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Sample records for conditioning nerve crush

  1. Exogenous nerve growth factor protects the hypoglossal nerve against crush injury

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    Li-yuan Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sensory nerve damage can activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, but whether the same type of nerve injury after exercise activates the p38MAPK pathway remains unclear. Several studies have demonstrated that nerve growth factor may play a role in the repair process after peripheral nerve injury, but there has been little research focusing on the hypoglossal nerve injury and repair. In this study, we designed and established rat models of hypoglossal nerve crush injury and gave intraperitoneal injections of exogenous nerve growth factor to rats for 14 days. p38MAPK activity in the damaged neurons was increased following hypoglossal nerve crush injury; exogenous nerve growth factor inhibited this increase in acitivity and increased the survival rate of motor neurons within the hypoglossal nucleus. Under transmission electron microscopy, we found that the injection of nerve growth factor contributed to the restoration of the morphology of hypoglossal nerve after crush injury. Our experimental findings indicate that exogenous nerve growth factor can protect damaged neurons and promote hypoglossal nerve regeneration following hypoglossal nerve crush injury.

  2. Single session of brief electrical stimulation immediately following crush injury enhances functional recovery of rat facial nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Eileen M. Foecking, PhD; Keith N. Fargo, PhD; Lisa M. Coughlin, MD; James T. Kim, MD; Sam J. Marzo, MD; Kathryn J. Jones, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries lead to a variety of pathological conditions, including paresis or paralysis when the injury involves motor axons. We have been studying ways to enhance the regeneration of peripheral nerves using daily electrical stimulation (ES) following a facial nerve crush injury. In our previous studies, ES was not initiated until 24 h after injury. The current experiment tested whether ES administered immediately following the crush injury would further decrease the time for c...

  3. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

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    Viviane Z. Sacharuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 7, sham (n = 25, and crush (n = 25. All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ΔT in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05. The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery

  4. Hyperthermic injury versus crush injury in the rat sciatic nerve: a comparative functional, histopathological and morphometrical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J. F.; Troost, D.; Wondergem, J.; van der Kracht, A. H.; Haveman, J.

    1992-01-01

    Functional and morphological changes of the rat sciatic nerve after local hyperthermia (30 min, 45 degrees C) and crush treatment were compared. After hyperthermic injury nerve function loss developed in a time period of about 7 h. Nerve crush led to an immediate loss of nerve function. Nerve

  5. Dominant inheritance of retinal ganglion cell resistance to optic nerve crush in mice

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    Schlamp Cassandra L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by complex genetics that affect an individual's susceptibility, disease severity, and rate of progression. One such disease is glaucoma, a chronic neurodegenerative condition of the eye that targets and stimulates apoptosis of CNS neurons called retinal ganglion cells. Since ganglion cell death is intrinsic, it is reasonable that the genes that control this process may contribute to the complex genetics that affect ganglion cell susceptibility to disease. To determine if genetic background influences susceptibility to optic nerve damage, leading to ganglion cell death, we performed optic nerve crush on 15 different inbred lines of mice and measured ganglion cell loss. Resistant and susceptible strains were used in a reciprocal breeding strategy to examine the inheritance pattern of the resistance phenotype. Because earlier studies had implicated Bax as a susceptibility allele for ganglion cell death in the chronic neurodegenerative disease glaucoma, we conducted allelic segregation analysis and mRNA quantification to assess this gene as a candidate for the cell death phenotype. Results Inbred lines showed varying levels of susceptibility to optic nerve crush. DBA/2J mice were most resistant and BALB/cByJ mice were most susceptible. F1 mice from these lines inherited the DBA/2J phenotype, while N2 backcross mice exhibited the BALB/cByJ phenotype. F2 mice exhibited an intermediate phenotype. A Wright Formula calculation suggested as few as 2 dominant loci were linked to the resistance phenotype, which was corroborated by a Punnett Square analysis of the distribution of the mean phenotype in each cross. The levels of latent Bax mRNA were the same in both lines, and Bax alleles did not segregate with phenotype in N2 and F2 mice. Conclusion Inbred mice show different levels of resistance to optic nerve crush. The resistance phenotype is heritable in a dominant fashion involving

  6. PEMF fails to enhance nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush lesion.

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    Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Goes, Bruno Teixeira; Menezes, Diego; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara; Zugaib, João; Stipursky, Joice; Gomes, Joyce R S; Oliveira, Júlia Teixeira; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2009-12-01

    The use of electromagnetic fields has been reported to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. This study aimed to identify the effects of a prolonged protocol of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on peripheral nerve regeneration. Thirty-four male Swiss mice (Mus musculus) were divided into PEMF (n = 17) and control (n = 17) groups. All animals underwent a unilateral sciatic-crush lesion, and the PEMF group was exposed to a 72-Hz, 2-G electromagnetic field for 30 min, five days a week, for three weeks. Functional analysis was carried out weekly. After three weeks, the animals were euthanized, and histological, morphometric, oxidative stress, and TGF-beta1 analyses were performed. Functional analysis showed no differences between the groups. Histological appearance was similar between PEMF and control nerves. Morphometric assessment showed that the PEMF nerves trended toward decreased regeneration. The levels of free radicals were more pronounced in PEMF nerves, but were not associated with an increase in the content of the TGF-beta1/Smad signaling pathway. Prolonged PEMF regimen leads to delayed histological peripheral nerve regeneration and increased oxidative stress but no loss of function recovery.

  7. The Effect of Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 on Recovery of Facial Nerve Crush Injury.

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    Bayrak, Asuman Feda; Olgun, Yuksel; Ozbakan, Ayla; Aktas, Safiye; Kulan, Can Ahmet; Kamaci, Gonca; Demir, Emine; Yilmaz, Osman; Olgun, Levent

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of locally applied insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the recovery of facial nerve functions after crush injury in a rabbit model. The rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 consisted of the rabbits with crush injury alone; group 2, the animals applied saline solution onto the crushed facial nerve and group 3, IGF-1 implemented to the nerve in the same manner. Facial nerve injury was first electrophysiologically studied on 10th and 42nd days of the procedure. The damage to the facial nerves was then investigated histopathologically, after sacrification of the animals. In the electrophysiological study, compound muscle action potential amplitudes of the crushed nerves in the second group were decreased. In pathological specimens of the first and second groups, the orders of axons were distorted; demyelination and proliferation of Schwann cells were observed. However, in IGF-1 treated group axonal order and myelin were preserved, and Schwann cell proliferation was close to normal (Precovery of the facial nerve crush injury in rabbits. IGF-1 was considered worthy of being tried in clinical studies in facial nerve injury cases.

  8. Degeneration and regeneration of motor and sensory nerves: a stereological study of crush lesions in rat facial and mental nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barghash, Ziad; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Al-Bishri, Awad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration of a sensory nerve and a motor nerve at the histological level after a crush injury. Twenty-five female Wistar rats had their mental nerve and the buccal branch of their facial nerve compressed unilaterally against a glass rod...... for 30 s. Specimens of the compressed nerves and the corresponding control nerves were dissected at 3, 7, and 19 days after surgery. Nerve cross-sections were stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue and analysed using two-dimensional stereology. We found differences between the two nerves both...... in the normal anatomy and in the regenerative pattern. The mental nerve had a larger cross-sectional area including all tissue components. The mental nerve had a larger volume fraction of myelinated axons and a correspondingly smaller volume fraction of endoneurium. No differences were observed...

  9. The Histological Effects of Ozone Therapy on Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats.

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    Somay, Hakan; Emon, Selin Tural; Uslu, Serap; Orakdogen, Metin; Meric, Zeynep Cingu; Ince, Umit; Hakan, Tayfun

    2017-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common, important problem that lacks a definitive, effective treatment. It can cause neurologic deficits ranging from paresthesia to paralysis. This study evaluated the effect of ozone therapy on sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into control sham surgery, sciatic nerve injury, and sciatic nerve injury with ozone groups (each n = 8). The sciatic nerve injury was inflicted via De Koning's crush-force method. The sciatic nerve injury group received medical air and the sciatic nerve injury ozone group received 0.7 mg/kg ozone. Sciatic nerve samples were obtained 4 weeks after injury. Vascular congestion, vacuolization, edema formation, S100 expression, and the thicknesses of the perineurium and endoneurium and diameter of the injured sciatic nerves were evaluated. The diameter of the sciatic nerve and thicknesses of the perineurium and epineurium were significantly greater in the sciatic nerve injury group (P ozone group (P ozone group (P Ozone therapy improved sciatic nerve injury recovery without causing an increase in fibrotic tissue. Ozone reduced fibrosis, vascular congestion, vacuolization, and edema in rodents. Ozone treatment might be used to assist in sciatic nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The percentage of macrophage numbers in rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury

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    Satrio Wicaksono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Excessive accumulation of macrophages in sciatic nerve fascicles inhibits regeneration of peripheral nerves. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of the macrophages inside and outside of the fascicles at the proximal, at the site of injury and at the distal segment of rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Thirty male 3 months age Wistar rats of 200-230 g were divided into sham-operation group and crush injury group. Termination was performed on day 3, 7, and 14 after crush injury. Immunohistochemical examination was done using anti CD68 antibody. Counting of immunopositive and immunonegative cells was done on three representative fields for extrafascicular and intrafascicular area of proximal, injury and distal segments. The data was presented as percentage of immunopositive cells. The percentage of the macrophages was significantly increased in crush injury group compared to the sham-operated group in all segments of the peripheral nerves. While the percentage of macrophages outside fascicle in all segments of sciatic nerve and within the fascicle in the proximal segment reached its peak on day 3, the percentage of macrophages within the fascicles at the site of injury and distal segments reached the peak later at day 7. In conclusions, accumulation of macrophages outside the nerve fascicles occurs at the beginning of the injury, and then followed later by the accumulation of macrophages within nerve fascicles

  11. Prevention of Axonal Degeneration by Perineurium Injection of Mitochondria in a Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Model.

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    Kuo, Chi-Chung; Su, Hong-Lin; Chang, Tzu-Lin; Chiang, Chien-Yi; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Sheehan, Jason; Pan, Hung-Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Axon degeneration leads to cytoskeletal disassembly, metabolism imbalance, and mitochondrial dysfunction during neurodegeneration or nerve injury. In this study, we assess the possibility of mitigating axon degeneration by local injection of mitochondria in a crushed sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve explants cocultured with mitochondria were assessed for the optimal dosage in local injection and nerve regeneration potential. The left sciatic nerve was crushed in Sprague-Dawley rats and then local injection of mitochondria into the distal end of the injured nerve was conducted for further assessment. Mitochondrial coculture attenuated cytoskeletal loss and oxidative stress in isolated nerve explants. In Vivo analyses also showed that mitochondrial transplantation improved animal neurobehaviors, electrophysiology of nerve conduction, and muscle activities. Mitochondria injection significantly attenuated the oxidative stress and increased the expression of neurotrophic factors both in injured nerves and denervated muscles, as well as restored muscular integrity, and increased the pool of muscular progenitor cells and total muscle weight. Mitochondria injection can protect injured nerves from axonal degeneration both in Vitro and in Vivo. This improvement was accompanied with the expression of neurotrophic factors as well as the reduction of oxidative stress, which may account for the functional recovery of both injured nerves and denervated muscles.

  12. Functional recovery from sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat correlates with individual differences in responses to chronic intermittent stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Helders, P.J.M.; Wiegant, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the influence of chronic stress on functional recovery from a sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat. Male Wistar rats underwent standard unilateral sciatic nerve crush. Subsequently, chronic stress was induced during the recovery phase using a daily 30 min

  13. Recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after mental nerve crush injury.

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    Lee, Sung Ho; Jin, Wei-Peng; Seo, Na Ri; Pang, Kang-Mi; Kim, Bongju; Kim, Soung-Min; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) can directly affect axon regeneration after peripheral nerve damage. In this study, we performed sensory tests and histological analyses to study the effect of recombinant human FGF-2 (rhFGF2) treatment on damaged mental nerves. The mental nerves of 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were crush-injured for 1 minute and then treated with 10 or 50 μg/mL rhFGF2 or PBS in crush injury area with a mini Osmotic pump. Sensory test using von Frey filaments at 1 week revealed the presence of sensory degeneration based on decreased gap score and increased difference score. However, at 2 weeks, the gap score and difference score were significantly rebounded in the mental nerve crush group treated with 10 μg/mL rhFGF2. Interestingly, treatment with 10 μg/mL rhFGF had a more obviously positive effect on the gap score than treatment with 50 μg/mL rhFGF2. In addition, retrograde neuronal tracing with Dil revealed a significant increase in nerve regeneration in the trigeminal ganglion at 2 and 4 weeks in the rhFGF2 groups (10 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL) than in the PBS group. The 10 μg/mL rhFGF2 group also showed an obviously robust regeneration in axon density in the mental nerve at 4 weeks. Our results demonstrate that 10 μg/mL rhFGF induces mental nerve regeneration and sensory recovery after mental nerve crush injury.

  14. Biodegradable and biocompatible cationic polymer delivering microRNA-221/222 promotes nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush.

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    Song, Jialin; Li, Xueyang; Li, Yingli; Che, Junyi; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Xiaotian; Chen, Yinghui; Zheng, Xianyou; Yuan, Weien

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) has great potential to treat a wide range of illnesses by regulating the expression of eukaryotic genes. Biomaterials with high transfection efficiency and low toxicity are needed to deliver miRNA to target cells. In this study, a biodegradable and biocompatible cationic polymer (PDAPEI) was synthetized from low molecular weight polyethyleneimine (PEI1.8kDa) cross-linked with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde. PDAPEI showed a lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency than PEI25kDa in transfecting miR-221/222 into rat Schwann cells (SCs). The upregulation of miR-221/222 in SCs promoted the expression of nerve growth factor and myelin basic protein in vitro. The mouse sciatic nerve crush injury model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of PDAPEI/miR-221/222 complexes for nerve regeneration in vivo. The results of electrophysiological tests, functional assessments, and histological and immunohistochemistry analyses demonstrated that PDAPEI/miR-221/222 complexes significantly promoted nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush, specifically enhancing remyelination. All these results show that the use of PDAPEI to deliver miR-221/222 may provide a safe therapeutic means of treating nerve crush injury and may help to overcome the barrier of biomaterial toxicity and low efficiency often encountered during medical intervention.

  15. Acute sciatic nerve crush injuries in rabbits: MRI and pathological comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinchun; Chen Jianyu; Wang Xinlu; Shen Jun; Liu Qingyu; Liang Biling

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Simulating injury mechanism in human peripheral nerve, acute sciatic nerve crush injuries model was produced in rabbits to investigate the relationship between the manifestations of MRI and pathology in order to provide the information for clinical therapy and operative plan. Methods: Thirty-two adult rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n=16) and B (n=16). In group A, the left sciatic nerves were crushed with a stress of 3.61 kg; In group B, with a stress of 10.50 kg. 4 time intervals in each group were observed in 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks, respectively, and each time interval contained 4 rabbits. Left sciatic nerves were served as injured sides, right sciatic nerves were regarded as control sides. MRI was performed at different time interval after crush injury. Then the nerves were examined pathologically. Results: There were no obvious changes on T 1 WI in injured sides, but the injured distal segment of sciatic nerve thickened and twisted, showing high signal intensity on 3D T 2 WI, T 2 WI/SPIR, B-FFE, and T 2 WI/STIR. MRI could show abnormality of 30 sciatic nerves, the correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% and false negative rate was 6.25%. The distal sciatic nerve/muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR) of the injured sides was significantly higher than that of the control sides (P 0.05). SIR in injured side increased at 1 week, reached the peak at 2 weeks, at this time, nerve axons disappeared and lots of myelin degenerated, abduction function disappeared. SIR decreased during 4-8 weeks, the myelin sheath breakdown and Schwann cell proliferated obviously, and abduction functions were observed. The control sciatic nerves showed no abnormality in MRI and pathology. Conclusion: MRI can make the diagnosis of crush injury of sciatic nerve, and dynamic SIR measurement of nerve injury correlates well with the pathological and functional recovery process. MRI is an effective method to monitor degeneration, regeneration, and prognosis after

  16. Brief electrical stimulation and synkinesis after facial nerve crush injury: a randomized prospective animal study.

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    Mendez, Adrian; Hopkins, Alex; Biron, Vincent L; Seikaly, Hadi; Zhu, Lin Fu; Côté, David W J

    2018-03-07

    Recent studies have examined the effects of brief electrical stimulation (BES) on nerve regeneration, with some suggesting that BES accelerates facial nerve recovery. However, the facial nerve outcome measurement in these studies has not been precise or accurate. Furthermore, no previous studies have been able to demonstrate the effect of BES on synkinesis. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of brief electrical stimulation (BES) on facial nerve function and synkinesis in a rat model. Four groups of six rats underwent a facial nerve injury procedure. Group 1 and 2 underwent a crush injury at the main trunk of the nerve, with group 2 additionally receiving BES for 1 h. Group 3 and 4 underwent a transection injury at the main trunk, with group 4 additionally receiving BES for 1 h. A laser curtain model was used to measure amplitude of whisking at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Fluorogold and fluororuby neurotracers were additionally injected into each facial nerve to measure synkinesis. Buccal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve were each injected with different neurotracers at 3 months following injury. Based on facial nucleus motoneuron labelling of untreated rats, comparison was made to post-treatment animals to deduce whether synkinesis had taken place. All animals underwent trans-cardiac perfusion with subsequent neural tissue sectioning. At week two, the amplitude observed for group 1 and 2 was 14.4 and 24.0 degrees, respectively (p = 0.0004). Group 4 also demonstrated improved whisking compared to group 3. Fluorescent neuroimaging labelling appear to confirm improved pathway specific regeneration with BES following facial nerve injury. This is the first study to use an implantable stimulator for serial BES following a crush injury in a validated animal model. Results suggest performing BES after facial nerve injury is associated with accelerated facial nerve function and improved facial nerve specific pathway regeneration in a rat

  17. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

    KAUST Repository

    Morrison, Brett M.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  18. Time-Dependent Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Changes in the Rat Retina During Optic Nerve Crush-Induced Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells.

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    Mesentier-Louro, Louise A; De Nicolò, Sara; Rosso, Pamela; De Vitis, Luigi A; Castoldi, Valerio; Leocani, Letizia; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F; Tirassa, Paola; Rama, Paolo; Lambiase, Alessandro

    2017-01-05

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is suggested to be neuroprotective after nerve injury; however, retinal ganglion cells (RGC) degenerate following optic-nerve crush (ONC), even in the presence of increased levels of endogenous NGF. To further investigate this apparently paradoxical condition, a time-course study was performed to evaluate the effects of unilateral ONC on NGF expression and signaling in the adult retina. Visually evoked potential and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess axonal damage and RGC loss. The levels of NGF, proNGF, p75 NTR , TrkA and GFAP and the activation of several intracellular pathways were analyzed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after crush (dac) by ELISA/Western Blot and PathScan intracellular signaling array. The progressive RGC loss and nerve impairment featured an early and sustained activation of apoptotic pathways; and GFAP and p75 NTR enhancement. In contrast, ONC-induced reduction of TrkA, and increased proNGF were observed only at 7 and 14 dac. We propose that proNGF and p75 NTR contribute to exacerbate retinal degeneration by further stimulating apoptosis during the second week after injury, and thus hamper the neuroprotective effect of the endogenous NGF. These findings might aid in identifying effective treatment windows for NGF-based strategies to counteract retinal and/or optic-nerve degeneration.

  19. Time-Dependent Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Changes in the Rat Retina During Optic Nerve Crush-Induced Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells

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    Louise A. Mesentier-Louro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF is suggested to be neuroprotective after nerve injury; however, retinal ganglion cells (RGC degenerate following optic-nerve crush (ONC, even in the presence of increased levels of endogenous NGF. To further investigate this apparently paradoxical condition, a time-course study was performed to evaluate the effects of unilateral ONC on NGF expression and signaling in the adult retina. Visually evoked potential and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess axonal damage and RGC loss. The levels of NGF, proNGF, p75NTR, TrkA and GFAP and the activation of several intracellular pathways were analyzed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after crush (dac by ELISA/Western Blot and PathScan intracellular signaling array. The progressive RGC loss and nerve impairment featured an early and sustained activation of apoptotic pathways; and GFAP and p75NTR enhancement. In contrast, ONC-induced reduction of TrkA, and increased proNGF were observed only at 7 and 14 dac. We propose that proNGF and p75NTR contribute to exacerbate retinal degeneration by further stimulating apoptosis during the second week after injury, and thus hamper the neuroprotective effect of the endogenous NGF. These findings might aid in identifying effective treatment windows for NGF-based strategies to counteract retinal and/or optic-nerve degeneration.

  20. Neurturin enhances the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat

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    Klein Robert D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival and preservation of function for adult parasympathetic ganglion neurons following injury remain incompletely understood. However, advances in the neurobiology of growth factors, neural development, and prevention of cell death have led to a surge of clinical interest for protective and regenerative neuromodulatory strategies, as surgical therapies for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers often result in neuronal axotomy and debilitating loss of sexual function or continence. In vitro studies have identified neurturin, a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, as a neuromodulator for pelvic cholinergic neurons. We present the first in vivo report of the effects of neurturin upon the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat. Methods In these experiments, groups (n = 8 each consisted of uninjured controls and animals treated with injection of albumin (blinded crush control group, extended release neurotrophin-4 or neurturin to the site of cavernous nerve crush injury (100 μg per animal. After 5 weeks, recovery of erectile function (treatment effect was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation and peak aortic pressures were measured. Investigators were unblinded to specific treatments after statistical analyses were completed. Results Erectile dysfunction was not observed in the sham group (mean maximal intracavernous pressure [ICP] increase of 117.5 ± 7.3 cmH2O, whereas nerve injury and albumin treatment (control produced a significant reduction in ICP elevation of 40.0 ± 6.3 cmH2O. Neurturin facilitated the preservation of erectile function, with an ICP increase of 55% at 62.0 ± 9.2 cmH2O (p Conclusion Treatment with neurturin at the site of cavernous nerve crush injury facilitates recovery of erectile function. Results support further investigation of neurturin as a neuroprotective and/or neuroregenerative

  1. Nimodipine-mediated re-myelination after facial nerve crush injury in rats.

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    Tang, Yin-da; Zheng, Xue-sheng; Ying, Ting-ting; Yuan, Yan; Li, Shi-ting

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of nimodipine-mediated neural repair after facial nerve crush injury in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: healthy controls, surgery alone, and surgery plus nimodipine. A facial nerve crush injury model was constructed. Immediately after surgery, the rats in the surgery plus nimodipine group were administered nimodipine, 6 mg/kg/day, for a variable numbers of days. The animals underwent electromyography (EMG) before surgery and at 3, 10, or 20 days after surgery. After sacrifice, nerve samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and luxol fast blue. The EMG at 20 days revealed an apparent recovery of eletroconductivity, with the surgery plus nimodipine group having a higher amplitude and shorter latency time than the surgery only group. H&E staining showed that at 20 days, the rats treated with nimodipine had an obvious recovery of myelination and reduction in the number of infiltrating cells, suggesting less inflammation, compared with the rats in the surgery only group. Luxol fast blue staining was relatively even in the surgery plus nimodipine group, indicating a protective effect against injury-induced demyelination. Staining for S100 calcium-binding protein B (S-100β) was not evident in the surgery alone group, but was evident in the surgery plus nimodipine group, indicating that nimodipine reversed the damage of the crush injury. After a facial nerve crush injury, treatment with nimodipine for 20 days reduced the nerve injury by mediating remyelination by Schwann cells. The protective effect of nimodipine may include a reduction of inflammation and an increase in calcium-binding S-100β protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Possible role of antioxidative capacity of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment in morphological and neurobehavioral recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

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    Renno, Waleed M; Benov, Ludmil; Khan, Khalid M

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined the capacity of the major polyphenolic green tea extract (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to suppress oxidative stress and stimulate the recovery and prompt the regeneration of sciatic nerve after crush injury. METHODS Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: 1) Naïve, 2) Sham (sham injury, surgical control group), 3) Crush (sciatic nerve crush injury treated with saline), and 4) Crush+EGCG (sciatic nerve crush injury treated with intraperitoneally administered EGCG, 50 mg/kg). All animals were tested for motor and sensory neurobehavioral parameters throughout the study. Sciatic nerve and spinal cord tissues were harvested and processed for morphometric and stereological analysis. For the biochemical assays, the time points were Day 1, Day 7, Day 14, and Day 28 after nerve injury. RESULTS After sciatic nerve crush injury, the EGCG-treated animals (Crush+EGCG group) showed significantly better recovery of foot position and toe spread and 50% greater improvement in motor recovery than the saline-treated animals (Crush group). The Crush+EGCG group displayed an early hopping response at the beginning of the 3rd week postinjury. Animals in the Crush+EGCG group also showed a significant reduction in mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia latencies and significant improvement in recovery from nociception deficits in both heat withdrawal and tail flick withdrawal latencies compared with the Crush group. In both the Crush+EGCG and Crush groups, quantitative evaluation revealed significant morphological evidence of neuroregeneration according to the following parameters: mean cross-sectional area of axons, myelin thickness in the sciatic nerve (from Week 4 to Week 8), increase of myelin basic protein concentration and gene expression in both the injured sciatic nerve and spinal cord, and fiber diameter to axon diameter ratio and myelin thickness to axon diameter ratio at Week 2 after sciatic nerve injury. However

  3. Protective effects of cerebrolysin in a rat model of optic nerve crush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Lun Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of cerebrolysin (Cbl on optic nerves (ON and retinal ganglion cells (RGC in a rat model of ON crush. Rats received intravitreal injection of Cbl (n = 20, intra-ON injection of Cbl (n = 20, intraperitoneal injection (IPI of Cbl (n = 20, or phosphate buffered saline (PBS; n = 20 every day for 2 weeks after ON crush injury. At 3 weeks post-trauma, RGC density was counted by retrograde labeling with FluoroGold and visual function was assessed by flash visual-evoked potentials. Activities of microglia after insults were quantified by immunohistochemical analysis of the presence of ED1 in the optic nerve. At 3 weeks postcrush, the densities of RGCs in the Cbl-IVI group (1125 ± 166/mm2 and in the Cbl-IPI treatment group (1328 ± 119/mm2 were significantly higher than those in the PBS group (641 ± 214/mm2. The flash visual-evoked potential measurements showed that latency of the P1 wave was significantly shorter in the Cbl-IVI- and Cbl-IPI-treated groups (105 ± 4 ms and 118 ± 26 ms, respectively than in the PBS-treated group (170 ± 20 ms. However, only Cbl IPI treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of ED1-positive cells at the lesion sites of the ON (5 ± 2 cells/vs. 30 ± 4 cells/high-power field in control eyes. Treatment with intra-ON injection of Cbl was harmful to the optic nerve in the crush model. Systemic administration of Cbl had neuroprotective effects on RGC survival and visual function in the optic nerve crush model.

  4. Electrospun nanofiber sheets incorporating methylcobalamin promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Matsuoka, Hozo; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Okada, Kiyoshi; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2017-04-15

    Peripheral nerve injury is one of common traumas. Although injured peripheral nerves have the capacity to regenerate, axon regeneration proceeds slowly and functional outcomes are often poor. Pharmacological enhancement of regeneration can play an important role in increasing functional recovery. In this study, we developed a novel electrospun nanofiber sheet incorporating methylcobalamin (MeCbl), one of the active forms of vitamin B12 homologues, to deliver it enough locally to the peripheral nerve injury site. We evaluated whether local administration of MeCbl at the nerve injury site was effective in promoting nerve regeneration. Electrospun nanofiber sheets gradually released MeCbl for at least 8weeks when tested in vitro. There was no adverse effect of nanofiber sheets on function in vivo of the peripheral nervous system. Local implantation of nanofiber sheets incorporating MeCbl contributed to the recovery of the motor and sensory function, the recovery of nerve conduction velocity, and the promotion of myelination after sciatic nerve injury, without affecting plasma concentration of MeCbl. Methylcobalamin (MeCbl) is a vitamin B12 analog and we previously reported its effectiveness in axonal outgrowth of neurons and differentiation of Schwann cells both in vitro and in vivo. Here we estimated the effect of local administered MeCbl with an electrospun nanofiber sheet on peripheral nerve injury. Local administration of MeCbl promoted functional recovery in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. These sheets are useful for nerve injury in continuity differently from artificial nerve conduits, which are useful only for nerve defects. We believe that the findings of this study are relevant to the scope of your journal and will be of interest to its readership. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of non-autologous adipose-derived stem cells transplantation and nerve growth factor on the repair of crushed sciatic nerve in rats

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    Azadeh Tajik

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Transplantation of non-autologous of adipose-derived stem cells (ASDc is an appropriate therapeutic approach in repairing of neurological injuries and NGF has a positive effect in crushed sciatic nerve regeneration.

  6. Exogenous nerve growth factor protects the hypoglossal nerve against crush injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Li-yuan; Wang, Zhong-chao; Wang, Pin; Lan, Yu-yan; Tu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that sensory nerve damage can activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, but whether the same type of nerve injury after exercise activates the p38MAPK pathway remains unclear. Several studies have demonstrated that nerve growth factor may play a role in the repair process after peripheral nerve injury, but there has been little research focusing on the hypoglossal nerve injury and repair. In this study, we designed and established rat models of hypog...

  7. Adult ciliary neurotrophic factor receptors help maintain facial motor neuron choline acetyltransferase expression in vivo following nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy; Rydyznski, Carolyn E; Rasch, Matthew S; Trinh, Dennis S; MacLennan, A John

    2017-04-01

    Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration promotes the survival of motor neurons in a wide range of models. It also increases the expression of the critical neurotransmitter enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by in vitro motor neurons, likely independent of its effects on their survival. We have used the adult mouse facial nerve crush model and adult-onset conditional disruption of the CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα) gene to directly examine the in vivo roles played by endogenous CNTF receptors in adult motor neuron survival and ChAT maintenance, independent of developmental functions. We have previously shown that adult activation of the CreER gene construct in floxed CNTFRα mice depletes this essential receptor subunit in a large subset of motor neurons (and all skeletal muscle, as shown in this study) but has no effect on the survival of intact or lesioned motor neurons, indicating that these adult CNTF receptors play no essential survival role in this model, in contrast to their essential role during embryonic development. Here we show that this same CNTFRα depletion does not affect ChAT labeling in nonlesioned motor neurons, but it significantly increases the loss of ChAT following nerve crush. The data suggest that, although neither motor neuron nor muscle CNTF receptors play a significant, nonredundant role in the maintenance of ChAT in intact adult motor neurons, the receptors become essential for ChAT maintenance when the motor neurons are challenged by nerve crush. Therefore, the data suggest that the receptors act as a critical component of an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1206-1215, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Biodegradable and biocompatible cationic polymer delivering microRNA-221/222 promotes nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

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    Song J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jialin Song,1,2 Xueyang Li,3 Yingli Li,4,5 Junyi Che,6 Xiaoming Li,6 Xiaotian Zhao,6 Yinghui Chen,7,* Xianyou Zheng,1,* Weien Yuan6,* 1Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, 2Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health, Shanghai, Sixth People’s Hospital East Campus, Shanghai, 3Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Xuzhou Medical College Affiliated Hospital, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, 4Department of Plastic Surgery, The General Hospital of Jinan Military Command, Jinan, Shandong, 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Chang Hai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 6School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 7Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, JinShan District, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: MicroRNA (miRNA has great potential to treat a wide range of illnesses by regulating the expression of eukaryotic genes. Biomaterials with high transfection efficiency and low toxicity are needed to deliver miRNA to target cells. In this study, a biodegradable and biocompatible cationic polymer (PDAPEI was synthetized from low molecular weight polyethyleneimine (PEI1.8kDa cross-linked with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde. PDAPEI showed a lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency than PEI25kDa in transfecting miR-221/222 into rat Schwann cells (SCs. The upregulation of miR-221/222 in SCs promoted the expression of nerve growth factor and myelin basic protein in vitro. The mouse sciatic nerve crush injury model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of PDAPEI/miR-221/222 complexes for nerve regeneration in vivo. The results of electrophysiological tests, functional assessments, and histological and immunohistochemistry analyses demonstrated that PDAPEI/miR-221/222 complexes significantly promoted nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush, specifically enhancing

  9. Reinnervation of the tibialis anterior following sciatic nerve crush injury: a confocal microscopic study in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Christina K; Tong, Alice; Kawamura, David; Hayashi, Ayato; Hunter, Daniel A; Parsadanian, Alexander; Mackinnon, Susan E; Myckatyn, Terence M

    2007-09-01

    Transgenic mice whose axons and Schwann cells express fluorescent chromophores enable new imaging techniques and augment concepts in developmental neurobiology. The utility of these tools in the study of traumatic nerve injury depends on employing nerve models that are amenable to microsurgical manipulation and gauging functional recovery. Motor recovery from sciatic nerve crush injury is studied here by evaluating motor endplates of the tibialis anterior muscle, which is innervated by the deep peroneal branch of the sciatic nerve. Following sciatic nerve crush, the deep surface of the tibialis anterior muscle is examined using whole mount confocal microscopy, and reinnervation is characterized by imaging fluorescent axons or Schwann cells (SCs). One week following sciatic crush injury, 100% of motor endplates are denervated with partial reinnervation at 2 weeks, hyperinnervation at 3 and 4 weeks, and restoration of a 1:1 axon to motor endplate relationship 6 weeks after injury. Walking track analysis reveals progressive recovery of sciatic nerve function by 6 weeks. SCs reveal reduced S100 expression within 2 weeks of denervation, correlating with regression to a more immature phenotype. Reinnervation of SCs restores S100 expression and a fully differentiated phenotype. Following denervation, there is altered morphology of circumscribed terminal Schwann cells demonstrating extensive process formation between adjacent motor endplates. The thin, uniformly innervated tibialis anterior muscle is well suited for studying motor reinnervation following sciatic nerve injury. Confocal microscopy may be performed coincident with other techniques of assessing nerve regeneration and functional recovery.

  10. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

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    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  11. Therapeutic Effect of Exendin-4, a Long-Acting Analogue of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, on Nerve Regeneration after the Crush Nerve Injury

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    Koji Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is glucose-dependent insulinotropic hormone secreted from enteroendocrine L cells. Its long-acting analogue, exendin-4, is equipotent to GLP-1 and is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, exendin-4 has effects on the central and peripheral nervous system. In this study, we administered repeated intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of exendin-4 to examine whether exendin-4 is able to facilitate the recovery after the crush nerve injury. Exendin-4 injection was started immediately after crush injury and was repeated every day for subsequent 14 days. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve crush exhibited marked functional loss, electrophysiological dysfunction, and atrophy of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA. All these changes, except for the atrophy of TA, were improved significantly by the administration of exendin-4. Functional, electrophysiological, and morphological parameters indicated significant enhancement of nerve regeneration 4 weeks after nerve crush. These results suggest that exendin-4 is feasible for clinical application to treat peripheral nerve injury.

  12. Effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor on retrograde cell reaction after facial nerve crush in young adults rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Ulenkate, H.J.L.M.; Jennekens, F.G.I.

    1996-01-01

    Locally applied ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has a powerful effect on retrograde axonal reaction following facial nerve crush in neonatal rats. We examined whether it also exerts a strong effect on retrograde axonal reaction in young adult rats when administered subcutaneously. The dose was 1

  13. [The neuroprotective effect of erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz on retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Jiang, You-qin

    2003-08-01

    To investigate whether a Chinese herbal medicine, erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz (EBHM), can protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) damaged by calibrated optic nerve crush injury. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. Calibrated optic nerve crush injury model was induced in the right eyes by a special designed optic nerve clip. The left eyes served as a control. All 42 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A consisted of the rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury and group B consisted of rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury treated with EBHM. In group B, EBHM solution was given once after the crush injury. According to the time interval between the optic nerve crush and the sacrifice, both groups A and B were further divided into three subgroups (day 4, day 14 and day 21). Therefore, there were 7 rats in each subgroup. Three days before sacrifice, 3% fast blue was injected into superior colliculi bilaterally. The eyes were enucleated after the rat was sacrificed, and flat mounts of the retina from both eyes were prepared on a slide and observed under a fluorescence microscope. Four photos with 400 x magnification were taken from each of the four quadrants of the retina 1 mm away from the optic disc. The labeled RGC were counted by a computerized image analyzer. The labeled RGC rate was used for statistical analysis (the labeled RGC rate = number of RGC in injured eye/control eye x 100%). In group A, the labeled RGC rate was (77.79 +/- 7.11)%, (63.76 +/- 3.79)% and (54.66 +/- 4.75)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, the labeled RGC rate was (80.13 +/- 12.03)%, (78.17 +/- 9.19)% and (83.59 +/- 12.61)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, which was treated with EBHM after injury, the labeled RGC rate was significantly higher than that of group A on day 14 and day 21. In the experimental optic nerve crush model in rats, EBHM therapy can increase the survival rate of

  14. Protection by an oral disubstituted hydroxylamine derivative against loss of retinal ganglion cell differentiation following optic nerve crush.

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    James D Lindsey

    Full Text Available Thy-1 is a cell surface protein that is expressed during the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Optic nerve injury induces progressive loss in the number of RGCs expressing Thy-1. The rate of this loss is fastest during the first week after optic nerve injury and slower in subsequent weeks. This study was undertaken to determine whether oral treatment with a water-soluble N-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine derivative (OT-440 protects against loss of Thy-1 promoter activation following optic nerve crush and whether this effect targets the earlier quick phase or the later slow phase. The retina of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice was imaged using a blue-light confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (bCSLO. These mice then received oral OT-440 prepared in cream cheese or dissolved in water, or plain vehicle, for two weeks and were imaged again prior to unilateral optic nerve crush. Treatments and weekly imaging continued for four more weeks. Fluorescent neurons were counted in the same defined retinal areas imaged at each time point in a masked fashion. When the counts at each time point were directly compared, the numbers of fluorescent cells at each time point were greater in the animals that received OT-440 in cream cheese by 8%, 27%, 52% and 60% than in corresponding control animals at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after optic nerve crush. Similar results were obtained when the vehicle was water. Rate analysis indicated the protective effect of OT-440 was greatest during the first two weeks and was maintained in the second two weeks after crush for both the cream cheese vehicle study and water vehicle study. Because most of the fluorescent cells detected by bCSLO are RGCs, these findings suggest that oral OT-440 can either protect against or delay early degenerative responses occurring in RGCs following optic nerve injury.

  15. Protective Effect of ALA in Crushed Optic Nerve Cat Retinal Ganglion Cells Using a New Marker RBPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Wang, Wenyao; Liu, Jessica; Huang, Xin; Liu, Ruixing; Xia, Huika; Brecha, Nicholas C; Pu, Mingliang; Gao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this study we first sought to determine whether RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) can serve as a specific marker for cat retina ganglion cells (RGCs) using retrograde labeling and immunohistochemistry staining. RBPM was then used as an RGC marker to study RGC survival after optic nerve crush (ONC) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) treatment in cats. ALA treatment yielded a peak density of RBPMS-alpha cells within the peak isodensity zone (>60/mm2) which did not differ from ONC retinas. The area within the zone was significantly enlarged (control: 2.3%, ONC: 0.06%, ONC+ALA: 0.1%). As for the 10-21/mm2 zone, ALA treatment resulted in a significant increase in area (control: 34.5%, ONC: 12.1%, ONC+ALA: 35.9%). ALA can alleviate crush-induced RGC injury.

  16. Retinal Ganglion Cell Protection Via Topical and Systemic Alpha-Tocopherol Administration in Optic Nerve Crush Model of Rat

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    Zeynep Aktaş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: The aim of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of topical α-tocopherol in optic nerve crush model of rat and to compare its efficacy with that of systemic α -tocopherol. Ma te ri al and Met hod: 50 eyes of 25 Wistar albino rats were included. The eyes were divided into six groups. Optic nerve crush was performed in Groups 1, 3, 5. Additionally, systemic and topical α-tocopherol therapies were given to Groups 1 and 3, respectively. No treatment was applied in Group 5. Groups 2, 4, and 6 were the fellow eyes of the animals comprising Groups 1, 3, and 5. Eyes were enucleated at day 45 of the study. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were counted with light microscopy. Re sults: Mean RGC numbers were 14.5±3.7 (10.3-20 and 27.5±2.6 (24-30 in Groups 5 and 6, respectively (p: 0.001 They were measured to be 26.6±7.8 (19-45 and 24.6±3.9 (20-32 in Groups 1 and 2 and 21.1±7.1 (11-34 and 27±7.5 (18-42 in Groups 3 and 4 (p:0.659, p:0.094, respectively. There was no difference in Groups 2 and 4 compared with Group 6 (p:0.210, p:0.299, respectively. Dis cus si on: Topical α-tocopherol has a significant neuroprotective effects in optic nerve crush model of rat and may be used in the future for the treatment of optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 161-6

  17. Methane rescues retinal ganglion cells and limits retinal mitochondrial dysfunction following optic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruobing; Sun, Qinglei; Xia, Fangzhou; Chen, Zeli; Wu, Jiangchun; Zhang, Yuelu; Xu, Jiajun; Liu, Lin

    2017-06-01

    Secondary degeneration is a common event in traumatic central nervous system disorders, which involves neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Exogenous methane exerts the therapeutic effects in many organ injury. Our study aims to investigate the potential neuroprotection of methane in a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ONC and administrated intraperitoneally with methane-saturated or normal saline (10 ml/kg) once per day for one week after ONC. The retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) density was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Fluoro-Gold retrogradely labeling. Visual function was evaluated by flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP). The retinal apoptosis was measured by terminal-deoxy-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and the expression of apoptosis-related factors, such as phosphorylated Bcl-2-associated death promoter (pBAD), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (pGSK-3β), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 extra large (Bcl-xL). Retinal mitochondrial function was assessed by the mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, citrate synthase activity and ATP content. Methane treatment significantly improved the RGC loss and visual dysfunction following ONC. As expected, methane also remarkably inhibited the retinal neural apoptosis, such as the fewer TUNEL-positive cells in ganglion cell layer, accompanied by the up-regulations of anti-apoptotic factors (pGSK-3β, pBAD, Bcl-xL) and the down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor (Bax). Furthermore, methane treatment suppressed up-regulations of critical mitochondrial components (PGC-1α, NRF1 and TFAM) mRNA and mtDNA copy number, as well as improved the reduction of functional mitochondria markers, including citrate synthase

  18. Blockade of ATP P2X7 receptor enhances ischiatic nerve regeneration in mice following a crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatianne; Oliveira, Júlia Teixeira; Almeida, Fernanda Martins; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Melo, Paulo A; Marques, Suelen Adriani; de Andrade, Geanne Matos; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2017-08-15

    Preventing damage caused by nerve degeneration is a great challenge. There is a growing body of evidence implicating extracellular nucleotides and their P2 receptors in many pathophysiological mechanisms. In this work we aimed to investigate the effects of the administration of Brilliant Blue G (BBG) and Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2', 4'- disulphonic acid (PPADS), P2X7 and P2 non-selective receptor antagonists, respectively, on sciatic nerve regeneration. Four groups of mice that underwent nerve crush lesion were used: two control groups treated with vehicle (saline), a group treated with BBG and a group treated with PPADS during 28days. Gastrocnemius muscle weight was evaluated. For functional evaluation we used the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) and the horizontal ladder walking test. Nerves, dorsal root ganglia and spinal cords were processed for light and electron microscopy. Antinoceptive effects of BBG and PPADS were evaluated through von Frey E, and the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were analyzed by ELISA. BBG promoted an increase in the number of myelinated fibers and on axon, fiber and myelin areas. BBG and PPADS led to an increase of TNF-α and IL-1β in the nerve on day 1 and PPADS caused a decrease of IL-1β on day 7. Mechanical allodynia was reversed on day 7 in the groups treated with BBG and PPADS. We concluded that BBG promoted a better morphological regeneration after ischiatic crush injury, but this was not followed by anticipation of functional improvement. In addition, both PPADS and BBG presented anti-inflammatory as well as antinociceptive effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rgcs1, a dominant QTL that affects retinal ganglion cell death after optic nerve crush in mice

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    Schlamp Cassandra L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrinsic apoptosis of neuronal somas is one aspect of neurodegenerative diseases that can be influenced by genetic background. Genes that affect this process may act as susceptibility alleles that contribute to the complex genetic nature of these diseases. Retinal ganglion cell death is a defining feature of the chronic and genetically complex neurodegenerative disease glaucoma. Previous studies using an optic nerve crush procedure in inbred mice, showed that ganglion cell resistance to crush was affected by the Mendelian-dominant inheritance of 1–2 predicted loci. To assess this further, we bred and phenotyped a large population of F2 mice derived from a resistant inbred strain (DBA/2J and a susceptible strain (BALB/cByJ. Results Genome wide mapping of the F2 mice using microsatellite markers, detected a single highly significant quantitative trait locus in a 25 cM (58 Mb interval on chromosome 5 (Chr5.loc34-59 cM. No interacting loci were detected at the resolution of this screen. We have designated this locus as Retinal ganglion cell susceptible 1, Rgcs1. In silico analysis of this region revealed the presence of 578 genes or expressed sequence tags, 4 of which are highly expressed in the ganglion cell layer of the mammalian retina, and 2 of which are suspected susceptibility alleles in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, 25 genes contain 36 known single nucleotide polymorphisms that create nonsynonymous amino acid changes between the two parental strains. Collectively, this analysis has identified 7 potential candidate genes that may affect ganglion cell death. Conclusion The process of ganglion cell death is likely one of the many facets of glaucoma susceptibility. A novel dominant locus has been identified that affects sensitivity of ganglion cells to optic nerve crush. The allele responsible for this sensitivity may also be a susceptibility allele for glaucoma.

  20. C6 deficiency does not alter intrinsic regeneration speed after peripheral nerve crush injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sta, M.; Cappaert, N. L. M.; Ramekers, D.; Ramaglia, V.; Wadman, W. J.; Baas, F.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury leads to Wallerian degeneration, followed by regeneration, in which functionality and morphology of the nerve are restored. We previously described that deficiency for complement component C6, which prevents formation of the membrane attack complex, slows down degeneration

  1. The functional and morphological characteristics of sciatic nerve degeneration and regeneration after crush injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sta, M.; Cappaert, N.L.M.; Ramekers, D.; Baas, F.; Wadman, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve damage induces a sequence of degeneration and regeneration events with a specific time course that leads to (partial) functional recovery. Quantitative electrophysiological analysis of degeneration and recovery over time is essential to understand the process. NEW

  2. Neuroprotective effects of tempol acyl esters against retinal ganglion cell death in a rat partial optic nerve crush model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Sebastian; Fiedorowicz, Michal; Grieb, Pawel; Wypych, Zbigniew; Knap, Narcyz; Borowik, Tomasz; Zawada, Katarzyna; Kaminski, Jaroslaw; Wozniak, Michal; Rejdak, Robert; Zrenner, Eberhart; Schuettauf, Frank

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to search for more effective derivatives of the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl). Although tempol is neuroprotective in a rat partial optic nerve crush (PONC) model, relatively high doses are required to exert this effect. Tempol acyl esters with different-length fatty acids (tempol-C4, tempol-C8, tempol-C12 and tempol-C16) were synthesized and the following properties were evaluated: water-octanol partition coefficient, liposome-liposome energy transfer, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Brown Norway rats underwent PONC and received tempol or acyl esters intraperitoneally once daily for 7 consecutive days. We then compared the effects of tempol and its four esters on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage using a retrograde labelling method. The water-octanol partition coefficient increased with increasing length of attached acyl chain. However, the energy of the liposome-liposome transfer seemed to be optimal for tempol-C8 and tempol-C12. The EPR signal was very similar for all tested compounds, suggesting similar efficiency of superoxide scavenging. Partial optic nerve crush in vehicle-treated animals reduced RGC numbers by approx. 59% when compared with sham-operated eyes. Tempol did not affect RGC loss at a dose of 1 mg/kg. In contrast, at molar doses equivalent to 1 mg/kg of tempol, tempol-C8 showed a significant neuroprotective effect, whereas tempol-C4, tempol-C12 and tempol-C16 did not act neuroprotectively. Manipulating the hydrophobicity of tempol seems to be a promising tool for developing more potent neuroprotectants in the PONC degeneration model. However, the resulting compounds need further pharmacological evaluation. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  3. Spontaneous Regeneration of Nerve Fiber and Irreversibility of Corporal Smooth Muscle Fibrosis after Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury: Evidence From Serial Transmission Electron Microscopy and Intracavernous Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-No; Chen, Kuo-Chiang; Liao, Chun-Hou; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2017-10-16

    To determine the pathophysiological progresses following bilateral cavernous nerve crushing (BCNC) injury, as an index for a treatment point and establishment of adequate treatment strategies for neurogenic erectile dysfunction (ED). Thirty-six rats were assigned to 1 of 6 groups, and BCNC or sham surgery was performed. Functional testing and ultrastructural analyses were performed immediately and at 7, 14, 21, and 28 d after the cavernous nerve (CN) injury (n = 6). Intracavernos pressure lowered progressively from 7 d to 14 d post-injury, and histological staining revealed that the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive nerve fibers on the dorsal penile nerve decreased significantly and progressively from 7 d until 21 d post-injury. Furthermore, ultrastructural analyses revealed axon loss and demyelination of the CN at 7 and 14 d post-injury. However, it is followed by partial spontaneous recovery of erectile function and regeneration of the CN at 28 d post-injury, suggesting that these time points may be useful for evaluating the effects of drug treatments. Furthermore, we found that CN injury-induced damage to corporal smooth muscle cells was irreversible; therefore, focusing on protecting the corpus cavernosum from apoptosis may be more important than nerve protection when assessing treatment mechanisms in the CN injury model. Our study makes a significant contribution to the human diagnostic pathology literature because it describes characteristics of relevant tissue in the rat, and provides information regarding time points that may be useful for future studies of pathological mechanisms or treatment evaluations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The functional and morphological characteristics of sciatic nerve degeneration and regeneration after crush injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sta, M.; Cappaert, N. L. M.; Ramekers, D.; Baas, F.; Wadman, W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve damage induces a sequence of degeneration and regeneration events with a specific time course that leads to (partial) functional recovery. Quantitative electrophysiological analysis of degeneration and recovery over time is essential to understand the process. The presented ex vivo

  5. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I and platelet-rich plasma on sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel, Erhan; Ergün, Selma Sönmez; Kotan, Dilcan; Gürsoy, Esra Başar; Parman, Yeşim; Zengin, Asli; Nurten, Asiye

    2011-02-01

    Local administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase the rate of axon regeneration in crush-injured and freeze-injured rat sciatic nerves. Local administration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been also shown to have a measurable effect on facial nerve regeneration after transection in a rat model. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of locally administered IGF-I and PRP on the parameters of the Sciatic Function Index (SFI), sensory function (SF), axon count, and myelin thickness/axon diameter ratio (G-ratio) in a rat model of crush-injured sciatic nerves. The right sciatic nerve of Wistar albino rats (24 animals) was crushed using a Yasargil-Phynox aneurysm clip for 45 minutes. All animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (control group) was treated with saline, Group 2 was treated with IGF-I, and Group 3 was treated with PRP. Injections were performed using the tissue expander's injection port with a connecting tube directed at the crush-injured site. Functional recovery was assessed with improvement in the SFI. Recovery of sensory function was using the pinch test. Histopathological examination was performed 3 months after the injury. The SFI showed an improved functional recovery in the IGF-I-treated animals (Group 2) compared with the saline-treated animals (Group 1) 30 days after the injury. In IGF-I-treated rats, sensory function returned to the baseline level significantly faster than in saline-treated and PRP-treated rats as shown in values between SF-2 and SF-7. The G-ratios were found to be significantly higher in both experimental groups than in the control group. This study suggests that the application of IGF-I to the crush-injured site may expedite the functional recovery of paralyzed muscle by increasing the rate of axon regeneration.

  6. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weijie, E-mail: 459586768@qq.com; Liu, Yuxi, E-mail: 924013616@qq.com; Wang, Youhua, E-mail: wyouhua1516@163.com

    2016-05-13

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  7. The effect of weight-bearing exercise and non-weight-bearing exercise on gait in rats with sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Hwangbo, Gak; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to access the effect of weight bearing exercise (treadmill exercise) and non-weight-bearing exercise (swimming exercise) on gait in the recovery process after a sciatic nerve crush injury. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were randomly divided into a swimming group (n=3) with non-weight-bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush and a treadmill group (n=3) with weight bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush. Dartfish is a program that can analyze and interpret motion through video images. The knee lateral epicondyle, lateral malleolus, and metatarsophalangeal joint of the fifth toe were marked by black dots before recording. [Results] There were significant differences in TOK (knee angle toe off) and ICK (knee angle at initial contact) in the swimming group and in TOK, ICA (ankle angle at initial contact), and ICK in the treadmill group. In comparison between groups, there were significant differences in TOA (ankle angle in toe off) and ICA at the 7th day. [Conclusion] There was no difference between weight bearing and non-weight-bearing exercise in sciatic nerve damage, and both exercises accelerated the recovery process in this study.

  8. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hung-Chuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days; Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.

  9. [Experimental study on Buyang Huanwu decoction ([Chinese characters: see text]) for promoting functional recovery of crushed common peroneal nerve in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Mei, Xiao-yun; Wu, Hao-xin; Xie, Hui; Tang, Xue-mei; Sun, Hua-lin

    2011-03-01

    To study the effects of Buyang Huanwu Decoction ([Chinese characters: see text]) on promoting functional recovery of crushed common peroneal nerve in rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to produce common peroneal nerve injuries model,and the length of injury was 5 mm. All the rats were divided into 3 groups: BYHWD group, mecobalamin group and model group. The drugs were given by gavage daily for 18 days. Footprint test was performed at the 18th day after surgery to evaluate toe spread function (TSF). Electrophysiology was performed at the 18th day after operation to determine the nerve conduct velocity (NCV). The wet weight ratio and section area of tibial muscle were also measured. (TSF:At the 18th day after operation, the TSF in BYHWD group (-0.15 +/- 0.07) increased significantly compared with that of model group (-0.25 +/- 0.07) (P functional recovery of crushed nerve as a result of accelerating recovery of TSF, raising NCV and delaying the decrease of tibial muscle section area and wet weight ratio.

  10. Complement components of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid influence the microenvironment of nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-shuai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve regeneration conditioned fluid is secreted by nerve stumps inside a nerve regeneration chamber. A better understanding of the proteinogram of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid can provide evidence for studying the role of the microenvironment in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we used cylindrical silicone tubes as the nerve regeneration chamber model for the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics technology and western blot analysis confirmed that there were more than 10 complement components (complement factor I, C1q-A, C1q-B, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8ß and complement factor D in the nerve regeneration conditioned fluid and each varied at different time points. These findings suggest that all these complement components have a functional role in nerve regeneration.

  11. Behavior of crushed rock aggregates used in road construction exposed to cold climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Pérez Fortes, Ana Patricia; Anastasio, Sara; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2016-04-01

    Presently, about 90% of the aggregate production in Europe comes from naturally occurring resources: quarries and pits. Due to the increased demand for sand and gravel for construction purposes, not only in building but also in road construction, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards the use of more crushed rock aggregates. This resource has been more and more preferred to sand and gravel thanks to the significant technological development of its process and use phase. The performance of the aggregates is generally evaluated depending on three main factors: the geological origin (mineral composition, texture, structure, degree of weathering), the aggregate processing (crushing, sieving, washing, storing) and the user technology for a specific area of use (e.g. road construction, asphalt binders). Nevertheless climatic conditions should carefully be taken into account in application such as road construction. Large temperature gradients and high levels of humidity are known to significantly affect the performance of the material. Although the problem is, at least in the asphalt field, considered mostly from the binder point of view, this article aims to investigate the effect of aggregate properties on road performance in cold climatic conditions. Two different climatic areas will be taken into account: Norway and Spain. While both these countries are listed among the main European producers of aggregates, they represent significantly different climatic regions. While Norwegian weather is characterized by humid cold winters and relatively mild summers, Spain has temperate climate with cold regions in mountainous and internal areas. Both countries have been significantly affected by climate change with increasing temperature variations and instability. At the same time, similar winter maintenance measures, including the use of a considerable amount of solid and liquid chemicals to avoid ice formation (e.g. NaCl) and/or to provide better friction, are

  12. Co-treatment effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) with human dental pulp stromal cells and FK506 on the regeneration of crush injured rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Tae; Hei, Wei-Hong; Kim, Soochan; Seo, Young-Kwon; Kim, Soung-Min; Jahng, Jeong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether crush injured rat sciatic nerve could be benefit from pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) combined with human dental pulp stromal cells (hDPSCs), with FK506 (Tacrolimus) for immune suppression and neuropromotion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g, 6 week old) were distributed into 6 groups (n = 18 each): control, PEMF, FK506, PEMF + hDPSCs, PEMF + FK506, and PEMF + hDPSCs + FK506 groups. hDPSCs (cell = 1 × 106/10 μl/rat) were injected at the crush site immediate after injury. FK506 was administered 3 weeks in FK506 group (0.5 mg/kg/d) while pre-op 1 d and post-op 7 d in PEMF + FK506 and PEMF + hDPSCs + FK506 group; cell tracking was done with PKH26-labeled hDPSCs (cell = 1 × 106/10 μl/rat). The rats were follow-up for 3 weeks. PEMF + FK506 and PEMF + hDPSCs + FK506 group showed a sharp increase in sciatic function index (SFI), axon counts, densities, and labeled neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) than control at 3 weeks. Other three treatment groups also showed higher axon counts, densities, and labeled neurons than control. Higher axon counts and densities were found in PEMF + FK506 and PEMF + hDPSCs + FK506 groups comparing with PEMF group. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression pattern in nerve segment and DRG was almost same. Higher expression level in all the treatment groups was discovered in the follow-up period, but there was no significant difference. All treatment groups can improve regeneration of neurons following crushed injury, PEMF + FK506 and PEMF + hDPSCs + FK506 groups showed higher regeneration ability than other three groups. FK506 plays an important role during hDPSCs transplantation.

  13. Crush injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, Ragazzoni L, Djatali A, Della Corte F. Introduction to structural collapse (crush injury and crush syndrome). ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  14. Modest enhancement of sensory axon regeneration in the sciatic nerve with conditional co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3 in the dorsal root ganglia of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Zachary R; Steward, Oswald

    2018-05-01

    Axons within the peripheral nervous system are capable of regeneration, but full functional recovery is rare. Recent work has shown that conditional deletion of two key signaling inhibitors of the PI3K and Jak/Stat pathways-phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), respectively-promotes regeneration of normally non-regenerative central nervous system axons. Moreover, in studies of optic nerve regeneration, co-deletion of both PTEN and SOCS3 has an even greater effect. Here, we test the hypotheses (1) that PTEN deletion enhances axon regeneration following sciatic nerve crush and (2) that PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion further promotes regeneration. PTEN fl/fl and PTEN/SOCS3 fl/fl mice received direct injections of AAV-Cre into the fourth and fifth lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) two weeks prior to sciatic nerve crush. Western blot analysis of whole cell lysates from DRG using phospho-specific antibodies revealed that PTEN deletion did not enhance or prolong PI3K signaling following sciatic nerve crush. However, PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion activated PI3K for at least 7 days post-injury in contrast to controls, where activation peaked at 3 days. Quantification of SCG10-expressing regenerating sensory axons in the sciatic nerve after crush injury revealed longer distance regeneration at 3 days post-injury with both PTEN and PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion. Additionally, analysis of noxious thermosensation and mechanosensation with PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion revealed enhanced sensation at 14 and 21 days after crush, respectively, after which all treatment groups reached the same functional plateau. These findings indicate that co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3 results in modest but measureable enhancement of early regeneration of DRG axons following crush injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field pretreated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the regeneration of crush-injured rat mental nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaRi Seo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments. In in vitro experiments, quantitative DNA analysis was performed to determine the proliferation of BMSCs, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect S100 (Schwann cell marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor (neurotrophic factors mRNA expression. In the in vivo experiments, rat models of crush-injured mental nerve established using clamp method were randomly injected with low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs, unpretreated BMSCs or PBS at the injury site (1 × 106 cells. DiI-labeled BMSCs injected at the injury site were counted under the fluorescence microscope to determine cell survival. One or two weeks after cell injection, functional recovery of the injured nerve was assessed using the sensory test with von Frey filaments. Two weeks after cell injection, axonal regeneration was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis and retrograde labeling of trigeminal ganglion neurons. In vitro experiment results revealed that low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs proliferated faster and had greater mRNA expression of growth factors than unpretreated BMSCs. In vivo experiment results revealed that compared with injection of unpretreated BMSCs, injection of low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs led to higher myelinated axon count and axon

  16. Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field pretreated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the regeneration of crush-injured rat mental nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, NaRi; Lee, Sung-Ho; Ju, Kyung Won; Woo, JaeMan; Kim, BongJu; Kim, SoungMin; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments. In in vitro experiments, quantitative DNA analysis was performed to determine the proliferation of BMSCs, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect S100 (Schwann cell marker), glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor (neurotrophic factors) mRNA expression. In the in vivo experiments, rat models of crush-injured mental nerve established using clamp method were randomly injected with low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs, unpretreated BMSCs or PBS at the injury site (1 × 10 6 cells). DiI-labeled BMSCs injected at the injury site were counted under the fluorescence microscope to determine cell survival. One or two weeks after cell injection, functional recovery of the injured nerve was assessed using the sensory test with von Frey filaments. Two weeks after cell injection, axonal regeneration was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis and retrograde labeling of trigeminal ganglion neurons. In vitro experiment results revealed that low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs proliferated faster and had greater mRNA expression of growth factors than unpretreated BMSCs. In vivo experiment results revealed that compared with injection of unpretreated BMSCs, injection of low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs led to higher myelinated axon count and axon density and

  17. Treatment with Riluzole Restores Normal Control of Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscles during Locomotion in Adult Rats after Sciatic Nerve Crush at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmysłowski, Wojciech; Cabaj, Anna M; Sławińska, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and treatment with Riluzole on muscle activity during unrestrained locomotion were identified in an animal model by analysis of the EMG activity recorded from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of both hindlimbs; in intact rats (IN) and in groups of rats treated for 14 days with saline (S) or Riluzole (R) after right limb nerve crush at the 1st (1S and 1R) or 2nd (2S and 2R) day after birth. Changes in the locomotor pattern of EMG activity were correlated with the numbers of survived motor units (MUs) identified in investigated muscles. S rats with 2-8 and 10-28 MUs that survived in Sol and EDL muscles respectively showed increases in the duration and duty factor of muscle EMG activity and a loss of correlation between the duty factors of muscle activity, and abnormal flexor-extensor co-activation 3 months after SNC. R rats with 5, 6 (Sol) and 15-29 MUs (EDL) developed almost normal EMG activity of both Sol and control EDL muscles, whereas EDL muscles with SNC showed a lack of recovery. R rats with 8 (Sol) and 23-33 (EDL) MUs developed almost normal EMG activities of all four muscles. A subgroup of S rats with a lack of recovery and R rats with almost complete recovery that had similar number of MUs (8 and 24-28 vs 8 and 23-26), showed that the number of MUs was not the only determinant of treatment effectiveness. The results demonstrated that rats with SNC failed to develop normal muscle activity due to malfunction of neuronal circuits attenuating EDL muscle activity during the stance phase, whereas treatment with Riluzole enabled almost normal EMG activity of Sol and EDL muscles during locomotor movement.

  18. Treatment with Riluzole Restores Normal Control of Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscles during Locomotion in Adult Rats after Sciatic Nerve Crush at Birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Zmysłowski

    Full Text Available The effects of sciatic nerve crush (SNC and treatment with Riluzole on muscle activity during unrestrained locomotion were identified in an animal model by analysis of the EMG activity recorded from soleus (Sol and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles of both hindlimbs; in intact rats (IN and in groups of rats treated for 14 days with saline (S or Riluzole (R after right limb nerve crush at the 1st (1S and 1R or 2nd (2S and 2R day after birth. Changes in the locomotor pattern of EMG activity were correlated with the numbers of survived motor units (MUs identified in investigated muscles. S rats with 2-8 and 10-28 MUs that survived in Sol and EDL muscles respectively showed increases in the duration and duty factor of muscle EMG activity and a loss of correlation between the duty factors of muscle activity, and abnormal flexor-extensor co-activation 3 months after SNC. R rats with 5, 6 (Sol and 15-29 MUs (EDL developed almost normal EMG activity of both Sol and control EDL muscles, whereas EDL muscles with SNC showed a lack of recovery. R rats with 8 (Sol and 23-33 (EDL MUs developed almost normal EMG activities of all four muscles. A subgroup of S rats with a lack of recovery and R rats with almost complete recovery that had similar number of MUs (8 and 24-28 vs 8 and 23-26, showed that the number of MUs was not the only determinant of treatment effectiveness. The results demonstrated that rats with SNC failed to develop normal muscle activity due to malfunction of neuronal circuits attenuating EDL muscle activity during the stance phase, whereas treatment with Riluzole enabled almost normal EMG activity of Sol and EDL muscles during locomotor movement.

  19. Effect of pigment epithelium derived factor on NO and the expression of caspase-3 in retinal tissues of model rats with optic nerve crush injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the effect of pigment epithelium derived factor(PEDFon nitrogen monoxide(NOand expression of cysteine-containing, aspartate-specific proteases-3(caspase-3in retinal tissues of model rats with optic nerve crush injury. METHODS: A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, model group and PEDF group, with 20 rats in each group. Except the blank control group, the optic nerve crush injury rat models were established in the other groups, and left eyeballs were taken as samples. After successfully modeling, the model group were treated with intravitreal injection of 5μL of balanced salt solution while PEDF group were treated with intravitreal injection of 5μL of PEDF(0.2μg/μL. Two weeks later, the retinal tissues were collected, and changes of shape were observed under microscope after HE staining. The changes of NO level were measured by colorimetry assay, the expression of caspase-3 mRNA and caspase-3 protein was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCRand Western-blot. RESULTS: HE staining showed that retinal tissues of the blank control group arranged neatly and clearly. Retinal ganglion cells(RGCsarranged in a monolayer, and cells were oval, uniform in size and distribution, the cell nuclei were clear, closely arranged, with clear boundaries. The retinal tissues of the model group were sparse in shape, RGCs showed vacuolar changes, the overall number of cells was reduced, and cell nuclei of residual RGCs showed pyknosis and uneven staining. RGCs in PEDF group were with slightly edema and arranged closely, and the degree of injury was significantly milder than that in the model group. Levels of Caspase-3 mRNA and protein and NO levels in the three groups showed the model group > PEDF group > blank control group(all P CONCLUSION: The application of PEDF can down regulate the expression of Caspase-3 and NO in rates with optic nerve injury and reduce RGCs injury.

  20. Altered neuronal activity patterns in the visual cortex of the adult rat after partial optic nerve crush--a single-cell resolution metabolic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharadze, Tamar; Pielot, Rainer; Wanger, Tim; Scheich, Henning; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Budinger, Eike; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Kreutz, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    Thallium autometallography (TIAMG) is a novel method for high-resolution mapping of neuronal activity. With this method, we found that a general depression of neuronal activity occurs in response to optic nerve crush (ONC) within the first 2 weeks postinjury in the contralateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) as well as in the contralateral primary visual cortex (V1). Interestingly, the neuronal activity recovered thereafter in both brain regions and reached a plateau in the tenth week postinjury in layers IV and V of V1, monocular area (V1m). Several clusters of highly active neurons in V1m were found 6 weeks after ONC in layers IV and V on the side contralateral to the lesion. We reasoned that these clusters appeared due to a reorganization of the corticocolliucular projections. Employing a combination of biotinylated dextran amine retrograde tract tracing from the superior colliculus (SC) with TIAMG in the same animal, we indeed found that the clusters of neurons with high Tl(+) uptake in V1m are spatially in register with those neuronal subpopulations that project to the SC. These data suggest that extensive reorganization plasticity exists in the adult rat visual cortex following ONC.

  1. Crush Grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Crush Grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. In this process, a precise profile of the desired product is formed on a tungsten carbide roll. This roll slowly transfers a mirror image of the profile onto the grinding surface of a wheel. The transfer rate of the profile is between 0.001 and 0.010 inches per minute. Crush grinding is desirable since it provides consistent surface finishes and thin walls at a high production rate. In addition, it generates very sharp fillet radii. However, crush grinding is a complex process since many variables affect the final product. Therefore, the process requires more attention and knowledge beyond basic metal removal practices. While the Kansas City Plant began using these machines in 1995, a formal study regarding crush grinding has not been conducted there. In addition, very little literature is available in the grinding industry regarding this process. As a result, new engineers at the Kansas City Plant must learn the process through trial and error. The purpose of this document is to address this literature deficit while specifically promoting a better understanding of the stem crush grinding process at the Kansas City Plant.

  2. Efficacy of crushed ore colemanite as boron fertilizer for rice grown under calcareous soil conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Hafeez, B.; Khanif, Y.M.; Fauziah, C.I.; Samsuri, A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Boron (B) deficiencies occur over a wider range of soils and crops in the world. Different sources of fertilizers are used to supply sufficient amounts of B for healthier plant growth. The effectiveness of crushed ore colemanite as B source for rice crop under flooded calcareous soil was evaluated in a glass house study. We studied the effects of powder colemanite (PC) and granular colemanite (GC) at the rates of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kg B ha-1 on growth and yield parameters of rice crop. Powder colemanite application at 2 and 3 kg B ha-1 significantly increased plant height, number of tillers and panicles plant-1, number of grains panicle-1, weight of 1000 grains and B concentration in grain compared to those observed due to application of 0 and 1 kg B ha-1. Rice crop applied B at 3 kg ha-1 in the form of PC produced significantly (18% increase over control) higher grain yield than 0 kg B ha-1 treatment. The effectiveness of PC was higher in terms of yield and yield parameters of rice than the GC, The B source of PC was very effective in supplying B to rice crop, however GC applied pots produced significantly lower yields because of its larger particle size which was the controlling factor in B release from the fertilizer. (author)

  3. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on the regeneration of experimental crush injuries of nerves Efeito da oxigenioterapia hiperbárica na regeneração de lesões experimentais de nervos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Tuma Jr.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric oxygen has been successfully used on treatment of acute ischemic injuries involving soft tissues and chronic injuries. In nerve crush injuries, the mechanisms involved are very similar to those found in ischemic injuries. Consequently, it is logical to hypothesize that hyperbaric oxygen should improve nerve repair, which is a critical step on functional recovery. In the present study, we created standard nerve crush injuries on sciatic nerves of rats, which underwent treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. Results were assessed by functional evaluation using walking-track analysis. The functional recovery indexes observed did not differ from control group. We concluded that hyperbaric oxygen therapy, in the schedule used, had no influence on functional recovery after nerve crush injuries.O oxigênio hiperbárico exerce efeitos comprovadamente benéficos no tratamento de lesões isquêmicas agudas de partes moles e em feridas de difícil cicatrização. Nas lesões neurais por esmagamento, os mecanismos fisiopatológicos assemelham-se aos efeitos dependentes da isquemia tissular. Portanto, a terapia com oxigênio hiperbárico teria participação nos processos de reparação neural, que constitui um dos pontos críticos para a recuperação funcional após as lesões por esmagamento de nervos periféricos. Neste estudo, foram realizadas lesões por esmagamento em nervo ciático de ratos, submetidos à terapia com oxigênio hiperbárico no pós-operatório. Os resultados foram quantificados através de avaliação funcional pelo método de "walking-track analysis". Os índices de recuperação funcional observados não diferiram dos observados no grupo controle. Portanto, verificou-se que a terapia com oxigênio hiperbárico, no esquema proposto, não teve influência na recuperação funcional após lesões neurais por esmagamento.

  4. Radial nerve grafting in high energy humeral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Gurbuz

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: Prolonged external fixation and extensive crush arm injuries can decrease the success of nerve healing. Excluding these conditions, good functional results may be obtained with nerve grafts longer than eight cm associated with high energy humeral fractures. [Hand Microsurg 2012; 1(2.000: 60-64

  5. [Effect of Solcoseryl on nerve tissue under in vitro conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, G; Grosse, G; Plonka, G

    1976-01-01

    Explants from trigeminal ganglia and skin of chick embryos and hippocampus from fetal rats were cultivated in Maximow assembly in the presence of Solcoseryl (Solco AG, Basel), a blood extract of calf. Solcoseryl in vitro did not influence the regeneration of nerve fibers from CNS explants. A stimulatory effect of Solcoseryl in vitro by 1% concentration on the outgrowth of new processes in explants of PNS was demonstrated. It is discussed: under optimal concentration Solcoseryl may be important for the influence of the composition of the medium in which explants of the nerve system and skin are cultivated.

  6. RNAi targeting Nogo Receptor enhanced survival and proliferation of murine retinal ganglion cells during N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced optic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kun; Zhong, Bo; Shen, Xiao-Li; Fang, Min; Lin, Bao-Tao; Ma, Da-Hui

    2017-09-12

    We investigated the effects of lentivirus-mediated RNAi targeting of Nogo Receptor ( NgR ) on the proliferation and survival of murine retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) in vitro and in vivo . Cultured mRGCs and C57BL/6 male mice were divided into 4 experimental groups: blank, model [100 μM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)], nscRNA (100 μM NMDA+ nscRNA vectors) and siNgR (100 μM NMDA+ siNgR vectors). CCK-8 and flow cytometry analyses revealed that silencing NgR enhanced proliferation, cell cycling and survival of NMDA-treated mRGCs. H&E staining showed that NgR silencing enhanced mRGC cell density and reduced angiogenesis in NMDA-treated retinal tissues. TUNEL assays showed that mRGC apoptosis was significantly diminished by NgR silencing in NMDA-treated retinal tissues. Western blotting and qRT-PCR analysis in NMDA-treated mRGCs and murine retinal tissues revealed that NgR silencing resulted in downregulation of RhoA signaling (RhoA and ROCK2). Western blotting showed that levels of activated Bax and cleaved caspase 3 were decreased, while Bcl-2 and pro-caspase 3 were increased in NMDA-treated mRGCs and murine retinal tissues, which corroborated the decreased apoptosis. These findings indicate that NgR gene silencing increases proliferation and survival of mRGCs in NMDA-treated murine retinas, which suggests a potential for therapeutic application to preventing optic nerve damage.

  7. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  8. Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70 degrees F), 150 degrees F, and -20 degrees F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain

  9. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil- Centro de Lisboa, Radiology Department, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Casselman, Jan [A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    There have been unprecedented improvements in cross-sectional imaging in the last decades. The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits. The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy. To increase the diagnostic yield of imaging, high-resolution studies with smaller fields of view are required. To keep imaging studies within a reasonable time frame, it is mandatory to tailor the study according to neuro-topographic testing. This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias. (orig.)

  10. Crush Test Abuse Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jacob; Jeevarajan, Judith; Salinas, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this system is to simulate an internal short on battery cells by causing deformation (a crushing force) in a cell without penetration. This is performed by activating a hydraulic cylinder on one side of a blast wall with a hydraulic pump located on the other. The operator can control the rate of the crush by monitoring a local pressure gauge connected to the hydraulic cylinder or a load cell digital display located at the hydraulic pump control area. The internal short simulated would be considered a worst-case scenario of a manufacturer fs defect. This is a catastrophic failure of a cell and could be a very destructive event. Fully charged cells are to have an internal short simulated at the center of the length of the cell (away from terminals). The crush can be performed with a .- to 1-in. (.0.6- to 2.5-cm) rod placed crossways to the cell axis, causing deformation of the cell without penetration. The OCV (open-circuit voltage) and temperature of the cells, as well as the pressure and crushing force, are recorded during the operation. Occurrence of an internal short accompanied by any visible physical changes such as venting, fires, or explosions is reported. Typical analytical data examined after the test would be plots of voltage, temperature, and pressure or force versus time. The rate of crushing force can be increased or decreased based on how fast the operator pumps the hydraulic pump. The size of cylinder used to compress the battery cell can be easily changed by adding larger or smaller fittings onto the end of the hydraulic cylinder based on the battery/cell size being tested. The cell is crushed remotely and videotaped, allowing the operator to closely monitor the situation from a safe distance.

  11. [Preservation of crushed extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, A; Tácsik, I; Juhász, J; Hepp, F

    1976-01-01

    For the conservation of crushed extremities all achievements of up-to-date traumatology are to be used. The impairement of the seriously crushed extremity displays a certain similarity to the polytraumatism involving the whole organism. This is to be taken into consideration in the surgical treatment. Conserving the vitality of the extremity deferred treatment and reconstructive operations at a later date become possible. As absolute rule must be in view that all cases are to be examined with the greatest care and individually, as regards the surgical treatment.

  12. Mutual information for the detection of crush.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Harding

    Full Text Available Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organizers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that both the prediction and prevention of such conditions offer a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but often computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally "cheap" but subjective and time-consuming. This paper describes an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of the onset of crush.

  13. Uma nova pinça regulável para a produção de lesões por esmagamento do nervo ciático do rato A new adjustable pinch designed for producing crush nerve injuries in the sciatic nerve of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Vilela Monte-Raso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Foi nosso objetivo, desenvolver uma pinça regulável que permite produzir uma lesão com carga conhecida, num segmento de 5 mm de comprimento do nervo isquiático de ratos. MÉTODOS: O material escolhido para confecção da pinça foi o aço inoxidável, pela sua maior durabilidade e possibilidade de esterilização com soluções anti-sépticas, quase sempre corrosivas. A carga de esmagamento da pinça é regulável, pelo aumento ou diminuição da tensão da mola que a aciona, por meio de um parafuso de regulagem de calibração, feita com uma célula de carga. RESULTADO: A pinça foi utilizada em investigações experimentais e mostrou-se tão eficiente quanto as máquinas de ensaio e de peso morto anteriormente utilizadas. CONCLUSÃO: A pinça desenvolvida apresenta vantagens de ser portátil, de fácil manuseio, baixo custo e permite padronização da carga aplicada.OBJECTIVE: A new adjustable pinch has been developed for producing a crush injury, with a previously known load of 5 kg, on a 5 mm-long segment of the nerve. METHODS: Stainless steel was the material selected for building the pinch due its durability and possibility of sterilization with anti-septic substances, which are often corrosive. The crushing load of the pinch is adjustable by increasing or decreasing the tension of the spring by means of a screw used for calibration, which is performed by a load cell. RESULT: This pinch has been used in a few experimental investigations and was shown to be as efficient as both the universal testing machine and the dead weight machine, previously used. CONCLUSION: The developed pinch has the advantages of being portable and user-friendly. In addition, the pinch is cheap and allows for the standardization of the applied load.

  14. Bow Crushing Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present a basis for the estimation of the internal collision forces between conventinal merchant vessels and large volume offshore structures in the form of gravity-supported offshore installations and bridges crossing international shipping routes.The main emphasis...... is on the presentation of impact loads on fixed offshore structures due to bow collisions. The crushing forces are determined as functions of vessels size, vessels speed, bow profile, collision angles and eccentric impacts....

  15. Crushing damage estimation for pavement with lightly cementitious bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available the 1990s. Typically, crushing failure starts at the surface of the cementitious base layer, and could extend to 50 mm deep, depending on tyre load/stress conditions. Recently developed crushing damage relationships for 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm level...

  16. Application of time-domain reflectometry to monitoring conditions in crushed tuff test plots at Los Alamos, New Mexico: Interpretation and recommendations for landfill monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, C.L.; Schofield, T.G.

    1994-08-01

    Horizontal and vertical measurements of moisture content were obtained daily using time domain reflectometry (TDR) at four sites in two crushed tuff experimental plots over a period of 287 days. Moisture contents were also measured weekly at the same locations and at two additional locations in the plots using the neutron probe method. Results are assessed to determine the influence of waveguide length and waveguide orientation on TDR moisture content measurements, the degree of spatial variability in measured moisture content in this engineered porous material, and the ability of TDR to resolve vertical moisture content gradients. Recommendations are made for TDR instrumentation of mixed waste landfill monitoring systems

  17. Tension neuropathy of the superficial peroneal nerve: associated conditions and results of release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, E C; Howell, S J

    1999-09-01

    We reviewed eight patients who sustained superficial peroneal nerve neuralgia after an inversion ankle sprain. Surgical exploration found anatomic abnormalities that tethered the nerve from movement during plantarflexion and inversion of the ankle. Most patients' pain improved dramatically after release and anterior transposition of the nerve. Seven joints also underwent arthroscopy, which showed intra-articular disease that was consistent with the original trauma. Five patients had reflex sympathetic dystrophy, three of which resolved after nerve release. Nerve conduction studies were not helpful. Careful physical examination and local nerve blocks were most important in making the diagnosis and prescribing treatment. All conservative measures should be exhausted before surgery is considered.

  18. High-voltage electrical stimulation improves nerve regeneration after sciatic crush injury Estimulação elétrica de alta voltagem favorece a regeneração nervosa após compressão do nervo isquiático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. Teodori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury causes prolonged functional limitation being a clinical challenge to identify resources that accelerates its recovery. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of high-voltage electrical stimulation (HVES on the morphometric and functional characteristics of the regenerated nerve after crush injury in rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups: Control (CON - without injury and without HVES; Denervated (D - sciatic nerve crush only; Denervated + HVES - sciatic nerve crush and HVES; SHAM - without injury but HVES. The HVES and SHAM groups were stimulated (100 Hz; minimum voltage of 100 V, 20 μs, 100 μs interpulse interval for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. The sciatic functional index (SFI was evaluated before the injury and at the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperatory (PO days. Neural components and the area density of connective tissue, blood vessels and macrophages were analyzed. RESULTS: Axonal diameter was higher on the HVES than on D group, reaching almost 80% above the control values after 21 days (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Lesões nervosas periféricas provocam limitação funcional prolongada, sendo um desafio para a clínica identificar recursos que acelerem sua recuperação. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a influência da estimulação elétrica de alta voltagem (EEAV sobre a morfologia e a função do nervo regenerado após esmagamento em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Wistar foram divididos nos grupos: controle (CON - sem lesão e sem EEAV; desnervado (D - esmagamento do nervo isquiático; desnervado + EEAV (EEAV - esmagamento do nervo e EEAV; SHAM - sem lesão, porém submetido à EEAV. Os grupos EEAV e SHAM foram estimulados (100 Hz, tensão mínima de 100 V; 20 μs e 100 μs interpulso 30 min/dia, 5 dias/semana. O índice funcional do ciático (IFC foi avaliado antes da lesão, nos 7º, 14º e 21º dias pós-operatório (PO. Componentes neurais, densidade de área de tecido conjuntivo, de

  19. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction...... are just few examples of accident scenarios where the detailed knowledge of the crushing response of ship structure is crucial for a reliable engineering analysis....

  20. CT and MR imaging of the normal and pathologic conditions of the facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Lorenz E-mail: jaeger@ikra.med.uni-muenchen.de; Reiser, Maximilian

    2001-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are well established imaging modalities to examine the facial nerve as well as the course of the facial nerve itself. High spatial resolution is guaranteed not only in the x- and y-axis, but also in the z-axis using multislice spiral CT. With this technique, reformatted multiplanar images in oblique planes, avoiding additional examinations in the coronal plane, facilitate the delineation of the facial nerve canal. This is beneficial in patients with temporal bone trauma, malformation or osseous changes. MR has a superior soft-tissue contrast to CT that enables imaging of the facial nerve itself. Therefore the normal facial nerve as well as pathologic changes of the facial nerve is readily visualized from the brain stem to the parotid gland. This review article presents anatomy, pathology and imaging strategies in the diagnostics of the facial nerve.

  1. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  2. Axonal elongation through long acellular nerve segments depends on recruitment of phagocytic cells from the near-nerve environment. Electrophysiological and morphological studies in the cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J; Fugleholm, K; Moldovan, M

    2001-01-01

    The distal nerve stump plays a central role in the regeneration of peripheral nerve but the relative importance of cellular and humoral factors is not clear. We have studied this question by freezing the tibial nerve distal to a crush lesion in cat. The importance of constituents from the near......-nerve environment was assessed by modification of the contact between the tibial nerve and the environment. Silicone cuffs, containing electrodes for electrophysiological assessment of nerve regeneration, were placed around the tibial nerve distal to the crush site. The interaction between long acellular frozen...... nerve segments (ANS) and the near-nerve environment was ascertained by breaching the silicone cuff to allow access of cellular or humoral components. Tibial nerves were crushed and frozen for 40 mm and enclosed in nerve cuffs with 0.45-microm holes or 2.0-mm holes to allow access of humoral factors...

  3. Social Signals--Mike's Crush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitelman, Stephanie; Kohorn, Olivia Von

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the unique audiovisual-based curriculum "Mike's Crush", by Nancy Nowell, and briefly describes the autism spectrum and its associated challenges. The review explores the curriculum's noteworthy approach to teaching social skills and recommends it as helpful material for all educators, especially for those working with…

  4. Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be 'subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage.' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL's experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages. ORNL has crush tested five different drum-type package designs, continuing its 60 year history of RAM package testing. A total of 26 crush tests have been performed in a wide variety of package orientations and crush plate CG alignments. In all cases, the deformation of the outer drum created by the crush test was significantly greater than the deformation damage caused by the 9 m drop test. The crush test is a highly effective means for testing structural soundness of smaller nondense Type B shipping package designs. Further regulatory guidance could alleviate the need to perform the crush test in a wide range of orientations and crush plate CG alignments.

  5. H-REFLEX UP-CONDITIONING ENCOURAGES RECOVERY OF EMG ACTIVITY AND H-REFLEXES AFTER SCIATIC NERVE TRANSECTION AND REPAIR IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Yu; Chen, Lu; Sun, Chenyuo; English, Arthur W.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.; Chen, Xiang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or its electrical analog, the H-reflex, produces spinal cord plasticity and can thereby affect motoneuron responses to primary afferent input. To explore whether this conditioning can affect the functional outcome after peripheral nerve injury, we assessed the effect of up-conditioning soleus (SOL) H-reflex on SOL and tibialis anterior (TA) function after sciatic nerve transection and repair. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with EMG electro...

  6. The effects of crushing surface roughness on the crushing characteristics of composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.; Wolterman, Richard L.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of crushing-surface roughness on the energy-absorption capability of graphite and glass-epoxy composite tubes were investigated. Fifty different combinations of fiber, matrix, and specimen ply orientation were evaluated. Two different crushing surface roughnesses were used in this investigation. Crushing surface significantly influences the energy-absorption capability only of tubes that crush in the lamina bending crushing mode; tubes that crush in other modes are not influenced because their lamina bundles do not slide against the crushing surface. Those tubes that crush in the lamina bending mode can achieve higher, lower, or no change in energy-absorption capability as crushing surface roughness increases. If the fiber failure strain of tubes that crush in the lamina bending crushing mode exceeds the matrix failure strain then the energy-absorption capability increases as crushing surface roughness increases. However, if the matrix failure strain exceeds the fiber failure strain then the energy-absorption capability increases as crushing surface roughness decreases. Energy-absorption capability is uninfluenced by crushing surface roughness for tubes that have equal fiber and matrix failure strains.

  7. Rock Crushing Using Microwave Pre-Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee

    2016-08-11

    Crushing and grinding are primary contributors to a high energy demand in the mining industry, yet, both are surprisingly inefficient processes, often with efficiencies as low as 1%. We analyze size reductions during crushing and grinding operations and explore the potential of multiplying internal weaknesses in rock materials by non-mechanical means. In particular, when rock blocks (wet or even dry if polycrystalline) are exposed to microwaves, internal cracks can develop along grain boundaries via differential thermal expansion between grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water in pores. Brazilian tests conducted on granite and cement mortar specimens show that the tensile strength decreases proportional to the duration of microwave treatment. Thermal changes, excessive fluid pressure buildup and induced stresses are analyzed in the context of hydro-Thermo-mechanically coupled processes. Results confirm that both differential thermal expansion of mineral grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water can generate cracks upon microwave exposure. Optimal conditions are suggested to lower the combined consumption of electric and mechanical energy.

  8. Effect of grain size on the sorption and desorption of SeO42- and SeO32- in columns of crushed granite and fracture infill from granitic water under dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videnska, K.; Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague; Palagyi, S.; Czech Technical University, Prague; Stamberg, K.; Vodickova, H.; Havlova, V.

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of 2 x 10 -5 mol/dm 3 Na 2 SeO 4 and Na 2 SeO 3 dissolved in synthetic granitic water (SGW) were investigated in columns of crushed granite and fracture infill (clay minerals) of various grain sizes. Desorption was studied using pure SGW. The goal of study was the quantification of the effect of grain size on the retardation and distribution coefficients of SeO 4 2- and SeO 3 2- , as well as on the other transport parameters (Peclet number and hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient). A model based on the erfc-function, assuming a non-linear reversible equilibrium sorption/desorption isotherm, was used for evaluation of sorption/desorption and transport parameters. The determination of selenium was performed using an ICP-MS technique. The experimental breakthrough curves were fitted using non-linear regression procedure, in the course of which the parameters mentioned were sought. Summing up, no sorption was recorded in the case of SeO 4 2- under these conditions. The values of retardation coefficients were practically one for all studied grain sizes. On the other hand, significant sorption was found for SeO 3 2- : depending on the grain size, the retardation coefficients varied between 1.6-8.7 in pure granite and 1.8-37.2 in infill materials. These values correspond to distribution coefficients of 0.2-2.5 and 0.2-12.7 cm 3 /g, respectively. The both parameters have similar values in a case of desorption which reflects the reversible character of sorption process. It was found that retardation and distribution coefficients and sorption capacity for SeO 3 2- also increase with decreasing grain size. (author)

  9. Visualizing peripheral nerve regeneration by whole mount staining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-peng Dun

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis, in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate. Analysing axon growth and the cell-cell interactions that occur following both nerve crush and cut injuries has largely been carried out by staining sections of nerve tissue, but this has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow the paths of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or nerve bridge. To try and solve this problem, we describe the development and use of a novel whole mount staining protocol that allows the analysis of axonal regeneration, Schwann cell-axon interaction and re-vascularisation of the repairing nerve following nerve cut and crush injuries.

  10. Therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue using implantable thin-film wireless nerve stimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Matthew R; Gamble, Paul; Stephen, Manu; Ray, Wilson Z

    2018-02-09

    OBJECTIVE Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue has been shown to accelerate axonal regeneration. Yet existing methods of applying electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerves have presented significant barriers to clinical translation. In this study, the authors examined the use of a novel implantable wireless nerve stimulator capable of simultaneously delivering therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue and providing postoperative serial assessment of functional recovery. METHODS Flexible wireless stimulators were fabricated and implanted into Lewis rats. Thin-film implants were used to deliver brief electrical stimulation (1 hour, 20 Hz) to sciatic nerves after nerve crush or nerve transection-and-repair injuries. RESULTS Electrical stimulation of injured nerves via implanted wireless stimulators significantly improved functional recovery. Brief electrical stimulation was observed to increase the rate of functional recovery after both nerve crush and nerve transection-and-repair injuries. Wireless stimulators successfully facilitated therapeutic stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue and serial assessment of nerve recovery. CONCLUSIONS Implantable wireless stimulators can deliver therapeutic electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerve tissue. Implantable wireless nerve stimulators might represent a novel means of facilitating therapeutic electrical stimulation in both intraoperative and postoperative settings.

  11. Influence of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation conditions on disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition and presynaptic inhibition in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazuya; Tanabe, Shigeo; Koyama, Soichiro; Ushiroyama, Kosuke; Naoi, Yuki; Motoya, Ikuo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the influence of stimulus conditions of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition (RI) and presynaptic inhibition (D1 inhibition) in healthy adults. Eight healthy participants received TENS (stimulus frequencies of 50, 100, and 200 Hz) over the deep peroneal nerve and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in the resting condition for 30 min. At pre- and post-intervention, the RI from the TA to the soleus (SOL) and D1 inhibition of the SOL alpha motor neuron were assessed by evoked electromyography. The results showed that RI was not changed by TENS at any stimulus frequency condition. Conversely, D1 inhibition was significantly changed by TENS regardless of the stimulus frequency. The present results and previous studies pertaining to RI suggest that the resting condition might strongly influence the lack of pre- vs. post-intervention change in the RI. Regarding the D1 inhibition, the present results suggest that the effect of TENS might be caused by post-tetanic potentiation. The knowledge gained from the present study might contribute to a better understanding of fundamental studies of TENS in healthy adults and its clinical application for stroke survivors.

  12. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  13. Increased slow transport in axons of regenerating newt limbs after a nerve conditioning lesion made prior to amputation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this study shows that axonal density is constant in the limb stump of the next proximal to the area of traumatic nerve degeneration caused by limb amputation. The results of the second part of this work reveal that a nerve conditioning lesion made two weeks prior to amputation is associated with accelerated limb regeneration and that this accelerated limb regeneration is accompanied by an earlier arrival of axons. This is the first demonstration of naturally occurring limb regeneration being enhanced. In this study SCb cytoskeletal proteins were identified and measured using SDS-PAGE and liquid scintillation counting. Proteins were measured at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after {sup 35}S-methionine injection and the normal rate of SCb transport determined to be 0.19 mm/day. A single axotomy does not enhance the rate of SCb transport but does increase the amount of labeled SCb proteins that are transported. When a conditioning lesion is employed prior to limb amputation and SCb proteins are measured at 7, 14, and 21 days after injection, there is a twofold acceleration in the rate of SCb transport and an increase in the amount of SCb proteins transported in conditioned axons.

  14. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  15. Properties of paving units incorporating crushed ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina M. Sadek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of using crushed ceramic in the production of interlocking paving units. Eight mixes were cast. The first mix was the control mix, in which natural aggregates were used in the upper and lower layers. In the second and third mixes, coarse crushed ceramic was used in the lower layer replacing 50% and 100% of crushed stone, respectively. In the fourth and fifth mixes, fine crushed ceramic was used in the lower layer replacing 50% and 100% of natural sand, respectively. In the sixth mix, coarse and fine crushed ceramic were used in the lower layer replacing 50% of crushed stone and 50% of natural sand, respectively. Finally, in the seventh and eighth mixes, fine crushed ceramic was used in the upper layer replacing 50% and 100% of natural sand, respectively while natural sand was used in the lower layer. Tests were carried out in order to investigate the properties of the manufactured specimens after 28 days of curing. Compressive strength and abrasion resistance were determined according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM C 140 and ASTM C418, respectively. Water absorption, split tensile strength, abrasion resistance, as well as, skid resistance were determined according to both Egyptian Standard Specifications (ESS 4382 and European Standard (EN 1338. The Egyptian standard is identical with the European standard. The results indicate that it is feasible to use fine crushed ceramic in the manufacture of paving blocks.

  16. Pathological changes in the thyroid gland in crush asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether crush asphyxia may be associated with macro- and microscopic changes in the thyroid gland, four cases of death due to crush asphyxia were evaluated where the decedents (males aged 36, 37, 45, and 65 years respectively) suffered lethal chest compressions. The diagnosis of crush asphyxia in each case was suggested by the death scene description and confirmed by the finding of injuries to the torso, with marked congestion of the face, neck, and upper body associated with petechial and subconjunctival hemorrhages. In addition to other pathological findings, each decedent had intense congestion of their thyroid gland resulting in a dark/black appearance. Microscopically, stromal capillaries were engorged, with bulging of capillaries into the follicles. Rupture of these small vessels had created focal intrafollicular aggregates of erythrocytes within the colloid. As intense suffusion of the thyroid gland with blood in cases of crush asphyxia may impart an appearance of "black thyroid" this may be another feature of this condition to look for at autopsy, in addition to intrafollicular blood lakes on histology.

  17. Modeling of material orientation effects on AHSS crush and fracture behavior in axial crush tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guofei; Link, Todd M; Shi, Ming F; Tyan, Tau

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rolling manufacturing process, most advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) demonstrate in-plane anisotropic material behavior. This study investigates the effects of material orientation on the axial crush behavior and fracture of AHSS with axial crush tests and computer simulations. Crush simulation models considering material anisotropy and damage evolution were developed in LS-DYNA based on the drop-tower crush test results and coupon characterization test data for DP780 steel. The modified Mohr-Coulomb (MMC) isotropic fracture model was employed in the crush simulation models for fracture prediction. The 12-sided components fabricated in the transverse (T) direction of the sheet exhibited slightly higher crush loads and reduced crush distances compared to those in the longitudinal (L) direction. The crush behavior in each direction was generally proportional to ultimate tensile strength. All of the materials investigated in this study showed some cracking in the crush tests for both component orientations, but only DP780 showed significant anisotropy in fracture behavior with more cracking for the T direction compared to the L direction. Overall, the amount of cracking observed in the tests had little or no significant effect on the axial crush performance. The MMC fracture loci in both the L and T directions were determined using a reverse engineering approach, and the stress-strain curves beyond the uniform elongation point were extended using an optimization method. Both material models MAT103 and MAT224 predicted the crush and fracture behavior with reasonably good accuracy. The predicted fracture mode and force-displacement curves agreed well with the test data for both the L and T directions in axial crush tests of the 12-sided components. The simple isotropic material model MAT224 is adequate for crush simulations to predict material orientation effects on AHSS component crush performance and fracture behavior.

  18. Diffusion in the pore water of compacted crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegge, Judith; Herr, Sebastian; Lauke, Thomas; Meleshyn, Artur; Miehe, Ruediger; Ruebel, Andre

    2016-07-15

    Diffusion of dissolved radionuclides in the pore water of compacted crushed salt in the long-term is the most relevant process for the release of radionuclides from a dedicated repository for high-level waste in a salt formation as has been shown in latest safety assessments and research projects /BUH 16/. So far, diffusion coefficients for free water have been applied for the diffusion in pore water in models for long-term safety assessments. This conservative assumption was used, because data on the diffusion coefficient of dissolved substances in crushed salt have been missing. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient in the pore water was assumed to be constant and independent from the degree of compaction of the crushed salt. The work presented in this report was intended to contribute to fill this gap of knowledge about how the diffusion of radionuclides takes place in the compacted backfill of a repository in salt. For the first time, the pore diffusion coefficient as well as its dependence on the porosity of the crushed salt was determined experimentally by means of through-diffusion experiments using caesium as tracer. The results achieved in this project suggest that the diffusion in compacted crushed salt is not fully comparable to that in a homogeneous, temporally stable porous medium like sand or clay. The results obtained from four diffusion experiments show a remarkably different behaviour and all yield unique concentration versus time plots which includes highly temporal variable tracer fluxes with even full interruptions of the flux for longer periods of time. This effect cannot be explained by assuming a tracer transport by diffusion in a temporarily invariant pore space and / or under temporally invariant experimental conditions. From our point of view, a restructuring of the pore space seems to lead to closed areas of pore water in the sample which may open up again after some time, leading to a variable pore space and hence variable diffusive

  19. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  20. Neuroprotection by Cocktails of Dietary Antioxidants under Conditions of Nerve Growth Factor Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Flavio; Berbenni, Miluscia; Fragni, Martina; Leoni, Giampaolo; Viggiani, Sandra; Ippolito, Vita Maria; Larocca, Marilena; Rossano, Rocco; Alberghina, Lilia; Riccio, Paolo; Colangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may be useful in counteracting the chronic inflammatory status in neurodegenerative diseases by reducing oxidative stress due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we newly described the efficacy of a number of dietary antioxidants (polyphenols, carotenoids, thiolic compounds, and oligoelements) on viability of neuronal PC12 cells following Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) deprivation, a model of age-related decrease of neurotrophic support that triggers neuronal loss. Neuroprotection by antioxidants during NGF deprivation for 24 h was largely dependent on their concentrations: all dietary antioxidants were able to efficiently support cell viability by reducing ROS levels and restoring mitochondrial function, while preserving the neuronal morphology. Moreover, ROS reduction and neuroprotection during NGF withdrawal were also achieved with defined cocktails of 3–6 different antioxidants at concentrations 5–60 times lower than those used in single treatments, suggesting that their antioxidant activity was preserved also at very low concentrations. Overall, these data indicate the beneficial effects of antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by decreased NGF availability and suggest that defined cocktails of dietary factors at low concentrations might be a suitable strategy to reduce oxidative damage in neurodegenerative diseases, while limiting possible side effects. PMID:26236423

  1. CT-guided obturator nerve block for diagnosis and treatment of painful conditions of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywang-Koebrunner, S.H.; Amaya, B.; Pickuth, D.; Spielmann, R.P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Okoniewski, M. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    Obturator nerve blocks (ONB) have been performed by anaesthesiologists mainly to eliminate the obturator reflex during transurethral resections. An effect on hip pain has also been described. However, being a time-consuming and operator-dependent procedure if performed manually, it has not been widely used for chronic hip pain. The purpose of this pilot study was to check whether CT guidance could improve reproducibility of the block (= immediate effect) and to test its potential value for treatment of chronic hip pain. Fifteen chronically ill patients with osteoarthritis underwent a single ONB. Sixteen millilitres of Lidocaine 1 % mixed with 2 ml Iopramide was injected into the obturator canal. The patients were followed up to 9 months after the intervention. With a single injection pain relief was achieved for 1-8 weeks in 7 of 15 patients. Excellent pain relief for 3-11 months was achieved in another 4 patients. Reasons for a mid-term or even long-term effect based on a single injection of local anaesthetic are not exactly known. The CT-guided ONB is a fast, easy and safe procedure that may be useful for mid-term (weeks) and sometimes even long-term (months) treatment of hip pain. (orig.)

  2. Review of evaluations of crushing results for the seedbed preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Anisch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For evaluating the work results of tillage operations today only inaccurate parameters are available which cannot be readily measured. Thus, evaluating and comparing the work results of machines and developing suitable sensors are difficult. At the Technical University of Dresden, till 1990, research projects for determining aggregate size composition of soil have been done. Based on this work, this study will show suggestions for measuring, displaying and evaluation of soil crushing results depending on tillage work conditions.

  3. Automation for Crushing and Screening Equipment to Produce Graded Paving Crushed Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Anatoly; Velichkin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    This paper offers analysis of factors related to production and storage of graded crushed stone, which adversely impact the service life and wear resistance of asphalt-concrete motor road pavements. The paper describes external and technology-related parameters that may cause changes of the preset ratio in graded crushed stone. Control factors are described that ensure the formulated fraction ratio in crushed stone by controlling the operation mode of the crushing and screening equipment. The paper also contains an ACS flow chart for crushing and screening equipment engaged in continuous closed-cycle two-stage technology. Performance of the ACS to maintain the preset fractionated crushed stone ratio has been confirmed with a mathematical model.

  4. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Fan Xianhua; Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Zhou Duo; Wang Yong

    2004-01-01

    The experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, are analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite are determined simultaneously by one linear regression technique. Dispersity of crushed granite is also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression technique. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. The experimental results show that the dispersity found by spike source method is close to that found by invariant source method. It indicates that dispersity is only the characteristic of dispersion medium

  5. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, were analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and the retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite were determined simultaneously by one linear regression. Dispersity of crushed granite was also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. Experimental results show that the dispersity found by the spike source method is close to that found by the invariant source method. This indicates that dispersity is only a characteristic of the dispersion medium. (author)

  6. Honeycomb spacer crush stength test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leader, D.R.

    1993-09-15

    This report discusses aluminum honeycomb spacers, which are used as an energy absorbent material in shipping packages for off site shipment of radioactive materials and which were ordered in two crush strengths, 1,000 psi and 2,000 psi for use in drop tests requested by the Packaging and Transportation group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the vendor and the SRTC Materials Laboratory performed crush strength measurements on test samples made from the material used to fabricate the actual spacers. The measurements of crush strength made in the SRTC Materials Laboratory are within 100 psi of the measurements made by the manufacturer for all samples tested and all test measurements are within 10% of the specified crush strength, which is acceptable to the P&T group for the planned tests.

  7. Omental pedicle transposition and suture repair of peripheral nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The peripheral nervous system is able to regenerate after injury. Etiologies of injuries include penetrating injury, crush, traction, and ischemia compression. However, the presence of various nerve injury treatments such as coaptation and another technique to attain functional nerve regeneration are still inadequate.

  8. [Clinical observation on the influence of earthquake crush injury on postoperative wound healing of extremity fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-hong; Chen, Ze; Duan, Heng-qiong; Wan, Zhong-xian

    2008-10-01

    To observe the influence of earthquake crush injury on postoperative wound healing of extremity fractures. The study involved 85 patients with extremities fracture underwent internal fixation operation in 3 group, including 28 earthquake casualties with crush injuries in observation group, 27 earthquake casualties without crush injuries in control I group and 30 local patients during the same period in control II group. Urine routine, blood creatine kinase (CK) and wound conditions of patients in 3 groups were observed respectively. There was no significant difference in Urine routine and blood CK between 3 groups and was significant difference in wound conditions between observation group and each control group. Earthquake crush injuries can influence the postoperative wound healing of extremity fractures.

  9. On the progressive nature of grain crushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciantia Matteo O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work acoustic emission (AE is used as experimental evidence of the progressive nature of grain crushing. Stress controlled high pressure oedometric compression test are carried out on 1.2 mm monodisperse samples of glass beads. It was observed that the granular assembly starts to experience particle breakage at a vertical stress of about 25MPa. When this yield pressure is exceeded the glass beads start to break emitting loud impulsive sound and the vertical displacement increases rapidly. The load was increased beyond the yield stress and at each increment while the vertical stress remained constant the sample continued to emit sound. The emission of sound at a constant vertical stress indicates that crushing is a progressive failure mechanism; once the first crushing event occurs, the structure starts to rearrange causing other crushing events to occur and additional settlement. In particular, two signal processing algorithms are used on the samples of the acoustic signal to obtain two additional metrics of the crushing evolution. The first is the cumulative energy versus time. The second is the number of crushing events versus time, which is based on the automatic detection of the peaks of the sound signal envelope. There is a clear correlation between the cumulative acoustic energy emitted and the observed sample displacement. Using laser scanning, the evolution of the particle size distribution and particle shape are measured in detail so that a link between the acoustic data and the crushing intensity is established. The crushing intensity was controlled using materials with different strengths.

  10. Effects Of Rapid Crushing On Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental study described in NASA technical memorandum performed to determine whether crash energy-absorption capabilities of graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy composite materials are functions of speed of crushing. Additional objective to develop understanding of mechanisms of crushing. Technology applied to enhancement of safety and crashworthiness of automobiles, design of energy-absorbing devices in machinery, and problems involving explosions and impacts.

  11. Crushing characteristics of continuous fiber-reinforced composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.; Jones, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite tubes can be reinforced with continuous fibers. When such tubes are subjected to crushing loads, the response is complex and depends on interaction between the different mechanisms that control the crushing process. The modes of crushing and their controlling mechanisms are described. Also, the resulting crushing process and its efficiency are addressed.

  12. Macrophage presence is essential for the regeneration of ascending afferent fibres following a conditioning sciatic nerve lesion in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury to the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons prior to injury to the central nervous system (CNS DRG branch results in the regeneration of the central branch. The exact mechanism mediating this regenerative trigger is not fully understood. It has been proposed that following peripheral injury, the intraganglionic inflammatory response by macrophage cells plays an important role in the pre-conditioning of injured CNS neurons to regenerate. In this study, we investigated whether the presence of macrophage cells is crucial for this type of regeneration to occur. We used a clodronate liposome technique to selectively and temporarily deplete these cells during the conditioning phase of DRG neurons. Results Retrograde and anterograde tracing results indicated that in macrophage-depleted animals, the regenerative trigger characteristic of pre-conditioned DRG neurons was abolished as compared to injury matched-control animals. In addition, depletion of macrophage cells led to: (i a reduction in macrophage infiltration into the CNS compartment even after cellular repopulation, (ii astrocyte up-regulation at rostral regions and down-regulation in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration in the serum. Conclusion Activation of macrophage cells in response to the peripheral nerve injury is essential for the enhanced regeneration of ascending sensory neurons.

  13. Immediate Lower Extremity Tourniquet Application to Delay Onset of Reperfusion Injury after Prolonged Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel S; Weisner, Zach; Badar, Jehangir

    2015-01-01

    Reperfusion after severe crush injury is an infrequent, but life-threatening condition. It is a unique aspect of prehospital medicine that occurs in the presence of emergency responders attempting to extricate and treat patients who have suffered a crushing injury. These events are unlikely to occur in the hospital setting and, as a result, remain poorly studied. Some evidence exists regarding prophylaxis, but the efficacy of these treatments has not been clearly established. The use of commercial tourniquets to delay the onset of reperfusion injury has previously been described in theory. Extensive literature now exists supporting the safety of tourniquet use in limb trauma and this potential life-saving measure requires further study in patients with crush injury. We present a case of prehospital tourniquet application to delay reperfusion injury after crush injury that resulted in a reduction in morbidity and complete limb salvage.

  14. H-reflex up-conditioning encourages recovery of EMG activity and H-reflexes after sciatic nerve transection and repair in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Yu; Chen, Lu; Sun, Chenyou; English, Arthur W; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Chen, Xiang Yang

    2010-12-01

    Operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or its electrical analog, the H-reflex, produces spinal cord plasticity and can thereby affect motoneuron responses to primary afferent input. To explore whether this conditioning can affect the functional outcome after peripheral nerve injury, we assessed the effect of up-conditioning soleus (SOL) H-reflex on SOL and tibialis anterior (TA) function after sciatic nerve transection and repair. Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with EMG electrodes in SOL and TA and stimulating cuffs on the posterior tibial nerve. After control data collection, the sciatic nerve was transected and repaired and the rat was exposed for 120 d to continued control data collection (TC rats) or SOL H-reflex up-conditioning (TU rats). At the end of data collection, motoneurons that had reinnervated SOL and TA were labeled retrogradely. Putative primary afferent terminals [i.e., terminals containing vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1)] on SOL motoneurons were studied immunohistochemically. SOL (and probably TA) background EMG activity recovered faster in TU rats than in TC rats, and the final recovered SOL H-reflex was significantly larger in TU than in TC rats. TU and TC rats had significantly fewer labeled motoneurons and higher proportions of double-labeled motoneurons than untransected rats. VGLUT1 terminals were significantly more numerous on SOL motoneurons of TU than TC rats. Combined with the larger H-reflexes in TU rats, this anatomical finding supports the hypothesis that SOL H-reflex up-conditioning strengthened primary afferent reinnervation of SOL motoneurons. These results suggest that H-reflex up-conditioning may improve functional recovery after nerve injury and repair.

  15. Analysis of the engine fragment threat and the crush environment for small packages carried on U.S. commercial jet aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, W.F.; McClure, J.D.; von Riesemann, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of two separate analyses are reported. The engine fragment analysis determined the probability of a small package being in the path of a fragment from a failure in a gas turbine engine. The calculated values show that, depending on aircraft type, the incidence rate varies by approximately an order of magnitude from a high of about once per 5 million flights to a low of nearly once every 40 million package flights for a flight of five hours' duration. The analysis of the crush environment consisted of an examination of two principal crush modes, i.e., vertical and longitudinal crush. The vertical crush mode was examined by formulating a structural model of the cargo deck beams of the aircraft. The longitudinal crush mode was studied by using dynamic models of the aircraft cargo and the radioactive material package (RAM). The results of the analysis of these crush modes provided the basis for the formulation of a 310 kN/(70,000 lb) crush test to simulate vertical crush. The longitudinal crush analysis indicated that it was possible, under infrequently occurring conditions, to produce extremely large crush forces and hence it was recommended that RAM packages be located in the aft end of aircraft cargo compartments to minimize the effects of longitudinal crush

  16. A new zebrafish bone crush injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sousa

    2012-07-01

    While mammals have a limited capacity to repair bone fractures, zebrafish can completely regenerate amputated bony fin rays. Fin regeneration in teleosts has been studied after partial amputation of the caudal fin, which is not ideal to model human bone fractures because it involves substantial tissue removal, rather than local tissue injury. In this work, we have established a bone crush injury model in zebrafish adult caudal fin, which consists of the precise crush of bony rays with no tissue amputation. Comparing these two injury models, we show that the initial stages of injury response are the same regarding the activation of wound healing molecular markers. However, in the crush assay the expression of the blastema marker msxb appears later than during regeneration after amputation. Following the same trend, bone cells deposition and expression of genes involved in skeletogenesis are also delayed. We further show that bone and blood vessel patterning is also affected. Moreover, analysis of osteopontin and Tenascin-C reveals that they are expressed at later stages in crushed tissue, suggesting that in this case bone repair is prolonged for longer than in the case of regeneration after amputation. Due to the nature of the trauma inflicted, the crush injury model seems more similar to fracture bone repair in mammals than bony ray amputation. Therefore, the new model that we present here may help to identify the key processes that regulate bone fracture and contribute to improve bone repair in humans.

  17. A novel function of neuroglobin for neuroregeneration in mice after optic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Kayo; Koriyama, Yoshiki; Sera, Mayuko; Arai, Kunizo; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Wakasugi, Keisuke

    2017-11-25

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered heme protein in the vertebrate brain that can bind to oxygen molecules. Mammalian Ngb plays a crucial role in neuroprotection under conditions of oxidative stress. To investigate other potential functions of Ngb, we investigated the mouse retinal Ngb system following optic nerve injury. In the retina of control mice, Ngb immunoreactivity was limited to the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer, and this immunoreactivity rapidly decreased to less than 50% of the control level 5 days after optic nerve injury. On the basis of this decrease, we designed in vivo experiments with enhanced expression of Ngb using adult mouse retina. The enhanced expression of Ngb was achieved by injecting chimeric human Ngb protein, which included the cell membrane-penetrating module of fish Ngb. One-day pretreatment with chimeric Ngb increased immunoreactivity levels of Ngb two-fold in mouse RGCs and increased the number of surviving RGCs three-fold by 14 days after optic nerve injury compared with vehicle controls. Furthermore, in the mouse retinas showing enhanced Ngb expression, several regenerating central optic axons exhibited outgrowth and were found to pass through the nerve crush site 14 days after nerve injury. No such regenerating optic axons were observed in the control mouse optic nerve during the same time frame. The data obtained from in vivo experiments strongly indicate that mammalian Ngb has neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  19. The mRNA of transferrin is expressed in Schwann cells during their maturation and after nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, C; Setton, C P; Soto, E F; Pasquini, J M

    2007-09-01

    Transferrin, the iron carrier protein, has been shown to be involved in oligodendroglial cell differentiation in the central nervous system but little is known about its role in the peripheral nervous system. In the present work, we have studied the presence of transferrin and of its mRNA in rat sciatic nerves and in Schwann cells isolated at embryonic and adult ages as well as during the regeneration process that follows nerve crush. We have also studied the correlation between the expression of the mRNAs of transferrin and the expression of mature myelin markers in the PNS. We show that transferrin is present in whole sciatic nerves at late stages of embryonic life as well as at postnatal day 4 and in adult rats. We demonstrate for the first time, that in normal conditions, the transferrin mRNA is expressed in Schwann cells isolated from sciatic nerves between embryonic days 14 and 18, being absent at later stages of development and in adult animals. In adult rats, 3 days after sciatic nerve crushing, the mRNA of transferrin is expressed in the injured nerve, but 7 days after injury its expression disappears. Transferrin protein in the sciatic nerve closely follows the expression of its mRNA indicating that under these circumstances, it appears to be locally synthesized. Transferrin in the PNS could have a dual role. During late embryonic ages it could be locally synthesized by differentiating Schwann cells, acting as a pro-differentiating factor. A similar situation would occur during the regeneration that follows Wallerian degeneration. In the adult animals on the other hand, Schwann cells could pick up transferrin from the circulation or/and from the axons, sub serving possible trophic actions closely related to myelin maintenance.

  20. Effect of Raw Crushed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Prema Ram; Jani, Rameshchandra D; Sharma, Megh Shyam

    2017-09-28

    Metabolic syndrome consists of a group of risk factors characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory conditions. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to reduce serum lipid levels in animal model; however, no precise studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of raw crushed garlic on components of metabolic syndrome. A total of 40 metabolic syndrome patients were randomly selected from the diabetic center of SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. They underwent treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight raw crushed garlic 2 times a day with standard diet for 4 weeks; their anthropometric and serum biochemical variables were measured at both the beginning and the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 20, and Student's paired "t" test was used to compare variables before and after treatment with garlic preparation. Raw crushed garlic significantly reduced components of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (p .05) of patients with metabolic syndrome after consumption of raw crushed garlic for 4 weeks. Raw crushed garlic has beneficial effects on components of metabolic syndrome; therefore, it can be used as an accompanying remedy for prevention and treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  1. A preconditioning nerve lesion inhibits mechanical pain hypersensitivity following subsequent neuropathic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A preconditioning stimulus can trigger a neuroprotective phenotype in the nervous system - a preconditioning nerve lesion causes a significant increase in axonal regeneration, and cerebral preconditioning protects against subsequent ischemia. We hypothesized that a preconditioning nerve lesion induces gene/protein modifications, neuronal changes, and immune activation that may affect pain sensation following subsequent nerve injury. We examined whether a preconditioning lesion affects neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation after peripheral nerve injury. Results We found that a preconditioning crush injury to a terminal branch of the sciatic nerve seven days before partial ligation of the sciatic nerve (PSNL; a model of neuropathic pain induced a significant attenuation of pain hypersensitivity, particularly mechanical allodynia. A preconditioning lesion of the tibial nerve induced a long-term significant increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli and paw-withdrawal latency to thermal stimuli, after PSNL. A preconditioning lesion of the common peroneal induced a smaller but significant short-term increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli, after PSNL. There was no difference between preconditioned and unconditioned animals in neuronal damage and macrophage and T-cell infiltration into the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs or in astrocyte and microglia activation in the spinal dorsal and ventral horns. Conclusions These results suggest that prior exposure to a mild nerve lesion protects against adverse effects of subsequent neuropathic injury, and that this conditioning-induced inhibition of pain hypersensitivity is not dependent on neuroinflammation in DRGs and spinal cord. Identifying the underlying mechanisms may have important implications for the understanding of neuropathic pain due to nerve injury.

  2. Differential astroglial responses in the spinal cord of rats submitted to a sciatic nerve double crush treated with local injection of cultured Schwann cell suspension or lesioned spinal cord extract: implications on cell therapy for nerve repair Respostas astrocitárias na medula espinal do rato submetido ao esmagamento duplo do nervo ciático e tratado com injeção local de suspensão de células de Schwann cultivadas ou de extrato de medula espinal lesada: implicações na terapia celular para o reparo do nervo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Martins Dallo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes are implicated in several mechanisms after central or peripheral nervous system lesion, including neuroprotection, neuronal sprouting, neurotransmission and neuropathic pain. Schwann cells (SC, a peripheral glia, also react after nerve lesion favoring wound/repair, fiber outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. We investigated herein whether cell therapy for repair of lesioned sciatic nerve may change the pattern of astroglial activation in the spinal cord ventral or dorsal horn of the rat. METHODS: Injections of a cultured SC suspension or a lesioned spinal cord homogenized extract were made in a reservoir promoted by a contiguous double crush of the rat sciatic nerve. Local injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS served as control. One week later, rats were euthanized and spinal cord astrocytes were labeled by immunohistochemistry and quantified by means of quantitative image analysis. RESULTS: In the ipsilateral ventral horn, slight astroglial activations were seen after PBS or SC injections, however, a substantial activation was achieved after cord extract injection in the sciatic nerve reservoir. Moreover, SC suspension and cord extract injections were able to promote astroglial reaction in the spinal cord dorsal horn bilaterally. Conclusion: Spinal cord astrocytes react according to repair processes of axotomized nerve, which may influence the functional outcome. The event should be considered during the neurosurgery strategies.OBJETIVO: Astrócitos reativos participam de vários mecanismos após lesões do sistema nervoso central e periférico, os quais incluem neuroproteção, brotamento neuronal, neurotransmissão e dor neuropática. As células de Schwann (CS, um tipo de glia periférica, também reagem com a lesão do nervo, podendo interferir com o reparo e cicatrização, crescimento de fibras e regeneração neuronais. Investigamos aqui a possibilidade da terapia celular para o reparo do nervo ci

  3. Beta secretase activity in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Tallon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While the peripheral nervous system has the capacity to regenerate following a nerve injury, it is often at a slow rate and results in unsatisfactory recovery, leaving patients with reduced function. Many regeneration associated genes have been identified over the years, which may shed some insight into how we can manipulate this intrinsic regenerative ability to enhance repair following peripheral nerve injuries. Our lab has identified the membrane bound protease beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, or beta secretase, as a potential negative regulator of peripheral nerve regeneration. When beta secretase activity levels are abolished via a null mutation in mice, peripheral regeneration is enhanced following a sciatic nerve crush injury. Conversely, when activity levels are greatly increased by overexpressing beta secretase in mice, nerve regeneration and functional recovery are impaired after a sciatic nerve crush injury. In addition to our work, many substrates of beta secretase have been found to be involved in regulating neurite outgrowth and some have even been identified as regeneration associated genes. In this review, we set out to discuss BACE1 and its substrates with respect to axonal regeneration and speculate on the possibility of utilizing BACE1 inhibitors to enhance regeneration following acute nerve injury and potential uses in peripheral neuropathies.

  4. Assessment of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing processes in a nuclear waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    For a nuclear waste repository in salt, two aspects of salt behavior are expected to contribute to favorable conditions for waste isolation. First, consolidation of crushed salt backfill due to creep closure of the underground openings may result in a backfill barrier with low permeability. Second, fractures created in the salt by excavation may heal under the influence of stress and temperature following sealing. This report reviews the status of knowledge regarding crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing, provides analyses which predict the rates at which the processes will occur under repository conditions, and develops requirements for future study. Analyses of the rate at which crushed salt will consolidate are found to be uncertain because of unexplained wide variation in the creep properties of crushed salt obtained from laboratory testing, and because of uncertainties in predictions of long term closure rates of openings in salt. This uncertainty could be resolved to a large degree by additional laboratory testing of crushed salt. Similarly, additional testing of fracture healing processes is required to confirm that healing will be effective under repository conditions. Extensive references, 27 figures, 5 tables

  5. Treatment of peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum with topical crushed dapsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marc Z; Hamilton, Heather; Aires, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    A 27-year-old male with a history of Crohn's disease was treated for chronic pyoderma gangrenosum at his stoma site. Treatment with topical application of crushed dapsone resulted in improvement of his pyoderma gangrenosum. Crushed dapsone may be an efficacious treatment with minimal systemic side effects. This appears to be the first case of pyoderma gangrenosum treated with crushed dapsone.

  6. Performance of Crushed Coconut Shell Dual Media Filter | Odira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, pilot plant filtration tests are carried out to investigate the performance of crushed coconut shell as coarse media in dual media filters. Filtration rate, size and relative depth of crushed coconut shell media are investigated. A dual media filter with equal depths of 0.42 and 1.20 mm effective size sand and crushed ...

  7. Concentrated growth factor increases Schwann cell proliferation and neurotrophic factor secretion and promotes functional nerve recovery in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Wang, Lin; Sun, Yue; Sun, Xiaolin; Wen, Chaoju; Shahmoradi, Mahdi; Zhou, Yanmin

    2016-02-01

    Concentrated growth factor (CGF) is a newly generated complex that comprises a fibrin matrix incorporating growth factors and plasmatic and leukocyte cytokines. It has been widely used in bone regenerative medicine. However, the effect of CGF on peripheral nerve regeneration had not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using CGF for nerve regeneration by i) investigating the effect of CGF on the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs) and secretion of neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line‑derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro; and ii) analyzing the effect of CGF on functional nerve recovery after nerve injury in vivo. CGF was prepared from venous blood taken from rats, and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we noted that it featured a fiber‑like appearance with pore size ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 µm. The soluble component of CGF was used to produce conditioned media with which to treat the Schwann cell line. A cell counting kit-8 assay and cell cycle analysis were both used to study the proliferative effect of CGF on SCs. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that there was an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of NGF and GDNF, both of which are markers of SC neurotrophic secretion. A model of sciatic nerve crush injury was established for the in vivo experiment, and CGF was found to increase the sciatic functional index (indicative of nerve function). We noted that CGF increased SC proliferation and secretion of neurotrophic factors in vitro, and promoted functional recovery after peripheral nerve injuries in vivo. These results suggest that CGF is a promising candidate biomaterial for peripheral nerve regeneration, and may potentially be utilized to repair nerve injuries.

  8. Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2015-04-01

    of the road system. According to new specification; the size of large stones for this layer should be maximum 0.5 m (longest edge) or ½ layer thickness. And minimum 30% of stones should be less than 90 mm. Fines content (First of all how this materials size will affect heat exchange in the layer, secondly - if the allowable fines content will make the materials frost susceptible. For calculations of frost protection layer thickness the knowledge of thermal conductivity of the aggregate layers is required. Handbook for geotechnical investigations of the soils provides this data for natural gravel which is limited by 0.7 - 1.3 W/mK. But when it comes to the crushed rocks, it can be significantly increased due to the higher conductivity of minerals (especially if they contain high amount of quartz), as well as due to higher effective conductivity. In rock-fill materials, i.e. materials with large particles and low degree of saturation, convection and radiation are the predominant heat transfer mechanisms. Convection and radiation can increase the effective conductivity by factor 2-10. Lebeau and Konrad (2007) showed that convection heat transfer could lead to the formation of undesirable permafrost conditions in toe drains of embankment dams located in Northern Quebec, i.e. in areas where there are no naturally occurring permafrost soils. In a frost design method the required parameter values of crushed rock aggregates are thermal conductivity, density and water content. The heat transfer during the freezing of natural soils is assumed proportional to thermal conductivity of the material. In a coarse-grained material with abundant pore space, convective heat transfer and radiation may be a considerable factor, sometimes even more significant than conduction. Specifications used by pavement engineers in most countries are solely based on grain size distribution and allowable fines content. The presence of fines in these layers can modify their frost susceptibility and

  9. Distribution of crushing strength of tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of a given set of data is important since most parametric statistical tests are based on the assumption that the studied data are normal distributed. In analysis of fracture mechanics the Weibull distribution is widely used and the derived Weibull modulus is interpreted as a mate...... data from nine model tablet formulations and four commercial tablets are shown to follow the normal distribution. The importance of proper cleaning of the crushing strength apparatus is demonstrated....

  10. Anomalous trapping of noble gases during sample crushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. E.; Miller, H.; Farley, K. A.; Hofmann, F.

    2017-12-01

    Fine-grained mineral samples are commonly analyzed for noble gas composition. Many coarse minerals contain inclusions that require that the samples be crushed and purified before analysis. Other samples are crushed because fine-grained samples may be degassed at lower temperature. And many rocks lack coarse mineral grains entirely. Protin et al. (2016) showed that crushed fine-grained olivine absorbs He from the atmosphere and retains it under heating to at least 900 degrees. We show that the act of crushing itself is responsible for the vast majority of this trapping. Samples crushed in the presence of pure He retain 25 times as much He as samples crushed in vacuum and immediately exposed to pure helium. We tested several ways to mitigate this problem, including acid leaching and crushing under a liquid. We find that crushing samples under water is the simplest, most effective way to avoid contamination with He during crushing. This approach resulted in no significant contamination of crushed fine-grained olivine, even when the submerged crushing was conducted under a headspace of pure He. Protin, M. (2016), et al. GCA 179, 76-88.

  11. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  12. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  13. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  14. The crush syndrome revisited (1940-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Better, O S

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews the local and systemic effects of crush injury. Within minutes to hours after extrication of survivors trapped under fallen masonry (and immediately following decompression of limbs), a massive volume of extracellular fluid is lost into the injured muscles, leading to circulatory failure. Solutes leaking out of damaged muscles cause a spectrum of metabolic disturbances. Chief among them are hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia which, synergistically, have a lethal cardiotoxic potential, particularly in hypotensive patients. Early volume replacement, preferably already started at the rescue site, may combat shock and correct the hyperkalemia. If urine flow is established, this regimen should be followed by a forced solute-alkaline diuresis for the prevention of myoglobinuric and uricosuric acute renal failure, which is a common and ominous late complication of crush injury. Preparation for future catastrophes occurring particularly in remote regions where an 'epidemic' of crush syndrome may be forecast, should include the setting up of a radio communications network to coordinate rescue and salvage operations and the forwarding of intravenous fluid bags and lines to the disaster site. Also, it is advisable to prepare artificial kidney devices which do not require pumps and electricity and which utilize a low dialysate volume for emergency temporary use, until conventional definitive medical facilities and services have been reestablished.

  15. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  16. NMR chemical shift and J coupling parameterization and quantum mechanical reference spectrum simulation for selected nerve agent degradation products in aqueous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Harri; Anđelković, Boban

    2017-10-01

    The spectral parameters of selected nerve agent degradation products relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention, namely, ethyl methylphosphonate, isopropyl methylphosphonate, pinacolyl methylphosphonate and methylphosphonic acid, were studied in wide range of pH conditions and selected temperatures. The pH and temperature dependence of chemical shifts and J couplings was parameterized using Henderson-Hasselbalch-based functions. The obtained parameters allowed calculation of precise chemical shifts and J coupling constants in arbitrary pH conditions and typical measurement temperatures, thus facilitating quantum mechanical simulation of reference spectra in the chosen magnetic field strength for chemical verification. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Permeability Evolution and Particle Size Distribution of Saturated Crushed Sandstone under Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the particle size distribution and permeability of saturated crushed sandstone under variable axial stresses (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 MPa were studied. X-ray Computed Tomography results revealed that particle crushing is likely to occur considerably as the axial stress is approaching 4 MPa, which results in the change of pore structure greatly. During compression, the particle size distribution satisfies the fractal condition well, and the fractal dimension of particle size distribution is an effective method for describing the particle crushing state of saturated crushed sandstone. When the axial stress increases from 0 MPa to 4 MPa, the fractal dimension of the particle size distribution increases rapidly by over 60% of the total increase (0–16 MPa, and the permeability decreases sharply by about 85% of the total decrease. These results indicate that 4 MPa is a key value in controlling the particle size distribution and the permeability of the saturated crushed sandstone under axial compression. The permeability is influenced by the initial gradation of the specimens, and a larger Talbot exponent corresponds to a larger permeability.

  18. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  19. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  20. Proteomics of the injured rat sciatic nerve reveals protein expression dynamics during regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, Connie R; Stam, Floor J; Li, Ka Wan; Gouwenberg, Yvonne; Hornshaw, Martin P; De Winter, Fred; Verhaagen, J.; Smit, August B

    Using proteomics, we investigated the temporal expression profiles of proteins in rat sciatic nerve after experimental crush. Extracts of sciatic nerves collected at 5, 10, and 35 days after injury were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitative image analysis. Of the

  1. Regeneration of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory nerve fibres studied by a retrograde tracer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated sensory nerve fibres after a crush lesion of the rat sciatic nerve was investigated by means of retrograde labelling. The advantage of this method is that the degree of regeneration is estimated on the basis of sensory somata rather than the number...

  2. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  3. Nerve conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS contains the brain and the spinal cord and the PNS consists of thousands of nerves that connect the spinal cord to muscles and sensory receptors. A peripheral nerve is composed of nerve ...

  4. Plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells from mouse bone marrow in the presence of conditioned medium of the facial nerve and fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; Marinho, Maria Jocileide de Medeiros; Pereira, Wogelsanger Oliveira; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão; Costa, Miriam Stela Mariz de Oliveira; do Nascimento Júnior, Expedito Silva; Cavalcante, Jeferson Sousa

    2014-01-01

    A number of evidences show the influence of the growth of injured nerve fibers in peripheral nervous system as well as potential implant stem cells (SCs). The SCs implementation in the clinical field is promising and the understanding of proliferation and differentiation is essential. This study aimed to evaluate the plasticity of mesenchymal SCs from bone marrow of mice in the presence of culture medium conditioned with facial nerve explants and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The growth and morphology were assessed for over 72 hours. Quantitative phenotypic analysis was taken from the immunocytochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), protein OX-42 (OX-42), protein associated with microtubule MAP-2 (MAP-2), protein β-tubulin III (β-tubulin III), neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), and neurofilament 200 (NF-200). Cells cultured with conditioned medium alone or combined with FGF-2 showed morphological features apparently similar at certain times to neurons and glia and a significant proliferative activity in groups 2 and 4. Cells cultivated only with conditioned medium acquired a glial phenotype. Cells cultured with FGF-2 and conditioned medium expressed GFAP, OX-42, MAP-2, β-tubulin III, NeuN, and NF-200. This study improves our understanding of the plasticity of mesenchymal cells and allows the search for better techniques with SCs.

  5. Improvement of sciatic nerve regeneration using laminin-binding human NGF-beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sciatic nerve injuries often cause partial or total loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions due to the axon discontinuity, degeneration, and eventual death which finally result in substantial functional loss and decreased quality of life. Nerve growth factor (NGF plays a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the lack of efficient NGF delivery approach limits its clinical applications. We reported here by fusing with the N-terminal domain of agrin (NtA, NGF-beta could target to nerve cells and improve nerve regeneration. METHODS: Laminin-binding assay and sustained release assay of NGF-beta fused with NtA (LBD-NGF from laminin in vitro were carried out. The bioactivity of LBD-NGF on laminin in vitro was also measured. Using the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, the nerve repair and functional restoration by utilizing LBD-NGF were tested. FINDINGS: LBD-NGF could specifically bind to laminin and maintain NGF activity both in vitro and in vivo. In the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, we found that LBD-NGF could be retained and concentrated at the nerve injury sites to promote nerve repair and enhance functional restoration following nerve damages. CONCLUSION: Fused with NtA, NGF-beta could bind to laminin specifically. Since laminin is the major component of nerve extracellular matrix, laminin binding NGF could target to nerve cells and improve the repair of peripheral nerve injuries.

  6. Guinea pigs as an animal model for sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4th weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury. A 3.49 ± 0.35 fold increase in expression of neuropilin 1 (NRP1 gene and 2.09 ± 0.51 fold increase in neuropilin 2 (NRP2 gene were recorded 1 week after nerve injury as compared to the normal nerve. Ratios of gastrocnemius muscle weight and volume of the experimental limb to control limb showed more than 50% decrease on the 30th day. Histopathologically, vacuolated appearance of the nerve was observed with presence of degenerated myelin debris in digestion chambers. Gastrocnemius muscle also showed degenerative changes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loose and rough arrangement of connective tissue fibrils and presence of large spherical globules in crushed sciatic nerve. The findings suggest that guinea pigs could be used as an alternative animal model for nerve regeneration studies and might be preferred over rats due to their cooperative nature while recording different parameters.

  7. Bioaerosol formation during grape stemming and crushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Marc; Krebs, Walter; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-15

    Indoor formation of airborne particles during pre-fermentation grape processing was assessed by particle counting using laser particle sizers. Particle numbers of four different aerodynamic size classes (0.3 to 0.5 microm, 0.5 to 1 microm, 1 to 5 microm, and >5 microm) were determined during unloading of harvest containers and subsequent grape stemming and crushing. Regarding these size classes, composition before grape handling was determined as 87.9%, 10.4%, 1.7%, and 0.1%, respectively, whereas the composition changed during grape handling to 50.4%, 15.2%, 33.0%, and 1.5%, respectively. Airborne bacteria and fungi originating from grape processing were collected by impactor and liquid impinger samplers. Grape handling resulted in a sixfold increase in total (biological and non-biological) airborne particles. The generation of bacterial and fungal aerosols was associated mostly with particles of aerodynamic diameters>5 microm (mainly 7 to 11 microm) as determined by flow cytometry. This fraction was increased 150fold in relation to background levels before grape crushing. Maximum concentrations of culturable bacteria reached 485,000 colony forming units (cfu/m3), whereas 146,000 cfu of fungi and yeasts were detected per cubic meter of air. Culturable Gram-negative bacteria occurred only in small numbers (180 cfu/m3). In relation to the total number of airborne particles emitted, culturable microorganisms comprised 0.1% to 0.2%. As soon as grape crushing was stopped, particle concentrations decreased rapidly either due to passive settling or due to air currents in the occupational indoor environment reaching background levels.

  8. Vagus nerve stimulation enhances extinction of conditioned fear and modulates plasticity in the pathway from the infralimbic prefrontal cortex to the amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Frausto Peña

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fearful experiences can produce long-lasting and debilitating memories. Extinction of the fear response requires consolidation of new memories that compete with fearful associations. Subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD show impaired extinction of conditioned fear, which is associated with decreased ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC control over amygdala activity. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS enhances memory consolidation in both rats and humans, and pairing VNS with exposure to conditioned cues enhances the consolidation of extinction learning in rats. Here we investigated whether pairing VNS with extinction learning facilitates plasticity between the infralimbic (IL medial prefrontal cortex and the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA. Rats were trained on an auditory fear conditioning task, which was followed by a retention test and one day of extinction training. Vagus nerve stimulation or sham-stimulation was administered concurrently with exposure to the fear-conditioned stimulus and retention of fear conditioning was tested again 24 hours later. VNS-treated rats demonstrated a significant reduction in freezing after a single extinction training session similar to animals that received 5x the number of extinction pairings. To study plasticity in the IL-BLA pathway, we recorded evoked field potentials in the BLA in anesthetized animals 24 h after retention testing. Brief burst stimulation in the IL produced LTD in the BLA field response in fear-conditioned and sham-treated animals. In contrast, the same stimulation resulted in potentiation of the IL-BLA pathway in the VNS-treated group. The present findings suggest that VNS promotes plasticity in the IL-BLA pathway to facilitate extinction of conditioned fear responses.

  9. Effect of Fracture on Crushing of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Abramowicz, W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with loads and energy absorption during crushing of ship structures. Particular focus is on the effect of fracture of welds or parent material on the energy absorption of typical structural subassemblies of ships during deep collapse. The paper presents experiments...... absorption in axial crushing of typical ship structural components. This effect of fracture has been neglected in previously published studies of bow crushing mechanics....

  10. Crushing of ship bows in head-on collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocakli, H.; Zhang, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    Semi-analytical methods for analysis of plate crushing and ship bow damage in head-on collisions are developed in this paper. Existing experimental and theoretical studies for crushing analysis of plated structures are summarized and compared. Simple formulae for determining the crushing force....... The approach developed can be used easily to determine the crushing resistance and damage extent of the ship bow when ship length and collision speed are known. The method can be used in probabilistic analysis of damage extents in ship collisions where a large number of calculations are generally required....

  11. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  12. Recent developments, new trends in seed crushing and oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kővári Katalin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil processing was considered as slowly changing “traditional” industry but the recent decades’ developments and trends resulted in a lot of changes initiated by market, industry, environment protection and consumer needs. Driving force of the developments were centralization of the industry, more and more concerns on environmental impact, increased importance of food-feed safety, and last but not least research and development activity together with improved analytical capabilities. The presentation gives an overview on the results achieved on the field of the following areas: the criteria of applicability of physical refining of seed oils, solutions for proper degumming, the effect of seed pretreatment and crushing conditions on the crude oil quality, the importance and role of bleaching and active carbon treatment, the proper practice of deacidification/deodorization.

  13. Time course of neuroanatomical and functional recovery after bilateral pudendal nerve injury in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Damaser, Margot S.; Samplaski, Mary K.; Parikh, Mansi; Lin, Dan Li; Rao, Soujanya; Kerns, James M.

    2007-01-01

    The pudendal nerve innervates the external urethral sphincter (EUS) and is among the tissues injured during childbirth, which may lead to symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). To understand the mechanisms of injury and repair, urethral leak-point pressure (LPP) was measured 4 days, 2 wk, or 6 wk after bilateral pudendal nerve crush. Morphometric changes in the distal nerve and EUS were examined by light and electron microscopy. To determine whether recovery resulted from pudendal neu...

  14. The Big Crush: An Introduction to Materials Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Lots of engineering thinking can be involved in crushing things. As an example, engineers spend a great deal of time designing crush-proof packaging for delicate equipment and packing materials for items that must be stored or shipped. This article presents an activity wherein students can begin to appreciate the technology behind the engineering.…

  15. Interim design report: fuel particle crushing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, J.W.; Strand, J.B.; Cook, E.J.; Miller, C.M.

    1977-11-01

    The double-roll fuel particle crusher was developed to fracture the silicon carbide coatings of Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fertile and fissile and large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (LHTGR) fissile fuel particles. The report details the design task for the fuel particle crusher, including historical test information on double-roll crushers for carbide-coated fuels and the design approach selected for the cold pilot plant crusher, and shows how the design addresses the equipment goals and operational objectives. Design calculations and considerations are included to support the selection of crusher drive and gearing, the materials chosen for crushing rolls and housing, and the bearing selection. The results of the initial testing for compliance with design objectives and operational capabilities are also presented. 8 figures, 4 tables

  16. A "crush study" review of micrograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, J F; Kramer, R D; Reynolds, G D

    1997-09-01

    Poor growth has been reported after densely packed megasessions. These reports have been fairly consistent. Despite these statements, excellent growth is seen in the majority of their cases. The author's have theorized that iatrogenic trauma from inappropriate graft handling is one etiology that substantially contributes to poor growth. The purpose of this preliminary "crush study" is to: 1) ascertain if follicular trauma directly causes a decreased growth; and 2) consider contributing factors and ways to decrease the incidence of trauma. Initial observations indicate that follicles demonstrate excellent growth, but reduced yields have been noted with less skilled technicians. It appears that graft injury is easily induced with micrografts. Our findings demonstrate that trauma may increase in direct proportion to the removal of dermis and subcutaneous tissue.

  17. Usage of Crushed Concrete Fines in Decorative Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Anton; Bazhenova, Sofia

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the questions of usage of crushed concrete fines from concrete scrap for the production of high-quality decorative composite materials based on mixed binder. The main problem in the application of crushed concrete in the manufacture of decorative concrete products is extremely low decorative properties of crushed concrete fines itself, as well as concrete products based on them. However, crushed concrete fines could have a positive impact on the structure of the concrete matrix and could improve the environmental and economic characteristics of the concrete products. Dust fraction of crushed concrete fines contains non-hydrated cement grains, which can be opened in screening process due to the low strength of the contact zone between the hydrated and non-hydrated cement. In addition, the screening process could increase activity of the crushed concrete fines, so it can be used as a fine aggregate and filler for concrete mixes. Previous studies have shown that the effect of the usage of the crushed concrete fines is small and does not allow to obtain concrete products with high strength. However, it is possible to improve the efficiency of the crushed concrete fines as a filler due to the complex of measures prior to mixing. Such measures may include a preliminary mechanochemical activation of the binder (cement binder, iron oxide pigment, silica fume and crushed concrete fines), as well as the usage of polycarboxylate superplasticizers. The development of specific surface area of activated crushed concrete fines ensures strong adhesion between grains of binder and filler during the formation of cement stone matrix. The particle size distribution of the crushed concrete fines could achieve the densest structure of cement stone matrix and improve its resistance to environmental effects. The authors examined the mechanisms of structure of concrete products with crushed concrete fines as a filler. The results of studies of the properties of

  18. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra; Carlos Alberto Duque Parra

    2006-01-01

    It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH). In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a co...

  19. Immune cell distribution and immunoglobulin levels change following sciatic nerve injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To investigate the systemic and local immune status of two surgical rat models of sciatic nerve injury, a crushed sciatic nerve, and a sciatic nerve transection Materials and Methods:Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group, sciatic nerve crush, and sciatic nerve transaction. Sciatic nerve surgery was performed. The percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ratio were determined by flow cytometry. Serum IgM and IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA. T-cells (CD3 and macrophages (CD68 in sciatic nerve tissue sections were identified through immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to sham-operated controls, in rats that underwent nerve injury, the percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly  decreased 7 days after surgery, serum IgM levels were increased 14 days after surgery, and serum IgG levels were increased 21 days after surgery. There were a large number of CD3+ cells and a small number of CD68+ cells in sciatic nerve tissue sections 21 days after surgery, indicating T-cell and macrophage activation and infiltration. Local IgG deposition was also detected at the nerve injury site 21 days after surgery. Conclusion: Rat humoral and cellular immune status changed following sciatic nerve injury, particularly with regard to the cellular immune response at the nerve injury site.

  20. Expression patterns and role of PTEN in rat peripheral nerve development and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Xiang, Jianping; Wu, Junxia; He, Bo; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Canbin

    2018-04-09

    Studies have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays an important role in neuroprotection and neuronal regeneration. To better understand the potential role of PTEN with respect to peripheral nerve development and injury, we investigated the expression pattern of PTEN at different stages of rat peripheral nerve development and injury and subsequently assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) on axonal regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. During the early stages of development, PTEN exhibits low expression in neuronal cell bodies and axons. From embryonic day (E) 18.5 and postnatal day (P)5 to adult, PTEN protein becomes more detectable, with high expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and axons. PTEN expression is inhibited in peripheral nerves, preceding myelination during neuronal development and remyelination after acute nerve injury. Low PTEN expression after nerve injury promotes Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activity. In vivo pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) promoted axonal regrowth, increased the number of myelinated nerve fibers, improved locomotive recovery and enhanced the amplitude response and nerve conduction velocity following stimulation in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Thus, we suggest that PTEN may play potential roles in peripheral nerve development and regeneration and that inhibition of PTEN expression is beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Bioavailability of buprenorphine from crushed and whole buprenorphine (subutex) tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simojoki, Kaarlo; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Alho, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    Buprenorphine (Subutex) is the most abused opioid in Finland. In order to curb the abuse potential of this drug, many treatment centers and prisons crush Subutex tablets before administering them to patients. To date, there are no published studies comparing the efficacy and bioavailability of crushed and whole Subutex tablets. A total of 16 opioid-dependent patients stabilized on 24 mg of buprenorphine were enrolled in a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized cross-over study comparing crushed and whole buprenorphine tablets on a range of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variables. Buprenorphine tablets (either crushed or whole) and placebo tablets (either crushed or whole) were administered to subjects simultaneously. Buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine serum levels were measured at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 360 min, as well as 24 h, after tablet administration. After 1 week, the experiment was repeated in a cross-over design so that, by the end of the study, each patient had received the active drug (buprenorphine) as both crushed and whole tablets. Pharmacokinetic parameters (mean serum levels, C(max), T(max), AUC) of buprenorphine or norbuprenorphine did not differ significantly between crushed and whole tablets, although serum levels were slightly higher after administration of the crushed tablets. There were also no significant differences in dissolution/absorption time, withdrawal signs or opiate craving. We conclude that crushing Subutex tablets does not significantly alter serum buprenorphine or norbuprenorphine levels or the drug's clinical effect. Our results indicate that crushing Subutex tablets may be used as an alternative method to counter the risk of buprenorphine diversion. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Time course of immediate early gene protein expression in the spinal cord following conditioning stimulation of the sciatic nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovic, Ognjen; Panja, Debabrata; Bittins, Margarethe; Bramham, Clive R; Tjølsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Long-term potentiation induced by conditioning electrical stimulation of afferent fibers is a widely studied form of synaptic plasticity in the brain and the spinal cord. In the spinal cord dorsal horn, long-term potentiation is induced by a series of high-frequency trains applied to primary afferent fibers. Conditioning stimulation (CS) of sciatic nerve primary afferent fibers also induces expression of immediate early gene proteins in the lumbar spinal cord. However, the time course of immediate early gene expression and the rostral-caudal distribution of expression in the spinal cord have not been systematically studied. Here, we examined the effects of sciatic nerve conditioning stimulation (10 stimulus trains, 0.5 ms stimuli, 7.2 mA, 100 Hz, train duration 2 s, 8 s intervals between trains) on cellular expression of immediate early genes, Arc, c-Fos and Zif268, in anesthetized rats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on sagittal sections obtained from Th13- L5 segments of the spinal cord at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 h post-CS. Strikingly, all immediate early genes exhibited a monophasic increase in expression with peak increases detected in dorsal horn neurons at 2 hours post-CS. Regional analysis showed peak increases at the location between the L3 and L4 spinal segments. Both Arc, c-Fos and Zif268 remained significantly elevated at 2 hours, followed by a sharp decrease in immediate early gene expression between 2 and 3 hours post-CS. Colocalization analysis performed at 2 hours post-CS showed that all c-Fos and Zif268 neurons were positive for Arc, while 30% and 43% of Arc positive neurons were positive for c-Fos and Zif268, respectively. The present study identifies the spinal cord level and time course of immediate early gene (IEGP) expression of relevance for analysis of IEGPs function in neuronal plasticity and nociception.

  3. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ′excellent′ and ′good′ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  4. Expression of growth-associated protein B-50/GAP43 in dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve during regenerative sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der; Nielander, H.B.; Vos, J.P.; Lopes da Silva, S.; Verhaagen, J.; Oestreicher, J.; Schrama, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that B-50 is identical to the neuron- specific, growth-associated protein GAP43. The present study reports on the fate of B-50/GAP43 mRNA and B-50/GAP43 protein, determined by radioimmunoassay, in a rat model of peripheral nerve regeneration (sciatic nerve crush) over a

  5. Calcitonin pump improves nerve regeneration after transection injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Logiudice, John; Davis, John; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Agresti, Michael; Sanger, James; Matloub, Hani S; Havlik, Robert

    2015-02-01

    After nerve injury, excessive calcium impedes nerve regeneration. We previously showed that calcitonin improved nerve regeneration in crush injury. We aimed to validate the direct effect of calcitonin on transected and repaired nerve. Two rat groups (n = 8) underwent sciatic nerve transection followed by direct repair. In the calcitonin group, a calcitonin-filled mini-osmotic pump was implanted subcutaneously, with a catheter parallel to the repaired nerve. The control group underwent repair only, without a pump. Evaluation and comparison between the groups included: (1) compound muscle action potential recording of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle; (2) tetanic muscle force test of EDL; (3) nerve calcium concentration; and (4) nerve fiber count and calcified spot count. The calcitonin pump group showed superior recovery. Calcitonin affects injured and repaired peripheral nerve directly. The calcitonin-filled mini-osmotic pump improved nerve functional recovery by accelerating calcium absorption from the repaired nerve. This finding has potential clinical applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of compacting crushed salt backfill at low porosities. Project REPOPERM. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroehn, Klaus-Peter; Czaikowski, Oliver; Wieczorek, Klaus; Zhang, Chun-Liang; Moog, Helge; Friedenberg, Larissa [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Stuehrenberg, Dieter; Heemann, Ulrich [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Jobmann, Michael; Mueller, Christian; Schirmer, Sonja [DBE Technology GmbH (DBE TEC), Peine (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The compaction behavior of crushed salt has been extensively investigated by means of experimental as well as theoretical work. The readiness of numerical tools for the application to modeling the complex coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the crushed salt backfilled in a repository in salt rock has also been demonstrated. Compaction tests were performed under repository-relevant conditions. These tests were supplemented by laboratory work aiming at specific aspects of compaction. The following list covers the topics of these investigations as well as the main results. - Revisiting the determination of the porosity in relevant, past experiments (BGR). - Influence of the grain size distribution on compaction (BGR). - Triaxial compaction test with dry material at low porosities (BGR). - Investigation of the influence of humidity on compaction covers several subtopics. - Permeability associated with low porosity includes two subtopics. - Constitutive equations for two -phase flow (GRS). - Microstructural Investigations (DBE TEC). Parallel to the experimental work attention focussed on several aspects of the basics for modelling the compaction of crushed salt. This work covers checking the validity of the established numerical tools as well as exploring new methods. Topics and main results are listed here: - Development/definition and comparison of constitutive models (BGR). - Benchmark calculations (BGR and GRS). - Capability of scaling-rules for capillary pressure from the oil industry (GRS). - Application of discrete element codes to compacting crushed salt (DBE TEC). Finally, repository-relevant scenarios are discussed as a basis for a realistic but generic numerical model of brine inflow in to a converging back filled drift under a thermal gradient (GRS). This exercise demonstrates the feasibility of modelling crushed salt compaction as a fully coupled thermohydraulic-mechanical process including two-phase flow effects.

  7. Neural Progenitor-Like Cells Induced from Human Gingiva-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate Myelination of Schwann Cells in Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunzhou; Nguyen, Phuong; Xu, Qilin; Park, Wonse; Lee, Sumin; Furuhashi, Akihiro; Le, Anh D

    2017-02-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerve injury remains a major clinical challenge. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as potential candidates for peripheral nerve regeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that human gingiva-derived MSCs (GMSCs) could be directly induced into multipotent NPCs (iNPCs) under minimally manipulated conditions without the introduction of exogenous genes. Using a crush-injury model of rat sciatic nerve, we demonstrate that GMSCs transplanted to the injury site could differentiate into neuronal cells, whereas iNPCs could differentiate into both neuronal and Schwann cells. After crush injury, iNPCs, compared with GMSCs, displayed superior therapeutic effects on axonal regeneration at both the injury site and the distal segment of the injured sciatic nerve. Mechanistically, transplantation of GMSCs, especially iNPCs, significantly attenuated injury-triggered increase in the expression of c-Jun, a transcription factor that functions as a major negative regulator of myelination and plays a central role in dedifferentiation/reprogramming of Schwann cells into a progenitor-like state. Meanwhile, our results also demonstrate that transplantation of GMSCs and iNPCs consistently increased the expression of Krox-20/EGR2, a transcription factor that governs the expression of myelin proteins and facilitates myelination. Altogether, our findings suggest that transplantation of GMSCs and iNPCs promotes peripheral nerve repair/regeneration, possibly by promoting remyelination of Schwann cells mediated via the regulation of the antagonistic myelination regulators, c-Jun and Krox-20/EGR2. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:458-470. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  8. A numerical test method of California bearing ratio on graded crushed rocks using particle flow modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yingjun; Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen; Ren, Jiaolong

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the mechanical properties of graded crushed rocks (GCRs) and to optimize the relevant design, a numerical test method based on the particle flow modeling technique PFC2D is developed for the California bearing ratio (CBR) test on GCRs. The effects of different testing conditions and micro-mechanical parameters used in the model on the CBR numerical results have been systematically studied. The reliability of the numerical technique is verified. The numerical resu...

  9. Balance and coordination training after sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Leandro Viçosa; Korb, Arthiese; Da Silva, Sandro Antunes; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Achaval, Matilde; Faccioni-Heuser, Maria Cristina

    2011-07-01

    Numerous therapeutic interventions have been tested to enhance functional recovery after peripheral nerve injuries. After sciatic nerve crush in rats we tested balance and coordination and motor control training in sensorimotor tests and analyzed nerve and muscle histology. The balance and coordination training group and the sham group had better results than the sedentary and motor control groups in sensorimotor tests. The sham and balance and coordination groups had a significantly larger muscle area than the other groups, and the balance and coordination group showed significantly better values than the sedentary and motor control groups for average myelin sheath thickness and g-ratio of the distal portion of the nerve. The findings indicate that balance and coordination training improves sciatic nerve regeneration, suggesting that it is possible to revert and/or prevent soleus muscle atrophy and improve performance on sensorimotor tests. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Development of rat embryonic spinal ganglion cells in damaged nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E S; Isaeva, E N; Korzhevskii, D E

    2014-09-01

    The development of dissociated cells from rat embryonic spinal ganglion after transplantation to damaged nerve of adult animals was studied using immunohistochemical differentiation markers of neural and glial cells. The cell suspension obtained after dissociation of rat embryonic spinal ganglia (embryonic day 15) was injected into the proximal segment of crushed sciatic nerve. The nerve was damaged by ligation for 40 sec. Progenitor cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) before transplantation. BrdU-immunopositive cells were detected in the nerve trunks of recipients on days 1, 21, and 28 after transplantation. Dissociated cells of rat embryonic spinal ganglion (embryonic day 15) survived for at least 4 weeks after transplantation to the nerve and differentiate into NeuN-immunopositive neurons with morphological properties of sensory neurons and satellite cells containing S100 protein.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies

  12. Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

    From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

  13. Crushing of ship bows in head-on collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocakli, H.; Zhang, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    . The approach developed can be used easily to determine the crushing resistance and damage extent of the ship bow when ship length and collision speed are known. The method can be used in probabilistic analysis of damage extents in ship collisions where a large number of calculations are generally required.......Semi-analytical methods for analysis of plate crushing and ship bow damage in head-on collisions are developed in this paper. Existing experimental and theoretical studies for crushing analysis of plated structures are summarized and compared. Simple formulae for determining the crushing force......, force-deformation curve and damge extent of a ship bow, expressed in terms of ship principal particulars, are derived for longitudinally stiffened oil tankers and bulk carriers with length of 150 meters and above. The methods are compared with published results and good agreement is achieved...

  14. Effect of Fracture on Crushing of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Abramowicz, W.

    2003-01-01

    and theories on the crushing response of typical strength elements. The theories are derived for an infinitely ductile material response and then consistently modified to include the effect of fracture. Theoretical formulas are compared with results of large-scale experiments performed at the Technical......This paper is concerned with loads and energy absorption during crushing of ship structures. Particular focus is on the effect of fracture of welds or parent material on the energy absorption of typical structural subassemblies of ships during deep collapse. The paper presents experiments...... absorption in axial crushing of typical ship structural components. This effect of fracture has been neglected in previously published studies of bow crushing mechanics....

  15. Inventory and Transformation Hedging Effectiveness in Corn Crushing

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgran, Roger A.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the development of the U.S. ethanol industry, the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) launched the ethanol futures contract in March 2005. This contract is promoted by the CBOT as allowing ethanol producers to hedge corn crushing using strategies similar to those used in soybean crushing. The similarities end, however, when the lack of short-term correlation between corn and ethanol prices is compared to the strong correlation between soybean and soy product prices. This contrast mot...

  16. ErbB2 receptor over-expression improves post-traumatic peripheral nerve regeneration in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Giulia; Gambarotta, Giovanna; Di Scipio, Federica; Salamone, Paolina; Sprio, Andrea E; Cavallo, Federica; Perroteau, Isabelle; Berta, Giovanni N; Geuna, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In a transgenic mice (BALB-neuT) over-expressing ErbB2 receptor, we investigated the adult mouse median nerve in physiological and pathological conditions. Results showed that, in physiological conditions, the grip function controlled by the median nerve in BALB-neuT mice was similar to wild-type (BALB/c). Stereological assessment of ErbB2-overexpressing intact nerves revealed no difference in number and size of myelinated fibers compared to wild-type mice. By contrast, after a nerve crush injury, the motor recovery was significantly faster in BALB-neuT compared to BALB/c mice. Moreover, stereological assessment revealed a significant higher number of regenerated myelinated fibers with a thinner axon and fiber diameter and myelin thickness in BALB-neuT mice. At day-2 post-injury, the level of the mRNAs coding for all the ErbB receptors and for the transmembrane (type III) Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) isoforms significantly decreased in both BALB/c and BALB-neuT mice, as shown by quantitative real time PCR. On the other hand, the level of the mRNAs coding for soluble NRG1 isoforms (type I/II, alpha and beta) increased at the same post-traumatic time point though, intriguingly, this response was significantly higher in BALB-neuT mice with respect to BALB/c mice. Altogether, these results suggest that constitutive ErbB2 receptor over-expression does not influence the physiological development of peripheral nerves, while it improves nerve regeneration following traumatic injury, possibly through the up-regulation of soluble NRG1 isoforms.

  17. Peripheral nerve injury causes transient expression of MHC class I antigens in rat motor neurons and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maehlen, J; Nennesmo, I; Olsson, A B

    1989-01-01

    After a peripheral nerve lesion (rat facial and sciatic) an induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens class I was detected immunohistochemically in skeletal muscle fibers and motor neurons. This MHC expression was transient after a nerve crush, when regeneration occurred......, but persisted after a nerve cut, when regeneration was prevented. Since the time course of MHC class I expression correlates to that of regeneration a role for this cell surface molecule in regeneration may be considered....

  18. Ocular Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and NGF Eye Drop Application as Paradigms to Investigate NGF Neuroprotective and Reparative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirassa, Paola; Rosso, Pamela; Iannitelli, Angela

    2018-01-01

    The eye is a central nervous system structure that is uniquely accessible to local treatment. Through the ocular surface, it is possible to access the retina, optic nerve, and brain. Animal models of retina degeneration or optic nerve crush could thus serve as tools to investigate whether and how factors, which are anterogradely or retrogradely transported through the optic nerve, might contribute to activate neuroprotection and eventually regeneration. Among these factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role during development of the visual system, as well as during the entire life span, and in pathological conditions. The ability of NGF to exert survival and trophic actions on the retina and brain cells when applied intraocularly and topically as eye drops is critically reviewed here, together with the effects of ocular neurotrophins on neuronal pathways influencing body rhythm, cognitions, and behavioral functions. The latest data from animal models and humans are presented, and the mechanism of action of ocularly administered NGF is discussed. NGF eye drops are proposed as an experimental strategy to investigate the role and cellular targets of neurotrophins in the mechanism(s) underlying neurodegeneration/regeneration and their involvement in the regulation of neurological and behavioral dysfunctions.

  19. Laboratory evaluation of cement treated aggregate containing crushed clay brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste clay bricks from debris of buildings were evaluated through lab tests as environmental friendly materials for pavement sub-base in the research. Five sets of coarse aggregates which contained 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% crushed bricks, respectively, were blended with sand and treated by 5% cement. The test results indicated that cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay brick aggregate had a lower maximum dry density (MDD and a higher optimum moisture content (OMC. Moreover, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS, resilience modulus, splitting strength, and frost resistance performance of the specimens decreased with increase of the amount of crushed clay brick aggregate. On the other hand, it can be observed that the use of crushed clay brick in the mixture decreased the dry shrinkage strain of the specimens. Compared with the asphalt pavement design specifications of China, the results imply that the substitution rate of natural aggregate with crushed clay brick aggregate in the cement treated aggregate sub-base material should be less than 50% (5% cement content in the mixture. Furthermore, it needs to be noted that the cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay bricks should be cautiously used in the cold region due to its insufficient frost resistance performance.

  20. Some Aspects of Facial Nerve Paralysis*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1872 Duchenne described the technique of nerve ex- citability testing for facial paralysis. According to the severity of the condition, peripheral nerve lesions can be classified on the bases of electrical tests, as: (a) neurapraxia; (b) axonotmesis; and (c) neurot- mesis. This classification for peripheral nerve lesions was intro-.

  1. Epimedium Extract Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Kou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Epimedium extract and its constituent icariin on peripheral nerve repair were investigated in a crush injury rat model. Animals were divided into four groups: sham, control, Epimedium extract, and icariin groups. At postoperative weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8, nerve regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated by sciatic functional index (SFI, nerve electrophysiology, nerve pinch test, and muscle wet weight. Results showed that at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery rats in the Epimedium group displayed a better recovery of nerve function than that in the icariin and control groups, with better recovery in the icariin group than in the control group. The nerve pinch test showed that nerve regeneration was greater in the Epimedium group and the icariin group as compared to the control group. In addition, the muscle wet weight in the Epimedium group was significantly improved when compared with the icariin group, and the improvement in the icariin group was better than that in the control group at 8 weeks after operation. Our findings suggest that Epimedium extract effectively promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and improves the function of damaged nerves.

  2. Numerical modeling of macroscale brittle rock crushing during impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, Salah A.; Abdelhaffez, Gamal S. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-02-01

    Several machines, such as crushers use the physical effect of compression to cause fragmentation 'crushing' of brittle rocks. As a consequence of the complex fragmentation process, crushers are still sized by empirical approaches. This paper present the results of a numerical study to understand some aspects of rock crushing phenomenon in terms of energy consumption. The study uses the discrete element approach of PFC2D code to simulate a stamp mill. The stamp mill has a simple crushing mechanism of a fixed kinetic energy delivered by a rigid ram impact. A single rock fragment crushing process dependent on the number of stamp mill ram blows is numerically examined. Both amount and type of energy generated by a ram blow are monitored besides the type of fractures generated. The model results indicate that the ram impact energy is mainly consumed in form of friction energy (up to 61 %) while strain energy stays at about 5 % of delivered energy. The energy consumed by crushing the rock represents only 32 % to 45 % of stamp mill energy and tends to decrease as the number of impacts increases. The rock fragmented matrix tends to convert into more friction energy with reduced number of new fractures as number of blows increase. The fragmentation caused by tensile is more often compared to those caused by shear, this behaviour increased with increasing number of ram blows. (orig.)

  3. Utilization of crushed clay brick in cellular concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research program is to study the effect of using crushed clay brick as an alternative aggregate in aerated concrete. Two series of mixtures were designed to investigate the physico-mechanical properties and micro-structural analysis of autoclave aerated concrete and foamed concrete, respectively. In each series, natural sand was replaced with crushed clay brick aggregate. In both series results showed a significant reduction in unit weight, thermal conductivity and sound attenuation coefficient while porosity has increased. Improvement on compressive strength of autoclave aerated concrete was observed at a percentage of 25% and 50% replacement, while in foamed concrete compressive strength gradually decreased by increasing crushed clay brick aggregate content. A comparatively uniform distribution of pore in case of foamed concrete with natural sand was observed by scanning electron microscope, while the pores were connected mostly and irregularly for mixes containing a percentage higher than 25% clay brick aggregate.

  4. Cask crush pad analysis using detailed and simplified analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST). This facility, located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a US Department of Energy site. The basis for this study is an analysis by Uldrich and Hawkes. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate various hypothetical cask drop orientations to ensure that the crush pad design was adequate and the cask deceleration at impact was less than 100 g. It is demonstrated herein that a large spent fuel shipping cask, when dropped onto a foam crush pad, can be analyzed by either hand methods or by sophisticated dynamic finite element analysis using computer codes such as ABAQUS. Results from the two methods are compared to evaluate accuracy of the simplified hand analysis approach

  5. Double crush syndrome caused by cervical spondylosis and vertebral artery loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Young Joon; Choe, Woo Jin

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to report a successful treatment experience in a rare case of simultaneous cervical nerve root compression by spondylotic cervical foraminal stenosis and a vertebral artery loop. 51-year-old man presented with a 4-year history of left-sided cervical pain radiating to the left shoulder with progressive exacerbation of weakness on left shoulder girdle muscles for 7 months. The patient had no history of trauma. The patient's CT and MRI revealed impingement of the left C6 cervical nerve root by a tortuous vertebral artery loop and also by narrowed left C5-6 cervical foramen that had undergone spondylotic changes. The patient underwent left C5-6 hemilaminectomy, facetectomy and C5-6 fusion. The procedures were uneventful, and the patient recovered with complete resolution of symptoms. The patient continued to be asymptomatic at a 2-year follow-up examination, and the muscle mass of his left girdle returned normal. This report illustrates the first phenomenon of a double crush syndrome caused by vertebral artery loop and cervical spondylotic changes. When patients with cervical spondylosis present with unexplainably severe pain and weakness, additional underlying pathologies should be considered when making differential diagnoses. The investigation planning should involve electromyography, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. The Candy Crush Sweet Tooth: How 'Near-misses' in Candy Crush Increase Frustration, and the Urge to Continue Gameplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larche, Chanel J; Musielak, Natalia; Dixon, Mike J

    2017-06-01

    Like many gambling games, the exceedingly popular and lucrative smartphone game "Candy Crush" features near-miss outcomes. In slot machines, a near-miss involves getting two of the needed three high-paying symbols on the pay-line (i.e., just missing the big win). In Candy Crush, the game signals when you just miss getting to the next level by one or two moves. Because near-misses in gambling games have consistently been shown to invigorate play despite being frustrating outcomes, the goal of the present study was to examine whether such near-misses trigger increases in player arousal, frustration and urge to continue play in Candy Crush. Sixty avid Candy Crush players were recruited to play the game for 30 min while having their Heart Rate, Skin Conductance Level, subjective arousal, frustration and urge to play recorded for three types of outcomes: wins (where they level up), losses (where they don't come close to levelling up), and near-misses (where they just miss levelling up). Near-misses were more arousing than losses as indexed by increased heart rate and greater subjective arousal. Near-misses were also subjectively rated as the most frustrating of all outcomes. Most importantly, of any type of outcome, near-misses triggered the most substantial urge to continue play. These findings suggest that near-misses in Candy Crush play a role in player commitment to the game, and may contribute to players playing longer than intended.

  7. Soluble complement receptor 1 protects the peripheral nerve from early axon loss after injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaglia, Valeria; Wolterman, Ruud; de Kok, Maryla; Vigar, Miriam Ann; Wagenaar-Bos, Ineke; King, Rosalind Helen Mary; Morgan, Brian Paul; Baas, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Complement activation is a crucial early event in Wallerian degeneration. In this study we show that treatment of rats with soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1), an inhibitor of all complement pathways, blocked both systemic and local complement activation after crush injury of the sciatic nerve.

  8. Regeneration of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory nerve fibres studied by a retrograde tracer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning

    2004-01-01

    of axons. Axonal counts do not reflect the number of regenerated neurons because of axonal branching and because myelinated axons form unmyelinated sprouts. Two days to 10 weeks after crushing, the distal sural or peroneal nerves were cut and exposed to fluoro-dextran. Large and small dorsal root ganglion...

  9. Assessment of Clinical Practices for Crushing Medication in Geriatric Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodil, M; Nghiem, D; Colas, M; Bourry, S; Poisson-Salomon, A-S; Rezigue, H; Trivalle, C

    2017-01-01

    To assess the modification of the form of medication and evaluate staff observance of good clinical practices. One-day assessment of clinical practices. 17 geriatrics units in the 3 Teaching Hospitals of Paris-Sud (APHP), France. Elderly in-patients with difficulties swallowing capsules and tablets. Assessment of target-patient prescriptions and direct observation of nurses' medical rounds. 155/526 in-patients (29.5%) were unable to swallow tablets or capsules: 98 (40.3%) in long-term care, 46 patients (23.8%) in the rehabilitation unit and 11 (12.2%) in the acute care unit (p = .005). In thirty-nine (27.3%) of the 143 prescriptions studied all tablets were safe to crush and all capsules were safe to open. In 104 cases, at least one medication could not be safely modified, including 26 cases (18.2%) in which none of the prescribed drugs were safe to crush or open. In 48.2% of the 110 medications that were crushed, crushing was forbidden, and presented a potential threat in 12.7% of cases or a reduced efficacy in 8.2% of cases. Crushing methods were rarely appropriate: no specific protective equipment was used (81.8%), crushing equipment was shared between patients without cleaning (95.1%), medications were spilled or lost (69.9%). The method of administration was appropriate (water, jellified water) in 25% of the cases, questionable (soup, coffee, compote, juice, cream) in 55% of the cases and unacceptable (laxative) in 21% of the cases. Management of drug prescriptions in patients with swallowing difficulties is not optimal, and may even have iatrogenic effects. In this study, 12.7% of the modifications of the drug form could have been harmful. Doctors, pharmacists and nurses need to reevaluate their practices.

  10. Neuropathology and brain weight in traumatic-crush asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sarraj, Safa; Laxton, Ross; Swift, Ben; Kolar, Alexander J; Chapman, Rob C; Fegan-Earl, Ashley W; Cary, Nat R B

    2017-11-01

    Traumatic (crush) asphyxia is a rare condition caused by severe compression of the chest and trunk leading to often extreme so-called asphyxial signs, including cyanosis in head and neck regions, multiple petechiae, and subconjunctival haemorrhage as well as neurological manifestations. To investigate the neuropathology and brain weight in traumatic asphyxia caused by different accidents such as industrial accidents and road traffic collision. Post mortem records of 20 cases of traumatic asphyxia (TA) resulting from different causes of which four brains are available for comprehensive neuropathological examination. The expected brain weights for given body height and associated 95% confidence range were calculated according to the following formula: baseline brain weight (BBW) + body height x rate (g/cm). The 95% confidence range was calculated by adding and subtracting the standard error (SE) x 1.96 (7-8). There was a trend for higher brain weight in the TA cohort but it was not significant (1494 g vs 1404 g, p = 0.1). The upper limits of the brain weight of 95% confidence was 1680 g vs 1660 g, p = 0.9. The neuropathological examination of four available brains from the TA cohort showed severe congestion of blood vessels, perivascular haemorrhages and occasional βAPP deposits consistent with early axonal disruption. Brain examination is informative as part of investigation of TA. Developing ischaemic changes and an increase in brain weight are the most likely indicators of a prolonged period of patient's survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Stability of Crushed Tedizolid Phosphate Tablets for Nasogastric Tube Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerard; Osborn, Jim; Flanagan, Shawn; Alsayed, Najy; Bertolami, Shellie

    2015-12-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. To determine whether the expected dose of tedizolid phosphate can be delivered via nasogastric tube in patients who have difficulty swallowing and in whom venous access is not suitable, this in vitro study evaluated the recovery of tedizolid phosphate 200-mg tablets after crushing, dispersion in water, and passage through a nasogastric tube. To analyze the chemical stability of the crushed tablet dispersed in water, the aqueous preparation was assayed initially after dispersion and again after 4 h at room temperature. Recovery of tedizolid phosphate after the crushed tablets were dispersed in water and passed through nasogastric tubes ranged from 92.5 to 97.1 %, which is within the specified acceptance criteria of 90 to 110 %. There was no significant change in recovery values after 4 h of storage at room temperature (93.9 % initially and 94.7 % after 4 h). The stability and recovery findings support the feasibility of administering an aqueous dispersion of crushed tedizolid phosphate tablets through a nasogastric tube in patients who have difficulty swallowing and in whom intravenous administration is not possible.

  12. Cryptanalysis of an Iterated Halving-based hash function: CRUSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasour; Henricksen, Matt; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2009-01-01

    Iterated Halving has been suggested as a replacement to the Merkle–Damgård (MD) construction in 2004 anticipating the attacks on the MDx family of hash functions. The CRUSH hash function provides a specific instantiation of the block cipher for Iterated Halving. The authors identify structural pr...

  13. Exploratory study of crushed coconut shell as partial replacement for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An exploratory study of crushed coconut shell (CCS) as partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete was carried out. Mechanical and Physical properties of the CCS and fine aggregate (river sand) were determined and compared. A total of 36 concrete cubes of size 150 x 150 x150mm with mix ratio of 1:2:4 and ...

  14. Assessment of Crushed Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate and compare organic buffering capacity of crushed water hyacinth and calcium carbonate on acidic borehole water for aquaculture. Thirty, 25-litre shaded plastic tanks (20-litre filled with experimental water, pH 3.0) of three replicates per treatment of 180 g buffer agent were ...

  15. Environmental Impact of Aggregate Mining of Crush Rock Industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of aggregate mining operation such as noise, dust, air quality, suspended particulate matter and gaseous emission poses serious environmental problem to both the inhabitant and the workers at Crush Rock Industries Limited at Old Netim in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State.

  16. SUITABILITY OF BURNT AND CRUSHED COW BONES AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of burnt and crushed cow bones (BCCB) as partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete was studied. The percentages of replacements of fine aggregates of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively of BCCB were tested considering 1: 2: 4 and 1: 11/2 :3 concrete mix ratios. The cow bones were burnt for ...

  17. Reduction of Biomass Moisture by Crushing/Splitting - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Barnett; Donald L. Sirois; Colin Ashmore

    1986-01-01

    A biomass crusher/splitter concept is presented as a possible n&ant of tsafntainfng rights-of-way (ROW) or harvesting energy wood plantations. The conceptual system would cut, crush, and split small woody biomass leaving it in windrows for drying. A subsequent operation would bale and transport the dried material for use as an energy source. A survey of twenty...

  18. Primary amenorrhea caused by crushing trauma of the pelvis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donner, G. G.; Pel, M.; Lammes, F. B.

    2000-01-01

    An 18-year-old woman sought treatment for primary amenorrhea. Crushing trauma of the pelvis in her childhood had caused separation between the uterine corpus and the cervix. Through a combined abdominal and vaginal approach the continuity of the uterine outflow tract was restored. Years later, after

  19. Effect of Crushed Sandstone Sand on the Properties of High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation on high performance concrete (HPC) using crushed sandstone sand as 20%, 40%, and 60% replacement of river sand together with superplastisizer and silica fume (SF). The fresh concrete properties such as slump, air content and fresh concrete density have been ...

  20. Traumatic rhabdomyolysis (crush syndrome) in the rural setting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Patients with traumatic rhabdomyolysis (crush syndrome)(CS) secondary to community beatings commonly present to a rural emergency department that has limited access to dialysis services. We describe a retrospective study of patients admitted with a diagnosis of CS to the emergency department of a ...

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor from bone marrow-derived cells promotes post-injury repair of peripheral nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Takemura

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF stimulates peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the origin of BNDF and its precise effect on nerve repair have not been clarified. In this study, we examined the role of BDNF from bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs in post-injury nerve repair. Control and heterozygote BDNF knockout mice (BDNF+/- received a left sciatic nerve crush using a cerebral blood clip. Especially, for the evaluation of BDNF from BMDCs, studies with bone marrow transplantation (BMT were performed before the injury. We evaluated nerve function using a rotarod test, sciatic function index (SFI, and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV simultaneously with histological nerve analyses by immunohistochemistry before and after the nerve injury until 8 weeks. BDNF production was examined by immunohistochemistry and mRNA analyses. After the nerve crush, the controls showed severe nerve dysfunction evaluated at 1 week. However, nerve function was gradually restored and reached normal levels by 8 weeks. By immunohistochemistry, BDNF expression was very faint before injury, but was dramatically increased after injury at 1 week in the distal segment from the crush site. BDNF expression was mainly co-localized with CD45 in BMDCs, which was further confirmed by the appearance of GFP-positive cells in the BMT study. Variant analysis of BDNF mRNA also confirmed this finding. BDNF+/- mice showed a loss of function with delayed histological recovery and BDNF+/+→BDNF+/- BMT mice showed complete recovery both functionally and histologically. These results suggested that the attenuated recovery of the BDNF+/- mice was rescued by the transplantation of BMCs and that BDNF from BMDCs has an essential role in nerve repair.

  2. Role of Water Sorption in Tablet Crushing Strength, Disintegration, and Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, M; Teerakapibal, R; Kim, K; Elder, E J

    2017-08-01

    Drugs formulated as tablets are subjected to accelerated stability conditions with the goal of identifying a stable formulation that will exhibit a sufficiently long shelf life. Water sorption at a condition such as 40°C/75% RH can result in significant changes in tablet properties such as a decrease in dissolution rate, the cause of which may be difficult to interpret, given the complex nature of ingredients and their interactions in a tablet. In this research, three drugs, displaying a wide range of physicochemical properties, were formulated with commonly used diluents, disintegrants, and binders, using a design of experiments approach. The tablets were stored at accelerated conditions and assessed for content, dissolution, disintegration, and crushing strength, as well as other properties. The research demonstrated many water-induced effects in tablet properties. Due to the experimental design approach that revealed many interactions, it was possible to interpret all of the changes observed in tablet crushing strength, disintegration, and dissolution for the drugs using a common set of physical principles. Specifically, the relevant factors considered were (1) mechanical properties of materials, (2) water sorption surface effects in surface diffusion and capillary condensation, (3) water sorption bulk effects for amorphous materials such as viscous flow/spreading, and (4) water-induced stress on interparticle bonding arising from volume expansion. These physical principles enable a comprehensive interpretation of the complex changes observed in tablet properties, which should be valuable in the design of tablet formulations that will be stable to accelerated storage conditions.

  3. Comparison of the fastest regenerating motor and sensory myelinated axons in the same peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Sørensen, Jesper; Krarup, Christian

    2006-01-01

    the question of differences in growth rates of different nerve fibre populations led to conflicting results. We developed an animal model to compare growth and maturation of the fastest growing sensory and motor fibres within the same mixed nerve after Wallerian degeneration. Regeneration of cat tibial nerve......Functional outcome after peripheral nerve regeneration is often poor, particularly involving nerve injuries far from their targets. Comparison of sensory and motor axon regeneration before target reinnervation is not possible in the clinical setting, and previous experimental studies addressing...... after crush (n = 13) and section (n = 7) was monitored for up to 140 days, using implanted cuff electrodes placed around the sciatic and tibial nerves and wire electrodes at plantar muscles. To distinguish between sensory and motor fibres, recordings were carried out from L6-S2 spinal roots using cuff...

  4. Evaluation of crushed ticagrelor tablet doses: recovery following crushing and naso-gastric tube passage ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Barry; Finnie, Cindy; Crosby, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Orally available ticagrelor in combination with low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg/day) is indicated for adult patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, patients with swallowing difficulties may be unable to consume the currently available 90-mg tablet. It is hypothesized that ticagrelor could be given to this patient cohort as a crushed dose administered either orally or via a naso-gastric (NG) tube. To investigate the potential use of crushed ticagrelor tablets (90- and 180-mg doses) for oral dose or NG tube administration. Ticagrelor tablets (90 or 180 mg [two 90-mg tablets]) were prepared to emulate oral and NG tube administration by similar methods. For the oral dose, ticagrelor tablets were crushed using a mortar and pestle and transferred to a dosing cup. 100 mL of water was added to the mortar, stirred, and the contents were transferred to the dosing cup and stirred to form a suspension. At this stage, where the suspension would normally be administered to a patient, it was collected for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The mortar was then flushed with 100 mL of water, and the contents were again transferred to the dosing cup, stirred, and collected for HPLC analysis. For the NG dose, polyvinylchloride, polyurethane, and silicone size CH10 NG tubes were used. The tablets were crushed using a mortar and pestle, diluted with 50 mL of water, and stirred. At this stage, where the suspension would normally be administered to a patient through an NG tube using a syringe, it was collected for HPLC analysis. The mortar was then flushed with two additional 50 mL aliquots of water and the contents were passed through the NG tube. HPLC analysis examined the recoverability of ticagrelor in each of the dose suspensions and flushes and the stability of the suspension when held in a syringe for up to 2 h. One or two crushed 90-mg ticagrelor tablets, prepared for either oral or NG tube administration, delivers a mean dose of ≥97% of the original

  5. Regeneration of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory nerve fibres studied by a retrograde tracer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated sensory nerve fibres after a crush lesion of the rat sciatic nerve was investigated by means of retrograde labelling. The advantage of this method is that the degree of regeneration is estimated on the basis of sensory somata rather than the number...... of axons. Axonal counts do not reflect the number of regenerated neurons because of axonal branching and because myelinated axons form unmyelinated sprouts. Two days to 10 weeks after crushing, the distal sural or peroneal nerves were cut and exposed to fluoro-dextran. Large and small dorsal root ganglion...... cells that had been labelled, i.e., that had regenerated axons towards or beyond the injection site, were counted in serial sections. Large and small neurons with presumably myelinated and unmyelinated axons, respectively, were classified by immunostaining for neurofilaments. The axonal growth rate...

  6. Possible role of alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranieri Maurizio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent findings on the antioxidant effects of pretreatment with α-lipoic acid (α-LA on the crush injury of rat sciatic nerve confirm the possible usefulness of α-LA administration in humans with peripheral nerve injuries. We discussed this issue in relation with our recent results in which the combined employment of α-LA and γ-linolenic acid with a rehabilitation program for six weeks reduced sensory symptoms and neuropathic pain in patients with compressive radiculopathy syndrome from disc-nerve root conflict in comparison with patients submitted to rehabilitation program alone for six weeks.

  7. Protection of pattern electroretinogram and retinal ganglion cells by oncostatin M after optic nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xia

    Full Text Available Injury to retinal ganglion cell (RGC axons leads to selective loss of RGCs and vision. Previous studies have shown that exogenous neurotrophic factors promote RGC survival. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of oncostatin M (OSM, a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, on pattern electroretinogram (PERG and RGC survival after optic nerve crush (ON-crush in the mouse. BALB/C mice received ON-crush in the left eyes for either 4-second or 1-second duration (4-s or 1-s. Fluoro-gold retrograde labeling was used to identify RGCs. RGC function was assessed by PERG measurement. OSM or CNTF protein was injected intravitreally immediately after ON-crush. OSM responsive cells were identified by localization of increased STAT3 phosphorylation. Significant higher RGC survival (46% of untreated control was seen in OSM-treated eyes when assessed 2 weeks after 4-s ON-crush as compared to that (14% of untreated control of the PBS-treated eyes (P<0.001. In addition, PERG amplitude was significantly higher in eyes treated with OSM or CNTF 1 week after 1-s ON-crush (36% of baseline as compared with the amplitude of PBS-treated eyes (19% of the baseline, P = 0.003. An increase in STAT3 phosphorylation was localized in Müller layer after OSM treatment, suggesting that Müller cells mediate the effect of OSM. Our results demonstrate that one single injection of either OSM or CNTF after ON-crush improves RGC survival together with their electrophysiological activity. These data provide proof-of-concept for using neurotrophic factors OSM and CNTF for RGC degenerative diseases, including glaucoma and acute optic nerve trauma.

  8. [Crushing drugs in geriatric units: an "handicraft" practice with frequent errors which imposed recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caussin, M; Mourier, W; Philippe, S; Capet, C; Adam, M; Reynero, N; Jouini, C; Colombier, A-S; Kadri, K; Landrin, I; Gréboval, E; Rémy, E; Marc, F; Touflet, M; Wirotius, F; Delabre, N; Le Hiress, C; Rorteau, V; Vimard, M; Dufour, M; Tharasse, C; Dieu, B; Varin, R; Doucet, J

    2012-10-01

    Swallowing disorders or psycho-behavioural distress frequently interfere on drug administration in elderly inpatients. Crushing drugs is a common although non validated practice. The objective of this first prospective study, performed in all geriatric units of the Rouen university hospital by a multidisciplinary group, was to assess the crushing practice, from the prescription to the administration of the drugs in order to elaborate corrective measures. A survey was performed in June 2009 and included 683 inpatients, 65 years and above, in 23 geriatric units. If a patient received drugs after crushing, we recorded the reason for crushing, what drugs were crushed, the galenic presentations and the technique used for preparation and administration. Two hundred and twenty-one patients (32.3%) (85.5 ± 6.5 years, females 74.2%) received 1528 drugs (6.9 ± 4 per patient) including 966 drugs (63.2%) after crushing (crushed pills or crushed content of opened capsules), mainly in the morning (50.4%). The main reasons for crushing drugs were swallowing disorders and psycho-behavioural distress. Forty-two percent of crushed drugs had a galenic presentation which did not allow crushing. The patient's drugs were crushed together three out of four times and mixed with different vehicules for administration. The material used for crushing (a mortar, 92.6%) was often the same for several patients (59.4%); 83.5% of crushed drugs were immediately administered to the patients, though there were important variations about schedules of administration. Crushing drugs expose both to iatrogenic hazards and professional risks. Regional and national recommendations were developed in order to correct the errors linked to this practice. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of IL-10 in Resolution of Inflammation and Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira Mietto, Bruno; Kroner, Antje; Girolami, Elizabeth I; Santos-Nogueira, Eva; Zhang, Ji; David, Samuel

    2015-12-16

    A rapid proinflammatory response after peripheral nerve injury is required for clearance of tissue debris (Wallerian degeneration) and effective regeneration. Unlike the CNS, this response is rapidly terminated in peripheral nerves starting between 2 and 3 weeks after crush injury. We examined the expression and role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the resolution of inflammation and regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in mice. IL-10 mRNA increased over the first 7 d after injury, whereas at the protein level, immunofluorescence labeling showed IL-10(+) cells increased almost 3-fold in the first 3 weeks, with macrophages being the major cell type expressing IL-10. The role of IL-10 in nerve injury was assessed using IL-10-null mice. Increased numbers of macrophages were found in the distal segment of IL-10-null mice at early (3 d) and late (14 and 21 d) time points, suggesting that IL-10 may play a role in controlling the early influx and the later efflux of macrophages out of the nerve. A chemokine/cytokine PCR array of the nerve 24 h after crush showed a 2- to 4-fold increase in the expression of 10 proinflammatory mediators in IL-10(-/-) mice. In addition, myelin phagocytosis in vitro by LPS stimulated bone-marrow-derived macrophages from IL-10-null mice failed to downregulate expression of proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines, suggesting that IL-10 is required for the myelin-phagocytosis-induced shift of macrophages from proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory/pro-repair phenotype. The failure to switch off inflammation in IL-10-null mice was accompanied by impaired axon regeneration and poor recovery of motor and sensory function. An appropriately regulated inflammatory response after peripheral nerve injury is essential for axon regeneration and recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in terminating inflammation after sciatic nerve crush injury and promoting

  10. Effects of electromagnetic field (PEMF) exposure at different frequency and duration on the peripheral nerve regeneration: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Wei-Hong; Byun, Soo-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sik; Kim, Soochan; Seo, Young-Kwon; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Soung-Min; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-08-01

    The purpose was to clarify the influence of frequency and exposure time of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on the peripheral nerve regeneration. Immortalized rat Schwann cells (iSCs) (1 × 10(2)/well) were exposed at four different conditions in 1 mT (50 Hz 1 h/d, 50 Hz 12 h/d, 150 Hz 1 h/d and 150 Hz 12h/d). Cell proliferation, mRNA expression of S100 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were analyzed. Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into six groups (n = 10 each): control, sham, 50 Hz 1 h/d, 50 Hz 12 h/d, 150 Hz 1 h/d and 150 Hz 12 Hr/d. Mental nerve was crush-injured and exposed at four different conditions in 1 mT (50 Hz 1 Hr/d, 50 Hz 12 Hr/d, 150 Hz 1 h/d and 150 Hz 12 h/d). Nerve regeneration was evaluated with functional test, histomorphometry and retrograde labeling of trigeminal ganglion. iSCs proliferation with 50 Hz, 1 h/d was increased from fourth to seventh day; mRNA expression of S100 and BDNF was significantly increased at the same condition from first week to third week (p PEMF compared with control while other conditions showed no statistical meaning. Axon counts and retrograde labeled neurons were significantly increased under PEMF of four different conditions compared with control. Although there was no statistical difference, 50 Hz, 1 h PEMF showed highest regeneration ability than other conditions. PEMF enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration, and that it may be due to cell proliferation and increase in BDNF and S100 gene expression.

  11. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  12. Fugitive emissions control on dry copper tailing with crushed rock armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    Four inactive copper tailing impoundments totalling 1,900 acres near Ajo in southwestern Arizona were covered on horizontal surfaces with a 2 in. nominal thickness of crushed rock to control particulate emissions. The tailings are typically dominated by sand-sized particles but may also include significant PM 10 fractions towards the centers of the impoundments. The technology was selected by Phelps Dodge Corporation, after investigation of several alternatives, as a permanent and practical cover that essentially eliminates fugitive emissions. It simulates the natural desert pavement that characterizes this arid area of the Sonoran Desert. Rocky overburden was crushed to minus 3 in. diameter and broadcast on dry surfaces of tailing impoundments with all-terrain, balloon-tired spreaders. Stony residues in the rock armor tend to cement together following rainfall, forming a crust that enhances surface stability and erosion control. Slopes with windblown tailing deposition were covered to a nominal 6 in. thickness by conventional dozer pushing and blading of minus 10 in. rock over the sides. Athel trees, planted extensively since 1970 on two of the four inactive impoundments, provided partial control of fugitives, but were subjected to harsh environmental conditions, including abrasion from saltating particles. The rock armor functions as a mulch which is expected to improve water relations for existing vegetation and areas seeded with native species. New surface microenvironments, and the virtual elimination of surface creep and saltation, are expected to support native plant growth under favorable climatic conditions

  13. Absorption Of Crushing Energy In Square Composite Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of crash-energy-absorbing capabilities of square-cross-section tubes of two matrix/fiber composite materials. Both graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy tubes crushed in progressive and stable manner. Ratio between width of cross section and thickness of wall determined to affect energy-absorption significantly. As ratio decreases, energy-absorption capability increases non-linearly. Useful in building energy-absorbing composite structures.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of crushed titanium-beryllium intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Nakamichi, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    To develop a technique for the mass production of beryllide pebbles, a crushing method for the granulation of beryllides was used in this study. Two types of crushed Be12Ti pebbles were prepared using mortar-ground (MG) and planetary-ball-milled (PM) powders. A granulation yield of approximately 50 wt.% with sizes in the range of 0.85-1.18 mm was achieved. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that the MG pebbles exhibited larger porosity because the larger size of the powder resulted in lower density with higher porosity. However, the considerably larger fraction of fine pores in the PM pebbles resulted in an increased Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, as clearly demonstrated by high-magnification SEM images. To evaluate the reactivity with water vapor, the weight gain and H2 generation rate were also investigated. The results suggested that the PM pebbles exhibited notably lower reactivity, weight gain, and H2 generation rate, which may be due to the dramatically decreased BET specific surface. The fine pores were filled with stable oxides followed by a significant decrease of the surface area during oxidation. Optimization was performed to improve the circularity of the crushed pebbles. Grinding tests using planetary milling without balls for different times clearly demonstrated that the circularity improved (with an estimated value of 0.8) by cutting and polishing the sharp edges; however, long-duration milling for 99 h resulted in attachment of the polished powders to the pebble surface, leading to surface color variation of the crushed pebbles.

  15. Application of Crushed Concrete in Geotechnical Engineering - Selected Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Jacek; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pilipenko, Anton; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    The reuse of building materials becomes an important issue in sustainable engineering. As the technical requirements for civil engineering structures changes with time and the life time is limited, the need of building new objects meets the necessity of recycling of the existing ones. In the case of steel structures, the possibility of recycling is obvious, also in the case of wooden constructions, the possibility of “burning” solves the problem. The concrete waste is generated mainly as a result of the demolition and reconstruction of residential and industrial buildings. These types of waste are basically made from crushed rocks and cement minerals and contain non-hydrated cement particles in its composition. Concrete poses a lot of problems mainly for two reasons. It is difficult to crush, heavy and hard to transport and demanding in reuse. Different fractions (particle sizes) may be used for different purposes. Starting from very fine particles which can be used in concrete production, through regular 16-300 mm fractions used to form new fills and fill the mats, up to very irregular mixtures used to form stone columns by means of Impulse Compaction or in Dynamic Replacement. The presented study juxtaposes authors experience with crushed concrete used in civil engineering, mainly in geotechnical projects. Authors’ experiences comprise the application of crushed concrete in the new concrete production in Russia, changing pulverized bridge into the fill of mesh sacks, or mattresses used as an effective way to protect the shoreline and the New Orleans East land bridge after Katrina storm (forming a new shoreline better able to withstand wave actions), and finally the use of very irregular concrete fractions to form stone columns in week soils on the example of railway and road projects in Poland. Selected case studies are presented and summarized with regard to social, technical and economic issues including energy consumption needed for proposed technologies

  16. CRUSH: Comprehensive Reduction Utility for SHARC-2 (and more...)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Attila

    2013-08-01

    CRUSH is an astronomical data reduction/imaging tool for certain imaging cameras, especially at the millimeter, sub-millimeter, and far-infrared wavelengths. It supports the SHARC-2, LABOCA, SABOCA, ASZCA, p-ArTeMiS, PolKa, GISMO, MAKO and SCUBA-2 instruments. The code is written entirely in Java, allowing it to run on virtually any platform. It is normally run from the command-line with several arguments.

  17. The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability of composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    The energy-absorption capability as a function of crushing speed was determined for Thornel 300/Fiberite 934 (Gr/E) and Kevlar-49/Fiberite 934 (K/E) composite material. Circular cross section tube specimens were crushed at quasi-static, 6 m/sec, and 12 m/sec speeds. Ply orientations of the tube specimens were (0/+ or - theta) sub 2 and (+ or - theta) sub 3 where theta=15, 45, and 75 degress. Based on the results of these tests the energy-absortion capability of Gr/E and K/E was determined to be a function of crushing speed. The crushing modes based on exterior appearance of the crushed tubes were unchanged for either material. However, the interlaminar crushing behavior changed with crushing speed.

  18. Mechanical properties of crushed salt/bentonite blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstle, W.H.; Jones, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    A preliminary mechanical testing program has been conducted on crushed salt/bentonite blocks. These blocks are pototypes of blocks that may eventually be used to build engineered seals in drifts at the WIPP site. Three types of blocks were tested: pure crushed salt, crushed salt with bentonite binder, and pure bentonite. Simple uniaxial compression tests were performed. Axial displacement and lateral displacements were measured as a function of applied axial load. The ultimate strength, initial elastic moduli, and mode of failure were determined from these tests. The ultimate uniaxial strength of the pure bentonite blocks were found to be about 6.8 MPa. The ultimate uniaxial strength of pure salt blocks were found to be about 3.2 MPa. The blocks composed of both salt and bentonite had a strength somewhere between these two values. Surprisingly, the bentonite blocks, while stronger than the pure salt blocks, were less stiff. The mode of failure in all cases was through longitudinal splitting cracking. Also, ultrasonic velocities in the blocks were measured. The results of these tests indicate a high degree of anisotropy in the bentonite and salt/bentonite blocks, while the pure salt blocks appear to be isotropic

  19. Simulation and modeling of the crushing behavior of structural members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Yutaka

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the crushing behavior (the behavior of compressive breakdown accompanied by super large deformation) of structural members is an important subject which becomes the base of the ultimate strength design of the structures which may cause collision accident such as automobiles, ships and aircrafts, and of those which are feared to be collided such as offshore structures, bridge piers and nuclear power plants. However, since it is a phenomenon of very strong nonlinearity, its analysis is accompanied by large difficulty. In this report, three kinds of the approach for this problem, that is, rigid-plastic theoretical analysis, the simulation using a rigid body and spring model and nonlinear finite element analysis, are explained, referring to the example of calculation by the authors on the non-axisymmetric crushing problem of cylindrical shells. In crushing problem, the matters of concern are the amount of collision energy which can be absorbed by the plastic deformation of structures and the amount of deformation. It can be said that the increase of calculation cost brings about the heightening of calculation accuracy. The nonlinear finite element analysis is promising because its calculation cost is expected to lower in future. (Kako, I.)

  20. Current concepts for oil decontamination of crush injuries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimkhani, Chante; Amir, Mahsa; Dellavalle, Robert P; Ipaktchi, Kyros

    2014-01-01

    This anecdotal, non-systematic review serves to explore the principles and methods of effective oil decontamination from cutaneous wounds, particularly crush injuries. The current expansion of the petroleum industry is necessary to meet increasing world demands for oil. Most stages of oil refining and applications involve significant injury risks, particularly for crush injuries that become contaminated with petroleum compounds. A literature review regarding a standard of care for effective cutaneous oil decontamination is lacking. Based on case reports, animal models, and in vitro studies identified in our expert opinion review, standard water and soap cleansing may not be an appropriate approach. Instead, the principle of 'like dissolves like' guides the use of lipophilic, petroleum-derived solvents to attract and subsequently dissolve the petroleum contaminant from the skin injury. Limitations include paucity of and dated literature sources regarding the topic as well as no models specifically addressing crush injuries. Our literature review found that oil decontamination of cutaneous injuries may be best accomplished with oil-based cleansers. Certainly, this topic has significant importance for the potentially carcinogenic petroleum compounds that pervade virtually every aspect of modern human life.

  1. Use of Processed Nerve Allografts to Repair Nerve Injuries Greater Than 25 mm in the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Brian; Zoldos, Jozef; Weber, Renata V; Ko, Jason; Thayer, Wesley; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Leversedge, Fraser J; Safa, Bauback; Buncke, Gregory

    2017-06-01

    Processed nerve allografts (PNAs) have been demonstrated to have improved clinical results compared with hollow conduits for reconstruction of digital nerve gaps less than 25 mm; however, the use of PNAs for longer gaps warrants further clinical investigation. Long nerve gaps have been traditionally hard to study because of low incidence. The advent of the RANGER registry, a large, institutional review board-approved, active database for PNA (Avance Nerve Graft; AxoGen, Inc, Alachua, FL) has allowed evaluation of lower incidence subsets. The RANGER database was queried for digital nerve repairs of 25 mm or greater. Demographics, injury, treatment, and functional outcomes were recorded on standardized forms. Patients younger than 18 and those lacking quantitative follow-up data were excluded. Recovery was graded according to the Medical Research Council Classification for sensory function, with meaningful recovery defined as S3 or greater level. Fifty digital nerve injuries in 28 subjects were included. There were 22 male and 6 female subjects, and the mean age was 45. Three patients gave a previous history of diabetes, and there were 6 active smokers. The most commonly reported mechanisms of injury were saw injuries (n = 13), crushing injuries (n = 9), resection of neuroma (n = 9), amputation/avulsions (n = 8), sharp lacerations (n = 7), and blast/gunshots (n = 4). The average gap length was 35 ± 8 mm (range, 25-50 mm). Recovery to the S3 or greater level was reported in 86% of repairs. Static 2-point discrimination (s2PD) and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWF) were the most common completed assessments. Mean s2PD in 24 repairs reporting 2PD data was 9 ± 4 mm. For the 38 repairs with SWF data, protective sensation was reported in 33 repairs, deep pressure in 2, and no recovery in 3. These data compared favorably with historical data for nerve autograft repairs, with reported levels of meaningful recovery of 60% to 88%. There were no reported adverse effects

  2. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  3. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [IPOFG, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  4. Saturday night palsy or Sunday morning hangover? A case report of alcohol-induced Crush Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Devitt, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    Saturday night palsy is a colloquial term given to brachial plexus injuries of the arm resulting from stretching or direct pressure against a firm object, often after alcohol or drug consumption. In most circumstances, this condition gives rise to a temporary plexopathy, which generally resolves. However, if the compression is severe and prolonged, a more grave form of this condition known as \\'Crush Syndrome\\' may occur. Skeletal muscle injury, brought about by protracted immobilization, leads to muscle decay, causing rhabdomyolysis, which may in turn precipitate acute renal failure. This condition is potentially fatal and has an extremely high morbidity. The case presented below demonstrates the drastic consequences that can result following an episode of \\'binge\\' drinking in a young man. What is most concerning is that this trend is increasing across society and cases like this may not be as rare in the future.

  5. Optic nerve astrocyte reactivity protects function in experimental glaucoma and other nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel; Moore, Sara; Jakobs, Tatjana C

    2017-05-01

    Reactive remodeling of optic nerve head astrocytes is consistently observed in glaucoma and other optic nerve injuries. However, it is unknown whether this reactivity is beneficial or harmful for visual function. In this study, we used the Cre recombinase (Cre)- loxP system under regulation of the mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter to knock out the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) from astrocytes and test the effect this has on reactive remodeling, ganglion cell survival, and visual function after experimental glaucoma and nerve crush. After injury, STAT3 knockout mice displayed attenuated astrocyte hypertrophy and reactive remodeling; astrocytes largely maintained their honeycomb organization and glial tubes. These changes were associated with increased loss of ganglion cells and visual function over a 30-day period. Thus, reactive astrocytes play a protective role, preserving visual function. STAT3 signaling is an important mediator of various aspects of the reactive phenotype within optic nerve astrocytes. © 2017 Sun et al.

  6. Crush performance of redwood for developing design procedures for impact limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most simplistic information exists on its crush properties. Tbe stress-strain interrelationship for any wood species subject to three-dimensional stresses is largely unknown for any all stress condition and wood behavior at both high strains and high strain-rates is known only in general terms. Both stress-strain and crush failure theories have been developed based only on uniaxial load tests. The anisotropy of wood adds an additional complexity to measuring wood response and developing suitable theories to describe it. A long history of wood utilization in the building industry has led to design procedures and property information related to simple uniaxial loadings that do not inflict damage to the wood. This lack of knowledge may be surprising for a material that has a long history of engineered use, but the result is difficulty in utilizing wood in more sophisticated designs such as impact limiters. This study provides a step toward filling the information gap on wood material response for high performance applications such as impact limiters

  7. Sorption and desorption reactions of radionuclides with a crushed basalt-bentonite packing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Lane, D.L.; Allen, C.C.; Jones, T.E.

    1985-04-01

    Current design of waste packages for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in underground basalt formations includes a layer of packing material that surrounds the waste container. One of the functions of this material is to limit the release of radionuclides from a breached container into groundwater by providing a low hydraulic conductivity zone and by sorbing dissolved radionuclides. The objective of this study was to assess the radionuclide sorption capability of a proposed packing material composed of 25% sodium bentonite and 75% crushed basalt (by weight). Sorption and desorption reactions of several important waste radioelements (neptunium, uranium, plutonium, technetium, selenium, and radium) were investigated in the absence of air at 90 0 C. Uranium and neptunium were sorbed by slow reactions that follow first-order kinetics. The reaction rates are probably controlled by reduction of weakly sorbed uranium(VI) and neptunium(V) by ferrous iron in the crushed basalt component. Technetium(VII) was not reduced or sorbed under these conditions. Freundlich sorption and desorption isotherms for a given radionuclide were non-singular and show a strong tendency for sorption hysteresis. Applying the isotherm data to a one-dimensional transport model indicated that hysteretic sorption on the packing material provides an important safety factor in controlling releases of some radionuclides

  8. Volume reduction and plutonium recovery in alpha wastes by cryogenic crushing and lixiviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, T.; Pajot, J.

    1986-06-01

    The industry of plutonium generates solid alpha wastes of medium activity called ''technological wastes''. They are mainly produced during the fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels and they are of a wide variety i.e: vinyl bags, gloves, glass, steel materials used in glove box operation, etc... These wastes contain relevant residual quantities of uranium and plutonium in the form of oxides or nitrates, reaching up to several dozen grams per cubic meter. Up to the beginning of the eighties, they were conditionned without any treatment and stored as such on the production site. However, for an economic and safe storage, recovering of the plutonium contained in these waste streams and reduction of their volume is of obvious importance. At the plutonium ''Complexe de Fabrication des Combustibles de Cadarache'' was developed a new technical solution of this problem that combines cryogenic crushing of the solid waste and plutonium recovery from the crushed material by chemical lixiviation. The first results obtained in applying this system on the industrial scale are reported briefly

  9. Application of vacuum metallurgy to separate pure metal from mixed metallic particles of crushed waste printed circuit board scraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2008-10-15

    The principle of separating pure metal from mixed metallic particles (MMPs) byvacuum metallurgy is that the vapor pressures of various metals at the same temperature are different As a result, the metal with high vapor pressure and low boiling point can be separated from the mixed metals through distillation or sublimation, and then it can be recycled through condensation under a certain condition. The vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) of MMPs of crushed waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) has been studied in this paper. Theoretical analyses show that the MMPs (copper, zinc, bismuth, lead, and indium, for example) can be separated by vacuum metallurgy. The copper particles (0.15-0.20 mm) and zinc particles (<0.30 mm) were chosen to simulate the MMPs of crushed WPCBs. Experimental results show that the separated efficiency of zinc in the copper-rich particles achieves 96.19 wt % when the vacuum pressure is 0.01-0.10 Pa, the heating temperature is 1123 K, and the heating time is 105 min. Under this operation condition, the separated efficiency of zinc in the copper-rich particles from crushed WPCBs achieves 97.00 wt % and the copper purity increases from 90.68 to 99.84 wt %.

  10. Dietary 2'-Fucosyllactose Enhances Operant Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation via Gut-Brain Communication through the Vagus Nerve in Rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vazquez

    Full Text Available 2´-fucosyllactose (2´-FL is an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO in human milk with diverse biological effects. We recently reported ingested 2´-FL stimulates central nervous system (CNS function, such as hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP and learning and memory in rats. Conceivably the effect of 2´-FL on CNS function may be via the gut-brain axis (GBA, specifically the vagus nerve, and L-fucose (Fuc may play a role. This study had two aims: (1 determine if the effect of ingested 2´-FL on the modulation of CNS function is dependent on the integrity of the molecule; and (2 confirm if oral 2´-FL modified hippocampal LTP and associative learning related skills in rats submitted to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Results showed that 2´-FL but not Fuc enhanced LTP, and vagotomy inhibited the effects of oral 2´-FL on LTP and associative learning related paradigms. Taken together, the data show that dietary 2´-FL but not its Fuc moiety affects cognitive domains and improves learning and memory in rats. This effect is dependent on vagus nerve integrity, suggesting GBA plays a role in 2´-FL-mediated cognitive benefits.

  11. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hammer

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation.Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections.Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22% was more common than left-sided branching (12% and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2.Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  12. Antioxidative mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes repair and regeneration following cavernous nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-kui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum exhibit antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that these polysaccharides resist oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage following cavernous nerve injury. In this study, rat models were intragastrically administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides for 2 weeks at 1, 7, and 14 days after cavernous nerve injury. Serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities significantly increased at 1 and 2 weeks post-injury. Serum malondialdehyde levels decreased at 2 and 4 weeks. At 12 weeks, peak intracavernous pressure, the number of myelinated axons and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase-positive nerve fibers, levels of phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein and 3-nitrotyrosine were higher in rats administered at 1 day post-injury compared with rats administered at 7 and 14 days post-injury. These findings suggest that application of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides following cavernous nerve crush injury effectively promotes nerve regeneration and erectile functional recovery. This neuroregenerative effect was most effective in rats orally administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides at 1 day after cavernous nerve crush injury.

  13. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  14. Preliminary investigation on use of high-resolution optical coherence tomography to monitor injury and repair in the rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebicki, Cara A; Lee, Alice D; Jung, Woonggyu; Li, Hongrui; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J

    2010-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used in limited settings to study peripheral nerve injury. The purpose of the study is to determine whether high-resolution OCT can be used to monitor nerve injury and regeneration in the rat sciatic nerve following crush injury, ligation, and transection with microsurgical repair. Forty-five rats were segregated into three groups. The right sciatic nerve was suture ligated (n = 15), cut then microsurgically repaired (n = 15), or crushed (n = 15). The left sciatic nerve served as the control; only surgical exposure and skin closure were performed. Each group was further divided into three subgroups where they were assigned survival durations of 4, 15, or 24 weeks. Following euthanasia, nerves were harvested, fixed in formalin, and imaged at the injury site, as well as proximal and distal ends. The OCT system resolution was approximately 7 microm in tissue with a 1,060 nm central wavelength. Control (uninjured) nerve tissue showed homogenous signal distribution to a relatively uniform depth; in contrast, damaged nerves showed irregular signal distribution and intensity. Changes in signal distribution were most significant at the injury site and distal regions. Increases in signal irregularity were evident during longer recovery times. Histological analysis determined that OCT imaging was limited to the surrounding perineurium and scar tissue. OCT has the potential to be a valuable tool for monitoring nerve injury and repair, and the changes that accompany wound healing, providing clinicians with a non-invasive tool to treat nerve injuries. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Soybean Futures Crush Spread Arbitrage: Trading Strategies and Market Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Mitchell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the soybean crush spread arbitrage work of Simon (1999 by studying a longer time period, wider variety of entry and exit limits, and the risk-return relationship between entry and exit limits. The lengths of winning and losing trades are found to differ systematically, with winning trades significantly shorter on average than losing trades. Exiting trades near the 5- day moving average is shown to improve trade performance relative to a reversal of sign and magnitude from the entry spread. These results lead to trading rules designed to prevent lengthy trades; however, the profitability of trading rules is found to be unstable.

  16. Imaging of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Minerva [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)], E-mail: minerva.becker@hcuge.ch; Masterson, Karen [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Vargas, Maria-Isabel [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  17. Imaging the ocular motor nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl

    2010-05-15

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  18. Leaching behaviour of copper slag, construction and demolition waste and crushed rock used in a full-scale road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidelöw, Sofia; Mácsik, Josef; Carabante, Ivan; Kumpiene, Jurate

    2017-12-15

    The leaching behaviour of a road construction with fayalitic copper slag, recycled concrete and crushed rock as sub-base materials was monitored over ten years. All studied materials used in the road construction, including crushed rock, contained concentrations of several elements exceeding the guideline values recommended by the Swedish EPA for total element concentrations for waste materials used in constructions. Despite that, leaching from the road construction under field conditions in general was relatively low. The leachates from the recycled materials contained higher concentrations of several constituents than the leachates from the reference section with crushed rock. The leaching of the elements of interest (Cr, Mo, Ni, Zn) reached peak concentrations during the second and fourth (Cu) years and decreased over the observation period to levels below the Swedish recommended values. Carbonation of the concrete aggregates caused a substantial but short-term increase in the leaching of oxyanions such as chromate. The environmental risks related to element leaching are highest at the beginning of the road life. Ageing of materials or pre-treatment through leaching is needed prior to their use in construction to avoid peak concentrations. Also, the design of road constructions should be adjusted so that recycled materials are covered with low-permeability covers, which would minimize the exposure to atmospheric precipitation and weathering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Concrete crushing and sampling, a methodology and technology for the unconditional release of concrete material from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.

    2007-01-01

    Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project. Two small storage buildings for final products from reprocessing were dismantled to verify the assumptions made in a previous paper study on decommissioning, to demonstrate and develop dismantling techniques and to train personnel. Both buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. They were demolished and the remaining concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored. Currently, the decommissioning operations carried out at the main building have made substantial progress. They are executed on an industrial scale. In view of the final demolition of the building, foreseen to start in the middle of 2008, a clearance methodology for the concrete from the cells into the Eurochemic building has been developed. It considers at least one complete measurement of all concrete structures and the removal of all detected residual radionuclides. This monitoring sequence is followed by a controlled demolition of the concrete structures and crushing of the resulting concrete parts to smaller particles. During the crushing operations, metal parts are separated from the concrete and representative concrete samples are taken. The frequency of sampling meets the prevailing standards. In a further step, the concrete samples are milled, homogenised, and a smaller fraction is sent to the laboratory for analyses. The paper describes the developed concrete crushing and sampling methodology. (authors)

  20. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt C Danzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  1. Preparation-induced errors in EPR dosimetry of enamel: pre- and post-crushing sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Errors in dose estimation as a function of grain size for tooth enamel has been previously shown for beta irradiation after crushing. We tested the effect of gamma radiation applied to specimens before and after crushing. We extend the previous work in that we found that post-crushing irradiation altered the slope of the dose-response curve of the hydroxyapatite signal and produced a grain-size dependent offset. No changes in the slope of the dose-response curve were seen in enamel caps irradiated before crushing

  2. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... to this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be ...

  3. Neutralization of the Tamagawa thermal acid water with crushed limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umetsu, Yoshio (Iwate Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Iwate, (Japan))

    1989-06-30

    The Tamagawa hot spring, Akita Prefecture, is a hidrochloric and n sulfuric acid hot spring with 98{sup 0}C in water temperature, 9m{sup 3}/min in artesian flow rate and 1.2 in pH. In order to cope with projected dam construction downstream, an in situ test was carried out for the water neutralization with crushed limestone, in which test was used a plastic cylinder cone type reactor, 60{sup 0}C in angle of repose, reinforced with glass fiber. Hot spring water was introduced into the reactor from its bottom and ran as countercurrent through the reactor. In a neutralization test with a use of crushed limestone, 5 to 25mm in grain size, the neutralization rate attained to 80.5%, when acid water containing 1300mgl/sup -1/ So{sub 4}/sup 2-/ was treated at 50{sup 0}C with the residence time of five minutes. If water of the Tamagawa hot spring is 95% neutralized to 75% in neutralization rate, the dam body point 22km downstream is expectable to rise from 3 to over 4.3 in pH. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Deformations during saturation of the crushed aggregate, Olkiluoto tonalite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, R.; Rathmayer, H.; Takala, J.; Toernqvist, J.

    1994-03-01

    Crushed aggregate tonalite produced of crystalline tonalite or a correspondent rock with particle size up to 8 mm (or 16 mm) will be used as backfill material in the VLJ repository caverns at Olkiluoto (in Finland). The backfill material has to retard radionuclides, to restrict the groundwater perlocation and to support mechanically the concrete structure of the repository silos. Mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of crushed tonalite when effected by stresses applied during compaction of the backfill and due to groundwater perlocation was studied at three batches having different gradations. Information about the phenomenon of settlement due to saturation and as a function of the compaction methods was obtained from a literature survey. The maximum amount of possible deformation due to compaction was analyzed with a gyratory device, known to have a good repeatability. In a group of simulation tests using a large oedometer cell the amount of compression due to the saturation process was measured. Also studies on the suitability of different compaction methods could be done with these tests. (43 refs., 49 figs., 3 tabs.)

  5. Crush-2: Communicating research through a science-art collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, K.; Barrett, N.; Schubnel, A. J.; Abe, S.

    2011-12-01

    Historically, the Earth's environment and dynamics have influenced and inspired the arts. Art in turn is a powerful vehicle for expression of the natural world. It lends itself to public presentation in many forms and appeals to a diverse audience. Science-art collaborations provide a unique opportunity to connect with the public by taking science out of the classroom and into museums, galleries and public spaces. Here we investigate the use of contemporary digital sound-art in communicating geoscience research to the general public through the installation Crush-2. Crush-2, is an interactive sound-art installation exploring the microscopic forces released during the crushing of rock. Such processes have a strong influence on the sliding behaviour and hence earthquake potential of active faults. This work is a collaboration between sound artist and composer Natasha Barrett (Oslo) and geoscientists Karen Mair (University of Oslo), Alexandre Schubnel (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris) and Steffen Abe (RWTH Aachen). Using a sonification technique, Barrett has assigned sound recorded from rocks, of different pitches, timbres and durations, to individual fracturing events produced in our 3D fault fragmentation models and laboratory rock breaking experiments. In addition, ultrasonic acoustic emissions recorded directly in the laboratory are made audible for our hearing and feature in the work. The installation space comprises a loudspeaker array and sensor enabled helmet with wireless headphones. By wearing the helmet, moving and listening, the audience explores an artistic interpretation of the scientific data in physical space. On entering the space, one is immediately immersed in a 3D cacophony of sound. Sustained or intermittent pings, burrs, plops and tingles jostle for position in our heads whilst high pitched delicate cascades juxtapose with deep thunder like rumbles. Depending on the user's precise path through the soundscape, the experience changes accordingly

  6. 4.7-T diffusion tensor imaging of acute traumatic peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Richard B; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Riley, D Colton; Sexton, Kevin W; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Dortch, Richard D; Nanney, Lillian B; Does, Mark D; Thayer, Wesley P

    2015-09-01

    Diagnosis and management of peripheral nerve injury is complicated by the inability to assess microstructural features of injured nerve fibers via clinical examination and electrophysiology. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to accurately detect nerve injury and regeneration in crush models of peripheral nerve injury, but no prior studies have been conducted on nerve transection, a surgical emergency that can lead to permanent weakness or paralysis. Acute sciatic nerve injuries were performed microsurgically to produce multiple grades of nerve transection in rats that were harvested 1 hour after surgery. High-resolution diffusion tensor images from ex vivo sciatic nerves were obtained using diffusion-weighted spin-echo acquisitions at 4.7 T. Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced at the injury sites of transected rats compared with sham rats. Additionally, minor eigenvalues and radial diffusivity were profoundly elevated at all injury sites and were negatively correlated to the degree of injury. Diffusion tensor tractography showed discontinuities at all injury sites and significantly reduced continuous tract counts. These findings demonstrate that high-resolution DTI is a promising tool for acute diagnosis and grading of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries.

  7. 4.7-T diffusion tensor imaging of acute traumatic peripheral nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Richard B.; Kelm, Nathaniel D.; Riley, D. Colton; Sexton, Kevin W.; Pollins, Alonda C.; Shack, R. Bruce; Dortch, Richard D.; Nanney, Lillian B.; Does, Mark D.; Thayer, Wesley P.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of peripheral nerve injury is complicated by the inability to assess microstructural features of injured nerve fibers via clinical examination and electrophysiology. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to accurately detect nerve injury and regeneration in crush models of peripheral nerve injury, but no prior studies have been conducted on nerve transection, a surgical emergency that can lead to permanent weakness or paralysis. Acute sciatic nerve injuries were performed microsurgically to produce multiple grades of nerve transection in rats that were harvested 1 hour after surgery. High-resolution diffusion tensor images from ex vivo sciatic nerves were obtained using diffusion-weighted spin-echo acquisitions at 4.7 T. Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced at the injury sites of transected rats compared with sham rats. Additionally, minor eigenvalues and radial diffusivity were profoundly elevated at all injury sites and were negatively correlated to the degree of injury. Diffusion tensor tractography showed discontinuities at all injury sites and significantly reduced continuous tract counts. These findings demonstrate that high-resolution DTI is a promising tool for acute diagnosis and grading of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:26323827

  8. European origin of placodont marine reptiles and the evolution of crushing dentition in Placodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, James M; Klein, Nicole; Scheyer, Torsten M

    2013-01-01

    Sauropterygia was the most successful marine reptile radiation in history, spanning almost the entire Mesozoic and exploiting a wide range of habitats and ecological niches. Here we report a new, exceptionally preserved skull of a juvenile stem placodont from the early Middle Triassic of the Netherlands, thus indicating a western Tethyan (European) origin for Placodontia, the most basal group of sauropterygians. A single row of teeth on an enlarged palatine supports this close relationship, although these are small and pointed instead of broad and flat, as is the case in placodonts, which demonstrate the strongest adaptation to a durophagous diet known in any reptile. Peg-like, slightly procumbent premaxillary teeth and an 'L-shaped' jugal also confirm a close relationship to basal placodonts. The new taxon provides insight into the evolution of placodont dentition, representing a transitional morphology between the plesiomorphic diapsid condition of palatal denticles and the specialized crushing teeth of placodonts.

  9. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent

  10. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  11. Facial nerve stimulation as a future treatment for ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark K Borsody

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of the autonomic parasympathetic fibers of the facial nerve system (hereafter simply "facial nerve" rapidly dilates the cerebral arteries and increases cerebral blood flow whether that stimulation is delivered at the facial nerve trunk or at distal points such as the sphenopalatine ganglion. Facial nerve stimulation thus could be used as an emergency treatment of conditions of brain ischemia such as ischemic stroke. A rich history of scientific research has examined this property of the facial nerve, and various means of activating the facial nerve can be employed including noninvasive means. Herein, we review the anatomical and physiological research behind facial nerve stimulation and the facial nerve stimulation devices that are in development for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  12. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Retrograde Motor Neuron Death after Neonatal Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Joseph; Zhang, Jennifer; Scholl, David; Chiang, Cameron; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2017-05-01

    Neuronal death may be an overlooked and unaddressed component of disability following neonatal nerve injuries, such as obstetric brachial plexus injury. N-acetylcysteine and acetyl-L-carnitine improve survival of neurons after adult nerve injury, but it is unknown whether they improve survival after neonatal injury, when neurons are most susceptible to retrograde neuronal death. The authors' objective was to examine whether N-acetylcysteine or acetyl-L-carnitine treatment improves survival of neonatal motor or sensory neurons in a rat model of neonatal nerve injury. Rat pups received either a sciatic nerve crush or transection injury at postnatal day 3 and were then randomized to receive either intraperitoneal vehicle (5% dextrose), N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg), or acetyl-L-carnitine (300 mg/kg) once or twice daily. Four weeks after injury, surviving neurons were retrograde-labeled with 4% Fluoro-Gold. The lumbar spinal cord and L4/L5 dorsal root ganglia were then harvested and sectioned to count surviving motor and sensory neurons. Transection and crush injuries resulted in significant motor and sensory neuron loss, with transection injury resulting in significantly less neuron survival. High-dose N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg twice daily) significantly increased motor neuron survival after neonatal sciatic nerve crush and transection injury. Neither N-acetylcysteine nor acetyl-L-carnitine treatment improved sensory neuron survival. Proximal neonatal nerve injuries, such as obstetric brachial plexus injury, produce significant retrograde neuronal death after injury. High-dose N-acetylcysteine significantly increases motor neuron survival, which may improve functional outcomes after obstetrical brachial plexus injury.

  13. Effects of acute selective pudendal nerve electrical stimulation after simulated childbirth injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Gill, Bradley C.; Dissaranan, Charuspong; Zutshi, Massarat; Balog, Brian M.; Lin, Danli; Damaser, Margot S.

    2012-01-01

    During childbirth, a combinatorial injury occurs and can result in stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Simulated childbirth injury, consisting of vaginal distension (VD) and pudendal nerve crush (PNC), results in slowed recovery of continence, as well as decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a regenerative cytokine. Electrical stimulation has been shown to upregulate BDNF in motor neurons and facilitate axon regrowth through the increase of βII-tubulin expression af...

  14. The effect of cavernous nerve traction on erectile function in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    Full Text Available We performed this study to evaluate the effect of cavernous nerve (CN traction on erectile function in rats. Thirty-two 8- week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, 1-minute CN traction, 2-minute CN traction, and 2-minute CN crush. CN traction was performed using a glass hook with a tensile force of 0.2 Newton. One month later, the mean arterial pressure (MAP and intracavernosal pressure (ICP in response to CN stimulation were measured to assess erectile function. The penis and major pelvic ganglion (MPG were harvested to explore the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and neurofilament, fibrosis and apoptosis. The ICP/MAP ratio was reduced in the 2-minute CN traction group compared with the control group (P < 0.05. The ICP/MAP ratio in the CN crush group was lower than in the other three groups (P < 0.05, for each. Expression of nNOS in both MPG and dorsal penile nerve was lower in the CN traction group than in the control group, but was higher than in the CN crush group (P < 0.05. Nerve fiber number in the dorsal penile nerve was reduced by 2-minute CN traction (P < 0.05. The ratios of collagen to smooth muscle content and the apoptosis were both increased the in 2-minute CN traction group compared with the control group (P < 0.05. The findings indicate that CN traction is an effective CN injury model and the injury it caused is relatively mild compared with the CN crush model.

  15. Crushing of Subglacial Lake Sediment as a Source of Bio-utilisable Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill Olivas, B.; Telling, J.; Michaud, A. B.; Skidmore, M. L.; Priscu, J. C.; Tranter, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent research has shown microbial ecosystems exist under glaciers and ice sheets. The sources of energy to support these ecosystems are still not fully understood, particularly beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet, where direct access to the atmosphere and in-washed organic matter and oxidising agents does not occur. Hence, sub-ice sheet energy sources are restricted to those in subglacial environments, except for ice-margin environments. This study focuses on sediments from Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW), the first subglacial lake to be directly and cleanly sampled. Sediment from three depths in a shallow core extracted from SLW were used to assess the possible energy contributions from mechanochemical reactions to this subglacial ecosystem. To do this, the samples were crushed under an anoxic atmosphere using a ball mill. The sediments were then transferred into serum bottles under anoxic conditions. They were wetted and the headspace gas was subsequently sampled and analysed during a 40 day incubation. Results show the release of substantial amounts of hydrogen, which could potentially serve as an abiotic source of energy to microbes, in particular, methanogenic archaea. Significant amounts of short chain hydrocarbons (including methane and ethylene), possibly from the reactivation of ancient organic carbon, were also observed. Crushed samples showed a significant concentration of hydrogen peroxide produced on contact with water, as well as significant amounts of Si radicals, showing comminution of these sediments unlocks the potential for a wide range of redox conditions and reactions to develop within glacially eroded sediment under ice. This in turn provides a previously overlooked source of nutrients and energy for microbes to utilise.

  16. Cholinergic Potentiation of Restoration of Visual Function after Optic Nerve Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Chamoun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cortical plasticity and brain connectivity may improve residual vision following a visual impairment. Since acetylcholine plays an important role in attention and neuronal plasticity, we explored whether potentiation of the cholinergic transmission has an effect on the visual function restoration. To this end, we evaluated for 4 weeks the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on brightness discrimination, visually evoked potentials, and visual cortex reactivity after a bilateral and partial optic nerve crush in adult rats. Donepezil administration enhanced brightness discrimination capacity after optic nerve crush compared to nontreated animals. The visually evoked activation of the primary visual cortex was not restored, as measured by evoked potentials, but the cortical neuronal activity measured by thallium autometallography was not significantly affected four weeks after the optic nerve crush. Altogether, the results suggest a role of the cholinergic system in postlesion cortical plasticity. This finding agrees with the view that restoration of visual function may involve mechanisms beyond the area of primary damage and opens a new perspective for improving visual rehabilitation in humans.

  17. Cholinergic Potentiation of Restoration of Visual Function after Optic Nerve Damage in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Mira; Sergeeva, Elena G.; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Jia, Shaobo; Grigartzik, Lisa; Ma, Jing; You, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing cortical plasticity and brain connectivity may improve residual vision following a visual impairment. Since acetylcholine plays an important role in attention and neuronal plasticity, we explored whether potentiation of the cholinergic transmission has an effect on the visual function restoration. To this end, we evaluated for 4 weeks the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on brightness discrimination, visually evoked potentials, and visual cortex reactivity after a bilateral and partial optic nerve crush in adult rats. Donepezil administration enhanced brightness discrimination capacity after optic nerve crush compared to nontreated animals. The visually evoked activation of the primary visual cortex was not restored, as measured by evoked potentials, but the cortical neuronal activity measured by thallium autometallography was not significantly affected four weeks after the optic nerve crush. Altogether, the results suggest a role of the cholinergic system in postlesion cortical plasticity. This finding agrees with the view that restoration of visual function may involve mechanisms beyond the area of primary damage and opens a new perspective for improving visual rehabilitation in humans. PMID:28928986

  18. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  19. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  20. The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability of composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The energy-absorption capability as a function of crushing speed was determined for Thornel 300-Fiberite 934 (Gr-E) and Kevlar-49-Fiberite 934 (K-E) composite material. Circular cross section tube specimens were crushed at speeds ranging from 0.01 to 12 m/sec. Ply orientations of the tube specimens were (0/ +/- theta)2 and (+/- theta)2 where theta = 15, 45, and 75 deg. Based upon the results of these tests, the energy-absorption capability of Gr-E and K-E was determined to be a function of crushing speed. The magnitude of the effects of crushing speed on energy-absorption capability was determined to be a function of the mechanisms that control the crushing process. The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability is related to whether the mechanical response of the crushing mechanism that controls the crushing process is a function of strain rate. Energy-absorption capability of Gr-E and K-E tubes ranged between 0 and 35 percent and 20 and 45 percent, respectively, depending upon ply orientation.

  1. Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Safety and health in the stone crushing industry : a practical manual for preventing accidents preserving health and keeping a company profitable. Études. Abstract for oral presentation : addressing health risk of communities residing close to stone quarrying and crushing unit using ecohealth framework in Central India.

  2. Characteristics of Crushing Energy and Fractal of Magnetite Ore under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Gan, D. Q.; Zhang, Y. B.

    2018-03-01

    The crushing mechanism of magnetite ore is a critical theoretical problem on the controlling of energy dissipation and machine crushing quality in ore material processing. Uniaxial crushing tests were carried out to research the deformation mechanism and the laws of the energy evolution, based on which the crushing mechanism of magnetite ore was explored. The compaction stage and plasticity and damage stage are two main compression deformation stages, the main transitional forms from inner damage to fracture are plastic deformation and stick-slip. In the process of crushing, plasticity and damage stage is the key link on energy absorption for that the specimen tends to saturate energy state approaching to the peak stress. The characteristics of specimen deformation and energy dissipation can synthetically reply the state of existed defects inner raw magnetite ore and the damage process during loading period. The fast releasing of elastic energy and the work done by the press machine commonly make raw magnetite ore thoroughly broken after peak stress. Magnetite ore fragments have statistical self-similarity and size threshold of fractal characteristics under uniaxial squeezing crushing. The larger ratio of releasable elastic energy and dissipation energy and the faster energy change rate is the better fractal properties and crushing quality magnetite ore has under uniaxial crushing.

  3. A benchmark study of procedures for analysis of axial crushing of bulbous bows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    Simplified methods to estimate mean axial crushing forces of plated structures are reviewed and applied to a series of experimental results for axial crushing of large-scale bulbous bow models. Methods based on intersection unit elements such as L-, T- and X-type elements as well as methods based...

  4. Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India. In Pratapura Industrial Area (Tikamgarh district, Bundelkhand region, Madhya Pradesh), stone quarrying and crushing is carried out by labor-intensive units employing unskilled workers on a seasonal basis complementing the agricultural cycle. In the ...

  5. Fractal and Morphological Characteristics of Single Marble Particle Crushing in Uniaxial Compression Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crushing of rock particles is a phenomenon commonly encountered in geotechnical engineering practice. It is however difficult to study the crushing of rock particles using classical theory because the physical structure of the particles is complex and irregular. This paper aims at evaluating fractal and morphological characteristics of single rock particle. A large number of particle crushing tests are conducted on single rock particle. The force-displacement curves and the particle size distributions (PSD of crushed particles are analysed based on particle crushing tests. Particle shape plays an important role in both the micro- and macroscale responses of a granular assembly. The PSD of an assortment of rocks are analysed by fractal methods, and the fractal dimension is obtained. A theoretical formula for particle crushing strength is derived, utilising the fractal model, and a simple method is proposed for predicting the probability of particle survival based on the Weibull statistics. Based on a few physical assumptions, simple equations are derived for determining particle crushing energy. The results of applying these equations are tested against the actual experimental data and prove to be very consistent. Fractal theory is therefore applicable for analysis of particle crushing.

  6. Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

    1998-03-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask's top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer's testing of the foam and to determine the foam's stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask

  7. Interim design report: fuel particle crushing. [Double-roll crusher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, J.W.; Strand, J.B.; Cook, E.J.; Miller, C.M.

    1977-11-01

    The double-roll fuel particle crusher was developed to fracture the silicon carbide coatings of Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fertile and fissile and large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (LHTGR) fissile fuel particles. The report details the design task for the fuel particle crusher, including historical test information on double-roll crushers for carbide-coated fuels and the design approach selected for the cold pilot plant crusher, and shows how the design addresses the equipment goals and operational objectives. Design calculations and considerations are included to support the selection of crusher drive and gearing, the materials chosen for crushing rolls and housing, and the bearing selection. The results of the initial testing for compliance with design objectives and operational capabilities are also presented. 8 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from -5 md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability ( -5 md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing

  9. Effect of crushed sand on mortar and concrete rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experimental study conducted on fresh mortars and concretes made with crushed sand. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of aggregate particle shape and surface texture as well as dust content on mortar and concrete rheology. The experimental programme also addressed the impact of angular grains on chemical admixture performance and concrete bleeding. The findings showed that the use of crushed sand induces rheological behaviour that differs from the behaviour observed in natural sand and that superplasticisers can improve this behaviour considerably.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental del estado fresco de morteros y hormigones con arenas de machaqueo, orientado a la evaluación de la incidencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos del árido fino y del contenido de polvo sobre la reología de las mezclas. El programa experimental comprendió el estudio del estado fresco de hormigones con arenas con partículas angulares, la influencia de este tipo de partículas sobre la efectividad de los aditivos químicos y la evaluación de la influencia de las características físicas del árido fino sobre la exudación. Los resultados muestran que el empleo de arenas de machaqueo provoca un comportamiento reológico diferente al de hormigones con arenas naturales, y que el efecto de los aditivos superfluidificantes mejora notablemente este comportamiento.

  10. The Six Syndromes of the Sixth Cranial Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Azarmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sixth cranial nerve runs a long course from the brainstem to the lateral rectus muscle. Based on the location of an abnormality, other neurologic structures may be involved with the pathology related to this nerve. Sixth nerve palsy is frequently due to a benign process with full recovery within weeks, yet caution is warranted as it may portend a serious neurologic process. Hence, early diagnosis is often critical for some conditions that present with sixth nerve palsy. This article outlines a simple clinical approach to sixth nerve palsy based on its anatomy.

  11. The six syndromes of the sixth cranial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmina, Mohsen; Azarmina, Hossein

    2013-04-01

    The sixth cranial nerve runs a long course from the brainstem to the lateral rectus muscle. Based on the location of an abnormality, other neurologic structures may be involved with the pathology related to this nerve. Sixth nerve palsy is frequently due to a benign process with full recovery within weeks, yet caution is warranted as it may portend a serious neurologic process. Hence, early diagnosis is often critical for some conditions that present with sixth nerve palsy. This article outlines a simple clinical approach to sixth nerve palsy based on its anatomy.

  12. Joining and reinforcing a composite bumper beam and a composite crush can for a vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Elisabeth; Decker, Leland; Armstrong, Dale; Truskin, James; Pasupuleti, Praveen; Dwarmpudi, Ramesh; Doroudian, Mark

    2017-03-21

    A front bumper beam and crush can (FBCC) system is provided for a vehicle. A bumper beam has an interior surface with a plurality of ribs extending therefrom. The ribs and the interior surface are made of a chopped fiber composite and cooperate to engage a crush can. The chopped fiber composite reinforces the engaging surfaces of the crush can and the interior surface of the bumper beam. The crush can has a tubular body made of a continuous fiber composite. The crush can has outwardly-extending flanges at an end spaced away from the bumper beam. The flanges are at least partially provided with a layer of chopped fiber composite to reinforce a joint between the outwardly-extending flange and the vehicle frame.

  13. Cooling Effect of Crushed Rock-Based Embankment along the Chaidaer-Muli Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the cooling effect of crushed rock-based embankment on slope wetlands along the Chaidaer-Muli Railway. The result shows that only the embankment shady side can be effectively cooled down in a warm permafrost region and the crushed rock-based embankment can cool the entire embankment in a cold permafrost region. The crushed rock-based embankment cannot eliminate the problems from the south-north slope. Slope wetland can influence the temperature field of the crushed rock-based embankment. On the uphill side, it will lead to degradation in some cases and development of permafrost in other cases, which depends on the topsoil water content and ground surface runoff. On the downhill side, it always leads to the warming of permafrost. For crushed rock-based embankment constructed on slope wetlands, it is necessary to adopt other stronger measures to eliminate the sunny-shady slope problems.

  14. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  15. Oscar Renda Contracting Inc.: Request for Coverage under the Stone Quarrying, Crushing and Screening Facilities General Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Request for Coverage under Stone Quarrying, Crushing and Screening Facilities General Permit for Oscar Renda Contracting Inc. portable crushing operation used to process material to a pipeline project near US HWY 491 between Twin Lakes and Naschitti, NM.

  16. Multifunctional Silk Nerve Guides for Axon Outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupaj, Marie C.

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a critical issue as 2.8% of trauma patients present with this type of injury, estimating a total of 200,000 nerve repair procedures yearly in the United States. While the peripheral nervous system exhibits slow regeneration, at a rate of 0.5 mm -- 9 mm/day following trauma, this regenerative ability is only possible under certain conditions. Clinical repairs have changed slightly in the last 30 years and standard methods of treatment include suturing damaged nerve ends, allografting, and autografting, with the autograft the gold standard of these approaches. Unfortunately, the use of autografts requires a second surgery and there is a shortage of nerves available for grafting. Allografts are a second option however allografts have lower success rates and are accompanied by the need of immunosuppressant drugs. Recently there has been a focus on developing nerve guides as an "off the shelf" approach. Although some natural and synthetic guidance channels have been approved by the FDA, these nerve guides are unfunctionalized and repair only short gaps, less than 3 cm in length. The goal of this project was to identify strategies for functionalizing peripheral nerve conduits for the outgrowth of neuron axons in vitro . To accomplish this, two strategies (bioelectrical and biophysical) were indentified for increasing axon outgrowth and promoting axon guidance. Bioelectrical strategies exploited electrical stimulation for increasing neurite outgrowth. Biophysical strategies tested a range of surface topographies for axon guidance. Novel methods were developed for integrating electrical and biophysical strategies into silk films in 2D. Finally, a functionalized nerve conduit system was developed that integrated all strategies for the purpose of attaching, elongating, and guiding nervous tissue in vitro. Future directions of this work include silk conduit translation into a rat sciatic nerve model in vivo for the purpose of repairing long

  17. Comparison of the fastest regenerating motor and sensory myelinated axons in the same peripheral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Sørensen, Jesper; Krarup, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Functional outcome after peripheral nerve regeneration is often poor, particularly involving nerve injuries far from their targets. Comparison of sensory and motor axon regeneration before target reinnervation is not possible in the clinical setting, and previous experimental studies addressing the question of differences in growth rates of different nerve fibre populations led to conflicting results. We developed an animal model to compare growth and maturation of the fastest growing sensory and motor fibres within the same mixed nerve after Wallerian degeneration. Regeneration of cat tibial nerve after crush (n = 13) and section (n = 7) was monitored for up to 140 days, using implanted cuff electrodes placed around the sciatic and tibial nerves and wire electrodes at plantar muscles. To distinguish between sensory and motor fibres, recordings were carried out from L6-S2 spinal roots using cuff electrodes. The timing of laminectomy was based on the presence of regenerating fibres along the nerve within the tibial cuff. Stimulation of unlesioned tibial nerves (n = 6) evoked the largest motor response in S1 ventral root and the largest sensory response in L7 dorsal root. Growth rates were compared by mapping the regenerating nerve fibres within the tibial nerve cuff to all ventral or dorsal roots and, regardless of the lesion type, the fastest growth was similar in sensory and motor fibres. Maturation was assessed as recovery of the maximum motor and sensory conduction velocities (CVs) within the tibial nerve cuff. Throughout the observation period the CV was approximately 14% faster in regenerated sensory fibres than in motor fibres in accordance with the difference observed in control nerves. Recovery of amplitude was only partial after section, whereas the root distribution pattern was restored. Our data suggest that the fastest growth and maturation rates that can be achieved during regeneration are similar for motor and sensory myelinated fibres.

  18. A transgenic rat expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in peripheral nerves provides a new hindlimb model for the study of nerve injury and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy M; Borschel, Gregory H; Santosa, Katherine A; Flagg, Eric R; Tong, Alice Y; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Newton, Piyaraj; Yan, Ying; Hunter, Daniel A; Johnson, Philip J; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2012-02-15

    In order to evaluate nerve regeneration in clinically relevant hindlimb surgical paradigms not feasible in fluorescent mice models, we developed a rat that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in neural tissue. Transgenic Sprague-Dawley rat lines were created using pronuclear injection of a transgene expressing GFP under the control of the thy1 gene. Nerves were imaged under fluorescence microscopy and muscles were imaged with confocal microscopy to determine GFP expression following sciatic nerve crush, transection and direct suturing, and transection followed by repair with a nerve isograft from nonexpressing littermates. In each surgical paradigm, fluorescence microscopy demonstrated the loss and reappearance of fluorescence with regeneration of axons following injury. Nerve regeneration was confirmed with imaging of Wallerian degeneration followed by reinnervation of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle motor endplates using confocal microscopy. The generation of a novel transgenic rat model expressing GFP in neural tissue allows in vivo imaging of nerve regeneration and visualization of motor endplate reinnervation. This rat provides a new model for studying peripheral nerve injury and regeneration over surgically relevant distances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ulnar nerve entrapment by anconeus epitrochlearis ligament.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2012-01-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow is the second most common upper limb entrapment neuropathy other than carpal tunnel syndrome. There have been many causes identified ranging from chronic aging joint changes to inflammatory conditions or systemic disorders. Among them, uncommon anatomical variants accounts for a small number of cases. Here, we report our experience in managing ulnar nerve entrapment caused by a rare vestigial structure, anconeus epitrochlearis ligament, and provide a brief review of the literature of its management.

  20. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  1. Evaluating the Psychological Concomitants of Other-Sex Crush Experiences during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2016-01-01

    Very little empirical attention has been paid to other-sex crush experiences during adolescence. As a result, it is not known whether such experiences, which appear to be relatively common, impact psychological adjustment outcomes. This two-wave (3 month interval) longitudinal study of 268 young adolescents (48% girls; M age at Time 1 = 11.84 years) examined the psychological concomitants of other-sex crush experiences (having and being viewed by others as a crush). Anxious-withdrawal and gender were evaluated as moderators. Peer nomination measures at Time 1 assessed both types of crush experiences and mutual friendship involvement, and participants completed self-report measures of loneliness and depressive symptoms at Times 1 and 2. The results from regression analyses revealed significant associations between having an other-sex crush and depressive symptoms at Time 1, after accounting for the effects of mutual friendship. Two interaction effects also revealed that crush status was a risk factor for depressive symptoms at low levels of anxious-withdrawal but a protective factor at high levels. The findings provide the first empirical evidence that other-sex crush experiences are developmentally significant during early adolescence. PMID:26984754

  2. Segmented Aluminum Honeycomb Characteristics in T-Direction, Dynamic Crush Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BATEMAN,VESTA I.; BROWN,FREDERICK A.; NUSSER,MICHAEL A.; SWANSON,LLOYD H.

    2000-08-23

    Thirteen segmented aluminum honeycomb samples (5 in. diameter and 1.5 in. height) have been crushed in an experimental configuration that uses a drop table impact machine. The 38.0 pcf bulk density samples are a unique segmented geometry that allows the samples to be crushed while maintaining a constant cross-sectional area. A crush weight of 175 lb was used to determine the rate sensitivity of the honeycomb's highest strength orientation, T-direction, in a dynamic environment of {approx}50 fps impact velocity. Experiments were conducted for two honeycomb manufacturers and at two temperatures, ambient and +165 F. Independent measurements of the crush force were made with a custom load cell and a force derived from acceleration measurements on the drop table using the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique with a Calibrated Force (SWAT-CAL). Normalized stress-strain curves for all thirteen experiments are included and have excellent repeatability. These data are strictly valid for material characteristics in the T orientation because the cross-sectional area of the honeycomb did not change during the crush. The dynamic crush data have a consistent increase in crush strength of {approximately}7--19% as compared to quasi-static data and suggest that dynamic performance may be inferred from static tests. An uncertainty analysis estimates the error in these data is {+-} 11%.

  3. Modeling of crushed ore agglomeration for heap leach operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Nikhil

    The focus of this dissertation is modeling of the evolution of size distribution in batch agglomeration drum. There has been no successful work on modeling of crushed ore agglomeration although the framework for population balance modeling of pelletization and granulation is readily available. In this study three different batch agglomeration drums were used to study the agglomeration kinetics of copper, gold and nickel ores. The agglomerate size distribution is inherently subject to random fluctuation due the very nature of the process. Yet, with careful experimentation and size analysis the evolution of size distribution can be followed. The population balance model employing the random coalesce model with a constant rate kernel was shown to work well in a micro and lab scale agglomerator experiments. In small drums agglomerates begin to break in a short time, whereas the growth is uniform in the lab scale drum. The experimental agglomerate size distributions exhibit self-preserving size spectra which confirms the applicability of coalescence rate based model. The same spectra became a useful fact for predicting the size distribution with an empirical model. Since moisture is a principal variable, the absolute deviation from optimum moisture was used as the primary variable in the empirical model. Having established a model for the size distribution, the next step was to delve into the internal constituents of each agglomerate size class. To this end, an experimental scheme known as dip test was devised. The outcome of the test was the size distribution of progeny particles which make up a given size class of agglomerate. The progeny size distribution was analyzed with a model that partitions the particles into a host and guest category. The ensuing partition coefficient is a valuable in determining how a particle in a size class participates in larger agglomerates. This dissertation lays out the fundamentals for applying the population balance concept to batch

  4. Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    project was to develop an alternative to autologous nerve grafts used in repair of peripheral nerve injuries in war and civilian life. Based on our...gradient compositions tested in Aim 1 in preparation to studies in the large animal model of peripheral nerve injury and repair . As it was not...this specific aim was to test the efficacy of optimized nanofiber nerve guide in a canine model of peripheral nerve injury and repair . Peripheral nerve

  5. Time Course of Immediate Early Gene Protein Expression in the Spinal Cord following Conditioning Stimulation of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojovic, Ognjen; Panja, Deb; Bittins, Margarethe; Bramham, Clive R.; Tjolsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Long-term potentiation induced by conditioning electrical stimulation of afferent fibers is a widely studied form of synaptic plasticity in the brain and the spinal cord. In the spinal cord dorsal horn, long-term potentiation is induced by a series of high-frequency trains applied to primary

  6. Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1998-04-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to lateral seismic forces assume that the cask rests on a rigid surface. In this analysis, the cask (110 tons) sits on a stainless steel encased (0.25 in. top plate), polyurethane foam (4 ft. thick) crush pad. As the cask tends to rock due to horizontal seismic forces, the contact area between the cask and the crush pad is reduced, increasing the bearing stress, and causing the pivoting corner of the cask to depress into the crush pad. As the crush pad depresses under the cask corner, the pivot point shifts from the corner toward the cask center, which facilitates rocking and potential tipping of the cask. Subsequent rocking of the cask may deepen the depression, further contributing to the likelihood of cask tip over. However, as the depression is created, the crush pad is absorbing energy from the rocking cask. Potential tip over of the cask was evaluated by performing a non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis with acceleration time history input. This time history analysis captured the effect of a deforming crush pad, and also eliminated conservatisms of the conventional approaches. For comparison purposes, this analysis was also performed with the cask sitting on a solid stainless steel crush pad. Results indicate that the conventional methods are quite conservative relative to the more exacting time history analysis. They also indicate that the rocking motion is less on the foam crush pad than on the solid stainless steel pad

  7. Pudendal nerve palsy in trauma and elective orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzois, Ioannis; Tsitskaris, Konstantinos; Oussedik, Sam

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of pudendal nerve palsy following routine trauma and elective orthopaedic surgery procedures ranges from 1.9% to 27.6%. Excessive and/or prolonged traction against the perineal post of a traction table, leading to direct compression and localised ischaemia to the nerve are suggested mechanisms of injury. Misuse of traction and the inappropriate placement of the perineal post, leading to crushing and stretching of the pudendal nerve, are two main contributing factors leading to its postoperative palsy. The sequelae may be sensory, motor or mixed. In most cases, these injuries are transient and tend to resolve within several weeks or months. However, complete neurological recovery may be unpredictable and the effects of ongoing dysfunction potentially disastrous for the individual. In terms of preventative measures, magnitude and duration of traction time should be minimised; traction should be limited to the critical operative steps only. Additionally, the perineal post should be placed between the genitalia and the contralateral leg. A well-padded, large-diameter perineal post should be used (>10cm). Adequate muscle relaxation during anaesthesia is particularly important in young men who have strong muscles and thus require larger traction forces when compared to elderly patients. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of the pathophysiology behind the development of this palsy and the measures that can be employed to reduce its occurrence. In procedures where a traction table is employed, consenting for pudendal nerve palsy should be considered by the surgical team. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fractal features of a crumpling network in randomly folded thin matter and mechanics of sheet crushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankin, Alexander S; Horta Rangel, Antonio; García Pérez, Gregorio; Gayosso Martinez, Felipe; Sanchez Chavez, Hugo; Martínez-González, Claudia L

    2013-05-01

    We study the static and dynamic properties of networks of crumpled creases formed in hand crushed sheets of paper. The fractal dimensionalities of crumpling networks in the unfolded (flat) and folded configurations are determined. Some other noteworthy features of crumpling networks are established. The physical implications of these findings are discussed. Specifically, we state that self-avoiding interactions introduce a characteristic length scale of sheet crumpling. A framework to model the crumpling phenomena is suggested. Mechanics of sheet crushing under external confinement is developed. The effect of compaction geometry on the crushing mechanics is revealed.

  9. Utilization of crushed clay brick in concrete industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive experimental program regarding the use of recycled aggregates produced from demolition of brick buildings is presented. The brick wastes were crushed, sorted and classified into coarse and fine aggregates as well as powder (CBP. The first phase of the research focuses on the effect of incorporating recycled aggregates on physico-mechanical properties of paste, mortar and concrete. Non-traditional tests including X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and micro-structural analysis (MSA were performed. The second phase of the program explores the effect of using recycled aggregates on properties of concrete masonry units. A total of 44 mixtures were utilized throughout the program. Results show cement paste when modified with 25% CBP achieves smaller pore size and lower weight loss under high temperature than reference paste. Furthermore, the use of recycled aggregates reduces the overall unit weight of concrete masonry units. Actually, modified concrete masonry units incorporating recycled aggregates achieve lower unit weight, higher thermal resistance and absorption rate than reference units. Although considerable strength reduction is noticeable by substitution, compressive strength levels meet the Egyptian specifications limitations. Critical replacement ratios are suggested to produce load bearing-concrete masonry units. Based on experimental evidences, it can be stated that the use of recycled aggregate and dust made of clay bricks is promising in many applications where the thermal resistance, cost and environmental aspects are imperative.

  10. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrejos Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated. However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike’s flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of “ratholes”. The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  11. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrejos, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated). However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike's flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of "ratholes". The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  12. Isolated optic nerve pseudotumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, T.; Prasad, S.; Krishnan, A.; Laxminarayan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Isolated optic nerve involvement by the idiopathic inflammatory process is a rare finding and very few reports are available. Here a case of an isolated optic nerve inflammatory pseudotumour presenting with gradually progressive unilateral loss of vision is described. It showed dramatic response to a trial of steroids and its differential diagnoses are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels that bring oxygen to your nerves. Damaged nerves may stop sending messages, or may send messages slowly or at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. Symptoms may include Numbness in your ...

  14. Concrete crushing and sampling, a methodology and technology for the unconditional release of concrete material from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, S.; Teunckens, L.; Walthery, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Millen, D.

    2002-01-01

    Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project. Two small storage buildings for final products from reprocessing were dismantled to verify the assumptions made in a previous paper study on decommissioning, to demonstrate and develop dismantling techniques and to train personnel. Both buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. They were demolished and the remaining concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored. Currently, the decommissioning operations carried out at the main building have made substantial progress. They are executed on an industrial scale and will continue till the end of 2005. In view of the final demolition of the building, a clearance methodology has to be proposed. Application of the methodology applied for the storage buildings of the pilot project is complicated for several reasons. Although this methodology is not rejected as such, an alternative has been studied thoroughly. It considers at least one complete measurement of all concrete structures and the removal of all detected residual radioactivity. This monitoring sequence is followed by a controlled demolition of the concrete structures and crushing of the resulting concrete parts to smaller particles. During the crushing operations, metal parts are separated from the concrete and representative concrete samples are taken. The frequency of sampling meets the prevailing standards. In a further step, the concrete samples are milled, homogenised, and a smaller fraction is sent to the laboratory for analyses. The paper describes the developed concrete crushing and sampling methodology. (authors)

  15. Ulnar nerve paralysis after forearm bone fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Schwartsmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Paralysis or nerve injury associated with fractures of forearm bones fracture is rare and is more common in exposed fractures with large soft-tissue injuries. Ulnar nerve paralysis is a rare condition associated with closed fractures of the forearm. In most cases, the cause of paralysis is nerve contusion, which evolves with neuropraxia. However, nerve lacerations and entrapment at the fracture site always need to be borne in mind. This becomes more important when neuropraxia appears or worsens after reduction of a closed fracture of the forearm has been completed. The importance of diagnosing this injury and differentiating its features lies in the fact that, depending on the type of lesion, different types of management will be chosen.

  16. Assessment of vascularization and myelination following peripheral nerve repair using angiographic and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ahhyun S.; Chico-Calero, Isabel; Easow, Jeena M.; Villiger, Martin; Welt, Jonathan; Winograd, Jonathan M.; Randolph, Mark A.; Redmond, Robert W.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2017-02-01

    A severe traumatic injury to a peripheral nerve often requires surgical graft repair. However, functional recovery after these surgical repairs is often unsatisfactory. To improve interventional procedures, it is important to understand the regeneration of the nerve grafts. The rodent sciatic nerve is commonly used to investigate these parameters. However, the ability to longitudinally assess the reinnervation of injured nerves are limited, and to our knowledge, no methods currently exist to investigate the timing of the revascularization in functional recovery. In this work, we describe the development and use of angiographic and polarization-sensitive (PS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) to visualize the vascularization, demyelination and remyelination of peripheral nerve healing after crush and transection injuries, and across a variety of graft repair methods. A microscope was customized to provide 3.6 cm fields of view along the nerve axis with a capability to track the nerve height to maintain the nerve within the focal plane. Motion artifact rejection was implemented in the angiography algorithm to reduce degradation by bulk respiratory motion in the hindlimb site. Vectorial birefringence imaging methods were developed to significantly enhance the accuracy of myelination measurements and to discriminate birefringent contributions from the myelin and epineurium. These results demonstrate that the OCT platform has the potential to reveal new insights in preclinical studies and may ultimately provide a means for clinical intra-surgical assessment of peripheral nerve function.

  17. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties of Crushed Sand Concrete containing Rubber Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the rubber wastes are an important part of municipal solid waste. This work focuses on the recycling of rubber waste, specifically rubber waste of used shoes discharged into the nature and added in the mass of crushed sand concrete with percentage (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The physical (workability, fresh density, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and thermal (thermal conductivity of different crushed sand concrete made are analyzed and compared to the respective controls. The use of rubber waste in crushed sand concrete contributes to reduce the bulk density and performance of sand concrete. Nevertheless, the use of rubber aggregate leads to a significant reduction in thermal conductivity, which improves the thermal insulation of crushed sand concrete.

  18. Recycled Asphalt Pavement and Crushed Concrete Backfill: State-of-the-Art Review and Material Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    This report describes research results from the first year of a three-year study focused on the use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and crushed concrete (CC) as backfill for mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls.

  19. The Effect of Limestone, Crush Rock and Asbestos/Cement Dust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Limestone, Crush Rock and Asbestos/Cement Dust Particles on the Ventilatory Function Parameters of Chronically-Exposed Workers in Calabar Municipality and Akamkpa Local Government Areas of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

  20. Growing Eremanthus erythropappus in crushed laterite: A promising alternative to topsoil for bauxite-mine revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Naiara Amaral de Miranda; Leite, Mariangela Garcia Praça; Figueiredo, Maurílio Assis; Kozovits, Alessandra Rodrigues

    2013-11-15

    Topsoil is the preferred substrate for areas requiring rehabilitation after bauxite mining. However, topsoil is sometimes lacking and so there is a need to test the suitability of other, locally available substrates. In an abandoned bauxite mine in Southeastern Brazil, small patches of native vegetation spontaneously established in shallow depressions over weathered laterite, suggesting that granulometric reduction may have facilitated the establishment of plants. To test this hypothesis, blocks of laterite collected in the area were crushed to simulate texture observed in the vegetation patches. Topsoil collected in a preserved ferruginous field near to the extraction area was also used as a substrate in which Eremanthus erythropappus seedlings, a native woody species, were grown. Seedlings were cultivated without fertilizers in these two substrates and also directly over the exposed and uncrushed laterite. The species proved to be very promising for the revegetation, showing a high survival rate in all substrates. Higher annual growth rates and higher final biomass values were observed in topsoil, but the granulometric reduction of laterite doubled plant growth rate in comparison to the exposed laterite. This result was likely due to the increased availability of essential nutrients to plants and to the improvement in physical conditions for root growth and functioning. Moreover, seedling allometry was not altered by the type of substrate, suggesting that the species was highly tolerant to the new substrate conditions, a fundamental characteristic for success of revegetation of bauxite extraction degraded areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abducens Nerve Palsy in Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Sayedeh Reyhaneh

    2016-01-01

    Headache, blurring of vision and confusion are neurologic symptoms of preeclampsia. Whereas abducens nerve palsy during pregnancy is an extremely rare condition, we report here a 40-year-old patient with diplopia, blurring of vision and abducens nerve palsy in the 39th week of pregnancy with history of hypertension (HTN). No specific pathology was found. Symptoms of abducens nerve palsy were resolved spontaneously by controlling blood pressure after delivery. PMID:28208948

  2. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells accelerate nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medialization thyroplasty or injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis cannot restore mobility of the vocal fold. Recent studies have shown that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells is effective in the repair of nerve injuries. This study investigated whether adipose-derived stem cell transplantation could repair recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Rat models of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury were established by crushing with micro forceps. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs; 8 × 105 or differentiated Schwann-like adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (dADSCs; 8 × 105 or extracellular matrix were injected at the site of injury. At 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-surgery, a higher density of myelinated nerve fiber, thicker myelin sheath, improved vocal fold movement, better recovery of nerve conduction capacity and reduced thyroarytenoid muscle atrophy were found in ADSCs and dADSCs groups compared with the extracellular matrix group. The effects were more pronounced in the ADSCs group than in the dADSCs group. These experimental results indicated that ADSCs transplantation could be an early interventional strategy to promote regeneration after recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.

  3. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells accelerate nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Xu, Wen; Cheng, Li-yu

    2017-01-01

    Medialization thyroplasty or injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis cannot restore mobility of the vocal fold. Recent studies have shown that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells is effective in the repair of nerve injuries. This study investigated whether adipose-derived stem cell transplantation could repair recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Rat models of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury were established by crushing with micro forceps. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs; 8 × 105) or differentiated Schwann-like adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (dADSCs; 8 × 105) or extracellular matrix were injected at the site of injury. At 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-surgery, a higher density of myelinated nerve fiber, thicker myelin sheath, improved vocal fold movement, better recovery of nerve conduction capacity and reduced thyroarytenoid muscle atrophy were found in ADSCs and dADSCs groups compared with the extracellular matrix group. The effects were more pronounced in the ADSCs group than in the dADSCs group. These experimental results indicated that ADSCs transplantation could be an early interventional strategy to promote regeneration after recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. PMID:29090002

  4. Effect of β-nerve growth factor on differentiation of endothelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nerve growth factor. (Ad-EGFP-hβ-NGF) on ... Keywords: β-Nerve growth factor, Endothelial progenitor cells, Angiogenic growth factors, Tyrosine kinase receptor A, Cell ..... significantly improve the limb ischemic conditions. [15]. The results of ...

  5. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... analog or digital form for each sample tested. If analog data are collected, a means of converting the data to digital data must be made available. All digital data are collected at a rate consistent with... all data prior to 6.4 mm (0.25 in) of crush and after 16.5 mm (0.65 in) of crush. Divide the remaining...

  6. Neurophysiological approach to disorders of peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nerve system (PNS) are heterogeneous and may involve motor fibers, sensory fibers, small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and autonomic nerve fibers, with variable anatomical distribution (single nerves, several different nerves, symmetrical affection of all nerves...

  7. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELLEN L. LIMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05 by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day. There was no significant effect (P>0.05 for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41. For contents of ruminal NH3-N was a significant effect (P <0.05 only for collection time, and ammonia peaks occurred between 2 and 4 h after feeding, with values of 22.56 and 21.40 mg/dL. The total concentration of short chain fatty acids and the C2:C3 ratio was reduced in 9.6 and 15.43%. The ruminal degradability of NDF was not affected by the supplements. The supplementation with sunflower crushed to beef steers grazing, in partial replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters.

  8. Research of environmentally-friendly utilization methods of the crushed stone waste on granite quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levytskyi V.G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of activity of stone-mining enterprises shows the low competitiveness of crushed stone products Upgrading the quality of crushed stone and production of the European standard fractions requires to use of new technologies and equipment. The main waste of crushed stone pits is сrushed granite waste, which high percent of an exit is caused by outdated equipment and incorrectly selected technological parameters of the crushing process. Crushed-granite waste is stored in dumps which occupy large areas and negatively effect on production area ecology. In November 2017, the Government of Ukraine accepted the National Waste Management Strategy until 2030, the main aim of it is develop a strategy of the mineral raw materials balanced use and international standards introduction at the national level. Therefore, the problem of complex utilization and recycling of waste from stone-mining enterprises with receiving a qualitative secondary product is relevant. The publication presents the сrushed granite waste volumes by crushed stone pit, its properties and main directions of utilization. The ecological influence of waste dumps, in particular granite dust, on the environment and human, the strategy of using non-waste technologies and ecological features of сrushed granite waste secondary processing are considered

  9. Calculation of density and permeability of compacted crushed salt within an engineered shaft sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.; Statham, W.

    1997-01-01

    Crushed salt from the host Salado Formation is proposed as a sealing material in one component of a multicomponent seal system design for the shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a mined geological repository for storage and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The crushed salt will be compacted and placed at a density approaching 90% of the intact density of the host Salado salt. Creep closure of the shaft will further compact the crushed salt over time, thereby reducing the crushed-salt permeability from the initial state and creating an effective long-term seal. A structural model and a fluid flow model have been developed to provide an estimate of crushed-salt reconsolidation rate as a function of depth, time, and pore pressure. Model results are obtained in terms of crushed-salt permeability as a function of time and depth within the salt column. Model results indicate that average salt column permeability will be reduced to 3.3 x 10 -20 m 2 in about 100 years, which provides for an acceptable long-term seal component

  10. A multi-particle crushing apparatus for studying rock fragmentation due to repeated impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Mohanty, B.; Xia, K.

    2017-12-01

    Rock crushing is a common process in mining and related operations. Although a number of particle crushing tests have been proposed in the literature, most of them are concerned with single-particle crushing, i.e., a single rock sample is crushed in each test. Considering the realistic scenario in crushers where many fragments are involved, a laboratory crushing apparatus is developed in this study. This device consists of a Hopkinson pressure bar system and a piston-holder system. The Hopkinson pressure bar system is used to apply calibrated dynamic loads to the piston-holder system, and the piston-holder system is used to hold rock samples and to recover fragments for subsequent particle size analysis. The rock samples are subjected to three to seven impacts under three impact velocities (2.2, 3.8, and 5.0 m/s), with the feed size of the rock particle samples limited between 9.5 and 12.7 mm. Several key parameters are determined from this test, including particle size distribution parameters, impact velocity, loading pressure, and total work. The results show that the total work correlates well with resulting fragmentation size distribution, and the apparatus provides a useful tool for studying the mechanism of crushing, which further provides guidelines for the design of commercial crushers.

  11. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP, as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes.

  12. (--Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates NADPH-d/nNOS expression in motor neurons of rats following peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Chi-Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and large amounts of nitric oxide (NO have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuronal injury and neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies have shown that (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, one of the green tea polyphenols, has potent antioxidant effects against free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in ischemia-induced neuronal damage. The purpose of this study was to examine whether EGCG would attenuate neuronal expression of NADPH-d/nNOS in the motor neurons of the lower brainstem following peripheral nerve crush. Thus, young adult rats were treated with EGCG (10, 25, or 50 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min prior to crushing their hypoglossal and vagus nerves for 30 seconds (left side, at the cervical level. The treatment (pre-crush doses of EGCG was continued from day 1 to day 6, and the animals were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14 and 28. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d histochemistry and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS immunohistochemistry were used to assess neuronal NADPH-d/nNOS expression in the hypoglossal nucleus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Results In rats treated with high dosages of EGCG (25 or 50 mg/kg, NADPH-d/nNOS reactivity and cell death of the motor neurons were significantly decreased. Conclusions The present evidence indicated that EGCG can reduce NADPH-d/nNOS reactivity and thus may enhance motor neuron survival time following peripheral nerve injury.

  13. Mathematical model of fragmentation for the impact crushing of the zeolites of San Andrés, Holguín (Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Hechavarría–Pérez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling based on particles population balance method is a useful tool for impact crushing valuation. With the objective to evaluate the impact energy and feed rate influence on classification and fragmentation distribution functions, is proposed a mathematical model based on serial combination of Reid (1965 and Whiten (1972 structural models, that include Vogel and Peukert (2003, and Austin and Luckie (1972 mathematical expressions. Model validation was done using Chi-square statistical technique and zero-error graphic. The results show that proposed model simulate with adequate accuracy the impact crushing fragmentation process. The probability function of zeolite rock from San Andrés ore depend on the operation conditions witch sensibility was affected by impact energy. Fragmentation distribution function do not depend on the energy impact variation, while particle size distribution was affected by impact energy varying according to classification function tendency.

  14. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the back). Viewing the Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs of cranial nerves emerge from the underside of the brain, ... eye movement. Eye movement is controlled by 3 pairs of muscles. These muscles move the eye up and down, right and ... nerve 4th cranial nerve 6th ...

  15. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    rodents as a function of time after surgery. As predicted, those animals in the negative control group (no repair following nerve deficit injury ...80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve damage, typically involve large segmental nerve deficits. Standard repair uses...technology for repair of peripheral nerve injuries involving significant neural deficit with improved functional outcomes for the wounded warrior. The

  16. The assessment of particulate matter emitted from stone-crushing industry by correlating rock textures with particles generated after comminution and dispersed in air environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardi, Girolamo; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Plescia, Paolo; Passeri, Luciano

    2013-07-01

    The generation and emission of particulate matter from abrasion industry are subjects of the pollution monitoring by multidisciplinary study involving earth sciences and engineering disciplines. This work investigates the correlation between textural properties of in situ rock with class size distribution and morphology of particles generated after rock comminution and particles emitted in the air. A special comminution-dust sampling architecture was realised. The combined use of scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser was considered in performing digital image analysis on both crushed products and airborne particles collected onto membrane filters. The results show that the size and morphology of crushed particles are linked to the petrographic rock properties. In particular, particles with fibrous morphology are prominent in rocks showing foliated textures where elongated minerals occurred, with implication for asbestos-bearing rocks. For what concerns the airborne particles, the results show that their aerodynamic diameters are independent of the crusher operating conditions. External parameters probably intervene in the distribution of the airborne particles emission, including the dynamic air fluxes, or environmental conditions. By applying mathematical models, the morphology and size range of airborne particles following the comminution processes can be predicted, and results has implication for pollutants contamination due to particulate matters emitted by crush stone industry.

  17. Nerve injuries of the upper extremity and hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Lars B.; Wiberg, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    A nerve injury has a profound impact on the patient’s daily life due to the impaired sensory and motor function, impaired dexterity, sensitivity to cold as well as eventual pain problems. To perform an appropriate treatment of nerve injuries, a correct diagnosis must be made, where the injury is properly classified, leading to an optimal surgical approach and technique, where timing of surgery is also important for the outcome. Knowledge about the nerve regeneration process, where delicate processes occur in neurons, non-neuronal cells (i.e. Schwann cells) and other cells in the peripheral as well as the central nervous systems, is crucial for the treating surgeon. The surgical decision to perform nerve repair and/or reconstruction depends on the type of injury, the condition of the wound as well as the vascularity of the wound. To reconnect injured nerve ends, various techniques can be used, which include both epineurial and fascicular nerve repair, and if a nerve defect is caused by the injury, a nerve reconstruction procedure has to be performed, including bridging the defect using nerve-grafts or nerve transfer techniques. The patients must be evaluated properly and regularly after the surgical procedure and appropriate rehabilitation programmes are useful to improve the final outcome. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160071. Originally published online at www.efortopenreviews.org PMID:28630754

  18. Migration of {sup 75}Se(IV) in crushed Beishan granite: Effects of the iron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiangang; Ma, Bin; Kang, Mingliang; Wang, Chunli; Nie, Zhe; Liu, Chunli, E-mail: liucl@pku.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The diffusion of {sup 75}SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} in crushed BsG was slowest at approximately pH 5. • The D{sub a} values under aerobic conditions were nearly one order of magnitude lower than those under anaerobic conditions. • Fe(II)-bearing mineralogical components can be responsible for the great difference in D{sub a} values. • Se{sup IV} can be reduced to Se{sup 0} by BsG under anaerobic conditions. - Abstract: The diffusion of selenite (labeled with {sup 75}Se) in compacted Beishan granite (BsG) was investigated using the in-diffusion capillary method at pH values from ∼2.0 to ∼11.0 under oxic and anoxic conditions. The results indicate that the apparent diffusion coefficient (D{sub a}) values of selenite in BsG always reached the minimum at approximately pH 5. Unexpectedly, the D{sub a} values under oxic conditions are nearly one order of magnitude lower than those under the anoxic conditions. Further characterization reveals the existence of redox-sensitive Fe(II)-containing components, which can be responsible for the great difference in D{sub a} values. Fe(2p) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that more Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide coating is formed on the granite’s surface under aerobic conditions than is formed under anaerobic conditions. Correspondingly, Se(3d) spectra indicate that more selenium is sorbed under oxic conditions, and the sorbed amount always reached the maximum at pH values from ∼4 to ∼5. A linear combination fit of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy data revealed that Se(0) was formed under anoxic condition and that selenite preferred to form inner-sphere complexes with Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide. Overall, this study indicates that natural Fe-bearing minerals can greatly attenuate selenite diffusion and the retardation would be enhanced under aerobic conditions.

  19. Radial to axillary nerve transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaclocha, Vicente; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Rivera-Paz, Marlon; Martínez-Gómez, Deborah; Vanaclocha, Leyre

    2018-01-01

    Axillary nerve injury is common after brachial plexus injuries, particularly with shoulder luxation. Nerve grafting is the traditional procedure for postganglionic injuries. Nerve transfer is emerging as a viable option particularly in late referrals. At the proximal arm the radial and axillary nerves lie close by. Sacrificing one of the triceps muscle nerve branches induces little negative consequences. Transferring the long head of the triceps nerve branch is a good option to recover axillary nerve function. The surgical technique is presented in a video, stressing the steps to achieve a successful result. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/WbVbpMuPxIE .

  20. Optic Nerve Drusen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nerve. Ocular ultrasound, CT scan and/or fundus photography can also aid in the diagnosis. Drusen can ... Medical Disclaimer Search Site ▶ AAPOS Headquarters 655 Beach Street San Francisco, CA 94109-1336 Phone: (415) 561- ...

  1. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you do certain activities such as public speaking, singing or exercising, or when you're eating if ... of life. Research is still mixed on the benefits of vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of ...

  2. Laryngeal nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms include: Difficulty speaking Difficulty swallowing Hoarseness Injury to the left and right laryngeal nerves at the same time can cause a breathing problem. This can be an urgent medical problem.

  3. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  4. A numerical test method of California bearing ratio on graded crushed rocks using particle flow modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjun Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the mechanical properties of graded crushed rocks (GCRs and to optimize the relevant design, a numerical test method based on the particle flow modeling technique PFC2D is developed for the California bearing ratio (CBR test on GCRs. The effects of different testing conditions and micro-mechanical parameters used in the model on the CBR numerical results have been systematically studied. The reliability of the numerical technique is verified. The numerical results suggest that the influences of the loading rate and Poisson's ratio on the CBR numerical test results are not significant. As such, a loading rate of 1.0–3.0 mm/min, a piston diameter of 5 cm, a specimen height of 15 cm and a specimen diameter of 15 cm are adopted for the CBR numerical test. The numerical results reveal that the CBR values increase with the friction coefficient at the contact and shear modulus of the rocks, while the influence of Poisson's ratio on the CBR values is insignificant. The close agreement between the CBR numerical results and experimental results suggests that the numerical simulation of the CBR values is promising to help assess the mechanical properties of GCRs and to optimize the grading design. Besides, the numerical study can provide useful insights on the mesoscopic mechanism.

  5. Effects of melatonin on severe crush spinal cord injury-induced reactive astrocyte and scar formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krityakiarana, Warin; Sompup, Kamonrapat; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Mukda, Sujira; Pinilla, Fernando Gomez; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

    2016-12-01

    The present work aimed at analyzing the effects of melatonin on scar formation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Upregulation of reactive astrocyte under SCI pathological conditions has been presented in several studies. It has been proved that the crucial factor in triggering this upregulation is proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, scar formation is an important barrier to axonal regeneration through the lesion area. Melatonin plays an important role in reducing inflammation, but its effects on scar formation in the injured spinal cord remain unknown. Hence, we used the model of severe crush injury in mice to investigate the effects of melatonin on scar formation. Mice were randomly separated into four groups; SCI, SCI+Melatonin 1 (single dose), SCI+Melatonin 14 (14 daily doses), and control. Melatonin was administered by intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg) after injury. Immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot, and behavioral evaluation were used to explore the effects of melatonin after SCI for 14 days. The melatonin-treated mice presented higher expression of neuronal markers (P < 0.001). Remarkably, the inflammatory response appeared to be greatly reduced in the SCI+Melatonin 14 group (P < 0.001), which also displayed less scar formation (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that melatonin inhibits scar formation by acting on inflammatory cytokines after SCI. Overall, our results suggest that melatonin is a promising treatment strategy after SCI that deserves further investigation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are a rare group ofcongenital anatomical anomalies. Various types of anomaliesof the lumbosacral nerve roots have been documentedin the available international literature. Ttheseanomalies may consist of a bifid, conjoined structure, ofa transverse course or of a characteristic anastomizedappearance. Firstly described as an incidental findingduring autopsies or surgical procedures performed forlumbar disk herniations and often asymptomatic, lumbosacralnerve root anomalies have been more frequentlydescribed in the last years due to the advances made inradiological diagnosis.

  7. Quercetin promotes motor and sensory function recovery following sciatic nerve-crush injury in C5713L/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ming-Ming; Qin, Jing; Chen, Shu-Jian; Yao, Le-Meng; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Yin, Zhi-Qi; Liao, Hong

    Injuries and diseases that occur in the nervous system are common and have few effective treatments. Previous studies have shown that quercetin has a therapeutic effect on nervous system injuries, but its potential effects on and mechanisms of action related to behavioral recovery and axonal

  8. Gpr126/Adgrg6 Has Schwann Cell Autonomous and Nonautonomous Functions in Peripheral Nerve Injury and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogha, Amit; Harty, Breanne L; Carlin, Dan; Joseph, Jessica; Sanchez, Nicholas E; Suter, Ueli; Piao, Xianhua; Cavalli, Valeria; Monk, Kelly R

    2016-12-07

    Schwann cells (SCs) are essential for proper peripheral nerve development and repair, although the mechanisms regulating these processes are incompletely understood. We previously showed that the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor Gpr126/Adgrg6 is essential for SC development and myelination. Interestingly, the expression of Gpr126 is maintained in adult SCs, suggestive of a function in the mature nerve. We therefore investigated the role of Gpr126 in nerve repair by studying an inducible SC-specific Gpr126 knock-out mouse model. Here, we show that remyelination is severely delayed after nerve-crush injury. Moreover, we also observe noncell-autonomous defects in macrophage recruitment and axon regeneration in injured nerves following loss of Gpr126 in SCs. This work demonstrates that Gpr126 has critical SC-autonomous and SC-nonautonomous functions in remyelination and peripheral nerve repair. Lack of robust remyelination represents one of the major barriers to recovery of neurological functions in disease or following injury in many disorders of the nervous system. Here we show that the adhesion class G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Gpr126/Adgrg6 is required for remyelination, macrophage recruitment, and axon regeneration following nerve injury. At least 30% of all approved drugs target GPCRs; thus, Gpr126 represents an attractive potential target to stimulate repair in myelin disease or following nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612351-17$15.00/0.

  9. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potassium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug injection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efficacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by penicillin G potassium administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours. The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant improvement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05; at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  10. Global analysis of transcriptome in dorsal root ganglia following peripheral nerve injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Leilei; Wu, Jiancheng; Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Yaxian; Qin, Jing; Yu, Bin; Gu, Xiaosong; Yao, Chun

    2016-09-09

    Peripheral nervous system has intrinsic regeneration ability after injury, accompanied with the coordination of numerous cells, molecules and signaling pathways. These post-injury biological changes are complex with insufficient understanding. Thus, to obtain a global perspective of changes following nerve injury and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying nerve regeneration are of great importance. By RNA sequencing, we detected transcriptional changes in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons at 0 h, 3 h, 9 h, 1 d, 4 d and 7 d following sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Differentially expressed genes were then selected and classified into major clusters according to their expression patterns. Cluster 2 (with genes high expressed before 9 h and then down expressed) and cluster 6 (combination of cluster 4 and 5 with genes low expressed before 1 d and then up expressed) were underwent GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis. Gene act networks were then constructed for these two clusters and the expression of pivotal genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. This study provided valuable information regarding the transcriptome changes in DRG neurons following nerve injury, identified potential genes that could be used for improving axon regeneration after nerve injury, and facilitated to elucidate the biological process and molecular mechanisms underlying peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of 940 nm light-emitting diode (led) on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Karla Guivernau Gaudens; Ramos, Solange de Paula; de Lima, Franciele Mendes; Carandina, Marcelo; Ferrari, Osny; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Toginho Filho, Dari de Oliveira; Siqueira, Cláudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 940 nm wavelength light emitting diode (LED) phototherapy on nerve regeneration in rats. Forty male Wistar rats weighing approximately 300 g each were divided into four groups: control (C); control submitted to LED phototherapy (CLed); Sciatic Nerve Lesion without LED phototherapy (L); Sciatic Nerve Lesion with LED phototherapy (LLed). The lesion was caused by crushing the right sciatic nerve. A dose of 4 J/cm(2) was used for ten consecutive days beginning on the first postoperative day. Groups C and L were submitted to the same procedure as the LLed group, but the equipment was turned off. The LED phototherapy with 940 nm wavelength reduced the areas of edema, the number of mononuclear cells present in the inflammatory infiltration, and increased functional recovery scores at 7, 14 and 21 days. The results suggest that the use of phototherapy at 940 nm after nerve damage improves morphofunctional recovery and nerve regeneration.

  12. Effect of Nerve Growth Factor on Innervation of Perivascular Nerves in Neovasculatures of Mouse Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akiko; Takatori, Shingo; Sone, Yoko; Ochi, Eiko; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Zamami, Yoshito; Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis, which is the generation of new vascular networks from existing blood vessels, occurs under normal and pathophysiological conditions. Perivascular nerves, which innervate mature vasculatures, maintain vascular tone and regulate tissue blood flow. However, little is known whether perivascular nerves innervate newborn blood vessels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and characterization of perivascular nerves in neovasculatures, which were generated by the mouse corneal micropocket method. Under anesthesia, a pellet containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (100 ng/pellet) was implanted into a mouse cornea in one side of the eyeball. Nerve growth factor (NGF) was locally (2 or 20 ng) applied with the pellet, or subcutaneously (40 ng/h for 7 d) administered with an osmotic mini-pump. After the implantation, vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and perivascular nerves in the cornea were immunohistochemically studied. Neovessels generated from existing limbal vessels were observed in pellet-implanted cornea. Immunostaining of neovasculatures showed the presence of CD31-like immunoreactive (LI) endothelial cells and α-smooth muscle actin-LI vascular smooth muscles. Perivascular nerves immunostained by protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, an axonal marker, were found in the existing limbal vessels, but they were not observed in neovasculatures. Local and subcutaneous treatment of NGF inhibits bFGF-derived angiogenesis and resulted in loop-shaped vessels that had many anastomoses, and produced innervation of PGP 9.5-LI perivascular nerves around bFGF-derived neovessels. These findings suggest that neovasculatures have no innervation of perivascular nerves, and that NGF facilitates innervations of perivascular nerves to regulate the blood flow in neovessels.

  13. Assessment of crushed-recycled glass as filter media for drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutledge, S.O.; Fahie, C.; Gagnon, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of a pressure filter utilizing crushed glass as the filter media. The performance of the crushed glass filter was compared to that of a sand filter. The research was conducted in Orangedale, Nova Scotia, which is a small community of with a population of approximately 500. Orangedale is located on the south shore of Bras d'Or Lakes and feeds into Miller Pond, which serves as the source the of drinking water. The Orangedale treatment plant produces an average daily flow of 35 m3/d (6.4-gpm). The treatment plant consists of coagulation (sodium aluminate and polyaluminum chloride), flocculation, dissolved air flotation (DAF), disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and dual-media filtration with anthracite and sand. In general, the particle removal capabilities of the crushed glass filter were slightly poorer than that of a sand filter, as quantified in a field application in the community of Orangedale, Nova Scotia. It was found that the crushed glass used in this project had a higher angularity and slightly higher uniformity coefficient. During initial start-up the performance of the crushed glass filter was more variable and appeared to improve as the glass began to wear. After six-months of use the crushed glass filter was able to produce a very consistent filter effluent that was only slightly greater than the silica sand filter. After six-months of use, the sand filter achieved a 1.6 log-removal of particles with diameters greater than 2 μm; whereas the crushed glass filter achieved a 1.4 log removal for the similar particle size range. The observed removal performance was particularly encouraging given that the sand used had properties that were consistent with the standards set by the American Water Works Association. The crushed glass filter media was initially sieved and washed, but had no other pre-treatment preparation. Thus the application of crushed glass shows considerable promise as filter

  14. Effects of salinity and high ph on crushed rock and bentonite - experimental work and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Luukkonen, A.; Ervanne, H.; Lehikoinen, J.

    2006-05-01

    In the research work presented here the results obtained in Finland in the three-year ECOCLAY II project are presented. Two types of experiments were carried out; flow-through experiments, which simulated one suggested backfill concept for the disposal tunnel of spent nuclear fuel consisting of compacted bentonite and crushed rock, and batch experiments including sorption studies. Sorption was studied with two radionuclides, 45 Ca and 22 Na. Both types of experiments were conducted in anaerobic CO2-free atmosphere. In both experiments the solid materials used were the same; MX-80 bentonite and crushed crystalline rock powder from Olkiluoto disposal site in Finland. The solid materials were attacked by simple simulated groundwater compositions; synthetic aqueous solutions covering fresh alkaline (pH=12.5), saline alkaline (pH=12.5), and saline hyperalkaline (pH=13.5) conditions in order to simulate the effects of cement in the repository, but also fresh (pH=8.8) and saline (pH=8.3) conditions were included for comparison purposes. Chemical changes were analysed in the various solution phases and solid phases were characterised prior to and after the solution attacks (both experiments included). The experimental results were bases in the modelling task containing both forward and inverse modelling. The flow-through experiment results showed clear increasing trends of the propagation of the attacking solutions in bentonite in the case of saline and saline alkaline experiments. Trends in the pH value and/or the element concentrations (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Si, SO 4 , Cl) of the out-flow solutions progressed with increasing experimental time reflecting the alteration processes occurring in bentonite (e.g., cation exchange, dissolution). Only in the saline alkaline experiment the out-flow solution pH showed an increasing trend with increasing experimental time (9.5 at completion), while in the other two experiments constant pH levels were maintained (9.5 for fresh and 8 for

  15. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  16. Predicting the Dynamic Crushing Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber Using Solid-Element-Based Models in LS-DYNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical study that was performed as part of the development of an externally deployable energy absorber (DEA) concept. The concept consists of a composite honeycomb structure that can be stowed until needed to provide energy attenuation during a crash event, much like an external airbag system. One goal of the DEA development project was to generate a robust and reliable Finite Element Model (FEM) of the DEA that could be used to accurately predict its crush response under dynamic loading. The results of dynamic crush tests of 50-, 104-, and 68-cell DEA components are presented, and compared with simulation results from a solid-element FEM. Simulations of the FEM were performed in LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark) to compare the capabilities of three different material models: MAT 63 (crushable foam), MAT 26 (honeycomb), and MAT 126 (modified honeycomb). These material models are evaluated to determine if they can be used to accurately predict both the uniform crushing and final compaction phases of the DEA for normal and off-axis loading conditions

  17. Toll-Like Receptor 3 Contributes to Wallerian Degeneration after Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Baek, Jiyeon; Min, Hyunjung; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Yu, Seong-Woo; Lee, Sung Joong

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Schwann cells play an important role in Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve injury. Previously, we reported that toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is expressed on Schwann cells, implicating its role in Schwann cell activation during Wallerian degeneration. In this study, we tested this possibility using TLR3 knock-out mice. Sciatic nerve-crush injury was induced in wild-type and TLR3 knock-out mice. Histological sections of the sciatic nerve were analyzed for Wallerian degeneration on days 3 and 7 after injury. The level of macrophage infiltration was measured by real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. The macrophage-recruiting chemokine gene expressions in the injured nerve were determined by real-time RT-PCR. In TLR3 knock-out mice, the nerve injury-induced axonal degeneration and subsequent axonal debris clearance were reduced compared to in wild-type mice. In addition, nerve injury-induced macrophage infiltration into injury sites was attenuated in TLR3 knock-out mice and was accompanied by reduced expression of macrophage-recruiting chemokines such as CC-chemokine ligands (CCL)2/MCP-1, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL5/RANTES. These macrophage-recruiting chemokines were induced in primary Schwann cells upon TLR3 stimulation. Finally, intraneural injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, a synthetic TLR3 agonist, induced macrophage infiltration into the sciatic nerve in vivo. These data show that TLR3 signaling contributes to Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve injury by affecting Schwann cell activation and macrophage recruitment to injured nerves. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Anti-RAGE Antibody Administration in a Rat Model of Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hisatake; Matsumoto, Naoya; Shimazaki, Junya; Nakagawa, Junichiro; Imamura, Yukio; Yamakawa, Kazuma; Yamada, Tomoki; Ikeda, Mitsunori; Hiraike, Hiroko; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2017-09-25

    Crush injury patients often have systemic inflammatory response syndrome that leads to multiple organ failure. Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) functions as a pattern recognition receptor that regulates inflammation. We evaluated the effects of anti-RAGE antibody in a crush injury model. Pressure was applied to both hindlimbs of rats for 6 h by 3.0-kg blocks and then released. Animals were randomly divided into the sham (RAGE-Sh) group, crush (RAGE-Ctrl) group or anti-RAGE antibody-treated crush (RAGE-Tx) group. Samples were collected at 3, 6 and 24 h after releasing pressure. In the RAGE-Ctrl group, fluorescent immunostaining in the lung showed upregulated RAGE expression at 3 h. The serum soluble RAGE (sRAGE) level, which reflects the amount of RAGE expression in systemic tissue, increased at 6 h. Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6; systemic inflammation marker) increased immediately at 3 h. Histological analysis revealed lung injury at 6 and 24 h. Administration of anti-RAGE antibody before releasing compression inhibited upregulated RAGE expression in the lung alveoli, suppressed RAGE-associated mediators sRAGE and IL6, attenuated the lung damage and improved the 7-day survival rate. Collectively, our results indicated that the use of anti-RAGE antibody before releasing compression is associated with a favourable prognosis following crush injury.

  19. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Hellen L; Goes, Rafael H T B de; Cerilo, Sara L N; Oliveira, Euclides R de; Gressler, Maria G M; Brabes, Kelly C S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05) by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day). There was no significant effect (P>0.05) for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41). For contents of ruminal NH₃-N was a significant effect (P replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters.

  20. Laboratory Characterization of Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Dynamically Compacted Crushed Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, F.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1999-02-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located at a depth of about 655 meters. The WIPP underground facility is located in the bedded salt of the Salado Formation. Access to the facility is provided through vertical shafts, which will be sealed after decommissioning to limit the release of hazardous waste from the repository and to limit flow into the facility. Because limited data are available to characterize the properties of dynamically compacted crushed salt, Sandia National Laboratories authorized RE/SPEC to perform additional tests on specimens of dynamically compacted crushed salt. These included shear consolidation creep, permeability, and constant strain-rate triaxial compression tests. A limited number of samples obtained from the large compacted mass were available for use in the testing program. Thus, additional tests were performed on samples that were prepared on a smaller scale device in the RE/SPEC laboratory using a dynamic-compaction procedure based on the full-scale construction technique. The laboratory results were expected to (1) illuminate the phenomenology of crushed-salt deformation behavior and (2) add test results to a small preexisting database for purposes of estimating parameters in a crushed-salt constitutive model. The candidate constitutive model for dynamically compacted crushed salt was refined in parallel with this laboratory testing.

  1. Normal and pathological findings for the facial nerve on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Noury, K.; Lotfy, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the enhanced radiological anatomy and common pathological conditions of the facial nerve by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the MRI findings of the facial nerve of 146 patients who visited a tertiary academic referral center was conducted. Results: The radiological anatomy of the facial nerve was well illustrated using MRI, as were most of the common pathological conditions of the facial nerve. Conclusions: Enhancement of the facial nerve in MRI should be correlated with the clinical data. Normal individuals can show enhancement of the tympanic or vertical segments of the facial nerve. Enhancement of the labyrinthine portion of the nerve is almost diagnostic of Bell's palsy. No specific enhancement patterns were observed for tumours or for infections of the middle or external ear. A larger population study is required for the accurate assessment of facial nerve enhancement in multiple sclerosis patients.

  2. Systemic down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase promotes muscle oxidative metabolism and accelerates muscle function recovery following nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hussain

    Full Text Available The progressive deterioration of the neuromuscular axis is typically observed in degenerative conditions of the lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Neurodegeneration in this disease is associated with systemic metabolic perturbations, including hypermetabolism and dyslipidemia. Our previous gene profiling studies on ALS muscle revealed down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase, or SCD1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, knocking out SCD1 gene is known to induce hypermetabolism and stimulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. Here we investigated whether SCD1 deficiency can affect muscle function and its restoration in response to injury. The genetic ablation of SCD1 was not detrimental per se to muscle function. On the contrary, muscles in SCD1 knockout mice shifted toward a more oxidative metabolism, and enhanced the expression of synaptic genes. Repressing SCD1 expression or reducing SCD-dependent enzymatic activity accelerated the recovery of muscle function after inducing sciatic nerve crush. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a new role of SCD1 in modulating the restorative potential of skeletal muscles.

  3. Long-nerve grafts and nerve transfers demonstrate comparable outcomes for axillary nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Scott W; Johnsen, Parker H; Lee, Steve K; Feinberg, Joseph H

    2014-07-01

    To compare the functional and EMG outcomes of long-nerve grafts to nerve transfers for complete axillary nerve palsy. Over a 10-year period at a single institution, 14 patients with axillary nerve palsy were treated with long-nerve grafts and 24 patients were treated with triceps-to-axillary nerve transfers by the same surgeon (S.W.W.). Data were collected prospectively at regular intervals, beginning before surgery and continuing up to 11 years after surgery. Prior to intervention, all patients demonstrated EMG evidence of complete denervation of the deltoid. Deltoid recovery (Medical Research Council [MRC] grade), shoulder abduction (°), improvement in shoulder abduction (°), and EMG evidence of deltoid reinnervation were compared between cohorts. There were no significant differences between the long-nerve graft cohort and the nerve transfer cohort with respect to postoperative range of motion, deltoid recovery, improvement in shoulder abduction, or EMG evidence of deltoid reinnervation. These data demonstrate that outcomes of long-nerve grafts for axillary nerve palsy are comparable with those of modern nerve transfers and question a widely held belief that long-nerve grafts do poorly. When healthy donor roots or trunks are available, long-nerve grafts should not be overlooked as an effective intervention for the treatment of axillary nerve injuries in adults with brachial plexus injuries. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The classification of wood chips parameters by crushing of waste cane from different varieties of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deales with exploitatives parameters monitoring of wood shreder PEZZOLATO 110 Mb by crushing of waste cane of six varieties. The results shows that the wood shreders efficiency, fuel consumption and the wood chips elements size can be influenced by varieties characters of cane. The va­lued machines efficiency was 230–470 kg . h−1 by average volume 40.70 % water in wood. The hig­hest values by cane crushing had the variety Saint Laurent (0.47 t . h−1 and the lowest variety ­Blauer Portugieser (0.23 t . h−1. The specific consumption of petrol Natural 95 was 4.52.10−3–8.12.10−3 l . kg−1. The average middle elements lenght was 6.64 mm by crushed varieties.

  5. The influence of heavy mineral crushing in analysis of U mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatang-Suherman

    2000-01-01

    The aim of experiments is to find out the influence of sample crushing in analysis of U mobile it was compared between U content of crusher and uncrushed samples. The uncrushed samples including the grain size of minus 40, 60, 80 and 100 mesh, since while the uncrushed sample was minus 60, 80, 100, 120 and 150 mesh. The U analysis was done by comparing with fluorescence of standard sample using Fluorimetric determination. The result of uncrushed samples have a same concentration in all of grain fractions and the crushed samples have a higher concentration on the smallest of grain fractions. The content of U mobile from crushed sample have significant result at - 120 mesh to - 150 mesh

  6. Ball mill tool for crushing coffee and cocoa beans base on fraction size sieving results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Sirait, M.; Azalea, M.; Alvin; Cahyani, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Crushing is one of the operation units that aimed to convert the size of solid material to be smoother particle’s size. The operation unit that can be used in this crushing is ball mill. The purpose of this study is to foresee the effect of raw material mass, grinding time, and the number of balls that are used in the ball mill tool related to the amount of raw material of coffee and cocoa beans. Solid material that has become smooth is then sieved with sieve mesh with size number: 50, 70, 100, and 140. It is in order to obtain the mass fraction that escaped from each sieve mesh. From the experiment, it can be concluded that mass percentage fraction of coffee powder is bigger than cocoa powder that escaped from the mesh. Hardness and humidity of coffee beans and cocoa beans have been the important factors that made coffee beans is easier to be crushed than cocoa beans.

  7. Axial Crushing Behaviors of Thin-Walled Corrugated and Circular Tubes - A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyaz-Ur-Rahim, Mohd.; Bharti, P. K.; Umer, Afaque

    2017-10-01

    With the help of finite element analysis, this research paper deals with the energy absorption and collapse behavior with different corrugated section geometries of hollow tubes made of aluminum alloy 6060-T4. Literature available experimental data were used to validate the numerical models of the structures investigated. Based on the results available for symmetric crushing of circular tubes, models were developed to investigate corrugated thin-walled structures behavior. To study the collapse mechanism and energy absorbing ability in axial compression, the simulation was carried in ABAQUS /EXPLICIT code. In the simulation part, specimens were prepared and axially crushed to one-fourth length of the tube and the energy diagram of crushing force versus axial displacement is shown. The effect of various parameters such as pitch, mean diameter, corrugation, amplitude, the thickness is demonstrated with the help of diagrams. The overall result shows that the corrugated section geometry could be a good alternative to the conventional tubes.

  8. Cranial nerve palsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, P.; Adelizzi, J.; Modic, M.T.; Ross, J.S.; Tkach, J.; Masaryk, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the utility of multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography data sets in the examination of patients with cranial nerve palsies. The authors hypothesis was that 3D data could be reformatted to highlight the intricate spatial relationships of vessels to adjacent neural tissues by taking advantage of the high vessel-parenchyma contrast in high-resolution 3D time-of-flight sequences. Twenty patients with cranial nerve palsies and 10 asymptomatic patients were examined with coronal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted imaging plus a gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA sequence (40/7/15 degrees, axial 60-mm volume, 0.9-mm isotropic resolution). Cranial nerves II-VIII were subsequently evaluated on axial and reformatted coronal and/or sagittal images

  9. Nerve Transfers in Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ida K

    2016-05-01

    Hand and upper extremity function is instrumental to basic activities of daily living and level of independence in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve transfer surgery is a novel and alternate approach for restoring function in SCI. This article discusses the biologic basis of nerve transfers in SCI, patient evaluation, management, and surgical approaches. Although the application of this technique is not new; recent case reports and case series in the literature have increased interest in this field. The challenges are to improve function, achieve maximal gains in function, avoid complications, and to primum non nocere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Compartment and Crush Syndromes After Sleep Deprivation and a Therapeutic Dose of Zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Huecker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive review in the literature, compartment syndrome and crush syndrome remain difficult to diagnose. Trauma, toxins and reperfusion have been associated with these syndromes. Cases involving alcohol and drug abuse have described patients “found down” compressing an extremity. We present a case of a registered nurse who developed compartment syndrome in multiple limbs due to prolonged sleep after sleep deprivation and zolpidem use. To our knowledge, this is the first case of compartment syndrome or crush syndrome to have occurred in the setting of zolpidem use. Sleep disruption in healthcare workers represents a public health issue with dangerous sequelae, both acute and chronic.

  11. Transient convergence and compaction of crushed salt as incorporated in the computer code EMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Hamilton, L.F.M.; Prij, J.; Slagter, W.

    1995-11-01

    An improved model for description of the transient convergence of cavities in rock salt, together with an improved model for the compaction of crushed salt is introduced. The covergence model is based on solutions of the analytical expressions based on secondary creep for a cylindrical and spherical cavity in rock salt. For the model for compaction of crushed salt the relations based on theoretical micro mechanisms have been fitted to laboratory results. A description is given of how the improved models are incorporated into the program EMOS. (orig.).

  12. Transient convergence and compaction of crushed salt as incorporated in the computer code EMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Hamilton, L.F.M.; Prij, J.; Slagter, W.

    1995-11-01

    An improved model for description of the transient convergence of cavities in rock salt, together with an improved model for the compaction of crushed salt is introduced. The covergence model is based on solutions of the analytical expressions based on secondary creep for a cylindrical and spherical cavity in rock salt. For the model for compaction of crushed salt the relations based on theoretical micro mechanisms have been fitted to laboratory results. A description is given of how the improved models are incorporated into the program EMOS. (orig.)

  13. Specialized Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SSEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grouped according to where they leave the spinal column. There are eight pairs of neck (cervical) nerves, 12 pairs of upper back (thoracic) nerves, five pairs of lower back (lumbar) nerves, five pairs of pelvis (sacral) nerves and ...

  14. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... atrophy, but less than one-tenth of these tumors are confined to the optic nerve or its sheaths. No signs or symptoms are pathognomonic for tumors of the optic nerve. The tumors of the optic nerve may originate from the optic nerve itself (primary tumors) as a proliferation of cells normally present...... in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  15. Nerve Transfer versus Interpositional Nerve Graft Reconstruction for Posttraumatic, Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, John C; Agrawal, Nikhil A; Seruya, Mitchel

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare functional outcomes between nerve grafting and nerve transfer procedures in the setting of isolated, posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries. A systematic review was performed using the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases to identify all cases of isolated, posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries in patients aged 18 years or older. Patients who underwent axillary nerve reconstruction were included and categorized by technique: graft or transfer. Demographics were recorded, including age, time to operation, and presence of concomitant injuries. Functional outcomes were evaluated, including British Medical Research Council strength and range of motion for shoulder abduction. Ten retrospective studies met criteria, for a total of 66 patients (20 nerve grafts and 46 nerve transfers). Median time from injury to operation was equivalent across the nerve graft and nerve transfer groups (8.0 months versus 7.0 months; p = 0.41). Postoperative follow-up was 24.0 months for nerve grafting versus 18.5 months for nerve transfer (p = 0.13). Clinically useful shoulder abduction, defined as British Medical Research Council grade M3 or greater, was obtained in 100 percent of nerve graft patients versus 87 percent of nerve transfer patients (p = 0.09). Grade M4 or better strength was obtained in 85 percent of nerve graft patients and 73.9 percent of nerve transfer patients (p = 0.32). Significant differences in functional outcomes between nerve graft and transfer procedures for posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries are not apparent at this time. Prospective outcomes studies are needed to better elucidate whether functional differences do exist. Therapeutic, IV.

  16. The Proximal Medial Sural Nerve Biopsy Model: A Standardised and Reproducible Baseline Clinical Model for the Translational Evaluation of Bioengineered Nerve Guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bozkurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous nerve transplantation (ANT is the clinical gold standard for the reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects. A large number of bioengineered nerve guides have been tested under laboratory conditions as an alternative to the ANT. The step from experimental studies to the implementation of the device in the clinical setting is often substantial and the outcome is unpredictable. This is mainly linked to the heterogeneity of clinical peripheral nerve injuries, which is very different from standardized animal studies. In search of a reproducible human model for the implantation of bioengineered nerve guides, we propose the reconstruction of sural nerve defects after routine nerve biopsy as a first or baseline study. Our concept uses the medial sural nerve of patients undergoing diagnostic nerve biopsy (≥2 cm. The biopsy-induced nerve gap was immediately reconstructed by implantation of the novel microstructured nerve guide, Neuromaix, as part of an ongoing first-in-human study. Here we present (i a detailed list of inclusion and exclusion criteria, (ii a detailed description of the surgical procedure, and (iii a follow-up concept with multimodal sensory evaluation techniques. The proximal medial sural nerve biopsy model can serve as a preliminarynature of the injuries or baseline nerve lesion model. In a subsequent step, newly developed nerve guides could be tested in more unpredictable and challenging clinical peripheral nerve lesions (e.g., following trauma which have reduced comparability due to the different nature of the injuries (e.g., site of injury and length of nerve gap.

  17. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  18. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  19. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic

  20. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve....... Studies of different metabolic neuropathies have assessed the influence of uremia, diabetes and ischemia, and the use of these methods in toxic neuropathies has allowed pinpointing damaging factors. Various mutations in ion channels associated with central nervous system disorders have been shown to have...

  1. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  2. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta block...

  3. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, Peerooz; Rootman, Jack; Nugent, Robert A.; White, Valerie A.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Koornneef, Leo

    2003-01-01

    To study the natural history and growth of optic nerve sheath meningiomas and evaluate their management outcome. Clinicopathologic retrospective noncomparative case series. A retrospective study of 88 patients who were treated between 1976 and 1999 at the University of British Columbia and the

  4. Role of crushing-induced fragmentation in the consolidation of quartz ceramic and glass powders during high-pressure torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Pilyugin, V. P.; Patselov, A. M.; Tolmachev, T. P.

    2017-10-01

    The consolidation of a quartz powders in crystalline (ceramics) and amorphous (glass) states is detected during high-pressure torsion in Bridgman anvils. The consolidation is shown to depend on preceding crushing-induced fragmentation. The role of the surfaces that appear during crushing and cracking is discussed. The dissipative channels that compete with fracture are determined.

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of the auditory nerve in patients with acquired single-sided deafness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vos, Sjoerd; Haakma, Wieke; Versnel, Huib

    2015-01-01

    following cochlear hair cell loss, and the amount of degeneration may considerably differ between the two ears, also in patients with bilateral deafness. A measure that reflects the nerve's condition would help to assess the best of both nerves and decide accordingly which ear should be implanted......A cochlear implant (CI) can restore hearing in patients with profound sensorineural hearing loss by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Therefore, the viability of the auditory nerve is vitally important in successful hearing recovery. However, the nerve typically degenerates...... single-sided sensorineural hearing loss. A specialized acquisition protocol was designed for a 3 T MRI scanner to image the small nerve bundle. The nerve was reconstructed using fiber tractography and DTI metrics - which reflect the nerve's microstructural properties - were computed per tract. Comparing...

  6. Multiple Variations of the Nerves of Gluteal Region and their Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad AM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variations of nerves of gluteal region is important for clinicians administering intramuscular injections, for orthopedic surgeons dealing with the hip surgeries and possibly for physiotherapists managing the painful conditions and paralysis of this region. We report multiple variations of the nerves of gluteal region through this article. In the current case, the sciatic nerve was absent. The common peroneal and tibial nerves arose from sacral plexus and reached the gluteal region through greater sciatic foramen above and below piriformis respectively. The common peroneal nerve gave a muscular branch to the gluteus maximus. The inferior gluteal nerve and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh arose from a common trunk. The common trunk was formed by three roots. Upper and middle roots arose from sacral plexus and entered gluteal region through greater sciatic foramen respectively above and below piriformis. The lower root arose from the pudendal nerve and joined the common trunk. We discuss the clinical implications of the variations.

  7. Disruption of spinal cord white matter and sciatic nerve geometry inhibits axonal growth in vitro in the absence of glial scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crutcher Keith A

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axons within the mature mammalian central nervous system fail to regenerate following injury, usually resulting in long-lasting motor and sensory deficits. Studies involving transplantation of adult neurons into white matter implicate glial scar-associated factors in regeneration failure. However, these studies cannot distinguish between the effects of these factors and disruption of the spatial organization of cells and molecular factors (disrupted geometry. Since white matter can support or inhibit neurite growth depending on the geometry of the fiber tract, the present study sought to determine whether disrupted geometry is sufficient to inhibit neurite growth. Results Embryonic chick sympathetic neurons were cultured on unfixed longitudinal cryostat sections of mature rat spinal cord or sciatic nerve that had been crushed with forceps ex vivo then immediately frozen to prevent glial scarring. Neurite growth on uncrushed portions of spinal cord white matter or sciatic nerve was extensive and highly parallel with the longitudinal axis of the fiber tract but did not extend onto crushed portions. Moreover, neurite growth from neurons attached directly to crushed white matter or nerve tissue was shorter and less parallel compared with neurite growth on uncrushed tissue. In contrast, neurite growth appeared to be unaffected by crushed spinal cord gray matter. Conclusions These observations suggest that glial scar-associated factors are not necessary to block axonal growth at sites of injury. Disruption of fiber tract geometry, perhaps involving myelin-associated neurite-growth inhibitors, may be sufficient to pose a barrier to regenerating axons in spinal cord white matter and peripheral nerves.

  8. J. Crush and D.A. McDonald. (eds). 2002. Transnationalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Crush and D.A. McDonald. (eds). 2002. Transnationalism and New African Immigration to South Africa. Cape Town. Southern African Migration Project and the Canadian Association of African Studies. IV + 188 pp. ISBN 0-88911-926-0.

  9. Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Pratapura Industrial Area (Tikamgarh district, Bundelkhand region, Madhya Pradesh), stone quarrying and crushing is carried out by labor-intensive units employing unskilled workers on a seasonal basis complementing the agricultural cycle. In the context of weak regulatory enforcement, worksite health and safety ...

  10. Modeling phosphorus removal in wet ponds with filter zones containing sand or crushed concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderup, Melanie J.; Egemose, Sara; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2014-01-01

    demonstrated that crushed concrete has high affinity for dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and potentially could be an effective new measure to reduce discharge of phosphorus (P) to downstream located P-limited lakes and estuaries. To verify this potential we have developed a dynamic model for a combined...

  11. Sea Dredged Gravel versus Crushed Granite as Coarse Aggregate for Self Compacting Concrete in Aggressive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Kristensen, Lasse Frølich

    2007-01-01

    Properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) with two types of coarse aggregate - sea dredged gravel with smooth and rounded particles and crushed granite with rough and angular particles - have been studied. Sea gravel allowed a higher aggregate proportion in the concrete leading to a higher...

  12. The crush and spray: a patented design for herbicide application with less waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service recently patented an equipment design to deliver herbicides more efficiently and cost-effectively. Towed by a standard all-terrain vehicle, the Crush and Spray can access out-of-the-way or wet locations. An adjustable roller first knocks down the unwanted plants. A low-set spray boom with wide angle sprayer nozzles then provides precise, close-...

  13. Sustainable normal and high strength recycled aggregate concretes using crushed tested cylinders as coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal S. Hamad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on a research program that was designed at the American University of Beirut (AUB to investigate the fresh and hardened mechanical properties of a high performance concrete mix produced with partial or full substitution of crushed natural lime-stone aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders in batching plants. Choosing crushed cylinders as source of recycling would result in reusing portion of the waste products of the concrete production industry. An extensive concrete batching and testing program was conducted to achieve two optimum normal and high strength concrete mixes. The variables were the nominal concrete strength (28 or 60 MPa and the percentage replacement of natural coarse aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100%. Normal strength tested cylinders were used as source of the recycled aggregates for the normal strength concrete (NSC mix and high strength tested cylinders were used for the high strength concrete (HSC mix. Tests on the trial batches included plastic state slump and hardened state mechanical properties including cylinder compressive strength, cylinder splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and standard beams flexural strength. The results indicated no significant effect on the slump and around 10% average reduction in the hardened mechanical properties for both investigated levels of concrete compressive strength.

  14. Hyperbaric oxygenation therapy for crush injuries reduces the risk of complications: research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Noriaki; Toyoda, Izumi; Doi, Tomoaki; Kumada, Keisuke; Kato, Hisaaki; Yoshida, Shozo; Shirai, Kunihiro; Kanda, Norihide; Ogura, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy has been adopted for crush injuries, but there are few studies supporting its use. We therefore investigated the effects of HBO2 on management of patients with complicated crush injuries. This historic cohort study included patients with crush injuries and open fractures with severities greater than or equal to Gustilo class IIIA. We divided the patients into two groups: Control and HBO2. The control group received conventional treatment, while the HBO2 group received conventional treatment plus HBO2. We compared the groups with respect to the incidence of infection, need for additional surgery, and length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays. There were 16 patients in the HBO2 group and 13 in the control group. There were no patients with infections in the HBO2 group, whereas in the control group six patients had infections and five needed another drainage procedure. These incidences were significantly lower in the HBO2 group (p = 0.003 and 0.013). However, the durations of ICU and hospital stays were similar across the two groups. HBO2 is effective in the management of crush injuries from the viewpoint of reducing complications and reoperations. These observations should be verified in additional studies with larger sample sizes because the patient number is limited.

  15. Shape Effect of Crushed Sand Filler on Rheology: A Preliminary Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Cepuritis, Rolands; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Two types of filler from crushed sand were mixed with cement paste with constant superplasticizer dosage per mass of cement to investigate how their shape affects the rheology. The fillers were mylonitic quartz diorite and limestone produced using Vertical Shaft Impact (VSI) crusher and air...

  16. Manufacturing optimization of the technological unit for crushing the dressing coal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, K.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization of coal preparation is discussed. Run-of-mine coal fed to a screen is separated into 2 classes: to 80 mm and above 80 mm. Coal slurry is separated from the size fraction below 80 mm using a clarifier. After slurry separation, the coal is prepared by jigging (three-product preparation). Two separating densities are used: 1.4 and 1.8 t/m/sup 3/. By-product supplied by jigging is crushed and is prepared in another jig system. Optimization of by-product crushing and secondary jigging is discussed. A procedure for selecting the optimum crushing size and the optimum separation density is analyzed. The procedure is based on simulation methods using models developed by the US Bureau of Mines and by S. Cierpisz and A. Tatarkiewicz. The optimum crushing size of coal and the optimum separation density for 8 coal types from one coal mine are determined. The aim is to increase yields of coal concentrate with ash content below the permissible level. 3 references.

  17. Crushing strength of concrete using maize cob ash cement as binder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crushing strength of concrete using maize cob ash cement as binder. ... The dried product was burnt at temperature of 12500C. Four categories of MCC were prepared by ... consisting of one part maize cob ash and one part lime and this could be used for structural works in construction where low strength is required.

  18. Optimal energy control of a crushing process based on vertical shaft impactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numbi, B.P.; Xia, X.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy optimal control strategy of a VSI crushing process is modeled. • Potential of a daily energy cost saving of about 49.7% is shown. • Potential of a daily energy saving of about 15.3% is shown. • Most of energy cost saving is due to the optimal load shifting under time-of-use tariff. • Energy saving is due to the operation of the process at the boundary of the admissible region. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimal control model to improve the operation energy efficiency of a vertical shaft impact (VSI) crushing process. The optimal control model takes the energy cost as the performance index to be minimized by accounting for the time-of-use tariff and process constraints such as storage capacity of the VSI crusher hopper, capacity of the main storage system, flow rate limits, cascade ratio setting, production requirement and product quality requirement. The control variables in the developed model are the belt conveyor feed rate, the material feed rate into the VSI crusher rotor, the bi-flow or cascade feed rate and the rotor tip speed of the crusher. These four control variables are optimally coordinated in order to improve the operation energy efficiency of the VSI crushing process. Simulation results based on a crushing process in a coal-fired power plant demonstrate a potential of a daily energy cost saving of about 49.7% and energy saving of about 15.3% in a high-demand season weekday.

  19. A Case of Acute Pericarditis Following Intravenous Injection of Crushed Morphine Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ryan J; Corbett, Bryan; Ly, Binh T

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with sharp, severe chest pain following seven days of intravenous injection of crushed morphine tablets. The chest pain was positional and pleuritic in nature and resolved with leaning forward. Work-up was notable for an ECG with inferior and anterolateral PR depressions as well as a CT chest with diffuse centrilobular nodules. Per radiology, the CT findings along with the patient's history were concerning for pulmonary granulomatosis from deposition of talc or some other foreign body. Cardiology was consulted and diagnosed the patient with acute pericarditis, given his typical symptoms and ECG changes. On review of the literature, pulmonary granulomatosis following intravenous injection of foreign bodies is well documented. There are numerous studies documenting foreign body deposition and granulomatosis in organs other than the lungs on post-mortem analyses of individuals with a history of IV injection of crushed tablets. We are suggesting that intravenous injection of crushed morphine tablets can cause pericardial irritation and a syndrome of acuter pericarditis. To our knowledge, there has not been a previous report of acute pericarditis secondary to intravenous injection of crushed tablets.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF PROCESSING OF DUMP SAND-CLAY MIXES BY THE CENTRIFUGAL AND SHOCK CRUSHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vorobev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental research of processing of centrifugal and shock crushing of dump sandy-clay mixes are given. Use of products of processing of received mixes in foundry production and in production of asphalt concrete mixes allows to exclude transportation of the mix to dumping.

  1. Protective Effect of Nigella Sativa Black Seed Oil And Freshly Crushed Seeds In Rats During Tumour Induction And Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, N.M.; Eldosoky, H.M.; Mohamed, H.E.; Noaman, E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potency of Nigella sativa freshly crushed seeds (0.42 g/ kg body weight) or oil (2.5 ml/kg body weight) for preventing tumor induction through exposure of rats to a common pollutant (1,4- Dioxane) as a promoter under condition of the presence of an initiator (N-nitrosodiethylamine). The antitumor effect was evaluated alone or in combination with low doses of irradiation as a route of cancer treatment. Female Swiss albino rats were administrated orally twice weekly with Nigella sativa before and during exposure of rats to the carcinogenic compounds. Animals were exposed to 3 doses of radiation (3 Gy/ dose) day after day 2 weeks before the end of the experiment. The animals were scarified after one week of radiation. Homocysteine,'glutathione, lipid peroxide, GGT activity, nitric oxide, total protein, albumin and bilirubin levels were estimated in blood after 7 and 12 months from the start of the experiment. Rats injected with the carcinogenic compounds showed marked elevation in homocysteine, GGT activity, nitric oxide, bilirubin and lipid peroxide levels accompanied by a significant decrease in glutathione, total proteins and albumin levels. Pretreatment with Nigella sativa alone or combined with γ- irradiation potentially reversed the investigated parameters. Moreover, Nigella sativa significantly suppressed the growth of the tumor and efficiently produced synergistic effect with γ-irradiation. Therefore, Nigella sativa may be a good candidate to prevent tumor induction and so, it is advicable to use freshly crushed seeds during irradiation treatment in cancer patients as they gave more effective protection than the oil extract.

  2. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  3. Neuroanatomic and clinical correspondences: acupuncture and vagus nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marco Antonio Helio; Dorsher, Peter T

    2014-04-01

    The use of surgically implanted electronic devices for vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is expanding in contemporary allopathic medical practice as a treatment option for selected clinical conditions, such as epilepsy, depression, tremor, and pain conditions, that are unresponsive to standard pharmacologic interventions. Although VNS device surgeries are considered minimally invasive, they are costly and have surgical and device-related risks; they can also cause serious adverse effects from excessive vagus nerve stimulation. For millennia, acupuncturists have treated those same clinical conditions by piquering acupoints that are located proximate to the sternocleidomastoid muscle site where the VNS device is implanted on the vagus nerve. The hypothesis of this study is that these acupuncture points produce clinical benefits through stimulation of the vagus nerve and/or its branches in the head and neck region. By using reference anatomic and acupuncture texts, classical and extraordinary acupoints in the head and neck region were identified that are anatomically proximate to vagus nerve pathways there, where the VNS electrode is surgically implanted. The clinical indications of these acupuncture points, as described in the acupuncture reference texts, were examined for similarities to those of VNS. This analysis demonstrated marked correspondences of the indications for those lateral head and neck acupoints to the clinical effects (beneficial and adverse) documented for the VNS device in the medical literature. This clinical correspondence, in conjunction with the anatomic proximity of the acupoints to the vagus nerve in the lateral neck, strongly suggests that vagus nerve (and hence the autonomic nervous system) stimulation is fundamental in producing the clinical effects of the acupoints. By having anatomic access to the vagus nerve and parasympathetic chain that permits electrical stimulation of those nerves in clinical practice, acupuncture may offer a less

  4. Remaining porosity and permeability of compacted crushed rock salt backfill in a HLW repository. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M.; Mueller, C.; Schirmer, S.

    2015-11-15

    The safe containment of radioactive waste is to be ensured by the geotechnical barriers in combination with the containment-providing rock zone (CRZ). The latter is a key element of the recently developed concept of demonstrating the integrity of the geologic barrier (Krone et al., 2013). As stipulated in the safety requirements of the regulating body the CRZ has to have strong barrier properties, and evidence needs to be provided that it retains its integrity throughout the reference period (BMU, 2010). The underground openings excavated in the rock salt will close over time due to the creep properties of the rock salt. This process causes deformations in the surrounding rock salt, which leads to a change in stress state in the virgin rock and may impair the integrity of the containment-providing rock zone. In order to limit the effects of these processes, all underground openings will be backfilled with crushed salt. Immediately after backfilling, the crushed salt will have an initial porosity of approx. 35%, which - over time - will be reduced to very low values due to the creep properties of the rock salt. The supporting pressure that builds up in the crushed salt with increasing compaction slows down the creeping of the salt. Major influencing factors are the temperature (with higher temperatures accelerating the salt creeping) and the moisture of the salt, which - due to the related decrease in the resistance of the crushed salt - facilitates its compaction. The phenomenology of these processes and dependencies is understood to a wide extent. This project investigated the duration until compaction is completed and when and under what circumstances the crushed salt will have the sealing properties necessary to ensure safe containment. Thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes play a crucial role in determining whether solutions which might enter the mine could reach the radioactive waste. This includes changes in material behaviour due to a partial or complete

  5. Peptide mimetic of the S100A4 protein modulates peripheral nerve regeneration and attenuates the progression of neuropathy in myelin protein P0 null mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Pinchenko, Volodymyr; Dmytriyeva, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    and survival of myelinated axons. H3 accelerated electrophysiological, behavioral and morphological recovery after sciatic nerve crush while transiently delaying regeneration after sciatic nerve transection and repair. On the basis of the finding that both S100A4 and H3 increased neurite branching in vitro......, these effects were attributed to the modulatory effect of H3 on initial axonal sprouting. In contrast to the modest effect of H3 on the time course of regeneration, H3 had a long-term neuroprotective effect in the myelin protein P0 null mice, a model of dysmyelinating neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1...

  6. The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; García de León, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

  7. Ciliary neurotrophic factor and fibroblast growth factor increase the speed and number of regenerating axons after optic nerve injury in adult Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Meléndez, Giam S; Blagburn, Jonathan M; Blanco, Rosa E

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophins such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) play important roles in neuronal survival and in axonal outgrowth during development. However, whether they can modulate regeneration after optic nerve injury in the adult animal is less clear. The present study investigates the effects of application of these neurotrophic factors on the speed, number, and distribution of regenerating axons in the frog Rana pipiens after optic nerve crush. Optic nerves were crushed and the factors, or phosphate-buffered saline, were applied to the stump or intraocularly. The nerves were examined at different times after axotomy, using anterograde labeling with biotin dextran amine and antibody against growth-associated protein 43. We measured the length, number, and distribution of axons projecting beyond the lesion site. Untreated regenerating axons show an increase in elongation rate over 3 weeks. CNTF more than doubles this rate, FGF-2 increases it, and BDNF has little effect. In contrast, the numbers of regenerating axons that have reached 200 μm at 2 weeks were more than doubled by FGF-2, increased by CNTF, and barely affected by BDNF. The regenerating axons were preferentially distributed in the periphery of the nerve; although the numbers of axons were increased by neurotrophic factor application, this overall distribution was substantially unaffected. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Vascularized nerve grafts for lower extremity nerve reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Kostopoulos, Vasileios K

    2010-02-01

    Vascularized nerve grafts (VNG) were introduced in 1976 but since then, there have been no reports of their usage in lower extremity reconstruction systematically. The factors influencing outcomes as well as a comparison with conventional nerve grafts will be presented.Since 1981, 14 lower extremity nerve injuries in 12 patients have been reconstructed with VNG. Common peroneal nerve was injured in 12 and posterior tibial nerve in 5 patients. The level of the injury was at the knee or thigh. Twelve sural nerves were used as VNG with or without concomitant vascularized posterior calf fascia.All patients regained improved sensibility and adequate posterior tibial nerve function. For common peroneal nerve reconstructions, all patients with denervation time less than 6 months regained muscle strength of grade at least 4, even when long grafts were used for defects of 20 cm or more. Late cases, yielded inadequate muscle function even with the use of VNG.Denervation time of 6 months or less was critical for reconstruction with vascularized nerve graft. Not only the results were statistically significant compared with late cases, but also all early operated patients achieved excellent results. VNG are strongly recommended in traction avulsion injuries of the lower extremity with lengthy nerve damage.

  9. Unilateral sixth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoodehnia, Mehran; Safaei, Arash; Rasooli, Fatemeh; Bahreini, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis still remains a real challenge. Seizure, unusual headache with sudden onset, unexplained persistently unilateral vascular headache and neurologic deficit-which is difficult to be attributed to a vascular territory are some of the suggestive symptoms. An isolated sixth nerve palsy is discussed as a rare presentation for cerebral venous thrombosis. Following the extensive investigation to rule out other possible diagnoses, magnetic resonance venogram revealed the final etiology of sixth nerve palsy that was ipsilateral left transverse sinus thrombosis; therefore, anticoagulant treatment with low molecular weight heparin was administered. Rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment cause to achieve excellent outcomes for most patients. Considering different clinical features, risk factors and high index of suspicion are helpful to reach the diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential diagnosis and management of acquired sixth cranial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Denise

    2006-11-01

    Cranial nerve VI innervates the lateral rectus muscle. A lesion will result in esotropia greater at distance and an ipsilateral abduction deficiency. After the age of 50 years, vascular diseases are the most commonly known causes. A 55-year-old white man reporting a 2-week history of horizontal diplopia that was worse at distance was found to have a left sixth cranial nerve paresis. The patient was diagnosed with hypertension and placed on medications. At the 4-week follow-up visit, the abduction deficiency had resolved. The incidence of sixth nerve palsy is 11.3 in 100,000. A lesion anywhere along the course of the nerve, from the pons to the orbit, can cause a paresis or palsy. After ruling out trauma and non-neurological problems, cases should be classified into neurologically isolated or non-neurologically isolated cases. Neurologically isolated sixth nerve palsies are associated most commonly with vascular disease. Non-neurologically isolated sixth nerve palsies typically are associated with more grave conditions. A sixth nerve palsy of vascular or undetermined causes typically resolves within 6 to 8 weeks. If resolution does not occur within 2 to 3 months, the condition progresses, or if additional neurologic signs or symptoms develop, imaging studies are indicated.

  11. Quantification of retrograde axonal transport in the rat optic nerve by fluorogold spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian van Oterendorp

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Disturbed axonal transport is an important pathogenic factor in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as glaucoma, an eye disease characterised by progressive atrophy of the optic nerve. Quantification of retrograde axonal transport in the optic nerve usually requires labour intensive histochemical techniques or expensive equipment for in vivo imaging. Here, we report on a robust alternative method using Fluorogold (FG as tracer, which is spectrometrically quantified in retinal tissue lysate. METHODS: To determine parameters reflecting the relative FG content of a sample FG was dissolved in retinal lysates at different concentrations and spectra were obtained. For validation in vivo FG was injected uni- or bilaterally into the superior colliculus (SC of Sprague Dawley rats. The retinal lysate was analysed after 3, 5 and 7 days to determine the time course of FG accumulation in the retina (n = 15. In subsequent experiments axona transport was impaired by optic nerve crush (n = 3, laser-induced ocular hypertension (n = 5 or colchicine treatment to the SC (n = 10. RESULTS: Spectrometry at 370 nm excitation revealed two emission peaks at 430 and 610 nm. We devised a formula to calculate the relative FG content (c(FG, from the emission spectrum. c(FG is proportional to the real FG concentration as it corrects for variations of retinal protein concentration in the lysate. After SC injection, c(FG monotonously increases with time (p = 0.002. Optic nerve axonal damage caused a significant decrease of c(FG (crush p = 0.029; hypertension p = 0.025; colchicine p = 0.006. Lysates are amenable to subsequent protein analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Spectrometrical FG detection in retinal lysates allows for quantitative assessment of retrograde axonal transport using standard laboratory equipment. It is faster than histochemical techniques and may also complement morphological in vivo analyses.

  12. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65% than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED.

  13. Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsy Due to Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Eruyar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is a rare clinical condition between cerebrovasculer diases. The most common findings are headache, seizure and focal neurological deficit. Multiple cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is rarely seen and it is not clear pathology. A pathology that could explain the lack of cranial nerve imaging is carrying suspected diagnosis but the disease is known to provide early diagnosis and treatment. We want to emphasize with this case multipl cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is seen rarely and good response to treatment.

  14. Nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakiri, S F; Ozoya, S E; Ogunnaike, P O

    1978-01-01

    The nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle were studied using histological and histochemical techniques. Many nerve trunks and fibres were present in the reticular and papillary dermis in both hairy and non-hairy skin sites. In non-hairy skin locations such as the muzzle and lower lip, encapsulated endings akin to Krause and Ruffini end bulbs, which arise from myelinated nerve trunks situated lower down the dermis were observed at the upper papillary layer level. Some fibre trunks seen at this level extended upwards to terminate within dermal papillae as bulb-shaped longitudinally lamellated Pacinian-type endings, while other onion-shaped lamellated nerve structures were located either within dermal papillae or near the dermo-epidermal area. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. On hairy skin sites, however, organized nerve endings or intraepidermal nerve endings were not readily identifiable.

  15. Peripheral Nerve Injury: Stem Cell Therapy and Peripheral Nerve Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Robert; Dailey, Travis; Duncan, Kelsey; Abel, Naomi; Borlongan, Cesario V

    2016-12-14

    Peripheral nerve injury can lead to great morbidity in those afflicted, ranging from sensory loss, motor loss, chronic pain, or a combination of deficits. Over time, research has investigated neuronal molecular mechanisms implicated in nerve damage, classified nerve injury, and developed surgical techniques for treatment. Despite these advancements, full functional recovery remains less than ideal. In this review, we discuss historical aspects of peripheral nerve injury and introduce nerve transfer as a therapeutic option, as well as an adjunct therapy to transplantation of Schwann cells and their stem cell derivatives for repair of the damaged nerve. This review furthermore, will provide an elaborated discussion on the sources of Schwann cells, including sites to harvest their progenitor and stem cell lines. This reflects the accessibility to an additional, concurrent treatment approach with nerve transfers that, predicated on related research, may increase the efficacy of the current approach. We then discuss the experimental and clinical investigations of both Schwann cells and nerve transfer that are underway. Lastly, we provide the necessary consideration that these two lines of therapeutic approaches should not be exclusive, but conversely, should be pursued as a combined modality given their mutual role in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  16. Peripheral Nerve Injury: Stem Cell Therapy and Peripheral Nerve Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sullivan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury can lead to great morbidity in those afflicted, ranging from sensory loss, motor loss, chronic pain, or a combination of deficits. Over time, research has investigated neuronal molecular mechanisms implicated in nerve damage, classified nerve injury, and developed surgical techniques for treatment. Despite these advancements, full functional recovery remains less than ideal. In this review, we discuss historical aspects of peripheral nerve injury and introduce nerve transfer as a therapeutic option, as well as an adjunct therapy to transplantation of Schwann cells and their stem cell derivatives for repair of the damaged nerve. This review furthermore, will provide an elaborated discussion on the sources of Schwann cells, including sites to harvest their progenitor and stem cell lines. This reflects the accessibility to an additional, concurrent treatment approach with nerve transfers that, predicated on related research, may increase the efficacy of the current approach. We then discuss the experimental and clinical investigations of both Schwann cells and nerve transfer that are underway. Lastly, we provide the necessary consideration that these two lines of therapeutic approaches should not be exclusive, but conversely, should be pursued as a combined modality given their mutual role in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  17. MALDI-TOF MS identification of Anopheles gambiae Giles blood meal crushed on Whatman filter papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niare, Sirama; Almeras, Lionel; Tandina, Fatalmoudou; Yssouf, Amina; Bacar, Affane; Toilibou, Ali; Doumbo, Ogobara; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Identification of the source of mosquito blood meals is an important component for disease control and surveillance. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling has emerged as an effective tool for mosquito blood meal identification, using the abdomens of freshly engorged mosquitoes. In the field, mosquito abdomens are crushed on Whatman filter papers to determine the host feeding patterns by identifying the origin of their blood meals. The aim of this study was to test whether crushing engorged mosquito abdomens on Whatman filter papers was compatible with MALDI-TOF MS for mosquito blood meal identification. Both laboratory reared and field collected mosquitoes were tested. Sixty Anopheles gambiae Giles were experimentally engorged on the blood of six distinct vertebrate hosts (human, sheep, rabbit, dog, chicken and rat). The engorged mosquito abdomens were crushed on Whatman filter papers for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. 150 Whatman filter papers, with mosquitoes engorged on cow and goat blood, were preserved. A total of 77 engorged mosquito abdomens collected in the Comoros Islands and crushed on Whatman filter papers were tested with MALDI-TOF MS. The MS profiles generated from mosquito engorged abdomens crushed on Whatman filter papers exhibited high reproducibility according to the original host blood. The blood meal host was correctly identified from mosquito abdomens crushed on Whatman filter papers by MALDI-TOF MS. The MS spectra obtained after storage were stable regardless of the room temperature and whether or not they were frozen. The MS profiles were reproducible for up to three months. For the Comoros samples, 70/77 quality MS spectra were obtained and matched with human blood spectra. This was confirmed by molecular tools. The results demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS could identify mosquito blood meals from Whatman filter papers collected in the field during entomological surveys. The

  18. Measurements of the stress supported by the crush zone in open hole composite laminates loaded in compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the stress supported by the crush zone in open hole specimens loaded in compression were carried out on two composite laminates, AS4/PEEK and IM6/HST-7, containing circular holes of three different diameters. Compression tests were conducted in a specially designed high-axial-alignment material test system machine. Results indicated that the local stress supported in the crush zone is much less than the stress required to initiate the crush, providing the reason for the finding of Guynn et al. (1987) that the Dugdale model does not accurately predict the load-damage size relationship of open hole composite specimens loaded in compression.

  19. Nerve cross-bridging to enhance nerve regeneration in a rat model of delayed nerve repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gordon

    Full Text Available There are currently no available options to promote nerve regeneration through chronically denervated distal nerve stumps. Here we used a rat model of delayed nerve repair asking of prior insertion of side-to-side cross-bridges between a donor tibial (TIB nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP nerve stump ameliorates poor nerve regeneration. First, numbers of retrogradely-labelled TIB neurons that grew axons into the nerve stump within three months, increased with the size of the perineurial windows opened in the TIB and CP nerves. Equal numbers of donor TIB axons regenerated into CP stumps either side of the cross-bridges, not being affected by target neurotrophic effects, or by removing the perineurium to insert 5-9 cross-bridges. Second, CP nerve stumps were coapted three months after inserting 0-9 cross-bridges and the number of 1 CP neurons that regenerated their axons within three months or 2 CP motor nerves that reinnervated the extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscle within five months was determined by counting and motor unit number estimation (MUNE, respectively. We found that three but not more cross-bridges promoted the regeneration of axons and reinnervation of EDL muscle by all the CP motoneurons as compared to only 33% regenerating their axons when no cross-bridges were inserted. The same 3-fold increase in sensory nerve regeneration was found. In conclusion, side-to-side cross-bridges ameliorate poor regeneration after delayed nerve repair possibly by sustaining the growth-permissive state of denervated nerve stumps. Such autografts may be used in human repair surgery to improve outcomes after unavoidable delays.

  20. Common peroneal nerve entrapment with the communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciatic nerve divides into tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve at the level of superior angle of popliteal fossa and variations in its branching pattern are common. The most common nerve entrapment syndrome in the lower limbs is common peroneal nerve entrapment at fibular head. Invariably it can also be trapped in ...

  1. Aplasia of the optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Daniel C W; Man, Eric M W; Cheng, Sunny C S

    2015-08-01

    Aplasia of the optic nerve is an extraordinarily rare congenital anomaly that affects one or both optic nerves and is associated with the absence of the central retinal vessel and retinal ganglion cells. We report a case of unilateral optic nerve aplasia in a 4-month-old infant who was found to have left microphthalmos on routine postnatal checkup. Family history, antenatal history, and systemic evaluation were unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging showed absent left optic nerve with left microphthalmos. The optic chiasm was present and slightly deviated towards the right side. The remaining cerebral and ocular structures were normal.

  2. Effect of shape and surface texture of aggregates during high intensity vertical shaft impact autogeneous crushing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samayamutthirian Palaniandy; Khairun Azizi Mohd Azizli

    2002-01-01

    The demand for quarry industry to produce high quality aggregates is increasing parallel with the demand of high strength concrete. Focus on the high quality aggregates production is very essential as 70% of the concrete consist of aggregates. High quality aggregate is characterised according to its shape, surface texture and its size distribution. The cubical and more equidimensional aggregates are characterised as high quality aggregates. Besides photomicrograph of aggregates, Flakiness and Elongation indices are important empirical measurements to determine the quality of the aggregates. The Barmac Rock On Rock Vertical Shaft Impactor proved that the shape of the aggregates can be improved by various crushing mechanisms as the EI and FI values were low and 75% of the cubical particles were observed in the crushed aggregates. (Author)

  3. Concrete manufactured with crushed asphalt as partial replacement of natural aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Coppola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the reuse of crushed asphalt (GA as a partial replacement (up to 20% of natural aggregates for concrete manufacture. Addition of GA aggregates produced a positive effect on workability loss. The GA mixes, however, showed a significant tendency to bleed and segregate at the highest replacement percentage applied. GA led to a decrease of compressive strength in concrete (with respect to that of the reference concrete up to 50% due to the weakness of the cement paste / recycled aggregate interface. To compensate for this negative effect, a reduction of w/c for the GA concretes was necessary. A decrease of w/c allowed the GA concretes to show drying shrinkage values substantially similar to those of reference concrete with the same cement factor. The experimental results confirmed the possibility of partial substitution (max. 15% of natural aggregates with crushed asphalt for making concrete.

  4. Oblique crushing performances of hybrid woven Kenaf fibre reinforced aluminium hollow cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Al Emran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents crushing performances of hybrid woven kenaf fibre reinforced aluminium tubes under axial and oblique compression. According to open literature, lack number of works conducted to study the crushing responses when kenaf fibre in the form of woven is used to reinforce aluminium tubes. There are important parameters are used such as fibre orientations and oblique compression angles. Kenaf fibre in the form of woven is firstly wetted with polyester resin before it is wrapped around the tubes. After composite hardened, the hybrid tubes are quasi-statically compressed and force-displacement curves are recorded. Energy absorption performances are then determined and discussed in term of different fibre orientations and oblique angles. It is found that [±30°] fibre orientations capable to produce higher force-displacement responses and hybrid tubes are produced lower force ratio indicating the role of natural fibre in increasing the capability of energy absorptions.

  5. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  6. New regenerative treatment for tooth and periodontal bone defect associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kiyokawa, Munekatsu; Takagi, Mikako; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Fukaya, Takuji

    2009-05-01

    We developed a new regenerative treatment of tooth and periodontal defect and tooth dislocation associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture in the region of the maxillary anterior teeth. Using this method, dislocated teeth are first extracted and crushed alveolar bone is debrided. The dislocated teeth are then reimplanted, and cancellous iliac bone (bone marrow) is grafted to the area surrounding the teeth to regenerate periodontal bone. Tooth reimplantation was completely successful in 2 cases, and periodontal bone regenerated to a sufficient height with the iliac bone graft. Compared with the general method of treatment with a prosthesis (bridge), when using this method to treat cases such as these, there is no sacrifice of healthy teeth adjacent to the defect, and sufficient esthetic and functional recovery is possible. It is thought that this method could be applied as a new treatment of alveolar bone fracture in the future.

  7. Effect of Calcium Oxide on the Crushing Strength, Reduction, and Smelting Performance of High-Chromium Vanadium–Titanium Magnetite Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjin Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of calcium oxide on the crushing strength, reduction, and smelting performance of high-chromium vanadium–titanium magnetite pellets (HCVTMP was studied in this work. The main characterization methods of an electronic universal testing machine (EUTM, X-ray fluorescent (XRF, inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscope-energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM-EDS were employed. The crushing strength was affected by the mineral phases generated during oxidative baking and the subsequently-formed pellet microstructures owing to CaO addition. The reduction and smelting properties of HCVTMP with different CaO additives were measured and characterized with different softening-melting-dripping indices. Although HCVTMP showed the highest crushing strength with CaO addition of ca. 2 wt %, more CaO addition may be needed to achieve high permeability of the furnace burdens and a good separation condition of the slag and melted iron. In the formation process of the slag and melted iron, it can be determined that CaO could have a relationship with the transformation behavior of Cr, V, and Ti to some extent, with respect to the predominant chemical composition analysis of ICP-AES and XRF. With the microscopic examination, the restraining formation of Ti(C,N and the promoting formation of CaTiO3 are in accordance with the improved melting-dripping indices, including the decrease of the maximum external static load and gas permeability, and the increase of the melting-dripping zone and dripping difficulty.

  8. Acute opioid withdrawal precipitated by ingestion of crushed embeda (morphine extended release with sequestered naltrexone): case report and the focused review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiulu; Chen, Tao; Gudin, Jeff; Couch, John Patrick; Chiravuri, Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of newly formulated extended release (ER) morphine with sequestered naltrexone (Embeda) has provided another treatment option for moderate to severe persistent pain. Embeda was designed to be an abuse-deterrent opioid formulation. Naltrexone is a centrally acting opioid receptor antagonist that blocks the action of opioid. When taken as directed, insignificant amount of sequestered naltrexone would reach systemic circulation, but upon tampering, the released naltrexone may blunt the euphoria of opioids, and possibly precipitate opioid withdrawal in opioid-dependent patient. To describe a case report ofa 50-year-old opioid-dependent male who developed acute opioid withdrawal after taking crushed Embeda. A 50-year-old male with severe, chronic low back pain due to degenerative disc disease was referred to our clinic for pain management. He was taking ER oxycodone 80 mg tid and Roxicodone 30 mg qid prn, with inadequate pain relief A trial of ER oxymorphone was decided, at 40 mg 1-2 doses bid. The patient returned to the clinic 1 week early, out of his ER oxymorphone. At this time, the decision to switch him to Embeda was made, at 80 mg/3.2 mg, 1-2 doses bid. The patient and his family members were counseled about risk involved with tampering with Embeda. A few hours later, our clinic was informed that the patient was brought to emergency room by ambulance, in severe opioid withdrawal. He was treated with IV fluid, antiemetics, clonidine, and IV hydromorphone. His condition improved and he was discharged home the next morning. Later on, the patient admitted that he took two prescribed Embeda within half an hour, the 1st one whole and the 2nd one crushed. He further admitted that he did so against our medical advice. CONCLUSION. Taking tampered Embeda may precipitate opioid withdrawal in opioid-tolerant patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of induced opioid withdrawal following consumption of crushed Embeda.

  9. Evaluation of effects of sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in sheep undergoing stifle surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ann E; Mama, Khursheed R; Ruehlman, Dana L; Pelkey, Sheila; Turner, A Simon

    2011-04-01

    The authors evaluated the effects of locally anesthetizing the sciatic and femoral nerves in sheep undergoing stifle (femorotibial) surgery (16 sheep received nerve blocks; 16 sheep underwent a nerve localization procedure but received no nerve blocks). Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure and end-tidal isoflurane were recorded every 5 min while sheep were anesthetized. At some of the observed time points, the mean heart rate in the sheep that had received no nerve blocks was significantly higher than in the sheep that had received the nerve blocks. Postoperatively, each sheep was assigned scores for comfort and attitude, movement, flock behavior, feeding behavior and appetite and respiratory rate (based on predefined descriptions). Though the authors found no undesirable effects of this local anesthesia, beneficial effects of the nerve blocks were minimal or not readily apparent under the conditions of this study.

  10. Neural stem/progenitor cell properties of glial cells in the adult mouse auditory nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Hainan; Xing, Yazhi; Brown, LaShardai N.; Samuvel, Devadoss J.; Panganiban, Clarisse H.; Havens, Luke T.; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Wegner, Michael; Krug, Edward L.; Barth, Jeremy L.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory nerve is the primary conveyor of hearing information from sensory hair cells to the brain. It has been believed that loss of the auditory nerve is irreversible in the adult mammalian ear, resulting in sensorineural hearing loss. We examined the regenerative potential of the auditory nerve in a mouse model of auditory neuropathy. Following neuronal degeneration, quiescent glial cells converted to an activated state showing a decrease in nuclear chromatin condensation, altered histone deacetylase expression and up-regulation of numerous genes associated with neurogenesis or development. Neurosphere formation assays showed that adult auditory nerves contain neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) that were within a Sox2-positive glial population. Production of neurospheres from auditory nerve cells was stimulated by acute neuronal injury and hypoxic conditioning. These results demonstrate that a subset of glial cells in the adult auditory nerve exhibit several characteristics of NSPs and are therefore potential targets for promoting auditory nerve regeneration. PMID:26307538

  11. Isolated bilateral abducens nerve palsy due to an inflammatory process within the sella and parasellar regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Hwang, Michelle S; Strickland, Ben A; Khishfe, Basem

    2016-01-01

    Isolated bilateral abducens nerve palsy raises concern about a serious intracranial condition. Abducens nerve palsy is a common isolated palsy due to its susceptibility to injury along its long course. Non-traumatic isolated abducens nerve palsy is often caused by a mass that indirectly stretches and compresses the nerve. Pathological processes directly causing bilateral isolated involvement of the abducens nerve are rare. We describe a 24-year-old man who presented with isolated bilateral abducens nerve palsy. Radiological imaging and laboratory tests were consistent with an aggressive bacterial infectious process located in the sellar region with parasellar extension. If promptly addressed, sixth cranial nerve palsy appears to be reversible with aggressive medical therapy and endoscopic sinus surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Are human peripheral nerves sensitive to X-ray imaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Francisco Scopel

    Full Text Available Diagnostic imaging techniques play an important role in assessing the exact location, cause, and extent of a nerve lesion, thus allowing clinicians to diagnose and manage more effectively a variety of pathological conditions, such as entrapment syndromes, traumatic injuries, and space-occupying lesions. Ultrasound and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging are becoming useful methods for this purpose, but they still lack spatial resolution. In this regard, recent phase contrast x-ray imaging experiments of peripheral nerve allowed the visualization of each nerve fiber surrounded by its myelin sheath as clearly as optical microscopy. In the present study, we attempted to produce high-resolution x-ray phase contrast images of a human sciatic nerve by using synchrotron radiation propagation-based imaging. The images showed high contrast and high spatial resolution, allowing clear identification of each fascicle structure and surrounding connective tissue. The outstanding result is the detection of such structures by phase contrast x-ray tomography of a thick human sciatic nerve section. This may further enable the identification of diverse pathological patterns, such as Wallerian degeneration, hypertrophic neuropathy, inflammatory infiltration, leprosy neuropathy and amyloid deposits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful phase contrast x-ray imaging experiment of a human peripheral nerve sample. Our long-term goal is to develop peripheral nerve imaging methods that could supersede biopsy procedures.

  13. Ocular motor nerve palsy: A clinical and etiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwanza Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To clinically describe cases of ocular motor nerve palsy and to determine the possible causes. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one consecutive patients with ocular motor nerve palsies were investigated. All underwent complete ophthalmological, as well as neurological, otorhinolaryngological and general examination. Computerised tomography (CT-scan of the brain and complementary laboratory tests were obtained from each participant. Results: Paralysis of the sixth (38.4% and the third (35.3% cranial nerve were the most common. The Lees screen test was found to be very sensitive, confirming the diagnosis of ocular motor nerve palsy, even in cases with minimal manifestations. Complete ptosis and full mydriasis were mostly seen in isolated cases of the third cranial nerve palsy. The majority of eyes (63.2% with third cranial nerve palsy had pupil sparing. Overall, an etiological diagnosis was made in 93.5% of cases. The common causes were vascular conditions (25.8%, otorhinolaryngologic diseases (19.7% and trauma (12.9%. CT scan failed to reveal any abnormality in 54.8% of cases. Conclusion: Patients with ocular motor nerve palsy should be carefully examined in close collaboration with other specialists, especially where sophisticated, complementary investigations are impossible.

  14. Mix proportioning and performance of a crushed limestone sand-concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Makhloufi Zoubir; Bouziani Tayeb; Bédérina Madani; Hadjoudja Mourad

    2014-01-01

    Satisfying the ever-growing demand of concrete aggregates poses a problem in many parts of the world due to shortage of natural sand. Moreover, to conserve natural resources and protect civil engineering infrastructures, there is a need to find alternative materials. Crushed stone sand has been identified as a potential substitute material for natural sand in making good quality concrete. The main objective of the present investigation is to determine an adequate mix design method and evaluat...

  15. Regenerative Potential of D-δ-Tocotrienol Rich Fraction on Crushed Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijo Elsy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed muscle growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle in diabetics is believed to be due to diabetic myopathy because of alteration in the skeletal muscle homeostatis. Since vitamin E is a natural antioxidant and is also important for the integrity of sarcolemma, the present study was designed to explore the muscle regenerative potency of d-δ-tocotrienol-rich fraction (d-δ-TRF on crushed skeletal muscle in healthy and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced through single subcutaneous injection of alloxan (100 mg/kg. Twenty-four albino rats were divided into four groups; healthy control, diabetic control, healthy treated, and diabetic treated. Treated groups received injections orally, daily (200 mg/kg for 3 weeks. A horizontal skin incision was made on the shaved right mid-thigh region, by splitting the fascia between gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata, and gluteus maximus was crushed with Kocher’s forceps. Skin wound was closed with an absorbable suture. The crushed muscle changes were studied by assessing the histopathological features, histomorphological measurements, and biochemical analyses on 3rd week following induction of injury. One-way “ANOVA” followed by Tukey’s test and Student t-test were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Results obtained through various methods indicate that the d-δ-TRF treated groups have controlled glycemic status, improved antioxidant capacity, faster revascularization, re-innervation, regeneration of myofibers, and connective tissue remodeling. Conclusion: It is, therefore, concluded that the d-δ-TRF is a beneficial nutritional adjuvant for skeletal muscles’ structural and functional recovery after crushed injury in both healthy and diabetics. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2017; 5(2.000: 36-42

  16. Infectious complications in patients with crush syndrome following the Wenchuan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To analyze the results of clini-cal and bacteriological examinations in patients with crush syndrome who suffered infectious complications after an earthquake in Sichuan, China. Methods: A total of 313 bacteriological samples among 147 patients with crush syndrome were collected. Infectious complications, results of microbiological examinations, po-tential risk factors of infection and mortality were analyzed statistically. Results: In the obtained database, 112 out of the 147 (75.7% patients had infectious complications, in which, wound infection, pulmonary infection, and sepsis were most common. The time under the rubble and the time from injury to treatment were related to the occurrence of wound infec-tion (P=0.013, odds ratio 2.25; P=0.017, odds ratio 2.31. Sep-sis and wound infection were more common in patients who underwent fasciotomy or amputation than in those who did not (P=0.001. Conclusion: Quick rescue and injury treatment can decrease the infection risk in crush syndrome patients. It is better to obtain microorganic proofs before applying antibiotics, and bacteriological and drug sensitivity data should be taken into account, especially considering that most of these infections are hospital-acquired and drug resistance. Emphasizing the accuracy and efficiency of wound management in emergency situations, cautiously assessing the indications for fasciotomy to avoid open wounds from unnecessary osteofascial compartment de-compression incisions may decrease the incidence of in-fection and ameliorate the prognosis. Key words: Earthquakes; Crush syndrome; Infection; Microbial sensitivity tests

  17. Key factors of eddy current separation for recovering aluminum from crushed e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jujun; Dong, Lipeng; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Tao; Huang, Mingzhi; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-02-01

    Recovery of e-waste in China had caused serious pollutions. Eddy current separation is an environment-friendly technology of separating nonferrous metallic particles from crushed e-waste. However, due to complex particle characters, separation efficiency of traditional eddy current separator was low. In production, controllable operation factors of eddy current separation are feeding speed, (ωR-v), and S p . There is little special information about influencing mechanism and critical parameters of these factors in eddy current separation. This paper provided the special information of these key factors in eddy current separation of recovering aluminum particles from crushed waste refrigerator cabinets. Detachment angles increased as the increase of (ωR-v). Separation efficiency increased with the growing of detachment angles. Aluminum particles were completely separated from plastic particles in critical parameters of feeding speed 0.5m/s and detachment angles greater than 6.61deg. S p /S m of aluminum particles in crushed waste refrigerators ranged from 0.08 to 0.51. Separation efficiency increased as the increase of S p /S m . This enlightened us to develop new separator to separate smaller nonferrous metallic particles in e-waste recovery. High feeding speed destroyed separation efficiency. However, greater S p of aluminum particles brought positive impact on separation efficiency. Greater S p could increase critical feeding speed to offer greater throughput of eddy current separation. This paper will guide eddy current separation in production of recovering nonferrous metals from crushed e-waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-level radiations exposure from building materials of crushing zone in Shivalik foothills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamboj, Sunil; Bansal, Vakul; Pundir, Anil; Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    The main sources of low-level radiation exposure from radon and its progeny are the ground underneath the building, the building materials, the water supply, the gas supply and the air outside. Building materials are the main source of radon inside buildings and most popular among them are soil bricks, different type of stones, core sand, stone dust, crushed stones and cement etc. Some construction materials are naturally more radioactive and removal of such material from the earth's crust and their subsequent use in construction of buildings further enhances the radioactivity level. The knowledge of radioactivity level in the building materials makes us aware about the management, guidelines and standards in construction of buildings. The main objective of the present investigations is to study the samples collected from the Crushing zone of Shivalik foot hills. The materials like stones, crushed stones, stone dust and core sand etc. from crushing zone are being used in Northern part of India for construction of dwellings. For the measurement of radon concentration and its exhalation rates in building materials, LR-115 detectors were exposed in closed plastic canisters for three months. At the end of the exposure time, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process in 2.5N NaOH solution. The tracks produced by the alpha particles were observed and counted under an optical Olympus microscope at 600X. The measured track density was converted into radon concentration using a calibration factor. The surface and mass exhalation rates of radon have also been calculated using present data. The results indicate that the radon concentration varies appreciably from sample to sample and they were found to satisfy the safety criteria. There are some core sand and stone dust samples in which radon concentration is higher and may enhance the indoor radiation levels when used as building construction materials. (author)

  19. An unusual ulnar nerve-median nerve communicating branch.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogbergen, M M; Kauer, J M

    1992-01-01

    Branching of the ulnar nerve distal to the origin of the dorsal cutaneous branch was investigated in 25 hands in one of which an anatomical variation was observed. This finding may be of importance in the evaluation of certain entrapment phenomena of the ulnar nerve or unexplained sensory loss after trauma or surgical intervention in that particular area.

  20. Transient femoral nerve palsy following ilioinguinal nerve block for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Background: Elective inguinal hernia repair in young fit patients is preferably done under ilioinguinal nerve block anesthesia in the ambulatory setting to improve ... Conclusion: TFNP is a rare complication of ilioinguinal nerve block which delays patient discharge postambulatory hernioplasty.

  1. Effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties of crushed recycled pavement materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Saberian, Mohammad; Nguyen, Bao Thach

    2018-04-20

    The low-carbon footprint of using recycled construction and demolition (C&D) aggregates in civil engineering infrastructure applications has been considered to be a significant solution for the replacement of conventional pavement aggregates. Investigations regarding the use of crumb rubber in the base and subbase layers of pavement have been well documented. However, information on the effects of crumb rubber and its size within C&D aggregates as the base/subbase layers is still very limited. In this study, crumb rubber with particle sizes ranging from 400 to 600 μm (fine) to 10-15 mm (coarse), 20 mm recycled crushed concrete (RCC), and 20 mm crushed rock (CR) were used. The crumb rubber was added to the two groups of C&D aggregates at 0.5, 1 and 2% by weight percentages of the aggregates. The effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties (such as California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength, aggregate crushing value, dynamic lightweight cone penetrometer, Clegg impact value, Los Angeles abrasion values, and resilient modulus) of the C&D aggregates was then examined. Based on the experimental test results, it was found that crumb rubber can be recycled as a waste material for the base and subbase layers in the pavement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  3. Crushing Candy: The Free-to-Play Game in Its Connective Commodity Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nieborg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to add a complementary perspective to the study of social network sites by surveying how the political economy of social media platforms relates to the structure of free-to-play games in their commodity form. Drawing on the theory of multisided markets and critical political economy, this article surveys the political economy of game apps and investigates how it is symbiotically related to the technological and economic logic underlying connective platforms operated by Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon. These social media platforms operate app stores that sustain the transformation of games as fixed, physically distributed products that follow a transaction logic, into digitally distributed, freely accessible, or “free-to-play” apps. Through a case study of the popular casual game Candy Crush Saga it is contended that the connective properties of social media platforms affect the form and format of game apps as cultural commodities. Candy Crush Saga developer King Digital Entertainment has been able to attract hundreds of millions of players and build a business model that combines the commodification of virtual items, connectivity, user attention, user data, and play. It is argued that the free-to-play commodity form comprises three commodity types: the product commodity, the “prosumer commodity,” and the player commodity. Furthermore, Candy Crush Saga ’s commodity form is structured by a platformed modality of cultural production and circulation and therefore embedded in the political economy of its host platform.

  4. Cement Type Influence on Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete with Crushed Gravel Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkauskas, A.; Nagrockienė, D.; Skripkiūnas, G.

    2017-10-01

    Alkali-silica reaction is one of the chemical reactions which have a significant influence for durability of concrete. During alkali and silica reaction, silicon located in aggregates of the concrete, reacts with high alkali content. This way in the micropores of concrete is forming hygroscopic gel, which at wet environment, expanding and slowly but strongly destroying concrete structures. The goal of this paper- to determine the influence of cement type on alkali-silica reaction of mortars with crushed gravel. In the study crushed gravel with fraction 4/16 mm was used and four types of cements tested: CEM I 42.5 R; CEM I 42.5 SR; CEM II/A-S 42.5; CEM II/A-V 52.5. This study showed that crushed gravel is low contaminated on reactive particles containing of amorphous silica dioxide. The expansion after 14 days exceed 0.054 %, by RILEM AAR-2 research methodology (testing specimen dimension 40×40×160 mm). Continuing the investigation to 56 days for all specimens occurred alkaline corrosion features: microcracking and the surface plaque of gel. The results showed that the best resistance to alkaline corrosion after 14 days was obtained with cement CEM I 42.5 SR containing ash additive, and after 56 days with cement CEM II/A-V 52.5 containing low alkali content. The highest expansion after 14 and 56 days was obtained with cement CEM I 42.5 R without active mineral additives.

  5. Experimental investigations on mode II fracture of concrete with crushed granite stone fine aggregate replacing sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchi Balaji Rao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With a view to implement sustainability concepts (namely, use of locally available materials and industrial by-products in the concrete construction industry, the possibility of use of crushed stone fine aggregate as replacement to river sand is explored in this paper. Towards this, tests have been carried out on concrete cubes and concrete cylinders. The effect of variation in percentage replacement of river sand with crushed stone fine aggregate on the mechanical properties is studied. In order to popularize the locally available material for the construction of shear critical concrete structures (viz. flat slabs, foundation of heavy structures, the Mode - II fracture behavior of the considered concrete is studied using DCN (Double Central Notched specimens with different notch to depth, (a/w, ratios of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. For each (a/w ratio five different percentage replacements (viz. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% are considered. The study indicates that both cube compressive strength and split tensile strength increases with the increase in percentage replacement up to 50% and then gradually decreases. A similar observation was made with respect to the Mode - II fracture energy also. It is noted that the strengths of concrete even with 100% replacement are higher than the concrete with 0% replacement suggesting that the locally available crushed stone fine aggregate can be considered as an alternative to the river sand.

  6. Shared and Differential Retinal Responses against Optic Nerve Injury and Ocular Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vidal-Sanz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide, affects primarily retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and their axons. The pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood, but it is currently believed that damage to RGC axons at the optic nerve head plays a major role. Rodent models to study glaucoma include those that mimic either ocular hypertension or optic nerve injury. Here we review the anatomical loss of the general population of RGCs (that express Brn3a; Brn3a+RGCs and of the intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (that express melanopsin; m+RGCs after chronic (LP-OHT or acute (A-OHT ocular hypertension and after complete intraorbital optic nerve transection (ONT or crush (ONC. Our studies show that all of these insults trigger RGC death. Compared to Brn3a+RGCs, m+RGCs are more resilient to ONT, ONC, and A-OHT but not to LP-OHT. There are differences in the course of RGC loss both between these RGC types and among injuries. An important difference between the damage caused by ocular hypertension or optic nerve injury appears in the outer retina. Both axotomy and LP-OHT induce selective loss of RGCs but LP-OHT also induces a protracted loss of cone photoreceptors. This review outlines our current understanding of the anatomical changes occurring in rodent models of glaucoma and discusses the advantages of each one and their translational value.

  7. Residual Mechanical Properties of Concrete Made with Crushed Clay Bricks and Roof Tiles Aggregate after Exposure to High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miličević, Ivana; Štirmer, Nina; Banjad Pečur, Ivana

    2016-04-19

    This paper presents the residual mechanical properties of concrete made with crushed bricks and clay roof tile aggregates after exposure to high temperatures. One referent mixture and eight mixtures with different percentages of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed bricks and roof tiles are experimentally tested. The properties of the concrete were measured before and after exposure to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In order to evaluate the basic residual mechanical properties of concrete with crushed bricks and roof tiles after exposure to high temperatures, ultrasonic pulse velocity is used as a non-destructive test method and the results are compared with those of a destructive method for validation. The mixture with the highest percentage of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed brick and roof tile aggregate has the best physical, mechanical, and thermal properties for application of such concrete in precast concrete elements exposed to high temperatures.

  8. Side Effects: Nerve Problems (Peripheral Neuropathy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve problems, such as peripheral neuropathy, can be caused by cancer treatment. Learn about signs and symptoms of nerve changes. Find out how to prevent or manage nerve problems during cancer treatment.

  9. Nerve Transfers for Treatment of Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Margie; Clark, Tod A; Giuffre, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    The most common neurological defect in traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocation is isolated axillary nerve palsy. Most recover spontaneously; however, some have persistent axillary neuropathy. An intact rotator cuff may compensate for an isolated axillary nerve injury; however, given the high rate of rotator cuff pathology with advancing age, patients with an axillary nerve injury are at risk for complete shoulder disability. To review reconstruction of the axillary nerve to alleviate shoulder pain, augment shoulder stability, abduction and external rotation to alleviate sole reliance on the rotator cuff to move and stabilize the shoulder. A retrospective review of 10 patients with an isolated axillary nerve injury and an intact rotator cuff who underwent a triceps nerve branch to axillary nerve transfer was performed. Patient demographics, surgical technique, deltoid strength, donor-site morbidity, complications and time to surgery were evaluated. Ten male patients, mean age 38.3 years (range 18 to 66 years), underwent a triceps to axillary nerve transfer for isolated axillary nerve injury 7.4 months (range five to 12 months) post-traumatic shoulder dislocation. Deltoid function was British Medical Research Council grade 0/5 in all patients preoperatively and ≥3/5 deltoid strength in eight patients at final follow-up (14.8 months [range 12 to 25 months]). There were no complications and no donor-site morbidity. A triceps to axillary nerve transfer for isolated axillary neuropathy following traumatic shoulder dislocation improved shoulder pain, stability and deltoid strength, and potentially preserves shoulder function with advancing age by alleviating sole reliance on the rotator cuff for shoulder abduction and external rotation.

  10. The Surgical Management of Facial Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rovak, Jason M.; Tung, Thomas H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The surgical management of facial nerve injuries is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve anatomy, nerve physiology, and microsurgical techniques. When possible, primary neurorrhaphy is the “gold standard” repair technique. Injuries resulting in long nerve gaps or a significant delay between the time of injury and repair requires alterative techniques, such as nerve grafts, nerve transfers, regional muscle transfers, free tissue transfers, and static procedures. Scrupulous t...

  11. Neuromas of the calcaneal nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Dellon, A L

    2001-11-01

    A neuroma of a calcaneal nerve has never been reported. A series of 15 patients with heel pain due to a neuroma of a calcaneal nerve are reviewed. These patients previously had either a plantar fasciotomy (n = 4), calcaneal spur removal (n = 2), ankle fusion (n = 2), or tarsal tunnel decompression (n = 7). Neuromas occurred on calcaneal branches that arose from either the posterior tibial nerve (n = 1), lateral plantar nerve (n = 1), the medial plantar nerve (n = 9), or more than one of these nerves (n = 4). Operative approach was through an extended tarsal tunnel incision to permit identification of all calcaneal nerves. The neuroma was resected and implanted into the flexor hallucis longus muscle. Excellent relief of pain occurred in 60%, and good relief in 33%. One patient (17%) had no improvement and required resection of the lateral plantar nerve. Awareness that the heel may be innervated by multiple calcaneal branches suggests that surgery for heel pain of neural origin employ a surgical approach that permits identification of all possible calcaneal branches.

  12. Stimulus point distribution in deep or superficial peroneal nerve for treatment of ankle spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shinji; Tanabe, Shigeo; Sugawara, Kenichi; Muraoka, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Norihide; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2013-01-01

     To develop effective electrical stimulation treatment to reduce spasticity, we examined the optimal stimulus point of the common peroneal nerve.  The locations of selective stimulus points for the deep peroneal nerve or superficial peroneal nerve fiber were examined in 25 healthy subjects in both legs (50 legs) using the ratio of the tibialis anterior (TA) to the peroneus longus (PL) M-wave amplitude (TA/PL ratio). In addition, we measured reciprocal Ia inhibition in ten healthy subjects. The amount of inhibition was determined from short-latency suppression of the soleus (Sol) H-reflex by conditioning stimuli to the deep or superficial peroneal nerve. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis.  The mean TA/PL ratio during deep peroneal nerve stimulation was significantly different from superficial peroneal nerve stimulation (p < 0.001). The mean stimulus point for the deep peroneal nerve was located 7 ± 5 mm distal and 3 ± 6 mm anterior from the distal edges of the head of fibula and was markedly different from the stimulus point for the superficial peroneal nerve (20 ± 7 mm distal and 12 ± 8 mm posterior). During deep peroneal nerve stimulation, the mean conditioned H-reflex was depressed to 83.8 ± 10.7% of the unconditioned value of the H-reflex. In contrast, during superficial peroneal nerve stimulation, the mean conditioned H-reflex increased to 105.3 ± 5.2%. These values were significantly different (p < 0.001).  In the present study, we revealed a stimulus area of the deep peroneal nerve. Also, we observed the inhibitory effects of stimulation upon the deep peroneal nerve at individual stimulus point. Our results appear to indicate that localized stimulation of the deep peroneal nerve is more useful for the reduction of ankle spasticity. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. Inflammation and nerve fiber interaction in endometriotic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Brett D; Bertschi, Dominic; Bersinger, Nick A; Mueller, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an extremely prevalent estrogen-dependent condition characterized by the growth of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, and is often presented with severe pain. Although the relationship between lesion and pain remains unclear, nerve fibers found in close proximity to endometriotic lesions may be related to pain. Also, women with endometriosis pain develop central sensitization. Endometriosis creates an inflammatory environment and recent research is beginning to elucidate the role of inflammation in stimulating peripheral nerve sensitization. In this review, we discuss endometriosis-associated inflammation, peripheral nerve fibers, and assess their potential mechanism of interaction. We propose that an interaction between lesions and nerve fibers, mediated by inflammation, may be important in endometriosis-associated pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Medium-Term Outcome of Sacral Nerve Modulation for Constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govaert, Bastiaan; Maeda, Yasuko; Alberga, Job

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sacral nerve modulation has been reported as a minimally invasive and effective treatment for constipation refractory to conservative treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and sustainability of sacral nerve modulation for constipation in the medium term (up......: Patients were eligible if they had had symptoms of constipation persisting for at least 1 year, if conservative treatment (dietary modification, laxatives and biofeedback therapy) had failed, and if predefined excluded conditions were not present. INTERVENTION: The first phase of the treatment process...... constipation score. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients (13 men, 104 women) with a mean age of 45.6 (SD, 13.0) years underwent percutaneous nerve evaluation. Of these, 68 patients (58%) had successful percutaneous nerve evaluation and underwent implantation of a device. The mean Wexner score was 17.0 (SD, 3...

  15. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography; Diagnostische Nervensonographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeumer, T. [Universitaet zu Luebeck CBBM, Haus 66, Institut fuer Neurogenetik, Luebeck (Germany); Grimm, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schelle, T. [Staedtisches Klinikum Dessau, Neurologische Klinik, Dessau (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Diagnostik von Nervenlaesionen ist ein bildgebendes Verfahren zur Darstellung des peripheren Nervs und seiner ihn umgebenden Strukturen fuer eine aetiologische Einordnung erforderlich. Mit der klinisch-neurologischen Untersuchung und Elektrophysiologie ist eine funktionelle Aussage ueber die Nervenlaesion moeglich. In der Standard-MRT-Untersuchung wird der periphere Nerv nur unzureichend gut dargestellt. Die MRT-Neurographie ist ein sehr gutes, aber auch zeit- und ressourcenintensives Verfahren. Nutzung des Ultraschalls fuer die

  16. Advances in sympathetic nerve recording in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eLambert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic nerve recording is commonly assessed by measuring the firing activity of a number of neurones. While the estimation of overall sympathetic nervous activity using this multiunit recording approach has advanced our understanding of sympathetic regulation in health and disease no information is gained regarding the underling mechanisms generating the bursts of sympathetic activity. The introduction of single-unit recording has been a major step forward, enabling the examination of specific sympathetic firing patterns in diverse clinical conditions. Disturbances in sympathetic nerve firing, including high firing probabilities, high firing rates or high incidence of multiple firing, or a combination of both, may have clinical implications with regards to the development and progression of target organ damage. Understanding the mechanisms and consequences of specific firing patterns would permit the development of therapeutic strategies targeting these nuances of sympathetic overdrive.

  17. The "hierarchical" Scratch Collapse Test for identifying multilevel ulnar nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, Kristen M; Gontre, Gil; Tang, David; Boyd, Kirsty U; Yee, Andrew; Damiano, Marci S; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2015-09-01

    The Scratch Collapse Test (SCT) is used to assist in the clinical evaluation of patients with ulnar nerve compression. The purpose of this study is to introduce the hierarchical SCT as a physical examination tool for identifying multilevel nerve compression in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome. A prospective cohort study (2010-2011) was conducted of patients referred with primary cubital tunnel syndrome. Five ulnar nerve compression sites were evaluated with the SCT. Each site generating a positive SCT was sequentially "frozen out" with a topical anesthetic to allow determination of both primary and secondary ulnar nerve entrapment points. The order or "hierarchy" of compression sites was recorded. Twenty-five patients (mean age 49.6 ± 12.3 years; 64 % female) were eligible for inclusion. The primary entrapment point was identified as Osborne's band in 80 % and the cubital tunnel retinaculum in 20 % of patients. Secondary entrapment points were also identified in the following order in all patients: (1) volar antebrachial fascia, (2) Guyon's canal, and (3) arcade of Struthers. The SCT is useful in localizing the site of primary compression of the ulnar nerve in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome. It is also sensitive enough to detect secondary compression points when primary sites are sequentially frozen out with a topical anesthetic, termed the hierarchical SCT. The findings of the hierarchical SCT are in keeping with the double crush hypothesis described by Upton and McComas in 1973 and the hypothesis of multilevel nerve compression proposed by Mackinnon and Novak in 1994.

  18. Ultrasound of the sural nerve: Normal anatomy on cadaveric dissection and case series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belsack, Dries, E-mail: dries.belsack@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Jette, Brussels (Belgium); Jager, Tjeerd, E-mail: tjeerd.jager@asz.be [Department of Radiology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Merestraat 80, 9300 Aalst (Belgium); Scafoglieri, Aldo, E-mail: aldo.scafoglieri@vub.ac.be [Department of Experimental Anatomy, Free University Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Jette (Belgium); Vanderdood, Kurt, E-mail: kvanderd@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Maaslandziekenhuis, Dr H van der Hoffplein 1, 6162 Sittard-Geleen, Sittard (Netherlands); Van Hedent, Eddy, E-mail: eddy.vanhedent@asz.be [Department of Radiology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Merestraat 80, 9300 Aalst (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, Filip, E-mail: filip.vanhoenacker@telenet.be [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Maarten, Duffel-Mechelen, Rooienberg 25, 2570 Duffel (Belgium); Marcelis, Stefaan, E-mail: stefaan.marcelis@sintandriesstielt.be [Department of Radiology, Sint Andriesziekenhuis, Krommewalstraat 11, 8700 Tielt (Belgium); De Maeseneer, Michel, E-mail: michel.demaeseneer@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Jette, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-11-01

    The sural nerve is a small sensory nerve innervating the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot. Clinical symptoms of pathology may present as atypical sensory changes in this region. We present the normal anatomy and ultrasound technique for examination of the sural nerve based on an anatomical dissection, as well as imaging in a normal volunteer. We also present a case series (n = 10) of different conditions of the sural nerve that we encountered based on a review of interesting cases from 4 institutions. The pathological conditions included neuropathy related to stripping or venous laser surgery, compression by abscess, Lyme disease, nerve tumors, traumatic transsection, and encasement by fibrous plaque and edema. Ultrasound with its exquisite resolution is the preferred imaging method for examining the sural nerve in patients with unexplained sensory changes at the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot.

  19. ATF3 upregulation in glia during Wallerian degeneration: differential expression in peripheral nerves and CNS white matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffin Robert S

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many changes in gene expression occur in distal stumps of injured nerves but the transcriptional control of these events is poorly understood. We have examined the expression of the transcription factors ATF3 and c-Jun by non-neuronal cells during Wallerian degeneration following injury to sciatic nerves, dorsal roots and optic nerves of rats and mice, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Following sciatic nerve injury – transection or transection and reanastomosis – ATF3 was strongly upregulated by endoneurial, but not perineurial cells, of the distal stumps of the nerves by 1 day post operation (dpo and remained strongly expressed in the endoneurium at 30 dpo when axonal regeneration was prevented. Most ATF3+ cells were immunoreactive for the Schwann cell marker, S100. When the nerve was transected and reanastomosed, allowing regeneration of axons, most ATF3 expression had been downregulated by 30 dpo. ATF3 expression was weaker in the proximal stumps of the injured nerves than in the distal stumps and present in fewer cells at all times after injury. ATF3 was upregulated by endoneurial cells in the distal stumps of injured neonatal rat sciatic nerves, but more weakly than in adult animals. ATF3 expression in transected sciatic nerves of mice was similar to that in rats. Following dorsal root injury in adult rats, ATF3 was upregulated in the part of the root between the lesion and the spinal cord (containing Schwann cells, beginning at 1 dpo, but not in the dorsal root entry zone or in the degenerating dorsal column of the spinal cord. Following optic nerve crush in adult rats, ATF3 was found in some cells at the injury site and small numbers of cells within the optic nerve displayed weak immunoreactivity. The pattern of expression of c-Jun in all types of nerve injury was similar to that of ATF3. Conclusion These findings raise the possibility that ATF3/c-Jun heterodimers may play a role in

  20. Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Hakan; Kaptan, Hülagu

    2017-06-15

    The vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approach mainly used in cases of intractable epilepsy despite all the efforts. Also, its benefits have been shown in severe cases of depression resistant to typical treatment. The aim of this study was to present current knowledge of vagus nerve stimulation. A new value has emerged just at this stage: VNS aiming the ideal treatment with new hopes. It is based on the placement of a programmable generator on the chest wall. Electric signals from the generator are transmitted to the left vagus nerve through the connection cable. Control on the cerebral bioelectrical activity can be achieved by way of these signal sent from there in an effort for controlling the epileptic discharges. The rate of satisfactory and permanent treatment in epilepsy with monotherapy is around 50%. This rate will increase by one-quarters (25%) with polytherapy. However, there is a patient group roughly constituting one-thirds of this population, and this group remains unresponsive or refractory to all the therapies and combined regimes. The more the number of drugs used, the more chaos and side effects are observed. The anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) used will have side effects on both the brain and the systemic organs. Cerebral resection surgery can be required in some patients. The most commonly encountered epilepsy type is the partial one, and the possibility of benefiting from invasive procedures is limited in most patients of this type. Selective amygdala-hippocampus surgery is a rising value in complex partial seizures. Therefore, as epilepsy surgery can be performed in very limited numbers and rather developed centres, success can also be achieved in limited numbers of patients. The common ground for all the surgical procedures is the target of preservation of memory, learning, speaking, temper and executive functions as well as obtaining a good control on seizures. However, the action mechanism of VNS is still not exactly known. On the other hand

  1. COMPARISON OF HEMATOXYLIN AND EOSIN STAINING WITH AND WITHOUT PRE TREATMENT WITH MARCHI’S SOLUTION ON NERVE SAMPLES FOR NERVE DEGENERATION AND REGENERATION STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on four healthy guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus of either sex in which the nerve was identified and subjected to crush injury with the tip (3mm of a curved hemostatic forceps. 30 days after the injury nerve samples were collected and subjected to Hematoxylin and Eosin staining with or without pretreatment with Marchi’s solution. The routine Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E stained all neural elements in various intensities of pink and in purple and the degenerative changes were seen as vacuoles ranging from vacuolated foci- containing eosinophilic material and associated with a distorted cell nucleus to larger, multilocular, linear array of compartmentalized digestion chambers supposed to contain myelin debris .The myelin on the other hand appeared as empty zones in H&E staining. Combining Marchi’s and H & E procedures revealed the presence black aggregates/ deposits in the vacuoles and digestion chambers. This method confirmed the presence of degenerated myelin inside the vacuoles and digestion chambers and thus may allow better analysis of nerve damage and regeneration.

  2. Successful treatment of severe Clostridium difficile infection by administration of crushed fidaxomicin via a nasogastric tube in a critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Sven; Defosse, Jerome; Diaz, Cori; Wappler, Frank; Sakka, Samir G

    2017-02-01

    To report the successful use of crushed fidaxomicin via a nasogastric tube for treatment of a severe Clostridium difficile infection in a critically ill patient. Clinical observation of a patient, images of abdominal computed tomography, antimicrobial therapy and course of infection parameters. Relevant information contained in the medical observation of the patient and selection of image and laboratory parameters performed in the patient. We report a case of a 79-year old patient who developed septic shock with an increasing need for norepinephrine and acute renal failure due to a severe Clostridium difficile infection. Antimicrobial therapy with vancomycin via a nasogastric tube and metronidazole i.v. did not lead to improvement, infection parameters further increased, and the clinical condition became increasingly impaired. After 10 days, antimicrobial therapy was changed to fidaxomicin, crushed and administered via nasogastric tube. Within 24hours, infection parameters decreased. Further diarrhoea ceased and stool samples were negative for Clostridium difficile antigen. Our case confirms that administration of fidaxomicin via a nasogastric tube was safe and effective in this patient. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this strategy in critically ill patients systematically. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasound diagnosis of ulnar nerve dislocation and snapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dislocation of the ulnar nerve with snapping triceps syndrome has been implicated as a cause of cubital tunnel syndrome. Patients with this condition may clinically present with a snapping sensation at the elbow upon flexion along with ulnar neuropathic symptoms. Though demonstration of this condition is possible by ...

  4. Effects of acute selective pudendal nerve electrical stimulation after simulated childbirth injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Gill, Bradley C; Dissaranan, Charuspong; Zutshi, Massarat; Balog, Brian M; Lin, Danli; Damaser, Margot S

    2013-02-01

    During childbirth, a combinatorial injury occurs and can result in stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Simulated childbirth injury, consisting of vaginal distension (VD) and pudendal nerve crush (PNC), results in slowed recovery of continence, as well as decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a regenerative cytokine. Electrical stimulation has been shown to upregulate BDNF in motor neurons and facilitate axon regrowth through the increase of β(II)-tubulin expression after injury. In this study, female rats underwent selective pudendal nerve motor branch (PNMB) stimulation after simulated childbirth injury or sham injury to determine whether such stimulation affects bladder and anal function after injury and whether the stimulation increases BDNF expression in Onuf's nucleus after injury. Rats received 4 h of VD followed by bilateral PNC and 1 h of subthreshold electrical stimulation of the left PNMB and sham stimulation of the right PNMB. Rats underwent filling cystometry and anal pressure recording before, during, and after the stimulation. Bladder and anal contractile function were partially disrupted after injury. PNMB stimulation temporarily inhibited bladder contraction after injury. Two days and 1 wk after injury, BDNF expression in Onuf's nucleus of the stimulated side was significantly increased compared with the sham-stimulated side, whereas β(II)-tubulin expression in Onuf's nucleus of the stimulated side was significantly increased only 1 wk after injury. Acute electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve proximal to the crush site upregulates BDNF and β(II)-tubulin in Onuf's nucleus after simulated childbirth injury, which could be a potential preventive option for SUI after childbirth injury.

  5. [Suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C; Druschky, K F; Sturm, U; Neundörfer, B; Fahlbusch, R

    1988-09-02

    Nineteen patients with isolated suprascapular entrapment neuropathy were seen between 1980 and 1986. A neurogenic cause and absence of other deficits were confirmed by electromyography. Electroneurographic tests were performed in 13 and demonstrated delayed conduction time and (or) reduction in stimulus response amplitude. In 16 patients there was an acute or chronic mechanical cause (direct pressure on the suprascapular nerve, forced dislocation of the shoulder blade). Two types of paralysis could be distinguished, an upper one affecting both the infra- and the supraspinatus muscles (12 patients), and a lower one involving only the infraspinatus muscle (4 patients). In two patients an inflammatory cause was considered likely, while in one the cause remained unclear. Restricting movement brought about an improvement in most patients, while in one the neurophysiological parameters improved after neurosurgical intervention, without complete clinical restoration.

  6. Functional assessment of sciatic nerve reconstruction : Biodegradable poly (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides versus autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Dijkstra, [No Value; Den Dunnen, WFA; Ijkema-Paassen, J; Schakenraad, JM; Gramsbergen, A; Robinson, PH

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue (MDMT), or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve recovery using walking track analysis (measurement of the

  7. [Development of peripheral nerve surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sames, M

    1998-03-01

    In the submitted review the author deals with the development of peripheral nerve surgery (PN) from ancient times to the present time incl. hithero unpublished details. He analyses in great detail the period of the last 40 years which is divided into three stages--the mechanical, biological period and the period of neurotrophism. From the Second World War to the sixties the period bears the term mechanical. The results of reinnervation during this period were not satisfactory as the nerves were connected without the use of a microscope, in major defects they were connected under considerable traction and the only criterion was the resistance against dehiscence. Significant improvement of results of regeneration of PN was recorded during the biological period. Mechanical ideas were overcome and biological and physiological reactions of the peripheral nerves were taken into account. Suture of nerves under traction was refuted and into clinical practice the surgical microscope, microsurgical technique and microsurgical autotransplantation with a nervous graft were introduced. The anatomical structure of the nerve with a plexiform pattern of the fascicles became however the limitation of surgical methods. After discovery of NGF (nerve growth factor) we can speak of the onset of a new period, neurotrophism. In laboratory experiments many substances are studied and theoretically new non-surgical possibilities how to promote regeneration lie ahead. However they cannot be applied yet in clinical practice. In injuries of peripheral nerves the only correct reconstruction method is still microsuture of the nerve and in case of losses microsurgical autotransplantation using a nerve graft.

  8. Outcome of axillary nerve injuries treated with nerve grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, M; Al-Shawi, A; Gschwind, C R; Warwick, D J; Tonkin, M A

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluates the outcome of axillary nerve injuries treated with nerve grafting. Thirty-six patients were retrospectively reviewed after a mean of 53 months (minimum 12 months). The mean interval from injury to surgery was 6.5 months. Recovery of deltoid function was assessed by the power of both abduction and retropulsion, the deltoid bulk and extension lag. The deltoid bulk was almost symmetrical in nine of 34 cases, good in 22 and wasted in three. Grade M4 or M5* was achieved in 30 of 35 for abduction and in 32 of 35 for retropulsion. There was an extension lag in four patients. Deltoid bulk continued to improve with a longer follow-up following surgery. Nerve grafting to the axillary nerve is a reliable method of regaining deltoid function when the lesion is distal to its origin from the posterior cord.

  9. Central Mandibular Nerve Sheath Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Ghazi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nerve sheath myxoma has been described as a rare neural tumor arising from Schwann cells. It is observed most frequently in the central area of the face, neck and upper extremities. In the past the term neurothekeoma was used as synonym for nerve sheath myxoma but according to new reports, they are separate entities which can be confirmed by immunohistochemistry as in our case. Oral involvement of this tumor is extremely rare. Here, we present an unusual case of nerve sheath myxoma in the mandible of a 22-year old female patient. This case appears to be the first myxomatous variant which is centrally located in the mandible.

  10. Nerve damage associated with inferior alveolar nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Bryan, J; Regezi, J

    1995-08-01

    The authors reviewed 12 cases in which altered sensation occurred in the distribution of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerves following injection of a local anesthetic for restorative treatment only. Most patients suffered only partial damage, but recovery was poor. The exact mechanism of the nerve damage is unknown, but a number of theories are proposed. The extent of this problem is also unknown, but many more cases probably exist than have been reported to date.

  11. Nerve Transfers for Treatment of Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Wheelock, Margie; Clark, Tod A; Giuffre, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Almost one-half of all dislocations involve the shoulder and may also involve the axillary nerves, which may influence functional recovery and result in persistent shoulder neuropathy. Although individuals with intact rotator cuffs may be able to compensate for axillary nerve dysfunction, the injury may become problematic in later years, especially given the increasing incidence of rotator cuff tears in aging populations, thus placing increased importance on the immediate success of acute man...

  12. Identification of the crushing behavior of brittle foam: From indentation to oedometric tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouterf, A.; Adrien, J.; Maire, E.; Brajer, X.; Hild, F.; Roux, S.

    2017-01-01

    Compaction of the core of plasterboard is one of the limiting phenomena for its mechanical performance. This mechanism is studied herein in an indentation test. A cylinder made of foamed gypsum is indented in situ in an X-ray lab tomograph with a sphere of millimeter radius. The reported experiments show that foamed plaster displays a sharp transition between an undamaged state (with linear elastic behavior) and a compacted state with collapsed porosity under the indenter. Tomographic acquisitions of the sample under load associated with a global version of Digital Volume Correlation allow displacement fields to be measured at different load levels. However, because of the heterogeneous nature of the indentation test, a fine spatial resolution of the displacement fields is required to measure the strains at the crushing limit. A dedicated procedure exploiting computed displacement fields within the digital volume correlation procedure is utilized. It allows for the quantification of stress fields that are post-processed to identify the crushing criterion. It is shown that this analysis is very consistent with more macroscopic oedometric tests. Last, predictions of a Mohr-Coulomb model are compared with macroscopic and microscopic data. It is shown that despite the fact that this model reproduces very well the load-displacement response of the indentation test, a poorer prediction of the experimental crushed zone is observed. In particular, the transition between compacted plaster and its pristine state is not captured by the model, which predicts a very progressive transition rather than an abrupt one. The same conclusions are drawn for a crushable foam model when compared with experimental evidence of an in situ oedometric test.

  13. Trends of Serum Electrolyte Changes in Crush syndrome patients of Bam Earthquake; a Cross sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electrolyte imbalances are very common among crushed earthquake victims but there is notenough data regarding their trend of changes. The present study was designed to evaluate the trend of changesin sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ions among crush syndrome patients. Methods: In this retrospectivecross-sectional study, using the database of Bam earthquake victims, which was developed by Iranian Society ofNephrology following Bam earthquake, Iran, 2003, the 10-day trend of sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ionschanges in > 15 years old crush syndrome patients was evaluated. Results: 118 patients with the mean age of25.6 § 6.9 yearswere studied (57.3 male. On the first day of admission, 52.5% (95% CI: 42.7 - 62.3 of the patientshad hyponatremia, which reached 43.9% (95% CI: 28.5 - 59.3 on day 10. 100.0% of patients were hypocalcemicon admission and serum calcium level did not change dramatically during the 10 days of hospitalization. Theprevalence of hyperphosphatemia on the first day was 90.5% (95% CI: 81.5 - 99.5 and on the 10th day of hospitalization66.7% (95% CI: 48.5 - 84.8 of the patients were still affected. Conclusion: The results of the presentstudy shows the 52.5%prevalence of hyponatremia, 100% hypocalcemia, and 90.5% hyperphosphatemia amongcrush syndrome patients of Bam earthquake victims on the first day of admission. Evaluation of 10-day trendshows a slow decreasing pattern of these imbalances as after 10 days, 43.9% still remain hyponatremic, 92.3%hypocalcemic, and 66.7% hypophosphatemic.

  14. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: a video demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotouras, Alexander; Allison, Marion; Currie, Ann; Knowles, Charles H; Chan, Christopher L; Thaha, Mohamed A

    2012-06-01

    Fecal incontinence is an increasingly common condition with significant negative impact on quality on life and health care resources. It frequently presents a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. Emerging evidence suggests that percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is an effective treatment for fecal incontinence with the added benefit of being minimally invasive and cost effective. Pursuant to the preliminary report of our early experience of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in patients with fecal incontinence published in this journal in 2010, in this dynamic article, we now describe and demonstrate the actual technique that can be performed in a nurse-led clinic or outpatient or community setting. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is a technically simple procedure that can potentially be performed in an outpatient or community setting. The overall early success rate of 68% following its use reported by our unit compares favorably with the success rate following other forms of neuromodulation, including sacral nerve stimulation. When completed, our long-term outcome data will provide further information on the efficacy of tibial nerve stimulation in a larger cohort of patients (n > 100). Future studies, including our currently planned randomized controlled trial of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation vs sham stimulation, will provide controlled efficacy data and may provide information on its exact mechanism of action.

  15. Unilateral pure trigeminal motor nerve neuropathy: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant K Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral pure trigeminal motor nerve neuropathy is an extremely rare and unique condition, characterized by atrophy of the muscles, innervated by the motor branch of the trigeminal nerve. We report such a case in a 25-year-old male patient. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical and radiological examinations. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI proved to be the key for establishing the diagnosis, which showed atrophy and fatty infiltration over the affected side of the muscles of mastication. We were unable to establish the cause of the condition even after performing a brain MRI.

  16. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation in healthy humans reduces sympathetic nerve activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, JA; Mary, DA; Witte, KK; Greenwood, JP; Deuchars, SA; Deuchars, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is currently used to treat refractory epilepsy and is being investigated as a potential therapy for a range of conditions, including heart failure, tinnitus, obesity and Alzheimer's disease. However, the invasive nature and expense limits the use of VNS in patient populations and hinders the exploration of the mechanisms involved. Objective: We investigated a non-invasive method of VNS through electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagu...

  17. Corticosteroids for treating nerve damage in leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H.J. van Veen (Natasja); P.G. Nicholls (Peter); W.C.S. Smith (Cairns); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Leprosy causes nerve damage which can result in nerve function impairment and disability. Corticosteroids are commonly used for treating nerve damage, although the long-term effect is uncertain. Objectives: To assess the effects of corticosteroids on nerve damage in leprosy.

  18. Energy Consumption Analysis of Particle Crushing on Structural Contact Surface under High Pressure Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Junkun; Guo, Jiaqi

    2017-12-01

    The experimental study on the energy relationship between the coarse sand with different water content and the concrete interface with different hardness and roughness is carried out, through the high stress direct shear apparatus. Experimental results show that the growth rate of shear energy dissipation of sand - structure contact surface is slowing down with the increase of roughness, even negative; The shear energy dissipation of concrete with different hardness decreases first and then increases with the increase of water content, The crushing energy consumption is the lowest when water content is 16%; The shear energy dissipation at different moisture content increases with the increase of the contact strength of concrete structure.

  19. Clinical study of lateral patellofemoral crush syndrome caused by military training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-hui ZHANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore diagnostic method and surgical outcome of lateral patellofemoral crush syndrome caused by military training. Methods  Fifteen patients with lateral patellofemoral crush syndrome caused by military training from May 2006 to May 2008 were enrolled in this study, including 12 men (14 knees and 3 women (3 knees, aged from 22 to 43 years old with an average of 27.3 years. Randomly selected 18 healthy volunteers with similar age and gender but no knee pain symptom were selected to serve as a control group. Anteroposterior and lateral X-ray photographs of knee joint and axial photographs of the patella were taken in both groups for observing the bone architecture of the knee joint and measuring the femoral trochlear angle, patellofemoral congruence angle and patellofemoral index, and the data were compared. The 17 knee joints in patient group were treated with lateral patellar retinaculum release. Then the preoperative and postoperative pain severity was evaluated with visual analogue scale (VAS. Results  Patellofemoral congruence angle was 7.67°± 5.81° and patellofemoral index was 2.49±1.40 in patient group, while they were -2.2°±-2.71° and 1.25±0.15 in control group. The difference between two groups showed statistical significance (P < 0.05. The change in bone architecture was obvious in patient group. The preoperative pain score was 7.06±0.85, and postoperative pain score was 3.87±0.24 after 6 months and 3.01+0.17 after 1 year in patient group. The difference between preoperative pain score and postoperative pain score showed statistical significance (P < 0.05. Conclusions  Diagnosis of patellofemoral crush syndrome caused by military training requires a combination of case history, typical symptoms, objective sign and X-ray examination. Among these, X-ray examination is the fundamental auxiliary diagnostic tool for lateral patellofemoral crush syndrome, and the patellofemoral index is convenient for

  20. Topology optimization design of crushed 2D-frames for desired energy absorption history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf

    2004-01-01

    The present work deals with topology optimization for obtaining a desired energy absorption history of a crushed structure. The optimized energy absorbing structures are used to improve the crashworthiness of transportation vehicles. The ground structure consists of rectangular 2D-beam elements...... with plastic hinges. The elements can undergo large rotations, so the analysis accommodates geometric nonlinearities. A quasi-static nonlinear finite element solution is obtained with an implicit backward Euler algorithm, and the analytical sensitivities are computed by the direct differentiation method....

  1. [Fatal incidents by crowd crush during mass events. (Un)preventable phenomenon?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U; Fälker, A; Wenzel, V

    2013-01-01

    Crowd crushes with dozens or even hundreds of casualties have occurred several times at the Hajj in Saudi Arabia and also in soccer stadiums in Western Europe. As fatal accidents after human stampedes during mass events occur very rarely and are usually accompanied by many years of criminal court proceedings in order to identify underlying responsible mechanisms and culprits, it is very difficult to draw conclusions and formulate precautions from an emergency medical point of view. This study analyzed a fatal crowd crush which occurred on 4 December 1999 following the "Air & Style" snowboard contest with approximately 22,000 people attending in the Bergisel stadium in Innsbruck, Austria. Firstly, focused interviews were conducted with professional rescuers, police and physicians and secondly publicly available court records dealing with this incident in the district court of Innsbruck, Austria were analyzed. During the snowboard contest 87 emergency medical technicians, 6 emergency physicians, 1 leading emergency physician, 21 policemen and 140 security personnel were present. Following the accident additionally some 100 emergency medical technicians, 36 emergency medical service vehicles and 4 physician-staffed emergency medical service vehicles responded to the scene. The deadly crowd crush resulting in 6 fatalities, 4 patients still in a vegetative state and 38 injured, was due to a severe crowd accumulation at one stadium exit, which was not recognized and dispersed in time. Construction of the exit in line with darkness, steep slope and slippery surface contributed adversely to this dangerous situation, although panic did not occur at any time. Unfortunately, there is no patent remedy to completely prevent fatal accidents by a crowd crush at mass events. If planning is initiated early, sufficient material and personnel reserves are kept in reserve and despite conflicting interests of the organizers, the host community, security, police and emergency medical

  2. Edwards's statistical mechanics of crumpling networks in crushed self-avoiding sheets with finite bending rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankin, Alexander S; Flores-Cano, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the crumpling of thin matter. The Edwards-like statistical mechanics of crumpling networks in a crushed self-avoiding sheet with finite bending rigidity is developed. The statistical distribution of crease lengths is derived. The relationship between sheet packing density and hydrostatic pressure is established. The entropic contribution to the crumpling network rigidity is outlined. The effects of plastic deformations and sheet self-contacts on crumpling mechanics are discussed. Theoretical predictions are in good agreement with available experimental data and results of numerical simulations. Thus, the findings of this work provide further insight into the physics of crumpling and mechanical properties of crumpled soft matter.

  3. Enhancement of nerve structure segmentation by a correntropy-based pre-image approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gil-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral Nerve Blocking (PNB is a commonly used technique for performing regional anesthesia and managing pain. PNB comprises the administration of anesthetics in the proximity of a nerve. In this sense, the success of PNB procedures depends on an accurate location of the target nerve. Recently, ultrasound images (UI have been widely used to locate nerve structures for PNB, since they enable a noninvasive visualization of the target nerve and the anatomical structures around it. However, UI are affected by speckle noise, which makes it difficult to accurately locate a given nerve. Thus, it is necessary to perform a filtering step to attenuate the speckle noise without eliminating relevant anatomical details that are required for high-level tasks, such as segmentation of nerve structures. In this paper, we propose an UI improvement strategy with the use of a pre-image-based filter. In particular, we map the input images by a nonlinear function (kernel. Specifically, we employ a correntropybased mapping as kernel functional to code higher-order statistics of the input data under both nonlinear and non-Gaussian conditions. We validate our approach against an UI dataset focused on nerve segmentation for PNB. Likewise, our Correntropy-based Pre-Image Filtering (CPIF is applied as a pre-processing stage to segment nerve structures in a UI. The segmentation performance is measured in terms of the Dice coefficient. According to the results, we observe that CPIF finds a suitable approximation for UI by highlighting discriminative nerve patterns.

  4. Use of tubulization (nerve conduits in repairing nerve defects in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Maria Sénès

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In peripheral nerve repairing in children by using nerve conduits, the outcome has been widely effective even when dealing with mixed and motor nerve, thus nerve tubulization might be considered as an alternative to nerve grafting. Conversely, considering the uncertain result obtained in brachial plexus repairing, the conduits cannot be considered as afirst choice of treatment in brachial plexus reconstruction.

  5. Poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guides perform better than autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DenDunnen, WFA; VanderLei, B; Schakenraad, JM; Stokroos, [No Value; Blaauw, E; Pennings, AJ; Robinson, PH; Bartels, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the speed and quality of nerve regeneration after reconstruction using a biodegradable nerve guide or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve regeneration using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. Nerve regeneration

  6. Early alterations of Hedgehog signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells after peripheral nerve injury elicit blood-nerve barrier disruption, nerve inflammation, and neuropathic pain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Nathan; Mauborgne, Annie; Bourgoin, Sylvie; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette B; Villanueva, Luis; Pohl, Michel; Boucher, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the nerve's microenvironment and local inflammation resulting from peripheral nerve injury participate in nerve sensitization and neuropathic pain development. Taking part in these early changes, disruption of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) allows for infiltration of immunocytes and promotes the neuroinflammation. However, molecular mechanisms engaged in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) dysfunction and BNB alterations remain unclear. In vivo, BNB permeability was assessed following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the rat sciatic nerve (ScN) and differential expression of markers of VEC functional state, inflammation, and intracellular signaling was followed from 3 hours to 2 months postinjury. Several mechanisms potentially involved in functional alterations of VEC were evaluated in vitro using human VEC (hCMEC/D3), then confronted to in vivo physiopathological conditions. CCI of the ScN led to a rapid disruption of endoneurial vascular barrier that was correlated to a decreased production of endothelial tight-junction proteins and an early and sustained alteration of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. In vitro, activation of Toll-like receptor 4 in VEC downregulated the components of Hh pathway and altered the endothelial functional state. Inhibition of Hh signaling in the ScN of naive rats mimicked the biochemical and functional alterations observed after CCI and was, on its own, sufficient to evoke local neuroinflammation and sustained mechanical allodynia. Alteration of the Hh signaling pathway in VEC associated with peripheral nerve injury, is involved in BNB disruption and local inflammation, and could thus participate in the early changes leading to the peripheral nerve sensitization and, ultimately, neuropathic pain development.

  7. Decreased Nerve Conduction Velocity in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Didehdar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.

  8. Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: a multicenter randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative analgesia is crucial for early functional excise after total knee arthroplasty. To investigate the clinical efficacy of ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: 46 patients with ASA grade I-III who underwent total knee arthroplasty received postoperative analgesia from October 2012 to January 2013. In 22 patients, ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block were performed for analgesia (CFNB group; in 24 patients, epidural analgesia was done (PCEA group. The analgesic effects, side effects, articular recovery and complications were compared between two groups. RESULTS: At 6 h and 12 h after surgery, the knee pain score (VAS score during functional tests after active exercise and after passive excise in CFNB were significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. The amount of parecoxib used in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. At 48 h after surgery, the muscle strength grade in CFNB group was significantly higher, and the time to ambulatory activity was shorter than those in PCEA group. The incidence of nausea and vomiting in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block provide better analgesia at 6 h and 12 h, demonstrated by RVAS and PVAS. The amount of parecoxib also reduces, the incidence of nausea and vomiting decreased, the influence on muscle strength is compromised and patients can perform ambulatory activity under this condition.

  9. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    decellularized nerve allograft for inferior alveolar nerve reconstruction: a case report. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of...the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2011 Feb;69(2):550-3. PubMed PMID: 21145638. Epub 2010/12/15. eng. 16. Gunn S, Cosetti M...Massachusetts General Hospital (protocol #2012N000117) and was also granted ACURO approval on 11/19/2012. Task 2b. Rodent surgeries for segmental deficit

  10. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be taken and where it is then processed in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. The project started in the end of year 1995. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis of existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and results analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions. In the year 1996 the main stage was development of system components; especially crushing. Results of running slow-speed big crushers were collected, analysed and the main development details determined. Additionally, particle size distribution from different crushing methods were analyzed using also primary and secondary crushing. Development of a heavy-duty 2-rotor ECO-Crusher and a crushing screen was started. Regarding to the development of the REF-system, different alternatives have been analyzed and possible demonstration places have been searched. The first multi-crushing line will be demonstrated in Sweden. (orig.)

  11. A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Maldonado, Andrés A; Stoves, Yolanda; Fries, Fabian N; Li, Rong; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fibers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

  12. Unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, Syoji; Satoh, Toru; Yamamoto, Yuji

    1982-01-01

    The present authors report a case of unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis which shows interesting CT findings which suggest its mechanism. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cerebral concussion soon after a traffic accident. A CT scan was performed soon after admission. A high-density spot was noted at the medial aspect of the left cerebral peduncle, where the oculomotor nerve emerged from the midbrain, and an irregular, slender, high-density area was delineated in the right dorsolateral surface of the midbrain. Although the right hemiparesis had already improved by the next morning, the function of the left oculomotor nerve has been completely disturbed for the three months since the injury. In our case, it is speculated that an avulsion of the left oculomotor nerve rootlet occurred at the time of impact as the mechanism of the oculomotor nerve paralysis. A CT taken soon after the head injury showed a high-density spot; this was considered to be a hemorrhage occurring because of the avulsion of the nerve rootlet at the medial surface of the cerebral peduncle. (J.P.N.)

  13. Sensory outcome of fingertip replantations without nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Ismail Bulent; Tuncer, Serdar; Purisa, Husrev; Sezer, Ilker; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Celikdelen, Pinar

    2008-01-01

    The sensory recovery outcomes of fingertip replantations without nerve repair were retrospectively studied. Between 2000 and 2006, 112 fingertip replantations with only arterial repair were carried out in 98 patients. About 76 of the replants survived totally, with a success rate of 67.8%. Evaluation of sensory recovery was possible in 31 patients (38 replantations). Sensory evaluation was made with Semmes-Weinstein, static and dynamic two-point discrimination, and vibration sense tests. Fingertip atrophy, nail deformities, and return to work were also evaluated. According to the Semmes-Weinstein test, 29.0% (11/38) of the fingers had normal sense, 60.5% (23/38) had diminished light touch, 7.9% (3/38) had diminished protective sensation, and 2.6% (1/38) had loss of protective sensation. Mean static and dynamic two-point discriminations were 7.2 mm (3-11 mm), and 4.60 mm (3-6 mm), respectively. Vibratory testing revealed increased vibration in 42.1% of the fingers, decreased vibration in 36.8%, and equal vibration when compared with the non-injured fingers in 21.1%. Atrophy was present in 14 (36.8%) fingers and negatively affected the results. Nail deformities, cold intolerance, return to work, and the effect of sensory education were investigated. Comparison of crush and clean cut injuries did not yield any significant difference in any of the parameters. Patients who received sensory education had significantly better results in sensory testing. The results were classified as excellent, good, and poor based on results of two-point discrimination tests. The outcome was excellent in 18 fingers and good in 20 fingers. Overall, satisfactory sensory recovery was achieved in fingertip replantations without nerve repair. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The production of pig iron from crushing plant waste using hot blast cupola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusno Isnugroho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A production of pig iron has been conducted from crushing plant waste. The process of preparing pig iron was using hot blast cupola (HBC furnace which was injected with charcoal powder to improve temperature process and reduction zone in the furnace. The process was started by washing process and magnetic separation of raw material as an effort to improve iron content degree from crushing plant waste. The next process was preparing the composite pellet with the particle size of −80 + 100 mesh and with the composition of 80% iron ore, 15% wood charcoal, and 5% bentonite. The result of pellet size was 2.5–4.0 mm. The experiment was continued to reduce pellet composite in the HBC furnace. The pig iron produced from this process contained of 93.62%Fe, 3.5%C, 1.55%Si, 0.87%Mn, 0.05%P, and 0.087%S.With this result, the pig iron produced already fulfill the metallurgical specification to be used in smelting industry. Keywords: Pig iron, Pellet, Injection, Charcoal, Hot blast cupola

  15. Evaluation of a method based on image analysis to obtain shape parameters in crushed sand grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Goldoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this paper is to evaluate a method based on image analysis to obtain shape parameters in crushed sand grains. There is no consensus about standards and rules for testing aggregates, the lack of methodology to prepare and conduct tests may produce incorrect results, which do not satisfactorily represent the aggregate characteristics. One way to perform these analyzes is the use of images obtained with magnifying glasses or similar equipment. To contribute to this, three experiments were prepared with samples of crushed sand from the city of Passo Fundo. The fixed and evaluated parameters were: samples preparation, zoom used for image acquisition and number of grains representative of the shape parameters. The results were statistically analyzed and significant differences were obtained to the shape factor regarding the fixed parameters, except for the number of grains needed to characterize it, which differs from the currently literature used by academic studies. According to this work it is possible to realize that it is necessary to standardize the tests for shape analysis to eliminate errors generated by the interpretation of incorrect results, which may have been generated by changes in the methodology for conducting the tests.

  16. Influence of variables on the consolidation and unconfined compressive strength of crushed salt: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Senseny, P.E.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Eight hydrostatic compression creep tests were performed on crushed salt specimens fabricated from Avery Island dome salt. Following the creep test, each specimen was tested in unconfined compression. The experiments were performed to assess the influence of the following four variables on the consolidation and unconfined strength of crushed salt: grain size distribution, temperature, time, and moisture content. The experiment design comprised a half-fraction factorial matrix at two levels. The levels of each variable investigated were grain size distribution, uniform-graded and well-graded (coefficient of uniformity of 1 and 8); temperature 25 0 C and 100 0 C; time, 3.5 x 10 3 s and 950 x 10 3 s (approximately 60 minutes and 11 days, respectively); and moisture content, dry and wet (85% relative humidity for 24 hours). The hydrostatic creep stress was 10 MPa. The unconfined compression tests were performed at an axial strain rate of 1 x 10 -5 s -1 . Results show that the variables time and moisture content have the greatest influence on creep consolidation, while grain size distribution and, to a somewhat lesser degree, temperature have the greatest influence on total consolidation. Time and moisture content and the confounded two-factor interactions between either grain size distribution and time or temperature and moisture content have the greatest influence on unconfined strength. 7 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  17. Numerical Investigation on Dynamic Crushing Behavior of Auxetic Honeycombs with Various Cell-Wall Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-chun Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxetic honeycombs have proven to be an attractive advantage in actual engineering applications owing to their unique mechanical characteristic and better energy absorption ability. The in-plane dynamic crushing behaviors of the honeycombs with various cell-wall angles are studied by means of explicit dynamic finite element simulation. The influences of the cell-wall angle, the impact velocity, and the edge thickness on the macro/microdeformation behaviors, the plateau stresses, and the specific energy absorption of auxetic honeycombs are discussed in detail. Numerical results show, that except for the impact velocity and the edge thickness, the in-plane dynamic performances of auxetic honeycombs also rely on the cell-wall angle. The “> <”-mode local deformation bands form under low- or moderate-velocity impacting, which results in lateral compression shrinkage and shows negative Poisson's ratio during the crushing. For the given impact velocity, the plateau stress at the proximal end and the energy-absorbed ability can be improved by increasing the negative cell angle, the relative density, the impact velocity, and the matrix material strength. When the microcell parameters are the constant, the plateau stresses are proportional to the square of impact velocity.

  18. Properties of Crushed Red-Bed Soft Rock Mixtures Used in Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayan Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Slaking red-bed soft rocks are widely distributed in the south of Anhui Province, China, and several highways will go through this area. It is important to evaluate their physical and mechanical characteristics for the purpose of using this kind of soft rocks as materials for road construction. In this paper, the compacting tests, the resilient modulus tests, the California bearing ratio (CBR tests, and permeability tests have been carried out on crushed red-bed soft rock mixtures. The test results showed that, for a given degree of compaction, the resilient modulus decreases linearly with the increase of moisture content. For a given moisture content, the resilient modulus and CBR values increase linearly with the increase of compaction degree, while the soaking swelling, water absorption capacity, and permeability coefficient decrease linearly. In other words, the strength and water stability are enhanced with the increase of the degree of compaction. The results demonstrate that the crushed red-bed soft rock mixtures can be directly used as materials for the highway construction by taking corresponding measures.

  19. Dissolution of Intact, Divided and Crushed Circadin Tablets: Prolonged vs. Immediate Release of Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ming Chua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadin 2 mg prolonged-release tablet is the only licensed melatonin product available in the UK. Circadin is indicated for patients with primary insomnia aged 55 and over, but is more widely used “off-label” to treat sleep disorders especially in the paediatric population. Children and older people often have difficulty swallowing tablets and dividing the tablet is sometimes required to ease administration. The aim of this study was to measure the release profile of melatonin from Circadin tablets when divided or crushed, and compare this with release from intact tablets. Dissolution testing was also performed for unlicensed melatonin products for comparison. Dissolution tests were performed using the pharmacopoeial paddle apparatus, with melatonin release analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin content, hardness, friability, and disintegration of the products were also evaluated. The prolonged release of melatonin from Circadin tablets was unlike that of any other product tested. When divided into halves, Circadin preserved most of the prolonged-release characteristic (f2 = 58, whereas quarter-cut and crushed tablet had a more immediate melatonin release profile. Circadin is significantly less expensive and should be preferred to unlicensed medicines which are not pharmaceutically equivalent and offer less quality assurance.

  20. Nerve fascicle transfer using a part of the C-7 nerve for spinal accessory nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuan; Shen, Yun-Dong; Feng, Jun-Tao; Xu, Wen-Dong

    2018-02-09

    OBJECTIVE Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury results in a series of shoulder dysfunctions and continuous pain. However, current treatments are limited by the lack of donor nerves as well as by undesirable nerve regeneration. Here, the authors report a modified nerve transfer technique in which they employ a nerve fascicle from the posterior division (PD) of the ipsilateral C-7 nerve to repair SAN injury. The technique, first performed in cadavers, was then undertaken in 2 patients. METHODS Six fresh cadavers (12 sides of the SAN and ipsilateral C-7) were studied to observe the anatomical relationship between the SAN and C-7 nerve. The length from artificial bifurcation of the middle trunk to the point of the posterior cord formation in the PD (namely, donor nerve fascicle) and the linear distance from the cut end of the donor fascicle to both sites of the jugular foramen and medial border of the trapezius muscle (d-SCM and d-Traps, respectively) were measured. Meanwhile, an optimal route for nerve fascicle transfer (NFT) was designed. The authors then performed successful NFT operations in 2 patients, one with an injury at the proximal SAN and another with an injury at the distal SAN. RESULTS The mean lengths of the cadaver donor nerve fascicle, d-SCM, and d-Traps were 4.2, 5.2, and 2.5 cm, respectively. In one patient who underwent proximal SAN excision necessitated by a partial thyroidectomy, early signs of reinnervation were seen on electrophysiological testing at 6 months after surgery, and an impaired left trapezius muscle, which was completely atrophic preoperatively, had visible signs of improvement (from grade M0 to grade M3 strength). In the other patient in whom a distal SAN injury was the result of a neck cyst resection, reinnervation and complex repetitive discharges were seen 1 year after surgery. Additionally, the patient's denervated trapezius muscle was completely resolved (from grade M2 to grade M4 strength), and her shoulder pain had disappeared

  1. The Role of Nerve Exploration in Supracondylar Humerus Fracture in Children with Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar RIM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF in children is common and can be complicated with nerve injury either primarily immediate post-trauma or secondarily posttreatment. The concept of neurapraxic nerve injury makes most surgeons choose to ‘watch and see’ the nerve recovery before deciding second surgery if the nerve does not recover. We report three cases of nerve injury in SCHF, all of which underwent nerve exploration for different reasons. Early reduction in the Casualty is important to release the nerve tension before transferring the patient to the operation room. If close reduction fails, we proceed to explore the nerve together with open reduction of the fracture. In iatrogenic nerve injury, we recommend nerve exploration to determine the surgical procedure that is causing the injury. Primary nerve exploration will allow early assessment of the injured nerve and minimize subsequent surgery.

  2. Exacerbation of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2E neuropathy following traumatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, Eric; Dale, Jeffrey M; Jones, Maria; Shen, Hailian; Garcia, Michael L

    2015-11-19

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most commonly inherited peripheral neuropathy. CMT disease signs include distal limb neuropathy, abnormal gait, sensory defects, and deafness. We generated a novel line of CMT2E mice expressing hNF-L(E397K), which displayed muscle atrophy of the lower limbs without denervation, proximal reduction in large caliber axons, and decreased nerve conduction velocity. In this study, we challenged wild type, hNF-L and hNF-L(E397K) mice with crush injury to the sciatic nerve. We analyzed functional recovery by measuring toe spread and analyzed gait using the Catwalk system. hNF-L(E397K) mice demonstrated reduced recovery from nerve injury consistent with increased susceptibility to neuropathy observed in CMT patients. In addition, hNF-L(E397K) developed a permanent reduction in their ability to weight bear, increased mechanical allodynia, and premature gait shift in the injured limb, which led to increasingly disrupted interlimb coordination in hNF-L(E397K). Exacerbation of neuropathy after injury and identification of gait alterations in combination with previously described pathology suggests that hNF-L(E397K) mice recapitulate many of clinical signs associated with CMT2. Therefore, hNF-L(E397K) mice provide a model for determining the efficacy of novel therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of immune protein CD3ζ development and degeneration of retinal neurons after optic nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao He

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I molecules and their receptors play fundamental roles in neuronal death during diseases. T-cell receptors (TCR function as MHCI receptor on T-cells and both MHCI and a key component of TCR, CD3ζ, are expressed by mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and displaced amacrine cells. Mutation of these molecules compromises the development of RGCs. We investigated whether CD3ζ regulates the development and degeneration of amacrine cells after RGC death. Surprisingly, mutation of CD3ζ not only impairs the proper development of amacrine cells expressing CD3ζ but also those not expressing CD3ζ. In contrast to effects of MHCI and its receptor, PirB, on other neurons, mutation of CD3ζ has no effect on RGC death and starburst amacrine cells degeneration after optic nerve crush. Thus, unlike MHCI and PirB, CD3ζ regulates the development of RGCs and amacrine cells but not their degeneration after optic nerve crush.

  4. Fault tree analysis of failure cause of crushing plant and mixing bed hall at Khoy cement factory in Iran☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri.Gharahasanlou, Ali; Mokhtarei, Ashkan; Khodayarei, Aliasqar; Ataei, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and analyzing the risk in the mining industry is a new approach for improving the machinery performance. Reliability, safety, and maintenance management based on the risk analysis can enhance the overall availability and utilization of the mining technological systems. This study investigates the failure occurrence probability of the crushing and mixing bed hall department at Azarabadegan Khoy cement plant by using fault tree analysis (FTA) method. The results of the analysis in 200 h operating interval show that the probability of failure occurrence for crushing, conveyor systems, crushing and mixing bed hall department is 73, 64, and 95 percent respectively and the conveyor belt subsystem found as the most probable system for failure. Finally, maintenance as a method of control and prevent the occurrence of failure is proposed. PMID:26779433

  5. Fault tree analysis of failure cause of crushing plant and mixing bed hall at Khoy cement factory in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Gharahasanlou, Ali; Mokhtarei, Ashkan; Khodayarei, Aliasqar; Ataei, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    Evaluating and analyzing the risk in the mining industry is a new approach for improving the machinery performance. Reliability, safety, and maintenance management based on the risk analysis can enhance the overall availability and utilization of the mining technological systems. This study investigates the failure occurrence probability of the crushing and mixing bed hall department at Azarabadegan Khoy cement plant by using fault tree analysis (FTA) method. The results of the analysis in 200 h operating interval show that the probability of failure occurrence for crushing, conveyor systems, crushing and mixing bed hall department is 73, 64, and 95 percent respectively and the conveyor belt subsystem found as the most probable system for failure. Finally, maintenance as a method of control and prevent the occurrence of failure is proposed.

  6. Geo-Engineering Evaluation of Rock Masses for Crushed Rock and Cut Stones in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirelseed, E. E.; Ming, T. H.; Abdalla, S. B.

    The purpose of this study is to find artificial coarse aggregates and cut stones around Khartoum. To meat the objectives of the study, data from both field and laboratory are collected. The field data includes geological investigations based on different methods and samples collection, whereas the laboratory tests consists of specific gravity, water absorption, impact value, crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion, soundness tests. The field and laboratory results were weighed and compiled together to reveal the engineering performance of the different rock masses in term of cut stone and crushed aggregates. The results show that most of the examined rock masses are suitable for crushing, building and dressed stones. For decorative slabs only foliated granite and syenite masses can be used.

  7. The Role of Nerve Exploration in Supracondylar Humerus Fracture in Children with Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar RIM; Gooi SG; Zulkiflee O

    2015-01-01

    The supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF) in children is common and can be complicated with nerve injury either primarily immediate post-trauma or secondarily posttreatment. The concept of neurapraxic nerve injury makes most surgeons choose to ?watch and see? the nerve recovery before deciding second surgery if the nerve does not recover. We report three cases of nerve injury in SCHF, all of which underwent nerve exploration for different reasons. Early reduction in the Casualty is important ...

  8. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D

    2010-05-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX-XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia. Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression. A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use. Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases. Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement. This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry.

  9. Evaluation of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock used in road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Lidelöw, Sofia; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The use of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash in road construction may possess a risk to the environment due to the release of e.g. salt and heavy metals. In this study, two years of leachate data from a test road built of MSWI bottom ash and crushed rock in northern Sweden were evaluated. It was found that Cu, Cr, Al, Na, and Cl- were leached in higher amounts from the bottom ash, while the release of Zn, Mg, Ba, and Ca was higher from the crushed rock. The difference betwe...

  10. PICTORIAL ESSAY Ultrasound diagnosis of ulnar nerve dislocation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the forearm was identified at the apex of the medial epicondyle. There. Dislocation of the ulnar nerve with snapping ... the anatomy of the extended right elbow. Note the round contour of the cross- section of the ... relevant anatomy is essential for diagnosis and for musculoskeletal US in general. The condition can also be ...

  11. Influence of Nerve Flossing Technique on acute sciatica and hip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sciatica is one of the most common painful and disabling conditions affecting about 40% of low back pain cases and 1.6% - 43% of adult ... have been used to manage sciatica but the effect of Nerve Flossing Technique (NFT), which is a cost effective treatment option in the management of acute sciatica is yet to ...

  12. Schwann cell autophagy, myelinophagy, initiates myelin clearance from injured nerves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A.; Carty, Lucy; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Palomo-Irigoyen, Marta; Varela-Rey, Marta; Griffith, Megan; Hantke, Janina; Macias-Camara, Nuria; Azkargorta, Mikel; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; de Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez; Jefferies, Harold B. J.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Elortza, Félix; Aransay, Ana M.; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Baas, Frank; Mato, José M.; Mirsky, Rhona; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Jessen, Kristján R.

    2015-01-01

    Although Schwann cell myelin breakdown is the universal outcome of a remarkably wide range of conditions that cause disease or injury to peripheral nerves, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that make Schwann cell-mediated myelin digestion possible have not been established. We report that

  13. Nerve excitability in the rat forelimb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Ria; Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer

    2017-01-01

    a novel setup to explore the ulnar nerve excitability in rodents. We provide normative ulnar data in 11 adult female Long Evans rats under anaesthesia by comparison with tibial and caudal nerves. Additionally, these measures were repeated weekly on 3 occasions to determine the repeatability of these tests....... Results Nerve excitability assessment of ulnar nerve proved to be a longitudinally repeatable measure of axonal function mature in rats, as were measures in tibial and caudal nerves. Comparison with existing method: Ulnar nerve motor excitability measures were different from the caudal and tibial...

  14. The Use of Degradable Nerve Conduits for Human Nerve Repair: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Meek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major clinical challenge. The most widely used technique for bridging defects in peripheral nerves is the use of autologous nerve grafts. This technique, however, has some disadvantages. Many alternative experimental techniques have thus been developed, such as degradable nerve conduits. Degradable nerve guides have been extensively studied in animal experimental studies. However, the repair of human nerves by degradable nerve conduits has been limited to only a few clinical studies. In this paper, an overview of the available international published literature on degradable nerve conduits for bridging human peripheral nerve defects is presented for literature available until 2004. Also, the philosophy on the use of nerve guides and nerve grafts is given.

  15. Selective reductive leaching of cobalt and lithium from industrially crushed waste Li-ion batteries in sulfuric acid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Hamuyuni, Joseph; Wilson, Benjamin P; Lundström, Mari

    2018-03-03

    Recycling of valuable metals from secondary resources such as waste Li-ion batteries (LIBs) has recently attracted significant attention due to the depletion of high-grade natural resources and increasing interest in the circular economy of metals. In this article, the sulfuric acid leaching of industrially produced waste LIBs scraps with 23.6% cobalt (Co), 3.6% lithium (Li) and 6.2% copper (Cu) was investigated. The industrially produced LIBs scraps were shown to provide higher Li and Co leaching extractions compared to dissolution of corresponding amount of pure LiCoO 2 . In addition, with the addition of ascorbic acid as reducing agent, copper extraction showed decrease, opposite to Co and Li. Based on this, we propose a new method for the selective leaching of battery metals Co and Li from the industrially crushed LIBs waste at high solid/liquid ratio (S/L) that leaves impurities like Cu in the solid residue. Using ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6 ) as reductant, the optimum conditions for LIBs leaching were found to be T = 80 °C, t = 90 min, [H 2 SO 4 ] = 2 M, [C 6 H 8 O 6 ] = 0.11 M and S/L = 200 g/L. This resulted in leaching efficiencies of 95.7% for Li and 93.8% for Co, whereas in contrast, Cu extraction was only 0.7%. Consequently, the proposed leaching method produces a pregnant leach solution (PLS) with high Li (7.0 g/L) and Co (44.4 g/L) concentration as well as a leach residue rich in Cu (up to 12 wt%) that is suitable as a feed fraction for primary or secondary copper production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Raman spectroscopic detection of peripheral nerves towards nerve-sparing surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery, namely nerve-sparing surgery, is now promising technique to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery as an aspect of the improvement of quality of life of patients. Detection of peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves is required for the nerve-sparing surgery; however, conventional nerve identification scheme is sometimes difficult to identify peripheral nerves due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues or its limited application to only motor peripheral nerves. To overcome these issues, we proposed a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerves by means of Raman spectroscopy. We found several fingerprints of peripheral myelinated and unmyelinated nerves by employing a modified principal component analysis of typical spectra including myelinated nerve, unmyelinated nerve, and adjacent tissues. We finally realized the sensitivity of 94.2% and the selectivity of 92.0% for peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves against adjacent tissues. Although further development of an intraoperative Raman spectroscopy system is required for clinical use, our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future.

  17. Progress of nerve bridges in the treatment of peripheral nerve disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Q

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Qiang Ao Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Fundamental Science, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, Peoples’ Republic of China Abstract: Clinical repair of a nerve defect is one of the most challenging surgical problems. Autologous nerve grafting remains the gold standard treatment in addressing peripheral nerve injuries that cannot be bridged by direct epineural suturing. However, the autologous nerve graft is not readily available, and the process of harvesting autologous nerve graft results in several complications. Thus, it is necessary to explore an alternative to autologous nerve graft. In the last few decades, with significant advances in the life sciences and biotechnology, a lot of artificial nerve grafts have been developed to aim at the treatment of peripheral nerve disruptions. Artificial nerve grafts range from biological tubes to synthetic tubes and from nondegradable tubes to degradable tubes. Among them, acellular nerve allografts and artificial nerve repair conduits are two kinds of the most promising substitutes for nerve autografts. The history, research status, and prospect of acellular nerve allografts and artificial nerve repair conduits are described briefly in this review. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, repair, acellular nerve graft, nerve conduit

  18. The impact of motor and sensory nerve architecture on nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Arash; Borschel, Gregory H; Luciano, Janina P; Whitlock, Elizabeth L; Hayashi, Ayato; Hunter, Daniel A; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2008-08-01

    Sensory nerve autografting is the standard of care for injuries resulting in a nerve gap. Recent work demonstrates superior regeneration with motor nerve grafts. Improved regeneration with motor grafting may be a result of the nerve's Schwann cell basal lamina tube size. Motor nerves have larger SC basal lamina tubes, which may allow more nerve fibers to cross a nerve graft repair. Architecture may partially explain the suboptimal clinical results seen with sensory nerve grafting techniques. To define the role of nerve architecture, we evaluated regeneration through acellular motor and sensory nerve grafts. Thirty-six Lewis rats underwent tibial nerve repairs with 5 mm double-cable motor or triple-cable sensory nerve isografts. Grafts were harvested and acellularized in University of Wisconsin solution. Control animals received fresh motor or sensory cable isografts. Nerves were harvested after 4 weeks and histomorphometry was performed. In 6 animals per group from the fresh motor and sensory cable graft groups, weekly walking tracks and wet muscle mass ratios were performed at 7 weeks. Histomorphometry revealed more robust nerve regeneration in both acellular and cellular motor grafts. Sensory groups showed poor regeneration with significantly decreased percent nerve, fiber count, and density (parchitecture (size of SC basal lamina tubes) plays an important role in nerve regeneration in a mixed nerve gap model.

  19. Optic Nerve Decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult Sinusitis Pediatric Sinusitis Fungal Sinusitis Sinusitis & Asthma Empty Nose Syndrome Cystic Fibrosis Sinusitis Q&A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of ...

  20. Nerve entrapment after hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Konerding, Moritz A

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring muscle injuries are a frequent cause of athletic sequelae, and the frequency of reinjuries is high. Frequently, disability in sport is the consequence and performance is limited. A case report of a soccer player who was unable to play his sport after a minor hamstring muscle injury is presented. We introduce a previously undescribed lesion featured by a scar compromising a motor branch of the sciatic nerve to the long head of the biceps femoris muscle. Resection of the involved branch of the nerve resulted in complete pain relief and full sport capacity. This case report demonstrates that in very rare cases, a scar tissue-induced intramuscular entrapment of a branch of the sciatic nerve must be considered as a reason for athletic incapacity after minor hamstring injury. Both the degree of a muscular injury and its specific location within the injured muscle may therefore influence the functional outcome.