweben, S.

    2000-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) started plasma operations i n February 1999. In the first extended period of experiments, NSTX achieved high current, inner wall limited, double null, and single null plasma discharges, initial Coaxial Helicity Injection, and High Harmonic Fast Wave results. As expected, discharge reproducibility and performance were strongly affected by wall conditions. In this paper, the authors describe the internal geometry, and initial plasma discharge, impurity control, wall conditioning, erosion, and deposition results

  2. Control Strategy for Microgrid Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Wenzhao; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the inherent reason of current harmonic and power oscillation phenomena in case of operating the microgrid inverter under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. In order to flexibly control the current harmonic and power oscillation, a new stationary...... inverter. Finally, the performance evaluation tests are carried out under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. Results verify the effectiveness of the propose method....

  3. Evaluating the bioreducing potential of the leaves, knobs and roots of Zanthoxylum capense (small knobwood) for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, applicable to in vitro fungal contamination control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodede, Olusola; Shaik, Shakira; Govinden, Roshini; Moodley, Roshila

    2017-12-01

    In this study we report on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from selected morphological parts of Zanthoxylum capense. UV-vis spectra of the biosynthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) revealed absorption peaks at around 450 nm, indicative of the nanoparticles’ surface plasmon resonance, whilst infrared vibrational frequencies indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and free and bonded sugars which could be responsible for the reduction and stabilisation of the AgNPs. 1H-NMR fingerprinting of the aqueous knob extract confirmed the active bio-reducing phytochemical of the knobs to be 6-O-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. The nature, shape and morphology of the biosynthesised AgNPs were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Z. capense AgNPs were mostly spherical in shape with particle sizes in the range of 4-28 nm, 7-20 nm and 4-32 nm for leaves, knobs and roots, respectively. Leaf extracts were the most efficient in the synthesis of AgNPs with an average yield of 0.027 g AgNPs per g of plant (dry mass). The AgNPs were more effective than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) in the control of in vitro fungal contamination in nodal explants of Z. capense up to two weeks. Shoots induced from the surface sterilised explants were further used for shoot multiplication on benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN). BAP at 0.5 mg l-1 gave the highest percentage (88.6%) of explants bearing shoots with an average of 4.78 shoots per explant. A total of 15 fungal endophyte strains associated with Z. capense were identified using molecular methods.

  4. A safety control device for detecting undesirable conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-26

    The invention relates to safety control devices. It deals with a device adapted to transmit a warning signal and to the detection of an undesirable condition in an associated apparatus, said device comprising switching means comprising transistors mounted in a reaction path, feeding means for opening the switching means whenever an undesirable condition has been detected by sensors, whereby an oscillator is caused to stop oscillating, and an outlet device controlled by the oscillator stoppage. This can be applied to the supervision of nuclear reactor.

  5. Effects of fungal degradation on the CuO oxidation products of lignin: A controlled laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, John I.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Weliky, Karen; Devol, Allan H.

    1988-11-01

    environments can be explained by white-rot fungal degradation.

  6. Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... conditioning system is highly appreciated and essential in most of our daily life. ... (Hossien and Karla, 2012) presented an overview work which provides an .... energy balance for SSSF and the mass flow balance for the water in the air are ..... of Automatic Control and Electrical Engineering at Siegen University, Germany.

  7. Genotypic variation in the response of chickpea to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazghaleh, Navid; Hamel, Chantal; Gan, Yantai; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Knight, Joan Diane

    2018-04-01

    Plant roots host symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other fungal endophytes that can impact plant growth and health. The impact of microbial interactions in roots may depend on the genetic properties of the host plant and its interactions with root-associated fungi. We conducted a controlled condition experiment to investigate the effect of several chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes on the efficiency of the symbiosis with AM fungi and non-AM fungal endophytes. Whereas the AM symbiosis increased the biomass of most of the chickpea cultivars, inoculation with non-AM fungal endophytes had a neutral effect. The chickpea cultivars responded differently to co-inoculation with AM fungi and non-AM fungal endophytes. Co-inoculation had additive effects on the biomass of some cultivars (CDC Corrine, CDC Anna, and CDC Cory), but non-AM fungal endophytes reduced the positive effect of AM fungi on Amit and CDC Vanguard. This study demonstrated that the response of plant genotypes to an AM symbiosis can be modified by the simultaneous colonization of the roots by non-AM fungal endophytes. Intraspecific variations in the response of chickpea to AM fungi and non-AM fungal endophytes indicate that the selection of suitable genotypes may improve the ability of crop plants to take advantage of soil ecosystem services.

  8. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  9. Development of Fuzzy Logic Control for Vehicle Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Nasution

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle air conditioning system is experimentally investigated. Measurements were taken during the experimental period at a time interval of one minute for a set point temperature of 22, 23 and 24oC with internal heat loads of 0, 1 and 2 kW. The cabin temperature and the speed of the compressor were varied and the performance of the system, energy consumption and energy saving ware analyzed. The main objective of the experimental work is to evaluate the energy saving obtained when the fuzzy logic control (FLC algorithm, through an inverter, continuously regulates the compressor speed. It demonstrates better control of the compressor operation in terms of energy consumption as compared to the control by using a thermostat imposing On/Off cycles on the compressor at the nominal frequency of 50 Hz. The experimental set-up consists of original components from the air conditioning system of a compact passenger vehicle. The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique can save energy and improve indoor comfort significantly for vehicle air conditioning systems compared to the conventional (On/Off control technique.

  10. Power systems control complex optimization in the new market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumm, L.; Kurrel, U.; Tauts, A.; Terno, O.; Zeidmanis, I.; Krisans, Z.

    2000-01-01

    A generalization and development of the theory and methods for complex optimisation of the performance and development control of an interconnected system (IPS) under new market conditions (mainly multicriterial and game approaches) is given considering the specifics of IPS at the international level in post-socialist countries and in particular in the Baltic states. Thereby the kernel of the mathematical apparatus of this theory the Generalized Reduced Gradient Method (GRGM) is further generalised and developed with the application of multicriterial and game methods to meet various market conditions. (author)

  11. Computation of reactor control rod drop time under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Yikang; Yao Weida; Yang Renan; Jiang Nanyan

    1998-01-01

    The computational method of reactor control rod drop time under accident conditions lies mainly in establishing forced vibration equations for the components under action of outside forces on control rod driven line and motion equation for the control rod moving in vertical direction. The above two kinds of equations are connected by considering the impact effects between control rod and its outside components. Finite difference method is adopted to make discretization of the vibration equations and Wilson-θ method is applied to deal with the time history problem. The non-linearity caused by impact is iteratively treated with modified Newton method. Some experimental results are used to validate the validity and reliability of the computational method. Theoretical and experimental testing problems show that the computer program based on the computational method is applicable and reliable. The program can act as an effective tool of design by analysis and safety analysis for the relevant components

  12. Reactive gas control of non-stable plasma conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido-Gonzalez, V.; Daniel, B.; Counsell, J.; Monaghan, D.

    2006-01-01

    Most industrial plasma processes are dependant upon the control of plasma properties for repeatable and reliable production. The speed of production and range of properties achieved depend on the degree of control. Process control involves all the aspects of the vacuum equipment, substrate preparation, plasma source condition, power supplies, process drift, valves (inputs/outputs), signal and data processing and the user's understanding and ability. In many cases, some of the processes which involve the manufacturing of interesting coating structures, require a precise control of the process in a reactive environment [S.J. Nadel, P. Greene, 'High rate sputtering technology for throughput and quality', International Glass Review, Issue 3, 2001, p. 45. ]. Commonly in these circumstances the plasma is not stable if all the inputs and outputs of the system were to remain constant. The ideal situation is to move a process from set-point A to B in zero time and maintain the monitored signal with a fluctuation equal to zero. In a 'real' process that's not possible but improvements in the time response and energy delivery could be achieved with an appropriate algorithm structure. In this paper an advanced multichannel reactive plasma gas control system is presented. The new controller offers both high-speed gas control combined with a very flexible control structure. The controller uses plasma emission monitoring, target voltage or any process sensor monitoring as the input into a high-speed control algorithm for gas input. The control algorithm and parameters can be tuned to different process requirements in order to optimize response times

  13. Control in chronic condition self-care management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawn, Sharon; Delany, Toni; Sweet, Linda

    2014-01-01

    of their communication style and the power of their role must improve for client chronic condition self-care management to be achieved. Training on the impacts of control in worker communication and systems where they work must be provided if unbeneficial forms of client dependency are to be overcome and true self......Aim: To examine health worker-client interactions during care planning to understand processes that foster client empowerment and disempowerment. Background: It is unclear how health worker-client exchanges and information sharing through chronic condition care planning currently operate in primary...... health care. Moreover, it is unclear how control in these exchanges either enhances collaborative decision-making, partnership and client empowerment, or works to create client disempowerment and dependency on workers and health services. Design: Critical discourse analysis of qualitative data from...

  14. Controlled damping of a physical pendulum: experiments near critical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Manuel I; Bol, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for the study of damped oscillatory motion along with three associated experiments. Special emphasis is given on both didactic aspects and the interactivity of the experimental set-up, in order to assist students in understanding fundamental aspects of damped oscillatory motion and allow them to directly compare their experimental results with the well-known theory they can find in textbooks. With this in mind, a physical pendulum was selected with an eddy-current damping system that allows the damping conditions to be controlled with great precision. The three experiments examine accurate control of damping, frequency shift near critical damping and the transition from underdamped to overdamped conditions

  15. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550......L stirred tank pilot plant reactors well. For each strain, 8 biological parameters are needed as well as a correlation of viscosity, as viscosity has a major influence on oxygen transfer. The parameters were measured averages of at least 9 batches for each strain. The model is successfully able...... to cover a wide range of process conditions (0.3-2 vvm of aeration, 0.2-10.0 kW/m3 of specific agitation power input, and 0.1-1.3 barg head space pressure). Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis have shown that the uncertainty of the model is mainly due to difficulties surrounding the estimation...

  16. MODELS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ERRORS PREVENTION IN TERMINAL CONTROL AREAS UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of this study is to research applied models of air traffic controllers’ errors prevention in terminal control areas (TMA under uncertainty conditions. In this work the theoretical framework descripting safety events and errors of air traffic controllers connected with the operations in TMA is proposed. Methods: optimisation of terminal control area formal description based on the Threat and Error management model and the TMA network model of air traffic flows. Results: the human factors variables associated with safety events in work of air traffic controllers under uncertainty conditions were obtained. The Threat and Error management model application principles to air traffic controller operations and the TMA network model of air traffic flows were proposed. Discussion: Information processing context for preventing air traffic controller errors, examples of threats in work of air traffic controllers, which are relevant for TMA operations under uncertainty conditions.

  17. Expression of cytokines in aqueous humor from fungal keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingnan; Liang, Qingfeng; Liu, Yang; Pan, Zhiqiang; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine; Lu, Qingxian

    2018-04-19

    Although a series of reports on corneal fungal infection have been published, studies on pathogenic mechanisms and inflammation-associated cytokines remain limited. In this study, aqueous humor samples from fungal keratitis patients were collected to examine cytokine patterns and cellular profile for the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis. The aqueous humor samples were collected from ten patients with advanced stage fungal keratitis. Eight aqueous humor samples from patients with keratoconus or corneal dystrophy were taken as control. Approximately 100 μl to 300 μl of aqueous humor in each case were obtained for examination. The aqueous humor samples were centrifuged and the cells were stained and examined under optical microscope. Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed on the aqueous humor and corneal buttons of all patients. Cytokines related to inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were examined using multiplex bead-based Luminex liquid protein array systems. Fungus infection was confirmed in these ten patients by smear stains and/or fungal cultures. Bacterial and fungal cultures revealed negative results in all aqueous humor specimens. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the predominant infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor of fungal keratitis. At the advanced stages of fungal keratitis, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the aqueous humor were significantly increased when compared with control (phumor was associated with fungal keratitis.

  18. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  19. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  20. Fungal symbiosis unearthed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Cullen

    2008-01-01

    Associations between plant roots and fungi are a feature of many terrestrial ecosystems. The genome sequence of a prominent fungal partner opens new avenues for studying such mycorrhizal interactions....

  1. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  2. Human Fungal Pathogens of Mucorales and Entomophthorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Leonel; Vilela, Raquel; Voelz, Kerstin; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Voigt, Kerstin; Lee, Soo Chan

    2014-11-06

    In recent years, we have seen an increase in the number of immunocompromised cohorts as a result of infections and/or medical conditions, which has resulted in an increased incidence of fungal infections. Although rare, the incidence of infections caused by fungi belonging to basal fungal lineages is also continuously increasing. Basal fungal lineages diverged at an early point during the evolution of the fungal lineage, in which, in a simplified four-phylum fungal kingdom, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota belong to the basal fungi, distinguishing them from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Currently there are no known human infections caused by fungi in Chytridiomycota; only Zygomycotan fungi are known to infect humans. Hence, infections caused by zygomycetes have been called zygomycosis, and the term "zygomycosis" is often used as a synonym for "mucormycosis." In the four-phylum fungal kingdom system, Zygomycota is classified mainly based on morphology, including the ability to form coenocytic (aseptated) hyphae and zygospores (sexual spores). In the Zygomycota, there are 10 known orders, two of which, the Mucorales and Entomophthorales, contain species that can infect humans, and the infection has historically been known as zygomycosis. However, recent multilocus sequence typing analyses (the fungal tree of life [AFTOL] project) revealed that the Zygomycota forms not a monophyletic clade but instead a polyphyletic clade, whereas Ascomycota and Basidiomycota are monophyletic. Thus, the term "zygomycosis" needed to be further specified, resulting in the terms "mucormycosis" and "entomophthoramycosis." This review covers these two different types of fungal infections. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Gain control network conditions in early sensory coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Serrano

    Full Text Available Gain control is essential for the proper function of any sensory system. However, the precise mechanisms for achieving effective gain control in the brain are unknown. Based on our understanding of the existence and strength of connections in the insect olfactory system, we analyze the conditions that lead to controlled gain in a randomly connected network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We consider two scenarios for the variation of input into the system. In the first case, the intensity of the sensory input controls the input currents to a fixed proportion of neurons of the excitatory and inhibitory populations. In the second case, increasing intensity of the sensory stimulus will both, recruit an increasing number of neurons that receive input and change the input current that they receive. Using a mean field approximation for the network activity we derive relationships between the parameters of the network that ensure that the overall level of activity of the excitatory population remains unchanged for increasing intensity of the external stimulation. We find that, first, the main parameters that regulate network gain are the probabilities of connections from the inhibitory population to the excitatory population and of the connections within the inhibitory population. Second, we show that strict gain control is not achievable in a random network in the second case, when the input recruits an increasing number of neurons. Finally, we confirm that the gain control conditions derived from the mean field approximation are valid in simulations of firing rate models and Hodgkin-Huxley conductance based models.

  4. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  5. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  6. Repression of fungal plant pathogens and fungal-related contaminants: Selected ecosystem services by soil fauna communities in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Wolfarth, Friederike; Schrader, Stefan; Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Brunotte, Joachim; Weinert, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    In agroecosystems soil-borne fungal plant diseases are major yield-limiting factors which are difficult to control. Fungal plant pathogens, like Fusarium species, survive as a saprophyte in infected tissue like crop residues and endanger the health of the following crop by increasing the infection risk for specific plant diseases. In infected plant organs, these pathogens are able to produce mycotoxins. Mycotoxins like deoxynivalenol (DON) persist during storage, are heat resistant and of major concern for human and animal health after consumption of contaminated food and feed, respectively. Among fungivorous soil organisms, there are representatives of the soil fauna which are obviously antagonistic to a Fusarium infection and the contamination with mycotoxins. Specific members of the soil macro-, meso-, and microfauna provide a wide range of ecosystem services including the stimulation of decomposition processes which may result in the regulation of plant pathogens and the degradation of environmental contaminants. Investigations under laboratory conditions and in field were conducted to assess the functional linkage between soil faunal communities and plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium culmorum). The aim was to examine if Fusarium biomass and the content of its mycotoxin DON decrease substantially in the presence of soil fauna (earthworms: Lumbricus terrestris, collembolans: Folsomia candida and nematodes: Aphelenchoides saprophilus) in a commercial cropping system managed with conservation tillage located in Northern Germany. The results of our investigations pointed out that the degradation performance of the introduced soil fauna must be considered as an important contribution to the biodegradation of fungal plant diseases and fungal-related contaminants. Different size classes within functional groups and the traits of keystone species appear to be significant for soil function and the provision of ecosystem services as in particular L. terrestris revealed to

  7. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David Richard; Higginbotham, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned...... their ancestors’ prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent.We showthat particularly the smallestworkers...... derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste...

  8. Rotor experiments in controlled conditions continued: New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    To validate and reduce the large uncertainty associated with rotor aerodynamic and acoustic models, there is a need for detailed force, noise and surrounding flow velocity measurements on wind turbines under controlled conditions. However, high quality wind tunnel campaigns on horizontal axis wind turbine models are scarce due to the large wind tunnel size needed and consequently high associated costs. To serve this purpose an experiment using the Mexico turbine was set-up in the large low speed facility of the DNW wind tunnel. An overview of the experiments is given including a selection of results. A comparison of calculations to measurements for design conditions shows a satisfactory agreement. In summary, after years of preparation, ECN and partners have performed very successful aerodynamic experiments in the largest wind tunnel in Europe. The comprehensive high quality database that has been obtained will be used in the international Mexnext consortium to further develop wind energy aerodynamic and acoustic modeling.

  9. Overview of impurity control and wall conditioning in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KUGEL,H.W.; MAINGI,R.; BELL,M.; BLANCHARD,W.; GATES,D.; JOHNSON,D.; KAITA,R.; KAYE,S.; MARQUEDA,R.; MENARD,J.; MUELLER,D.; ONO,M.; PENG,Y-K.M.; RAMAN,R.; RAMSEY,A.; ROQUEMORE,A.; SKINNER,C.; SABBAGH,S.; STUTMAN,D.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.; WILSON,J.R.; ZWEBEN,S.

    2000-05-25

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) started plasma operations in February 1999, and promptly achieved high current, inner wall limited, double null, and single null plasma discharges, initial Coaxial Helicity Injection, and High Harmonic Fast Wave results. NSTX is designed to study the physics of Spherical Tori (ST) in a device that can produce non-inductively sustained high-{beta} discharges in the 1 MA regime and to explore approaches toward a small, economical high power density ST reactor core. As expected, discharge reproducibility and performance were strongly affected by wall conditions. In this paper, the authors describe the internal geometry, and initial plasma discharge, impurity control, wall conditioning, erosion, and deposition results.

  10. Wall conditioning and particle control in Extrap T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Larsson, D.; Brunsell, P.; Möller, A.; Tramontin, L.

    1997-02-01

    The Extrap T2 reversed field pinch experiment is operated with the former OHTE vacuum vessel, of dimensions R = 1.24 m and a = 0.18 m and with a complete graphite liner. It is shown that a rudimentary density control can be achieved by means of frequent helium glow discharge conditioning of the wall. The standard He-GDC is well characterized and reproducible. The trapping and release of hydrogen and impurities at the wall surfaces have been studied by mass spectrometry and surface analysis. The shot to shot particle exchange between wall and plasma can be approximately accounted for.

  11. Burden of serious fungal infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, N; Samayoa, B; Lau-Bonilla, D; Denning, D W; Herrera, R; Mercado, D; Guzmán, B; Pérez, J C; Arathoon, E

    2017-06-01

    Guatemala is a developing country in Central America with a high burden of HIV and endemic fungal infections; we attempted to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections for the country. A full literature search was done to identify epidemiology papers reporting fungal infections from Guatemala. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in the population to estimate national rates. The population of Guatemala in 2013 was 15.4 million; 40% were younger than 15 and 6.2% older than 60. There are an estimated 53,000 adults with HIV infection, in 2015, most presenting late. The estimated cases of opportunistic fungal infections were: 705 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, 408 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 816 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 16,695 cases of oral candidiasis, and 4,505 cases of esophageal candidiasis. In the general population, an estimated 5,568 adult asthmatics have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) based on a 2.42% prevalence of asthma and a 2.5% ABPA proportion. Amongst 2,452 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, we estimated a prevalence of 495 for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in this group, and 1,484 for all conditions. An estimated 232,357 cases of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is likely. Overall, 1.7% of the population are affected by these conditions. The true fungal infection burden in Guatemala is unknown. Tools and training for improved diagnosis are needed. Additional research on prevalence is needed to employ public health measures towards treatment and improving the reported data of fungal diseases.

  12. Structure of fungal oxyluciferin, the product of the bioluminescence reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, K V; Osipova, Z M; Petushkov, V N; Rodionova, N S; Tsarkova, A S; Kotlobay, A A; Chepurnykh, T V; Gorokhovatsky, A Yu; Yampolsky, I V; Gitelson, J I

    2017-11-01

    The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was determined, the enzymatic bioluminescence reaction under substrate saturation conditions with discrete monitoring of formed products was conducted, and the structures of the end products of the reaction were established. On the basis of these studies, the scheme of oxyluciferin degradation to the end products was developed. The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was confirmed by counter synthesis.

  13. Verification of the karst flow model under laboratory controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Andric, Ivo; Malenica, Luka; Srzic, Veljko

    2016-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very important groundwater resources around the world as well as in coastal part of Croatia. They consist of extremely complex structure defining by slow and laminar porous medium and small fissures and usually fast turbulent conduits/karst channels. Except simple lumped hydrological models that ignore high karst heterogeneity, full hydraulic (distributive) models have been developed exclusively by conventional finite element and finite volume elements considering complete karst heterogeneity structure that improves our understanding of complex processes in karst. Groundwater flow modeling in complex karst aquifers are faced by many difficulties such as a lack of heterogeneity knowledge (especially conduits), resolution of different spatial/temporal scales, connectivity between matrix and conduits, setting of appropriate boundary conditions and many others. Particular problem of karst flow modeling is verification of distributive models under real aquifer conditions due to lack of above-mentioned information. Therefore, we will show here possibility to verify karst flow models under the laboratory controlled conditions. Special 3-D karst flow model (5.6*2.6*2 m) consists of concrete construction, rainfall platform, 74 piezometers, 2 reservoirs and other supply equipment. Model is filled by fine sand (3-D porous matrix) and drainage plastic pipes (1-D conduits). This model enables knowledge of full heterogeneity structure including position of different sand layers as well as conduits location and geometry. Moreover, we know geometry of conduits perforation that enable analysis of interaction between matrix and conduits. In addition, pressure and precipitation distribution and discharge flow rates from both phases can be measured very accurately. These possibilities are not present in real sites what this model makes much more useful for karst flow modeling. Many experiments were performed under different controlled conditions such as different

  14. Thermophysical Properties Measurement of High-Temperature Liquids Under Microgravity Conditions in Controlled Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Ozawa, Shumpei; Mizuno, Akotoshi; Hibiya, Taketoshi; Kawauchi, Hiroya; Murai, Kentaro; Takahashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity conditions have advantages of measurement of surface tension and viscosity of metallic liquids by the oscillating drop method with an electromagnetic levitation (EML) device. Thus, we are preparing the experiments of thermophysical properties measurements using the Materials-Science Laboratories ElectroMagnetic-Levitator (MSL-EML) facilities in the international Space station (ISS). Recently, it has been identified that dependence of surface tension on oxygen partial pressure (Po2) must be considered for industrial application of surface tension values. Effect of Po2 on surface tension would apparently change viscosity from the damping oscillation model. Therefore, surface tension and viscosity must be measured simultaneously in the same atmospheric conditions. Moreover, effect of the electromagnetic force (EMF) on the surface oscillations must be clarified to obtain the ideal surface oscillation because the EMF works as the external force on the oscillating liquid droplets, so extensive EMF makes apparently the viscosity values large. In our group, using the parabolic flight levitation experimental facilities (PFLEX) the effect of Po2 and external EMF on surface oscillation of levitated liquid droplets was systematically investigated for the precise measurements of surface tension and viscosity of high temperature liquids for future ISS experiments. We performed the observation of surface oscillations of levitated liquid alloys using PFLEX on board flight experiments by Gulfstream II (G-II) airplane operated by DAS. These observations were performed under the controlled Po2 and also under the suitable EMF conditions. In these experiments, we obtained the density, the viscosity and the surface tension values of liquid Cu. From these results, we discuss about as same as reported data, and also obtained the difference of surface oscillations with the change of the EMF conditions.

  15. From conservative to reactive transport under diffusion-controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Tristan; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2016-05-01

    We assess the possibility to use conservative transport information, such as that contained in transit time distributions, breakthrough curves and tracer tests, to predict nonlinear fluid-rock interactions in fracture/matrix or mobile/immobile conditions. Reference simulated data are given by conservative and reactive transport simulations in several diffusive porosity structures differing by their topological organization. Reactions includes nonlinear kinetically controlled dissolution and desorption. Effective Multi-Rate Mass Transfer models (MRMT) are calibrated solely on conservative transport information without pore topology information and provide concentration distributions on which effective reaction rates are estimated. Reference simulated reaction rates and effective reaction rates evaluated by MRMT are compared, as well as characteristic desorption and dissolution times. Although not exactly equal, these indicators remain very close whatever the porous structure, differing at most by 0.6% and 10% for desorption and dissolution. At early times, this close agreement arises from the fine characterization of the diffusive porosity close to the mobile zone that controls fast mobile-diffusive exchanges. At intermediate to late times, concentration gradients are strongly reduced by diffusion, and reactivity can be captured by a very limited number of rates. We conclude that effective models calibrated solely on conservative transport information like MRMT can accurately estimate monocomponent kinetically controlled nonlinear fluid-rock interactions. Their relevance might extend to more advanced biogeochemical reactions because of the good characterization of conservative concentration distributions, even by parsimonious models (e.g., MRMT with 3-5 rates). We propose a methodology to estimate reactive transport from conservative transport in mobile-immobile conditions.

  16. Energy Analysis for Air Conditioning System Using Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Nasution

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption and to ensure thermal comfort are two important considerations for the designing an air conditioning system. An alternative approach to reduce energy consumption proposed in this study is to use a variable speed compressor. The control strategy will be proposed using the fuzzy logic controller (FLC. FLC was developed to imitate the performance of human expert operators by encoding their knowledge in the form of linguistic rules. The system is installed on a thermal environmental room with a data acquisition system to monitor the temperature of the room, coefficient of performance (COP, energy consumption and energy saving. The measurements taken during the two hour experimental periods at 5-minutes interval times for temperature setpoints of 20oC, 22oC and 24oC with internal heat loads 0, 500, 700 and 1000 W. The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique can save energy in comparison with On/Off and proportional-integral-derivative (PID control.

  17. Fuel conditioning facility zone-to-zone transfer administrative controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    The administrative controls associated with transferring containers from one criticality hazard control zone to another in the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) are described. FCF, located at the ANL-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, is used to remotely process spent sodium bonded metallic fuel for disposition. The process involves nearly forty widely varying material forms and types, over fifty specific use container types, and over thirty distinct zones where work activities occur. During 1999, over five thousand transfers from one zone to another were conducted. Limits are placed on mass, material form and type, and container types for each zone. Ml material and containers are tracked using the Mass Tracking System (MTG). The MTG uses an Oracle database and numerous applications to manage the database. The database stores information specific to the process, including material composition and mass, container identification number and mass, transfer history, and the operators involved in each transfer. The process is controlled using written procedures which specify the zone, containers, and material involved in a task. Transferring a container from one zone to another is called a zone-to-zone transfer (ZZT). ZZTs consist of four distinct phases, select, request, identify, and completion

  18. A robust model predictive control strategy for improving the control performance of air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gongsheng; Wang Shengwei; Xu Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a robust model predictive control strategy for improving the supply air temperature control of air-handling units by dealing with the associated uncertainties and constraints directly. This strategy uses a first-order plus time-delay model with uncertain time-delay and system gain to describe air-conditioning process of an air-handling unit usually operating at various weather conditions. The uncertainties of the time-delay and system gain, which imply the nonlinearities and the variable dynamic characteristics, are formulated using an uncertainty polytope. Based on this uncertainty formulation, an offline LMI-based robust model predictive control algorithm is employed to design a robust controller for air-handling units which can guarantee a good robustness subject to uncertainties and constraints. The proposed robust strategy is evaluated in a dynamic simulation environment of a variable air volume air-conditioning system in various operation conditions by comparing with a conventional PI control strategy. The robustness analysis of both strategies under different weather conditions is also presented.

  19. Cooling water conditioning and quality control for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootgeld, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    Designers and operators of Tokamaks and all associated water cooled, peripheral equipment, are faced with the task of providing and maintaining closed-loop, low conductivity, low impurity, cooling water systems. Most of these systems must provide large volumes of high quality cooling water at reasonable cost and comply with local and state government orders and EPA mandated national pretreatment standards and regulations. This paper discusses the DIII-D water quality requirements, the means used to obtain the necessary quality and the instrumentation used for control and monitoring. Costs to mechanically and chemically condition and maintain water quality are discussed as well as the various aspects of complying with government standards and regulations

  20. Nondestructive techniques for the control of conditioned radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delprato, U.

    1987-01-01

    The final product of the radwaste conditioning process must satisfy certain requirments and physico-chemical properties in order to assure its safe long-term behaviour. Of course, the foreseen quality assurance and quality control should be conducted by means of non-destructive techniques. This work presents an over-view of various applicable non-destructive methods of analysis, showing their fields of investigation in testing waste packages, together with some arising practical problems. The most promising methods, such as eddy current testing, ultrasonic testing, γ-scanning, γ-spectroscopy, neutron counting and computerized tomography, are treated more deeply and some applications are presented. Particular attention is devoted to the development of a device based on computerized tomography; its essential components are reported and some design problems are also discussed

  1. Material Control and Accountability Experience at the Fuel Conditioning Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D.; Fredrickson, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) treats spent nuclear fuel using an electrometallurgical process that separates the uranium from the fission products, sodium thermal bond, and cladding materials. Material accountancy is necessary at FCF for two reasons: 1) it provides a mechanism for detecting a potential loss of nuclear material for safeguards and security, and 2) it provides a periodic check of inventories to ensure that processes and materials are within control limits. Material Control and Accountability is also a Department of Energy (DOE) requirement (DOE Order 474.1). The FCF employs a computer based Mass Tracking (MTG) System to collect, store, retrieve, and process data on all operations that directly affect the flow of materials through the FCF. The MTG System is important for the operations of the FCF because it supports activities such as material control and accountability, criticality safety, and process modeling. To conduct material control and accountability checks and to monitor process performance, mass balances are routinely performed around the process equipment. The equipment used in FCF for pyro-processing consists of two mechanical choppers and two electro-refiners (the Mark-IV with the accompanying element chopper and Mark-V with the accompanying blanket chopper for processing driver fuel and blanket, respectively), and a cathode processor (used for processing both driver fuel and blanket) and casting furnace (mostly used for processing driver fuel). Performing mass balances requires the measurement of the masses and compositions of several process streams and equipment inventories. The masses of process streams are obtained via in-cell balances (i.e., load cells) that weigh containers entering and leaving the process equipment. Samples taken at key locations are analyzed to determine the composition of process streams and equipment inventories. In cases where equipment or containers cannot be

  2. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...

  3. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential

  4. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, B.W.W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels. - Highlights: • Storage of papaya extended to 28 days whilst retaining commercial quality. • Additive effect of low gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min) and hot-water treatment. • Significant reduction in surface fungal lesions. • No significant impact on colour change or flesh quality during storage

  5. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  6. Modelling fungal sink competitiveness with grains for assimilates in wheat infected by a biotrophic pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Hansart, Amandine; Sache, Ivan; Bancal, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Experiments have shown that biotrophic fungi divert assimilates for their growth. However, no attempt has been made either to account for this additional sink or to predict to what extent it competes with both grain filling and plant reserve metabolism for carbon. Fungal sink competitiveness with grains was quantified by a mixed experimental–modelling approach based on winter wheat infected by Puccinia triticina. Methods One week after anthesis, plants grown under controlled conditions were inoculated with varying loads. Sporulation was recorded while plants underwent varying degrees of shading, ensuring a range of both fungal sink and host source levels. Inoculation load significantly increased both sporulating area and rate. Shading significantly affected net assimilation, reserve mobilization and sporulating area, but not grain filling or sporulation rates. An existing carbon partitioning (source–sink) model for wheat during the grain filling period was then enhanced, in which two parameters characterize every sink: carriage capacity and substrate affinity. Fungal sink competitiveness with host sources and sinks was modelled by representing spore production as another sink in diseased wheat during grain filling. Key Results Data from the experiment were fitted to the model to provide the fungal sink parameters. Fungal carriage capacity was 0·56 ± 0·01 µg dry matter °Cd−1 per lesion, much less than grain filling capacity, even in highly infected plants; however, fungal sporulation had a competitive priority for assimilates over grain filling. Simulation with virtual crops accounted for the importance of the relative contribution of photosynthesis loss, anticipated reserve depletion and spore production when light level and disease severity vary. The grain filling rate was less reduced than photosynthesis; however, over the long term, yield loss could double because the earlier reserve depletion observed here would shorten the

  7. The speed control of DC motor under the load condition using PI and PID controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corapsiz, Muhammed Reşit; Kahveci, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare PI (Proportional-Integral) and PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controllers for speed control of Permanent Magnet Direct Current (PMDC) motor under both load and without load. For this purpose, firstly, the mathematical model was obtained from the dynamic equations of the PMDC motor and the obtained mathematical model was transferred to the simulation environment and modeled using Matlab/SIMULINK. Following the modeling process, PI and PID controller structures were formed, respectively. Secondly, after these structures were formed, the PMDC motor was run without any controller. Then, the control of the PMDC motor with no load was provided by using PI and PID controllers. Finally, the PMDC motor were loaded under the constant load (TL = 3 N.m.) for each condition and selected time period (t = 3 s). The obtained result for each control operations was comparatively given by observing effects of loading process on systems. When the obtained results were evaluated for each condition, it was observed that PID controller have the best performance with respect to PI controller.

  8. Fungal prostatitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayayo, Emilio; Fernández-Silva, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    Prostate pathology is a daily occurrence in urological and general medical consultations. Besides hyperplasia and neoplastic pathology, other processes, such as infectious ones, are also documented. Their etiology is diverse and varied. Within the infectious prostatic processes, fungi can also be a specific cause of prostatitis. Fungal prostatitis often appears in patients with impaired immunity and can also be rarely found in healthy patients. It can result from a disseminated infection, but it can also be localized. Fungal prostatitis is a nonspecific and harmless process. Diagnosis is commonly made by fine needle aspiration cytology or by biopsy. A number of fungi can be involved. Although there are not many reported cases, they are becoming more frequent, in particular in patients with some degree of immunodeficiency or those who live in areas where specific fungi are endemic or in visitors of those areas. We present a comprehensive review of the various forms of fungal prostatitis, and we describe the morphological characteristics of the fungi more frequently reported as causes of fungal prostatitis. We also report our own experience, aiming to alert physicians, urologists and pathologists of these particular infections.

  9. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  10. The Fungal Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitman, Joseph; Howlett, B.J.; Crous, P.W.; Stukenbrock, E.H.; James, T.Y.; Gow, N.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi research and knowledge grew rapidly following recent advances in genetics and genomics. This book synthesizes new knowledge with existing information to stimulate new scientific questions and propel fungal scientists on to the next stages of research. This book is a comprehensive guide on

  11. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Biomimetic propulsion under random heaving conditions, using active pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Gerasimos; Politis, Konstantinos

    2014-05-01

    Marine mammals travel long distances by utilizing and transforming wave energy to thrust through proper control of their caudal fin. On the other hand, manmade ships traveling in a wavy sea store large amounts of wave energy in the form of kinetic energy for heaving, pitching, rolling and other ship motions. A natural way to extract this energy and transform it to useful propulsive thrust is by using a biomimetic wing. The aim of this paper is to show how an actively pitched biomimetic wing could achieve this goal when it performs a random heaving motion. More specifically, we consider a biomimetic wing traveling with a given translational velocity in an infinitely extended fluid and performing a random heaving motion with a given energy spectrum which corresponds to a given sea state. A formula is invented by which the instantaneous pitch angle of the wing is determined using the heaving data of the current and past time steps. Simulations are then performed for a biomimetic wing at different heave energy spectra, using an indirect Source-Doublet 3-D-BEM, together with a time stepping algorithm capable to track the random motion of the wing. A nonlinear pressure type Kutta condition is applied at the trailing edge of the wing. With a mollifier-based filtering technique, the 3-D unsteady rollup pattern created by the random motion of the wing is calculated without any simplifying assumptions regarding its geometry. Calculated unsteady forces, moments and useful power, show that the proposed active pitch control always results in thrust producing motions, with significant propulsive power production and considerable beneficial stabilizing action to ship motions. Calculation of the power required to set the pitch angle prove it to be a very small percentage of the useful power and thus making the practical application of the device very tractable.

  13. Towards the control of car underhood thermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled, Mahmoud; Harambat, Fabien; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports an experimental study of the aerothermal phenomena in the vehicle underhood compartment as investigated by measuring temperature, convective heat flux, and radiative heat flux. Measurements are carried out on a passenger vehicle in wind tunnel S4 of Saint-Cyr-France. The underhood space is instrumented by 120 surface and air thermocouples and 20 fluxmeters. Measurements are performed for three thermal functioning conditions while the engine is in operation and the front wheels are positioned on the test facility with power-absorption-controlled rollers. In the thermal analysis, particular attention is given to measuring absorbed convective heat fluxes at component surfaces. It is shown that, in some components, the outside air entering the engine compartment (for cooling certain components) can in fact heat other components. This problem arises from the underhood architecture, specifically the positioning of some components downstream of warmer components in the same airflow. Optimized thermal management suggests placing these components further upstream or isolating them from the hot stream by deflectors. Given style constraints, however, the use of air deflectors is more suitable than underhood architectural changes. Much of the present paper is devoted to heat flux analysis of the specific thermal behaviours in the underhood compartment (especially the absorption of convective heat fluxes) and to a description of a new control approach exploiting air deflectors to optimize underhood aerothermal management. - Research highlights: → We present a physical analysis of particular underhood aerothermal behaviors. → In this analysis, convective heat flux absorption should be noted. → A new optimization procedure based on this physical analysis is proposed. → It entails airflow redistribution in the underhood through deflectors. → The new procedures are simple and easy to implement in the car underhood.

  14. Hydrologic conditions controlling runoff generation immediately after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the control of postwildfire runoff by physical and hydraulic properties of soil, hydrologic states, and an ash layer immediately following wildfire. The field site is within the area burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in Colorado, USA. Physical and hydraulic property characterization included ash thickness, particle size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, and soil water retention curves. Soil water content and matric potential were measured indirectly at several depths below the soil surface to document hydrologic states underneath the ash layer in the unsaturated zone, whereas precipitation and surface runoff were measured directly. Measurements of soil water content showed that almost no water infiltrated below the ash layer into the near-surface soil in the burned site at the storm time scale (i.e., minutes to hours). Runoff generation processes were controlled by and highly sensitive to ash thickness and ash hydraulic properties. The ash layer stored from 97% to 99% of rainfall, which was critical for reducing runoff amounts. The hydrologic response to two rain storms with different rainfall amounts, rainfall intensity, and durations, only ten days apart, indicated that runoff generation was predominantly by the saturation-excess mechanism perched at the ash-soil interface during the first storm and predominantly by the infiltration-excess mechanism at the ash surface during the second storm. Contributing area was not static for the two storms and was 4% (saturation excess) to 68% (infiltration excess) of the catchment area. Our results showed the importance of including hydrologic conditions and hydraulic properties of the ash layer in postwildfire runoff generation models.

  15. Control of ergosterol producer fungi contaminating cereal grains by certain environmental conditions and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Existence of ergosterol in grains usually gives an indication that these grains are contaminated by ergosterol producing fungi. So, ergosterol concentration could be a suitable marker for estimation of fungal contamination range in cereal grains. Thirty eight fungal isolates were isolated from maize, sorghum and barley grains. Alternaria, Cladosporium and Aspergillus were the most common fungal genera among these isolates and they were tested for ergosterol production. The highest ergosterol producing fungi were identified as Alternaria alternaria, Cladosporium herbarum and Aspergillus niger var.niger. The present results indicate that the most suitable conditions for producing ergosterol by these strains in maize grains were found to be at 25 degree C for 30 days. Exposing the artificially contaminated maize grains by the above three strains (10 7 CFU/ml) to increasing dose levels of gamma rays up to 10 kGy and storing for 30 days, gradually decreased the production of ergosterol to 7.9, 6.2 and 1.5 mg/g dry weight of grains by A. alternata and C.herbarum and A. niger var. niger, respectively. D 10 values of the tested three isolates in maize grains were found to be 2, 1.61, and 1.2 kGy, respectively. The results showed that cold storage (10 degree C) clearly decreased the activity of the tested fungi for producing ergosterol during the storage periods, and a dose level of 15 kGy was quite enough to free the grains from A. alternata, Cladosporium herbarum and A. niger var. niger, regardless the contamination level of grains with these ergosterol producer fungus

  16. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. An investigation into the actual condition of radiation safety control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsurayama, Kosuke

    1976-01-01

    The result of investigation on the real condition of radiation safety control is reported with some considerations. The investigation was made in April, 1975, by means of questionnaires to 418 companies, and the responses were obtained from 126 companies, i.e. 11 research laboratories, 98 manufacturing factories, and 17 inspection facilities. The average integrated dose in the inspection facilities was 0.91 rem/year, the most among three. The exposure dose in most of the research laboratories and manufacturing factories investigated was within the limit of 0.5 rem/year, and that in the inspection facilities was distributed over from the background level to 5 rem/year. The ratios of the workers engaged in radiation operation and the workers possessing the licences related to non-destructive examination to all employees were investigated, but they were not at satisfactory level. Regarding the abandonment of radioactive isotopes, 63.5% of the companies answered deliver the radioactive isotopes to be abandoned to Japan Isotope Association, and 25.7% let equipment makers to take them back. As for the education and training of operators for the safe treatment of radioactive substances and the prevention of accidents, most of the companies answered gave the education once or twice a year, and to those who just entered the companies, but more substantial education in desirable. (Nishino, S.)

  18. Radioactive contamination of Bunodosoma caissarum under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gouvea, R. de C. dos; Santos, P.L. dos

    The kinetics of uptake and release of radionuclides 137 Cs, 131 I, 133 Ba, 51 Cr (III and VI), 60 Co and 65 Zn in the 'cnidaria' Bunodosoma caissarum have been studied. This is an exclusively Brazilian species and easily collected on the Rio de Janeiro coastal waters. The kinetic experiments have been made in aquariums of 1000 cm 3 , in laboratory under controlled conditions and accompanied by single channel radiometry. The velocities of concentration were evident to radionuclides 131 I and 133 Ba. The larger concentration factors were registred to 51 Cr (III), 65 Zn and 51 Cr (VI), with middle values of 20,0 , 14,5 and 8,6 respectively. The same radionuclides stood out in the loss experiments, presenting the following biological half-lives : 292,2 h ( 51 Cr-III), 784,0 h ( 51 Cr-VI) and 823,0 h ( 65 Zn). This expressive value for the 65 Zn suggests a probable biological integration of this radionuclide by the species studied. The results allow us to indicate the 'anthozoa' Bunodosoma caissarum as a bioindicator of the radioactive contamination of the marine environment. (Author) [pt

  19. Cooling water conditioning and quality control for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootgeld, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Designers and operators of Tokamaks and all associated water cooled, peripheral equipment, are faced with the task of providing and maintaining closed-loop, low conductivity, low impurity, cooling water systems. The primary reason for supplying low conductivity water to the DIII-D vacuum vessel coils, power supplies and auxiliary heating components is to assure, along with the use of a non-conducting break in the supply piping, sufficient electrical resistance and thus an acceptable current-leakage path to ground at operating voltage potentials. As important, good quality cooling water significantly reduces the likelihood of scaling and fouling of flow passages and heat transfer surfaces. Dissolved oxygen gas removal is also required in one major DIII-D cooling water system to minimize corrosion in the ion sources of the neutral beam injectors. Currently, the combined pumping capacity of the high quality cooling water systems at DIII-D is ∼5,000 gpm. Another area that receives close attention at DIII-D is the chemical treatment of the water used in the cooling towers. This paper discusses the DIII-D water quality requirements, the means used to obtain the necessary quality and the instrumentation used for control and monitoring. Costs to mechanically and chemically condition and maintain water quality are discussed as well as the various aspects of complying with government standards and regulations

  20. Optimizing grade-control drillhole spacing with conditional simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martínez-Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a method to determine the optimum spacing of grade-control drillholes drilled with reverse-circulation. The optimum drillhole spacing was defined as that one whose cost equals the cost of misclassifying ore and waste in selection mining units (SMU. The cost of misclassification of a given drillhole spacing is equal to the cost of processing waste misclassified as ore (Type I error plus the value of the ore misclassified as waste (Type II error. Type I and Type II errors were deduced by comparing true and estimated grades at SMUs, in relation to a cuttoff grade value and assuming free ore selection. True grades at SMUs and grades at drillhole samples were generated with conditional simulations. A set of estimated grades at SMU, one per each drillhole spacing, were generated with ordinary kriging. This method was used to determine the optimum drillhole spacing in a gold deposit. The results showed that the cost of misclassification is sensitive to extreme block values and tend to be overrepresented. Capping SMU’s lost values and implementing diggability constraints was recommended to improve calculations of total misclassification costs.

  1. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum in controlling the tick Rhipicephalus annulatus under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M; Rot, A; Ment, D; Barel, S; Glazer, I; Gindin, G

    2014-12-15

    High infectivity of entomopathogenic fungi to ticks under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the few reports on their use under field conditions demonstrate large variations in their success, often with no clear explanation. The present study evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium brunneum against the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. It demonstrates how environmental conditions and ground cover affect the efficiency of the fungus under field conditions. During the summer, 93% of tick females exposed to fungus-contaminated ground died within 1 week, whereas during the winter, only 62.2% died within 6 weeks. Nevertheless, the hatchability of their eggs was only 6.1% during the summer and 0.0% during winter. Covering the ground with grass, leaves or gravel improved fungal performance. Aside from killing female ticks, the fungus had a substantial effect on tick fecundity. Fungal infection reduced the proportion of female ticks laying full-size egg masses by up to 91%, and reduced egg hatchability by up to 100%. To reduce the negative effect of outdoor factors on fungal activity, its conidia were mixed with different oils (olive, canola, mineral or paraffin at 10% v/v) and evaluated in both laboratory and field tests for efficacy. All tested oils without conidia sprayed on the sand did not influence tick survival or weight of the laid eggs but significantly reduced egghatchability. Conidia in water with canola or mineral oil spread on agarose and incubated for 18 h showed 57% and 0% germination, respectively. Comparing, under laboratory conditions, the effects of adding each of the four oils to conidia in water on ticks demonstrated no effect on female mortality or weight of the laid egg mass, but the percentage of hatched eggs was reduced. In outdoor trials, female ticks placed on the ground sprayed with conidia in water yielded an average of 175 larvae per female and there was no hatching of

  2. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Continella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local an....... The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels....... and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green...... and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability...

  3. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P; Chmielewski, Frank-M

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar 'Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  4. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  5. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis: a rare but severe complication of liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravito-Soares, Marta; Gravito-Soares, Elisa; Lopes, Sandra; Ribeiro, Graça; Figueiredo, Pedro

    2017-09-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the most common infectious complication in cirrhosis. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis is rare and remains unknown. In this work, spontaneous fungal peritonitis as well as risk factors and prognosis are characterized. A retrospective case-control study of 253 consecutive admissions by peritonitis in cirrhotic patients was carried out between 2006 and 2015. Comparison of patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis (cases) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with positive microbiologic ascitic fluid culture (controls) was performed. Variables such as sociodemographic and clinical features, cirrhosis etiology, liver dysfunction scores, ascitic and laboratory parameters, invasive procedures, and prognosis were evaluated. Of the 231 patients, eight (3.5%) developed spontaneous fungal peritonitis, 62.5% of cases being coinfected with bacteria. Candida spp. was isolated in 87.5% of cases, mainly Candida albicans (37.5%) and C. krusei (25.0%). Patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis had higher ascitic fluid lactate dehydrogenase (288.4±266.6 vs. 161.0±179.5; P=0.011), blood leukocyte count (15187.5±5432.3 vs. 10969.8±6949.5; P=0.028), blood urea nitrogen (69.8±3.1 vs. 36.3±25.5; P=0.001), higher number of invasive procedures (colonoscopy: 25.0 vs. 0.8%, P=0.001; urinary catheterization: 87.5 vs. 49.6%, P=0.038; nasogastric intubation: 87.5 vs. 26.9%, P=0.001), and longer duration of hospital stay (30.0±32.9 vs. 18.9±17.0 days; P=0.031). No statistical difference was found between the two groups for Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-sodium, and Child-Pugh scores. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis was associated with a worse prognosis, particularly severe sepsis/septic shock (87.5 vs. 42.8%, P=0.023), admission in the gastroenterology intensive care unit (87.5 vs. 24.4%; P=0.001), and overall (62.5 vs. 31.9%; P=0.039) or 30-day mortality (50.0 vs. 24.4%; P=0.034), with a mean diagnosis

  6. Switching robust control synthesis for teleoperation via dwell time conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Martínez, C.A.; van de Molengraft, M.J.G.; Steinbuch, M.; Auvray, M.; Duriez, C.

    2014-01-01

    Control design for bilateral teleoperation is still an open problem, given that it is desirable to meet a proper balance in the inherent trade-off between transparency and stability. We propose the use of switching robust control, in which smooth switching among controllers is achieved by the

  7. Muscarinic receptors in amygdala control trace fear conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber N Baysinger

    Full Text Available Intelligent behavior requires transient memory, which entails the ability to retain information over short time periods. A newly-emerging hypothesis posits that endogenous persistent firing (EPF is the neurophysiological foundation for aspects or types of transient memory. EPF is enabled by the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and is triggered by suprathreshold stimulation. EPF occurs in several brain regions, including the lateral amygdala (LA. The present study examined the role of amygdalar mAChRs in trace fear conditioning, a paradigm that requires transient memory. If mAChR-dependent EPF selectively supports transient memory, then blocking amygdalar mAChRs should impair trace conditioning, while sparing delay and context conditioning, which presumably do not rely upon transient memory. To test the EPF hypothesis, LA was bilaterally infused, prior to trace or delay conditioning, with either a mAChR antagonist (scopolamine or saline. Computerized video analysis quantified the amount of freezing elicited by the cue and by the training context. Scopolamine infusion profoundly reduced freezing in the trace conditioning group but had no significant effect on delay or context conditioning. This pattern of results was uniquely anticipated by the EPF hypothesis. The present findings are discussed in terms of a systems-level theory of how EPF in LA and several other brain regions might help support trace fear conditioning.

  8. Muscarinic receptors in amygdala control trace fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysinger, Amber N; Kent, Brianne A; Brown, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent behavior requires transient memory, which entails the ability to retain information over short time periods. A newly-emerging hypothesis posits that endogenous persistent firing (EPF) is the neurophysiological foundation for aspects or types of transient memory. EPF is enabled by the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and is triggered by suprathreshold stimulation. EPF occurs in several brain regions, including the lateral amygdala (LA). The present study examined the role of amygdalar mAChRs in trace fear conditioning, a paradigm that requires transient memory. If mAChR-dependent EPF selectively supports transient memory, then blocking amygdalar mAChRs should impair trace conditioning, while sparing delay and context conditioning, which presumably do not rely upon transient memory. To test the EPF hypothesis, LA was bilaterally infused, prior to trace or delay conditioning, with either a mAChR antagonist (scopolamine) or saline. Computerized video analysis quantified the amount of freezing elicited by the cue and by the training context. Scopolamine infusion profoundly reduced freezing in the trace conditioning group but had no significant effect on delay or context conditioning. This pattern of results was uniquely anticipated by the EPF hypothesis. The present findings are discussed in terms of a systems-level theory of how EPF in LA and several other brain regions might help support trace fear conditioning.

  9. Condition-based Human Reliability Assessment for digitalized control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. G.; Jang, S. C.; Eom, H. S.; Ha, J. J.

    2005-04-01

    In safety-critical systems, the generation failure of an actuation signal is caused by the concurrent failures of the automated systems and an operator action. These two sources of safety signals are complicatedly correlated. The failures of sensors or automated systems will cause a lack of necessary information for a human operator and result in error-forcing contexts such as the loss of corresponding alarms and indications. In the conventional analysis, the Human Error Probabilities (HEP) are estimated based on the assumption of 'normal condition of indications and alarms'. In order to construct a more realistic signal-generation failure model, we have to consider more complicated conditions in a more realistic manner. In this study, we performed two kinds of investigation for addressing this issue. We performed the analytic calculations for estimating the effect of sensors failures on the system unavailability and plant risk. For the single-parameter safety signals, the analysis result reveals that the quantification of the HEP should be performed by focusing on the 'no alarm from the automatic system and corresponding indications unavailable' situation. This study also proposes a Condition-Based Human Reliability Assessment (CBHRA) method in order to address these complicated conditions in a practical way. We apply the CBHRA method to the manual actuation of the safety features such as a reactor trip and auxiliary feedwater actuation in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants. In the case of conventional single HEP method, it is very hard to consider the multiple HE conditions. The merit of CBHRA is clearly shown in the application to the AFAS generation where no dominating HE condition exits. In this case, even if the HE conditions are carefully investigated, the single HEP method cannot accommodate the multiple conditions in a fault tree. On the other hand, the application result of the reactor trip in SLOCA shows that if there is a dominating condition, the use

  10. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  11. Direct Digital Control of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    controller func- tions such as time-of-day, economizer cycles, reset, load shedding, chiller optimization , VAV fan synchronization, and optimum start/stop...control system such as that illustrated in Fig- urc 4. Data on setpoints , reset schedules, and event timing, such as that presented in Figure 6, are...program code (Figure 7). In addition to the control logic, setpoint and other data are readily available. Program logi:, setpoint and schedule data, and

  12. 42 CFR 494.30 - Condition: Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of potentially infectious waste; and (ii) Cleaning and disinfection of contaminated surfaces, medical... adjacent hospital or other public areas. (a) Standard: Procedures for infection control. The facility must...

  13. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  14. Robust Control of an Ill-Conditioned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, S.G.; Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Grimble, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point.......A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point....

  15. Control of DFIG-WT under unbalanced grid voltage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Alvaro; Lina, Kleber; Corcoles, Felipe

    2009-01-01

    The voltage oriented control in the synchronous reference frame (VOC-SRF) have been extensively used for controlling wind turbines based on doubly fed induction generators (DFIG-WTs) through the rotor side converter of a back to back power processor. Although its performance is fast and accurate ...

  16. Actual conditions of radiation control in radioisotope utilization field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihara, Koji

    1980-01-01

    It may be said that the actual conditions on radiation safety are being improved in utilizing radioisotopes or radiation in Japan. It depends greatly on the results of the voluntary effort of users and the regulations by the ''radiation injury prevention law'' and its relevant ordinances. However, the actual conditions of the strict observation of the law are much insufficient. According to the results of official inspection in 1978, 60% of whole enterprises concerned and 73% of educational and medical organizations were judged as incomplete. Such tendency should not be left as it is, but it should also be noticed that there are realities that critical accidents or injuries have not occurred even in such conditions as many violations mentioned above. Since the existing law has not been subjected to essential revision in the past two decades, it might be said that the law does not properly fit to the present conditions because the progress of related techniques was made during this period. Meanwhile, difficulties exist in measuring the low level concentration in the use of low energy radioisotopes or tracer experiments such as in the process analysis in factories or in the analysis of the movement of trace constituent in soil. Further, there is a problem on the necessity of securing the chief technicians handling radiation, and there is the contradiction that the chief technicians are useless in normal condition but are powerless in case of accidents. This situation should be improved as soon as possible. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. [Biosorption of heavy metals in fluoritum decoction by fungal mycelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pei-wu; Hu, Wei; Hu, Ya-qiang; Tan, Zhao-yang

    2014-09-01

    To explore the biosorption technology of heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction by fungal mycelium. Four factors including fungal mycelium amount, adsorption time, pH value and temperature were employed to estimate the fungal biomass adsorption conditions for removing the heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction. Then an orthogonal experimental design was taken to optimize the biosorption process, and the removal efficiency was also evaluated. Under the optimized conditions of 1.0 g/50 mL Fluoritum decoction, 3 hours adsorption time, pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C, a result of 70.12% heavy metals removal rate was accomplished with 35.99% calcium ion loss. The study indicates that removing of heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction through fungal mycelium is feasible, and the experiment results can also provide a basis for further research on biosorption of heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicine

  18. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  19. Distributed computation of supremal conditionally-controllable sublanguages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2016), s. 424-436 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02532S; GA MŠk LH13012 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : discrete-event systems * supervisory control * coordination control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.208, year: 2016 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00207179.2015.1079736

  20. Improvement of greenhouse design and climate control in mediterranean conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzel, Yuksel; Zwart, de Feije; Sapounas, A.; Hemming, Silke; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is one of the most important areas of the world in terms of protected cultivation. Turkey, with its increasing greenhouse area, is one of the representative countries of the region. Thanks to the mild winter climatic conditions, cultivation of vegetables under simple

  1. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Rafael Selbach; Dora, José Miguel; Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Aquino, Valério; Maia, Ana Luiza; Canani, Luis Henrique; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing's original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endogenous Cushing's syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease. PMID:24470886

  2. Mixing compatibilities of Aspergillus and American cockroach allergens with other high-protease fungal and insect extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Thomas J; Hall, Dawn M; Duncan, Elizabeth A; Coyne, Terrance C

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that Alternaria and German cockroach allergens can be degraded by endogenous proteases from other insect and fungal extracts when combined for immunotherapy, but data supporting the compatibilities of other high-protease products in comparable mixtures have not been reported. To assess the stabilities and compatibilities of Aspergillus fumigatus and American cockroach allergens after mixing with protease-rich extracts from other insects or fungi at concentrations similar to those recommended for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Mixtures containing A fumigatus, American cockroach, and other fungal or insect extracts were evaluated by quantitative (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and qualitative (immunoblotting) methods. Test mixtures and control samples at 10% to 50% glycerin concentrations were analyzed after storage for up to 12 months at 2°C to 8°C. Moderate to high recoveries of Aspergillus extract activities were retained in control samples and extract mixtures under all conditions examined. American cockroach extract controls were partly degraded at 10% to 25% glycerin, and cockroach allergen compatibilities were decreased significantly in mixtures with several fungal extracts at 25% glycerin. Mixing with other insects did not compromise the stability of American cockroach allergens at 25% to 50% glycerin. Aspergillus extracts exhibited favorable stabilities after mixing with other high-protease products. American cockroach extract potencies were unstable in less than 50% glycerin, even in the absence of other protease-containing allergens, and were destabilized in mixtures with several fungal extracts. Addition of fungal and insect extracts to separate treatment vials or preparation of fungal-insect mixtures at elevated glycerin concentrations might be necessary to produce compatible patient formulations for allergen immunotherapy injections. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier

  3. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  4. Modeling of composite synthesis in conditions of controlled thermal explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukta, Yaroslav; Knyazeva, Anna

    2017-12-01

    The paper proposes the model for the titanium-based composite synthesis from powders of titanium and carbon of non-stoichiometric composition. The model takes into account the mixture heating from chamber walls, the dependence of liquidus and solidus temperatures on the composition of reacting mixture and the formation of possible irreversible phases. The reaction retardation by the reaction product is taken into consideration in kinetic laws. As an example, the results of temperature and conversion level calculation are presented for the system Ti-C with the summary reaction for different temperatures of chamber walls heating. It was revealed that the reaction retardation being the reaction product can be the cause of incomplete conversion in the thermal explosion conditions. Non-stoichiometric composition leads to the conditions of degenerated mode when some additional heating is necessary to complete the reaction.

  5. Clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in patients with fungal keratitis and to provide evidence for diagnosis and treatment of this disease.METHODS:The clinical data of 98 cases(98 eyeswith fungal keratitis from January 2012 to July 2015 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University were retrospectively reviewed.RESULTS:The main cause for fungal keratitis was corneal injury by plants. The inappropriate use of contact lenses and glucocorticoids therapy were the next cause. Almost all of the patients had hyphae moss, pseudopodia, immune ring, and satellite signs. A few of patients had endothelial plaque and anterior chamber empyema. The majority pathogens of fungal keratitis was Fusarium spp(73.5%,followed by Aspergillus spp(13.2%,Candida spp(9.2%and others(4.1%.Sixty-five patients(65 eyestreated with 5% natamycin were cured. The condition of 15 patients was improved. Eighteen patients were invalid, in which 13 patients became better and 5 patients became worse after voriconazole was added into the therapy, leading to amniotic membrance cover in 3 patients and eyeball removal in 2 patients at last.CONCLUSION:Fusarium genus is the predominant pathogen for fungal keratitis in Jingzhou. Natamycin can be used as the preferred drug for the prevention and treatment for fungal keratitis. The clinicians should pay attention to the fungal keratitis, in order to early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  6. INCIDENCE OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aims to evaluate the incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a widely prevalent condition globally as well as in India. Fungal rhinosinusitis is classified into two subgroups: three invasive forms (acute necrotizing, chronic invasive, granulomatous invasive, and two noninvasive forms (fungal ball and allergic fungal. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients attending the Department of ENT at Adesh institute of medical science & research, Bathinda (Punjab between Jan 2016 and Dec 2016 one year duration 82 cases were included in this retrospective analysis with features suggestive of chronic rhinosinusitis. Based on clinical, endoscopic and radiological parameters, 82 cases were diagnosed to have rhinosinusitis. In these cases, postoperatively after HPE examination, 16 cases were confirmed to have mycotic infection. RESULTS Out of 16 cases, In Allergic fungal rhino sinusitis(AFRS, Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus was the most common fungus isolated ten cases (71.42%.. In fungal ball, A. flavus was isolated in two cases (14.25% and Aspergillus niger (A. niger was isolated in two cases (14.25%. In invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS mucormycosis was isolated in two cases (12.5%. CONCLUSION The incidence of ARFS is about 12.2% of chronic rhinosinusitis. The commonest age group is second & third decade

  7. A microcosm for the breeding of plants under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquino, Luigi; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Minarini, Carla; Pandolfi Giuseppe; Lanza, Bruno; Atrigna, Mauro; De Filippo, Giovanni; Giannotta, Giovanni; Pedicini Antonio; Aprano Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance studies of the effects of multiple stress on plant physiology laboratory scale, in collaboration with FOS Srl and Sesmat Srl and the project application for organic PON02 0 0556 3 420580 «SMARTAGS-SMARt TAGS 'was conceived, designed and built a 'microcosm for the breeding of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditioning '. [it

  8. Exploring the potential of symbiotic fungal endophytes in cereal disease suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hanlon, Karen; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    , and environmental and health concerns surrounding the use of chemical treatments. There is currently a demand for new disease control strategies, and one such strategy involves the use of symbiotic fungal endophytes as biological control agents against fungal pathogens in cereals. Despite the fact that biological...... control by symbiotic fungal endophytes has been documented, particularly with respect to clavicipitaceous endophytes in C3 cool-season grasses, this area remains relatively underexplored in cereals. We highlight for the first time the potential in using symbiotic fungal endophytes to control foliar cereal...

  9. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  10. The evolution of fungal epiphytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hongsanan, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, S.; Crous, P.W.; Ariyawansa, H.A.; Zhao, R.L.; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal epiphytes are a polyphyletic group found on the surface of plants, particularly on leaves, with a worldwide distribution. They belong in the phylum Ascomycota, which contains the largest known number of fungal genera. There has been little research dating the origins of the common ancestors

  11. Studi Eksperimental Pengontrolan Air Conditioning System Dengan Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudirman -

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy available in Indonesia at this time is not yet sufficient for all existing activities, this can be proved byfrequent occurrence of blackouts in several areas in Indonesia. It is necessary for a saving in electrical energy consumptionin all sectors, it is one of the refrigeration system. Research was conducted by testing AC (3 HP / 3 phase using 2 differentcontrol systems, namely conventional control and FLC. Testing is done by placing the indoor units in cold storage room.Each test performed with varying load in the test room, ie no light burden, lamp 1000 Watt, and lamp 2000 Watt. Testingusing a conventional control system set point temperature 26 ° C and 3 variations of the differential is 1 , 2 and 3 , the FLCusing the temperature setting point 26 ° C. From this research we can conclude that the application of FLC system produceselectric energy consumption of the lowest compared to conventional control in this case is the differential 1. FLC applicationof electrical energy consumption at load 1000 Watt lower 11% and the load 2000 Watt 4% lower compared withconventional control in diffrensial 1.

  12. Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The paper developed artificial intelligence technique adaptive neuro-fuzzy ... system is highly appreciated and essential in most of our daily life. ... It can construct an input-output mapping based on human knowledge and specific input-output data ... fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, ...

  13. Installation of PMV Operation Program in DDC Controller and Air Conditioning Control Using PMV Directly as Set Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, Ken-Ichi

    In general, air conditioning control in a building is operated mainly by indoor air temperature control. Although the operators of the machine in the building accepted a claim for indoor air temperature presented by the building inhabitants, the indoor conditions have been often too cool or warm. Therefore, in an attempt to create better thermal environments, the author paid attention to the PMV that is a thermal comfort index. And then, the possibility of air conditioning control using the PMV directly as the set point was verified by employing actual equipment in an air conditioning testing room and an office building. Prior to the execution of this control, the operation program of the PMV was installed in a DDC controller for the air conditioning control. And information from indoor sensors and so on was inputted to the controller, and the computed PMV was used as the feedback variable.

  14. Existence conditions of optimal trajectories in dynamic control processes; Conditions d'existence de trajectoires optimales des processus dynamiques commandes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnemay-Juricek, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The existence of solutions in the optimal control problems with free endpoints is studied in this report and existence conditions are established without the usual assumption that the control region is convex. Furthermore the results, in order to be of some utility in physical applications, are expressed only by means of conditions on the parameters defining the system. (author) [French] Ce rapport etudie l'existence de solutions optimales dans les problemes de commande ou le point terminal est libre et ou la duree de l'evolution du systeme a optimiser est connue. Des conditions d'existence y sont formulees sans recourir a l'hypothese usuelle de convexite du domaine des valeurs des commandes. De plus on a cherche a rendre utilisables les resultats en ne faisant porter les conditions que sur les parametres directement accessibles du systeme. (auteur)

  15. Lignin depolymerization by fungal secretomes and a microbial sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Katahira, Rui; Cleveland, Nicholas S.; Khanna, Payal; Resch, Michael G.; Black, Brenna A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Prieto, Alicia; Martínez, María J.; Martínez, Angel T.; Simmons, Blake A.; Gladden, John M.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-08-25

    In Nature, powerful oxidative enzymes secreted by white rot fungi and some bacteria catalyze lignin depolymerization and some microbes are able to catabolize the resulting aromatic compounds as carbon and energy sources. Taken together, these two processes offer a potential route for microbial valorization of lignin. However, many challenges remain in realizing this concept, including that oxidative enzymes responsible for lignin depolymerization also catalyze polymerization of low molecular weight (LMW) lignin. Here, multiple basidiomycete secretomes were screened for ligninolytic enzyme activities in the presence of a residual lignin solid stream from a corn stover biorefinery, dubbed DMR-EH (Deacetylation, Mechanical Refining, and Enzymatic Hydrolysis) lignin. Two selected fungal secretomes, with high levels of laccases and peroxidases, were utilized for DMR-EH lignin depolymerization assays. The secretome from Pleurotus eryngii, which exhibited the highest laccase activity, reduced the lignin average molecular weight by 63% and 75% at pH 7 compared to the Mw of the control treated at the same conditions and the initial DMR-EH lignin, respectively, and was applied in further depolymerization assays as a function of time. As repolymerization was observed after 3 days of incubation, an aromatic-catabolic microbe (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) was incubated with the fungal secretome and DMR-EH lignin. These experiments demonstrated that the presence of the bacterium enhances lignin depolymerization, likely due to bacterial catabolism of LMW lignin, which may partially prevent repolymerization. In addition, proteomics was also applied to the P. eryngii secretome to identify the enzymes present in the fungal cocktail utilized for the depolymerization assays, which highlighted a significant number of glucose/ methanol/choline (GMC) oxidoreductases and laccases. Overall, this study demonstrates that ligninolytic enzymes can be used to partially depolymerize a solid, high

  16. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  17. A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  18. A novel model of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; An, Yunfang; Li, Zeqing; Zhao, Changqing

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a life-threatening inflammatory disease that affects immunocompromised patients, but animal models of the disease are scarce. This study aimed to develop an IFRS model in neutropenic rats. The model was established in three consecutive steps: unilateral nasal obstruction with Merocel sponges, followed by administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA), and, finally, nasal inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus. Fifty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, with group I as the controls, group II undergoing unilateral nasal obstruction alone, group III undergoing nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation, group IV undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA, and group V undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA and fungal inoculation. Hematology, histology, and mycology investigations were performed. The changes in the rat absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were statistically different across the groups. The administration of CPA decreased the ANCs, whereas nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation increased the ANCs, and nasal obstruction did not change them. Histological examination of the rats in group V revealed the hyphal invasion of sinus mucosa and bone, thrombosis, and tissue infarction. No pathology indicative of IFRS was observed in the remaining groups. Positive rates of fungal culture in tissue homogenates from the maxillary sinus (62.5%) and lung (25%) were found in group V, whereas groups I, II, III, and IV showed no fungal culture in the homogenates. A rat IFRS model was successfully developed through nasal obstruction, CPA-induced neutropenia, and fungal inoculation. The disease model closely mimics the pathophysiology of anthropic IFRS.

  19. Fungal composition on leaves explains pollutant-mediated indirect effects on amphipod feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, Lorraine; Stang, Christoph; Duester, Lars; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-07-01

    The energy stored in coarse particulate organic matter, e.g. leaf litter, is released to aquatic ecosystems by breakdown processes involving microorganisms and leaf shredding invertebrates. The palatability of leaves and thus the feeding of shredders on leaf material are highly influenced by microorganisms. However, implications in the colonization of leaves by microorganisms (=conditioning) caused by chemical stressors are rarely studied. Our laboratory experiments, therefore, investigated for the first time effects of a fungicide on the conditioning process of leaf material by means of food-choice experiments using Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Additionally, microbial analyses were conducted to facilitate the mechanistic understanding of the observed behavior. Gammarids significantly preferred control leaf discs over those conditioned in presence of the fungicide tebuconazole at concentrations of 50 and 500 μg/L. Besides the decrease of fungal biomass with increasing fungicide concentration, also the leaf associated fungal community composition showed that species preferred by gammarids, such as Alatospora acumunata, Clavariopsis aquatica, or Flagellospora curvula, were more frequent in the control. Tetracladium marchalianum, however, which is rejected by gammarids, was abundant in all treatments suggesting an increasing importance of this species for the lower leaf palatability--as other more palatable fungal species were almost absent--in the fungicide treatments. Hence, the food-choice behavior of G. fossarum seems to be a suitable indicator for alterations in leaf associated microbial communities, especially fungal species composition, caused by chemical stressors. Finally, this or similar test systems may be a reasonable supplement to the environmental risk assessment of chemicals in order to achieve its protection goals, as on the one hand, indirect effects may occur far below concentrations known to affect gammarids directly, and on the other

  20. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  1. Hydrogen formation and control under postulated LMFBR accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.R.; Wierman, R.W.

    1976-09-01

    The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the potential for autoignition and combustion of hydrogen-sodium mixtures which may be produced in LMFBR accidents. The purpose and ultimate usefulness of this work is to provide data that will establish the validity and acceptability of mechanisms inherent to the LMFBR that could either prevent or delay the accumulation of hydrogen gas to less than 4 percent (V) in the Reactor Containment Building (RCB) under accident conditions. The results to date indicate that sodium and sodium-hydrogen mixtures such as may be expected during LMFBR postulated accidents will ignite upon entering an air atmosphere and that the hydrogen present will be essentially all consumed until such time that the oxygen concentration is depleted

  2. Quality control of concretes for conditioning of spent radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, M.

    2015-01-01

    The spent sealed radioactive sources are considered as a specific type of radioactive wastes and should be properly stored to ensure their integrity and prevent or limit the release of radionuclides in the geosphere. For this, these sources can be put up in concrete matrices. This research presents the evaluation and characterization of five concretes prepared with 4 brands of commercial cements: CPC Extra RS, CPC 30R Impercem of Cemex, Cruz Azul CPC 30R and CPC 30R of Apasco; three sizes of coarse aggregate (<30 mm, 29-11 mm and <10 mm) and fine aggregate (0.0797 mm) used as matrices for conditioning of spent sealed radioactive sources, in order to verify if these specific concretes accredit the standard NOM-019-Nucl-1995. After hardening for 28 days the concrete specimens were subjected to the tests: compressive strength; thermal cycles, irradiation, leaching and permeability, later to be characterized by: 1) X-ray diffraction in order to meet their crystalline phases; 2) scanning electron microscopy, to determine changes in morphology; 3) infrared spectroscopy, to determine the structural changes of concrete from its functional groups; 4) Raman spectroscopy to determine their structural changes and 5) Moessbauer spectroscopy, which determines changes in the oxidation state of iron in the concrete. According to the results and the changes presented by each concrete after applying the tests set by NOM-019-Nucl-1995, is concluded that the concrete made with cement Cemex brand (CPC 30-RS Extra), gravel of particle size 11-29 mm and sieved sand (0.0797 mm) can be used as matrices of spent sealed sources conditioning. Is remarkable a morphological and structural change of the concrete due to gamma irradiation and heat treatment. (Author)

  3. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  4. Fungal keratitis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastaneiah, Sabah S.; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.

    2006-01-01

    Keratomycosis is a vision-threatening fungal corneal infection. The dramatic increase in the number of cases over the past three decades is attributable not only to better diagnostic recognition, improved laboratory techniques and greater awareness by the ophthalmic society as a whole, but is also due to a true increase in the incidence of keratitis related to the indiscriminate use of topical broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as surgical trauma. Corneal trauma has remained the main predisposing factor over the years, though in recent years HIV-positive cases and AIDS are taking lead in certain areas. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Candida species remains the commonest 'organisms' isolated worldwide. Although the approach to this form of keratitis is similar to other types of microbial keratitis, it remains the most difficult in terms of diagnosis and management. Early recognition, prevention, prompt treatment and timely keratoplasty are crucial for a better outcome. (author)

  5. Monitoring parameters of technical condition and safety of aircraft using control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.І. Чепіженко

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available  The opportunity of control cards use for monitoring of a technical condition parameters and reliability of aviation techniques is considered at its operation on a technical condition.

  6. Hetero-azeotropic distillation: combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, A J; Isabella, B L; Beattie, J E; Herbert, R A

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost single-stage laboratory process combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction was compared with a traditional two-stage method employing freeze-drying and subsequent mechanical disruption in the presence of solvent. The ability of a number of organic solvents to form hetero-azeotropes with water was exploited. Chloroform, cyclohexane and hexane were assessed in their abilities to both dry and extract lipid from the oleaginous phycomycete Mortierella alpina (ATCC 32222). Drying rate and lipid extraction were maximised under conditions that prevented fungal agglomeration. The total processing time was limited by the rate of dehydration rather than by the rate of lipid extraction. In all cases azeotropic distillation facilitated a greater rate of dehydration than was possible with freeze-drying. A consequent reduction in overall processing time was observed. Uniquely, both the solvent used and the mode of mixing employed controlled the morphology of the aggregates formed during distillation. In combination with mild mixing chloroform discouraged agglomeration whereas cyclohexane and hexane promoted aggregation. Successful lipid extraction was dependent on the use of dry biomass rather than on the application of heat to effect distillation. Neither the application of heat nor the solvent employed had any significant effect on the lipid composition of the extracted oil.

  7. Analysis and Optimal Condition of the Rear-Sound-Aided Control Source in Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kreuter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active noise control scenario of simple ducts is considered. The previously suggested technique of using an single loudspeaker and its rear sound to cancel the upstream sound is further examined and compared to the bidirectional solution in order to give theoretical proof of its advantage. Firstly, a model with a new approach for taking damping effects into account is derived based on the electrical transmission line theory. By comparison with the old model, the new approach is validated, and occurring differences are discussed. Moreover, a numerical application with the consideration of damping is implemented for confirmation. The influence of the rear sound strength on the feedback-path system is investigated, and the optimal condition is determined. Finally, it is proven that the proposed source has an advantage of an extended phase lag and a time delay in the feedback-path system by both frequency-response analysis and numerical calculation of the time response.

  8. Intelligent Approach to Inventory Control in Logistics under Uncertainty Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Więcek, P.

    2016-07-01

    The article presents a proposal for a combined application of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms to control the procurement process in the enterprise. The approach presented in this paper draws particular attention to the impact of external random factors in the form of demand and lead time uncertainty. The model uses time-variable membership function parameters in a dynamic fashion to describe the modelled output fuzzy (sets) values. An additional element is the use of genetic algorithms for optimisation of fuzzy rule base in the proposed method. The approach presented in this paper was veryfied according to four criteria based on a computer simulation performed on the basis of the actual data from an enterprise. (Author)

  9. A novel capacity controller for a three-evaporator air conditioning (TEAC) system for improved indoor humidity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Huaxia; Deng, Shiming; Chan, Ming-yin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel capacity controller for TEAC systems for improved indoor humidity control is developed. • The novel controller was developed by integrating two previous control algorithms. • Experimental controllability tests were carried out. • Improved control over indoor humidity levels and higher energy efficiency can be achieved. - Abstract: Using a multi-evaporator air conditioning (MEAC) system to correctly control indoor air temperatures only in a multi-room application is already a challenging and difficult task, let alone the control of both indoor air temperature and humidity. This is because in an MEAC system, a number of indoor units are connected to a common condensing unit. Hence, the interferences among operation parameters of different indoor units would make the desired control of an MEAC system hard to realize. Limited capacity control algorithms for MEAC systems have been developed, with most of them focusing only on the control of indoor air temperature, and no previous studies involving control of indoor air humidity using MEAC systems can be identified. In this paper, the development of a novel capacity controller for a three-evaporator air conditioning (TEAC) system for improved indoor air humidity control is reported. The novel controller was developed by integrating two previous control algorithms for a dual-evaporator air conditioning system for temperature control and for a single-evaporator air conditioning system for improved indoor humidity control. Experimental controllability tests were carried out and the controllability test results showed that, with the novel controller, improved control over indoor humidity levels and better energy efficiency for a TEAC system could be obtained as compared to the traditional On–Off controllers extensively used by MEAC systems.

  10. Plant neighbour identity matters to belowground interactions under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Cristina; Pugnaire, Francisco Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Root competition is an almost ubiquitous feature of plant communities with profound effects on their structure and composition. Far beyond the traditional view that plants interact mainly through resource depletion (exploitation competition), roots are known to be able to interact with their environment using a large variety of mechanisms that may inhibit or enhance access of other roots to the resource or affect plant growth (contest interactions). However, an extensive analysis on how these contest root interactions may affect species interaction abilities is almost lacking. In a common garden experiment with ten perennial plant species we forced pairs of plants of the same or different species to overlap their roots and analyzed how belowground contest interactions affected plant performance, biomass allocation patterns, and competitive abilities under abundant resource supply. Our results showed that net interaction outcome ranged from negative to positive, affecting total plant mass and allocation patterns. A species could be a strong competitor against one species, weaker against another one, and even facilitator to a third species. This leads to sets of species where competitive hierarchies may be clear but also to groups where such rankings are not, suggesting that intransitive root interactions may be crucial for species coexistence. The outcome of belowground contest interactions is strongly dependent on neighbours' identity. In natural plant communities this conditional outcome may hypothetically help species to interact in non-hierarchical and intransitive networks, which in turn might promote coexistence.

  11. Numerical simulation of controlled directional solidification under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, S.; Roos, D.; Wein, J.

    The computer-assisted simulation of solidification processes influenced by gravity has gained increased importance during the previous years regarding ground-based as well as microgravity research. Depending on the specific needs of the investigator, the simulation model ideally covers a broad spectrum of applications. These primarily include the optimization of furnace design in interaction with selected process parameters to meet the desired crystallization conditions. Different approaches concerning the complexity of the simulation models as well as their dedicated applications will be discussed in this paper. Special emphasis will be put on the potential of software tools to increase the scientific quality and cost-efficiency of microgravity experimentation. The results gained so far in the context of TEXUS, FSLP, D-1 and D-2 (preparatory program) experiments, highlighting their simulation-supported preparation and evaluation will be discussed. An outlook will then be given on the possibilities to enhance the efficiency of pre-industrial research in the Columbus era through the incorporation of suitable simulation methods and tools.

  12. Fungal atopy in adult cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, M

    2012-02-03

    This study set out to estimate the prevalence of atopy to a variety of common ubiquitous fungi, including A. fumigatus, in cystic fibrosis (CF), and to evaluate the investigations by which the diagnosis was made. Particular attention was paid to the usefulness of skin testing and immunoassays in detecting which patients had simple fungal atopy, and which patients were at high risk of developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses. This cross-sectional study included 21 adult CF patients and 20 matched controls. Serum samples were taken for the measurement of total serum IgE and specific serum IgE to nine common fungi. Immediate hypersensitivity skin prick testing to each of the fungi was also performed. Simple fungal atopy was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 100 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 1 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 3 mm to the same fungus. \\'High risk\\' for developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 200 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 2 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 6 mm to the same fungus. The adult CF group had a significantly higher total SPT score (P=0.005) and mean total serum IgE (P<0.05) than controls. Forty-three percent of CF patients fulfilled the criteria for fungal atopy to at least a single fungus. Over half this group had an atopic tendency to more than one fungus. Nineteen percent of the CF group were at least \\'high risk\\' of developing ABPM. Skin prick testing is a better marker of fungal atopy and a better predictor of those adult CF patients at higher risk of developing ABPM than specific radioimmunoassay serum testing. There is a high prevalence of fungal atopy in the adult CF population. Total serum IgE and skin prick testing are good predictors of fungal atopy and help predict those at

  13. Fiber, food, fuel, and fungal symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, J L; Marx, D H

    1979-10-26

    Virtually all plants of economic importance form mycorrhizae. These absorbing organs of higher plants result from a symbiotic union of beneficial soil fungi and feeder roots. In forestry, the manipulation of fungal symbionts ecologically adapted to the planting site can increase survival and growth of forest trees, particularly on adverse sites. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae, which occur not only on many trees but also on most cultivated crops, are undoubtedly more important to world food crops. Imperatives for mycorrhizal research in forestry and agriculture are (i) the development of mass inoculum of mycorrhizal fungi, (ii) the interdisciplinary coordination with soil management, plant breeding, cultivation practices, and pest control to ensure maximum survival and development of fungal symbionts in the soil, and (iii) the institution of nursery and field tests to determine the circumstances in which mycorrhizae benefit plant growth in forestry and agri-ecosystems.

  14. Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gavito-Higuera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected. Mycetoma and Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are considered non-invasive forms. Computer tomography is the gold-standard in sinonasal imaging and is complimented by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as it is superior in the evaluation of intraorbital and intracranial extensions. The knowledge and identification of the characteristic imaging patterns in invasive - and non- invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is crucial and the radiologist plays an important role in refining the diagnosis to prevent a possible fatal outcome.

  15. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  16. Experimental analysis of fuzzy controlled energy efficient demand controlled ventilation economizer cycle variable air volume air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Parameshwaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for energy conservative building design, there is now a great opportunity for a flexible and sophisticated air conditioning system capable of addressing better thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency, that are strongly desired. The variable refrigerant volume air conditioning system provides considerable energy savings, cost effectiveness and reduced space requirements. Applications of intelligent control like fuzzy logic controller, especially adapted to variable air volume air conditioning systems, have drawn more interest in recent years than classical control systems. An experimental analysis was performed to investigate the inherent operational characteristics of the combined variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning systems under fixed ventilation, demand controlled ventilation, and combined demand controlled ventilation and economizer cycle techniques for two seasonal conditions. The test results of the variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning system for each techniques are presented. The test results infer that the system controlled by fuzzy logic methodology and operated under the CO2 based mechanical ventilation scheme, effectively yields 37% and 56% per day of average energy-saving in summer and winter conditions, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the fuzzy based combined system can be considered to be an alternative energy efficient air conditioning scheme, having significant energy-saving potential compared to the conventional constant air volume air conditioning system.

  17. Studies on the control of fungal contamination and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus link in a cereal grain by the combination treatment of heat and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odamtten, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional storage of maize in tropical countries such as Ghana results in the rapid development of numerous fungi, including potential mycotoxin producers such as Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxins), A. ochraceus (ochratoxins, penicillic acid), Fusarium moniliforme (moniliformin), Paecilomyces varioti and Penicillium expansum (patulin). Treatment of maize with a combination of moist heat (30 min. at 60 0 C and relative humidity > 85%) and gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy) proved to be effective in inactivating the resident population of fungal spores. This result was confirmed by in vitro studies with spores of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 5906. In a comparative study of packaging materials it was found that food commodities stored in woven polypropylene bags for six months at 85% R.H. had mould and yeast counts which were 2-3 log cycles lower than those of products kept in jute bags. Also, the viability of the seeds was better preserved in polypropylene sacks. It is recommended that the combination treatment be carried out on good quality grains, and that woven polypropylene sacks are used in packaging prior to irradiation, for maximum extension of shelf-life. (Auth.)

  18. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, J.L.; Nicholson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  19. Design of automatic control system of temperature in radon chamber controlled by air-condition based on 485 BUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man Zaigang; Wang Renbo; Zhang Xiongjie; Zhu Zhifu; Tang Bin

    2009-01-01

    Radon chamber can be widely used in various radon measurement instruments for calibration, testing and radon environment experiment. According to requisition, radon chamber temperature should be controllable from +10 degree C to +30 degree C, and the temperature control accuracy of the system reaches ±1 degree C. The design of automatic temperature controlled by air-condition based on 485 BUS is introduced. The software and hardware techniques of how the ATMEL89S52 micro controller controls air-condition and communicates with computer are elaborated on. (authors)

  20. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  1. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  2. Risk of Fungal Infection to Dental Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause various diseases, and some pathogenic fungi have been detected in the water of dental equipment. This environment offers suitable conditions for fungal biofilms to emerge, which can facilitate mycological contamination. This study verified whether the water employed in the dental units of two dental clinics at the University of Franca was contaminated with fungi. This study also evaluated the ability of the detected fungi to form biofilms. The high-revving engine contained the largest average amount of fungi, 14.93 ± 18.18 CFU/mL. The main fungal species verified in this equipment belonged to the genera Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Candida spp., and Rhodotorula spp. Among the isolated filamentous fungi, only one fungus of the genus Fusarium spp. did not form biofilms. As for yeasts, all the Candida spp. isolates grew as biofilm, but none of the Rhodotorula spp. isolates demonstrated this ability. Given that professionals and patients are often exposed to water and aerosols generated by the dental procedure, the several fungal species detected herein represent a potential risk especially to immunocompromised patients undergoing dental treatment. Therefore, frequent microbiological monitoring of the water employed in dental equipment is crucial to reduce the presence of contaminants.

  3. Chain scission and anti fungal effect of electron beam on cellulose membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanichapichart, Pikul; Taweepreeda, Wirach; Nawae, Safitree; Choomgan, Pastraporn; Yasenchak, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Two types of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes were produced under a modified H and S medium using sucrose as a carbon source, with (CCB) and without (SHB) coconut juice supplement. Both membranes showed similar crystallinity of 69.24 and 71.55%. After being irradiated with E-beams under oxygen limited and ambient condition, the results from water contact angle showed that only the irradiated membrane CCB was increased from 30 to 40 degrees, and irradiation under oxygen ambient condition provided the greatest value. Comparing with the control membranes, smaller water flux was the cases after electron beam irradiation which indicated a reduction of membrane pore area. However, the results from molecular weight cut off (MWCO) revealed that chain scission was greater for membrane SHB and its cut off was increased from 28,000 Da to more than 35,000 Da. FTIR analysis revealed some changes in membrane functional groups, corresponding with the above results. These changes initiated new property of cellulose membranes, an anti-fungal food wrap. - Highlights: ► Electron beam irradiation increased membrane hydrophobicity and molecular weight cut off. ► The irradiation caused chain scissoring and anti fungal property of cellulose membrane. ► FT-IR studies revealed changes in functional groups causing a decrease in membrane moisture. ► Anti fungal test of cellulose membrane showed the same shelf life as polyethylene sheet.

  4. Social proof in the supermarket : Promoting healthy choices under low self-control conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; De Vet, Emely; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; Veltkamp, Martijn; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2015-01-01

    Under low self-control conditions, people often favor tempting but unhealthy food products. Instead of fighting against low self-control to reduce unhealthy food choices, we aim to demonstrate in a field study that heuristic decision tendencies can be exploited under these conditions. To do so a

  5. Social proof in the supermarket: Promoting healthy choices under low self-control conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Vet, de E.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Fennis, B.M.; Veltkamp, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Under low self-control conditions, people often favor tempting but unhealthy food products. Instead of fighting against low self-control to reduce unhealthy food choices, we aim to demonstrate in a field study that heuristic decision tendencies can be exploited under these conditions. To do so a

  6. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  7. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  8. Experimental Study on Intelligent Control Scheme for Fan Coil Air-Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent control scheme for fan coil air-conditioning systems has been put forward in order to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional proportion-integral-derivative (PID control scheme. These shortcomings include the inability of anti-interference and large inertia. An intelligent control test rig of fan coil air-conditioning system has been built, and MATLAB/Simulink dynamics simulation software has been adopted to implement the intelligent control scheme. A software for data exchange has been developed to combine the intelligence control system and the building automation (BA system. Experimental tests have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of different control schemes including the traditional PID control, fuzzy control, and fuzzy-PID control for fan coil air-conditioning system. The effects of control schemes have been compared and analyzed in robustness, static and dynamic character, and economy. The results have shown that the developed data exchange interface software can induce the intelligent control scheme of the BA system more effectively. Among the proposed control strategies, fuzzy-PID control scheme which has the advantages of both traditional PID and fuzzy schemes is the optimal control scheme for the fan coil air-conditioning system.

  9. Bridging the Gap to Non-toxic Fungal Control: Lupinus-Derived Blad-Containing Oligomer as a Novel Candidate to Combat Human Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Pinheiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The lack of antifungal drugs with novel modes of action reaching the clinic is a serious concern. Recently a novel antifungal protein referred to as Blad-containing oligomer (BCO has received regulatory approval as an agricultural antifungal agent. Interestingly its spectrum of antifungal activity includes human pathogens such as Candida albicans, however, its mode of action has yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that BCO exerts its antifungal activity through inhibition of metal ion homeostasis which results in apoptotic cell death in C. albicans. HIP HOP profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a panel of signature strains that are characteristic for common modes of action identified hypersensitivity in yeast lacking the iron-dependent transcription factor Aft1 suggesting restricted iron uptake as a mode of action. Furthermore, global transcriptome profiling in C. albicans also identified disruption of metal ion homeostasis as a potential mode of action. Experiments were carried out to assess the effect of divalent metal ions on the antifungal activity of BCO revealing that BCO activity is antagonized by metal ions such as Mn2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. The transcriptome profile also implicated sterol synthesis as a possible secondary mode of action which was subsequently confirmed in sterol synthesis assays in C. albicans. Animal models for toxicity showed that BCO is generally well tolerated and presents a promising safety profile as a topical applied agent. Given its potent broad spectrum antifungal activity and novel multitarget mode of action, we propose BCO as a promising new antifungal agent for the topical treatment of fungal infections.

  10. Bridging the Gap to Non-toxic Fungal Control: Lupinus-Derived Blad-Containing Oligomer as a Novel Candidate to Combat Human Pathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana M.; Carreira, Alexandra; Prescott, Thomas A. K.; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Monteiro, Sara A.

    2017-01-01

    The lack of antifungal drugs with novel modes of action reaching the clinic is a serious concern. Recently a novel antifungal protein referred to as Blad-containing oligomer (BCO) has received regulatory approval as an agricultural antifungal agent. Interestingly its spectrum of antifungal activity includes human pathogens such as Candida albicans, however, its mode of action has yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that BCO exerts its antifungal activity through inhibition of metal ion homeostasis which results in apoptotic cell death in C. albicans. HIP HOP profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a panel of signature strains that are characteristic for common modes of action identified hypersensitivity in yeast lacking the iron-dependent transcription factor Aft1 suggesting restricted iron uptake as a mode of action. Furthermore, global transcriptome profiling in C. albicans also identified disruption of metal ion homeostasis as a potential mode of action. Experiments were carried out to assess the effect of divalent metal ions on the antifungal activity of BCO revealing that BCO activity is antagonized by metal ions such as Mn2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. The transcriptome profile also implicated sterol synthesis as a possible secondary mode of action which was subsequently confirmed in sterol synthesis assays in C. albicans. Animal models for toxicity showed that BCO is generally well tolerated and presents a promising safety profile as a topical applied agent. Given its potent broad spectrum antifungal activity and novel multitarget mode of action, we propose BCO as a promising new antifungal agent for the topical treatment of fungal infections. PMID:28702011

  11. Modelling and Control of Ionic Electroactive Polymer Actuators under Varying Humidity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunjai Nakshatharan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we address the problem of position control of ionic electroactive polymer soft actuators under varying relative humidity conditions. The impact of humidity on the actuation performance of ionic actuators is studied through frequency response and impedance spectroscopy analysis. Considering the uncertain performance of the actuator under varying humidity conditions, an adaptable model using the neural network method is developed. The model uses relative humidity magnitude as one of the model parameters, making it robust to different environmental conditions. Utilizing the model, a closed-loop controller based on the model predictive controller is developed for position control of the actuator. The developed model and controller are experimentally verified and found to be capable of predicting and controlling the actuators with excellent tracking accuracy under relative humidity conditions varying in the range of 10–90%.

  12. Intelligent energy management control of vehicle air conditioning system coupled with engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayyam, Hamid; Abawajy, Jemal; Jazar, Reza N.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Air Conditioning (AC) systems consist of an engine powered compressor activated by an electrical clutch. The AC system imposes an extra load to the vehicle's engine increasing the vehicle fuel consumption and emissions. Energy management control of the vehicle air conditioning is a nonlinear dynamic system, influenced by uncertain disturbances. In addition, the vehicle energy management control system interacts with different complex systems, such as engine, air conditioning system, environment, and driver, to deliver fuel consumption improvements. In this paper, we describe the energy management control of vehicle AC system coupled with vehicle engine through an intelligent control design. The Intelligent Energy Management Control (IEMC) system presented in this paper includes an intelligent algorithm which uses five exterior units and three integrated fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, improved fuel consumption, low emission, and smooth driving. The three fuzzy controllers include: (i) a fuzzy cruise controller to adapt vehicle cruise speed via prediction of the road ahead using a Look-Ahead system, (ii) a fuzzy air conditioning controller to produce desirable temperature and air quality inside vehicle cabin room via a road information system, and (iii) a fuzzy engine controller to generate the required engine torque to move the vehicle smoothly on the road. We optimised the integrated operation of the air conditioning and the engine under various driving patterns and performed three simulations. Results show that the proposed IEMC system developed based on Fuzzy Air Conditioning Controller with Look-Ahead (FAC-LA) method is a more efficient controller for vehicle air conditioning system than the previously developed Coordinated Energy Management Systems (CEMS). - Highlights: ► AC interacts: vehicle, environment, driver components, and the interrelationships between them. ► Intelligent AC algorithm which uses

  13. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Linear parameter varying control of wind turbines covering both partial load and full load conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kasper Zinck; Stoustrup, Jakob; Brath, Per

    2009-01-01

    operations tend to be ill-conditioned. The paper proposes a controller construction algorithm together with various remedies for improving the numerical conditioning the algorithm.The proposed algorithm is applied to the design of a LPV controller for wind turbines, and a comparison is made with a controller...... designed using classical techniques to conclude that an improvement in performance is obtained for the entire operating envelope....

  15. 76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or... Design Features The Gulfstream Model GVI airplane has an electronic flight control system and no direct... impending control surface limiting, piloted or auto-flight system control of the airplane might be...

  16. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY... for transport category airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system... Design Features The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit...

  17. Exo-metabolome of some fungal isolates growing on cork-based medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, M. C.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    are produced by the studied fungal species, both in cork medium or in cork medium added with C. sitophila extracts. However, the addition of C. sitophila extract to the cork medium enhanced the growth of the other studied fungal isolates and altered the respective exo-metabolome profile, leading...... they can be dependent of the remains of former colonizers. In fact, the production of the exo-metabolites by the studied fungal isolates suggests that, under the used experimental conditions, they appear to play an important role in fungal interactions amongst the cork mycoflora....

  18. Chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis by Paecilomyces variotii: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognised entity, both in normal and immunocompromised individuals. The recent increase in mycotic nasal and paranasal infections is due to both improved diagnostic research and an increase in the conditions that favour fungal infection. Aspergillus, Candida, and Mucor species are the most common causative agents of fungal sinusitis, but infection with lesser known species have been reported across the world infrequently. This article reviews and presents a case report of chronic fungal sinusitis in an immunocompetent adult male infected with Paecilomyces variotii which is opportunistic soil saprophyte, uncommon to humans.

  19. Controlling Relations in Baseline Conditional Discriminations as Determinants of Stimulus Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rose, Julio C.; Hidalgo, Matheus; Vasconcellos, Mariliz

    2013-01-01

    Variation in baseline controlling relations is suggested as one of the factors determining variability in stimulus equivalence outcomes. This study used single- comparison trials attempting to control such controlling relations. Four children learned AB, BC, and CD conditional discriminations, with 2 samples and 2 comparison stimuli. In Condition…

  20. Vector-valued measure and the necessary conditions for the optimal control problems of linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xunjing, L.

    1981-12-01

    The vector-valued measure defined by the well-posed linear boundary value problems is discussed. The maximum principle of the optimal control problem with non-convex constraint is proved by using the vector-valued measure. Especially, the necessary conditions of the optimal control of elliptic systems is derived without the convexity of the control domain and the cost function. (author)

  1. Controllable conditional quantum oscillations and quantum gate operations in superconducting flux qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Aimin; Cho Samyoung

    2011-01-01

    Conditional quantum oscillations are investigated for quantum gate operations in superconducting flux qubits. We present an effective Hamiltonian which describes a conditional quantum oscillation in two-qubit systems. Rabi-type quantum oscillations are discussed in implementing conditional quantum oscillations to quantum gate operations. Two conditional quantum oscillations depending on the states of control qubit can be synchronized to perform controlled-gate operations by varying system parameters. It is shown that the conditional quantum oscillations with their frequency synchronization make it possible to operate the controlled-NOT and -U gates with a very accurate gate performance rate in interacting qubit systems. Further, this scheme can be applicable to realize a controlled multi-qubit operation in various solid-state qubit systems. (author)

  2. Pointwise second-order necessary optimality conditions and second-order sensitivity relations in optimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowska, Hélène; Hoehener, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This paper is devoted to pointwise second-order necessary optimality conditions for the Mayer problem arising in optimal control theory. We first show that with every optimal trajectory it is possible to associate a solution p (ṡ) of the adjoint system (as in the Pontryagin maximum principle) and a matrix solution W (ṡ) of an adjoint matrix differential equation that satisfy a second-order transversality condition and a second-order maximality condition. These conditions seem to be a natural second-order extension of the maximum principle. We then prove a Jacobson like necessary optimality condition for general control systems and measurable optimal controls that may be only ;partially singular; and may take values on the boundary of control constraints. Finally we investigate the second-order sensitivity relations along optimal trajectories involving both p (ṡ) and W (ṡ).

  3. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.

  4. Alternating Mupirocin/Gentamicin is Associated with Increased Risk of Fungal Peritonitis as Compared with Gentamicin Alone - Results of a Randomized Open-Label Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ping-Nam; Tong, Gensy M W; Wong, Yuk-Yi; Lo, Kin-Yee; Chan, Shuk-Fan; Lo, Man-Wai; Lo, Kwok-Chi; Ho, Lo-Yi; Tse, Cindy W S; Mak, Siu-Ka; Wong, Andrew K M

    2016-01-01

    vs 0.14/yr, p peritonitis (0.006/yr vs 0.03/yr, p peritonitis episodes, especially for those caused by gram-negative organisms. It was also not useful in reducing catheter-related infection due to opportunistic organisms but instead associated with a higher incidence of antibiotic-related fungal peritonitis. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  5. Evaluation of pulmonary fungal diseases in patients with fungal rhino-sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sh. Badawy

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Universal screening for pulmonary fungal infection especially in patients with fungal rhino sinusitis is highly recommended to treat it early, decrease morbidity and mortality of the diseases.

  6. Transducer placement for robustness to variations in boundary conditions for active structural acoustic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprofera, Joseph D.; Clark, Robert L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2005-05-01

    Turbulent boundary layer (TBL) noise is considered a primary contribution to the interior noise present in commercial airliners. There are numerous investigations of interior noise control devoted to aircraft panels; however, practical realization is a potential challenge since physical boundary conditions are uncertain at best. In most prior studies, pinned or clamped boundary conditions were assumed; however, realistic panels likely display a range of boundary conditions between these two limits. Uncertainty in boundary conditions is a challenge for control system designers, both in terms of the compensator implemented and the location of transducers required to achieve the desired control. The impact of model uncertainties, specifically uncertain boundaries, on the selection of transducer locations for structural acoustic control is considered herein. The final goal of this work is the design of an aircraft panel structure that can reduce TBL noise transmission through the use of a completely adaptive, single-input, single-output control system. The feasibility of this goal is demonstrated through the creation of a detailed analytical solution, followed by the implementation of a test model in a transmission loss apparatus. Successfully realizing a control system robust to variations in boundary conditions can lead to the design and implementation of practical adaptive structures that could be used to control the transmission of sound to the interior of aircraft. Results from this research effort indicate it is possible to optimize the design of actuator and sensor location and aperture, minimizing the impact of boundary conditions on the desired structural acoustic control.

  7. Coupling auto trophic in vitro plant cultivation system to scanning electron microscope to study plant-fungal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, N. de; Decock, C.; Declereck, S.; Providencia, I. E. de la

    2010-07-01

    The interactions of plants with pathogens and beneficial micro-organisms have been seldom compared on the same host and under strict controlled auto trophic in vitro culture conditions. Here, the life cycle of two plant beneficial (Glomus sp. MUCL 41833 and Trichoderma harzianum) and one plant pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were described on potato (Solanum tuberosum) plantlets under auto trophic in vitro culture conditions using video camera imaging and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). (i) The colony developmental pattern of the extraradical mycelium within the substrate, (ii) the reproduction structures and (iii) the three-dimensional spatial arrangements of the fungal hyphae within the potato root cells were successfully visualized, monitored and described. The combination of the autotrophic in vitro culture system and SEM represent a powerful tool for improving our knowledge on the dynamics of plant-fungal interactions. (Author) 41 refs.

  8. Sufficient Controllability Condition for Affine Systems with Two-Dimensional Control and Two-Dimensional Zero Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Fetisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controllability conditions are well known if we speak about linear stationary systems: a linear stationary system is controllable if and only if the dimension of the state vector is equal to the rank of the controllability matrix. The concept of the controllability matrix is extended to affine systems, but relations between affine systems controllability and properties of this matrix are more complicated. Various controllability conditions are set for affine systems, but they deal as usual either with systems of some special form or with controllability in some small neighborhood of the concerned point. An affine system is known to be controllable if the system is equivalent to a system of a canonical form, which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. In this case, the system is said to be feedback linearizable in the space of states. However there are examples, which illustrate that a system can be controllable even if it is not feedback linearizable in any open subset in the space of states. In this article we deal with such systems.Affine systems with two-dimensional control are considered. The system in question is assumed to be equivalent to a system of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional zero dynamics which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. Therefore the controllability of the original system is equivalent to the controllability of the received system of a quasicanonical form. In this article the sufficient condition for an available solution of the terminal problem is proven for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. The condition is valid in the case of an arbitrary time interval and arbitrary initial and finite states of the system. Therefore the controllability condition is set for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. An example is given which illustrates how the proved

  9. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  10. Experimental study of a novel capacity control algorithm for a multi-evaporator air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangguo; Pan Yan; Deng Shiming; Xia Liang; Chan Mingyin

    2013-01-01

    The use of a multi-evaporator air conditioning (MEAC) system is advantageous in terms of installation convenience, high design flexibility, being easy to maintain and commission, better indoor thermal comfort control and higher energy efficiency. While MEAC units worth billions of dollars are sold worldwide, the detailed accounts on compressor capacity control and refrigeration flow distribution amongst evaporators remain unavailable in public domain, mainly due to commercial confidentiality. Limited control algorithms for MEAC systems have been developed based on system simulation, and no experimental-based capacity controller developments and their controllability tests may be identified in open literature. In the study reported in this paper, a novel capacity control algorithm, which imitated On–Off control of a single evaporator air conditioning (A/C) system in each indoor unit of a MEAC system by using variable speed compressor and electronic expansion valves (EEVs), was developed. Controllability tests under various settings for experimentally validating the novel capacity control algorithm were carried out and the control algorithm was further improved based on the experimental results. - Highlights: ► A capacity control algorithm for a multi-evaporator air conditioning system was developed. ► Experimental controllability tests under various settings were carried out. ► The control algorithm was further improved based on the experimental results.

  11. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  12. A fungal biofilm reactor based on metal structured packing improves the quality of a Gla::GFP fusion protein produced by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zune, Q; Delepierre, A; Gofflot, S; Bauwens, J; Twizere, J C; Punt, P J; Francis, F; Toye, D; Bawin, T; Delvigne, F

    2015-08-01

    Fungal biofilm is known to promote the excretion of secondary metabolites in accordance with solid-state-related physiological mechanisms. This work is based on the comparative analysis of classical submerged fermentation with a fungal biofilm reactor for the production of a Gla::green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein by Aspergillus oryzae. The biofilm reactor comprises a metal structured packing allowing the attachment of the fungal biomass. Since the production of the target protein is under the control of the promoter glaB, specifically induced in solid-state fermentation, the biofilm mode of culture is expected to enhance the global productivity. Although production of the target protein was enhanced by using the biofilm mode of culture, we also found that fusion protein production is also significant when the submerged mode of culture is used. This result is related to high shear stress leading to biomass autolysis and leakage of intracellular fusion protein into the extracellular medium. Moreover, 2-D gel electrophoresis highlights the preservation of fusion protein integrity produced in biofilm conditions. Two fungal biofilm reactor designs were then investigated further, i.e. with full immersion of the packing or with medium recirculation on the packing, and the scale-up potentialities were evaluated. In this context, it has been shown that full immersion of the metal packing in the liquid medium during cultivation allows for a uniform colonization of the packing by the fungal biomass and leads to a better quality of the fusion protein.

  13. Theoretical Background for the Decision-Making Process Modelling under Controlled Intervention Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakanauskienė Irena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to theoretically justify the decision-making process model for the cases, when active participation of investing entities in controlling the activities of an organisation and their results is noticeable. Based on scientific literature analysis, a concept of controlled conditions is formulated, and using a rational approach to the decision-making process, a model of the 11-steps decision-making process under controlled intervention is presented. Also, there have been unified conditions, describing the case of controlled interventions thus providing preconditions to ensure the adequacy of the proposed decision-making process model.

  14. Necessary optimality conditions of the second oder in a stochastic optimal control problem with delay argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad O. Mastaliev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal control problem of nonlinear stochastic systems which mathematical model is given by Ito stochastic differential equation with delay argument is considered. Assuming that the concerned region is open for the control by the first and the second variation (classical sense of the quality functional we obtain the necessary optimality condition of the first and the second order. In the particular case we receive the stochastic analog of the Legendre—Clebsch condition and some constructively verified conclusions from the second order necessary condition. We investigate the Legendre–Clebsch conditions for the degeneration case and obtain the necessary conditions of optimality for a special control, in the classical sense.

  15. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  16. The comparison respond of braking torque control between PID and SMC controller for electric powered wheelchair descending on slope condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyraf, S. M.; Heerwan, P. M.; Izhar, I. M.

    2018-04-01

    During descending on a slope, the speed of Electric Powered Wheelchair (EPW) tends to changed rapidly. Normally, most EPW is provided with mechanical braking system which transfers human pulling force of the lever creating friction at the tire. However, the task is difficult for the users are elderly or paralyses. However, even for normal user with good strength, in fear condition they tend to give sudden braking which leads to tire locking up and skidding, eventually EPW unstable. These problems will cause accident and injuries to the users if speed does not properly control. In this paper, the automated braking torque control method was proposed in EPW as alternative to solve this problem and increase the mobility and stability especially during descending on slope in other to help the user of the EPW as their daily transportation. In this research, Proportional-Integral-Derivative and Sliding Mode Control controller are compared to determine the best response for torque braking control. The rapid change of speed can be controlled by the braking torque using proposed controllers based on the desired constant speed set by the control designer. Moreover, the sudden braking that caused tire to lock up and skid can be avoided. Furthermore, result from SMC shows this controller have good time respond to maintain the speed based on desired value when descending at slope condition by controlling the braking torque compared to the PID controller.

  17. Primary renal candidiasis: fungal mycetomas in the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, B.S.; Chudgar, P.D.; Manejwala, O.

    2002-01-01

    Fungal infections of the urinary tract have a predilection for drainage structures rather than for the renal parenchyma. Of the causal factors, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressed states, AIDS and prematurity are those most commonly encountered. The case of a young, diabetic man whose chief clinical presentation was dysuria is described. On further examination he was found to harbour fungal balls in the right kidney. Radiological manifestations of acute pyelonephritis were also present. Although primary renal candidiasis is often commensurate with systemic fungaemia, he displayed none of the clinical features of disseminate infection and, hence, was treated conservatively with oral antifungal agents. Fortuitously, spontaneous passage of fungal particulate matter in urine was later reported. A significant increase in the incidence of fungal cystitis has been found in recent years; however, the patient presents with many non-specific features of cystitis. Both sonography and CT show thickening of the bladder wall but, again, this lacks specificity. In the rare instance of prostate involvement, low attenuation foci on CT are seen within the gland. Despite the existence of a large number of fungal species, only a few are pathogenic to humans. Of those that cause disease in the urinary tract, Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered. A highly characteristic finding in such infections is of fungal balls, which are made up of aggregates of mycelia. However, care should be exercised in interpretation as a host of other conditions can mimic fungal bezoars. Although a CT scan at initial examination may qualify as the more descriptive, sonography provides a serial non-invasive means of evaluating the urinary tract. When in doubt, a urine culture clinches the diagnosis. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Modeling and fuzzy control of the engine coolant conditioning system in an IC engine test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Shirazi, Farzad A.; Javaheri, Ahmad; Nava, Ghodrat Hamze

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical and thermodynamical performance of internal combustion engines is significantly affected by the engine working temperature. In an engine test bed, the internal combustion engines are tested in different operating conditions using a dynamometer. It is required that the engine temperature be controlled precisely, particularly in transient states. This precise control can be achieved by an engine coolant conditioning system mainly consisting of a heat exchanger, a control valve, and a controller. In this study, constitutive equations of the system are derived first. These differential equations show the second- order nonlinear time-varying dynamics of the system. The model is validated with the experimental data providing satisfactory results. After presenting the dynamic equations of the system, a fuzzy controller is designed based on our prior knowledge of the system. The fuzzy rules and the membership functions are derived by a trial and error and heuristic method. Because of the nonlinear nature of the system the fuzzy rules are set to satisfy the requirements of the temperature control for different operating conditions of the engine. The performance of the fuzzy controller is compared with a PI one for different transient conditions. The results of the simulation show the better performance of the fuzzy controller. The main advantages of the fuzzy controller are the shorter settling time, smaller overshoot, and improved performance especially in the transient states of the system

  19. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  20. Nail Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... history of congestive heart failure. Be sure to let your doctor know if you have one of these conditions. Your doctor will decide which medicine is right for you. Topical treatments (creams and polish that ...

  1. The use of plants to protect plants and food against fungal pathogens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal ...

  2. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook ... Mold . Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because ...

  3. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  4. Changes in fungi and mycotoxins in pearl millet under controlled storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjevic, Zeljko; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Wilson, David M; Casper, Howard H

    2007-11-01

    Pearl millet is increasingly being grown as a premium-value grain for the recreational wildlife and poultry industries in the southern US. We conducted three experiments to assess grain mold development in storage conditions typically encountered in the region of production. Variables included production year, temperature, relative humidity, atmosphere, and grain moisture content. In the first experiment, grain was stored for 9 weeks at 20 or 25 degrees C and maintained at 86% or 91% relative humidity (r.h.). In the second experiment, grain was stored for 9 weeks at 20 or 25 degrees C in either air (aerobic) or N2 (anaerobic), and maintained at 100% r.h. In the third experiment, high-moisture grain was stored for 3 weeks at 20 or 25 degrees C and maintained at 100% r.h. Grain was sampled at weekly intervals and plated to determine changes in fungal frequency. Fungi isolated included Fusarium chlamydosporum (19% of grain), Curvularia spp. (14%), F. semitectum (16%), Alternaria spp. (9%), Aspergillus flavus (8%), "Helminthosporium"-type spp. (6%), and F. moniliforme sensu lato (3%). Year of grain production significantly affected isolation frequency of fungi. Isolation frequencies from low-moisture grain were rarely affected by temperature, relative humidity, or atmosphere treatments, but was affected by storage duration for some fungi. Changes in isolation of toxigenic fungi occurred in high-moisture grain. Isolation frequency of F. chlamydosporum increased in grain stored at 86% and 91% r.h. Incidence of A. flavus increased in high-moisture grain treatments, particularly at 25 degrees C. Incidence of deoxynivalenol was not affected by storage treatment. Low concentrations of nivalenol were detected in most grain incubated at 100% r.h. Zearalenone was detected only when grain moisture content was 20-22%. Aflatoxin contamination averaged 174 ng g(-1) over all treatments, and increased up to 798 ng g(-1) in high-moisture grain at stored at 25 degrees C.

  5. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  6. A high control bandwidth design method for aalborg inverter under weak grid condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Zhou, Cong; Wang, Houqin

    2017-01-01

    Aalborg Inverter is a kind of high efficient Buck-Boost inverter. Since it may work in “Buck-Boost” mode, the control bandwidth should be high enough to ensure a good performance under any grid condition. However, during the “Boost” operation, the control bandwidth depends much on the grid...

  7. Conditioned food aversion to control outbreaks of intoxication by Ipomoea carnea and Turbina cordata in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. istulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next mornin...

  8. [Preservation of high risk fungal cultures of Histoplasma and Cryptococcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Andreu, C Carlos Manuel; Díaz Suárez, Luis Alberto; Ilnait Zaragozi, María Teresa; Aragonés López, Carlos; Martínez Machín, Gerardo; Perurena Lancha, Mayda R

    2012-01-01

    culture collections are responsible for providing the microbial resources for development of biological sciences. Storage in distilled water is one of the easiest and least expensive method for long-term fungal preservation. to evaluate the usefulness of this preservation method in fungal culture of Histoplasma and Cryptococcus. the preservation condition of the highest biological risk species from Histoplasma y Cryptococcus genera, included in the fungal culture collection of "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine in Havana, was evaluated in this study. One hundred and two strains stored in distilled water, 92% of which had been preserved for more than 10 years, were analyzed. the percentages of recovered strains from H. capsulatum, C. neoformans and C. gattii were 64.3%; 79.1% and 100% respectively. This method of preservation proved to be satisfactory for fungal culture in labs with limited financial resources. A web-based database with interesting information about the collection was made. The importance of strict compliance with the biosafety measures in these collections, particularly with high risk pathogens. preservation of fungal cultures in distilled water is a very useful method for laboratories with limited resources. Culture collections should be assumed as an essential activity in order to solve increasing challenges in the development of biomedical sciences.

  9. The burden of serious human fungal infections in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazzi, Juliana; Baethgen, Ludmila; Carneiro, Lilian C; Millington, Maria Adelaide; Denning, David W; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, human fungal infections are prevalent, however, these conditions are not officially reportable diseases. To estimate the burden of serious fungal diseases in 1 year in Brazil, based on available data and published literature. Historical official data from fungal diseases were collected from Brazilian Unified Health System Informatics Department (DATASUS). For fungal diseases for which no official data were available, assumptions of frequencies were made by estimating based on published literature. The incidence (/1000) of hospital admissions for coccidioidomycosis was 7.12; for histoplasmosis, 2.19; and for paracoccidioidomycosis, 7.99. The estimated number of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis cases was 6832. Also, there were 4115 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in AIDS patients per year, 1 010 465 aspergillosis and 2 981 416 cases of serious Candida infections, including invasive and non-invasive diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that more than 3.8 million individuals in Brazil may be suffering from serious fungal infections, mostly patients with malignant cancers, transplant recipients, asthma, previous tuberculosis, HIV infection and those living in endemic areas for truly pathogenic fungi. The scientific community and the governmental agencies should work in close collaboration in order to reduce the burden of such complex, difficult-to-diagnose and hard to treat diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Alignment Condition-Based Robust Adaptive Iterative Learning Control of Uncertain Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Tong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive iterative learning control strategy integrated with saturation-based robust control for uncertain robot system in presence of modelling uncertainties, unknown parameter, and external disturbance under alignment condition. An important merit is that it achieves adaptive switching of gain matrix both in conventional PD-type feedforward control and robust adaptive control in the iteration domain simultaneously. The analysis of convergence of proposed control law is based on Lyapunov's direct method under alignment initial condition. Simulation results demonstrate the faster learning rate and better robust performance with proposed algorithm by comparing with other existing robust controllers. The actual experiment on three-DOF robot manipulator shows its better practical effectiveness.

  11. Scram characteristics of the control rods of a pressurized water reactor under seismic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shinohara, Yoshikazu; Nakatogawa, Tetsuto; Nanbu, Kiyoshi; Nomura, Tomonori.

    1987-01-01

    Control rod drop verification experiments of a pressurized water reactor under seismic conditions are performed to confirm the insertion function of control rods into a core. To evaluate these tests, computer simulations are performed. A fuel assembly, control rods, guide tube and other associated structures are immersed in a water tank, and shaken by four hydraulic shakers. The scram time of control rods under seismic conditions was measured, and confirmed to meet the scram function. Moreover, vibrational response characteristics of core structures and dropping behavior of control rods in consideration of collisions are calculated by using a finite difference method. The behavior of the dropping control rods and the scram time obtained by the computer simulation show a very good agreement with the verification experimental results. (author)

  12. Sector-condition-based results for adaptive control and synchronization of chaotic systems under input saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Hong, Keum-Shik; Khaliq, Abdul; Saeed-ur-Rehman

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of adaptive feedback controllers for two problems (namely, stabilization and synchronization) of chaotic systems with unknown parameters by considering input saturation constraints. A novel generalized sector condition is developed to deal with the saturation nonlinearities for synthesizing the nonlinear and the adaptive controllers for the stabilization and synchronization control objectives. By application of the proposed sector condition and rigorous regional stability analysis, control and adaptation laws are formulated to guarantee local stabilization of a nonlinear system under actuator saturation. Further, simple control and adaptation laws are developed to synchronize two chaotic systems under uncertain parameters and input saturation nonlinearity. Numerical simulation results for Rössler and FitzHugh–Nagumo models are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive stabilization and synchronization control methodologies

  13. Assessment of the operating conditions of coordinated Q-V controller within secondary voltage control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnautović Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper, discusses the possibility to use coordinated Q-V controller (CQVC to perform secondary voltage control at the power plant level. The CQVC performs the coordination of the synchronous generators' (SG reactive power outputs in order to maintain the same total reactive power delivered by the steam power plant (SPP, while at the same time maintaining a constant voltage with programmed reactive droop characteristic at the SPP HV busbar. This busbar is the natural pilot node for secondary voltage control at HV level as the node with maximum power production and maximum power consumption. In addition to voltage control, the CQVC maintains the uniform allocation of reactive power reserves at all SGs in the power plant. This is accomplished by setting the reactive power of each SG at given operating point in accordance to the available reactive power of the same SG at that point. Different limitations imposed by unit's and plant equipment are superimposed on original SG operating chart (provided by the manufacturer in order to establish realistic limits of SG operation at given operating point. The CQVC facilitates: i practical implementation of secondary voltage control in power system, as it is capable of ensuring delivery of reactive power as requested by regional/voltage control while maintaining voltage at system pilot node, ii the full deployment of available reactive power of SGs which in turn contributes to system stability, iii assessment of the reactive power impact/contribution of each generator in providing voltage control as ancillary service. Furthermore, it is also possible to use CQVC to pricing reactive power production cost at each SG involved and to design reactive power bidding structure for transmission network devices by using recorded data. Practical exploitation experience acquired during CQVC continuous operation for over two years enabled implementation of the optimal setting of reference voltage and droop on daily

  14. Approximate controllability of a semilinear elliptic problem with Robin condition in a periodically perforated domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Agarwal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the approximate controllability and homegenization results of a semi-linear elliptic problem with Robin boundary condition in a periodically perforated domain. We prove the existence of minimal norm control using Lions constructive approach, which is based on Fenchel-Rockafeller duality theory, and by means of Zuazua's fixed point arguments. Then, as the homogenization parameter goes to zero, we link the limit of the optimal controls (the limit of fixed point of the controllability problems with the optimal control of the corresponding homogenized problem.

  15. Frequency-Domain Robust Performance Condition for Controller Uncertainty in SISO LTI Systems: A Geometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Raissi Dehkordi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the robust performance problem of a linear time-invariant control system in the presence of robust controller uncertainty. Assuming that plant uncertainty is modeled as an additive perturbation, a geometrical approach is followed in order to find a necessary and sufficient condition for robust performance in the form of a bound on the magnitude of controller uncertainty. This frequency domain bound is derived by converting the problem into an optimization problem, whose solution is shown to be more time-efficient than a conventional structured singular value calculation. The bound on controller uncertainty can be used in controller order reduction and implementation problems.

  16. Theoretical Background for the Decision-Making Process Modelling under Controlled Intervention Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bakanauskienė Irena; Baronienė Laura

    2017-01-01

    This article is intended to theoretically justify the decision-making process model for the cases, when active participation of investing entities in controlling the activities of an organisation and their results is noticeable. Based on scientific literature analysis, a concept of controlled conditions is formulated, and using a rational approach to the decision-making process, a model of the 11-steps decision-making process under controlled intervention is presented. Also, there have been u...

  17. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamisope S. Bamisile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  18. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

  19. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  20. Daphnia can protect diatoms from fungal parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagami, M.; Van Donk, E.; De Bruin, A.; Rijkeboer, M.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Many phytoplankton species are susceptible to chytrid fungal parasitism. Much attention has been paid to abiotic factors that determine whether fungal infections become epidemic. It is still unknown, however, how biotic factors, such as interactions with zooplankton, affect the fungal infection

  1. Potential electricity savings by variable speed control of compressor for air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasution, Henry [Bung Hatta University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Wan Hassan, Mat Nawi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skudai, Johor Bahru-Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia)

    2006-05-15

    The potential of a variable-speed compressor running on a controller to provide enhanced load-matching capability, energy saving and thermal comfort for application in air-conditioning system is demonstrated. An air-conditioning system, originally operated on a constant speed mode, is retrofitted with an inverter and a PID controller. The system was installed to a thermal environmental room together with a data acquisition system to monitor energy consumption and temperature of the room. Measurements were taken 2 h daily at a time interval of 5 min for an on/off and an inverter variable-speed conditions. The results indicate that thermal comfort of the room together with energy saving can be obtained through a proper selection of K for the controller. At a temperature setting of 22 C, the energy saving for the system is estimated to reach 25.3% for PID controllers. (orig.)

  2. Optimal control of distributed parameter system with incomplete information about the initial condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotarski, W.; Kowalewski, A.

    1982-03-01

    In this paper we consider an optimal control problem for a system described by a linear partial differential equation of the parabolic type with Dirichlet's boundary condition. We impose some constraints on the control. The performance functional has the integral form. The control time T is fixed. The initial condition is not given by a known function but belongs to a certain set (incomplete information about the initial state). The problem formulated in this paper describes the process of optimal heating, of which we do not have exact information about the initial temperature on the heated object. We present an example in which the set of admissible controls and one of initial conditions are given by means of the norm constraints too. The application of the well-known projective gradient method in the Hilbert space allows us to obtain the numerical solution for our optimization problem. (author)

  3. The expression of extracellular fungal cell wall hydrolytic enzymes in different Trichoderma harzianum isolates correlates with their ability to control Pyrenochaeta lycopersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ MARÍA PÉREZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Four isolates of Trichoderma harzianum (ThN3, Th11, Th12 and Th16 were selected for their ability to control the in vitro development of the tomato root pathogen Pyrenochaeta lycopersici. Analysis of the mechanisms involved in biocontrol showed that the formation of non-volatile metabolites appears to be one of those involved in biocontrol of P. lycopersici by all T. harzianum isolates tested. Nevertheless, the higher secretion of chitinases, both in number of isoenzymes and activity by the Th11 strain, correlated well with its higher ability to control this agent in laboratory and greenhouse experiments as compared to the other T. harzianum isolates tested. The secretion of ß -1,3-endoglucanases and/or proteases appeared to have less significance than endochitinases in the biological control of P. lycopersici

  4. Muscodor albus Volatiles Control Toxigenic Fungi under Controlled Atmosphere (CA Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Braun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Muscodor albus, a biofumigant fungus, has the potential to control post-harvest pathogens in storage. It has been shown to produce over 20 volatile compounds with fungicidal, bactericidal and insecticidal properties. However, M. albus is a warm climate endophyte, and its biofumigant activity is significantly inhibited at temperatures below 5 °C. Conidia of seven mycotoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus carbonarius, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum, were killed or prevented from germinating by exposure to volatiles from 2 g M. albus-colonized rye grain per L of headspace in sealed glass jars for 24 h at 20 °C. Two major volatiles of M. albus, isobutyric acid (IBA and 2-methyl-1-butanol (2MB at 50 µL/L and 100 µL/L, respectively, gave differential control of the seven fungi when applied individually at 20 °C. When the fungi were exposed to both IBA and 2MB together, an average of 94% of the conidia were killed or suppressed. In a factorial experiment with controlled atmosphere storage (CA at 3 °C and 72 h exposure to four concentrations of IBA and 2MB combinations, 50 µL/L IBA plus 100 µL/L 2MB killed or suppressed germination of the conidia of all seven fungi. Controlled atmosphere had no significant effect on conidial viability or volatile efficacy. Major volatiles of M. albus may have significant potential to control plant pathogens in either ambient air or CA storage at temperatures below 5 °C. However, combinations of volatiles may be required to provide a broader spectrum of control than individual volatiles.

  5. Demand Controlled Economizer Cycles: A Direct Digital Control Scheme for Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Control Ignored any error of 1/10th degree or less. This was done by setting the error term E and the integral sum PREINT to zero If then absolute value of...signs of two errors jeq tdiff if equal, jump clr @preint else zero integal sum tdiff mov @diff,rl fetch absolute value of OAT-RAT ci rl,25 is...includes a heating coil and thermostatic control to maintain the air in this path at an elevated temperature, typically around 80 degrees Farenheit (80 F

  6. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivarsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50–200 µm in diameter body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  7. Fermented whey as poultry feed additive to prevent fungal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Alejandra; León Peláez, María A; Diosma, Gabriela; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2014-12-01

    Fungal contamination of poultry feed causes economic losses to industry and represents a potential risk to animal health. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of whey fermented with kefir grains as additive to reduce fungal incidence, thus improving feed safety. Whey fermented for 24 h at 20 °C with kefir grains (100 g L(-1) ) reduced conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium crustosum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Rhizopus sp. Poultry feed supplemented with fermented whey (1 L kg(-1) ) was two to four times more resistant to fungal contamination than control feed depending on the fungal species. Additionally, it contained kefir microorganisms at levels of 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) kg(-1) of lactic acid bacteria and 6 × 10(7) CFU kg(-1) of yeasts even after 30 days of storage. Fermented whey added to poultry feed acted as a biopreservative, improving its resistance to fungal contamination and increasing its shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Microcontroller Based Proportional Derivative Plus Conditional Integral Controller for Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, A; Tawi, K B; Hussein, M; Supriyo, B; Kob, M S Che; Zulkifli, Mohd Ezlamy; Khairuldean A K; Daraoh, Aishah; Ariyono, S

    2012-01-01

    Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley (EMDAP) Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is a transmission utilized by electro-mechanical actuated system. It has a potential to reduce energy consumption because it only needs power during changing CVT ratio and no power is needed to maintain CVT ratio due to self lock mechanism design. This paper proposed simple proportional derivative plus conditional integral (PDCI) controller to control EMDAP CVT ratio which can be simply implemented on a microcontroller. This proposed controller used Astrom-Hagglund method and Ziegler-Nichols formula to tune PDCI gain. The Proportional Derivative controller is directly activated from the start but Integral controller is only activated when the error value reaches error value setting point. Simulation using Matlab/Simulink software was conducted to evaluate PDCI system performance. The simulation results showed PDCI controller has ability to perform maximum overshoot 0.1%, 0.001 steady state error and 0.5s settling time. For clamping condition, settling time is about 11.46s during changing ratio from 2.0 to 0.7, while for release condition, settling time is about 8.33s during changing ratio from 0.7 to 2.0.

  9. Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ju; Sheng, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines in strong wind conditions based on optimization method and standard PI feedback control, which can prevent the typical shutdowns of wind turbines when reaching the cut-out wind speed. In this paper, a new control strategy combing the standard PI feedback control with feedforward controls using the optimization results is investigated for the operation of variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions. It is shown that the developed control strategy is capable of smoothening the power output of wind turbine and avoiding its sudden showdown at high wind speeds without worsening the loads on rotor and blades

  10. A new method for controlling refrigerant flow in automobile air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuquan Li; Jiangping Chen; Zhijiu Chen [Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China). Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering; Weihua Liu; Wei Hu; Xiaobing Liu [Shanghai Delphi Automotive Air Conditiong Systems Co. Ltd., Changhai (China)

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes the improvement of the refrigerant flow control method by using an electronic expansion valve (EEV) which is driven by a stepper motor in automobile air conditioning system. An EEV can make a quick response to the abrupt change in the refrigerant flow rate during the change in automobile speed and the thermostatic on/off operation. The flow rate characteristic of the EEV for automobile air conditioning was presented. A microcontroller is used to receive the input signal and generate the output signal to control the opening of the EEV. The fuzzy self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control method is employed. Experimental results show that the new control method can feed adequate refrigerant flow into the evaporator in various operations. The evaporator discharge air temperature has dropped by approximately 3{sup o}C as compared with that of the conventional PID control system. (author)

  11. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szponar, B.; Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) and 0.0007/m 3 (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: ► Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. ► Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. ► LPS from mainstream smoke contains 3-hydroxy 14:0 and 12:0 fatty acids in similar proportion as

  12. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  13. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  14. Performance of diagonal control structures at different operating conditions for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Maria; Husar, Attila; Feroldi, Diego; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-08-25

    This work is focused on the selection of operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. It analyses efficiency and controllability aspects, which change from one operating point to another. Specifically, several operating points that deliver the same amount of net power are compared, and the comparison is done at different net power levels. The study is based on a complex non-linear model, which has been linearised at the selected operating points. Different linear analysis tools are applied to the linear models and results show important controllability differences between operating points. The performance of diagonal control structures with PI controllers at different operating points is also studied. A method for the tuning of the controllers is proposed and applied. The behaviour of the controlled system is simulated with the non-linear model. Conclusions indicate a possible trade-off between controllability and optimisation of hydrogen consumption. (author)

  15. Single room control for user-optimised room air conditions; Einzelraumregelung fuer nutzungsoptimiertes Raumklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezius, A. [Staefa Control System GmbH, Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 14 of the anthology about building control the single room control for achieving user-optimised room air conditions is described. The following aspects are discussed: What is comfort? What is economic efficiency? Systems for secondary air treatment, adapted functions of the measurement and control technique, management functions, orientation of the demand at the use, investment and amortisation. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 14 des Sammelbandes ueber Building control ist dem Thema der Einzelraumregelung zur Erzielung eines nutzungsoptimierten Raumklimas gewidmet. In diesem Zusammenhang werden folgende Themenbereiche angesprochen: Was ist Komfort? Was ist Wirtschaftlichkeit? Systeme fuer sekundaere Luftbehandlung; Angepasste Funktionen der MSR-Technik; Managementfunktionen; Bedarfsorientierung an der Nutzung; Investition und Amortisation. (BWI)

  16. Reliable Grid Condition Detection and Control of Single-Phase Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai

    standards addressed to the grid-connected systems will harmonize the combination of the DPGS and the classical power plants. Consequently, the major tasks of this thesis were to develop new grid condition detection techniques and intelligent control in order to allow the DPGS not only to deliver power...... to the utility grid but also to sustain it. This thesis was divided into two main parts, namely "Grid Condition Detection" and "Control of Single-Phase DPGS". In the first part, the main focus was on reliable Phase Locked Loop (PLL) techniques for monitoring the grid voltage and on grid impedance estimation...... techniques. Additionally, a new technique for detecting the islanding mode has been developed and successfully tested. In the second part, the main reported research was concentrated around adaptive current controllers based on the information provided by the grid condition detection techniques. To guarantee...

  17. Unified Subharmonic Oscillation Conditions for Peak or Average Current Mode Control

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Chung-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an extension of the author's recent research in which only buck converters were analyzed. Similar analysis can be equally applied to other types of converters. In this paper, a unified model is proposed for buck, boost, and buck-boost converters under peak or average current mode control to predict the occurrence of subharmonic oscillation. Based on the unified model, the associated stability conditions are derived in closed forms. The same stability condition can be applied to ...

  18. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  19. Ibuprofen removal in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: treatment performance and fungal community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Luo, Jinxue; Lee, Zarraz May Ping; Gersberg, Richard M; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-01-01

    The treatment performance of ibuprofen (IBP)-enriched wastewater by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands planted with cattail (Typha angustifolia) and unplanted control mesocosms was investigated. Removal efficiencies of IBP were significantly (p fungal community in these wetland systems. The overall diversity of the fungal community was reduced under the IBP exposure. Taxonomic analysis revealed that 62.2% of the fungal sequences were affiliated with Basidiomycota, followed by Ascomycota (37.4%) at the phylum level. Uncultured fungus (48.2%), Chaetomium sp. (14.2%), Aspergillus sp. (12.4%), Trichoderma sp. (5.7%), Cladosporium sp. (5.4%), and Emericellopsis sp. (5.2%) were identified as dominant genera. At the genus level, a distinct profile of the fungal community in the IBP-enriched mesocosms was observed as compared to the control beds, and as well specific fungal genera were enhanced in the planted beds, regardless of IBP enrichment. However, despite these differences, the composition of the fungal community (as measured by Bray-Curtis similarity) was mostly unaffected by the significant IBP enrichment. On the other hand, a consistent similarity pattern of fungal community structure in the planted mesocosms suggests that the presence of higher macrophytes in the wetland systems may well help shape the fungal community structure.

  20. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes ( Mucor , Rhizopus).6 reduce...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and...sensitivity reports, and the patient’s sue, including one patient who required a hip disarticulation response. to control an invasive Mucor burn wound

  1. Fuzzy logic control of air-conditioning system in residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hamid Attia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rising concern in reducing the energy consumption in building. Heating ventilation and air condition system is the biggest consumer of energy in building. In this study, fuzzy logic control of the air conditioning system of building for efficient energy operation and comfortable environment is investigated. A theoretical model of the fan coil unit (FCU and the heat transfer between air and coolant fluid is derived. The controlled variables are the room temperature and relative humidity and control consequents are the percentage of chilled and hot water flow rates at summer and the percentage of hot water and steam injected flow rates at winter. A computer simulation has been conducted and fuzzy control results are compared with that of conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative control. It was found that the proposed control strategy satisfies the space load and at the same time to achieve the comfort zone, as defined by the ASHRAE code. Meanwhile PID control fails to adjust the room temperature at part-load operations. It has been demonstrated that fuzzy controller operation is more efficient and consumes less energy than PID control.

  2. Start-up conditions and the performance of women - and men - controlled businesses in manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Driga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research into the economic performance of women-controlled firms suggests that their underperformance may not be the result of differences in the managerial ability of women as compared to men, and that it may in fact be a consequence of differing levels of start-up resources. Using accounting data, we examine the effects that selected start-up conditions have had on the observed economic performance of a sample of 4450 Spanish manufacturing firms. The results, which indicate significant differences in the initial conditions and show lower levels of assets and employee numbers in women-controlled firms, have implications for the economic performance of such firms.

  3. Novel fungal consortium pretreatment of waste oat straw to enhance economic and efficient biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-pretreatment using a fungal consortium to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored.  A fungal consortium comprised of T. viride and P. chrysosporium as microbial inoculum was compared with untreated and single-species-inoculated samples. Fungal bio-pretreatment was carried out at atmospheric conditions with limited external energy input.  The effectiveness of the pretreatment is evaluated according to its lignin removal and digestibility. Enhancement of biohydrogen production is observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Fungal consortium pretreatment effectively degraded oat straw lignin (by >47% in 7 days leading to decomposition of cell-wall structure as revealed in SEM images, increasing biohydrogen yield. The hydrogen produced from the fungal consortium pretreated straw increased by 165% 6 days later, and was more than produced from either a single fungi species of T. viride or P. chrysosponium pretreated straw (94% and 106%, respectively. No inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed.

  4. Fuzzy logic controller implementation for a solar air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lygouras, J.N.; Botsaris, P.N.; Vourvoulakis, J.; Kodogiannis, V.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of a variable structure fuzzy logic controller for a solar powered air conditioning system and its advantages are investigated in this paper. Two DC motors are used to drive the generator pump and the feed pump of the solar air-conditioner. Two different control schemes for the DC motors rotational speed adjustment are implemented and tested: the first one is a pure fuzzy controller, its output being the control signal for the DC motor driver. A 7 x 7 fuzzy matrix assigns the controller output with respect to the error value and the derivative of the error. The second scheme is a two-level controller. The lower level is a conventional PID controller, and the higher level is a fuzzy controller acting over the parameters of the low level controller. Step response of the two control loops are presented as experimental results. The contribution of this design is that in the control system, the fuzzy logic is implemented through software in a common, inexpensive, 16-bit microcontroller, which does not have special abilities for fuzzy control

  5. Fuzzy logic controller implementation for a solar air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lygouras, J.N.; Vourvoulakis, J. [Laboratory of Electronics, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Botsaris, P.N. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes and Mechanical Design, School of Production and Management Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kodogiannis, V. [Centre for Systems Analysis, School of Computer Science, University of Westminster, London, HA1 3TP (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    The implementation of a variable structure fuzzy logic controller for a solar powered air conditioning system and its advantages are investigated in this paper. Two DC motors are used to drive the generator pump and the feed pump of the solar air-conditioner. Two different control schemes for the DC motors rotational speed adjustment are implemented and tested: the first one is a pure fuzzy controller, its output being the control signal for the DC motor driver. A 7 x 7 fuzzy matrix assigns the controller output with respect to the error value and the derivative of the error. The second scheme is a two-level controller. The lower level is a conventional PID controller, and the higher level is a fuzzy controller acting over the parameters of the low level controller. Step response of the two control loops are presented as experimental results. The contribution of this design is that in the control system, the fuzzy logic is implemented through software in a common, inexpensive, 16-bit microcontroller, which does not have special abilities for fuzzy control. (author)

  6. Comparative Analysis of Maximum Power Point Tracking Controllers under Partial Shaded Conditions in a Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramaprabha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mismatching effects due to partial shaded conditions are the major drawbacks existing in today’s photovoltaic (PV systems. These mismatch effects are greatly reduced in distributed PV system architecture where each panel is effectively decoupled from its neighboring panel. To obtain the optimal operation of the PV panels, maximum power point tracking (MPPT techniques are used. In partial shaded conditions, detecting the maximum operating point is difficult as the characteristic curves are complex with multiple peaks. In this paper, a neural network control technique is employed for MPPT. Detailed analyses were carried out on MPPT controllers in centralized and distributed architecture under partial shaded environments. The efficiency of the MPPT controllers and the effectiveness of the proposed control technique under partial shaded environments was examined using MATLAB software. The results were validated through experimentation.

  7. Diverse honeydew-consuming fungal communities associated with scale insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet K Dhami

    Full Text Available Sooty mould fungi are ubiquitous, abundant consumers of insect-honeydew that have been little-studied. They form a complex of unrelated fungi that coexist and compete for honeydew, which is a chemically complex resource. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy in combination with T-RFLP community profiling and ITS-based tag-pyrosequencing to extensively describe the sooty mould community associated with the honeydews of two ecologically important New Zealand coelostomidiid scale insects, Coelostomidia wairoensis and Ultracoelostoma brittini. We tested the influence of host plant on the community composition of associated sooty moulds, and undertook limited analyses to examine the influence of scale insect species and geographic location. We report here a previously unknown degree of fungal diversity present in this complex, with pyrosequencing detecting on average 243 operational taxonomic units across the different sooty mould samples. In contrast, T-RFLP detected only a total of 24 different "species" (unique peaks. Nevertheless, both techniques identified similar patterns of diversity suggesting that either method is appropriate for community profiling. The composition of the microbial community associated with individual scale insect species varied although the differences may in part reflect variation in host preference and site. Scanning electron microscopy visualised an intertwined mass of fungal hyphae and fruiting bodies in near-intact physical condition, but was unable to distinguish between the different fungal communities on a morphological level, highlighting the need for molecular research. The substantial diversity revealed for the first time by pyrosequencing and our inability to identify two-thirds of the diversity to further than the fungal division highlights the significant gap in our knowledge of these fungal groups. This study provides a first extensive look at the community diversity of the fungal community

  8. Conditions for the existence of control functions in nonseparable simultaneous equations models

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, Richard; Matzkin, Rosa L.

    2010-01-01

    The control function approach (Heckman and Robb (1985)) in a system of linear simultaneous equations provides a convenient procedure to estimate one of the functions in the system using reduced form residuals from the other functions as additional regressors. The conditions on the structural system under which this procedure can be used in nonlinear and nonparametric simultaneous equations has thus far been unknown. In this note, we define a new property of functions called control function s...

  9. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and health locus of control: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq Mohammad Ali; Lindström, Martin

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and lack of belief in the possibility of influencing one's own health. The 2000 public health survey in Scania is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 59% participation rate. In total, 5180 persons aged 18-64 years who belonged to the workforce and the unemployed were included in this study. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between psychosocial factors at work and unemployment, and lack of belief in the possibility of influencing one's own health (external locus of control). Psychosocial conditions at work were defined according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive, and job strain categories. The multivariate analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress, and social participation. In total, 26.6% of all men and 26.9% of all women lack an internal locus of control. The passive, job strain and unemployed categories have significantly higher odds ratios of lack of internal locus of control, as compared to the relaxed reference category. No such significant differences are observed for the active category. These patterns remain in the multivariate models, with the exception of the passive and unemployed categories among men, in which the significant differences disappear. Psychosocial work conditions and unemployment may affect health locus of control. The control dimension in the Karasek-Theorell model seems to be of greatest importance.

  10. 2-regularity and 2-normality conditions for systems with impulsive controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Natal'ya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a controlled system with impulsive controls in the neighborhood of an abnormal point is investigated. The set of pairs (u,μ is considered as a class of admissible controls, where u is a measurable essentially bounded function and μ is a finite-dimensional Borel measure, such that for any Borel set B, μ(B is a subset of the given convex closed pointed cone. In this article the concepts of 2-regularity and 2-normality for the abstract mapping Ф, operating from the given Banach space into a finite-dimensional space, are introduced. The concepts of 2-regularity and 2-normality play a great role in the course of derivation of the first and the second order necessary conditions for the optimal control problem, consisting of the minimization of a certain functional on the set of the admissible processes. These concepts are also important for obtaining the sufficient conditions for the local controllability of the nonlinear systems. The convenient criterion for 2-regularity along the prescribed direction and necessary conditions for 2-normality of systems, linear in control, are introduced in this article as well.

  11. Phylogenetic structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities along an elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Cameron P; Callaway, Ragan M; Hart, Miranda M; Pither, Jason; Klironomos, John

    2017-04-01

    Despite the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi within terrestrial ecosystems, we know little about how natural AM fungal communities are structured. To date, the majority of studies examining AM fungal community diversity have focused on single habitats with similar environmental conditions, with relatively few studies having assessed the diversity of AM fungi over large-scale environmental gradients. In this study, we characterized AM fungal communities in the soil along a high-elevation gradient in the North American Rocky Mountains. We focused on phylogenetic patterns of AM fungal communities to gain insight into how AM fungal communities are naturally assembled. We found that alpine AM fungal communities had lower phylogenetic diversity relative to lower elevation communities, as well as being more heterogeneous in composition than either treeline or subalpine communities. AM fungal communities were phylogenetically clustered at all elevations sampled, suggesting that environmental filtering, either selection by host plants or fungal niches, is the primary ecological process structuring communities along the gradient.

  12. Regional differences in infection control conditions in a sample of primary health care services in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available International guidelines have pointed out the importance of the physical environment of health care facilities in preventing and controlling infection. We aimed to describe the physical environment of dental care facilities in Brazil in 2014, focusing on characteristics designed to control infections. Exactly 16,202 dental offices in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS participated in this survey. Trained researchers extracted information about the infection control characteristics of health facilities by using a structured instrument. We used data from 12 dichotomous questions that evaluated the wall, floor, sink and tap conditions, and the presence and condition of sterilization equipment. We calculated a score by summing the number of characteristics handled appropriately for infection control, which could range from 0 to 12. Hierarchical cluster analyses were developed. None of the 12 criteria were met by all the oral health teams. Only 208 (1.3% dental offices correctly performed all 12-infection control practices. Two clusters, with different frequencies of structure for infection control in dental offices, were identified. South and Southeast regions had the highest frequencies for Cluster 1, with better structure of infection control in dental offices. Dental care facilities of oral health teams were not typically meeting the infection control guidelines regarding clinic design and equipment. Adherence to the guidelines varied among the Brazilian geographic regions.

  13. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  14. Systemic fungal infections in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neonatal management have led to considerable improvement in newborn survival. However, early (72hours onset systemic infections, both bacterial and fungal, remain a devastating complication and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these babies. Most neonatal fungal infections are due to Candida species, particularly Candida albicans. The sources of candidiasis in NICU are often endogenous following colonization of the babies with fungi. About 10% of these babies get colonized in first week of life and up to 64% babies get colonized by 4 weeks of hospital stay. Disseminated candidiasis presents like bacterial sepsis and can involve multiple organs such as the kidneys, brain, eye, liver, spleen, bone, joints, meninges and heart. Confirming the diagnosis by laboratory tests is difficult and a high index of suspicion is required. The diagnosis of fungemia can be made definitely only by recovering the organism from blood or other sterile bodily fluid. Amphotericin B continues to be the mainstay of therapy for systemic fungal infections but its use is limited by the risks of nephrotoxicity and hypokalemia. Newer formulations of amphotericin B, namely the liposomal and the lipid complex forms, have recently become available and have been reported to have lesser toxicity. More recently Indian liposomal Amphotericin B derived from neutral lipids (L-Amp -LRC-1 has shown good response with less toxicity. A clinical trial with this preparation has shown to be safe and efficacious in neonatal fungal infections. Compared to other liposomal preparations, L-Amp-LRC-1 is effective at lower dose and is less expensive drug for the treatment of neonatal candidiasis.

  15. Variable structure TITO fuzzy-logic controller implementation for a solar air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lygouras, J.N.; Pachidis, Th. [Laboratory of Electronics, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kodogiannis, V.S. [Centre for Systems Analysis, School of Computer Science, University of Westminster, London HA1 3TP (United Kingdom); Tarchanidis, K.N. [Department of Petroleum Technology, Technological Education Institute of Kavala, GR-65404, Kavala (Greece); Koukourlis, C.S. [Laboratory of Telecommunications, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2008-04-15

    The design and implementation of a Two-Input/Two-Output (TITO) variable structure fuzzy-logic controller for a solar-powered air-conditioning system is described in this paper. Two DC motors are used to drive the generator pump and the feed pump of the solar air-conditioner. The first affects the temperature in the generator of the solar air-conditioner, while the second, the pressure in the power loop. The difficulty of Multi-Input/Multi-Output (MIMO) systems control is how to overcome the coupling effects among each degree of freedom. First, a traditional fuzzy-controller has been designed, its output being one of the components of the control signal for each DC motor driver. Secondly, according to the characteristics of the system's dynamics coupling, an appropriate coupling fuzzy-controller (CFC) is incorporated into a traditional fuzzy-controller (TFC) to compensate for the dynamic coupling among each degree of freedom. This control strategy simplifies the implementation problem of fuzzy control, but can also improve the control performance. This mixed fuzzy controller (MFC) can effectively improve the coupling effects of the systems, and this control strategy is easy to design and implement. Experimental results from the implemented system are presented. (author)

  16. An Innovative Adaptive Control System to Regulate Microclimatic Conditions in a Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Nicolosi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past home automation has been expanding its objectives towards new solutions both inside the smart home and in its outdoor spaces, where several new technologies are available. This work has developed an approach to integrate intelligent microclimatic greenhouse control into integrated home automation. Microclimatic control of greenhouses is a critical issue in agricultural practices, due to often common sudden daily variation of climatic conditions, and to its potentially detrimental effect on plant growth. A greenhouse is a complex thermodynamic system where indoor temperature and relative humidity have to be closely monitored to facilitate plant growth and production. This work shows an adaptive control system tailored to regulate microclimatic conditions in a greenhouse, by using an innovative combination of soft computing applications. In particular, a neural network solution has been proposed in order to forecast the climatic behavior of greenhouse, while a parallel fuzzy scheme approach is carried out in order to adjust the air speed of fan-coil and its temperature. The proposed combined approach provides a better control of greenhouse climatic conditions due to the system’s capability to base instantaneous solutions both on real measured variables and on forecasted climatic change. Several simulation campaigns were carried out to perform accurate neural network and fuzzy schemes, aimed at obtaining respectively a minimum forecasted error value and a more appropriate fuzzification and de-fuzzification process. A Matlab/Simulink solution implemented with a combined approach and its relevant obtained performance is also shown in present study, demonstrating that through controlled parameters it will be possible to maintain a better level of indoor climatic conditions. In the present work we prove how with a forecast of outside temperature at the next time-instant and rule-based controller monitoring of cooling or heating air

  17. Evaluation of the potential of Trichoderma viride in the control of fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad Parizi, T; Ansaria, Mehdi; Elaminejad, Tahereh

    2012-04-01

    The potential of Trichoderma viride as a bio-control agent was evaluated in vitro against Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani[1] using the dual culture technique. Volatile and non-volatile inhibitors of Trichoderma were also evaluated for this purpose. T. viride[2] was shown to have a marked inhibitory effect on the tested pathogens in vitro. Maximum inhibition occurred against P. exigua, with 71.76% reduction in mycelial radial growth. The three pathogens, P. exigua, F. nygamai and R. solani were also found to be susceptible to the volatile inhibitors produced by T. viride, giving rise to growth inhibition of about 68% in each case. When T. viride non-volatile metabolites were tested against the pathogens, maximum inhibition occurred against R. solani (73.95% mycelial growth inhibition), followed by P. exigua (37.17% inhibition). The inhibitory effect of the non-volatile metabolites on F. nygamai was, however, minimal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  19. Fungal genome resources at NCBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  20. 50 CFR 22.32 - Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Golden Eagles § 22.32 Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order. (a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit is authorized for the seasonal protection of livestock, such birds may be taken by firearms, traps, or other suitable means except by poison or from aircraft...

  1. Sporulation of Bremia lactucae affected by temperature, relative humidity, and wind in controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, H.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Subbarao, K.V.; Scherm, H.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of temperature (5 to 25degreesC), relative humidity (81 to 100%), wind speed (0 to 1.0 in s(-1)), and their interactions on sporulation of Bremia lactucae on lettuce cotyledons were investigated in controlled conditions. Sporulation was affected significantly (P <0.0001) by

  2. Assessment of Augmented Electronic Fuel Controls for Modular Engine Diagnostics and Condition Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    removal of the horoscope . Diagnostic Conoctor - E4 Th10 E4 23-pin connoctor on the electrical control unit Is provided for ground- checking electrical...confidenou in engine condition monitoring * 1min general. Thi9 has boon especially true in~ eases where fUse signal s have c~aused engine shutdowns. Where ECWI

  3. Model predictions and control of conditions in a CA-reefer container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Verdijck, G.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a concept for energy saving for refrigerated container transport is presented. The concept is based on model-predictive control of the set points of the cooling unit. These models predict energy consumption of the cooling unit, climatic conditions inside the cargo space, and the change

  4. Anti-seismic air condition's cooling capability increase of the second control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Secondary area (SCA) air-conditioning system is an important ventilation system in plant. It should achieve the indoor temperature controllable. To resolve the problem of cooling capacity insufficiency, on the basis of ventilation and refrigeration theory, the thesis analyzes the design modification plan. (author)

  5. High Spatial Resolution Analysis of Fungal Cell Biochemistry: Bridging the Analytical Gap using Synchrotron FTIR Spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminskyj, S.; Konstantin, J.; Szeghalmi, A.; Gough, K.

    2008-01-01

    Fungi impact humans and the environment in many ways, for good and ill. Some fungi support the growth of terrestrial plants or are used in biotechnology, and yet others are established or emerging pathogens. In some cases, the same organism may play different roles depending on the context or the circumstance. A better understanding of the relationship between fungal biochemical composition as related to the fungal growth environment is essential if we are to support or control their activities. Synchrotron FTIR (sFTIR) spectromicroscopy of fungal hyphae is a major new tool for exploring cell composition at a high spatial resolution. Brilliant synchrotron light is essential for this analysis due to the small size of fungal hyphae. sFTIR biochemical characterization of subcellular variation in hyphal composition will allow detailed exploration of fungal responses to experimental treatments and to environmental factors.

  6. Hydrogen-control systems for severe LWR accident conditions - a state-of-technology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.; Jeppson, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report relate to control systems and include combustion prevention, controlled combustion, minimization of combustion effects, combination of control concepts, and post-accident disposal. A companion report addresses hydrogen generation, distribution, and combustion. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues

  7. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  8. Fungal Sex: The Basidiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marco A; Bakkeren, Guus; Sun, Sheng; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-06-01

    Fungi of the Basidiomycota, representing major pathogen lineages and mushroom-forming species, exhibit diverse means to achieve sexual reproduction, with particularly varied mechanisms to determine compatibilities of haploid mating partners. For species that require mating between distinct genotypes, discrimination is usually based on both the reciprocal exchange of diffusible mating pheromones, rather than sexes, and the interactions of homeodomain protein signals after cell fusion. Both compatibility factors must be heterozygous in the product of mating, and genetic linkage relationships of the mating pheromone/receptor and homeodomain genes largely determine the complex patterns of mating-type variation. Independent segregation of the two compatibility factors can create four haploid mating genotypes from meiosis, referred to as tetrapolarity. This condition is thought to be ancestral to the basidiomycetes. Alternatively, cosegregation by linkage of the two mating factors, or in some cases the absence of the pheromone-based discrimination, yields only two mating types from meiosis, referred to as bipolarity. Several species are now known to have large and highly rearranged chromosomal regions linked to mating-type genes. At the population level, polymorphism of the mating-type genes is an exceptional aspect of some basidiomycete fungi, where selection under outcrossing for rare, intercompatible allelic variants is thought to be responsible for numbers of mating types that may reach several thousand. Advances in genome sequencing and assembly are yielding new insights by comparative approaches among and within basidiomycete species, with the promise to resolve the evolutionary origins and dynamics of mating compatibility genetics in this major eukaryotic lineage.

  9. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  10. Adaptive Neural Control of Nonaffine Nonlinear Systems without Differential Condition for Nonaffine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojiao Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neural control scheme is proposed for nonaffine nonlinear system without using the implicit function theorem or mean value theorem. The differential conditions on nonaffine nonlinear functions are removed. The control-gain function is modeled with the nonaffine function probably being indifferentiable. Furthermore, only a semibounded condition for nonaffine nonlinear function is required in the proposed method, and the basic idea of invariant set theory is then constructively introduced to cope with the difficulty in the control design for nonaffine nonlinear systems. It is rigorously proved that all the closed-loop signals are bounded and the tracking error converges to a small residual set asymptotically. Finally, simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed method.

  11. Feedback linearization based control of a variable air volume air conditioning system for cooling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2008-07-01

    Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.

  12. A power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator based on interleaved Boost converter with MPPT control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, L.-X; Sun, K.; Zhang, L.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric generation (TEG) system has its special charactristics of high stablility, low voltage and high current output, which is different from PV modules. The power conditioning system and control schemes used in PV applications cannot be directly applied to TEG applications. A power...... conditioning system for TEG based on interleaved Boost converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is investigated in this paper. Since an internal resistance exists inside TEG modules, an improved perturbation and observation (P&O) MPPT control scheme with power limit is proposed to extract...... maximum power from TEG by matching the load with internal resistance. Since the battery is usually employed as the load for TEG systems, the interleaved Boost converter operates in two different modes for battery charging: before the battery is fully charged, the system outputs the maximum power (MPPT...

  13. The mechanism of oxygen isotopic fractionation during fungal denitrification - A pure culture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrage-Moennig, Nicole; Rohe, Lena; Anderson, Traute-Heidi; Braker, Gesche; Flessa, Heinz; Giesemann, Annette; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Well, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from soil denitrification originates from bacteria and - to an unknown extent - also from fungi. During fungal denitrification, oxygen (O) exchange takes place between H2O and intermediates of the denitrification process as in bacterial exchange[1,2]. However, information about enzymes involved in fungal O exchanges and the associated fractionation effects is lacking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the O fractionation and O exchange during the fungal denitrifying steps using a conceptual model[2] adapted from concepts for bacterial denitrification[3], implementing controls of O exchange proposed by Aerssens, et al.[4] and using fractionation models by Snider et al.[5] Six different pure fungal cultures (five Hypocreales, one Sordariales) known to be capable of denitrification were incubated under anaerobic conditions, either with nitrite or nitrate. Gas samples were analyzed for N2O concentration and its isotopic signatures (SP, average δ15N, δ18O). To investigate O exchange, both treatments were also established with 18O-labelled water as a tracer in the medium. The Hypocreales strains showed O exchange mainly at NO2- reductase (Nir) with NO2- as electron acceptor and no additional O exchange at NO3- reductase (Nar) with NO3- as electron acceptor. The only Hypocreales species having higher O exchange with NO3- than with NO2- also showed O exchange at Nar. The Sordariales species tested seems capable of O exchange at NO reductase (Nor) additionally to O exchange at Nir with NO2-. The data will help to better interpret stable isotope values of N2O from soils. .[1] D. M. Kool, N. Wrage, O. Oenema, J. Dolfing, J. W. Van Groenigen. Oxygen exchange between (de)nitrification intermediates and H2O and its implications for source determination of NO?3- and N2O: a review. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec. 2007, 21, 3569. [2] L. Rohe, T.-H. Anderson, B. Braker, H. Flessa, A. Giesemann, N. Wrage-Mönnig, R. Well. Fungal Oxygen Exchange between

  14. Differentiated surface fungal communities at point of harvest on apple fruits from rural and peri-urban orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Youming; Nie, Jiyun; Li, Zhixia; Li, Haifei; Wu, Yonglong; Dong, Yafeng; Zhang, Jianyi

    2018-01-01

    The diverse fungal communities that colonize fruit surfaces are closely associated with fruit development, preservation and quality control. However, the overall fungi adhering to the fruit surface and the inference of environmental factors are still unknown. Here, we characterized the fungal signatures on apple surfaces by sequencing internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. We collected the surface fungal communities from apple fruits cultivated in rural and peri-urban orchards. A total ...

  15. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s and/or generator(s contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC, it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  16. Isotopologue fractionation during N(2)O production by fungal denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutka, Robin L; Adams, Gerard C; Ostrom, Nathaniel E; Ostrom, Peggy H

    2008-12-01

    Identifying the importance of fungi to nitrous oxide (N2O) production requires a non-intrusive method for differentiating between fungal and bacterial N2O production such as natural abundance stable isotopes. We compare the isotopologue composition of N2O produced during nitrite reduction by the fungal denitrifiers Fusarium oxysporum and Cylindrocarpon tonkinense with published data for N2O production during bacterial nitrification and denitrification. The fractionation factors for bulk nitrogen isotope values for fungal denitrification were in the range -74.7 to -6.6 per thousand. There was an inverse relationship between the absolute value of the fractionation factors and the reaction rate constant. We interpret this in terms of variation in the relative importance of the rate constants for diffusion and enzymatic reduction in controlling the net isotope effect for N2O production during fungal denitrification. Over the course of nitrite reduction, the delta(18)O values for N2O remained constant and did not exhibit a relationship with the concentration characteristic of an isotope effect. This probably reflects isotopic exchange with water. Similar to the delta(18)O data, the site preference (SP; the difference in delta(15)N between the central and outer N atoms in N2O) was unrelated to concentration during nitrite reduction and, therefore, has the potential to act as a conservative tracer of production from fungal denitrification. The SP values of N2O produced by F. oxysporum and C. tonkinense were 37.1 +/- 2.5 per thousand and 36.9 +/- 2.8 per thousand, respectively. These SP values are similar to those obtained in pure culture studies of bacterial nitrification but quite distinct from SP values for bacterial denitrification. The large magnitude of the bulk nitrogen isotope fractionation and the delta(18)O values associated with fungal denitrification are distinct from bacterial production pathways; thus multiple isotopologue data holds much promise for

  17. Modelling soil borne fungal pathogens of arable crops under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manici, L M; Bregaglio, S; Fumagalli, D; Donatelli, M

    2014-12-01

    Soil-borne fungal plant pathogens, agents of crown and root rot, are seldom considered in studies on climate change and agriculture due both to the complexity of the soil system and to the incomplete knowledge of their response to environmental drivers. A controlled chamber set of experiments was carried out to quantify the response of six soil-borne fungi to temperature, and a species-generic model to simulate their response was developed. The model was linked to a soil temperature model inclusive of components able to simulate soil water content also as resulting from crop water uptake. Pathogen relative growth was simulated over Europe using the IPCC A1B emission scenario derived from the Hadley-CM3 global climate model. Climate scenarios of soil temperature in 2020 and 2030 were compared to the baseline centred in the year 2000. The general trend of the response of soil-borne pathogens shows increasing growth in the coldest areas of Europe; however, a larger rate of increase is shown from 2020 to 2030 compared to that of 2000 to 2020. Projections of pathogens of winter cereals indicate a marked increase of growth rate in the soils of northern European and Baltic states. Fungal pathogens of spring sowing crops show unchanged conditions for their growth in soils of the Mediterranean countries, whereas an increase of suitable conditions was estimated for the areals of central Europe which represent the coldest limit areas where the host crops are currently grown. Differences across fungal species are shown, indicating that crop-specific analyses should be ran.

  18. Performance Evaluation of UPQC under Nonlinear Unbalanced Load Conditions Using Synchronous Reference Frame Based Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Venkata Reddy; Vinnakoti, Sudheer

    2017-12-01

    Today, maintaining Power Quality (PQ) is very important in the growing competent world. With new equipments and devices, new challenges are also being put before power system operators. Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is proposed to mitigate many power quality problems and to improve the performance of the power system. In this paper, an UPQC with Fuzzy Logic controller for capacitor voltage balancing is proposed in Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) based control with Modified Phased Locked Loop (MPLL). The proposed controller with SRF-MPLL based control is tested under non-linear and unbalanced load conditions. The system is developed in Matlab/Simulink and its performance is analyzed under various conditions like non-linear, unbalanced load and polluted supply voltage including voltage sag/swells. Active and reactive power flow in the system, power factor and %THD of voltages and currents before and after compensation are also analyzed in this work. Results prove the applicability of the proposed scheme for power quality improvement. It is observed that the fuzzy controller gives better performance than PI controller with faster capacitor voltage balancing and also improves the dynamic performance of the system.

  19. An optimization strategy for the control of small capacity heat pump integrated air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jiajia; Huang, Gongsheng; Xu, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimization strategy for a small-scale air-conditioning system is developed. • The optimization strategy aims at optimizing the overall system energy consumption. • The strategy may guarantee the robust control of the space air temperature. • The performance of the optimization strategy was tested on a simulation platform. - Abstract: This paper studies the optimization of a small-scale central air-conditioning system, in which the cooling is provided by a ground source heat pump (GSHP) equipped with an on/off capacity control. The optimization strategy aims to optimize the overall system energy consumption and simultaneously guarantee the robustness of the space air temperature control without violating the allowed GSHP maximum start-ups number per hour specified by customers. The set-point of the chilled water return temperature and the width of the water temperature control band are used as the decision variables for the optimization. The performance of the proposed strategy was tested on a simulation platform. Results show that the optimization strategy can save the energy consumption by 9.59% in a typical spring day and 2.97% in a typical summer day. Meanwhile it is able to enhance the space air temperature control robustness when compared with a basic control strategy without optimization.

  20. [Fungal biomass estimation in soils from southwestern Buenos Aires province (Argentina) using calcofluor white stain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, María B; Amodeo, Martín R; Bianchinotti, María V

    Soil microorganisms are vital for ecosystem functioning because of the role they play in soil nutrient cycling. Agricultural practices and the intensification of land use have a negative effect on microbial activities and fungal biomass has been widely used as an indicator of soil health. The aim of this study was to analyze fungal biomass in soils from southwestern Buenos Aires province using direct fluorescent staining and to contribute to its use as an indicator of environmental changes in the ecosystem as well as to define its sensitivity to weather conditions. Soil samples were collected during two consecutive years. Soil smears were prepared and stained with two different concentrations of calcofluor, and the fungal biomass was estimated under an epifluorescence microscope. Soil fungal biomass varied between 2.23 and 26.89μg fungal C/g soil, being these values in the range expected for the studied soil type. The fungal biomass was positively related to temperature and precipitations. The methodology used was reliable, standardized and sensitive to weather conditions. The results of this study contribute information to evaluate fungal biomass in different soil types and support its use as an indicator of soil health for analyzing the impact of different agricultural practices. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitigating cutaneous sensation differences during tDCS: comparing sham versus low intensity control conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Cantelon, Julie; Holmes, Amanda; Taylor, Holly A; Mahoney, Caroline R

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous sensations at electrode sites during the administration of direct current brain stimulation may inadvertently influence participants' subjective experience and task performance. The present study evaluated the utility of a methodological variation that substitutes sham administration with very low intensity (0.5 mA) current delivery. We used a 4 × 1 high-definition ring electrode transcranial direct current (HD-tDCS) system to target the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 9). Four stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: sham 2.0 mA and 0.5 mA intensity, versus active 2.0 mA and 0.5 mA intensity. During stimulation participants performed a cognitive interference task that activates the cingulo-frontal-parietal network, and periodically provided perceived sensation ratings. We demonstrate that a relatively low intensity control condition attenuates otherwise large differences in perceived sensation between active and sham conditions. Critically, behavioral task differences maintained between the two active conditions. A low intensity control stimulation condition may prove a viable methodological alternative to conventional sham techniques used in repeated-measures designs, though important limitations are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Snake fungal disease: an emerging threat to wild snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Knowles, Susan; Lankton, Julia S; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L; Kapfer, Joshua M; Staffen, Richard A; Wild, Erik R; Schmidt, Katie Z; Ballmann, Anne E; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M; Glorioso, Brad M; Last, Lisa A; Price, Steven J; Schuler, Krysten L; Smith, Christopher E; Wellehan, James F X; Blehert, David S

    2016-12-05

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Estimating the Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Macedo-Viñas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay. Data on population characteristics and underlying conditions were extracted from the National Statistics Institute, the World Bank, national registries, and published articles. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies extrapolating from the literature. Population structure (inhabitants: total 3,444,006; 73% adults; 35% women younger than 50 years. Size of populations at risk (total cases per year: HIV infected 12,000; acute myeloid leukemia 126; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 30; solid organ transplants 134; COPD 272,006; asthma in adults 223,431; cystic fibrosis in adults 48; tuberculosis 613; lung cancer 1400. Annual incidence estimations per 100,000: invasive aspergillosis, 22.4; candidemia, 16.4; Candida peritonitis, 3.7; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, 1.62; cryptococcosis, 0.75; severe asthma with fungal sensitization, 217; allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, 165; recurrent Candida vaginitis, 6323; oral candidiasis, 74.5; and esophageal candidiasis, 25.7. Although some under and overestimations could have been made, we expect that at least 127,525 people suffer from serious fungal infections each year. Sporothrichosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and dermatophytosis are known to be frequent but no data are available to make accurate estimations. Given the magnitude of the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay, efforts should be made to improve surveillance, strengthen laboratory diagnosis, and warrant access to first line antifungals.

  4. A method for detecting fungal contaminants in wall cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joe C

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a practical method for detecting the presence of both fungal spores and culturable fungi in wall cavities. Culturable fungi were collected in 25 mm cassettes containing 0.8 microm mixed cellulose ester filters using aggressive sampling conditions. Both culturable fungi and fungal spores were collected in modified slotted-disk cassettes. The sample volume was 4 L. The filters were examined microscopically and dilution plated onto multiple culture media. Collecting airborne samples in filter cassettes was an effective method for assessing wall cavities for fungal contaminants, especially because this method allowed the sample to be analyzed by both microscopy and culture media. Assessment criteria were developed that allowed the sample results to be used to classify wall cavities as either uncontaminated or contaminated. As a criterion, wall cavities with concentrations of culturable fungi below the limit of detection (LOD) were classified as uncontaminated, whereas those cavities with detectable concentrations of culturable fungi were classified as contaminated. A total of 150 wall cavities was sampled as part of a field project. The concentrations of culturable fungi were below the LOD in 34% of the samples, whereas Aspergillus and/or Penicillium were the only fungal genera detected in 69% of the samples in which culturable fungi were detected. Spore counting resulted in the detection of Stachybotrys-like spores in 25% of the samples that were analyzed, whereas Stachybotrys chartarum colonies were only detected on 2% of malt extract agar plates and on 6% of corn meal agar plates.

  5. Duct corrosion in the ventilating air conditioning system for Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Takashi; Minami, Akiko; Fukuba, Kazushi

    2014-01-01

    Higashidori Nuclear Power Station, start-of-operation in December 2005, is a relatively new plant. We decided to get original data of air duct condition to determine maintenance policy of air duct, because planned maintenance of air duct has never been done and the corrosion of air duct has occurred in other plant. In January 2014, we found a corrosion-hole at the downstream of the inlet damper in the ventilating air conditioning system for Main Control Room (MCR). We supposed that the cause of rapid corrosion is related to the characteristic environment of this site. (author)

  6. Controlling the anodizing conditions in preparation of an nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, Azadeh; Abolfazl, Seyed; Sadjadi, Seyed

    2014-12-01

    Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template is commonly used in the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanorods, due to its simple fabrication process. Controlling the anodizing conditions is important because of their direct influence on the size of AAO template pores; it affects the size of nanostructures that are fabricated in AAO template. In present study, several alumina templates were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical anodization in different conditions, such as the time of first process, its voltage, and electrolyte concentration. The effect of these factors on pore diameters of AAO templates was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  7. Fungal Phytotoxins in Sustainable Weed Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Maurizio; Boari, Angela; Casella, Francesca; Zonno, Maria Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Fungal phytotoxins are natural secondary metabolites produced by plant pathogenic fungi during host-pathogen interactions. They have received considerable particular attention for elucidating disease etiology, and consequently to design strategies for disease control. Due to wide differences in their chemical structures, these toxic metabolites have different ecological and environmental roles and mechanisms of action. This review aims at summarizing the studies on the possible use of these metabolites as tools in biological and integrated weed management, e.g. as: novel and environmentally friendly herbicides; lead for novel compounds; sources of novel mechanisms of action. Moreover, the limiting factors for utilizing those metabolites in practice will also be briefly discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Incorporating fan control into air-conditioning systems to improve energy efficiency and transient response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, T.-J.; Chen, Yun-Jih; Hwang, Wei-Yang; Lin, Jin-Long

    2009-01-01

    Modern air-conditioners frequently incorporate variable-speed compressors and variable-opening expansion valves with feedback control to improve performance and power efficiency. Because making the fan speeds adjustable adds flexibility to the control design and thus can lead to further improvements in performance and efficiency, this paper proposes two control algorithms, respectively, incorporating the outdoor fan and the indoor fan as the additional control inputs for air-conditioning systems. Both of the control algorithms are designed based on a low-order, linear model obtained from system identification. The first algorithm, which modulates the outdoor fan speed, can reduce the steady state power consumption if the temperature difference between the condenser and the outdoor environment is controlled properly. The second algorithm, which adds one more degree of freedom to control by modulating the indoor fan speed, can improve the transient response because actuator saturations become less likely to occur. The two control algorithms are implemented on a split-type residential air-conditioner and their respective performance is validated experimentally.

  9. Mode switching control of dual-evaporator air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.-L.; Yeh, T.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Modern air-conditioners incorporate variable-speed compressors and variable-opening expansion valves as the actuators for improving cooling performance and energy efficiency. These actuators have to be properly feedback-controlled; otherwise the systems may exhibit even poorer performance than the conventional machines which use fixed-speed compressors and mechanical expansion valves. Particularly for an air-conditioner with multiple evaporators, there are occasions that the machine is operated in a mode that only selected evaporator(s) is(are) turned on, and switching(s) between modes occurs(occur) during the control process. In this case, one needs to have more carefully designed control and switching strategies to ensure the system performance. In this paper, a framework for mode switching control of the dual-evaporator air-conditioning (DEAC) system is proposed. The framework is basically an integration of a controller and a dynamic compensator. The controller, which possesses the flow-distribution capability and assumes both evaporators are on throughout the control process, is intended to provide nominal performance. While mode switching is achieved by varying the reference settings in the controller, the dynamic compensator is used to improve the transient responses immediately after the switching. Experiments indicate that the proposed framework can achieve satisfactory indoor temperature regulation and provide bumpless switching between different modes of operation.

  10. Improving safety margins for control room habitability, through heating/ventilation/air conditioning modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, D.R.; Fillingim, W.; Bell, G.; Eurich, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Fort Calhoun power station began operation in September 1973. Since that time, modifications to the plant have required the addition of a substantial number of electrical and control components in the control room, which has resulted in an increased heat load in this area. Additionally, NUREG-0737, Item III.D.3.4, imposed requirements on the ventilating system related to protection of personnel from the effects of toxic and radioactive gas releases, which were not considered in the original design. Omaha Public Power District (OPPD) has recently undertaken a major modification to the Fort Calhoun station control room ventilating system to improve the safety margins for control room habitability. The goals of the modification were to achieve adequate cooling capacity with fully redundant equipment, improve habitability under accident conditions, and eliminate several potential problems related to steam line break and equipment qualification. Additionally, the scope of the project grew as design problems emerged

  11. Biological control of white mold by Trichoderma harzianum in common bean under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate Trichoderma harzianum isolates for biological control of white mold in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Five isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of white mold in 'Perola' common bean under field conditions, in the 2009 and 2010 crop seasons. A commercial isolate (1306 and a control treatment were included. Foliar applications at 2x109 conidia mL-1 were performed at 42 and 52 days after sowing (DAS, in 2009, and at 52 DAS in 2010. The CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 isolates decreased the number of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum apothecia per square meter in comparison to the control, in both crop seasons. CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 decreased white mold severity during the experimental period, when compared to the control.

  12. Control of hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, G.; Gao, F.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents control methods for hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operation condition. The control schemes for AC sub-microgrid and DC sub-microgrid are investigated according to the power sharing requirement and operational reliability. In addition, the key control schemes...... of interlinking converter with DC-link capacitor or energy storage, which will devote to the proper power sharing between AC and DC sub-microgrids to maintain AC and DC side voltage stable, is reviewed. Combining the specific control methods developed for AC and DC sub-microgrids with interlinking converter......, the whole hybrid AC/DC microgrid can manage the power flow transferred between sub-microgrids for improving on the operational quality and efficiency....

  13. Fungal Endocarditis: Update on Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Ahmed Khurshid; Lee, Justin Z; Low, See-Wei; Desai, Hem; Lee, Kwan S; Al Mohajer, Mayar

    2016-10-01

    Fungal endocarditis is an extremely debilitating disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. are the most common isolated organisms in fungal endocarditis. It is most prevalent in patients who are immunosuppressed and intravenous drug users. Most patients present with constitutional symptoms, which are indistinguishable from bacterial endocarditis, hence a high index of suspicion is required for pursuing diagnosis. Diagnosis of fungal endocarditis can be very challenging: most of the time, blood cultures are negative or take a long time to yield growth. Fungal endocarditis mandates an aggressive treatment strategy. A medical and surgical combined approach is the cornerstone of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-related effects on postural control under multi-task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wehrle, Anja; Kressig, Reto W

    2011-01-01

    Changes in postural sway and gait patterns due to simultaneously performed cognitive (CI) and/or motor interference (MI) tasks have previously been reported and are associated with an increased risk of falling in older adults. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a CI and/or MI task on static and dynamic postural control in young and elderly subjects, and to find out whether there is an association between measures of static and dynamic postural control while concurrently performing the CI and/or MI task. A total of 36 healthy young (n = 18; age: 22.3 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 21.0 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) and elderly adults (n = 18; age: 73.5 ± 5.5 years; BMI: 24.2 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) participated in this study. Static postural control was measured during bipedal stance, and dynamic postural control was obtained while walking on an instrumented walkway. Irrespective of the task condition, i.e. single-task or multiple tasks, elderly participants showed larger center-of-pressure displacements and greater stride-to-stride variability than younger participants. Associations between measures of static and dynamic postural control were found only under the single-task condition in the elderly. Age-related deficits in the postural control system seem to be primarily responsible for the observed results. The weak correlations detected between static and dynamic measures could indicate that fall-risk assessment should incorporate dynamic measures under multi-task conditions, and that skills like erect standing and walking are independent of each other and may have to be trained complementarily. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Host habitat assessment by a parasitoid using fungal volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steidle Johannes LM

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The preference – performance hypothesis predicts that oviposition preference of insects should correlate with host suitability for offspring development. Therefore, insect females have to be able to assess not only the quality of a given host but also the environmental conditions of the respective host habitat. Chemical cues are a major source of information used by insects for this purpose. Primary infestation of stored grain by stored product pests often favors the intense growth of mold. This can lead to distinct sites of extreme environmental conditions (hot-spots with increased insect mortality. We studied the influence of mold on chemical orientation, host recognition, and fitness of Lariophagus distinguendus, a parasitoid of beetle larvae developing in stored grain. Results Volatiles of wheat infested by Aspergillus sydowii and A. versicolor repelled female parasitoids in an olfactometer. Foraging L. distinguendus females are known to be strongly attracted to the odor of larval host feces from the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius, which may adhere in remarkable amounts to the surface of the grains. Feces from moldy weevil cultures elicited neutral responses but parasitoids clearly avoided moldy feces when non-moldy feces were offered simultaneously. The common fungal volatile 1-octen-3-ol was the major component of the odor of larval feces from moldy weevil cultures and repelled female parasitoids at naturally occurring doses. In bioassays investigating host recognition behavior of L. distinguendus, females spent less time on grains containing hosts from moldy weevil cultures and showed less drumming and drilling behavior than on non-moldy controls. L. distinguendus had a clearly reduced fitness on hosts from moldy weevil cultures. Conclusion We conclude that L. distinguendus females use 1-octen-3-ol for host habitat assessment to avoid negative fitness consequences due to secondary mold infestation of host

  16. Optimal control of the process of cultivation in the conditions of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sukhanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a way of solving of the optimal control problem of antibiotic feeding under condition of infection, consisting in the selection of the optimal control in the field of admissible control, with the aim of achieving a compromise between the losses in production due to the presence of foreign microflora, and the cost of its suppression due to the application of antibiotic. The presence of other microorganisms in the finished product, in particular of the “wild“ ones, considerably impairs the quality indicators of the final product (in particular, it reduces the storage time. In peculiar conditions of production it is possible to improve the quality of target product due to elimination of infection, including, when used antibiotics in the process of cultivation, but due to the lack of efficient algorithms and control systems of their supply the question is still open. We use the system of Lotka-Volterra adapted for microbiological process as a mathematical model adequately describing the situation of competitive interaction of two populations of microorganisms (useful and “wild“ ones due to the consumption of one resource. The aim is to find a control law U(t belonging to the field of admissible control. The control that affords minimum to the optimization criterion in accordance with the principle of maximum is defined by the condition of the maximum of Hamilton function and the resulting canonical system of equations. The modified conjugated system of equations in matrix form is obtained. The solution of system of differential-different equations in the analytical form is found using the method of coordinate transformation. As a result an optimal control law is found (with regard to the selected criterion. This is the control law of application of the antibiotic, allowing to control the concentration of foreign microflora in the process of cultivation of microorganisms and accounting for the specific

  17. Controlling the site density of multiwall carbon nanotubes via growth conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Overmyer, D. L.; Kaatz, F. H.

    2004-06-01

    We present two complementary methods for controlling the site density of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) directly as a function of growth conditions from 1011to107CNTs/cm2. Several potential applications require significant spacing between individual CNTs. The first method shows that the site density varies with the heat of formation of the hydrocarbon gas used during CNT growth by thermal chemical vapor deposition. The second method demonstrates that the site density decreases with increasing residual stress of the metal catalyst/diffusion barrier layers. These methods are combined for wide-range control of CNT site density.

  18. Enhanced Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame Current Controller for Unbalanced Grid-Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes, M.; Rodriguez, Pedro; Vazquez, S.

    2012-01-01

    . In these codes, the injection of positive- and negative-sequence current components becomes necessary for fulfilling, among others, the low-voltage ride-through requirements during balanced and unbalanced grid faults. However, the performance of classical dq current controllers, applied to power converters......, under unbalanced grid-voltage conditions is highly deficient, due to the unavoidable appearance of current oscillations. This paper analyzes the performance of the double synchronous reference frame controller and improves its structure by adding a decoupling network for estimating and compensating...

  19. Thermoelectric properties control due to doping level and sintering conditions for FGM thermoelectric element

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, T; Shiraishi, K; Ohmori, M; Hirai, T

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectric performance is determined with three factors, namely, Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity. For metal and single crystalline semiconductor, those factors have close interrelation each $9 other. However, as the sintered thermoelectric element has various levels of superstructure from macro scale and micro scale in terms of the thermoelectric mechanism, the relationship among them is more complex than that for the $9 melt- grown element, so it is suggested that the control of the temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties is possible to enhance the thermoelectric performance for wide temperature range due to FGM approach. The research $9 objective is to investigate the characteristics of the thermoelectric properties for various doping levels and hot-pressed conditions to make the thermoelectric elements for which the temperature dependence of the performance is $9 controlled due to FGM approach varying the doping levels and sintering conditions. By usage ...

  20. PATs Operating in Water Networks under Unsteady Flow Conditions: Control Valve Manoeuvre and Overspeed Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Pérez-Sánchez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of transient conditions in water pressurized networks equipped with pump as turbines (PATs is of the utmost importance and necessary for the design and correct implementation of these new renewable solutions. This research characterizes the water hammer phenomenon in the design of PAT systems, emphasizing the transient events that can occur during a normal operation. This is based on project concerns towards a stable and efficient operation associated with the normal dynamic behaviour of flow control valve closure or by the induced overspeed effect. Basic concepts of mathematical modelling, characterization of control valve behaviour, damping effects in the wave propagation and runaway conditions of PATs are currently related to an inadequate design. The precise evaluation of basic operating rules depends upon the system and component type, as well as the required safety level during each operation.

  1. Towards artificial intelligence based diesel engine performance control under varying operating conditions using support vector regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naradasu Kumar Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine designers are constantly on the look-out for performance enhancement through efficient control of operating parameters. In this paper, the concept of an intelligent engine control system is proposed that seeks to ensure optimized performance under varying operating conditions. The concept is based on arriving at the optimum engine operating parameters to ensure the desired output in terms of efficiency. In addition, a Support Vector Machines based prediction model has been developed to predict the engine performance under varying operating conditions. Experiments were carried out at varying loads, compression ratios and amounts of exhaust gas recirculation using a variable compression ratio diesel engine for data acquisition. It was observed that the SVM model was able to predict the engine performance accurately.

  2. Energy Performance and Optimal Control of Air-conditioned Buildings Integrated with Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na

    This thesis presents an overview of the previous research work on dynamic characteristics and energy performance of buildings due to the integration of PCMs. The research work on dynamic characteristics and energy performance of buildings using PCMs both with and without air-conditioning is reviewed. Since the particular interest in using PCMs for free cooling and peak load shifting, specific research efforts on both subjects are reviewed separately. A simplified physical dynamic model of building structures integrated with SSPCM (shaped-stabilized phase change material) is developed and validated in this study. The simplified physical model represents the wall by 3 resistances and 2 capacitances and the PCM layer by 4 resistances and 2 capacitances respectively while the key issue is the parameter identification of the model. This thesis also presents the studies on the thermodynamic characteristics of buildings enhanced by PCM and on the investigation of the impacts of PCM on the building cooling load and peak cooling demand at different climates and seasons as well as the optimal operation and control strategies to reduce the energy consumption and energy cost by reducing the air-conditioning energy consumption and peak load. An office building floor with typical variable air volume (VAV) air-conditioning system is used and simulated as the reference building in the comparison study. The envelopes of the studied building are further enhanced by integrating the PCM layers. The building system is tested in two selected cities of typical climates in China including Hong Kong and Beijing. The cold charge and discharge processes, the operation and control strategies of night ventilation and the air temperature set-point reset strategy for minimizing the energy consumption and electricity cost are studied. This thesis presents the simulation test platform, the test results on the cold storage and discharge processes, the air-conditioning energy consumption and demand

  3. Which key properties controls the preferential transport in the vadose zone under transient hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, J.; Vanderborght, J.; Puetz, T.; Gerke, H. H.; Rupp, H.; Wollschlaeger, U.; Stumpp, C.; Priesack, E.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    % arrival time and potential key soil properties, site factors and boundary conditions will be presented in order to identify key properties which control the preferential transport in the vadose zone under transient hydrological conditions.

  4. Controls of multi-modal wave conditions in a complex coastal setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegermiller, Christie; Rueda, Ana C.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Antolinez, J.A.A.; Mendez, Fernando J.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal hazards emerge from the combined effect of wave conditions and sea level anomalies associated with storms or low-frequency atmosphere-ocean oscillations. Rigorous characterization of wave climate is limited by the availability of spectral wave observations, the computational cost of dynamical simulations, and the ability to link wave-generating atmospheric patterns with coastal conditions. We present a hybrid statistical-dynamical approach to simulating nearshore wave climate in complex coastal settings, demonstrated in the Southern California Bight, where waves arriving from distant, disparate locations are refracted over complex bathymetry and shadowed by offshore islands. Contributions of wave families and large-scale atmospheric drivers to nearshore wave energy flux are analyzed. Results highlight the variability of influences controlling wave conditions along neighboring coastlines. The universal method demonstrated here can be applied to complex coastal settings worldwide, facilitating analysis of the effects of climate change on nearshore wave climate.

  5. Data support system for controlling decentralised nuclear power industry facilities through uninterruptible condition monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povarov Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the automated uninterruptible multi-parameter system for monitoring operational vulnerability of critical NPP components, which differs from existing ones by being universally applicable for analysing mechanical damage of nuclear power unit components. The system allows for performing routine assessment of metal structures. The assessment of strained condition of a deteriorating component is based on three-dimensional finite element simulation with calculations adjusted with reference to in-situ measurements. A program for calculation and experimental analysis of maximum load and durability of critical area forms the core of uninterruptible monitoring system. The knowledge base on performance of the monitored components in different operating conditions and the corresponding comprehensive analysis of strained condition and deterioration rates compose the basis of control system data support, both for operating nuclear power units and robotic maintenance and repair systems.

  6. Adaptive Fuzzy Logic based MPPT Control for PV System Under Partial Shading Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Subhashree; Rout, Pravat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Partial shading causes power loss, hotspots and threatens the reliability of the Photovoltaic generation system. Moreover characteristic curves exhibit multiple peaks. Conventional MPPT techniques under this condition often fail to give optimum MPP. Focusing on the afore mentioned problem an attempt has been made to design an Adaptive Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System based Fuzzy Logic Control MPPT.The mathematical model of PV array is simulated using in MATLAB/Simulink environment.Various...

  7. Microprocessor supervised stability control system for the united power system of Middle Volga in fault conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdnikov, V I; Birgel, E R; Kovalev, V D; Kuznestov, A N

    1994-12-31

    The development of the 500 kV UPS of Middle Volga, the complication of its configuration and operating conditions particularly in connection with concentration of the generating power at Balakovo NPS have aggravated the problem of stability of the Middle Volga UPS when high power is transmitted along the 500 kV transient system. In this case the necessity for improving control actions` dosage accuracy has also appeared. This work discusses solution to the above mentioned issue. (author) 3 figs.

  8. A Question of Control? Examining the Role of Control Conditions in Experimental Psychopathology using the Example of Cognitive Bias Modification Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Simon E; Woud, Marcella L; MacLeod, Colin

    2017-10-26

    While control conditions are vitally important in research, selecting the optimal control condition can be challenging. Problems are likely to arise when the choice of control condition is not tightly guided by the specific question that a given study aims to address. Such problems have become increasingly apparent in experimental psychopathology research investigating the experimental modification of cognitive biases, particularly as the focus of this research has shifted from theoretical questions concerning mechanistic aspects of the association between cognitive bias and emotional vulnerability, to questions that instead concern the clinical efficacy of 'cognitive bias modification' (CBM) procedures. We discuss the kinds of control conditions that have typically been employed in CBM research, illustrating how difficulties can arise when changes in the types of research questions asked are not accompanied by changes in the control conditions employed. Crucially, claims made on the basis of comparing active and control conditions within CBM studies should be restricted to those conclusions allowed by the specific control condition employed. CBM studies aiming to establish clinical utility are likely to require quite different control conditions from CBM studies aiming to illuminate mechanisms. Further, conclusions concerning the clinical utility of CBM interventions cannot necessarily be drawn from studies in which the control condition has been chosen to answer questions concerning mechanisms. Appreciating the need to appropriately alter control conditions in the transition from basic mechanisms-focussed investigations to applied clinical research could greatly facilitate the translational process.

  9. Remote Supervision and Control of Air Conditioning Systems in Different Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafeeq, Mohammed; Afzal, Asif; Rajendra, Sree

    2018-01-01

    In the era of automation, most of the application of engineering and science are interrelated with system for optimal operation. To get the efficient result of an operation and desired response, interconnected systems should be controlled by directing, regulating and commanding. Here, air conditioning (AC) system is considered for experimentation, to supervise and control its functioning in both, automated and manual mode. This paper reports the work intended to design and develop an automated and manual AC system working in remote and local mode, to increase the level of comfort, easy operation, reducing human intervention and faults occurring in the system. The Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system were used for remote supervision and monitoring of AC systems using series ninety protocol and remote terminal unit modbus protocol as communication module to operate in remote mode. PLC was used as remote terminal for continuous supervision and control of AC system. SCADA software was used as a tool for designing user friendly graphical user interface. The proposed SCADA AC system successfully monitors and controls in accordance within the parameter limits like temperature, pressure, humidity and voltage. With all the features, this designed system is capable of efficient handling of the resources like the compressor, humidifier etc., with all the levels of safety and durability. This system also maintains the temperature and controls the humidity of the remote location and also looks after the health of the compressor.

  10. LQG/LTR optimal attitude control of small flexible spacecraft using free-free boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Joseph M.

    Due to the volume and power limitations of a small satellite, careful consideration must be taken while designing an attitude control system for 3-axis stabilization. Placing redundancy in the system proves difficult and utilizing power hungry, high accuracy, active actuators is not a viable option. Thus, it is customary to find dependable, passive actuators used in conjunction with small scale active control components. This document describes the application of Elastic Memory Composite materials in the construction of a flexible spacecraft appendage, such as a gravity gradient boom. Assumed modes methods are used with Finite Element Modeling information to obtain the equations of motion for the system while assuming free-free boundary conditions. A discussion is provided to illustrate how cantilever mode shapes are not always the best assumption when modeling small flexible spacecraft. A key point of interest is first resonant modes may be needed in the system design plant in spite of these modes being greater than one order of magnitude in frequency when compared to the crossover frequency of the controller. LQG/LTR optimal control techniques are implemented to compute attitude control gains while controller robustness considerations determine appropriate reduced order controllers and which flexible modes to include in the design model. Key satellite designer concerns in the areas of computer processor sizing, material uncertainty impacts on the system model, and system performance variations resulting from appendage length modifications are addressed.

  11. Evaluation of fungal burden of medicinal plants submitted to gamma radiation process after 30 days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Simone; Araujo, Michel M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Goncalez, Edlayne; Reis, Tatiana A. dos; Correa, Benedito

    2007-01-01

    Forty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia and Cassia angustifolia), purchased from pharmacies and street market in the five cities of Sao Paulo State, were irradiated using a 60 Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with a dose of 10.0 kGy, delivered at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For fungal counts and identification in medicinal plants a serial dilutions from 10 -1 to 10 -6 of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. Mycological analysis of control samples revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of colony forming units (cfu/g) in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days, using the dose of 10.0 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. (author)

  12. Evaluation of fungal burden of medicinal plants submitted to gamma radiation process after 30 days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone; Araujo, Michel M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com; Goncalez, Edlayne; Reis, Tatiana A. dos; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Microbiologia]. E-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Forty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia and Cassia angustifolia), purchased from pharmacies and street market in the five cities of Sao Paulo State, were irradiated using a {sup 60}Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with a dose of 10.0 kGy, delivered at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For fungal counts and identification in medicinal plants a serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. Mycological analysis of control samples revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of colony forming units (cfu/g) in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days, using the dose of 10.0 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. (author)

  13. Sedimentary facies and lithologic characters as main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulations and their critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qing Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking more than 1000 clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs of Bohai Bay Basin, Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin, China as examples, the paper has studied the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoirs and their critical conditions to reveal the hydrocarbon distribution and to optimize the search for favorable targets. The results indicated that the various sedimentary facies and lithologic characters control the critical conditions of hydrocarbon accumulations, which shows that hydrocarbon is distributed mainly in sedimentary facies formed under conditions of a long-lived and relatively strong hydrodynamic environment; 95% of the hydrocarbon reservoirs and reserves in the three basins is distributed in siltstones, fine sandstones, lithified gravels and pebble-bearing sandstones; moreover, the probability of discovering conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs decreases with the grain size of the clastic rock. The main reason is that the low relative porosity and permeability of fine-grained reservoirs lead to small differences in capillary force compared with surrounding rocks small and insufficiency of dynamic force for hydrocarbon accumulation; the critical condition for hydrocarbon entering reservoir is that the interfacial potential in the surrounding rock (Φn must be more than twice of that in the reservoir (Φs; the probability of hydrocarbon reservoirs distribution decreases in cases where the hydrodynamic force is too high or too low and when the rocks have too coarse or too fine grains.

  14. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  15. 77 FR 57039 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation... a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the flightdeck controller... nuisance alerting. This special condition also addresses flight control system mode annunciation. It...

  16. Flap controllers applied on the OffshoreWindChina (OWC) 5MW reference wind turbine for Chinese typhoon conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Athanasios

    The report describes the development of flap controllers applied on the OffshoreWindChina (OWC) 5MW reference wind turbine for Chinese typhoon conditions. Optimal flap controllers are designed and tuned based on linear aeroelastic models from HawcStab2. The controllers are evaluated in normal......, parked and storm conditions, targeting the alleviation of fatigue and extreme loads....

  17. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Selbach Scheffel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing’s original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endo-genous Cushing’s syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease.

  18. Effectiveness of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates from the Land Uses of Amazon Region in Symbiosis with Cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gláucia Alves E; Siqueira, José O; Stürmer, Sidney L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide several ecosystem services, including increase in plant growth and nutrition. The occurrence, richness, and structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities are influenced by human activities, which may affect the functional benefits of these components of the soil biota. In this study, 13 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates originating from soils with different land uses in the Alto Solimões-Amazon region were evaluated regarding their effect on growth, nutrition, and cowpea yield in controlled conditions using two soils. Comparisons with reference isolates and a mixture of isolates were also performed. Fungal isolates exhibited a wide variability associated with colonization, sporulation, production of aboveground biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and grain yield, indicating high functional diversity within and among fungal species. A generalized effect of isolates in promoting phosphorus uptake, increase in biomass, and cowpea yield was observed in both soils. The isolates of Glomus were the most efficient and are promising isolates for practical inoculation programs. No relationship was found between the origin of fungal isolate (i.e. land use) and their symbiotic performance in cowpea.

  19. Critical environmental and genotypic factors for Fusarium verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin contamination in maize grown in northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ana; Santiago, Rogelio; Ramos, Antonio J; Souto, Xosé C; Aguín, Olga; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2014-05-02

    In northwestern Spain, where weather is rainy and mild throughout the year, Fusarium verticillioides is the most prevalent fungus in kernels and a significant risk of fumonisin contamination has been exposed. In this study, detailed information about environmental and maize genotypic factors affecting F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content in maize kernels was obtained in order to establish control points to reduce fumonisin contamination. Evaluations were conducted in a total of 36 environments and factorial regression analyses were performed to determine the contribution of each factor to variability among environments, genotypes, and genotype × environment interactions for F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content. Flowering and kernel drying were the most critical periods throughout the growing season for F. verticillioides infection and fumonisin contamination. Around flowering, wetter and cooler conditions limited F. verticillioides infection and growth, and high temperatures increased fumonisin contents. During kernel drying, increased damaged kernels favored fungal growth, and higher ear damage by corn borers and hard rainfall favored fumonisin accumulation. Later planting dates and especially earlier harvest dates reduced the risk of fumonisin contamination, possibly due to reduced incidence of insects and accumulation of rainfall during the kernel drying period. The use of maize varieties resistant to Sitotroga cerealella, with good husk coverage and non-excessive pericarp thickness could also be useful to reduce fumonisin contamination of maize kernels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fungal transmission of plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R N

    1996-01-01

    Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study.

  1. Optimal Fungal Space Searching Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenova, Elitsa; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Fu, Eileen; Nicolau, Dan V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that fungi use an efficient natural algorithm for searching the space available for their growth in micro-confined networks, e.g., mazes. This natural "master" algorithm, which comprises two "slave" sub-algorithms, i.e., collision-induced branching and directional memory, has been shown to be more efficient than alternatives, with one, or the other, or both sub-algorithms turned off. In contrast, the present contribution compares the performance of the fungal natural algorithm against several standard artificial homologues. It was found that the space-searching fungal algorithm consistently outperforms uninformed algorithms, such as Depth-First-Search (DFS). Furthermore, while the natural algorithm is inferior to informed ones, such as A*, this under-performance does not importantly increase with the increase of the size of the maze. These findings suggest that a systematic effort of harvesting the natural space searching algorithms used by microorganisms is warranted and possibly overdue. These natural algorithms, if efficient, can be reverse-engineered for graph and tree search strategies.

  2. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  3. A Novel Distributed Economic Model Predictive Control Approach for Building Air-Conditioning Systems in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinan Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the penetration of grid-connected renewable energy generation, microgrids are facing stability and power quality problems caused by renewable intermittency. To alleviate such problems, demand side management (DSM of responsive loads, such as building air-conditioning system (BACS, has been proposed and studied. In recent years, numerous control approaches have been published for proper management of single BACS. The majority of these approaches focus on either the control of BACS for attenuating power fluctuations in the grid or the operating cost minimization on behalf of the residents. These two control objectives are paramount for BACS control in microgrids and can be conflicting. As such, they should be considered together in control design. As individual buildings may have different owners/residents, it is natural to control different BACSs in an autonomous and self-interested manner to minimize the operational costs for the owners/residents. Unfortunately, such “selfish” operation can result in abrupt and large power fluctuations at the point of common coupling (PCC of the microgrid due to lack of coordination. Consequently, the original objective of mitigating power fluctuations generated by renewable intermittency cannot be achieved. To minimize the operating costs of individual BACSs and simultaneously ensure desirable overall power flow at PCC, this paper proposes a novel distributed control framework based on the dissipativity theory. The proposed method achieves the objective of renewable intermittency mitigation through proper coordination of distributed BACS controllers and is scalable and computationally efficient. Simulation studies are carried out to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed control framework.

  4. Physics conditions for robust control of tearing modes in a rotating tokamak plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, E.; Borgogno, D.; Brunetti, D.; Comisso, L.; Fevrier, O.; Grasso, D.; Lutjens, H.; Maget, P.; Nowak, S.; Sauter, O.; Sozzi, C.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2018-01-01

    The disruptive collapse of the current sustained equilibrium of a tokamak is perhaps the single most serious obstacle on the path toward controlled thermonuclear fusion. The current disruption is generally too fast to be identified early enough and tamed efficiently, and may be associated with a variety of initial perturbing events. However, a common feature of all disruptive events is that they proceed through the onset of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and field reconnection processes developing magnetic islands, which eventually destroy the magnetic configuration. Therefore the avoidance and control of magnetic reconnection instabilities is of foremost importance and great attention is focused on the promising stabilization techniques based on localized rf power absorption and current drive. Here a short review is proposed of the key aspects of high power rf control schemes (specifically electron cyclotron heating and current drive) for tearing modes, considering also some effects of plasma rotation. From first principles physics considerations, new conditions are presented and discussed to achieve control of the tearing perturbations by means of high power ({P}{{EC}}≥slant {P}{{ohm}}) in regimes where strong nonlinear instabilities may be driven, such as secondary island structures, which can blur the detection and limit the control of the instabilities. Here we consider recent work that has motivated the search for the improvement of some traditional control strategies, namely the feedback schemes based on strict phase tracking of the propagating magnetic islands.

  5. Experimental soil warming shifts the fungal community composition at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily F; Lindahl, Björn D; Dawes, Melissa A; Peter, Martina; Souza, Rômulo C; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Increased CO 2 emissions and global warming may alter the composition of fungal communities through the removal of temperature limitation in the plant-soil system, faster nitrogen (N) cycling and changes in the carbon (C) allocation of host plants to the rhizosphere. At a Swiss treeline featuring Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, the effects of multiple years of CO 2 enrichment and experimental soil warming on the fungal community composition in the organic horizons were analysed using 454-pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons. Sporocarp production and colonization of ectomycorrhizal root tips were investigated in parallel. Fungal community composition was significantly altered by soil warming, whereas CO 2 enrichment had little effect. Tree species influenced fungal community composition and the magnitude of the warming responses. The abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa was positively correlated with N availability, and ectomycorrhizal taxa specialized for conditions of high N availability proliferated with warming, corresponding to considerable increases in inorganic N in warmed soils. Traits related to N utilization are important in determining the responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to warming in N-poor cold ecosystems. Shifts in the overall fungal community composition in response to higher temperatures may alter fungal-driven processes with potential feedbacks on ecosystem N cycling and C storage at the alpine treeline. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Unraveling the role of fungal symbionts in plant abiotic stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lamabam Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fungal symbionts have been found to be associated with every plant studied in the natural ecosystem, where they colonize and reside entirely or partially in the internal tissues of their host plant. Fungal endophytes can express/form a range of different lifestyle/relationships with different host including symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic and parasitic in response to host genotype and environmental factors. In mutualistic association fungal endophyte can enhance growth, increase reproductive success and confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to its host plant. Since abiotic stress such as, drought, high soil salinity, heat, cold, oxidative stress and heavy metal toxicity is the common adverse environmental conditions that affect and limit crop productivity worldwide. It may be a promising alternative strategy to exploit fungal endophytes to overcome the limitations to crop production brought by abiotic stress. There is an increasing interest in developing the potential biotechnological applications of fungal endophytes for improving plant stress tolerance and sustainable production of food crops. Here we have described the fungal symbioses, fungal symbionts and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. A putative mechanism of stress tolerance by symbionts has also been covered. PMID:21512319

  7. Neurons show the path: tip-to-nucleus communication in filamentous fungal development and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebeste, Oier; Espeso, Eduardo A

    2016-09-01

    Multiple fungal species penetrate substrates and accomplish host invasion through the fast, permanent and unidirectional extension of filamentous cells known as hyphae. Polar growth of hyphae results, however, in a significant increase in the distance between the polarity site, which also receives the earliest information about ambient conditions, and nuclei, where adaptive responses are executed. Recent studies demonstrate that these long distances are overcome by signal transduction pathways which convey sensory information from the polarity site to nuclei, controlling development and pathogenesis. The present review compares the striking connections of the mechanisms for long-distance communication in hyphae with those from neurons, and discusses the importance of their study in order to understand invasion and dissemination processes of filamentous fungi, and design strategies for developmental control in the future. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated immunologic control of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hair Pamela S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients are at increased risk for bacterial infections; these studies provide new insight into the role of the host defense complement system in controlling bacterial pathogens in hyperglycemic environments. Methods The interactions of complement C3 with bacteria in elevated glucose were assayed for complement activation to opsonic forms, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. C3 was analyzed in euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions by mass spectrometry to measure glycation and structural differences. Results Elevated glucose inhibited S. aureus activation of C3 and deposition of C3b and iC3b on the bacterial surface. S. aureus-generated C5a and serum-mediated phagocytosis by neutrophils were both decreased in elevated glucose conditions. Interestingly, elevated glucose increased the binding of unactivated C3 to S. aureus, which was reversible on return to normal glucose concentrations. In a model of polymicrobial infection, S. aureus in elevated glucose conditions depleted C3 from serum resulting in decreased complement-mediated killing of E. coli. To investigate the effect of differing glucose concentration on C3 structure and glycation, purified C3 incubated with varying glucose concentrations was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Glycation was limited to the same three lysine residues in both euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions over one hour, thus glycation could not account for observed changes between glucose conditions. However, surface labeling of C3 with sulfo-NHS-biotin showed significant changes in the surface availability of seven lysine residues in response to increasing glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the tertiary structure of C3 changes in response to hyperglycemic conditions leading to an altered interaction of C3 with bacterial pathogens. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated complement effectors important in the immunological

  9. Fungal effector proteins: past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Mehrabi, R.; Burg, van den H.A.; Stergiopoulos, I.

    2009-01-01

    The pioneering research of Harold Flor on flax and the flax rust fungus culminated in his gene-for-gene hypothesis. It took nearly 50 years before the first fungal avirulence (Avr) gene in support of his hypothesis was cloned. Initially, fungal Avr genes were identified by reverse genetics and

  10. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heshof, R.; Jylhä, S.; Haarmann, T.; Jørgensen, A.L.W.; Dalsgaard, T.K.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database

  11. Fungal infection knowledge gap in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    receiving immunosuppressive therapy, and patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (1). Fungi also play a role in allergic fungal disease such as allergic broncho- pulmonary Aspergilosis (ABPA) and chronic or deep tissue infections. The laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection starts with a simple potassium hydroxide.

  12. Clinical consideration of fungal paranasal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuni, Tsuyoshi; Asakura, Koji; Homma, Tomo; Kawaguchi, Ryuichi; Ishikawa, Tadataka; Yamazaki, Norikazu; Himi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Fungal paranasal sinusitis is included in the differential diagnosis of unilateral paranasal lesion. Recently the incidence of fungal paranasal sinusitis has been increasing. We reviewed 24 patients (9 males and 15 females) with fungal paranasal sinusitis treated at Muroran City Hospital between January 2001 and May 2006, and clinical presentation and CT findings with those of 56 patients (36 males and 20 females) with chronic unilateral sinusitis. Fungal sinusitis patients ranged in age from 45 to 87, and the average age was 65.9 years old. In contrast, the age of chronic sinusitis patients ranged from 24 to 83, and the average age was 54.4 years old. The chief complaint of both fungal sinusitis and chronic sinusitis included rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction and post nasal discharge. CT exam was performed in all patients. In 23 cases of paranasal fungal sinusitis and 54 cases of chronic sinusitis the findings involved the maxillary sinus. The most common observation (69.6%) was bone density within the affected sinus in fungal sinusitis. However, only 2 cases of chronic sinusitis (3.9%) showed calcification. All cases of fungal sinusitis were diagnosed by pathological examinations. Most cases were proved to be aspergillus, while only one case was mucor. We treated all cases surgically, 18 cases underwent Caldwell-Luc's procedure and 5 cases underwent endoscopic sinus surgery under local anesthesia. (author)

  13. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  14. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles for detection of fungi and human cutaneous fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojinrin, Tobiloba; Conde, João; Liu, Kangze; Curtin, James; Byrne, Hugh J; Cui, Daxiang; Tian, Furong

    2017-07-01

    Fungi, which are common in the environment, can cause a multitude of diseases. Warm, humid conditions allow fungi to grow and infect humans via the respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts, genital area and other bodily interfaces. Fungi can be detected directly by microscopy, using the potassium hydroxide test, which is the gold standard and most popular method for fungal screening. However, this test requires trained personnel operating specialist equipment, including a fluorescent microscope and culture facilities. As most acutely infected patients seek medical attention within the first few days of symptoms, the optimal diagnostic test would be rapid and self-diagnostic simplifying and improving the therapeutic outcome. In suspensions of gold nanoparticles, Aspergillus niger can cause a colour change from red to blue within 2 min, as a result of changes in nanoparticle shape. A similar colour change was observed in the supernatant of samples of human toenails dispersed in water. Scanning electron microscopy, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy were employed to monitor the changes in morphology and surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles. The correlation of colour change with the fungal infection was analysed using the absorbance ratio at 520 nm/620 nm. We found a decrease in the ratio when the fungi concentration increased from 1 to 16 CFU/mL, with a detection limit of 10 CFU/mL. The test had an 80% sensitivity and a 95% specificity value for the diagnosis of athlete's foot in human patients. This plasmonic gold nanoparticle-based system for detection of fungal infections measures the change in shape of gold nanoparticles and generates coloured solutions with distinct tonality. Our application has the potential to contribute to self-diagnosis and hygiene control in laboratories/hospitals with fewer resources, just using the naked eye. Graphical abstract Colorimetric method for fungi detection with gold nano particles.

  15. Starch degradation in rumen fluid as influenced by genotype, climatic conditions and maturity stage of maize, grown under controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Starch is the major component of maize kernels, contributing significantly to the feeding value of forage maize when fed to ruminants. The effects of genotype, climatic conditions and maturity stage on starch content in the kernels and on in vitro starch degradability in rumen fluid were

  16. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  17. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...... and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...

  18. Controlled growth of CNT in mesoporous AAO through optimized conditions for membrane preparation and CVD operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciambelli, P; Sarno, M; Leone, C; Sannino, D [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, University of Salerno, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Arurault, L; Fontorbes, S; Datas, L; Lenormand, P; Le Blond Du Plouy, S, E-mail: msarno@unisa.it, E-mail: arurault@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, CIRIMAT, UPS/INPT/CNRS, LCMIE, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-07-01

    Anodic aluminium oxide (RAAO) membranes with a mesoporous structure were prepared under strictly controlling experimental process conditions, and physically and chemically characterized by a wide range of experimental techniques. Commercial anodic aluminium oxide (CAAO) membranes were also investigated for comparison. We demonstrated that RAAO membranes have lower content of both water and phosphorus and showed better porosity shape than CAAO. The RAAO membranes were used for template growth of carbon nanotubes (CNT) inside its pores by ethylene chemical vapour deposition (CVD) in the absence of a catalyst. A composite material, containing one nanotube for each channel, having the same length as the membrane thickness and an external diameter close to the diameter of the membrane holes, was obtained. Yield, selectivity and quality of CNTs in terms of diameter, length and arrangement (i.e. number of tubes for each channel) were optimized by investigating the effect of changing the experimental conditions for the CVD process. We showed that upon thermal treatment RAAO membranes were made up of crystallized allotropic alumina phases, which govern the subsequent CNT growth, because of their catalytic activity, likely due to their Lewis acidity. The strict control of experimental conditions for membrane preparation and CNT growth allowed us to enhance the carbon structural order, which is a critical requisite for CNT application as a substitute for copper in novel nano-interconnects.

  19. Biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, B.; Moe, W.M. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kinney, K.A. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Five fungal species, Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. Fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. Compounds tested included aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and styrene), ketones (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone), and organic acids (n-butyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate). Experiments were conducted using three pH values ranging from 3.5 to 6.5. Fungal ability to degrade each VOC was determined by observing the presence or absence of visible growth on the ceramic support medium during a 30-day test period. Results indicate that E. lecanii-corni and C. sphaerospermum can readily utilize each of the nine VOCs as a sole carbon and energy source. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. C. resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones, and some of the aromatic compounds (ethylbenzene and toluene); however, it was not able to grow utilizing benzene or styrene under the conditions tested. With the VOCs tested, M. rouxii produced visible growth only when supplied with n-butyl acetate or ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate. Maximum growth for most fungi was observed at a pH of approximately 5.0. The experimental protocol utilized in these studies is a useful tool for assessing the ability of different fungal species to degrade gas-phase VOCs under conditions expected in a biofilter application. (orig.)

  20. Control Efficacy of Fungicides on Chinese Cabbage Clubroot under Several Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yong Eom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop the efficient screening methods for antifungal compound active to Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, the control efficacy of three fungicides fluazinam, ethaboxam, and cyazofamid on the disease was tested under several conditions such as soil types, cultivars of Chinese cabbage, growth stages of the host, and inoculum concentrations. The in vivo antifungal activities of the fungicides on clubroot of two Chinese cabbage cultivars were hardly different. At 7- and 14-day-old seedlings, the fungicides were more effective to control of clubroot than at 21-day-old seedlings. In a commercial horticulture media soil (CNS, disease severity of untreated controls was higher and control activity of the fungicides was less than in a mixture of CNS and upland soil (1:1, v/v. Disease development of the seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae at 1.8×10(7 spores/pot to 1.1×10(9 spores/pot was almost same, but control efficacy of the fungicides was negatively correlated with inoculum dosages. To effectively select in vivo antifungal compound on Chinese cabbage clubroot, 14-day-old seedlings need to be inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the spore suspension to give 1×10(8 spores/pot 1 day after chemical treatment. To develop clubroot, the inoculated plants are incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 2 days, and then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for four weeks.

  1. Experimental study on frosting control of mobile air conditioning system with microchannel evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Xiaohua; Shi Junye; Qi Zhaogang; Chen Jiangping

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a newly developed frost control system is proposed. System bench tests and vehicle test in wind tunnel have been carried out to explore the anti-frosting performance of automotive air conditioning system with microchannel evaporator. The experimental results are compared with the baseline conventional laminated evaporator system. The test results show that the installation position of temperature sensor can dramatically affect the anti-frosting performance. The clutch switching on/off temperature range of the microchannel evaporator is also experimentally studied. The test results show that, with a proper installation position and on/off temperature range, the system COP can be improved, and meanwhile the panel vents' air off temperature can be reduced, and temperature swing can be reduced. - Highlights: → The frost control systems were tested with microchannel and laminated evaporators separately. → The installation position of temperature sensor affects the anti-frosting performance. → Temperature control range affects the anti-frosting performance. → The panel vents' air off temperature and swing can be reduced by proper control parameters. → The system COP can be improved by proper control parameters.

  2. A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs, such as air conditioners (ACs, are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level.

  3. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions (N-CRAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel; Stiepani, Cristoph; Drechsler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP either due to containment leakages or due to intentional filtered containment venting. In the latter case aerosols and iodine are retained, however noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS or by conventional air filtration systems like HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. Radioactive noble gases nevertheless dominate the activity release depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. To prevent unacceptable contamination of the control room atmosphere by noble gases, AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas control room accident filtration system (CRAFT) which can supply purified fresh air to the control room without time limitation. The retention process is based on dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. CRAFT allows minimization of the dose rate inside the control room and ensures low radiation exposure to the staff by maintaining the control room environment suitable for prolonged occupancy throughout the duration of the accident. CRAFT consists of a proven modular design either transportable or permanently installed. (author)

  4. INCIDENCE OF FUNGAL ELEMENTS IN SINONASAL POLYPOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh G. S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nasal polyposis is a disease entity characterised by formation of pseudoedema of sinonasal mucus membrane progressing to form polyps. It presents clinically with nasal obstruction and fleshy masses in the nasal cavity. The nasal mucosa reacts to formation of polypi in allergic fungal sinusitis also. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate possible fungal elements from the polypi removed during surgery by KOH study and HPE study. The aim of the study is to find out the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients attending the ENT OPD for nasal obstruction and showing polypi on anterior rhinoscopy were selected. All the patients were subjected to surgery and specimens collected were subjected to KOH study and histopathology to demonstrate fungal elements. RESULTS Among 50 patients, the age range was from 9-57 years; mean age- 36.46 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Deviated nasal septum was found in 38% of patients. Among the unilateral cases, 47% were antrochoanal polyps and 53% were ethmoid polyps. Out of 50 patients, only 3 specimens were positive for fungal elements with KOH study and only 2 cases with fungal culture. Thus, the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. CONCLUSION The incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. Histopathological examination of polypectomy specimen was negative for invasive fungal disease and showed inflammatory changes only. There is no difference in the detection of the presence of fungal by two methods.

  5. Frequency effect on p-nitrophenol degradation under conditions of strict acoustic and electric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ping Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of decomposing p-nitrophenol (PNP with power ultrasound requires strict control of acoustic and electric conditions. In this study, the conditions, including acoustic power and acoustic intensity, but not ultrasonic frequency, were controlled strictly at constant levels. The absorbency and the COD concentrations of the samples were measured in order to show the variation of the sample concentration. The results show significant differences in the trend of the solution degradation rate as acoustic power increases after the PNP solution (with a concentration of 114 mg/L and a pH value of 5.4 is irradiated for 60 min with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz. The degradation rate of the solution increases with time and acoustic power (acoustic intensity. On the other hand, the degradation rate of the solution is distinctly dependent on frequency when the acoustic power and intensity are strictly controlled and maintained at constant levels. The degradation rate of the PNP solution declines with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz; the COD concentration, on the contrary, increase.

  6. Birds achieve high robustness in uneven terrain through active control of landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Daley, Monica A

    2012-06-15

    We understand little about how animals adjust locomotor behaviour to negotiate uneven terrain. The mechanical demands and constraints of such behaviours likely differ from uniform terrain locomotion. Here we investigated how common pheasants negotiate visible obstacles with heights from 10 to 50% of leg length. Our goal was to determine the neuro-mechanical strategies used to achieve robust stability, and address whether strategies vary with obstacle height. We found that control of landing conditions was crucial for minimising fluctuations in stance leg loading and work in uneven terrain. Variation in touchdown leg angle (θ(TD)) was correlated with the orientation of ground force during stance, and the angle between the leg and body velocity vector at touchdown (β(TD)) was correlated with net limb work. Pheasants actively targeted obstacles to control body velocity and leg posture at touchdown to achieve nearly steady dynamics on the obstacle step. In the approach step to an obstacle, the birds produced net positive limb work to launch themselves upward. On the obstacle, body dynamics were similar to uniform terrain. Pheasants also increased swing leg retraction velocity during obstacle negotiation, which we suggest is an active strategy to minimise fluctuations in peak force and leg posture in uneven terrain. Thus, pheasants appear to achieve robustly stable locomotion through a combination of path planning using visual feedback and active adjustment of leg swing dynamics to control landing conditions. We suggest that strategies for robust stability are context specific, depending on the quality of sensory feedback available, especially visual input.

  7. Determination of internal controls for quantitative gene expression of Isochrysis zhangjiangensis at nitrogen stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Zhou, Jiannan; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2016-02-01

    Isochrysis zhangjiangensis is a potential marine microalga for biodiesel production, which accumulates lipid under nitrogen limitation conditions, but the mechanism on molecular level is veiled. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) provides the possibility to investigate the gene expression levels, and a valid reference for data normalization is an essential prerequisite for firing up the analysis. In this study, five housekeeping genes, actin (ACT), α-tubulin (TUA), ß-tubulin (TUB), ubiquitin (UBI), 18S rRNA (18S) and one target gene, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were used for determining the reference. By analyzing the stabilities based on calculation of the stability index and on operating the two types of software, geNorm and bestkeeper, it showed that the reference genes widely used in higher plant and microalgae, such as UBI, TUA and 18S, were not the most stable ones in nitrogen-stressed I. zhangjiangensis, and thus are not suitable for exploring the mRNA expression levels under these experimental conditions. Our results show that ACT together with TUB is the most feasible internal control for investigating gene expression under nitrogen-stressed conditions. Our findings will contribute not only to future qPCR studies of I. zhangjiangensis, but also to verification of comparative transcriptomics studies of the microalgae under similar conditions.

  8. Complex dynamics and chaos control of duopoly Bertrand model in Chinese air-conditioning market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Qi Guo; Zeng, Xiang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A dynamic duopoly Bertrand model with bounded rationality and quadratic cost function. •In Chinese air-conditioning market the boundary equilibrium point is locally stable. •The Lyapunov dimension of the chaos attractor is 1.9585. •The adjustment speeds may cause a market structure to behave chaotically. •The chaotic behavior can be controlled by decreasing the degree of substitutability. -- Abstract: A dynamic duopoly Bertrand model with quadratic cost function which is closer to reality and different from previous researches is discussed. The model is applied into air-conditioning market where the boundary equilibrium point is locally stable. Numerical simulations illustrate that the stability of Nash equilibrium strongly depends on the speed of adjustment of bounded rational player. The adjustment speeds and the degree of substitutability may undermine the stability of the equilibrium and cause a market structure to behave chaotically. The Lyapunov dimension of the chaos attractor is 1.9585 under some conditions. The stabilization of the chaotic behavior can be obtained by reducing the degree of substitutability. The results have an important theoretical and practical significance to Chinese air-conditioning market

  9. Control of first-wall surface conditions in the 2XIIB Magnetic Mirror Plasma Confinement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Bulmer, R.H.; Coensgen, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    The control of first-wall surface conditions in the 2XIIB Magnetic Mirror Plasma Confinement experiment is described. Before each plasma shot, the first wall is covered with a freshly gettered titanium surface. Up to 5 MW of neutral beam power has been injected into 2XIIB, resulting in first-wall bombardment fluxes of 10 17 atoms . cm -2 . s -1 of 13-keV mean energy deuterium atoms for several ms. The background gas flux is measured with a calibrated, 11-channel, fast-atom detector. Background gas levels are found to depend on surface conditions, injected beam current, and beam pulse duration. For our best operating conditions, an efective reflex coefficient of 0.3 can be inferred from the measurements. Experiments with long-duration and high-current beam injection are limited by charge exchange; however, experiments with shorter beam duration are not limited by first-wall surface conditions. It is concluded that surface effects will be reduced further with smoother walls. (Auth.)

  10. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  11. Statement on the conditions of use for health claims related to meal replacements for weight control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2015-01-01

    ) and maintenance of body weight after weight loss (ID1418) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. Taking into account that the mechanisms by which meal replacements could exert the claimed effects were mostly related to their controlled energy content and the relatively high protein/low fat...... content, the Panel concludes that the differences in the micronutrient composition of meal replacements which would derive from changing the conditions of use from Directive 96/8/EC to Regulation (EU) 1169/2011 do not affect the scientific substantiation of health claims related to meal replacements...

  12. Mycoremediation of Textile Dyes: Application of Novel Autochthonous Fungal Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Four fungal isolates Trichoderma virens, Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii, Talaromyces stipitatus, Aspergillus niger originally isolated from the textile dye contaminated soil of Meerut (U.P. India. They were used for the decolorization studies of selected textile azo dyes under laboratory conditions. Out of total 74 isolates, selected four fungal strains were picked on the basis of primary screening carried out using agar layer decolorization method. Decolorization efficiency of textile dyes was studied at an interval of 3, 5, 7 and 9 days at temperatures 20, 25, 30 and 40°C using five synthetic dyes viz. Xylene cynol FF, Brilliant blue R, Aniline Blue, Orange G II and Crystal violet. Decolorization study was carried out under shaking and stationary conditions at pH 4.0, 5.4, 6.5, and 8.0. The results obtained showed that Trichoderma virens and Aspergillus niger were more efficient then Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus. Highest biodegradation activities of dyes by these aboriginal fungal isolates were observed at pH 5.4 after 9 days of incubation. Maximum decolorization 99.84 % was achieved by Aspergillus niger, followed by Trichoderma virens. This is the first report where the bioremediation aspects of Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus has been revealed.

  13. Autonomous tracked robots in planar off-road conditions modelling, localization, and motion control

    CERN Document Server

    González, Ramón; Guzmán, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    This monograph is framed within the context of off-road mobile robotics. In particular, it discusses issues related to modelling, localization, and motion control of tracked mobile robots working in planar slippery conditions. Tracked locomotion constitutes a well-known solution for mobile platforms operating over diverse challenging terrains, for that reason, tracked robotics constitutes an important research field with many applications (e.g. agriculture, mining, search and rescue operations, military activities). The specific topics of this monograph are: historical perspective of tracked vehicles and tracked robots; trajectory-tracking model taking into account slip effect; visual-odometry-based localization strategies; and advanced slip-compensation motion controllers ensuring efficient real-time execution. Physical experiments with a real tracked robot are presented showing the better performance of the suggested novel approaches to known techniques.   Keywords: longitudinal slip, visual odometry, slip...

  14. Controlled release of volatiles under mild reaction conditions: from nature to everyday products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds serve in nature as semiochemicals for communication between species, and are often used as flavors and fragrances in our everyday life. The quite limited longevity of olfactive perception has led to the development of pro-perfumes or pro-fragrances--ideally nonvolatile and odorless fragrance precursors which release the active volatiles by bond cleavage. Only a limited amount of reaction conditions, such as hydrolysis, temperature changes, as well as the action of light, oxygen, enzymes, or microorganisms, can be used to liberate the many different chemical functionalities. This Review describes the controlled chemical release of fragrances and discusses additional challenges such as precursor stability during product storage as well as some aspects concerning toxicity and biodegradability. As the same systems can be applied in different areas of research, the scope of this Review covers fragrance delivery as well as the controlled release of volatiles in general.

  15. Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, Yusaku; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Rane, Jagadish; Ishitani, Manabu; Hara, Naho; Kitomi, Yuka; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ono, Kazuko; Kanno, Noriko; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takehisa, Hinako; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops.

  16. Voltage controller design for air conditioning; Diseno de controlador de voltaje para aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Andrade, R; Lopez Villalobos, J.J; Valderrama Chairez, J; Ramirez, R.L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Nuevo Leon, Guadalupe, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails: roxana_garciaandrade@yahoo.com; xe2n@yahoo.com.mx; jose.valderrama@ieee.org

    2013-03-15

    This paper discusses the design of a voltage controller for an air conditioning system in order to generate additional power in activation or startup of the system, for which as a first stage is presented the modeling power generation of electric current through alternative means, such as solar energy. The results of this study will be the basis for development of the physical prototype of this system controller. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre el diseno de un controlador de voltaje para un sistema de aire acondicionado con el fin de generar energia adicional en la activacion o arranque de dicho sistema, para lo cual como primer fase se presenta el modelado de la generacion de corriente electrica mediante medios alternos, como lo es la energia solar. Los resultados de este trabajo seran la base para desarrollo del prototipo fisico de este sistema controlador.

  17. Controlled synthesis of quantum confined CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huimei; Tang, Bing; Ma, Ying

    2018-02-01

    Room temperature recrystallization is a simple and convenient method for synthesis of all-inorganic perovskite nanomaterials with excellent luminescent properties. However, the fast crystallization usually brings the colloidal stability and uncontrollable synthesis issues in the formation of all-inorganic perovskite. In the present study, we present a new strategy to prepare the quantum confined CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with controlled morphology under ambient condition. With the assist of fatty acid-capped precursor, the crystallization and the following growth rate can be retarded. Thanks to the retarded reaction, the morphology can be varied from nanowires to nanoplates and the thickness can be controlled from 5-7 monolayers by simply adjusting the amount of octylammonium cations and oleic acid. The nanoplates exhibit a higher photoluminescence quantum yield than the nanowires possibly due to fewer defects in the nanoplates.

  18. Controlled Synthesis of Quantum Confined CsPbBr3 perovskite Nanocrystals under Ambient Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huimei; Tang, Bing; Ma, Ying

    2017-11-21

    Room temperature recrystallization is a simple and convenient method for synthesis of all-inorganic perovskite nanomaterials with excellent luminescent properties. However, the fast crystallization usually brings the colloidal stability and uncontrollable synthesis issues in the formation of all-inorganic perovskite. In the present study, we present a new strategy to prepare the quantum confined CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with controlled morphology under ambient condition. With the assist of fatty acid-capped precursor, the crystallization and the following growth rate can be retarded. Thanks to the retarded reaction, the morphology can be varied from nanowires to nanoplates and the thickness can be controlled from 5 to 7 monolayers by simply adjusting the amount of octylammonium cations and oleic acid. The nanoplates exhibit a higher photoluminescence quantum yield than the nanowires possibly due to fewer defects in the nanoplates. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Existence conditions of optimal trajectories in dynamic control processes; Conditions d'existence de trajectoires optimales des processus dynamiques commandes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnemay-Juricek, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The existence of solutions in the optimal control problems with free endpoints is studied in this report and existence conditions are established without the usual assumption that the control region is convex. Furthermore the results, in order to be of some utility in physical applications, are expressed only by means of conditions on the parameters defining the system. (author) [French] Ce rapport etudie l'existence de solutions optimales dans les problemes de commande ou le point terminal est libre et ou la duree de l'evolution du systeme a optimiser est connue. Des conditions d'existence y sont formulees sans recourir a l'hypothese usuelle de convexite du domaine des valeurs des commandes. De plus on a cherche a rendre utilisables les resultats en ne faisant porter les conditions que sur les parametres directement accessibles du systeme. (auteur)

  20. Very high gravity ethanol fermentation by flocculating yeast under redox potential-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chen-Guang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very high gravity (VHG fermentation using medium in excess of 250 g/L sugars for more than 15% (v ethanol can save energy consumption, not only for ethanol distillation, but also for distillage treatment; however, stuck fermentation with prolonged fermentation time and more sugars unfermented is the biggest challenge. Controlling redox potential (ORP during VHG fermentation benefits biomass accumulation and improvement of yeast cell viability that is affected by osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition, enhancing ethanol productivity and yield, the most important techno-economic aspect of fuel ethanol production. Results Batch fermentation was performed under different ORP conditions using the flocculating yeast and media containing glucose of 201 ± 3.1, 252 ± 2.9 and 298 ± 3.8 g/L. Compared with ethanol fermentation by non-flocculating yeast, different ORP profiles were observed with the flocculating yeast due to the morphological change associated with the flocculation of yeast cells. When ORP was controlled at −100 mV, ethanol fermentation with the high gravity (HG media containing glucose of 201 ± 3.1 and 252 ± 2.9 g/L was completed at 32 and 56 h, respectively, producing 93.0 ± 1.3 and 120.0 ± 1.8 g/L ethanol, correspondingly. In contrast, there were 24.0 ± 0.4 and 17.0 ± 0.3 g/L glucose remained unfermented without ORP control. As high as 131.0 ± 1.8 g/L ethanol was produced at 72 h when ORP was controlled at −150 mV for the VHG fermentation with medium containing 298 ± 3.8 g/L glucose, since yeast cell viability was improved more significantly. Conclusions No lag phase was observed during ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast, and the implementation of ORP control improved ethanol productivity and yield. When ORP was controlled at −150 mV, more reducing power was available for yeast cells to survive, which in turn improved their viability and VHG

  1. Dynamic environments of fungus-farming termite mounds exert growth-modulating effects on fungal crop parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katariya, Lakshya; Ramesh, Priya B; Borges, Renee M

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated for the first time the impact of the internal mound environment of fungus-growing termites on the growth of fungal crop parasites. Mounds of the termite Odontotermes obesus acted as (i) temperature and relative humidity (RH) 'stabilisers' showing dampened daily variation and (ii) 'extreme environments' exhibiting elevated RH and CO 2 levels, compared to the outside. Yet, internal temperatures exhibited seasonal dynamics as did daily and seasonal CO 2 levels. During in situ experiments under termite-excluded conditions within the mound, the growth of the crop parasite Pseudoxylaria was greater inside than outside the mound, i.e., Pseudoxylaria is 'termitariophilic'. Also, ex situ experiments on parasite isolates differing in growth rates and examined under controlled conditions in the absence of termites revealed a variable effect with fungal growth decreasing only under high CO 2 and low temperature conditions, reflecting the in situ parasite growth fluctuations. In essence, the parasite appears to be adapted to survive in the termite mound. Thus the mound microclimate does not inhibit the parasite but the dynamic environmental conditions of the mound affect its growth to varying extents. These results shed light on the impact of animal-engineered structures on parasite ecology, independent of any direct role of animal engineers. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Environment, host, and fungal traits predict continental-scale white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T.S.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Marshall, Jonathan C.; Cryan, Paul M.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is a fungal disease killing bats in eastern North America, but disease is not seen in European bats and is less severe in some North American species. We show that how bats use energy during hibernation and fungal growth rates under different environmental conditions can explain how some bats are able to survive winter with infection and others are not. Our study shows how simple but nonlinear interactions between fungal growth and bat energetics result in decreased survival times at more humid hibernation sites; however, differences between species such as body size and metabolic rates determine the impact of fungal infection on bat survival, allowing European bat species to survive, whereas North American species can experience dramatic decline.

  3. Environment, host, and fungal traits predict continental-scale white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T S; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Marshall, Jonathan C; Cryan, Paul M; Webb, Colleen T

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is a fungal disease killing bats in eastern North America, but disease is not seen in European bats and is less severe in some North American species. We show that how bats use energy during hibernation and fungal growth rates under different environmental conditions can explain how some bats are able to survive winter with infection and others are not. Our study shows how simple but nonlinear interactions between fungal growth and bat energetics result in decreased survival times at more humid hibernation sites; however, differences between species such as body size and metabolic rates determine the impact of fungal infection on bat survival, allowing European bat species to survive, whereas North American species can experience dramatic decline.

  4. Strategies to Characterize Fungal Lipases for Applications in Medicine and Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Anbu, Periasamy; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Hilda, Azariah

    2013-01-01

    Lipases are water-soluble enzymes that act on insoluble substrates and catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. Lipases play a vital role in the food, detergent, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. In the past, fungal lipases gained significant attention in the industries due to their substrate specificity and stability under varied chemical and physical conditions. Fungal enzymes are extracellular in nature, and they can be extracted easily, which significantly reduces the cost and makes this source preferable over bacteria. Soil contaminated with spillage from the products of oil and dairy harbors fungal species, which have the potential to secrete lipases to degrade fats and oils. Herein, the strategies involved in the characterization of fungal lipases, capable of degrading fatty substances, are narrated with a focus on further applications. PMID:23865040

  5. Melanin targets LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP): A novel pathogenetic mechanism in fungal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamilos, Georgios; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Brakhage, Axel; Beauvais, Anne; Latge, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-03

    Intracellular swelling of conidia of the major human airborne fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus results in surface exposure of immunostimulatory pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and triggers activation of a specialized autophagy pathway called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) to promote fungal killing. We have recently discovered that, apart from PAMPs exposure, cell wall melanin removal during germination of A. fumigatus is a prerequisite for activation of LAP. Importantly, melanin promotes fungal pathogenicity via targeting LAP, as a melanin-deficient A. fumigatus mutant restores its virulence upon conditional inactivation of Atg5 in hematopoietic cells of mice. Mechanistically, fungal cell wall melanin selectively excludes the CYBA/p22phox subunit of NADPH oxidase from the phagosome to inhibit LAP, without interfering with signaling regulating cytokine responses. Notably, inhibition of LAP is a general property of melanin pigments, a finding with broad physiological implications.

  6. Degradation of Lignocellulosic Components in Un-pretreated Vinegar Residue Using an Artificially Constructed Fungal Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoming Cui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to degrade lignocellulosic components in un-pretreated vinegar residue (VR using a fungal consortium. Consortium-29, consisting of P. chrysosporium, T. koningii, A. niger, and A. ficuum NTG-23, was constructed using orthogonal design combined with two-way interaction analysis. After seven days of cultivation, the reducing sugar yield reached 35.57 mg per gram of dry substrate (gds-1, which was 108.01% higher than the control (17.10 mg gds-1. Additionally, the xylanase and CMCase activity reached 439.07 U gds-1 and 8.15 U gds-1, which were 432.08% and 243.88% higher than that of pure cultures of A. niger (82.52 U gds-1 and P. chrysosporium (2.37 U gds-1, respectively. The cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents decreased by 17.11%, 68.61%, and 14.44%, respectively, compared with that of the raw VR. The optimal fermentation conditions of consortium-29 were as follows: incubation temperature 25 °C, initial pH 6, initial moisture content 70%, inoculum size 1 x 10^6 spores/mL, incubation time 5 days, urea/VR 1%, and MnSO4 . H2O/VR 0.03%. This study suggests that consortium-29 is an efficient fungal consortium for un-pretreated VR degradation and has a potential application in lignocellulosic waste utilization with a low cost of operation.

  7. Mite fauna and fungal flora in house dust from homes of asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, A; Takaoka, M; Ichinoe, M; Kabasawa, Y; Ouchi, T

    1979-12-01

    Mite fauna and fungal flora in the house dust from homes of asthmatic children with positive and negative skin test to house dust allergen and non-asthmatic controls were examined. There was no conspicuous difference in mite species distribution among the three groups. Pyroglyphid mites dominate the mite fauna in house dust more than half of which being Dermatophagoides: D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. There was no statistically significant difference in numbers between the two species and either species could dominate depending on the conditions of the individual houses. The average number of acarina in 0.5 g of fine dust did not differ statistically among the three groups; however, mite number per square meter floor differed between patients with positive skin test and negative skin test. The results suggest that house-cleaning might influence the possible sensitization of children. The genetic distribution of mould fungi in house dust was largely similar to that of airborne fungi. The average number of fungal colonies detected in 0.5 g of dust did not differ statistically among the three groups. Wallemia with its minute spores may cause sensitization but has so far been insufficiently investigated.

  8. N-acetylglucosamine increases symptoms and fungal burden in a murine model of oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishijima, Sanae A; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Holmes, Ann R; Cannon, Richard D; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is an in vitro inducer of the hyphal mode of growth of the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. The development of hyphae by C. albicans is considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of mucosal oral candidiasis. GlcNAc is also a commonly used nutritional supplement for the self-treatment of conditions such as arthritis. To date, no study has investigated whether ingestion of GlcNAc has an effect on the in vivo growth of C. albicans or the pathogenesis of a C. albicans infection. Using a murine model of oral candidiasis, we have found that administration of GlcNAc, but not glucose, increased oral symptoms of candidiasis and fungal burden. Groups of mice were given GlcNAc in either water or in a viscous carrier, i.e., 1% methylcellulose. There was a dose-dependent relationship between GlcNAc concentration and the severity of oral symptoms. Mice given the highest dose of GlcNAc, 45.2 mM, also showed a significant increase in fungal burden, and increased histological evidence of infection compared to controls given water alone. We propose that ingestion of GlcNAc, as a nutritional supplement, may have an impact on oral health in people susceptible to oral candidiasis.

  9. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-11-12

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  10. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  11. Weed control and persistence of two oxyfluorfen formulations in olive groves under non tillage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M J; Farsaoui, K; de Prado, R

    2004-01-01

    To obtain profitable yields in olive groves, residual preemergence herbicides are applied in October or November before the winter rains, and before the winter annual weeds germinate. Simazine, one of the herbicides most used for weed control in olive groves, has recently been banned. Oxyfluorfen is presented as a good alternative to simazine in olive fields. Experiments were carried out in 2002 and 2003 to evaluate the behaviour of two oxyfluorfen formulations, 2XL and G4F, at 480 g a.i. ha(-1) for three different soil management systems with three replications (1. bare soil; 2. bare soil and grassed buffer strips, chemically controlled and 3. bare soil and grassed buffer strips with controlled mowing; under non tillage conditions in all three cases). The most important species that survived 2XL and G4F treatments was Sagina apetala ARD. Oxyfluorfen residues were evaluated throughout 158 days after the applications. Three soil samples from each plot were collected, mixed and air dried. The herbicide extractions were made with methanol and the residues were analyzed by HPLC. We found no differences between the two formulations, but results showed that recoveries of oxyfluorfen were higher in plots with chemically controlled buffer grassed strips than in the other soil management types.

  12. Molecular characterization, biofilm analysis and experimental biofouling study of Fusarium isolates from recent cases of fungal keratitis in New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonoff William A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize Fusarium isolates from recent cases of fungal keratitis in contact lens wearers, and to investigate fungal association with MoistureLoc solution. Methods We studied six fungal isolates from recent cases of keratitis in New York State. The isolates were characterized by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of multiple genes, and then typed using minisatellite and microsatellite probes. Experimental fungal biofilm formation was tested by standard methods. MoistureLoc solutions were tested in biofouling studies for their efficacy in elimination of Fusarium contamination. Results Fusarium solani – corneal ulcers (2 isolates, lens case (1 isolate, and F. oxysporum – corneal ulcer (1 isolate, eye (1 isolate, were recovered from five patients. An opened bottle of MoistureLoc solution provided by a patient also yielded F. solani. Two distinct genotypes of F. solani as well as of F. oxysporum were present in the isolated strains. Remarkably, F. solani strains from the lens case and lens solution in one instance were similar, based on phylogenetic analyses and molecular typing. The solution isolate of F. solani formed biofilm on contact lenses in control conditions, but not when co-incubated with MoistureLoc solution. Both freshly opened and 3-month old MoistureLoc solutions effectively killed F. solani and F. oxysporum, when fungal contamination was simulated under recommended lens treatment regimen (4-hr. However, simulation of inappropriate use (15 – 60 min led to the recovery of less than 1% of original inoculum of F. solani or F. oxysporum. Conclusion Temporary survival of F. solani and F. oxysporum in MoistureLoc suggested that improper lens cleaning regimen could be a possible contributing factor in recent infections.

  13. Conditionally controlling nuclear trafficking in yeast by chemical-induced protein dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Johnson, Cole A; Gestwicki, Jason E; Kumar, Anuj

    2010-11-01

    We present here a protocol to conditionally control the nuclear trafficking of target proteins in yeast. In this system, rapamycin is used to heterodimerize two chimeric proteins. One chimera consists of a FK506-binding protein (FKBP12) fused to a cellular 'address' (nuclear localization signal or nuclear export sequence). The second chimera consists of a target protein fused to a fluorescent protein and the FKBP12-rapamycin-binding (FRB) domain from FKBP-12-rapamycin associated protein 1 (FRAP1, also known as mTor). Rapamycin induces dimerization of the FKBP12- and FRB-containing chimeras; these interactions selectively place the target protein under control of the cell address, thereby directing the protein into or out of the nucleus. By chemical-induced dimerization, protein mislocalization is reversible and enables the identification of conditional loss-of-function and gain-of-function phenotypes, in contrast to other systems that require permanent modification of the targeted protein. Yeast strains for this analysis can be constructed in 1 week, and the technique allows protein mislocalization within 15 min after drug treatment.

  14. Periodic spring–mass running over uneven terrain through feedforward control of landing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    III, Luther R Palmer; Eaton, Caitrin E

    2014-01-01

    This work pursues a feedforward control algorithm for high-speed legged locomotion over uneven terrain. Being able to rapidly negotiate uneven terrain without visual or a priori information about the terrain will allow legged systems to be used in time-critical applications and alongside fast-moving humans or vehicles. The algorithm is shown here implemented on a spring-loaded inverted pendulum model in simulation, and can be configured to approach fixed running height over uneven terrain or self-stable terrain following. Offline search identifies unique landing conditions that achieve a desired apex height with a constant stride period over varying ground levels. Because the time between the apex and touchdown events is directly related to ground height, the landing conditions can be computed in real time as continuous functions of this falling time. Enforcing a constant stride period reduces the need for inertial sensing of the apex event, which is nontrivial for physical systems, and allows for clocked feedfoward control of the swing leg. (paper)

  15. Periodic spring-mass running over uneven terrain through feedforward control of landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Luther R; Eaton, Caitrin E

    2014-09-01

    This work pursues a feedforward control algorithm for high-speed legged locomotion over uneven terrain. Being able to rapidly negotiate uneven terrain without visual or a priori information about the terrain will allow legged systems to be used in time-critical applications and alongside fast-moving humans or vehicles. The algorithm is shown here implemented on a spring-loaded inverted pendulum model in simulation, and can be configured to approach fixed running height over uneven terrain or self-stable terrain following. Offline search identifies unique landing conditions that achieve a desired apex height with a constant stride period over varying ground levels. Because the time between the apex and touchdown events is directly related to ground height, the landing conditions can be computed in real time as continuous functions of this falling time. Enforcing a constant stride period reduces the need for inertial sensing of the apex event, which is nontrivial for physical systems, and allows for clocked feedfoward control of the swing leg.

  16. Biodegradation Behaviour of Thermoplastic Starch Films Derived from Tacca leontopetaloides Starch under Controlled Composting Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A. M. Mohd; Sauid, S. Mohd; Hamid, K. H. Ku; Musa, M.

    2018-05-01

    The biodegradation study of thermoplastic starch (TPS) films derived from Tacca leontopetaloides starch; namely TPS/GLY, TPS/ACE and TPS/BCHR were investigated under controlled composting conditions. A manual set-up test rig in laboratory scale was built according to ISO 14855-1: 2012. The biodegradation percentage was determined by measuring the amount of CO2 evolved using titration method and validated by automatic system (Arduino UNO System) that detected the CO2 evolved. After 45 days under controlled composting condition, results indicated that TPS/GLY degraded the fastest, followed by TPS/BCHR and the TPS/ACE had the slowest degradation. The biodegradation process of TPS/GLY, TPS/ACE and TPS/BCHR also exhibited two stages with different degradation speeds. From these results, it indicated that chemical modification of the TPS films by adding acetic acid and rice husk bio-char to the thermoplastic starch can have a major impact on the biodegradation rate and final biodegradation percentage.

  17. 78 FR 76254 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Control Surface Awareness and Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...-0899; Notice No. 25-13-15-SC] Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Control... of proposed special conditions. SUMMARY: This action proposes special conditions for the Airbus Model..., data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the proposed special...

  18. Simplified model-based optimal control of VAV air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif, N.; Kajl, S.; Sabourin, R. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Construction Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The improvement of Variable Air Volume (VAV) system performance is one of several attempts being made to minimize the high energy use associated with the operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A Simplified Optimization Process (SOP) comprised of controller set point strategies and a simplified VAV model was presented in this paper. The aim of the SOP was to determine supply set points. The advantage of the SOP over previous methods was that it did not require a detailed VAV model and optimization program. In addition, the monitored data for representative local-loop control can be checked on-line, after which controller set points can be updated in order to ensure proper operation by opting for real situations with minimum energy use. The SOP was validated using existing monitoring data and a model of an existing VAV system. Energy use simulations were compared to that of the existing VAV system. At each simulation step, 3 controller set point values were proposed and studied using the VAV model in order to select a value for each point which corresponded to the best performance of the VAV system. Simplified VAV component models were presented. Strategies for controller set points were described, including zone air temperature, duct static pressure set points; chilled water supply set points and supply air temperature set points. Simplified optimization process calculations were presented. Results indicated that the SOP provided significant energy savings when applied to specific AHU systems. In a comparison with a Detailed Optimization Process (DOP), the SOP was capable of determining set points close to those obtained by the DOP. However, it was noted that the controller set points determined by the SOP need a certain amount of time to reach optimal values when outdoor conditions or thermal loads are significantly changed. It was suggested that this disadvantage could be overcome by the use of a dynamic incremental value, which

  19. Temporal variation of fungal diversity in a mosaic landscape in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rudolph

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at characterizing the diversity and temporal changes of species richness and composition of fungi in an ecotone of a forest border and a meadow in the Taunus mountain range in Germany. All macroscopically visible, epigeous fungi and vascular plants were sampled monthly over three years, together with climatic variables like humidity and temperature that influence fungal diversity and composition as shown by previous studies. In this mosaic landscape, a total of 855 fungal species were collected and identified based on morphological features, the majority of which belonged to Ascomycota (51 % and Basidiomycota (45 %. Records of fungal species and plant species (218 for this area yielded a fungus to plant species ratio of 4:1, with a plant species accumulation curve that reached saturation. The three years of monitoring, however, were not sufficient to reveal the total fungal species richness and estimation factors showed that a fungus to plant species ratio of 6:1 may be reached by further sampling efforts. The effect of climatic conditions on fungal species richness differed depending on the taxonomic and ecological group, with temporal patterns of occurrence of Basidiomycota and mycorrhizal fungi being strongly associated with temperature and humidity, whereas the other fungal groups were only weakly related to abiotic conditions. In conclusion, long-term, monthly surveys over several years yield a higher diversity of macroscopically visible fungi than standard samplings of fungi in autumn. The association of environmental variables with the occurrence of specific fungal guilds may help to improve estimators of fungal richness in temperate regions. Key words: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Fungi, Seasonal trend decomposition, Species composition, Temporal variation

  20. MPPT-Based Control Algorithm for PV System Using iteration-PSO under Irregular shadow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulkadir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT techniques can hardly track the global maximum power point (GMPP because the power-voltage characteristics of photovoltaic (PV exhibit multiple local peaks in irregular shadow, and therefore easily fall into the local maximum power point. These conditions make it very challenging, and to tackle this deficiency, an efficient Iteration Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO has been developed to improve the quality of solution and convergence speed of the traditional PSO, so that it can effectively track the GMPP under irregular shadow conditions. This proposed technique has such advantages as simple structure, fast response and strong robustness, and convenient implementation. It is applied to MPPT control of PV system in irregular shadow to solve the problem of multi-peak optimization in partial shadow. In order to verify the rationality of the proposed algorithm, however, recently the dynamic MPPT performance under varying irradiance conditions has been given utmost attention to the PV society. As the European standard EN 50530 which defines the recommended varying irradiance profiles, was released lately, the corresponding researchers have been required to improve the dynamic MPPT performance. This paper tried to evaluate the dynamic MPPT performance using EN 50530 standard. The simulation results show that iterative-PSO method can fast track the global MPP, increase tracking speed and higher dynamic MPPT efficiency under EN 50530 than the conventional PSO.

  1. Factors influencing adult physical health after controlling for current health conditions: evidence from a british cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  2. Performance Investigation of Air Velocity Effects on PV Modules under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Junction temperature of PV modules is one of the key parameters on which the performance of PV modules depends. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out to analyze the effects of air velocity on the performance of two PV modules, that is, monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon under the controlled conditions of a wind tunnel in the presence of an artificial solar simulator. The parameters investigated include the surface temperature variation, power output, and efficiency of PV modules under varying air velocity from near zero (indoor lab. conditions to 15 m/s. Additionally, the results were also determined at two different module angular positions: at 0° angle, that is, parallel to air direction and at 10° angle with the direction of coming air to consider the effects of tilt angles. Afterwards, the thermal analysis of the modules was performed using Ansys-Fluent in which junction temperature and heat flux of modules were determined by applying appropriate boundary conditions, such as air velocity, heat flux, and solar radiation. Finally, the numerical results are compared with the experiment in terms of junction temperatures of modules and good agreement was found. Additionally, the results showed that the maximum module temperature drops by 17.2°C and the module efficiency and power output increased from 10 to 12% with increasing air velocity.

  3. Topographically-controlled site conditions drive vegetation pattern on inland dunes in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewerniak, Piotr; Jankowski, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The inland dunes of Central Europe are commonly overplanted by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monocultures in which the primary occurrence of the natural vegetation pattern is obliterated. We hypothesize that on naturally revegetated inland dunes the pattern is clear and driven by topographically-controlled site conditions. To test this hypothesis, we addressed the following research questions: (1) Does topography drive vegetation patterns on inland dunes and if so, what are main differences between vegetation in varying relief positions? (2) To what extent does topography involve the variability of microclimates and of soil properties, and how does the topographically-induced differentiation of these site conditions control vegetation patterns? We conducted interdisciplinary studies (applying floristic, pedological and microclimatic research techniques) on a naturally revegetated inland dune area situated on a military artillery training ground near Toruń, northern Poland. We investigated vegetation patterns with reference to three topographical position variants (north-facing slopes, south-facing slopes, and intra-dune depressions). We found distinct differences in vegetation characteristics covering the aforementioned topographical positions. This primarily concerned species composition of ground vegetation: Calluna vulgaris was dominant species on north-facing slopes, Corynephorus canescens on south-facing slopes, while Calamagrostis epigejos in intra-dune depressions. In comparison to dune slopes, the depressions were characterized by much higher biodiversity of vascular plant species. This followed the most favorable soil conditions for the existence of plants (higher moisture and nutrient pools) occurring in low topographical positions. However, tree succession was most advanced not in depressions, where the competitive impact of tall grasses on seedlings was recognized, but on north-facing slopes. Based on our results, we formulated some suggestions, which

  4. Conditions for settling liquid levels by means of gamma-ray relay control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, N [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1976-03-01

    Using a control action which consists of infusion and exhaust at constant speeds and a neutral zone to maintain liquid levels within a given range, a gamma-ray source, a detector, and two relays at the upper and lower limits of the counting rate were provided. The optimum condition in this case is discussed and confirmed experimentally. Since a counting rate-meter has a time constant and its output is subject to the statistical fluctuation, the liquid level may overrun the opposite limit, move again after settling within the range, or drift far out of the range by a load before actuation of the relay. Formulas are derived providing the conditions such that these phenomena will not occur more frequently than a tolerant probability. These give the relations between the counting rates at the upper and lower limits, the time constant of the rate-meter, the multipliers of the standard deviations of the counting rates, the infusing and exhausting speeds, and the hysteresis widths of the limiting relays. Since it can be said that the first two of the five quantities should be smaller and the next two greater, the optimum condition can be determined from the formulas. When the infusing and exhausting speeds are the same and the hysteresis widths are equal, the formulas show that the optimum is a case where the ratio of the counting rates at the two limits, which is taken smaller than unity, is small, and where each hysteresis width is equal to 0.34 times the difference between the two counting rates, almost regardless of the value of their ratio. The above-mentioned deductions were examined in a system constructed with a backscattered gamma-ray type level gauge and a controller for infusion and exhaust of water. Its results almost agreed with those of the deductions when the multipliers of the standard deviations are substituted for by 2.

  5. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.

    2003-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  6. Current physical activity improves balance control during sensory conflicting conditions in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, S; Gauchard, G C; Aubry, C; Benetos, A; Perrin, P

    2007-01-01

    Aging process is characterized by difficulties in ensuring balance control, especially in conditions of reduced or conflicting sensory information, leading to an increased risk of falling. Conversely, the practise of physical activities (PA) has been recognized as a good approach to improve the quality of balance control. This study aimed to investigate the influence of current and/or past PA on balance-related neurosensorial organization in older adults on the maintenance of the upright stance, especially during sensory conflicting situations. Postural control was evaluated by means of the Sensory Organization Test on 130 healthy noninstitutionalized volunteers aged over 65, split into four groups according to the presence or absence of PA before or after retirement. Subjects who practised PA for a long time (Gr1) and subjects who started PA after retirement (Gr2) displayed the best postural performances and better managed sensory conflicting situations compared to subjects who had stopped PA for many years (Gr3) and subjects who had never practised PA (Gr4). Multiple regression analyses revealed that current PA was the major determinant for postural parameters during sensorial conflict compared to age, gender, body mass index and past PA. Regular PA, even when started late in life, allows appropriate reorganization of the different components of postural control during sensory conflicting situations. Indeed, active subjects were more able to compensate for suppressed or perturbed sensory information by an increased usage of another referential and so to correct their posture by adopting a more appropriate balance strategy. Thus, PA counteracts the age-related decline of postural control and could consequently reduce the risk of falling.

  7. Veterinary homeopathy: systematic review of medical conditions studied by randomised trials controlled by other than placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathie, Robert T; Clausen, Jürgen

    2015-09-15

    No systematic review has previously been carried out on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of veterinary homeopathy in which the control group was an intervention other than placebo (OTP). For eligible peer-reviewed RCTs, the objectives of this study were to assess the risk of bias (RoB) and to quantify the effect size of homeopathic intervention compared with an active comparator or with no treatment. Our systematic review approach complied fully with the PRISMA 2009 Checklist. Cochrane methods were applied to assess RoB and to derive effect size using standard meta-analysis methods. Based on a thorough and systematic literature search, the following key attributes of the published research were distinguished: individualised homeopathy (n = 1 RCT)/non-individualised homeopathy (n = 19); treatment (n = 14)/prophylaxis (n = 6); active controls (n = 18)/untreated controls (n = 2). The trials were highly diverse, representing 12 different medical conditions in 6 different species. No trial had sufficiently low RoB to be judged as reliable evidence: 16 of the 20 RCTs had high RoB; the remaining four had uncertain RoB in several domains of assessment. For three trials with uncertain RoB and without overt vested interest, it was inconclusive whether homeopathy combined with conventional intervention was more or was less effective than conventional intervention alone for modulation of immune response in calves, or in the prophylaxis of cattle tick or of diarrhoea in piglets. Due to the poor reliability of their data, OTP-controlled trials do not currently provide useful insight into the effectiveness of homeopathy in animals.

  8. Exploring valid internal-control genes in Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiaceae) during stress response conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlei; Wu, Xiaojie; Wang, Chao; Jia, Zhaojun; He, Linwen; Wei, Yifan; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2014-07-01

    To screen the stable expression genes related to the stress (strong light, dehydration and temperature shock) we applied Absolute real-time PCR technology to determine the transcription numbers of the selected test genes in P orphyra yezoensis, which has been regarded as a potential model species responding the stress conditions in the intertidal. Absolute real-time PCR technology was applied to determine the transcription numbers of the selected test genes in P orphyra yezoensis, which has been regarded as a potential model species in stress responding. According to the results of photosynthesis parameters, we observed that Y(II) and F v/ F m were significantly affected when stress was imposed on the thalli of P orphyra yezoensis, but underwent almost completely recovered under normal conditions, which were collected for the following experiments. Then three samples, which were treated with different grade stresses combined with salinity, irradiation and temperature, were collected. The transcription numbers of seven constitutive expression genes in above samples were determined after RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Finally, a general insight into the selection of internal control genes during stress response was obtained. We found that there were no obvious effects in terms of salinity stress (at salinity 90) on transcription of most genes used in the study. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene had the highest expression level, varying remarkably among different tested groups. RPS8 expression showed a high irregular variance between samples. GAPDH presented comparatively stable expression and could thus be selected as the internal control. EF-1α showed stable expression during the series of multiple-stress tests. Our research provided available references for the selection of internal control genes for transcripts determination of P. yezoensis.

  9. Relapse Prevention in Major Depressive Disorder: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Versus an Active Control Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Amanda J.; Gross, James J.; Visvanathan, Pallavi D.; Kumar, Niketa; Palfrey, Amy; Ford, Brett Q.; Dimidjian, Sona; Shirk, Stephen; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Goode, Kari M.; Cox, Erica; Chaplin, William; Mauss, Iris B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus an active control condition (ACC) for depression relapse prevention, depressive symptom reduction, and improvement in life satisfaction. Method Ninety-two participants in remission from Major Depressive Disorder with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an 8-week MBCT or a validated ACC that is structurally equivalent to MBCT and controls for non-specific effects (e.g., interaction with a facilitator, perceived social support, treatment outcome expectations). Both interventions were delivered according to their published manuals. Results Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between MBCT and ACC in depression relapse rates or time to relapse over a 60-week follow-up. Both groups experienced significant and equal reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in life satisfaction. A significant quadratic interaction (group x time) indicated that the pattern of depressive symptom reduction differed between groups. The ACC experienced immediate symptom reduction post-intervention and then a gradual increase over the 60-week follow-up. The MBCT group experienced a gradual linear symptom reduction. The pattern for life satisfaction was identical but only marginally significant. Conclusions MBCT did not differ from an ACC on rates of depression relapse, symptom reduction, or life satisfaction, suggesting that MBCT is no more effective for preventing depression relapse and reducing depressive symptoms than the active components of the ACC. Differences in trajectory of depressive symptom improvement suggest that the intervention-specific skills acquired may be associated with differential rates of therapeutic benefit. This study demonstrates the importance of comparing psychotherapeutic interventions to active control conditions. PMID:26371618

  10. Responses to tonic heat pain in the ongoing EEG under conditions of controlled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Janet; Meyer-Brandis, Gesa; Kunz, Miriam; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    To confirm the existence of an ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern that is truly suggestive of pain, tonic heat pain was induced by small heat pulses at 1 °C above the pain threshold and compared to slightly less intense tonic non-painful heat pulses at 1 °C below the pain threshold. Twenty healthy subjects rated the sensation intensity during thermal stimulation. Possible confounding effects of attention were thoroughly controlled for by testing in four conditions: (1) focus of attention directed ipsilateral or (2) contralateral to the side of the stimulation, (3) control without a side preference, and (4) no control of attention at all. EEG was recorded via eight leads according to the 10/20 convention. Absolute power was computed for the frequency bands delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-11 Hz), alpha2 (11-14 Hz), beta1 (14-25 Hz), and beta2 (25-35 Hz). Ratings were clearly distinct between the heat and pain conditions and suggestive for heat and pain sensations. Manipulation of attention proved to be successful by producing effects on the ratings and on the EEG activity (with lower ratings and lower EEG activity (theta, beta1, 2) over central areas for side-focused attention). During pain stimulation, lower central alpha1 and alpha2 activity and higher right-parietal and right-occipital delta power were observed compared to heat stimulation. This EEG pattern was not influenced by the manipulation of attention. Since the two types of stimuli (pain, heat) were subjectively felt differently although stimulation intensities were nearby, we conclude that this EEG pattern is clearly suggestive of pain.

  11. Microbial ecology of Rum Jungle, III. Leaching behaviour of sulphidic waste material under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babij, T.; Goodman, A.; Khalid, A.M.; Ralph, B.J.

    1981-12-01

    The discharge, into river systems, of acid and heavy metals generated by leaching of sulphidic waste materials at the abandoned opencut uranium mine at Rum Jungle, Northern Territory, is causing continuing pollution of the surrounding environment. The maximum effects of acid and microorganisms on samples from the overburden dump material, under defined and controlled environmental conditions, were assessed using reactor systems. These samples came from the overburden dump resulting from the mining of White's orebody. Similarly, the stability of tailings material under conditions of flooding and increasing acidity was determined. At ph 2.5, metals in White's dump material were solubilised by acid attack only, whereas at pH 3.5, bacterial activity (principally that of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) generated acidity and contributed significantly to metal release. Under microaerophilic conditions Thiobacillus ferrooxidans continued to effect metal release from the ore, but did not produce further acidity. If White's overburden is returned to the acidic, flooded opencuts, complete solubilisation of the material will occur. The exclusion of oxygen from the dump will not necessarily stop bacterially catalysed leaching processes. Under highly aerated and agitated flooded conditions the tailings material was not active, except for copper release of about 2 g kg -1 ore at pH 4.0. The only deleterious element released by increasing acidity was copper, which was 100 per cent solubilised at pH 2.5. Uranium was always lss than 3 μg kg -1 ore, and lead was detected only at pH 2.5. Indigenous leaching bacteria did not develop

  12. Endosymbiont-dependent host reproduction maintains bacterial-fungal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Monajembashi, Shamci; Greulich, Karl-Otto; Hertweck, Christian

    2007-05-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts play essential roles for many organisms, and thus specialized mechanisms have evolved during evolution that guarantee the persistence of the symbiosis during or after host reproduction. The rice seedling blight fungus Rhizopus microsporus represents a unique example of a mutualistic life form in which a fungus harbors endobacteria (Burkholderia sp.) for the production of a phytotoxin. Here we report the unexpected observation that in the absence of endosymbionts, the host is not capable of vegetative reproduction. Formation of sporangia and spores is restored only upon reintroduction of endobacteria. To monitor this process, we succeeded in GFP labeling cultured endosymbionts. We also established a laserbeam transformation technique for the first controlled introduction of bacteria into fungi to observe their migration to the tips of the aseptate hyphae. The persistence of this fungal-bacterial mutualism through symbiont-dependent sporulation is intriguing from an evolutionary point of view and implies that the symbiont produces factors that are essential for the fungal life cycle. Reproduction of the host has become totally dependent on endofungal bacteria, which in return provide a highly potent toxin for defending the habitat and accessing nutrients from decaying plants. This scenario clearly highlights the significance for a controlled maintenance of this fungal-bacterial symbiotic relationship.

  13. Inhibition of fungal growth with extreme low oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1998-01-01

    Fungal spoilage of foods is effectively controlled by removal of oxygen from the package, especially if this is combined with elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. However, great uncertainty exist on just how low the residual oxygen levels in the package must be especially when carbon dioxide lev...... food with low CO2 levels. Active packaging with oxygen absorbers may be considered for these products. The packaging solution must also reflect the micro flora of the product.......Fungal spoilage of foods is effectively controlled by removal of oxygen from the package, especially if this is combined with elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. However, great uncertainty exist on just how low the residual oxygen levels in the package must be especially when carbon dioxide...... Penicillia and Aspergilli were also inhibited by oxygen levels less than 0.5%, but less than 0.01% was required to efficiently inhibit these fungi. Most resistant to very low oxygen levels was the Fusarium species.These results shows that very low oxygen levels are required to avoid fungal growth in package...

  14. Dynamic Fungal Cell Wall Architecture in Stress Adaptation and Immune Evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopke, Alex; Brown, Alistair J P; Hall, Rebecca A; Wheeler, Robert T

    2018-04-01

    Deadly infections from opportunistic fungi have risen in frequency, largely because of the at-risk immunocompromised population created by advances in modern medicine and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This review focuses on dynamics of the fungal polysaccharide cell wall, which plays an outsized role in fungal pathogenesis and therapy because it acts as both an environmental barrier and as the major interface with the host immune system. Human fungal pathogens use architectural strategies to mask epitopes from the host and prevent immune surveillance, and recent work elucidates how biotic and abiotic stresses present during infection can either block or enhance masking. The signaling components implicated in regulating fungal immune recognition can teach us how cell wall dynamics are controlled, and represent potential targets for interventions designed to boost or dampen immunity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Control Strategy of Three-Phase Photovoltaic Inverter under Low-Voltage Ride-Through Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new energy promoting community has recently witnessed a surge of developments in photovoltaic power generation technologies. To fulfill the grid code requirement of photovoltaic inverter under low-voltage ride-through (LVRT condition, by utilizing the asymmetry feature of grid voltage, this paper aims to control both restraining negative sequence current and reactive power fluctuation on grid side to maintain balanced output of inverter. Two mathematical inverter models of grid-connected inverter containing LCL grid-side filter under both symmetrical and asymmetric grid are proposed. PR controller method is put forward based on inverter model under asymmetric grid. To ensure the stable operation of the inverter, grid voltage feedforward method is introduced to restrain current shock at the moment of voltage drop. Stable grid-connected operation and LVRT ability at grid drop have been achieved via a combination of rapid positive and negative sequence component extraction of accurate grid voltage synchronizing signals. Simulation and experimental results have verified the superior effectiveness of our proposed control strategy.

  16. Analysis of the Impact of Urban Microclimate on Air Conditioning Load Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of urban heat island effect (UHIE, high humidity and other urban microclimate, temperature of city central area rises. This causes that the actual air-conditioning energy consumption (ACEC in the urban central area is much higher than that in the suburbs. Load control of air-conditioners (ACs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity, and it can greatly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. In this paper, a simplified second order transfer function control model of ACs is presented, and its parameters will be influenced by the ambient temperature and urban microclimate. The temperature is obtained by using the temperature inversion algorithm of the heat island effect. Then, the heat index is calculated by combining temperature and humidity. The ambient temperature index of urban central area is modified based on the above microclimate, and the second order linear time invariant model of aggregated ACs is upgraded to the linear time varying model. Furthermore, the consequent parameter changes of the second order transfer function model are studied and the influence of urban microclimate on AC load control is analyzed. The proposed method is verified on numerical examples

  17. Distributed adaptive asymptotically consensus tracking control of uncertain Euler-Lagrange systems under directed graph condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wen, Changyun; Huang, Jiangshuai; Fan, Huijin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a backstepping based distributed adaptive control scheme is proposed for multiple uncertain Euler-Lagrange systems under directed graph condition. The common desired trajectory is allowed totally unknown by part of the subsystems and the linearly parameterized trajectory model assumed in currently available results is no longer needed. To compensate the effects due to unknown trajectory information, a smooth function of consensus errors and certain positive integrable functions are introduced in designing virtual control inputs. Besides, to overcome the difficulty of completely counteracting the coupling terms of distributed consensus errors and parameter estimation errors in the presence of asymmetric Laplacian matrix, extra information transmission of local parameter estimates are introduced among linked subsystem and adaptive gain technique is adopted to generate distributed torque inputs. It is shown that with the proposed distributed adaptive control scheme, global uniform boundedness of all the closed-loop signals and asymptotically output consensus tracking can be achieved. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality controls for wind measurement of a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler under strong wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zheng, Chaorong; Wu, Yue

    2017-09-01

    Wind profilers have been widely adopted to observe the wind field information in the atmosphere for different purposes. But accuracy of its observation has limitations due to various noises or disturbances and hence need to be further improved. In this paper, the data measured under strong wind conditions, using a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler (BLP), are quality controlled via a composite quality control (QC) procedure proposed by the authors. Then, through the comparison with the data measured by radiosonde flights (balloon observations), the critical thresholds in the composite QC procedure, including consensus average threshold T 1 and vertical shear threshold T 3 , are systematically discussed. And the performance of the BLP operated under precipitation is also evaluated. It is found that to ensure the high accuracy and high data collectable rate, the optimal range of subsets is determined to be 4 m/s. Although the number of data rejected by the combined algorithm of vertical shear examination and small median test is quite limited, it is proved that the algorithm is quite useful to recognize the outlier with a large discrepancy. And the optimal wind shear threshold T 3 can be recommended as 5 ms -1 /100m. During patchy precipitation, the quality of data measured by the four oblique beams (using the DBS measuring technique) can still be ensured. After the BLP data are quality controlled by the composite QC procedure, the output can show good agreement with the balloon observation.

  19. Tests of a sodium bonded type control element of 'Monju' with the actual conditions. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Jungo; Tanaka, Masako; Ikarimoto, Iwao

    2004-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the following three experimental and analytical results conducted on the sodium bonded double porous-plug type control element: the pretest of retention of the absorber in the double C-type shroud tube (the ASMI test); the stress analysis of the double C-type shroud tube; and the long-term submersion test of the sodium bonded type control element. The objective of the ASMI test and the stress analysis is to define the shroud tube's bottom structure. First, simulating the absorber shroud mechanical interaction (ASMI), we checked the function of absorber holding of the double C-type shroud tube. Second, we conducted the stress analysis, changing the distance between the end plug of the tube and the bottom end of the absorber, to determine proper position of the absorber. In addition, we conducted the long-term submersion test of the control element on which sodium residues had been left, and confirmed that no trouble occurred even though the element was submerged for a long time. The results of the above tests and analysis are as follows: (1) On the conditions that the end plug of the shroud tube was fitted from outside of the double C-type shroud tube was double-layered, we checked through the ASMI test that no absorber leaked and the holding property was secured even though the absorber be powdery. (2) The stress analysis showed that the structural integrity was satisfied when the distance between the end plug of the tube and the bottom end of the absorber was 40 mm or longer, and that the stress in the shroud tube was within the elastic range when the distance was 50 mm or longer. From these results, we could assure the structure integrity of 50 mm distance case. (3) The result of the long-term submersion test showed that no trouble occurred when the sodium bonded type control rod assembly (control element) is stored under water with sodium residues after cleaning in the sodium cleansing facility, the temperature increase and the

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Intensive Sleep Retraining (ISR): A Brief Conditioning Treatment for Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jodie; Lack, Leon; Kemp, Kristyn; Wright, Helen; Bootzin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of intensive sleep retraining in comparison and combination with traditional behavioral intervention for chronic primary insomnia. Participants: Seventy-nine volunteers with chronic sleep-onset insomnia (with or without sleep maintenance difficulties) were randomly assigned either to intensive sleep retraining (ISR), stimulus control therapy (SCT), ISR plus SCT, or the control (sleep hygiene) treatment condition. Intervention: ISR treatment consisted of 50 sleep onset trials over a 25-h sleep deprivation period. Measurements and Results: Treatment response was assessed with sleep diary, activity monitoring, and questionnaire measures. The active treatment groups (ISR, SCT, ISR+SCT) all resulted in significant improvements in sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency, with moderate to large effect sizes from pre- to post-treatment. Wake time after sleep onset decreased significantly in the SCT and ISR+SCT groups. Total sleep time increased significantly in the ISR and ISR+SCT treatment groups. Participants receiving ISR (ISR, ISR+SCT) experienced rapidly improved SOL and TST during treatment, suggesting an advantage of rapid improvements in sleep in response to ISR. Although there were few statistically significant differences between groups on individual variables, ISR+SCT resulted in consistently larger effect sizes of change than other treatments, including questionnaire measures of sleep quality, sleep self-efficacy, and daytime functioning. The combination treatment group (ISR+SCT) showed trends to outperform other active treatment groups with fewer treatment dropouts, and a greater proportion of treatment responders with 61% reaching “good sleeper” status. Treatment gains achieved at post-treatment in the active treatment groups were largely maintained throughout follow-up periods to 6 months. Conclusion: This 25-hour intensive conditioning treatment for chronic insomnia can produce rapid improvements in

  1. THE USE OF PLANTS TO PROTECT PLANTS AND FOOD AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS: A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuping, D S S; Eloff, J N

    2017-01-01

    Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal diseases, farmers have used fungicides to manage the damage of plant pathogenic fungi. Drawbacks such as development of resistance and environmental toxicity associated with these chemicals have motivated researchers and cultivators to investigate other possibilities. Several databases were accessed to determine work done on protecting plants against plant fungal pathogens with plant extracts using search terms "plant fungal pathogen", "plant extracts" and "phytopathogens". Proposals are made on the best extractants and bioassay techniques to be used. In addition to chemical fungicides, biological agents have been used to deal with plant fungal diseases. There are many examples where plant extracts or plant derived compounds have been used as commercial deterrents of fungi on a large scale in agricultural and horticultural setups. One advantage of this approach is that plant extracts usually contain more than one antifungal compound. Consequently the development of resistance of pathogens may be lower if the different compounds affect a different metabolic process. Plants cultivated using plants extracts may also be marketed as organically produced. Many papers have been published on effective antimicrobial compounds present in plant extracts focusing on applications in human health. More research is required to develop suitable, sustainable, effective, cheaper botanical products that can be used to help overcome the scourge of plant fungal diseases. Scientists who have worked only on using plants to control human and animal fungal pathogens should consider the advantages of focusing on plant fungal pathogens. This approach could not only potentially increase

  2. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  3. Evaluation of main control room habitability in Japanese LWR (1). Outline of evaluation method and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuko; Yoneda, Jiro; Okabayashi, Kazuki; Fukuda, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    It has been recognized that main control room habitability (CRH) is very important safety item. Its evaluation method and conditions was recently updated as a common method both for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) in Japan. This paper describes the common procedure for CRH evaluation. Postulated accidents for CRH evaluation are Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) for BWR and PWR, Main Steam Line Break Accident(MSLBA) for BWR, and Steam Generator Tube Rupture(SGTR) for PWR. Evaluation period is thirty days after each accident occurs. Acceptable criterion for each operator is 100mSv as total effective dose equivalent for thirty days, considering the net staying period of an operator in a control room and frequency of alternation of working staff. Total effective dose equivalent is calculated not only for an operator in control room, but also for an operator outside a building for alternation, and then total effective dose is compared with the criterion. The routes for dose evaluation are classified into five patterns, covering three patterns of location of radioactive source (i.e. source inside a building, source released into air, and source leaked into a control room) and covering two patterns of location of an operator (i.e. in control room and outside a building for alternation). Total effective dose by a route for source which is released into air and leaked into a control room is typically the largest contributor, in case of PWR LOCA evaluation, as an example showing relatively severe result. Evaluated dose for this dominant route is significantly affected by two calculations. One is a source term for calculation of radioactive gas release and the other is dispersion calculation in the air for concentration of radioactive gas in the vicinity of a control room. For LOCA 100% Kr,Xe and 50% iodine of total core radionuclide inventory are assumed to be released immediately into containment vessel. This is the most conservative assumption

  4. Second-Order Necessary Optimality Conditions for Some State-Constrained Control Problems of Semilinear Elliptic Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, E.; Troeltzsch, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with some optimal control problems governed by semilinear elliptic equations. The case of a boundary control is studied. We consider pointwise constraints on the control and a finite number of equality and inequality constraints on the state. The goal is to derive first- and second-order optimality conditions satisfied by locally optimal solutions of the problem

  5. Bio boiler - Control conditions. Part 1: Model development and analysis of operating conditions; Biokedel - Reguleringsmaessige forhold. Del 1: Modeludvikling og analyse af dynamiske driftsforhold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecher Poulsen, K.; Christensen, Torkild; Mortensen, Jan; Runge Kristoffersen, J.; Kristmundsson, E. [Tech-wise A/S (Denmark); Moekbak, T.; Mortensen, Hans Peter [Elsam A/S (Denmark)

    2002-12-15

    This report focuses on the model-building part of the PSO project, 'Control Conditions Bio-boiler'. In the project, which treats dynamic simulation of biomass fired power plants via the MMS software, a certain number of straw/wood chip modules have been built, together with a combustion module which, when connected to the existing MMS modules, can be used for dynamic simulation. Furthermore, a certain number of continuous and discrete components have been built which, together with the remaining MMS modules will create a complete model of the active part of the control structure under the most common operation conditions. By means of the developed straw, combustion and control modules, a model of Enstedvaerket's bio-boiler is built (without wood chip super-heater), including practically all auxiliary control mechanisms. In the report the primary problems caused by the development of the model are discussed, typically numerical problems. First of all it is discussed how a steady state condition can be reached from a nonphysical condition at the start-up of the simulation. After reaching a steady state condition at full load, the boiler load is reduced by adjusting the desired live steam flow setpoint value and the load gradient (as it would be done from the control room). While reducing to part load, one straw line is closed down, as it would be done in 'real life'. From part load, the boiler load is once again in the same way increased to full. (BA) The simulation results are then compared to measurements made on the same boiler during load reduction and load increase.

  6. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  7. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. ... the ingestion of mycotoxins that are usually associated with fungal species), ...

  8. Fungal rhino sinusitisin in tehran, iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeri, M.; Hashemi, S.J.; Ardehali, M.; Rezaei, S.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zareei, M.; Hosseinjani, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are

  9. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  10. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  11. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  12. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...... analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience...... with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12...

  13. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  14. Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis with mycotic aneurysm: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Mariana; Almeida, Jorge; Ferraz, Rita; Santos, Lurdes; Pinho, Paulo; Casanova, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis is an extremely severe form of infective endocarditis, with poor prognosis and high mortality despite treatment. Candida albicans is the most common etiological agent for this rare but increasingly frequent condition. We present a case of fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis due to C. albicans following aortic and pulmonary valve replacement in a 38-year-old woman with a history of surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot, prior infective endocarditis and acute renal failure with need for catheter-based hemodialysis. Antifungal therapy with liposomal amphotericin B was initiated prior to cardiac surgery, in which the bioprostheses were replaced by homografts, providing greater resistance to recurrent infection. During hospitalization, a mycotic aneurysm was diagnosed following an episode of acute arterial ischemia, requiring two vascular surgical interventions. Despite the complications, the patient's outcome was good and she was discharged on suppressive antifungal therapy with oral fluconazole for at least a year. The reported case illustrates multiple risk factors for fungal endocarditis, as well as complications and predictors of poor prognosis, demonstrating its complexity. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Most recent developments for monitoring and controlling the annulus conditions of Marlim-Sul flexible risers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Alexandre S.; Motta, Antonio; Romero, Antonio; Nunes, Joao P.; Zaganelli Junior, Jose L.; Brack, Marcelo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the recent developments for monitoring and controlling the annulus conditions of flexible risers. PETROBRAS has been monitoring the pressure of permeated gas in the annulus region of some risers in order to infer the eventual occurrence of non-conformities as damage on the riser external sheath, for example. Such occurrence would affect the permeated gas flow pattern, the gas pressurization period and the relief valve opening frequencies. Furthermore, the mentioned occurrence would increase the susceptibility of the steel armors to experience the potential failure mechanism of corrosion. In PETROBRAS, the current monitoring method is characterized by visual and periodic manometer readings from a manometer set installed near each riser end-fitting. The data is recorded in a daily report and analyzed by personnel onshore, who are in charge of comparing data and requesting relief valve's actuation, whenever necessary. The paper illustrates Marlim-Sul Asset experience on monitoring and data processing to control the annulus conditions of flexible risers during operation. It presents the in-house developed methodology to data management and processing. This methodology is based on a daily analysis of the permeated gas data worksheet. Some examples are given to illustrate it. The paper also summarizes current developments, in progress, in order to improve riser integrity management. The first development is being done to implement, in the future, automatic data acquisition and control systems. The purpose of automating this process is to improve methods and techniques for data acquisition, transmission and processing. The second development focuses on applications in which riser top end-fittings are submerged. In this particular scenario, a special system - with a quick connection sub sea device - is under development to allow the connection, by divers, after the riser pull-in, of the riser annulus to the platform gas

  16. Effcacy of different biological control agents against major postharvest pathogens of grapes under room temperature storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu SENTHIL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Grapes were treated post harvest with a variety of biological agents to determine their effcacy in reducing yield loss. The agents Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Trichoderma and yeast isolates were individually screened against a number of postharvest pathogens including Aspergillus carbonarius, Penicillum expansum, and Fusarium moniliforme. B. subtilis strains EPC-8 and EPCO-16 showed high mycelial growth suppression of A. carbonarius and P. expansum  in vitro. The fungal antagonist Trichoderma viride strain (Tv Tvm was the most effective, inhibiting mycelial growth by 88.8 per cent. The biological control agents were tested in pre, post and combined inoculation studies against postharvest pathogens of grapes.  In the pre inoculation, B. subtilis (EPC-8 reduced the disease incidence of A. carbonarius causing rot, T. harzianum (Th Co was effective against P. expansum, and T. viride (Tv Tvm was effective against F. moniliforme. The same trend of effectiveness was also found in the post-inoculation and combined inoculation tests.

  17. On the conditions of exponential stability in active disturbance rejection control based on singular perturbation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, S.; Gao, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Stability of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is analysed in the presence of unknown, nonlinear, and time-varying dynamics. In the framework of singular perturbations, the closed-loop error dynamics are semi-decoupled into a relatively slow subsystem (the feedback loop) and a relatively fast subsystem (the extended state observer), respectively. It is shown, analytically and geometrically, that there exists a unique exponential stable solution if the size of the initial observer error is sufficiently small, i.e. in the same order of the inverse of the observer bandwidth. The process of developing the uniformly asymptotic solution of the system reveals the condition on the stability of the ADRC and the relationship between the rate of change in the total disturbance and the size of the estimation error. The differentiability of the total disturbance is the only assumption made.

  18. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controlled [correction of controled] environment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A A; Ushakova, S A; Gribovskaya, I A; Tirranen, L S; Manukovsky, N S; Zolotukhin, I G; Karnachuk, R A; Gros, J B; Lasseur, Ch

    2003-01-01

    To increase the degree of closure of biological life support systems of a new generation, we used vermicomposting to involve inedible phytomass in the intra-system mass exchange. The resulting product was a soil-like substrate, which was quite suitable for growing plants (Manukovsky et al. 1996, 1997). However, the soil like substrate can be regarded as a candidate for inclusion in a system only after a comprehensive examination of its physical, chemical, and other characteristics. An important criterion is the ability of the soil-like substrate to supply the necessary mineral elements to the photosynthesizing component under the chosen cultivation conditions. Thus, the purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of enhancing the production activity of wheat and radish crops by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation, without decreasing the harvest index. The increase of light intensity from 920 to 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the intensity of apparent photosynthesis of the wheat crops and slightly increased the apparent photosynthesis of the radish crops The maximum total and grain productivity (kg/m2) of the wheat crops was attained at the irradiance of 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. Light intensity of 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect on the productivity of the radish crops (kg/m2) as compared to 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. The qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and substrate was determined by the condition of plants, developmental phase and light intensity. By the end of wheat growth under 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 the numbers of bacteria of the coliform family and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and substrate were an order of magnitude larger than under other illumination conditions. The obtained data suggest that the cultivation of plants in a life support system on soil-like substrate from composts has a number of

  19. The Effects of Fluency Enhancing Conditions on Sensorimotor Control of Speech in Typically Fluent Speakers: An EEG Mu Rhythm Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffani Kittilstved

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether changes in sensorimotor control resulting from speaking conditions that induce fluency in people who stutter (PWS can be measured using electroencephalographic (EEG mu rhythms in neurotypical speakers.Methods: Non-stuttering (NS adults spoke in one control condition (solo speaking and four experimental conditions (choral speech, delayed auditory feedback (DAF, prolonged speech and pseudostuttering. Independent component analysis (ICA was used to identify sensorimotor μ components from EEG recordings. Time-frequency analyses measured μ-alpha (8–13 Hz and μ-beta (15–25 Hz event-related synchronization (ERS and desynchronization (ERD during each speech condition.Results: 19/24 participants contributed μ components. Relative to the control condition, the choral and DAF conditions elicited increases in μ-alpha ERD in the right hemisphere. In the pseudostuttering condition, increases in μ-beta ERD were observed in the left hemisphere. No differences were present between the prolonged speech and control conditions.Conclusions: Differences observed in the experimental conditions are thought to reflect sensorimotor control changes. Increases in right hemisphere μ-alpha ERD likely reflect increased reliance on auditory information, including auditory feedback, during the choral and DAF conditions. In the left hemisphere, increases in μ-beta ERD during pseudostuttering may have resulted from the different movement characteristics of this task compared with the solo speaking task. Relationships to findings in stuttering are discussed.Significance: Changes in sensorimotor control related feedforward and feedback control in fluency-enhancing speech manipulations can be measured using time-frequency decompositions of EEG μ rhythms in neurotypical speakers. This quiet, non-invasive, and temporally sensitive technique may be applied to learn more about normal sensorimotor control and fluency enhancement in PWS.

  20. Novel Digital Features Discriminate Between Drought Resistant and Drought Sensitive Rice Under Controlled and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Duan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic quantification of drought response is a key issue both for variety selection and for functional genetic study of rice drought resistance. Traditional assessment of drought resistance traits, such as stay-green and leaf-rolling, has utilized manual measurements, that are often subjective, error-prone, poorly quantified and time consuming. To relieve this phenotyping bottleneck, we demonstrate a feasible, robust and non-destructive method that dynamically quantifies response to drought, under both controlled and field conditions. Firstly, RGB images of individual rice plants at different growth points were analyzed to derive 4 features that were influenced by imposition of drought. These include a feature related to the ability to stay green, which we termed greenness plant area ratio (GPAR and 3 shape descriptors [total plant area/bounding rectangle area ratio (TBR, perimeter area ratio (PAR and total plant area/convex hull area ratio (TCR]. Experiments showed that these 4 features were capable of discriminating reliably between drought resistant and drought sensitive accessions, and dynamically quantifying the drought response under controlled conditions across time (at either daily or half hourly time intervals. We compared the 3 shape descriptors and concluded that PAR was more robust and sensitive to leaf-rolling than the other shape descriptors. In addition, PAR and GPAR proved to be effective in quantification of drought response in the field. Moreover, the values obtained in field experiments using the collection of rice varieties were correlated with those derived from pot-based experiments. The general applicability of the algorithms is demonstrated by their ability to probe archival Miscanthus data previously collected on an independent platform. In conclusion, this image-based technology is robust providing a platform-independent tool for quantifying drought response that should be of general utility for breeding and functional

  1. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.

  2. Particle control in DIII-D with helium glow discharge conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.L.; Taylor, T.S.; Taylor, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Helium glow discharge conditioning of DIII-D is routinely used before every tokamak discharge to desorb hydrogen from the graphite tiles, which are the plasma facing surfaces for the floor, inner wall and top of the vessel. In addition to reducing hydrogen fuelling of the plasma by the graphite surfaces, helium glow discharges are also effective in removing low-Z impurities, primarily in the form of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and this has permitted higher current divertor operation and more rapid recovery from tokamak disruptions. Since the implementation of repetitive helium glow wall conditioning, the parameter space in which tokamak discharges in DIII-D can be obtained has been expanded to include the first observations of limiter H-mode confinement, the Ohmic H-mode with periods of up to 150 ms that are free of edge localized modes, more reliable low q operation with volume averaged beta of up to 9.3%, improved control over locked modes and plasma discharges at lower electron density. (author). 37 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  3. Temperature effect on rose downy mildew development under environmental controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Filgueira D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rose downy mildew disease, caused by Peronospora sparsa Berkeley, is one of the most important that affect rose crops in Colombia. To manage this disease, flower growers must deal with high-costs due to the excessive application of fungicides, but without good results. Studies on P. sparsa behavior have shown its narrow relationship with environmental conditions. In this study, the temperature effect was evaluated during the infection and sporulation of P. sparsa in Charlotte leaflets, a susceptible commercial variety, through an environmental controlled conditions system. Infection and sporulation were observed at different temperatures in a range of from 4 to 40°C. Infection with the absence of or very low sporulation was observed at 4°C. The most favorable pathogen responses were between 15 and 18°C in terms of inoculum concentration and sporulation percentage. There was no infection or leaflet change above 35°C. According to the results, sporulation can occur from 4 to 33°C, confirming the fact that P. sparsa is able to reproduce throughout a wide temperature range.

  4. Exploring the natural fungal biodiversity of tropical and temperate forests toward improvement of biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrin, Jean-Guy; Navarro, David; Couturier, Marie; Olivé, Caroline; Grisel, Sacha; Haon, Mireille; Taussac, Sabine; Lechat, Christian; Courtecuisse, Régis; Favel, Anne; Coutinho, Pedro M; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence

    2012-09-01

    In this study, natural fungal diversity in wood-decaying species was explored for biomass deconstruction. In 2007 and 2008, fungal isolates were collected in temperate forests mainly from metropolitan France and in tropical forests mainly from French Guiana. We recovered and identified 74 monomorph cultures using morphological and molecular identification tools. Following production of fungal secretomes under inductive conditions, we evaluated the capacity of these fungal strains to potentiate a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase cocktail for the release of soluble sugars from biomass. The secretome of 19 isolates led to an improvement in biomass conversion of at least 23%. Of the isolates, the Trametes gibbosa BRFM 952 (Banque de Ressources Fongiques de Marseille) secretome performed best, with 60% improved conversion, a feature that was not universal to the Trametes and related genera. Enzymatic characterization of the T. gibbosa BRFM 952 secretome revealed an unexpected high activity on crystalline cellulose, higher than that of the T. reesei cellulase cocktail. This report highlights the interest in a systematic high-throughput assessment of collected fungal biodiversity to improve the enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass. It enabled the unbiased identification of new fungal strains issued from biodiversity with high biotechnological potential.

  5. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  6. Onychomycosis: A Rare Presentation of Fungal Urinary Tract Infection in an Extremely Preterm Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Kalane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis refers to nail infections, caused by fungi including yeasts and non-dermatophyte moulds. One or several toenails or fingernails (seldom all may be involved in this condition. Many cases of fingernail onychomycosis are due to yeasts. Fungal infection has emerged as an important cause of neonatal infection, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in very low birth weight (< 1500 g and extremely low birth weight (< 1000 g infants. Herein, we report a case of a 24-day-old male infant, who presented with onychomycosis on the left ring fingernail, associated with fungal urinary tract infection (UTI. The evaluation of nails helped us detect fungal UTI. To date, there have been no reports suggesting onychomycosis as a presentation of fungal UTI. We could not find the association between onychomycosis and neonatal fungal UTI. Hence, retrospectively, it can be said that onychomycosis was a presentation of fungal UTI. Further studies are required to evaluate the etiology and treatment of neonatal onychomycosis. Moreover, dermatologists should pay particular attention to this rare event.

  7. Health Threats from Contamination of Spices Commercialized in Romania: Risks of Fungal and Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Adrian; Mare, Anca; Toma, Felicia; Curticăpean, Augustin; Santacroce, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The study of fungal contamination in food and mycotoxicoses is a priority today, both internationally and nationally. The purpose of this study is to have a general view over the quality of the most common spices that are sold in Romanian markets, by assessing the degree of fungal, bacterial and mycotoxin contamination in pepper and chili powders. We tested four types of spices: white pepper, black pepper, sweet and hot chili powders from 12 different distributing companies, summing a total of 35 sample types. The fungal and bacterial load was assessed by Standard Plate Count, while the mycotoxin content by High-performance liquid chromatography. Environmental conditions (humidity, pH) and the selling price for each product were also followed. Fungi were observed in 72.7% of black pepper samples, 33.3% in white pepper, 30% in sweet chili and 25% in hot chili products. The most common isolated fungus was Aspergillus spp., while Rhizopus, Mucor, Fusarium, Penicillium, Absidia species were found, in smaller percentage. Four producers (44.4%) presented fungal contamination of over 10^3 CFU/g and two producers (22.2%) presented no fungal contamination in their products. Bacterial contamination was found in 85.7% of the tested products, consisting mostly in Bacillus spp. Aflatoxin B1 was present in all the tested products, mostly in black pepper (mean value 126.3 ng/g); Ochratoxin A was present in sweet chili (mean value 328 ng/g) and Zearalenone in hot chili (mean value 604 ng/g) and sweet chili (mean value 382 ng/g). All spices presented either fungal contamination, mycotoxin contamination, or both. The high humidity and the high pH of spices represent favorable conditions for fungal growth. The selling price was partly related to the physic-chemical conditions and microbiological quality of the spices. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Fungal Communities in Rhizosphere Soil under Conservation Tillage Shift in Response to Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziting Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation tillage is an extensively used agricultural practice in northern China that alters soil texture and nutrient conditions, causing changes in the soil microbial community. However, how conservation tillage affects rhizosphere and bulk soil fungal communities during plant growth remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of long-term (6 years conservation (chisel plow, zero and conventional (plow tillage during wheat growth on the rhizosphere fungal community, using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene and quantitative PCR. During tillering, fungal alpha diversity in both rhizosphere and bulk soil were significantly higher under zero tillage compared to other methods. Although tillage had no significant effect during the flowering stage, fungal alpha diversity at this stage was significantly different between rhizosphere and bulk soils, with bulk soil presenting the highest diversity. This was also reflected in the phylogenetic structure of the communities, as rhizosphere soil communities underwent a greater shift from tillering to flowering compared to bulk soil communities. In general, less variation in community structure was observed under zero tillage compared to plow and chisel plow treatments. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal orders Capnodiales, Pleosporales, and Xylariales contributed the highest to the dissimilarities observed. Structural equation models revealed that the soil fungal communities under the three tillage regimes were likely influenced by the changes in soil properties associated with plant growth. This study suggested that: (1 differences in nutrient resources between rhizosphere and bulk soils can select for different types of fungi thereby increasing community variation during plant growth; (2 tillage can alter fungal communities' variability, with zero tillage promoting more stable communities. This work suggests that long-term changes in

  9. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Impact of controlled release urea on maize yield and nitrogen use efficiency under different water conditions.

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    Guanghao Li

    Full Text Available Controlled release urea (CRU has been widely adopted to increase nitrogen (N use efficiency and maize production, but the impacts can range widely depending on water availability in the soil. In an experiment using Zhengdan 958 (a popular summer maize hybrid, three levels of water treatments (adequate water condition [W3], which maintained soil moisture at about 75% ± 5% of the soil's field capacity; mild water stress [W2], which maintained moisture content at 55% ± 5% of field capacity; and severe water stress [W1], which had a moisture content of 35% ± 5% of field capacity and four levels of controlled release urea fertilizer (N0, N1, N2 and N3 were 0, 105, 210 and 315 kg N ha-1, respectively were compared in a rainout shelter system with soil. The results revealed that CRU had significant effects on maize yields and N use efficiencies under different water conditions. The mean yields increased with increasing water levels and showed significant differences. Under W1, the accumulation of dry matter and N were limited, and N internal efficiency (NIE and the apparent recovery efficiency of applied N (REN decreased with N increases; yields of N1, N2, and N3 were similar. Under W2, the dry matter and N accumulation, as well as the yield, showed an increasing trend with an increase in N application, and the NIE and REN of N3 showed no difference from N2. Under W3, yields of N2 and N3 were similar and they were significantly higher than that of N1, but the agronomic N use efficiency (ANUE, REN, and the physiological NUE (PNUE of N2 were 54.2, 34.9, and 14.4% higher, respectively, than those of N3. N application beyond the optimal N rate did not consistently increase maize yield, and caused a decrease in N use efficiencies. Highest overall dry matter, N accumulation, and yields were observed with N3 under W2, and those showed no differences with N2 and N3 under W3. Under this experimental condition, the CRU of 210 kg ha-1 was optimized when soil

  11. Control of Greenhouse Environmental Conditions with IOT Based Monitoring and Analysis System

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    Ali Çaylı

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks applications and inter-machine communication (M2M, called the Internet of Things, help decision-makers to control complex systems thanks to the low data-rate and cost-effective data collection and analysis. These technologies offer new possibilities to monitor environmental management and agricultural policies, and to improve agricultural production, especially in low-income rural areas. In this study, IoT is proposed with a low cost, flexible and scalable data collection and analysis system. For this purpose, open source hardware microprocessor cards and sensors are stored in the greenhouse computer database using the IEEE 802.15.4 Zigbee wireless communication protocol. The data can be analyzed by greenhouse computer analysis software, which is developed with the PHP programming language. It is possible to monitor the real time data from the greenhouse computer. Also alert rules definitions can be made and the system was tested in greenhouse conditions. It has been observed that it performs operations steadily such as data transfer, sensor measurements and data processing. The proposed system may be useful for monitoring indoor climate and controlling ventilation, irrigation and heating systems, especially for small enterprises due to the modular structure.

  12. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions.

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    Kimberly AK Carhuatanta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual’s genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior.

  13. Some problems of control of dynamical conditions of technological vibrating machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. K.; Lapshin, V. L.; Eliseev, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The possibility of control of dynamical condition of the shakers that are designed for vibration treatment of parts interacting with granular media is discussed. The aim of this article is to develop the methodological basis of technology of creation of mathematical models of shake tables and the development of principles of formation of vibrational fields, estimation of their parameters and control of the structure vibration fields. Approaches to build mathematical models that take into account unilateral constraints, the relationships between elements, with the vibrating surface are developed. Methods intended to construct mathematical model of linear mechanical oscillation systems are used. Small oscillations about the position of static equilibrium are performed. The original method of correction of vibration fields by introduction of the oscillating system additional ties to the structure are proposed. Additional ties are implemented in the form of a mass-inertial device for changing the inertial parameters of the working body of the vibration table by moving the mass-inertial elements. The concept of monitoring the dynamic state of the vibration table based on the original measuring devices is proposed. Estimation for possible changes in dynamic properties is produced. The article is of interest for specialists in the field of creation of vibration technology machines and equipment.

  14. Energetic conditions promoting top-down control of prey by predators.

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    Kristin N Marshall

    Full Text Available Humans remove large amounts of biomass from natural ecosystems, and large bodied high trophic level animals are especially sensitive and vulnerable to exploitation. The effects of removing top-predators on food webs are often difficult to predict because of limited information on species interaction strengths. Here we used a three species predator-prey model to explore relationships between energetic properties of trophodynamic linkages and interaction strengths to provide heuristic rules that indicate observable energetic conditions that are most likely to lead to stable and strong top-down control of prey by predator species. We found that strong top-down interaction strengths resulted from low levels of energy flow from prey to predators. Strong interactions are more stable when they are a consequence of low per capita predation and when predators are subsidized by recruitment. Diet composition also affects stability, but the relationship depends on the form of the functional response. Our results imply that for generalist satiating predators, strong top-down control on prey is most likely for prey items that occupy a small portion of the diet and when density dependent recruitment is moderately high.

  15. Sleep Deprivation Diminishes Attentional Control Effectiveness and Impairs Flexible Adaptation to Changing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Satterfield, Brieann C; Grant, Devon A; Honn, Kimberly A; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2017-11-22

    Insufficient sleep is a global public health problem resulting in catastrophic accidents, increased mortality, and hundreds of billions of dollars in lost productivity. Yet the effect of sleep deprivation (SD) on decision making and performance is often underestimated by fatigued individuals and is only beginning to be understood by scientists. The deleterious impact of SD is frequently attributed to lapses in vigilant attention, but this account fails to explain many SD-related problems, such as loss of situational awareness and perseveration. Using a laboratory study protocol, we show that SD individuals can maintain information in the focus of attention and anticipate likely correct responses, but their use of such a top-down attentional strategy is less effective at preventing errors caused by competing responses. Moreover, when the task environment requires flexibility, performance under SD suffers dramatically. The impairment in flexible shifting of attentional control we observed is distinct from lapses in vigilant attention, as corroborated by the specificity of the influence of a genetic biomarker, the dopaminergic polymorphism DRD2 C957T. Reduced effectiveness of top-down attentional control under SD, especially when conditions require flexibility, helps to explain maladaptive performance that is not readily explained by lapses in vigilant attention.

  16. Energy performance and optimal control of air-conditioned buildings with envelopes enhanced by phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Na; Wang Shengwei; Ma Zhenjun; Sun Yongjun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Impact of PCM on the energy consumption and peak load demand as well as electricity cost of air-conditioned buildings. → Impact of load shifting control on energy consumption, peak load and electricity cost of air-conditioned PCM buildings. → Impact of demand limiting control on energy consumption, peak load and electricity cost of air-conditioned PCM buildings. → Energy/cost effects of different control strategies and use of PCM in energy-plus-demand-based pricing policy. → Energy/cost effects of different control strategies and use of PCM in time-based pricing policy. - Abstract: Studies are conducted to investigate the impacts of shape-stabilized phase change material (SSPCM) and different control strategies on the energy consumption and peak load demand as well as electricity cost of building air-conditioning systems at typical summer conditions in two climates (subtropical and dry continental climates). An office building using a typical variable air volume (VAV) air-conditioning system was selected and simulated as the reference building in this study. Its envelopes were enhanced by integrating the SSPCM layers into its walls while the air-conditioning system and other configurations of the building remained unchanged. The building system was tested under two typical weather conditions and two typical electricity pricing policies (i.e. time-based pricing and energy-plus-demand-based pricing). Test results show that the use of SSPCM in the building could reduce the building electricity cost significantly (over 11% in electricity cost reduction and over 20% in peak load reduction), under two pricing policies by using load shifting control and demand limiting control respectively. This paper presents the test results and the evaluation on the energy performance and the optimal control strategies of air-conditioned commercial buildings with envelopes enhanced by SSPCM.

  17. ALTERATIONS IN BARLEY PROTEOME UPON FUNGAL INFECTION AND TRICYCLAZOLE TREATMENT

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    Manoj Kumar a,b

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The barley proteome was investigated upon fungal infection and subsequent treatment by tricyclazole (TCZ, which is known to have applications in spot blotch disease management in barley.Significantly enhanced chlorophyll content was recorded in TCZ treated plants. The disease severity was significantly reduced after TCZ application in pathogen inoculated plants by reducing the appressoria formation at infection site in barley leaves. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE revealed the expression profile of proteins from (I control plants (healthy barley leaves; application with sterile water,(II plants after foliar application of TCZ (100 µg/ml, (III plants inoculated with B. sorokiniana and (IV plants treated with TCZ (72 h after B. sorokiniana inoculation. A set of 33 proteins expressed differentially after TCZ treatment. Out of this 19 had known functions, while others were unknown or hypothetical proteins. These differentially expressed proteins were related to redox-activity and gene expression, electron transfer,cell division and chromosome partitioning, cell envelop biogenesis, energy metabolism and conversion, respiration and pathogenesis related functions in the barley plants. The study provides a platform and documents the proteins that might be involved in disease management in barley following TCZ application. It is expected that the study will provide boost in understanding proteome regulation upon fungal infection and subsequent anti-fungal treatment and will attract researchers for further validation leading to better pest management.

  18. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response

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    Takahiro eSoshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-error slowing is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms. Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs. Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS. Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but post-error slowing did not take place immediately. Delayed post-error slowing was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to post-error slowing. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with post-error slowing and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater post-error slowing and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and post-error slowing did not occur quickly. Furthermore, post-error slowing and its neural correlate (N2 were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke

  19. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soshi, Takahiro; Ando, Kumiko; Noda, Takamasa; Nakazawa, Kanako; Tsumura, Hideki; Okada, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Post-error slowing (PES) is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms). Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs). Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS). Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but PES did not take place immediately. Delayed PES was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to PES. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with PES and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater PES and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and PES did not occur quickly. Furthermore, PES and its neural correlate (N2) were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke impulsive behaviors.