WorldWideScience

Sample records for conditioning mechanics plumbers

  1. Allegheny County Plumbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — All master plumbers must be registered with the Allegheny County Health Department. Only Registered Master Plumbers who possess a current plumbing license or...

  2. Revisiting the PLUMBER Experiments from a Process-Diagnostics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, G. S.; Ruddell, B. L.; Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    The PLUMBER benchmarking experiments [1] showed that some of the most sophisticated land models (CABLE, CH-TESSEL, COLA-SSiB, ISBA-SURFEX, JULES, Mosaic, Noah, ORCHIDEE) were outperformed - in simulations of half-hourly surface energy fluxes - by instantaneous, out-of-sample, and globally-stationary regressions with no state memory. One criticism of PLUMBER is that the benchmarking methodology was not derived formally, so that applying a similar methodology with different performance metrics can result in qualitatively different results. Another common criticism of model intercomparison projects in general is that they offer little insight into process-level deficiencies in the models, and therefore are of marginal value for helping to improve the models. We address both of these issues by proposing a formal benchmarking methodology that also yields a formal and quantitative method for process-level diagnostics. We apply this to the PLUMBER experiments to show that (1) the PLUMBER conclusions were generally correct - the models use only a fraction of the information available to them from met forcing data (sample of structural or epistemic uncertainty. We conclude by suggesting two ways to improve the experimental design of model intercomparison and/or model benchmarking studies like PLUMBER. First, PLUMBER did not report model parameter values, and it is necessary to know these values to separate parameter uncertainty from structural uncertainty. This is a first order requirement if we want to use intercomparison studies to provide feedback to model development. Second, technical documentation of land models is inadequate. Future model intercomparison projects should begin with a collaborative effort by model developers to document specific differences between model structures. This could be done in a reproducible way using a unified, process-flexible system like SUMMA [2]. [1] Best, M.J. et al. (2015) 'The plumbing of land surface models: benchmarking model

  3. Exposure of UK industrial plumbers to asbestos, Part II: Awareness and responses of plumbers to working with asbestos during a survey in parallel with personal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Delphine; Burdett, Garry

    2007-03-01

    Throughout the European Union, millions tonnes of asbestos were used in the manufacture of products for building and for industrial installations. Today, in the UK, it is estimated that over half a million non-domestic premises alone have asbestos-containing materials in them and it is recognized that those working in building maintenance trades continue to be at significant risk. In part II, the awareness of UK plumbers to when they are working with asbestos was investigated and compared with the monitored levels reported in part I. The plumbers were issued by post with passive samplers, activity logs to monitor a working week and a questionnaire. The activity logs were used to assess whether maintenance workers were knowingly or unknowingly exposed to airborne asbestos fibres during a course of a working week. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on their: age, employment status, current and past perception of the frequency which they work with asbestos and knowledge of the precautions that should be taken to limit exposure and risk. Approximately 20% of workers reported on the sample log that they had worked with asbestos. There was a high correlation (93%) between the sampling log replies that they were knowingly working with asbestos and measured asbestos on the passive sampler. However, some 60% of the samples had >5 microm long asbestos structures found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggesting that the plumbers were aware of about only one-third of their contacts with asbestos materials throughout the week. This increased to just over one half of the plumbers being aware of their contact based on the results for phase contrast microscopy (PCM) countable asbestos fibres. The results from the questionnaire found that over half of the plumbers replying thought that they disturb asbestos only once a year and 90% of them thought they would work with asbestos for<10 h year-1. Their expectations and awareness of work with

  4. Estimating diesel fuel exposure for a plumber repairing an underground pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mary; Stenzel, Mark; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2017-04-01

    We estimated the diesel fuel exposure of a plumber repairing an underground water line leak at a truck stop. The repair work was performed over three days during which the plumber spent most of his time in a pit filled with a mixture of water and diesel fuel. Thus, the plumber was exposed via both the inhalation and dermal routes. While previously asymptomatic, he was diagnosed with acute renal failure 35 days after working at this site. No measurements were available for estimating either inhalation or dermal exposures or the cumulative dose and, therefore, two different approaches were used that were based on simple models of the exposure scenario. The first approach used the ideal gas law with the vapor pressure of the diesel fuel mixture to estimate a saturation vapor concentration, while the second one used a mass balance of the petroleum hydrocarbon component of diesel fuel in conjunction with the Henry's Law constant for this mixture. These inhalation exposure estimates were then adjusted to account for the limited ventilation in a confined space. The inhalation exposure concentrations predicted when handling the water layer alone is much lower than that expected from the organic layer. This case study illustrates the large differences in inhalation exposure associated with volatile organic layers and aqueous solution containing these chemicals. The estimate of dermal exposure was negligible compared to the inhalation exposure because the skin presents a much smaller surface area of exposure to the contaminant compared to the lungs. The methodology presented here is useful for situations where little information is available for more formal mathematical exposure modeling, but where adjustments to the worst-case exposures, estimated simply, can provide reasonable exposure estimates.

  5. Training plumbers to design and install solar water heating systems for households (''SHINE 21'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to develop training materials to help the plumbing industry take advantage of the growth in the UK solar water heating market. Details are given of a questionnaire survey of plumbers relating to their experience of solar water heating and their attitudes to training, and the development of a new training course file, video, CD-ROM, trainer's pack, and business skills module. The development and piloting of the training programmes and the development of models for regional co-operation are described along with methods for driving the demand for training and co-operation with other European Member states. Recommendations for further work are given

  6. The plumber's nightmare: a new morphology in block copolymer-ceramic nanocomposites and mesoporous aluminosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnefrock, Adam C; Ulrich, Ralph; Toombes, Gilman E S; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2003-10-29

    A novel cubic bicontinuous morphology is found in polymer-ceramic nanocomposites and mesoporous aluminosilicates that are derived by an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, poly(isoprene-b-ethylene oxide) (PI-b-PEO), used as a structure-directing agent for an inorganic aluminosilicate. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was employed to unambiguously identify the Im(-)3m crystallographic symmetry of the materials by fitting individual Bragg peak positions in the two-dimensional X-ray images. Structure factor calculations, in conjunction with results from transmission electron microscopy, were used to narrow the range of possible structures consistent with the symmetry and showed the plumber's nightmare morphology to be consistent with the data. The samples are made by deposition onto a substrate that imposes a strain field, generating a lattice distortion. This distortion is quantitatively analyzed and shown to have resulted in shrinkage of the crystallites by approximately one-third in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, in both as-made composites and calcined ceramic materials. Finally, the observation of the bicontinuous block-copolymer-derived hybrid morphology is discussed in the context of a pseudo-ternary morphology diagram and compared to existing studies of ternary phase diagrams of amphiphiles in a mixture of two solvents. The calcined mesoporous materials have potential applications in the fields of catalysis, separation technology, and microelectronics.

  7. Consumers and experts. An econometric analysis of the demand for water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Soest, A.; Bartels, R.; Fiebig, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers can accumulate product information on the basis of a combination of searching, product advertising and expert advice. Examples of experts who provide product information include doctors advising patients on treatments, motor mechanics diagnosing car problems and recommending repairs, accountants recommending investment strategies, and plumbers making recommendations on alternative water heaters. In each of these examples, the transactions involve the sale of goods and services where the seller is at the same time an expert providing advice on the amount and type of product or service to be purchased. In the case of water heaters, the plumber advising a consumer on their choice of water heater will most likely also install the appliance. Because of the information asymmetry there is potentially a strategic element in the transmission of information from expert to consumer. This paper reports on an econometric investigation of the factors that determine the choices made by consumers and the recommendations made by plumbers and the extent to which plumbers act in the best interests of their customers. The empirical work is made possible by the availability of stated preference data generated by designed experiments involving separate samples of Australian consumers and plumbers. We find some evidence that plumbers have higher preferences than consumers for heater characteristics that increase their profit margin

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Renal Ischemic Conditioning Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierulf-Lassen, Casper; Nieuwenhuijs-Moeke, Gertrude J; Krogstrup, Nicoline V

    2015-01-01

    summarizes research on the molecular mechanisms underlying both local and remote ischemic pre-, per- and postconditioning of the kidney. The different types of conditioning strategies in the kidney recruit similar powerful pro-survival mechanisms. Likewise, renal ischemic conditioning mobilizes many...

  9. Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  10. Condition and prospects of development of agricultural mechanical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vsevolod Babushkin; Margarita Ignatyeva

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an estimation of condition and level of development of agricultural mechanical engineering is given; also an expert estimation of scales of the Russian market of agricultural machinery is given. The factors negatively influencing formation of the named market are designated. Features and prospects of development of agricultural mechanical engineering of Sverdlovsk region are defined. State regulation mechanisms of domestic agricultural mechanical engineering development are des...

  11. Nuclear Fuel Fretting Mechanisms in a Room Temperature Unlubricated Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Recently, efforts for evaluating the fretting wear mechanism have been carried out by many researchers in various conditions. In an unlubricated condition, especially, effects of a wear debris and/or its layer on the fretting wear behavior were proposed that the formation of a well-developed glaze layer has a beneficial effect for decreasing a friction coefficient. Otherwise, a wear rate was accelerated by a third-body abrasion. At this time, it is well known that wear debris behaviors are affected by test variables such as a temperature, environment, material characteristics, etc. In a nuclear fuel fretting, however, its contact condition is quite different when compared with general fretting wear studies and could be summarized as the following; first, a fuel rod is supported by spacer grid springs and dimples that were elastically deformable. This results in a unique friction loop and a different fretting mechanism when a fuel rod is vibrated due to a flow-induced vibration (FIV). Next, it is possible that some region of the wear scar area with a specific spring shape condition could be hidden due to different wear debris behavior. So, some of the wear debris layers could be found on the worn surfaces in previous studies even though fretting wear tests were performed in a water lubricated condition. Finally, initial contact condition could be changed both an actual operating condition in power plants (i.e. high temperature and pressurized water (HTHP) under severe irradiation conditions) and the fretting wear tests for evaluating the wear resistant spring in lab conditions (i.e. from room temperature to HTHP without irradiation conditions) due to material degradations and the formation of the wear scar, respectively. In summary, the spring shape effect and the variation of the contact condition with increasing fretting cycle should be evaluated in order to improve the wear resistance of the spacer grid spring. So, in this study, fretting wear tests have been

  12. Structural Composite Supercapacitors: Electrical and Mechanical Impact of Separators and Processing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Structural Composite Supercapacitors : Electrical and Mechanical Impact of Separators and Processing Conditions by Edwin B. Gienger, James F...Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-6624 September 2013 Structural Composite Supercapacitors : Electrical and Mechanical Impact of...2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Structural Composite Supercapacitors : Electrical and Mechanical Impact of Separators and Processing Conditions 5a

  13. Conditional density matrix: systems and subsystems in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokurov, V.V.; Khrustalev, O.A.; Sadovnichij, V.A.; Timofeevskaya, O.D.

    2003-01-01

    A new quantum mechanical notion - Conditional Density Matrix - is discussed and is applied to describe some physical processes. This notion is a natural generalization of von Neumann density matrix for such processes as divisions of quantum systems into subsystems and reunifications of subsystems into new joint systems. Conditional Density Matrix assigns a quantum state to a subsystem of a composite system on condition that another part of the composite system is in some pure state

  14. Mechanical Seal Opening Condition Monitoring Based on Acoustic Emission Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erqing Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the measurement of mechanical sealing film thickness and just-lift-off time is very difficult, the sealing film condition monitoring method based on acoustic emission signal is proposed. The mechanical seal acoustic emission signal present obvious characteristics of time-varying nonlinear and pulsating. In this paper, the acoustic emission signal is used to monitor the seal end faces just-lift-off time and friction condition. The acoustic emission signal is decomposed by empirical mode decomposition into a series of intrinsic mode function with independent characteristics of different time scales and different frequency band. The acoustic emission signal only generated by end faces friction is obtained by eliminating the false intrinsic mode function components. The correlation coefficient of acoustic emission signal and Multi-scale Laplace Wavelet is calculated. It is proved that the maximum frequency (8000 Hz of the correlation coefficient is appeared at the spindle speed of 300 rpm. And at this time (300 rpm the end faces have just lifted off. By a set of mechanical oil seal running test, it is demonstrated that this method could accurately identify mechanical seal end faces just-lift-off time and friction condition.

  15. Mechanisms of radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The literature on taste aversion learning is reviewed and discussed, with particular emphasis on those studies that have used exposure to ionizing radiation as an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned taste aversion. The primary aim of the review is to attempt to define the mechanisms that lead to the initiation of the taste aversion response following exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies using drug treatments to produce a taste aversion have been included to the extent that they are relevant to understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can affect the behavior of the organism. 141 references

  16. Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Laser Correction in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Kozhura

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the generalized results of studies dealing with the use of low-intensive laser irradiation in blood loss-induced critical conditions in an experiment and in patients with severe mechanical injury. In the light of recent data and the data available in the literature, the authors consider some pathophysiological mechanisms of action of laser radiation at all living matter organization levels: molecular, cellular, organ, and systemic. The feasibilities of laser correction of hemostastic disorders are defined in relation to the volume of blood loss and the functional state of compensatory systems. 

  17. Dissolution mechanism of UO2 at various parametric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1988-04-01

    The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the solubility and dissolution mechanism of uranium dioxide under simulated disposal conditions of spent fuel. Unirradiated UO 2 is used as a surrogate for spent fuel. Two types of synthetic groundwaters were used in these experiments, on simulating the natural conditions deep in granitic bedrock (synthetic groundwater I) and the other simulating the effects of bentonite on groundwater (synthetic groundwater II). The effect of carbonate concentration was investigated by following dissolution in sodium bicarbonate solution as a function of bicarbonate concentration. Deionized wate was used as a reference water. All the experiments were carried out under both air-saturated, oxidizing and anoxic, reducing conditions. A separate test series under anoxic conditions was initiated in order to study the oxidation state of uranium. The experimental uranium solubilities are compared with the solubilities obtained from theoetical calculations by applying the geochemical code PHREEQ. The theoretical solubility values of uranium under oxidizing conditions calculated by PHREEQE are higher when compared to the corresponding experimental solubility values. The reason for the lower solubility values may be the mechanism of dissolution leading for example either to a situation where low dissolution rate is a limiting factor or to formation of some solid phase of uranium with lower solubility. Formation of a surface layer was observed on the pellet after dissolution in synthetic groundwater II. The theoretical solubility values under educing conditions calculated for uranium by PHREEQE appear to be in good agreement with the experimental solubility values

  18. Global Combustion Mechanisms for Use in CFD Modeling under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jimmy; Rasmussen, Christian Lund; Giselsson, Trine

    2009-01-01

    Two global multistep schemes, the two-step mechanism of Westbrook and Dryer (WD) and the four-step mechanism of Jones and Lindstedt (JL), have been refined for oxy-fuel conditions. Reference calculations were conducted with a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, validated for oxy-fuel combustion...... conditions. In the modification approach, the initiating reactions involving hydrocarbon and oxygen were retained, while modifying the H-2-CO-CO2 reactions in order to improve prediction of major species concentrations. The main attention has been to capture the trend and level of CO predicted...... by the detailed mechanism as well as the correct equilibrium concentration. A CFD analysis of a propane oxy-fuel flame has been performed using both the original and modified mechanisms. Compared to the original schemes, the modified WD mechanism improved the prediction of the temperature field and of CO...

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ESTIMATION OF MECHANICAL SYSTEM CONDITION IN DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mironov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an estimation of a complicated mechanical system condition in dynamics with due account of material degradation and accumulation of micro-damages. An element of continuous medium has been simulated and described with the help of a discrete element. The paper contains description of a model for determination of mechanical system longevity in accordance with number of cycles and operational period.

  20. Influence of Processing Conditions on the Mechanical Behavior of MWCNT Reinforced Thermoplastic Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the processing conditions and MWCNT content on the mechanical properties of PA6,6-based nanocomposites areinvestigated. In addition to the composition of the composites, the impact of manufacturing conditions such as dilution mechanism, twin-screwextruder mixing specifications......, and injection molding parameters on the behavior of the nanocomposites are evaluated. Results show that whilethe increase in the content of MWCNTs can lead to 40.0 % enhancement in the mechanical properties, changing the processing parametersvaries the values by 30.0 % in the same content. The mechanisms...... involved in the modulation of the nanocomposites properties are alsodiscussed...

  1. The Conditions for Functional Mechanisms of Compensation and Reward for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent M. Swallow

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of compensation and reward for environmental services (CRES are becoming increasingly contemplated as means for managing human-environment interactions. Most of the functional mechanisms in the tropics have been developed within the last 15 years; many developing countries still have had little experience with functional mechanisms. We consider the conditions that foster the origin and implementation of functional mechanisms. Deductive and inductive approaches are combined. Eight hypotheses are derived from theories of institution and policy change. Five case studies, from Latin America, Africa, and Asia, are then reviewed according to a common framework. The results suggest the following to be important conditions for functional CRES mechanisms: (1 localized scarcity for particular environmental services, (2 influence from international environmental agreements and international organizations, (3 government policies and public attitudes favoring a mixture of regulatory and market-based instruments, and (4 security of individual and group property rights.

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Survival Strategies in Extreme Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Migliardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the major challenges in biophysics is to disclose the molecular mechanisms underlying biological processes. In such a frame, the understanding of the survival strategies in extreme conditions received a lot of attention both from the scientific and applicative points of view. Since nature provides precious suggestions to be applied for improving the quality of life, extremophiles are considered as useful model-systems. The main goal of this review is to present an overview of some systems, with a particular emphasis on trehalose playing a key role in several extremophile organisms. The attention is focused on the relation among the structural and dynamic properties of biomolecules and bioprotective mechanisms, as investigated by complementary spectroscopic techniques at low- and high-temperature values.

  3. Conditional dissociation as a punishment mechanism in the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xinglong; Zhou, Changli; Cao, Zhigang; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies show that conditional dissociation, a.k.a. post-interaction partner-refusal, can promote the emergence and stability of cooperation. However, in most of these studies, players' strategies are restricted to pure ones, which is obviously inconsistent with many biological and economic situations. Another concern with line of these studies is that conditional dissociation is often combined with other mechanisms. These mechanisms may favor cooperation per se, leaving it unclear whether conditional dissociation is indeed a key factor. In this paper, we study a clean model, pruning all the factors other than conditional dissociation that may favor cooperation. We find that conditional dissociation, which could be viewed as a variant of peer punishment, does promote cooperation, no matter whether mixed strategies are allowed or not. This confirms the previous findings in the literature. In addition, compared with the pure strategy scenario, cooperators are less competitive when mixed strategies are allowed. Our main finding is supported by both the numerical simulations and the theoretical analysis of Neutrally Stable Strategy. We also find that cooperative behavior is favored when waiting time and/or the population's lifespan are longer.

  4. Premature saturation in backpropagation networks: Mechanism and necessary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitela, J.E.; Reifman, J.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism that gives rise to the phenomenon of premature saturation of the output units of feedforward multilayer neural networks during training with the standard backpropagation algorithm is described. The entire process of premature saturation is characterized by three distinct stages and it is concluded that the momentum term plays the leading role in the occurrence of the phenomenon. The necessary conditions for the occurrence of premature saturation are presented and a new method is proposed, based on these conditions, that eliminates the occurrence of the phenomenon. Validity of the conditions and the proposed method are illustrated through simulation results. Three case studies are presented. The first two came from a training session for classification of three component failures in a nuclear power plant. The last case, comes from a training session for classification of welded fuel elements

  5. Availability analysis of mechanical systems with condition-based maintenance using semi-Markov and evaluation of optimal condition monitoring interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Girish; Jain, Vipul; Gandhi, O. P.

    2018-03-01

    Maintenance helps to extend equipment life by improving its condition and avoiding catastrophic failures. Appropriate model or mechanism is, thus, needed to quantify system availability vis-a-vis a given maintenance strategy, which will assist in decision-making for optimal utilization of maintenance resources. This paper deals with semi-Markov process (SMP) modeling for steady state availability analysis of mechanical systems that follow condition-based maintenance (CBM) and evaluation of optimal condition monitoring interval. The developed SMP model is solved using two-stage analytical approach for steady-state availability analysis of the system. Also, CBM interval is decided for maximizing system availability using Genetic Algorithm approach. The main contribution of the paper is in the form of a predictive tool for system availability that will help in deciding the optimum CBM policy. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for a centrifugal pump.

  6. Mechanical response of shock conditioned HPNS-5 (R-1) grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plannerer, H.N.

    1997-01-01

    HPNS-5 (R-1) grout is a portland cement formulated mix designed for use as a rigid containment plug in vertical boreholes at the Nevada Test Site. Coincident with field testing of this grout in 1991 and 1992 , two arums of the grout mix were collected and positioned in the by pass drift of the DISTANT ZENITH event to expose the grout to passage of a nuclear driven stress wave. The drums were later retrieved to determine the mechanical behavior of the shock conditioned grout. Sealed hollow tubes positioned within the grout-filled drums to detect ductile flow on passage of the stress wave were found partially to completely filled with HPNS-5 grout following the experiment. Static mechanical tests support the evidence for ductile flow and place the transition from brittle fracture failure to ductile behavior in the shock conditioned grout at a confining stress between ambient and 5 MPa (725 psi). Uniaxial and triaxial tests delineated a stress-strain field for interstice collapse that interposes between the mechanics of linear elastic deformation and dilatancy. Hydrostatic stress loading between 25 MPa (3.6 ksi) and 60 MPa (8.7 ksi) results in a significant change of permanent set from 1% to greater than 15% volume strain

  7. Estimated conditional score function for missing mechanism model with nonignorable nonresponse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xia; ZHOU Yong

    2017-01-01

    Missing data mechanism often depends on the values of the responses,which leads to nonignorable nonresponses.In such a situation,inference based on approaches that ignore the missing data mechanism could not be valid.A crucial step is to model the nature of missingness.We specify a parametric model for missingness mechanism,and then propose a conditional score function approach for estimation.This approach imputes the score function by taking the conditional expectation of the score function for the missing data given the available information.Inference procedure is then followed by replacing unknown terms with the related nonparametric estimators based on the observed data.The proposed score function does not suffer from the non-identifiability problem,and the proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal.We also construct a confidence region for the parameter of interest using empirical likelihood method.Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed inference procedure performs well in many settings.We apply the proposed method to a data set from research in a growth hormone and exercise intervention study.

  8. Cavitation behavior observed in three monoleaflet mechanical heart valves under accelerated testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Wen; Liu, Jia-Shing; Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien; Hwang, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated testing provides a substantial amount of data on mechanical heart valve durability in a short period of time, but such conditions may not accurately reflect in vivo performance. Cavitation, which occurs during mechanical heart valve closure when local flow field pressure decreases below vapor pressure, is thought to play a role in valve damage under accelerated conditions. The underlying flow dynamics and mechanisms behind cavitation bubble formation are poorly understood. Under physiologic conditions, random perivalvular cavitation is difficult to capture. We applied accelerated testing at a pulse rate of 600 bpm and transvalvular pressure of 120 mm Hg, with synchronized videographs and high-frequency pressure measurements, to study cavitation of the Medtronic Hall Standard (MHS), Medtronic Hall D-16 (MHD), and Omni Carbon (OC) valves. Results showed cavitation bubbles between 340 and 360 micros after leaflet/housing impact of the MHS, MHD, and OC valves, intensified by significant leaflet rebound. Squeeze flow, Venturi, and water hammer effects each contributed to cavitation, depending on valve design.

  9. Influence of Compatibilizer and Processing Conditions on Morphology, Mechanical Properties, and Deformation Mechanism of PP/Clay Nano composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, B.; Bagheri, R.

    2012-01-01

    Polypropylene/montmorillonite nano composite was prepared by melt intercalation method using a twin-screw extruder with starve feeding system in this paper. The effects of compatibilizer, extruder rotor speed and feeding rate on properties of nano composite were investigated. Structure, tensile, and impact properties and deformation mechanism of the compounds were studied. For investigation of structure and deformation mechanisms, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission optical microscopy (TOM) techniques were utilized, respectively. The results illustrate that introduction of the compatibilizer and also variation of the processing conditions affect structure and mechanical properties of nano composite.

  10. Intercomparison of chemical mechanisms for air quality policy formulation and assessment under North American conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The intercomparison of seven chemical mechanisms for their suitability for air quality policy formulation and assessment is described. Box modeling techniques were employed using 44 sets of background environmental conditions covering North America to constrain the chemical development of the longer lived species. The selected mechanisms were modified to enable an unbiased assessment of the adequacy of the parameterizations of photochemical ozone production from volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation in the presence of NO x . Photochemical ozone production rates responded differently to 30% NO x and VOC reductions with the different mechanisms, despite the striking similarities between the base-case ozone production rates. The 30% reductions in NO x and VOCs also produced changes in OH. The responses in OH to 30% reductions in NO x and VOCs appeared to be more sensitive to mechanism choice, compared with the responses in the photochemical ozone production rates. Although 30% NO x reductions generally led to decreases in OH, 30% reductions in VOCs led to increases in OH, irrespective of mechanism choice and background environmental conditions. The different mechanisms therefore gave different OH responses to NO x and VOC reductions and so would give different responses in terms of changes in the fate and behavior of air toxics, acidification and eutrophication, and fine particle formation compared with others, in response to ozone control strategies. Policymakers need to understand that there are likely to be inherent differences in the responses to ozone control strategies between different mechanisms, depending on background environmental conditions and the extents of NO x and VOC reductions under consideration. The purpose of this paper is to compare predicted ozone responses to NO x and VOC reductions with seven chemical mechanisms under North American conditions. The good agreement found between the tested mechanisms should provide some support for their

  11. Mechanical Behaviour of Conventional Materials at Experimental Conditions of Deep Drawing Technological Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, N.; Pashkouleva, D.; Kavardzhikov, V.

    2012-09-01

    The paper deals with experimental investigations on the mechanical behaviour of body-centred-cubic (BCC) and face-centred-cubic (FCC)-conventionally structured sheet metalic-metalic materials under stress-strain conditions of a deep drawing process determined by a coefficient close to the limiting one for Steel 08 and punch diameter of 50 mm. The mechanical characteristics of the investigated materials are identified by one-dimensional tension tests. The materials' responses, as results of identical loading conditions, are described by the change of blank sizes and characteristics of the forming processes. The chosen deformation path ensures obtaining a qualitative steel piece and leads to failures of aluminium and brass blanks. The reported results could be useful for investigations and predictions of the mechanical responses of such type metallic structures applying microscopic instrumented observations and numerical simulations.

  12. Reformulating classical and quantum mechanics in terms of a unified set of consistency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordley, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper imposes consistency conditions on the path of a particle and shows that they imply Hamilton's principle in classical contexts and Schroedinger's equation in quantum mechanical contexts. Thus this paper provides a common, intuitive foundation for classical and quantum mechanics. It also provides a very new perspective on quantum mechanics. (author

  13. Surveillance of construction worker injuries: the utility of trade-specific analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunting, K L; Welch, L S; Nessel-Stephens, L; Anderson, J; Mawudeku, A

    1999-07-01

    Construction is a dangerous industry, with high rates of both fatal and nonfatal injuries. To learn more about the causes of nonfatal construction worker injuries, and to identify injury cases for further work site-based investigations or prevention programs, we established an emergency department-based surveillance program in November 1990. This article describes circumstances of injury, diagnoses, and demographic characteristics of injured construction workers for 2,791 cases identified through mid-August, 1997. Lacerations and strains and sprains were the most frequent diagnoses; cutting and piercing objects were the leading causes of injury among all construction workers, followed by falls and overexertion. Because of the variety of work performed in this industry, more detailed injury descriptions, by trade, are most useful for thinking about injury prevention. To illustrate this, we profile injury patterns among workers from four specific trades: carpenters, electricians, plumbers, and ironworkers. Areas of concern highlighted by the trade-specific analyses include eye injuries among plumbers; falls from ladders among electricians and plumbers; slips, trips, and falls on the same level among ironworkers; electrical exposure among electricians; and, amputations among carpenters.

  14. Effect of Kettlebell Lifting on Physical Condition of Future Mechanical Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. П. Конох

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to study the effect of exercises with kettlebell lifting elements on the physical condition of future mechanical engineers. Materials and methods. To address the tasks set, the study used the following research methods: theoretical analysis and collation of literary sources; implementation of a pilot program of physical education through kettlebell lifting in higher agricultural educational institutions; methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The paper focuses on the relevant issue of theoretical and methodological support of the process of improving students' physical condition. The study has determined the effect of kettlebell lifting on the physical condition of the future mechanical engineers involved in maintenance and repair of agricultural equipment and machinery. Kettlebell lifting proves to provide good physical training, has a positive effect on the human body, and strengthens health in general. The research conducted gave grounds to determine that the level of the physical condition of the test group students is satisfactory on all indicators. This meets the requirements set before the future specialists. Conclusions. The study of the effectiveness of kettlebell lifting influence on the physical condition of the test group students yielded positive results. As a result, the training improves the performance of the students’ respiratory and cardiovascular systems, decreases their heart rate and blood pressure, enhances economization of the body systems performance at rest and at load, boosts the reserve capacity of these systems, reduces the recovery period after load, and improves the metabolic processes, which contributes to enhancing the organism tolerance to the unfavorable factors of the profession-related activity.

  15. Multiphase-field model of small strain elasto-plasticity according to the mechanical jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christoph; Schoof, Ephraim; Schneider, Daniel; Schwab, Felix; Reiter, Andreas; Selzer, Michael; Nestler, Britta

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a small strain elasto-plastic multiphase-field model according to the mechanical jump conditions. A rate-independent J_2 -plasticity model with linear isotropic hardening and without kinematic hardening is applied exemplary. Generally, any physically nonlinear mechanical model is compatible with the subsequently presented procedure. In contrast to models with interpolated material parameters, the proposed model is able to apply different nonlinear mechanical constitutive equations for each phase separately. The Hadamard compatibility condition and the static force balance are employed as homogenization approaches to calculate the phase-inherent stresses and strains. Several verification cases are discussed. The applicability of the proposed model is demonstrated by simulations of the martensitic transformation and quantitative parameters.

  16. Condition of Mechanical Equilibrium at the Phase Interface with Arbitrary Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, V. V.; Zubkova, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors produced an expression for the mechanical equilibrium condition at the phase interface within the force definition of surface tension. This equilibrium condition is the most general one from the mathematical standpoint and takes into account the three-dimensional aspect of surface tension. Furthermore, the formula produced allows describing equilibrium on the fractal surface of the interface. The authors used the fractional integral model of fractal distribution and took the fractional order integrals over Euclidean space instead of integrating over the fractal set.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Shale Rock under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading and Unloading Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanical behavior of shale rock under cyclic loading and unloading condition, two kinds of incremental cyclic loading tests were conducted. Based on the result of the short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic loading test, the permanent residual strain, modulus, and damage evolution were analyzed firstly. Results showed that the relationship between the residual strains and the cycle number can be expressed by an exponential function. The deformation modulus E50 and elastic modulus ES first increased and then decreased with the peak stress under the loading condition, and both of them increased approximately linearly with the peak stress under the unloading condition. On the basis of the energy dissipation, the damage variables showed an exponential increasing with the strain at peak stress. The creep behavior of the shale rock was also analyzed. Results showed that there are obvious instantaneous strain, decay creep, and steady creep under each stress level and the specimen appears the accelerated creep stage under the 4th stress of 51.16 MPa. Based on the characteristics of the Burgers creep model, a viscoelastic-plastic creep model was proposed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can better describe the creep behavior of shale rock better than the Burgers creep model. Results can provide some mechanics reference evidence for shale gas development.

  18. Wireless acceleration sensor of moving elements for condition monitoring of mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsin, Vladimir V.; Shestakov, Aleksandr L.

    2017-09-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the angular and linear accelerations of moving elements (shafts, gears) allows an increase in the quality of the condition monitoring of mechanisms. However, existing tools and methods measure either linear or angular acceleration with postprocessing. This paper suggests a new construction design of an angular acceleration sensor for moving elements. The sensor is mounted on a moving element and, among other things, the data transfer and electric power supply are carried out wirelessly. In addition, the authors introduce a method for processing the received information which makes it possible to divide the measured acceleration into the angular and linear components. The design has been validated by the results of laboratory tests of an experimental model of the sensor. The study has shown that this method provides a definite separation of the measured acceleration into linear and angular components, even in noise. This research contributes an advance in the range of methods and tools for condition monitoring of mechanisms.

  19. Wireless acceleration sensor of moving elements for condition monitoring of mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsin, Vladimir V; Shestakov, Aleksandr L

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the angular and linear accelerations of moving elements (shafts, gears) allows an increase in the quality of the condition monitoring of mechanisms. However, existing tools and methods measure either linear or angular acceleration with postprocessing. This paper suggests a new construction design of an angular acceleration sensor for moving elements. The sensor is mounted on a moving element and, among other things, the data transfer and electric power supply are carried out wirelessly. In addition, the authors introduce a method for processing the received information which makes it possible to divide the measured acceleration into the angular and linear components. The design has been validated by the results of laboratory tests of an experimental model of the sensor. The study has shown that this method provides a definite separation of the measured acceleration into linear and angular components, even in noise. This research contributes an advance in the range of methods and tools for condition monitoring of mechanisms. (paper)

  20. A Novel Approach to Measuring Muscle Mechanics in Vehicle Collision Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Krašna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate a novel approach to measuring neck muscle load and activity in vehicle collision conditions. A series of sled tests were performed on 10 healthy volunteers at three severity levels to simulate low-severity frontal impacts. Electrical activity—electromyography (EMG—and muscle mechanical tension was measured bilaterally on the upper trapezius. A novel mechanical contraction (MC sensor was used to measure the tension on the muscle surface. The neck extensor loads were estimated based on the inverse dynamics approach. The results showed strong linear correlation (Pearson’s coefficient = 0.821 between the estimated neck muscle load and the muscle tension measured with the MC sensor. The peak of the estimated neck muscle force delayed 0.2 ± 30.6 ms on average vs. the peak MC sensor signal compared to the average delay of 61.8 ± 37.4 ms vs. the peak EMG signal. The observed differences in EMG and MC sensor collected signals indicate that the MC sensor offers an additional insight into the analysis of the neck muscle load and activity in impact conditions. This approach enables a more detailed assessment of the muscle-tendon complex load of a vehicle occupant in pre-impact and impact conditions.

  1. Model test study of evaporation mechanism of sand under constant atmospheric condition

    OpenAIRE

    CUI, Yu Jun; DING, Wenqi; SONG, Weikang

    2014-01-01

    The evaporation mechanism of Fontainebleau sand using a large-scale model chamber is studied. First, the evaporation test on a layer of water above sand surface is performed under various atmospheric conditions, validating the performance of the chamber and the calculation method of actual evaporation rate by comparing the calculated and measured cumulative evaporations. Second,the evaporation test on sand without water layer is conducted under constant atmospheric condition. Both the evoluti...

  2. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...properties and of the attendant ballistic-impact failure mechanisms in prototypical friction stir welding (FSW) joints found in armor structures made of high...mechanisms, friction stir welding M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, A. Arakere, C-F. Yen, B. A. Cheeseman Clemson University Office of Sponsored Programs 300

  3. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts andRicinus communisL. (castor bean, in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis was less effective in stomatal control in response to adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, water deficit and vapor pressure deficit, indicating lower water use efficiency. Conversely,J. curcas exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (gas exchange and photochemistry and water use efficiency under these adverse environmental conditions.R. communisdisplayed higher potential photosynthesis, but exhibited a lowerin vivo Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax. During the course of a typical day, in a semiarid environment, with high irradiation, high temperature and high vapor pressure deficit, but exposed to well-watered conditions, the two studied species presented similar photosynthesis. Losing potential photosynthesis, but maintaining favorable water status and increasing non-photochemical quenching to avoid photoinhibition, are important acclimation mechanisms developed byJ. curcas to cope with dry and hot conditions. We suggest thatJ. curcas is more tolerant to hot and dry environments thanR. communis but the latter species displays higher photosynthetic efficiency under well-watered and non-stressful conditions.

  4. Deterioration of mechanical properties of high strength structural steel S460N under transient state fire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Xuhong; Bijlaard, Frans S.K.; Kolstein, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanical properties of S460N under transient state fire condition are obtained. ► Elevated-temperature mechanical properties of steels are dependent on steel grades. ► No design standard is applicable to HSS S460N under transient state fire condition. ► Specific statements on various HSS in fire should be proposed in design standards. ► Research results offer accurate material property for structural design engineers. -- Abstract: 911 World Trade Centre Tragedy put fire safety of constructional steel structures into question. Since then, more and more research attention has been paid to the elevated-temperature mechanical properties of structural steels, which is a critical basis of evaluating the fire performance of steel structures. In the literature the available mechanical properties of structural steels under fire conditions were mainly obtained from steady state test method, as steady state test method is easier to perform than transient state test method and offers stress–strain curves directly. However, the transient state fire condition is considered to be more realistic to represent the real condition when constructions are exposed to fire. In order to reveal the deterioration of mechanical properties of the commonly used high strength structural steel S460N under transient state fire condition, tensile tests were conducted under various constant stress levels up to 800 MPa. The reduction factors of elastic modulus, yield and ultimate strengths of S460N under transient state fire condition were obtained and compared with current leading design standards and available literature. The application of such accurate elevated-temperature mechanical properties reduction factors of S460N can ensure a safe fire-resistance design and evaluation of steel structures with high strength steel S460N under transient state fire condition. This experimental study also supports other relative research on fire performance of steel structures with

  5. Mechanical and thermo-mechanical response of a lead-core bearing device subjected to different loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelyazov Todor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is focused on the numerical modelling, simulation and analysis of a lead-core bearing device for passive seismic isolation. An accurate finite element model of a lead-core bearing device is presented. The model is designed to analyse both mechanical and thermo-mechanical responses of the seismic isolator to different loading conditions. Specifically, the mechanical behaviour in a typical identification test is simulated. The response of the lead-core bearing device to circular sinusoidal paths is analysed. The obtained shear displacement – shear force relationship is compared to experimental data found in literature sources. The hypothesis that heating of the lead-core during cyclic loading affects the degrading phenomena in the bearing device is taken into account. Constitutive laws are defined for each material: lead, rubber and steel. Both predefined constitutive laws (in the used general–purpose finite element code and semi-analytical procedures aimed at a more accurate modelling of the constitutive relations are tested. The results obtained by finite element analysis are to be further used to calibrate a macroscopic model of the lead-core bearing device seen as a single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system.

  6. Effect of processing conditions on the mechanical and thermal properties of high-impact polypropylene nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, L G [Federal Institute of Rio Grande do Sul, IFRS, Campus Restinga, Estrada Joao Antonio da Silveira, 351, Porto Alegre 91790-400 (Brazil); Ferreira, C I; Dal Castel, C; Santos, K S; Mello, A C.E. [Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil); Liberman, S A; Oviedo, M A.S. [Braskem S.A., III Polo Petroquimico, Via Oeste, Lote 5, Triunfo 95853-000 (Brazil); Mauler, R.S., E-mail: mauler@iq.ufrgs.br [Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil)

    2011-08-25

    Highlights: {yields} Polypropylene montmorillonite (PP-MMT) produced at different processing conditions. {yields} Polypropylene Nanocomposites with higher increase on impact resistance. {yields} Higher enhancement on mechanical properties. - Abstract: Polypropylene montmorillonite (PP-MMT) nanocomposites have been prepared by using a co-rotating twin screw extruder. The effects of processing conditions at fixed clay content (5 wt%) on polymer properties were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flexural modulus, izod impact, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was noticed that the morphology and the mechanical properties of polypropylene nanocomposites were affected by different screw shear configuration. The results showed that the higher enhancement on mechanical properties was obtained by medium shear intensity profile instead of high configuration. An exceptional increase (maximum of 282%) on impact resistance was observed.

  7. Effect of processing conditions on the mechanical and thermal properties of high-impact polypropylene nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, L.G.; Ferreira, C.I.; Dal Castel, C.; Santos, K.S.; Mello, A.C.E.; Liberman, S.A.; Oviedo, M.A.S.; Mauler, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polypropylene montmorillonite (PP-MMT) produced at different processing conditions. → Polypropylene Nanocomposites with higher increase on impact resistance. → Higher enhancement on mechanical properties. - Abstract: Polypropylene montmorillonite (PP-MMT) nanocomposites have been prepared by using a co-rotating twin screw extruder. The effects of processing conditions at fixed clay content (5 wt%) on polymer properties were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flexural modulus, izod impact, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was noticed that the morphology and the mechanical properties of polypropylene nanocomposites were affected by different screw shear configuration. The results showed that the higher enhancement on mechanical properties was obtained by medium shear intensity profile instead of high configuration. An exceptional increase (maximum of 282%) on impact resistance was observed.

  8. Mechanisms of attention for appetitive and aversive outcomes in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A J; Duka, T

    2010-11-12

    Different mechanisms of attention controlling learning have been proposed in appetitive and aversive conditioning. The aim of the present study was to compare attention and learning in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using visual stimuli of varying predictive value of either monetary reward (appetitive conditioning; 10p or 50p) or blast of white noise (aversive conditioning; 97 dB or 102 dB). Outcome values were matched across the two conditions with regard to their emotional significance. Sixty-four participants were allocated to one of the four conditions matched for age and gender. All participants underwent a discriminative learning task using pairs of visual stimuli that signalled a 100%, 50%, or 0% probability of receiving an outcome. Learning was measured using a 9-point Likert scale of expectancy of the outcome, while attention using an eyetracker device. Arousal and emotional conditioning were also evaluated. Dwell time was greatest for the full predictor in the noise groups, while in the money groups attention was greatest for the partial predictor over the other two predictors. The progression of learning was the same for both groups. These findings suggest that in aversive conditioning attention is driven by the predictive salience of the stimulus while in appetitive conditioning attention is error-driven, when emotional value of the outcome is comparable. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Setting up tunneling conditions by means of Bohmian mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, A S; Miret-Artes, S, E-mail: asanz@iff.csic.es, E-mail: s.miret@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental-CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-02

    Usually tunneling is established after imposing some matching conditions on the (time-independent) wavefunction and its first derivative at the boundaries of a barrier. Here an alternative scheme is proposed to determine tunneling and estimate transmission probabilities in time-dependent problems, which takes advantage of the trajectory picture provided by Bohmian mechanics. From this theory, a general functional expression for the transmission probability in terms of the system initial state can be reached. This expression is used here to analyze tunneling properties and estimate transmissions in the case of initial Gaussian wave packets colliding with ramp-like barriers. (paper)

  10. The mechanical and physical behaviour on the cemented waste forms after one year disposal of real conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucataru-Nicu, M.; Mihai, F.; Rotarescu, Gh.; Turcanu, C.N.; Lungu, L.

    1999-01-01

    To prove the durability of cemented waste forms, an experimental program started in 1997 to establish the alteration in time of mechanical and physic-chemical properties of different simulated and real matrices in laboratory and Baita-Bihor disposal conditions. The selected matrices for characterization are normal cement and concrete compositions with and without mineral additives (bentonite and volcanic tuff) as reference samples, the conditioned matrices prepared with radioactive sludge non-active components (iron hydroxides and phosphate, calcium phosphate and cooper ferrocyanide) and non-active matrices prepared with organic acids and salts (oxalic, citric, tartaric, EDTA). All samples will be positioned in five locations of Baita-Bihor repository and kept 1, 3, 5 and 10 years before mechanical and structural characterization. These locations have different humidity conditions decreasing from location 1 to 5. These results will be compared with results obtained for the same type of samples kept in laboratory conditions. The research program requires detailed identification of the complex phenomena involved, long investigation times and extending basic data determined from laboratory tests in simplified conditions. The basic information on the waste matrix are obtained by mechanical strength tests. In this program, up to now, samples were prepared and disposed as follows: 1)cement-water with cement/water ratio 2:1 and 2)cement-sand-water with a cement/sand/water ratio 1:2:0.5. For the mechanical tests the sizes of the samples were: 40 x 40 x 160 mm (tested at bending and compression) and 20 x 20 x 20 mm (tested at compression). After the preparation, the samples were kept 24 hours in pattern, then in tight plastic bag for 7, 14 and 28 days for reinforcement. The bending and compression tests were done in a construction materials laboratory, using an electric press machine. After 28 days the samples of reference were introduced in the National Repository. Some of

  11. Estimation of the mechanical loading of the shoulder joint in daily conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, W.H.K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to assemble a method to estimate shoulder joint reaction forces, in daily conditions, based on long term collection of ambulatory measurable variables, to obtain the desired long term mechanical load profile of the shoulder. Chapter 2 examines, and discusses one of the

  12. Mechanical-biological waste conditioning with controlled venting - the Meisenheim mechanical-biological waste conditioning plant; Mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlung nach dem Kaminzugverfahren - MBRA Meisenheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangen, H.O. [Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb Landkreis Bad Kreuznach, Bad Kreuznach (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The decision of the rural district of Bad Kreuznach to propose creating facilities for mechanical-biological waste conditioning at the new northern Meisenheim landfill was consistent and correct. It will ensure that the material deposited at this new, state-of-the-art landfill is organically `lean` and can be deposited with a high density. Preliminary sifting of the material prior to depositing safeguards that no improper components are inadvertently included. Three years of operation warrant the statement that waste components that cannot be appropriately biologically conditioned should be eliminated prior to rotting. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Entscheidung des Landkreises Bad Kreuznach, der neu eingerichteten Norddeponie Meisenheim eine MBRA vorzuschlaten, war auf jeden Fall konsequent und richtig. Es ist damit sicher gestellt, dass in diesem neuen nach dem Stand der Technik eingerichteten Deponiebereich von Anfang an ein Material eingelagert wird, das `organisch abgemagert` ist und mit hoher Einbaudichte eingebaut werden kann. Die Sichtung des gesamten Deponie-Inputs in der Vorsortierhalle gibt ein Stueck Sicherheit, dass keine nicht zugelassenen Stoffe verdeckt dem Ablagerungsbereich der Deponie zugefuehrt werden. Nach mehr als 3 Jahren Betriebszeit kann festgestellt werden, dass biologisch nicht sinnvoll behandelbare Abfallbestandteile vor dem Rotteprozess abgetrennt werden sollten. (orig.)

  13. Sufficient condition for confinement of static quarks by a vortex condensation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Petkova, V.B.

    1978-11-01

    We derive a sufficient condition for confinement of static quarks by a vortex condensation mechanism. It admits vortices that are thick at all times at the cost of constraining them to a finite volume Λi whose complement is not simply connected. The confining potential V(L) is estimated in terms of the change of free energy of a system enclosed in Λi which is induced by a change in vorticity (= singular gauge transformation applied to boundary conditions on deltaΛi). For Abelian gauge theories in 3 dimensions the confining Coulomb potential is reproduced as a lower bound. (orig.) [de

  14. Transformational leadership climate : Performance linkages, mechanisms, and boundary conditions at the organizational level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menges, J.; Walter, F.; Vogel, B.; Bruch, H.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership (TFL) climate describes the degree to which leaders throughout an organization engage in TFL behaviors. In this study, we investigate performance linkages, mechanisms, and boundary conditions of TFL climate at the organizational level of analysis. In a sample of 158

  15. Mechanical stress analysis for a fuel rod under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy S.; Giovedi, Claudia; Serra, Andre da Silva; Abe, Alfredo Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements consist mainly in a system of a nuclear fuel encapsulated by a cladding material subject to high fluxes of energetic neutrons, high operating temperatures, pressure systems, thermal gradients, heat fluxes and with chemical compatibility with the reactor coolant. The design of a nuclear reactor requires, among a set of activities, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the fuel rod submitted to different loads acting on the fuel rod and the specific properties (dimensions and mechanical and thermal properties) of the cladding material and coolant, including thermal and pressure gradients produced inside the rod due to the fuel burnup. In this work were evaluated the structural mechanical stresses of a fuel rod using stainless steel as cladding material and UO 2 with a low degree of enrichment as fuel pellet on a PWR (pressurized water reactor) under normal operating conditions. In this sense, tangential, radial and axial stress on internal and external cladding surfaces considering the orientations of 0 deg, 90 deg and 180 deg were considered. The obtained values were compared with the limit values for stress to the studied material. From the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that, under the expected normal reactor operation conditions, the integrity of the fuel rod can be maintained. (author)

  16. Mechanical characteristics of nanocellulose-PEG bionanocomposite wound dressings in wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengzhen; Nordli, Henriette R; Pukstad, Brita; Kristofer Gamstedt, E; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary

    2017-05-01

    Wood nanocellulose has been proposed for wound dressing applications partly based on its capability to form translucent films with good liquid absorption capabilities. Such properties are adequate for non-healing and chronic wounds where adequate management of exudates is a requirement. In addition, the translucency will allow to follow the wound development without the necessity to remove the dressing from the wound. Understanding the mechanical properties of nanocellulose films and dressings are also most important for tailoring optimizing wound dressing structures with adequate strength, conformability, porosity and exudate management. Mechanical properties are usually assessed in standard conditions (50% relative humidity, RH), which is not relevant in a wound management situation. In this study we have assessed the mechanical properties of three nanocellulose grades varying in the degree of nanofibrillation. The effect of nanofibrillation and of polyethylene glycol (PEG) addition, on the tensile strength, elongation and elastic modulus were assessed after 24h in water and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The results reveal the behavior of the nanocellulose dressings after wetting and shed light into the development of mechanical properties in environments, which are relevant from a wound management point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A mechanical deformation model of metallic fuel pin under steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, Y. I.; Han, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    As a mechanical deformation model of the MACSIS code predicts the cladding deformation due to the simple thin shell theory, it is impossible to predict the FCMI(Fuel-Cladding Mechanical Interaction). Therefore, a mechanical deformation model used the generalized plane strain is developed. The DEFORM is a mechanical deformation routine which is used to analyze the stresses and strains in the fuel and cladding of a metallic fuel pin of LMRs. The accuracy of the program is demonstrated by comparison of the DEFORM predictions with the result of another code calculations or experimental results in literature. The stress/strain distributions of elastic part under free thermal expansion condition are completely matched with the results of ANSYS code. The swelling and creep solutions are reasonably well agreed with the simulations of ALFUS and LIFE-M codes, respectively. The predicted cladding strains are under estimated than experimental data at the range of high burnup. Therefore, it is recommended that the fine tuning of the DEFORM based on various range of experimental data

  18. Mechanical characterization of alloys in extreme conditions of high strain rates and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Ezio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the description of the mechanical characterization of alloys under extreme conditions of temperature and loading. In fact, in the frame of the Cost Action CA15102 “Solutions for Critical Raw Materials Under Extreme Conditions (CRM-EXTREME)” this aspect is crucial and many industrial applications have to consider the dynamic response of materials. Indeed, for a reduction and substitution of CRMs in alloys is necessary to design the materials and understand if the new materials behave better or if the substitution or reduction badly affect their performance. For this reason, a deep knowledge of the mechanical behaviour at high strain-rates of considered materials is required. In general, machinery manufacturing industry or transport industry as well as energy industry have important dynamic phenomena that are simultaneously affected by extended strain, high strain-rate, damage and pressure, as well as conspicuous temperature gradients. The experimental results in extreme conditions of high strain rate and high temperature of an austenitic stainless steel as well as a high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 are presented.

  19. Mechanical measurement of hydrogen bonded host-guest systems under non-equilibrium, near-physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Teresa; Cerrón, Fernando; Nieto-Ortega, Belén; Latorre, Alfonso; Somoza, Álvaro; Ibarra, Borja; Pérez, Emilio M

    2017-09-01

    Decades after the birth of supramolecular chemistry, there are many techniques to measure noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, under equilibrium conditions. As ensembles of molecules rapidly lose coherence, we cannot extrapolate bulk data to single-molecule events under non-equilibrium conditions, more relevant to the dynamics of biological systems. We present a new method that exploits the high force resolution of optical tweezers to measure at the single molecule level the mechanical strength of a hydrogen bonded host-guest pair out of equilibrium and under near-physiological conditions. We utilize a DNA reporter to unambiguously isolate single binding events. The Hamilton receptor-cyanuric acid host-guest system is used as a test bed. The force required to dissociate the host-guest system is ∼17 pN and increases with the pulling rate as expected for a system under non-equilibrium conditions. Blocking one of the hydrogen bonding sites results in a significant decrease of the force-to-break by 1-2 pN, pointing out the ability of the method to resolve subtle changes in the mechanical strength of the binding due to the individual H-bonding components. We believe the method will prove to be a versatile tool to address important questions in supramolecular chemistry.

  20. Mechanisms of chain adsorption on porous substrates and critical conditions of polymer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Richard T; Rasmussen, Christopher J; Brun, Yefim; Neimark, Alexander V

    2016-11-01

    Polymer adsorption is a ubiquitous phenomenon with numerous technological and healthcare applications. The mechanisms of polymer adsorption on surfaces and in pores are complex owing to a competition between various entropic and enthalpic factors. Due to adsorption of monomers to the surface, the chain gains in enthalpy yet loses in entropy because of confining effects. This competition leads to the existence of critical conditions of adsorption when enthalpy gain and entropy loss are in balance. The critical conditions are controlled by the confining geometry and effective adsorption energy, which depends on the solvent composition and temperature. This phenomenon has important implications in polymer chromatography, since the retention at the critical point of adsorption (CPA) is chain length independent. However, the mechanisms of polymer adsorption in pores are poorly understood and there is an ongoing discussion in the theoretical literature about the very existence of CPA for polymer adsorption on porous substrates. In this work, we examine the mechanisms of chain adsorption on a model porous substrate using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We distinguish three adsorption mechanisms depending on the chain location: on external surface, completely confined in pores, and also partially confined in pores in so-called "flower" conformations. The free energies of different conformations of adsorbed chains are calculated by the incremental gauge cell MC method that allows one to determine the partition coefficient as a function of the adsorption potential, pore size, and chain length. We confirm the existence of the CPA for chain length independent separation on porous substrates, which is explained by the dominant contributions of the chain adsorption at the external surface, in particular in flower conformations. Moreover, we show that the critical conditions for porous and nonporous substrates are identical and depend only on the surface chemistry. The theoretical

  1. Mechanical properties of cellulose electro-active paper under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan; Jung, Woochul; Ampofo, Joshua; Craft, William; Sankar, Jagannathan

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cellulose-based electro-active paper (EAPap) are investigated under various environmental conditions. Cellulose EAPap has been discovered as a smart material that can be used as both sensor and actuator. Its advantages include low voltage operation, light weight, low power consumption, biodegradability and low cost. EAPap is made with cellulose paper coated with thin electrodes. EAPap shows a reversible and reproducible bending movement as well as longitudinal displacement under an electric field. However, EAPap is a complex anisotropic material which has not been fully characterized. This study investigates the mechanical properties of cellulose-based EAPap, including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and creep, along with orientation directions, humidity and temperature levels. To test the materials in different humidity and temperature levels, a special material testing system was made that can control the testing environmental conditions. The initial Young's modulus of EAPap is in the range of 4–9 GPa, which was higher than that of other polymer materials. Also, the Young's modulus is orientation dependent, which may be associated with the piezoelectricity of EAPap materials. The elastic strength and stiffness gradually decreased when the humidity and temperature were increased. Creep and relaxation were observed under constant stress and strain, respectively. Through scanning electron microscopy, EAPap is shown to exhibit both layered and oriented cellulose macromolecular structures that impact both the elastic and plastic behavior

  2. [Hygienic characteristics of work conditions at large Hydroelectric Power Plants with mechanization and automatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, L D

    1997-01-01

    The article touches upon hygienic problems associated with mechanization and automation of major hydroelectric power stations. The authors present criteria to evaluate work conditions of the main occupations participating in the technologic process of hydroelectric power stations.

  3. Decomposition mechanism of melamine borate in pyrolytic and thermo-oxidative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffendahl, Carmen; Duquesne, Sophie; Fontaine, Gaëlle; Bourbigot, Serge, E-mail: serge.bourbigot@ensc-lille.fr

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • Decomposition of melamine borate in pyrolytic and thermo-oxidative conditions was investigated. • With increasing temperature, orthoboric acid forms boron oxide releasing water. • Melamine decomposes evolving melamine, ammonia and other fragments. • Boron oxide is transformed into boron nitride and boron nitride-oxide structures through presence of ammonia. - Abstract: Decomposition mechanism of melamine borate (MB) in pyrolytic and thermo-oxidative conditions is investigated in the condensed and gas phases using solid state NMR ({sup 13}C and {sup 11}B), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), pyrolysis-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (py-GCMS) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TGA–FTIR). It is evidenced that orthoboric acid dehydrates to metaboric and then to boron oxide. The melamine is partially sublimated. At the same time, melamine condensates, i.e., melem and melon are formed. Melon is only formed in thermo-oxidative conditions. At higher temperature, melem and melon decompose releasing ammonia which reacts with the boron oxide to form boron nitride (BN) and BNO structures.

  4. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  5. Ablation characteristics and reaction mechanism of insulation materials under slag deposition condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yiwen; Li, Jiang; Liu, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Current understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in the ablation of insulation materials by highly aluminized solid propellants is limited. The study on the heat transfer and ablation principle of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) materials under slag deposition condition is essential for future design or modification of large solid rocket motors (SRMs) for launch application. In this paper, the alumina liquid flow pattern and the deposition principle in full-scale SRM engines are discussed. The interaction mechanism between the alumina droplets and the wall are analyzed. Then, an experimental method was developed to simulate the insulation material ablation under slag deposition condition. Experimental study was conducted based on a laboratory-scale device. Meanwhile, from the analysis of the cross-sectional morphology and chemical composition of the charring layer after ablation, the reaction mechanism of the charring layer under deposition condition was discussed, and the main reaction equation was derived. The numerical simulation and experimental results show the following. (i) The alumina droplet flow in the deposition section of the laboratory-scale device is similar to that of a full-scale SRM. (ii) The charring layer of the EPDM insulator displays a porous tight/loose structure under high-temperature slag deposition condition. (iii) A seven-step carbothermal reduction in the alumina is derived and established under high-pressure and high-temperature environment in the SRM combustion chamber. (iv) The analysis using thermodynamic software indicates that the reaction of the alumina and charring layer initially forms Al4C3 during the operation. Then, Al element and Al2OC compound are subsequently produced with the reduction in the release of gas CO as well with continuous environmental heating.

  6. Effects of service condition on rolling contact fatigue failure mechanism and lifetime of thermal spray coatings—A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huawei; Cui, Xiufang; Wang, Haidou; Xing, Zhiguo; Jin, Guo

    2015-01-01

    The service condition determines the Rolling Contact Fatigue(RCF) failure mechanism and lifetime under ascertain material structure integrity parameter of thermal spray coating. The available literature on the RCF testing of thermal spray coatings under various condition services is considerable; it is generally difficult to synthesize all of the result to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the parameters which has a great effect on a thermal spray coating's resistance of RCF. The effects of service conditions(lubrication states, contact stresses, revolve speed, and slip ratio) on the changing of thermal spray coatings' contact fatigue lifetime is introduced systematically. The effects of different service condition on RCF failure mechanism of thermal spray coating from the change of material structure integrity are also summarized. Moreover, In order to enhance the RCF performance, the parameter optimal design formula of service condition and material structure integrity is proposed based on the effect of service condition on thermal spray coatings' contact fatigue lifetime and RCF failure mechanism. The shortage of available literature and the forecast focus in future researches are discussed based on available research. The explicit result of RCF lifetime law and parameter optimal design formula in term of lubrication states, contact stresses, revolve speed, and slip ratio, is significant to improve the RCF performance on the engineering application.

  7. Conditional bistability, a generic cellular mnemonic mechanism for robust and flexible working memory computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Guillaume; Sarazin, Matthieu; Clemente, Alexandra; Holden, Stephanie; Paz, Jeanne T; Delord, Bruno

    2018-04-30

    Persistent neural activity, the substrate of working memory, is thought to emerge from synaptic reverberation within recurrent networks. However, reverberation models do not robustly explain fundamental dynamics of persistent activity, including high-spiking irregularity, large intertrial variability, and state transitions. While cellular bistability may contribute to persistent activity, its rigidity appears incompatible with persistent activity labile characteristics. Here, we unravel in a cellular model a form of spike-mediated conditional bistability that is robust, generic and provides a rich repertoire of mnemonic computations. Under asynchronous synaptic inputs of the awakened state, conditional bistability generates spiking/bursting episodes, accounting for the irregularity, variability and state transitions characterizing persistent activity. This mechanism has likely been overlooked because of the sub-threshold input it requires and we predict how to assess it experimentally. Our results suggest a reexamination of the role of intrinsic properties in the collective network dynamics responsible for flexible working memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study unravels a novel form of intrinsic neuronal property, i.e. conditional bistability. We show that, thanks of its conditional character, conditional bistability favors the emergence of flexible and robust forms of persistent activity in PFC neural networks, in opposition to previously studied classical forms of absolute bistability. Specifically, we demonstrate for the first time that conditional bistability 1) is a generic biophysical spike-dependent mechanism of layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC and that 2) it accounts for essential neurodynamical features for the organisation and flexibility of PFC persistent activity (the large irregularity and intertrial variability of the discharge and its organization under discrete stable states), which remain unexplained in a robust fashion by current models

  8. Effect of heat conditions on the mechanical properties of boron nitride polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochko, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of various types of heat treatment on the mechanical and service properties of polycrystals of boron nitride. Quantitative phase analysis was carried out using the methods described when using a DRON-2.0 x-ray diffractometer. The mechanical characteristics were determined by the method of local loading using the standard nitride polycrystals in the initial state are quite high. On the basis of the results it may be concluded that the heat treatment conditions examined (annealing, hf heating, annealing and hf heating) lead to the same changes in the structural state as those taking place in thermal cycling thus causing the corresponding reduction of the level of the strength properties of the boron nitride polycrystals

  9. Application of acoustic agglomeration to enhance air filtration efficiency in air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Bing Feng; Xiong, Jin Wen; Wan, Man Pun

    2017-01-01

    The recent episodes of haze in Southeast Asia have caused some of the worst regional atmospheric pollution ever recorded in history. In order to control the levels of airborne fine particulate matters (PM) indoors, filtration systems providing high PM capturing efficiency are often sought, which inadvertently also results in high airflow resistance (or pressure drop) that increases the energy consumption for air distribution. A pre-conditioning mechanism promoting the formation of particle clusters to enhance PM capturing efficiency without adding flow resistance in the air distribution ductwork could provide an energy-efficient solution. This pre-conditioning mechanism can be fulfilled by acoustic agglomeration, which is a phenomenon that promotes the coagulation of suspended particles by acoustic waves propagating in the fluid medium. This paper discusses the basic mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration along with influencing factors that could affect the agglomeration efficiency. The feasibility to apply acoustic agglomeration to improve filtration in air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) systems is investigated experimentally in a small-scale wind tunnel. Experimental results indicate that this novel application of acoustic pre-conditioning improves the PM2.5 filtration efficiency of the test filters by up to 10% without introducing additional pressure drop. The fan energy savings from not having to switch to a high capturing efficiency filter largely outstrip the additional energy consumed by the acoustics system. This, as a whole, demonstrates potential energy savings from the combined acoustic-enhanced filtration system without compromising on PM capturing efficiency.

  10. Application of acoustic agglomeration to enhance air filtration efficiency in air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Feng Ng

    Full Text Available The recent episodes of haze in Southeast Asia have caused some of the worst regional atmospheric pollution ever recorded in history. In order to control the levels of airborne fine particulate matters (PM indoors, filtration systems providing high PM capturing efficiency are often sought, which inadvertently also results in high airflow resistance (or pressure drop that increases the energy consumption for air distribution. A pre-conditioning mechanism promoting the formation of particle clusters to enhance PM capturing efficiency without adding flow resistance in the air distribution ductwork could provide an energy-efficient solution. This pre-conditioning mechanism can be fulfilled by acoustic agglomeration, which is a phenomenon that promotes the coagulation of suspended particles by acoustic waves propagating in the fluid medium. This paper discusses the basic mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration along with influencing factors that could affect the agglomeration efficiency. The feasibility to apply acoustic agglomeration to improve filtration in air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV systems is investigated experimentally in a small-scale wind tunnel. Experimental results indicate that this novel application of acoustic pre-conditioning improves the PM2.5 filtration efficiency of the test filters by up to 10% without introducing additional pressure drop. The fan energy savings from not having to switch to a high capturing efficiency filter largely outstrip the additional energy consumed by the acoustics system. This, as a whole, demonstrates potential energy savings from the combined acoustic-enhanced filtration system without compromising on PM capturing efficiency.

  11. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P. [Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The overall goal of this research project has been to formulate a model describing effects of flue gas conditioning on particulate properties. By flue gas conditioning we mean any process by which solids, gases, or liquids are added to the combustor and/or the exhaust stream to the extent that flue gas and particulate properties may be altered. Our modeling efforts, which are included in our Final Report, are based on an understanding of how ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Flue gas conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of forces acting on the fly ash particles, and can take place through many different methods. Modification of particulate properties can alter ash resistivity or ash cohesivity and result in improved or degraded control device performance. Changes to the flue gas, addition or particulate matter such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sorbents, or the addition of reactive gases or liquids can modify these properties. If we can better understand how conditioning agents react with fly ash particles, application of appropriate conditioning agents or processes may result in significantly improved fine particle collection at low capital and operating costs.

  12. Pipesworld : applying planning systems to pipeline transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milidiu, R.L.; Santos Liporace, F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

    2004-07-01

    This paper explored issues facing the complex task of managing pipelines that transport large volumes of petroleum products over long distances. Since oil pipelines are generally a few inches wide and several miles long, reasonable amounts of distinct products can be transported with very small loss due to the mixing at liquid boundaries. Optimizing the transportation through oil pipelines in terms of maintenance and environmental safety is a high priority for pipeline operators. This paper presented the Pipesworld model which takes into account features such as product interface constraints, limited product storage capacities and due dates for product delivery. It has been benchmarked as a start-of-art general purpose artificial planning system. This paper also reported the results derived by general purpose artificial intelligence planning systems when applied to the Pipesworld model. It demonstrated how various modelling techniques can be used to enhance the planners performance. Current work in developing Plumber was also presented. This dedicated solver that addresses operational situations uses both general purpose planning techniques as well as domain specific knowledge. When Plumber was incorporated into Pipesworld, its outperformed Fast-Forward, one of the best available general purpose planning systems, suggesting that improved versions of Plumber have the potential to deal with various problem scenarios in pipeline operations. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Under a Loading Simulating Operation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Slovikov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of unidirectional composites based on basalt fibers and different marks of epoxy resins are presented. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out using a specimen fixation technique simulating the operation conditions of structures. The mechanical properties of the basalt-fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) were determined. The diagrams of loading and deformation of BFRP specimens were obtain. The formulations of the composites with the highest mechanical properties were revealed.

  14. Proceedings of the 3. Canada-US rock mechanics symposium and 20. Canadian rock mechanics symposium : rock engineering 2009 : rock engineering in difficult conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for geologists, mining operators and engineers to discuss the application of rock mechanics in engineering designs. Members of the scientific and engineering communities discussed challenges and interdisciplinary elements involved in rock engineering. New geological models and methods of characterizing rock masses and ground conditions in underground engineering projects were discussed along with excavation and mining methods. Papers presented at the conference discussed the role of rock mechanics in forensic engineering. Geophysics, geomechanics, and risk-based approaches to rock engineering designs were reviewed. Issues related to high pressure and high flow water conditions were discussed, and new rock physics models designed to enhance hydrocarbon recovery were presented. The conference featured 84 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  15. An intelligent service matching method for mechanical equipment condition monitoring using the fibre Bragg grating sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Zude; Liu, Quan; Xu, Wenjun

    2017-02-01

    Due to the advantages of being able to function under harsh environmental conditions and serving as a distributed condition information source in a networked monitoring system, the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network has attracted considerable attention for equipment online condition monitoring. To provide an overall conditional view of the mechanical equipment operation, a networked service-oriented condition monitoring framework based on FBG sensing is proposed, together with an intelligent matching method for supporting monitoring service management. In the novel framework, three classes of progressive service matching approaches, including service-chain knowledge database service matching, multi-objective constrained service matching and workflow-driven human-interactive service matching, are developed and integrated with an enhanced particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm as well as a workflow-driven mechanism. Moreover, the manufacturing domain ontology, FBG sensor network structure and monitoring object are considered to facilitate the automatic matching of condition monitoring services to overcome the limitations of traditional service processing methods. The experimental results demonstrate that FBG monitoring services can be selected intelligently, and the developed condition monitoring system can be re-built rapidly as new equipment joins the framework. The effectiveness of the service matching method is also verified by implementing a prototype system together with its performance analysis.

  16. Compatibility conditions of a singular hypersurface in the relativistic mechanics of the continuous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maugin, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    In this work the compatibility conditions verified by the discontinuities of relativistic fields and of their space-time and time-like derivatives up to be second order are systematically constructed in terms of the local geometry of the wave front (singular hypersurface). A new time-like derivative that generalizes Thomas' delta-derivative of classical continuum mechanics is thus introduced in the relativistic frame. It allows to formulate these conditions in compact forms. It is thus expected that the relativistic analogue of T.Y. Thomas' (1957) classical theory is produced [fr

  17. The onset condition of equatorial plasma bubbles - the role of seeding mechanism and growth condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, H.; Choi, J. M.; Kwak, Y. S.; Lee, W. K.; Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the role of seeding mechanism and growth condition of perturbations in the creation of equatorial plasma bubbles by analyzing the C/NOFS and ROCSAT-1 satellite observations. The initial development times of bubbles were identified by manual processing of the data, and the periodic characteristics in the occurrence of bubbles were investigated using periodograms obtained from segments of bubble chains. Our preliminary results show that bubbles initiate at the time that the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) ends. This time corresponds to the time that the F region reaches the highest altitude where the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability is large. The initial onset time of bubbles varies with season and longitude in accordance with the variation of the PRE ending time. Our investigation of the periodicity in the occurrence of bubbles (spacing between bubbles) shows that a dominant periodicity does not exist; the spacing between bubbles ranges from 100 km to over 1000 km. A pronounced periodicity occurs in some series of bubbles, but, in general, multiple periodicity co-exists. The initiation of bubbles at a specific local time but the absence of a preferential wave property in the occurrence of bubbles lead to the conclusion that the onset of bubbles is controlled by the growth condition of the R-T instability.

  18. Effects of mechanical properties and geometric conditions on stiffness of Hyperboloid Shallow Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment models based on the hyperboloid shallow shells that represent automobile panel's surface features are established. The effects of material properties and geometric conditions condition on the stiffness of hyperboloid shallow shell are investigated experimentally. The influences of panel thickness and geometric conditions on stiffness are very obvious. Stiffness increases with increasing of the panel thickness, and stiffness doubled as increasing in thickness with 0.1 mm. The effect of thickness on stiffness is far greater than that of blank holding force. The greater the arc height of punch, the greater the stiffness. And stiffness increases nearly by five times with arc height of punch is from 3mm to 9mm. The effect of arc height of punch on stiffness is far greater than that of materials mechanical properties. The stiffness is varied with different panel material properties by the same forming and stiffness test conditions. The decrease of yield strength is beneficial to the panel stiffness. The appropriate choice of materials and forming process condition is important in meeting necessary requirements for the energy-saving, lightweight and reducing wind resistance design in automotive industry.

  19. The Plumber’s Nightmare Phase in Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends. A Self-Consistent Field Theory Study.

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez-Veracoechea, Francisco J.

    2009-11-24

    Using self-consistent field theory, the Plumber\\'s Nightmare and the double diamond phases are predicted to be stable in a finite region of phase diagrams for blends of AB diblock copolymer (DBC) and A-component homopolymer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the P phase has been predicted to be stable using self-consistent field theory. The stabilization is achieved by tuning the composition or conformational asymmetry of the DBC chain, and the architecture or length of the homopolymer. The basic features of the phase diagrams are the same in all cases studied, suggesting a general type of behavior for these systems. Finally, it is noted that the homopolymer length should be a convenient variable to stabilize bicontinuous phases in experiments. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Mechanical properties of electrospun PCL scaffold under in vitro and accelerated degradation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Vange, Jakob; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov

    2014-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers have looked into using polycaprolactone (PCL) as a synthetic biodegradable scaffold for tissue engineering purposes. This study investigated the mechanical properties of an electrospun PCL, while being exposed to physiological fluids at 37C (in vitro conditions) w...... in buffer (pH 12). The accelerated study showed a linear decrease in both elastic modulus and yield stress as a function of degradation time....

  1. Mechanical, electrical and microstructural properties of cement-based materials in conditions of stray current flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, A.; Koleva, D.A.; Copuroglu, O.; Van Beek, C.; Van Breugel, K.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation presents a comparative study on mechanical properties, electrical resistivity and microstructure of mortar under DC current, compared to mortar in rest (no current) conditions. Monitoring was performed from 24h after casting until 84 days of cement hydration. A current density

  2. A literature survey on the dissolution mechanism of spent fuel under disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, Kaija

    1989-06-01

    In Finland spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed of at large depths in crystalline bedrock. As part of the YJT (Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies) - program, the solubiliy and dissolution mechanisms of unirradiated UO 2 are experimentally investigated as a function of groundwater conditions. This study is a literature survey on the leaching and dissolution studies carried out with spent fuel. It consists first a review on characterization studies of spent fuel. Then the solubilities and release mechanisms of the radionuclides from spent fuel in granitic or related groundwaters are discussed, including the dissolution of UO 2 matrix, and the leaching of fission products and actinides. Lastly approaches to modelling the dissolution of spent fuel are shortly discussed

  3. Effect of processing conditions on the mechanical properties of polypropylene/bentonite nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Tatianny S.; Cipriano, Pamela B.; Lira, Vanize F.; Canedo, Eduardo L.; Carvalho, Laura H. de

    2009-01-01

    This work dealt with the effect of processing conditions on the properties of polypropylene/bentonite compounds, using natural clay and an organoclay prepared with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. Compounds with 1% clay were prepared by melt compounding in a single-screw extruder and in a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder, and characterized x-ray diffraction; tensile and impact mechanical tests. X ray diffraction results on clays and compounds show that the surfactant was incorporated within the clay galleries and that intercalated nano composites were obtained with the organoclay processed in either the single or the twin-screw extruder. The data also indicated that, without the addition of a compatibilizer, no significant variation of mechanical properties was observed for the composites processed in either extruder. (author)

  4. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems,this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  5. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Williamson and S. Puttagunta

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems, this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  6. Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Semi-Degradable Poly(β-amino ester)-co-Methyl Methacrylate Networks under Simulated Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L.; Crabtree, Jacob C.; Huq, Yameen R.; Gall, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Poly(β-amino ester) networks are being explored for biomedical applications, but they may lack the mechanical properties necessary for long term implantation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding methyl methacrylate on networks' mechanical properties under simulated physiological conditions. The networks were synthesized in two parts: (1) a biodegradable crosslinker was formed from a diacrylate and amine, (2) and then varying concentrations of methyl methacrylate were added prior to photopolymerizing the network. Degradation rate, mechanical properties, and glass transition temperature were studied as a function of methyl methacrylate composition. The crosslinking density played a limited role on mechanical properties for these networks, but increasing methyl methacrylate concentration improved the toughness by several orders of magnitude. Under simulated physiological conditions, networks showed increasing toughness or sustained toughness as degradation occurred. This work establishes a method of creating degradable networks with tailorable toughness while undergoing partial degradation. PMID:21966028

  7. Competitiveness of the railway transportation in the conditions of functioning of the infrastructure new organizational-economic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Mishchenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The transport infrastructure of railways of the countries of EU-27 in the conditions of functioning new organizational-economic mechanism, and also dynamics of level of competitiveness of a railway transportation as result of reforming of railways of the countries of EU-27, in the conditions of realisation of the European transport legislation is investigated.

  8. Estimation of the physiological mechanical conditioning in vascular tissue engineering by a predictive fluid-structure interaction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresoldi, Claudia; Bianchi, Elena; Pellegata, Alessandro Filippo; Dubini, Gabriele; Mantero, Sara

    2017-08-01

    The in vitro replication of physiological mechanical conditioning through bioreactors plays a crucial role in the development of functional Small-Caliber Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessels. An in silico scaffold-specific model under pulsatile perfusion provided by a bioreactor was implemented using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach for viscoelastic tubular scaffolds (e.g. decellularized swine arteries, DSA). Results of working pressures, circumferential deformations, and wall shear stress on DSA fell within the desired physiological range and indicated the ability of this model to correctly predict the mechanical conditioning acting on the cells-scaffold system. Consequently, the FSI model allowed us to a priori define the stimulation pattern, driving in vitro physiological maturation of scaffolds, especially with viscoelastic properties.

  9. Influence of reduction conditions of NiO on its mechanical and electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehor Brodnikovskyi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yttria stabilized zirconia with a nickel catalyst (Ni-YSZ is the most developed, widely used cermet anode for manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs. Its electro-catalytic properties, mechanical durability and performance stability in hydrogen-rich environ­ments makes it the state of the art fuel electrode for SOFCs. During the reduction stage in initial SOFC operation, the virgin anode material, a NiO-YSZ mixture, is reduced to Ni-YSZ. The volume decrease associated with the change from NiO-YSZ to Ni-YSZ creates voids and causes structural changes, which can influence the physical properties of the anode. In this work, the structural, mechanical and electrical properties of NiO samples before and after reduction in pure H2 and a mixture of 5 vol. % H2-Ar were studied. The NiO to Ni phase transformations that occur in the anode under reducing and Reduction-Oxidation (RedOx cycling conditions and the impact on cell microstruc­ture, strength and electrical conductivity have been examined. Results show that the RedOx treatment of the NiO samples influence on their properties controversially, due to structural transfor­mation (formation of large amount of fine pores of the reduced Ni. It strengthened the treated samples yielding the highest mechanical strength values of 25.7 MPa, but from another side it is resulting in lowest electrical conductivity value of 1.9×105 S m-1 among all reduced samples. The results of this investigation shows that reduction conditions of NiO is a powerful tool for influence on properties of the anode substrate.

  10. Novel instrument for characterizing comprehensive physical properties under multi-mechanical loads and multi-physical field coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyi; Zhao, Hongwei; Ma, Zhichao; Qiao, Yuansen; Hong, Kun; Ren, Zhuang; Zhang, Jianhai; Pei, Yongmao; Ren, Luquan

    2018-02-01

    Functional materials represented by ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics are widely used in advanced sensor and precision actuation due to their special characterization under coupling interactions of complex loads and external physical fields. However, the conventional devices for material characterization can only provide a limited type of loads and physical fields and cannot simulate the actual service conditions of materials. A multi-field coupling instrument for characterization has been designed and implemented to overcome this barrier and measure the comprehensive physical properties under complex service conditions. The testing forms include tension, compression, bending, torsion, and fatigue in mechanical loads, as well as different external physical fields, including electric, magnetic, and thermal fields. In order to offer a variety of information to reveal mechanical damage or deformation forms, a series of measurement methods at the microscale are integrated with the instrument including an indentation unit and in situ microimaging module. Finally, several coupling experiments which cover all the loading and measurement functions of the instrument have been implemented. The results illustrate the functions and characteristics of the instrument and then reveal the variety in mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the piezoelectric transducer ceramic, TbDyFe alloy, and carbon fiber reinforced polymer under coupling conditions.

  11. It is tough to be a plumber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majerech, V.; Sgall, Jiří; Tichý, Tomáš; Woeginger, G.; Král ´, D.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 313, č. 3 (2004), s. 473-484 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A056; GA ČR GA201/01/1195; GA MŠk ME 476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : combinatorial games * computational complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.676, year: 2004

  12. Formation of the mechanism for credit asessment of borrowers in conditions of economic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Vygovska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the state of the credit portfolio of banks in the conditions of instability of the environment and the development of the credit rating of the borrower as a mechanism to prevent the direction of growth of bad debts. The research of the state and dynamics loan portfolio has revealed its sharp deterioration in recent years due to the instability of the external macro environment. The need to reduce the volume of bad debts requires the formation of an adequate mechanism for the borrower's credit rating. Under the mechanism defined in the article the subject-object interaction and providing subsystems have aimed at making management decisions about credit and credit determination capabilities of the enterprise. The authors propose the composition of such a mechanism from the position of a system approach with the subject-object allocation and providing subsystems. As a part of providing credit subsystems the article has allocated a methodological, methodical, information, personnel and organizational support. The article has formed the basic methodological principles of credit rating, namely a comprehensive assessment; the accuracy of the assessment; the progressiveness of the assessment; an objective assessment; professionalism; reality evaluation. Using the proposed credit assessment the mechanism in practice will enhance the effectiveness of the credit relationship between the bank and the borrower. Keywords: credit portfolio; mechanism; creditworthiness assessment; economic instability.

  13. Bicontinuous Phases in Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends: Simulation and Self-Consistent Field Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Martínez-Veracoechea, Francisco J.

    2009-03-10

    A combination of particle-based simulations and self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is used to study the stabilization of multiple ordered bicontinuous phases in blends of a diblock copolymer (DBC) and a homopolymer. The double-diamond phase (DD) and plumber\\'s nightmare phase (P) were spontaneously formed in the range of homopolymer volume fraction simulated via coarse-grained molecular dynamics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such phases have been obtained in continuum-space molecular simulations of DBC systems. Though tentative phase boundaries were delineated via free-energy calculations, macrophase separation could not be satisfactorily assessed within the framework of particle-based simulations. Therefore, SCFT was used to explore the DBC/homopolymer phase diagram in more detail, showing that although in many cases two-phase coexistence of a DBC-rich phase and a homopolymer-rich phase does precede the stability of complex bicontinuous phases the DD phase can be stable in a relatively wide region of the phase diagram. Whereas the P phase was always metastable with respect to macrophase separation under the thermodynamic conditions explored with SCFT, it was sometimes nearly stable, suggesting that full stability could be achieved in other unexplored regions of parameter space. Moreover, even the predicted DD- and P-phase metastability regions were located significantly far from the spinodal line, suggesting that these phases could be observed in experiments as "long-lived" metastable phases under those conditions. This conjecture is also consistent with large-system molecular dynamics simulations that showed that the time scale of mesophase formation is much faster than that of macrophase separation. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. The Plumber’s Nightmare Phase in Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends. A Self-Consistent Field Theory Study.

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez-Veracoechea, Francisco J.; Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2009-01-01

    Using self-consistent field theory, the Plumber's Nightmare and the double diamond phases are predicted to be stable in a finite region of phase diagrams for blends of AB diblock copolymer (DBC) and A-component homopolymer. To the best of our

  15. application of christer's inspection model for building maintenance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system. Information was collected by means of forms and 100 were completed for trades including painter, plumber ... the threat poorly maintained buildings pose to public safety [2]. 2. ..... by operating an inspection system as,. ∫ ∞ h=T. ∫ h.

  16. Model-based analysis of the effect of different operating conditions on fouling mechanisms in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Gianpaolo; Ferraris, Marco; Spagni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a model-based evaluation of the effect of different operating conditions with and without pre-denitrification treatment and applying three different solids retention times on the fouling mechanisms involved in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). A total of 11 fouling models obtained from literature were used to fit the transmembrane pressure variations measured in a pilot-scale MBR treating real wastewater for more than 1 year. The results showed that all the models represent reasonable descriptions of the fouling processes in the MBR tested. The model-based analysis confirmed that membrane fouling started by pore blocking (complete blocking model) and by a reduction of the pore diameter (standard blocking) while cake filtration became the dominant fouling mechanism over long-term operation. However, the different fouling mechanisms occurred almost simultaneously making it rather difficult to identify each one. The membrane "history" (i.e. age, lifespan, etc.) seems the most important factor affecting the fouling mechanism more than the applied operating conditions. Nonlinear regression of the most complex models (combined models) evaluated in this study sometimes demonstrated unreliable parameter estimates suggesting that the four basic fouling models (complete, standard, intermediate blocking and cake filtration) contain enough details to represent a reasonable description of the main fouling processes occurring in MBRs.

  17. Mechanical Characterization of the Human Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Subjected to Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, David, IV

    Low back pain is a large and costly problem in the United States. Several working populations, such as miners, construction workers, forklift operators, and military personnel, have an increased risk and prevalence of low back pain compared to the general population. This is due to exposure to repeated, transient impact shocks, particularly while operating vehicles or other machinery. These shocks typically do not cause acute injury, but rather lead to pain and injury over time. The major focus in low back pain is often the intervertebral disc, due to its role as the major primary load-bearing component along the spinal column. The formation of a reliable standard for human lumbar disc exposure to repeated transient shock could potentially reduce injury risk for these working populations. The objective of this project, therefore, is to characterize the mechanical response of the lumbar intervertebral disc subjected to sub-traumatic impact loading conditions using both cadaveric and computational models, and to investigate the possible implications of this type of loading environment for low back pain. Axial, compressive impact loading events on Naval high speed boats were simulated in the laboratory and applied to human cadaveric specimen. Disc stiffness was higher and hysteresis was lower than quasi-static loading conditions. This indicates a shift in mechanical response when the disc is under impact loads and this behavior could be contributing to long-term back pain. Interstitial fluid loss and disc height changes were shown to affect disc impact mechanics in a creep study. Neutral zone increased, while energy dissipation and low-strain region stiffness decreased. This suggests that the disc has greater clinical instability during impact loading with progressive creep and fluid loss, indicating that time of day should be considered for working populations subjected to impact loads. A finite element model was developed and validated against cadaver specimen

  18. Successful Career Progression: Exploratory Findings from a Study of Selected Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Daniel P.; Betsinger, Alicia M.; King, Christopher T.

    A study examined the career progression of individuals in the following occupations: registered nurse; physical therapist; medical laboratory technologist; paramedic; ranked corrections officer; dental hygienist; electronic technician; pipefitter/plumber; social worker; and auto body shop manager. Researchers conducted face-to-face interviews in…

  19. Gauge fixings, evolution generators and world-line conditions in relativistic classical mechanics with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, L.

    1981-01-01

    After a review of the main models for classical relativistic N-particle systems based upon Dirac's theory of constraints, a detailed study of their Hamiltonian formulation is made. The choice of the arbitrary functions and of the gauge-fixing constraints and the associated realizations of the reduced phase-space and of the observables by means of Dirac brackets are examined in detail. The restrictions on the gauge fixings to obtain compatibility between the evolution in the reduced phase space, generated by the total energy of the system, and the one in the constraint hypersurface, generated by the Dirac Hamiltonian, are found. It is also demonstrated that these restrictions are nothing else than the world-line conditions, i.e. gauge transformations are needed to ensure the objective existence of the world-lines and manifest covariance is broken. This is due to the property of the Dirac brackets of preserving the gauge fixings in every frame of reference. Predictive mechanics and the Currie-Hill world-line conditions are not in contradiction with the previous results: avoiding the Dirac-bracket mechanism, they save the manifest covariance but at the price of using accelerations which are complicated functions of the original potentials depending upon the whole history of the system. (author)

  20. Influence of complexing agents on the mechanical performances of the cement conditioning matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicu, M.; Mihai, F.; Turcanu, C.

    1998-01-01

    The safety of the radioactive waste disposal is a priority demand concerning the protection of the environment and population. For this reason, an engineering multi-barrier system is studied in order to be improved. This study aims to establish the influence of the complexing agents on the mechanical performances of the cement conditioning matrix. Radioactive effluents which contain agents as oxalic and citric acids are generated during the radioactive decontamination operation using chemical methods. The conditioning of these wastes by cementing process imposed the experimental determination of the mechanical performances of the matrix and the upper permissible level of complexing agent concentration. To determine the influence of complexing agents on the mechanical performances of cement conditioning matrix, cubic samples (20 mm x 20 mm x 20 mm) were prepared using commercial Portland cement and solutions of organic complexing acids or salts (citric acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, sodium citrate and ammonium oxalate). The complexation concentration varied between 0.25% and 1% in distilled and drinking water, respectively. The selected cement/water ratio was 0.5. The experiments were focused on: - establishing the firmness of the Pa 35 cement pastes and mortars in dependence on the water/cement ratio, by classical methods (Tetmeyer probe for pastes and standard cone for mortars) and by triclinic time through a funnel with 15 mm aperture; - studying the influence of the tartaric, oxalic, citric acids, ammonium oxalate and sodium citrate solution concentrations on water quantities used to obtain pastes with normal firmness and on Pa 35 cement setting; - the influence of oxalic acid, tartaric acid and ammonium oxalate solution concentrations on the strength of compression of the pastes with normal firmness; - for testing, standard test bar cubes with 20 mm sides were used and the strength of compression was tested at 28 days; - establishing the behaviour in time of

  1. Two-phase flow regimes and mechanisms of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Corre, Jean-Marie; Yao, Shi-Chune; Amon, Cristina H.

    2010-01-01

    A literature review of critical heat flux (CHF) experimental visualizations under subcooled flow boiling conditions was performed and systematically analyzed. Three major types of CHF flow regimes were identified (bubbly, vapor clot and slug flow regime) and a CHF flow regime map was developed, based on a dimensional analysis of the phenomena and available experimental information. It was found that for similar geometric characteristics and pressure, a Weber number (We)/thermodynamic quality (x) map can be used to predict the CHF flow regime. Based on the experimental observations and the review of the available CHF mechanistic models under subcooled flow boiling conditions, hypothetical CHF mechanisms were selected for each CHF flow regime, all based on a concept of wall dry spot overheating, rewetting prevention and subsequent dry spot spreading. Even though the selected concept has not received much attention (in term or theoretical developments and applications) as compared to other more popular DNB models, its basis have often been cited by experimental investigators and is considered by the authors as the 'most-likely' mechanism based on the literature review and analysis performed in this work. The selected modeling concept has the potential to span the CHF conditions from highly subcooled bubbly flow to early stage of annular flow and has been numerically implemented and validated in bubbly flow and coupled with one- and three-dimensional (CFD) two-phase flow codes, in a companion paper. [Le Corre, J.M., Yao, S.C., Amon, C.H., in this issue. A mechanistic model of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions for application to one and three-dimensional computer codes. Nucl. Eng. Des.].

  2. Colloid and radionuclide retention mechanisms in fractured rock under near-natural flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delos, A.; Schaefer, T.; Geckeis, H.; Guimera, J.; Carrera, J.; Fanghaenel, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Experiments in fractured host rock (Grimsel Test Site, GTS, Switzerland) revealed that the colloid relevance for actinide migration is high due to the specific geochemical groundwater conditions [1]. However, even under such conditions it is found that retention of colloids and colloid-borne actinides becomes significant under near-natural groundwater flow rates (1-10 m/a) [2]. Underlying mechanisms of colloid and radionuclide retention are not well understood up to now. The present study co-funded by the NoE ACTINET-6 focuses on (i) the kinetics of actinide-colloid interactions and (ii) the relevance of matrix diffusion as a competition process to other retention mechanisms which affect the actinides behavior in fractured rock systems such as the Grimsel granodiorite. Colloid migration is studied with well defined model colloids as e.g. fluorescence dyed carboxylated polystyrene particles, and natural colloids extracted from bentonite (FEBEX) and from fracture filling material (GTS). In order to study the influence of matrix porosity on actinides migration, those experiments are performed in columns of well defined geometry filled with microporous unmodified silica spheres, porous ceramic material and natural fracture filling material from the GTS. The behaviour of actinides (Pu(IV) and Am(III)) sorbed onto bentonite colloids is investigated in column and batch experiments. All experiments are performed under anoxic conditions. Colloid characterization methods used in this study include the combination of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD), fluorimetry and field flow fractionation (FFF). Experimental results and their application to the parametrisation of reactive colloid transport models are discussed. [1] Geckeis H, Schaefer T, Hauser W, Rabung T, Missana T, Degueldre C, Moeri A, Eikenberg J, Fierz T, Alexander WR (2004) Results of the Colloid and Radionuclide Retention experiment

  3. Microcontroller Based Proportional Derivative Plus Conditional Integral Controller for Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, A; Tawi, K B; Hussein, M; Supriyo, B; Kob, M S Che; Zulkifli, Mohd Ezlamy; Khairuldean A K; Daraoh, Aishah; Ariyono, S

    2012-01-01

    Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley (EMDAP) Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is a transmission utilized by electro-mechanical actuated system. It has a potential to reduce energy consumption because it only needs power during changing CVT ratio and no power is needed to maintain CVT ratio due to self lock mechanism design. This paper proposed simple proportional derivative plus conditional integral (PDCI) controller to control EMDAP CVT ratio which can be simply implemented on a microcontroller. This proposed controller used Astrom-Hagglund method and Ziegler-Nichols formula to tune PDCI gain. The Proportional Derivative controller is directly activated from the start but Integral controller is only activated when the error value reaches error value setting point. Simulation using Matlab/Simulink software was conducted to evaluate PDCI system performance. The simulation results showed PDCI controller has ability to perform maximum overshoot 0.1%, 0.001 steady state error and 0.5s settling time. For clamping condition, settling time is about 11.46s during changing ratio from 2.0 to 0.7, while for release condition, settling time is about 8.33s during changing ratio from 0.7 to 2.0.

  4. The influence of mineral additives on the mechanical performances of the conditioning matrix of radioactive waste by cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Rotarescu, G.; Turcanu, C.N.

    1997-01-01

    To improve the quality of the conditioning matrix of radioactive waste by the cementation technology, mineral additives which are diminishing the leaching rate of the radionuclides in the disposal environment are used. The studies performed until now have as an objective the obtaining of the most propitious mixture of cement and bentonite or cement and volcanic tuff, which have the mechanical properties similar to the cement paste used for the conditioning of the radioactive waste. This mixture, cement - mineral binder, in the future is required to be used at the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant - IPNE - HH Bucharest- Magurele for the conditioning of the radioactive wastes, taking in consideration the properties of these mineral binders: very good plasticity and capacity of adsorption, which lead at the decrease of porosity. Bentonite is a clay already used in the technology of disposal as a filling material to diminish the radioactive spreading because of degradation in time of the metallic package or the intrusion of casual water. The composition of the cement - bentonite - water system is checked by the cement to water and cement to bentonite ratio, by strength and by the separated water volume. The studies show that the best mechanical performance was obtained for a cement to water ratio 10. Taking in consideration the property of bentonite to fill compactly the free spaces in the presence of water, what entails the occurrence of internal tensions in the matrix structure, which leads, in turn, to appearance of microfissures, the mixtures examined by mechanical tests had in their composition less than 10 % bentonite. For volcanic tuff, similar results were obtained using almost the same ratios. In these conditions, the results obtained allow to draw the conclusion that the adequate usage of the mineral additives do not change the resistance of the cement paste used in the conditioning of the radioactive waste. (authors)

  5. The sorption and mechanical properties of the modified cement matrix used for conditioning of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Nuculae, Ortenzia; Jinescu, Gheorghita; Duliu, Octavian; Dogaru, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive contaminant sorption onto concrete represents one of the most important retardation mechanisms in engineered barriers such as the conditioning matrix itself, concrete walls and concrete floors. During the life of a disposal facility for radioactive waste, the sorption properties as well as the mechanical properties of the cement are affected by both external and internal processes. The most important sorbing material present in concrete is the hydrated cement. The sorption data obtained for specific cement or cement mixes in general may be used to characterize a given cement type. In order to improve the mechanical and sorption properties of the cement matrix, different additives were used in the laboratory tests. The used additives are known to have good sorption properties. The paper describes the influence of the concentration of additives on the mechanical and sorption properties of the cement matrix. As radioactive contaminants 134 Cs, 60 Co, 3 H, 241 Am were used. (authors)

  6. Mechanism of red mud combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jiakuan; Yu, Wenbo; Luo, Sen; Peng, Li; Shen, Xingxing; Shi, Yafei; Zhang, Shinan; Song, Jian; Ye, Nan; Li, Ye; Yang, Changzhu; Liang, Sha

    2014-08-01

    Red mud was evaluated as an alternative skeleton builder combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning. The results show that red mud combined with Fenton's reagent showed good conditioning capability with the pH of the filtrate close to neutrality, indicating that red mud acted as a neutralizer as well as a skeleton builder when jointly used with Fenton's reagent. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal dosages of Fe(2+), H2O2 and red mud were proposed as 31.9, 33.7 and 275.1 mg/g DS (dry solids), respectively. The mechanism of the composite conditioner could be illuminated as follows: (1) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS, were degraded into dissolved organics, e.g., proteins and polysaccharides; (2) bound water was released and converted into free water due to the degradation of EPS; and (3) morphology of the conditioned sludge exhibited a porous structure in contrast with the compact structure of raw sludge, and the addition of red mud formed new mineral phases and a rigid lattice structure in sludge, allowing the outflow of free water. Thus, sludge dewatering performance was effectively improved. The economic assessment for a wastewater treatment plant of 370,000 equivalent inhabitants confirms that using red mud conditioning, combined with Fenton's reagent, leads to a saving of approximately 411,000 USD/y or 50.8 USD/t DS comparing with using lime and ordinary Portland cement combined with Fenton's reagent, and approximately 612,000 USD/y or 75.5 USD/t DS comparing with the traditional treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of sintering conditions on the microstructural and mechanical characteristics of porous magnesium materials prepared by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2014-02-01

    There has recently been an increased demand for porous magnesium materials in many applications, especially in the medical field. Powder metallurgy appears to be a promising approach for the preparation of such materials. Many works have dealt with the preparation of porous magnesium; however, the effect of sintering conditions on material properties has rarely been investigated. In this work, we investigated porous magnesium samples that were prepared by powder metallurgy using ammonium bicarbonate spacer particles. The effects of the purity of the argon atmosphere and sintering time on the microstructure (SEM, EDX and XRD) and mechanical behaviour (universal loading machine and Vickers hardness tester) of porous magnesium were studied. The porosities of the prepared samples ranged from 24 to 29 vol.% depending on the sintering conditions. The purity of atmosphere played a significant role when the sintering time exceeded 6h. Under a gettered argon atmosphere, a prolonged sintering time enhanced diffusion connections between magnesium particles and improved the mechanical properties of the samples, whereas under a technical argon atmosphere, oxidation at the particle surfaces caused deterioration in the mechanical properties of the samples. These results suggest that a refined atmosphere is required to improve the mechanical properties of porous magnesium. © 2013.

  8. Investigation of the mechanical properties of the Euratom LCT coil by tests under different boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, A.; Komarek, P.; Maurer, W.; Ulbricht, A.; Wuechner, F.

    1987-01-01

    The increasing size of superconducting magnets for fusion and other application requires a careful design of the mechanical support structure to avoid expensive overdesign or damage. An encouraging progress was made in this field during the last ten years. Requirements of the Large Coil Task, a program to develop superconducting magnets suitable for TOKAMAKS, made it indispensable to transfer the already existing calculation of the finite element method (FEM) to the field of superconducting magnet technology. There are some conditions which require an additional effort and extension of the FEM models for the usage in this field. As a consequence of the operation at low temperatures material data must be available over the whole temperature range. The winding and the conductor of superconducting coils is a sophisticated composite with orthotropic material properties which have to be determined by suitable detailed FEM models and which have to be also checked by measurements on test samples of the winding pack. In most cases an additional structure of stainless steel or fiberglass reinforced epoxy is necessary to support the winding pack. Therefore a suitable model representing the elastic properties of the mechanism of force transmission has to be introduced in the FEM calculations. The mechanical measurements on a superconducting coil confirm or show weak points of the model and close therefore existing gaps. The Euratom LCT coil is equipped with sensors (strain gauges rosettes, displacement transducers) to analyse local and global structural mechanical behaviour. The spectrum of load cases applied during the testing with partly varying boundary conditions offers an excellent experimental frame to elucidate hidden uncovered model problem areas. (orig.)

  9. Cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms in non-associative conditioning: implications for pain and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Elizabeth J; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C; David Sweatt, J

    2013-10-01

    Sensitization is a form of non-associative conditioning in which amplification of behavioral responses can occur following presentation of an aversive or noxious stimulus. Understanding the cellular and molecular underpinnings of sensitization has been an overarching theme spanning the field of learning and memory as well as that of pain research. In this review we examine how sensitization, both in the context of learning as well as pain processing, shares evolutionarily conserved behavioral, cellular/synaptic, and epigenetic mechanisms across phyla. First, we characterize the behavioral phenomenon of sensitization both in invertebrates and vertebrates. Particular emphasis is placed on long-term sensitization (LTS) of withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia following aversive stimulation or injury, although additional invertebrate models are also covered. In the context of vertebrates, sensitization of mammalian hyperarousal in a model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as mammalian models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain is characterized. Second, we investigate the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. We focus our discussion on serotonin-mediated long-term facilitation (LTF) and axotomy-mediated long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) in reduced Aplysia systems, as well as mammalian spinal plasticity mechanisms of central sensitization. Third, we explore recent evidence implicating epigenetic mechanisms in learning- and pain-related sensitization. This review illustrates the fundamental and functional overlay of the learning and memory field with the pain field which argues for homologous persistent plasticity mechanisms in response to sensitizing stimuli or injury across phyla. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influences of lubricant pocket geometry and working conditions upon micro lubrication mechanisms in upsetting and strip drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimizu, Ichiro; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    , during upsetting and strip drawing, by means of a rigid-viscoplastic finite-element formulation. Special emphasis is placed on the effect of pocket geometry on the build-up of hydrostatic pressure, which is responsible for the onset of micro-lubrication mechanisms. A good agreement is found between......Micro-lubricant pockets located in the surface of plastically deforming workpieces are recognised to improve the performance of fluid lubrication in a metal-forming process. This work investigates the joint influence of pocket geometry and process working conditions on micro-lubrication mechanisms...

  11. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an “Enhanced Calcium Efflux” mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel’s stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. PMID:24549172

  12. Mechanical behavior and modelisation of Ti-6Al-4V titanium sheet under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvin, Q.; Velay, V.; Bonnaire, R.; Penazzi, L.

    2017-10-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is widely used for the manufacture of aeronautical and automotive parts (solid parts). In aeronautics, this alloy is employed for its excellent mechanical behavior associated with low density, outstanding corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties up to 600°C. It is especially used for the manufacture of fuselage frames, on the pylon for carrying out the primary structure (machining forged blocks) and the secondary structure in sheet form. In this last case, the sheet metal forming can be done through various methods: at room temperature by drawing operation, at very high temperature (≃900°C) by superplastic forming (SPF) and at intermediate temperature (≥750°C) by hot forming (HF). In order to reduce production costs and environmental troubles, the cycle times reduction associated with a decrease of temperature levels are relevant. This study focuses on the behavior modelling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at temperatures above room temperature to obtained greater formability and below SPF condition to reduce tools workshop and energy costs. The displacement field measurement obtained by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is based on innovative surface preparation pattern adapted to high temperature exposures. Different material parameters are identified to define a model able to predict the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under hot stamping conditions. The hardening plastic model identified is introduced in FEM to simulate an omega shape forming operation.

  13. Casein films: effects of formulation, environmental conditions, and addition of citric pectin on the structure and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin casein films for food packaging applications reportedly possess good strength and low oxygen permeability, but low water-resistance and elasticity. Modifying and customizing the mechanical properties of the films to target specific behaviors depending on environmental conditions would enable a...

  14. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of PVC Polymer under Different Heating and Cooling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkawt Rostam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a widely increasing usage of polymers in various industrial applications, there should be a continuous need in doing research investigations for better understanding of their properties. These applications require the usage of the polymer in different working environments subjecting the material to various temperature ranges. In this paper, an experimental investigation of mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymer under heating and cooling conditions is presented. For this purpose standard samples are prepared and tested in laboratory using universal material testing apparatus. The samples are tested under different conditions including the room temperature environment, cooling in a refrigerator, and heating at different heating temperatures. It is observed that the strength of the tested samples decreases with the increasing of heating temperature and accordingly the material becomes softer. Meanwhile the cooling environments give a clear increasing to the strength of the material.

  15. Space Shuttle Orbiter Wing-Leading-Edge Panel Thermo-Mechanical Analysis for Entry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2010-01-01

    Linear elastic, thermo-mechanical stress analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels is presented for entry heating conditions. The wing-leading-edge panels are made from reinforced carbon-carbon and serve as a part of the overall thermal protection system. Three-dimensional finite element models are described for three configurations: integrated configuration, an independent single-panel configuration, and a local lower-apex joggle segment. Entry temperature conditions are imposed and the through-the-thickness response is examined. From the integrated model, it was concluded that individual panels can be analyzed independently since minimal interaction between adjacent components occurred. From the independent single-panel model, it was concluded that increased through-the-thickness stress levels developed all along the chord of a panel s slip-side joggle region, and hence isolated local joggle sections will exhibit the same trend. From the local joggle models, it was concluded that two-dimensional plane-strain models can be used to study the influence of subsurface defects along the slip-side joggle region of these panels.

  16. Protective effect of astrocyte-conditioned medium on neurons following hypoxia and mechanical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Ji-wen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the protec-tive effect of mouse astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM on hypoxic and mechanically injured neurons by a cell model in vitro, and to explore the possible mechanism. Methods: The model of hypoxic neuronal injury was caused by 3% O 2 in three-gas incubator. Neurons were cul-tured with ordinary medium or 20% ACM respectively and randomly divided into hypoxic group (hypoxia for 4, 8, 24 h and marked as H4R0, H8R0, H24R0 and hypoxia reoxygenation group (H4R24, H8R24, H24R24. Mechanical injury model was developed by scratching neurons cultured in 20% ACM or ordinary medium to different degrees. Neu-rons in both medium were divided into normal control group, mild, moderate and severe injury groups. The 20% ACM was added 24 h before hypoxia/reoxygenation or mechanical injury. The morphology and survival of neurons were observed and counted by trypan blue staining. The concentration of NO, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and membrane ATPase activity were detected by corresponding kits. Results: It was showed that 20% ACM can obviously promote the survival rate of hypoxia/reoxygenated neurons and scratched neurons as well. The morphology and num-ber of neurons exposed to hypoxia or scratch injury showed great difference between groups with or without ACM treatment. Compared with control group, the concentration of NO and LDH was much lower in hypoxic/reoxygenated neurons treated with 20% ACM, and the ATPase activity was higher. For the mechanical injury model, neurons with moderate injury also revealed a lower NO and LDH concen-tration than the control group. All the differences were sta-tistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: ACM can promote the survival and func-tional recovery of neurons following hypoxia or scratching to a certain degree. The mechanism may be associated with reducing the synthesis and release of NO and LDH as well as increasing the activity of membrane ATPase. Key words: Glial cell line

  17. Bet You Would Not Call a Holistic Plumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Robert Lee

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the misuse of the idea of holistic education. Western culture--and not just science and technology, but finance, politics, arts, crafts, and professions too--is not built on holistic insight or understanding, but on analytic thinking. Therefore, logically, successful teaching in all of the above must be created…

  18. Methods for evaluation of mechanical stress condition of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirchev Yordan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary attention is given to the following methods: method by drilling cylindrical holes (drill method and integrated ultrasonic method using volume (longitudinal and transverse, surface, and sub-surface waves. Drill method allows determination of residual mechanical stress in small depth of material surfaces, assessing type, size, and orientation of principal stresses. For the first time, parallel studies are carried out of mechanical stress in materials using the electroacoustic effect of volume, surface and sub-surface waves on the one hand, and effective mechanical stresses on the other. The experimental results present electroacoustic coefficients for different types of waves in the material of gas pipeline tube of 243 mm diameter and 14 mm thickness. These are used to evaluate mechanical stresses in pipelines, according to active GOST standards.

  19. Construction/Communication & Media. B5. CHOICE: Challenging Options in Career Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    The documents aggregated here comprise the fourth grade unit of a career education curriculum for migrant students. The unit focuses on the tools and tasks of workers in 11 jobs in the construction, communication, and media occupational clusters: heavy equipment operator, architect, mason, carpenter, plumber, electrician, telephone line worker,…

  20. Construccion/Communicacion y Medios Publicitarios. Libro del Profesor (Construction/Communication & Media. Teacher's Guide). B5. CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-Hudson Migrant Education Center, New Paltz, NY.

    The guide, written in Spanish, comprises the fourth grade unit of a career education curriculum for migrant students. Focus of the unit is on the tools and tasks of workers in 11 jobs in the construction, communication, and media occupational clusters: heavy equipment operator, architect, mason, carpenter, plumber, electrician, telephone line…

  1. Macroeconomic conditions and health: Inspecting the transmission mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Emilio; Rotondi, Valentina; Stanca, Luca

    2018-02-01

    We study the relationship between macroeconomic conditions and self-reported health in a large sample of Italian individuals, focusing on the mediating role played by health behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, eating habits) and economic stress. Our findings indicate that, overall, higher local unemployment is negatively related to individuals' health conditions. A one percentage point increase in the province-level unemployment rate is associated with a significant increase in the probability of experiencing diabetes (0.03 percentage points), infarction (0.01), ulcer (0.06), cirrhosis (0.01) and nervous disorders (0.07), with a time lag that differs across individual health conditions. Employment status and educational level play a significant role as moderators of these relationships. Eating habits, in addition to economic stress, play a key role as mediators, by enhancing the negative relationship between macroeconomic conditions and health outcomes, while physical exercise is found to play a dampening role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tension cost correlates with mechanical and biochemical parameters in different myocardial contractility conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleci M. Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Tension cost, the ratio of myosin ATPase activity to tension, reflects the economy of tension development in the myocardium. To evaluate the mechanical advantage represented by the tension cost, we studied papillary muscle contractility and the activity of myosin ATPase in the left ventricles in normal and pathophysiological conditions. METHODS: Experimental protocols were performed using rat left ventricles from: (1 streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control Wistar rats; (2 N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME hypertensive and untreated Wistar rats; (3 deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA salt-treated, nephrectomized and salt- and DOCA-treated rats; (4 spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats; (5 rats with myocardial infarction and shamoperated rats. The isometric force, tetanic tension, and the activity of myosin ATPase were measured. RESULTS: The results obtained from infarcted, diabetic, and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-treated rats showed reductions in twitch and tetanic tension compared to the control and sham-operated groups. Twitch and tetanic tension increased in the N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-treated rats compared with the Wistar rats. Myosin ATPase activity was depressed in the infarcted, diabetic, and deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-treated rats compared with control and sham-operated rats and was increased in N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-treated rats. These parameters did not differ between SHR and WKY rats. In the studied conditions (e.g., post-myocardial infarction, deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-induced hypertension, chronic N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester treatment, and streptozotocin-induced diabetes, a positive correlation between force or plateau tetanic tension and myosin ATPase activity was observed. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the myocardium adapts to force generation by increasing or reducing the tension cost to maintain myocardial contractility with a better

  3. Small strain multiphase-field model accounting for configurational forces and mechanical jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Schoof, Ephraim; Tschukin, Oleg; Reiter, Andreas; Herrmann, Christoph; Schwab, Felix; Selzer, Michael; Nestler, Britta

    2018-03-01

    Computational models based on the phase-field method have become an essential tool in material science and physics in order to investigate materials with complex microstructures. The models typically operate on a mesoscopic length scale resolving structural changes of the material and provide valuable information about the evolution of microstructures and mechanical property relations. For many interesting and important phenomena, such as martensitic phase transformation, mechanical driving forces play an important role in the evolution of microstructures. In order to investigate such physical processes, an accurate calculation of the stresses and the strain energy in the transition region is indispensable. We recall a multiphase-field elasticity model based on the force balance and the Hadamard jump condition at the interface. We show the quantitative characteristics of the model by comparing the stresses, strains and configurational forces with theoretical predictions in two-phase cases and with results from sharp interface calculations in a multiphase case. As an application, we choose the martensitic phase transformation process in multigrain systems and demonstrate the influence of the local homogenization scheme within the transition regions on the resulting microstructures.

  4. Chronic Lateral Epicondylalgia Does Not Exhibit Mechanical Pain Modulation in Response to Noxious Conditioning Heat Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Edwin Choon Wyn; Sterling, Michele; Vicenzino, Bill

    2017-10-01

    The impaired attenuation of pain by the application of a noxious conditioning stimulus at a segmentally distinct site, known as conditioned pain modulation (CPM), has been implicated in clinical pain states. Chronic lateral epicondylalgia (LE), which is characterized by lower pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at sites remote to the affected elbow and spinal cord hyperexcitability, is a clinical pain state that might plausibly involve less efficacious CPM. This study aimed to determine whether LE exhibits a less efficacious CPM compared with that in pain-free controls. Results: Twenty participants with LE, aged 50.7 years (SD=7.05) and who had their condition for 10.2 months (range: 2 to 80 mo), were matched by age and sex to 22 pain-free participants. All participants indicated their PPT over the lateral epicondyle(s) before and during a conditioning noxious heat stimulus that was applied over the calf. A CPM score was calculated as the difference between the PPT before and during the heat pain-conditioning stimulus expressed as a percentage of PPT before the heat pain-conditioning stimulus. The condition (LE vs. control) by side (affected vs. unaffected) analysis of variance revealed a significant condition effect (P=0.001), but not side effect (P=0.192) or side-by-condition interaction effect (P=0.951). Follow-up tests for the effect of condition revealed a mean deficit in CPM of -24.5% (95% confidence interval, -38.0 to -11.0) in LE compared with that in pain-free participants. The results that suggest an impaired ability to modulate pain might be associated with the previously observed spinal cord hyperexcitability and the mechanical hyperalgesia that characterizes LE.

  5. Opencast planning of the Woelfersheim mines of PreussenElektra with due attention to rock mechanics conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebscher, S

    1989-04-01

    The change-over from underground to opencast operation in the Woelfersheim workings commenced in 1962 to ensure the coal supply to the power station that was expanded by a 64 MW unit. With due attention to soil mechanics features, a working scheme was evolved for the dredger-mobile conveyor-belt-stacker-system, which as regards the arrangement of the cuts takes into account not only the required output, but also the rock mechanics conditions in the Woelfersheim workings. Operational problems that occur in connection with changes to batter slopes are discussed in the present paper. After the coal has been worked-out in the individual sections of the field opencast residual pits remain, the slopes of which have to be stabilized by means of appropriate measures. (orig.).

  6. Mechanical behavior of irradiated fuel-pin cladding evaluated under transient heating and pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.L.; Johnson, G.D.; Hunter, C.W.; Duncan, D.R.

    1982-11-01

    Fast breeder fuel-pin cladding has been tested under experimental conditions simulating the temperature and pressure history characteristic of anticipated transient events. Irradiation induces severe reductions in both strength and ductility. Ductility losses are independent of the rate of temperature increase and saturate by a fluence of approx. 2 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Losses in strength are dependent on the rate of temperature increase but saturate at a fluence of approx.5 x 10 22 n/cm 2 . Evidence is presented to show that fission products are probably responsible for the degradation in mechanical properties

  7. Correlations between operating conditions, microstructure and mechanical properties of twin wire arc sprayed steel coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandin, G.; Liao, H.; Feng, Z.Q.; Coddet, C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental design matrix was set up in which carbon steel coatings were deposited with a twin wire arc spray gun (TAFA 9000 TM ), using either compressed air or nitrogen as spraying gas. The coating's mechanical properties were studied. Some correlations were made between these properties, spraying conditions and the microstructure of the deposits. Young's modulus was estimated by the single beam method using finite element modeling. Results show that direct relationships do exist between spray conditions, oxide content in the coating and microhardness. Young's modulus of the coatings depends on the lamella thickness and the oxide content. When increasing the compressed air flow rate, Young's modulus increases at first because smaller particles and finer lamellae were made and it decreases later because of a higher oxide content. The increase of nitrogen flow rate lowers the oxide content and increases Young's modulus

  8. Examining Differential Resilience Mechanisms by Comparing 'Tipping Points' of the Effects of Neighborhood Conditions on Anxiety by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Emil Nicolae; Wu, Helen Zhao

    2018-02-20

    Exposure to adverse environmental and social conditions affects physical and mental health through complex mechanisms. Different racial/ethnic (R/E) groups may be more or less vulnerable to the same conditions, and the resilience mechanisms that can protect them likely operate differently in each population. We investigate how adverse neighborhood conditions (neighborhood disorder, NDis) differentially impact mental health (anxiety, Anx) in a sample of white and Black (African American) young women from Southeast Texas, USA. We illustrate a simple yet underutilized segmented regression model where linearity is relaxed to allow for a shift in the strength of the effect with the levels of the predictor. We compare how these effects change within R/E groups with the level of the predictor, but also how the "tipping points," where the effects change in strength, may differ by R/E. We find with classic linear regression that neighborhood disorder adversely affects Black women's anxiety, while in white women the effect seems negligible. Segmented regressions show that the Ndis → Anx effects in both groups of women appear to shift at similar levels, about one-fifth of a standard deviation below the mean of NDis, but the effect for Black women appears to start out as negative, then shifts in sign, i.e., to increase anxiety, while for white women, the opposite pattern emerges. Our findings can aid in devising better strategies for reducing health disparities that take into account different coping or resilience mechanisms operating differentially at distinct levels of adversity. We recommend that researchers investigate when adversity becomes exceedingly harmful and whether this happens differentially in distinct populations, so that intervention policies can be planned to reverse conditions that are more amenable to change, in effect pushing back the overall social risk factors below such tipping points.

  9. An utilization of liquid sublayer dryout mechanism in predicting critical heat flux under low pressure and low velocity conditions in round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Won; Baik, Se-Jin; Ro, Tae-Sun

    2000-01-01

    From a theoretical assessment of extensive critical heat flux (CHF) data under low pressure and low velocity (LPLV) conditions, it was found out that lots of CHF data would not be well predicted by a normal annular film dryout (AFD) mechanism, although their flow patterns were identified as annular-mist flow. To predict these CHF data, a liquid sublayer dryout (LSD) mechanism has been newly utilized in developing the mechanistic CHF model based on each identified CHF mechanism. This mechanism postulates that the CHF occurrence is caused by dryout of the thin liquid sublayer resulting from the annular film separation or breaking down due to nucleate boiling in annular film or hydrodynamic fluctuation. In principle, this mechanism well supports the experimental evidence of residual film flow rate at the CHF location, which can not be explained by the AFD mechanism. For a comparative assessment of each mechanism, the CHF model based on the LSD mechanism is developed together with that based on the AFD mechanism. The validation of these models is performed on the 1406 CHF data points ranging over P=0.1-2 MPa, G=4-499 kg m -2 s -1 , L/D=4-402. This model validation shows that 1055 and 231 CHF data are predicted within ±30 error bound by the LSD mechanism and the AFD mechanism, respectively. However, some CHF data whose critical qualities are <0.4 or whose tube length-to-diameter ratios are <70 are considerably overestimated by the CHF model based on the LSD mechanism. These overestimations seem to be caused by an inadequate CHF mechanism classification and an insufficient consideration of the flow instability effect on CHF. Further studies for a new classification criterion screening the CHF data affected by flow instabilities as well as a new bubble detachment model for LPLV conditions, are needed to improve the model accuracy.

  10. Tool Wear and Formation Mechanism of White Layer When Hard Milling H13 Steel under Different Cooling/Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at revealing the formation mechanism of white layer and understanding the effects of tool wear and cooling/lubrication condition on white layer when hard milling H13 steel with coated cutting tools. Hard milling experiments were carried out, and tool wear and its effect on formation of white layer were investigated. Compared to dry cutting condition, CMQL (cryogenic minimum quantity lubrication technique can obviously reduce tool wear and prolong tool life owing to its good cooling and lubrication properties. The optical images of the subsurface materials indicate that the formation of white layer is related to tool wear; moreover, the thickness of white layer increases with the increase of tool wear. SEM (scanning electron microscope images and XRD (X-ray diffraction analysis confirm that the formation of white layer is mainly due to the mechanical effect rather than the thermal effect. It also proves that white layer is partly decreased or can be totally eliminated by optimizing process parameters under CMQL cutting condition. CMQL technique has the potential to be used for achieving prolonged tool life and enhanced surface integrity.

  11. Mechanical Properties Distribution within Polypropylene Injection Molded Samples: Effect of Mold Temperature under Uneven Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Liparoti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the polymer parts produced by injection molding is strongly affected by the processing conditions. Uncontrolled deviations from the proper process parameters could significantly affect both internal structure and final material properties. In this work, to mimic an uneven temperature field, a strong asymmetric heating is applied during the production of injection-molded polypropylene samples. The morphology of the samples is characterized by optical and atomic force microscopy (AFM, whereas the distribution of mechanical modulus at different scales is obtained by Indentation and HarmoniX AFM tests. Results clearly show that the temperature differences between the two mold surfaces significantly affect the morphology distributions of the molded parts. This is due to both the uneven temperature field evolutions and to the asymmetric flow field. The final mechanical property distributions are determined by competition between the local molecular stretch and the local structuring achieved during solidification. The cooling rate changes affect internal structures in terms of relaxation/reorganization levels and give rise to an asymmetric distribution of mechanical properties.

  12. Irreversibility and conditional probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.I.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mathematical entropy - unlike physical entropy - is simply a measure of uniformity for probability distributions in general. So understood, conditional entropies have the same logical structure as conditional probabilities. If, as is sometimes supposed, conditional probabilities are time-reversible, then so are conditional entropies and, paradoxically, both then share this symmetry with physical equations of motion. The paradox is, of course that probabilities yield a direction to time both in statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, while the equations of motion do not. The supposed time-reversibility of both conditionals seems also to involve a form of retrocausality that is related to, but possibly not the same as, that described by Costa de Beaurgard. The retrocausality is paradoxically at odds with the generally presumed irreversibility of the quantum mechanical measurement process. Further paradox emerges if the supposed time-reversibility of the conditionals is linked with the idea that the thermodynamic entropy is the same thing as 'missing information' since this confounds the thermodynamic and mathematical entropies. However, it is shown that irreversibility is a formal consequence of conditional entropies and, hence, of conditional probabilities also. 8 refs. (Author)

  13. Thermal–mechanical stress analysis of pressurized water reactor pressure vessel with/without a preexisting crack under grid load following conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish, E-mail: smohanty@anl.gov; Soppet, William K.; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Krishnamurti

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Use of intermittent renewable-energy source in power grid is becoming a trend. • Gird load-following can leads to variable power demand from Nuclear power plant. • Reactor components can be stressed differently under gird load-following mode. • Estimation of stress–strain state under grid load-following condition is essential. - Abstract: In this paper, we present thermal–mechanical stress analysis of a pressurized water reactor pressure vessel and its hot-leg and cold-leg nozzles. Results are presented from thermal and thermal–mechanical stress analysis under reactor heat-up, cool-down, and grid load-following conditions. Analysis results are given with and without the presence of preexisting crack in the reactor nozzle (axial crack in hot leg nozzle). From the model results it is found that the stress–strain states are significantly higher in case of presence of crack than without crack. The stress–strain state under grid load following condition are more realistic compared to the stress–strain state estimated assuming simplified transients.

  14. Thermal–mechanical stress analysis of pressurized water reactor pressure vessel with/without a preexisting crack under grid load following conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William K.; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Krishnamurti

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of intermittent renewable-energy source in power grid is becoming a trend. • Gird load-following can leads to variable power demand from Nuclear power plant. • Reactor components can be stressed differently under gird load-following mode. • Estimation of stress–strain state under grid load-following condition is essential. - Abstract: In this paper, we present thermal–mechanical stress analysis of a pressurized water reactor pressure vessel and its hot-leg and cold-leg nozzles. Results are presented from thermal and thermal–mechanical stress analysis under reactor heat-up, cool-down, and grid load-following conditions. Analysis results are given with and without the presence of preexisting crack in the reactor nozzle (axial crack in hot leg nozzle). From the model results it is found that the stress–strain states are significantly higher in case of presence of crack than without crack. The stress–strain state under grid load following condition are more realistic compared to the stress–strain state estimated assuming simplified transients.

  15. Influence of Powder Outgassing Conditions on the Chemical, Microstructural, and Mechanical Properties of a 14 wt% Cr Ferritic ODS Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornin, D.; Giroux, P.-F.; Rigal, E.; Fabregue, D.; Soulas, R.; Hamon, D.

    2017-11-01

    Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic stainless steels are foreseen as fuel cladding tube materials for the new generation of sodium fast nuclear reactors. Those materials, which exhibit remarkable creep properties at high temperature, are reinforced by a dense precipitation of nanometric oxides. This precipitation is obtained by mechanical alloying of a powder and subsequent consolidation. Before consolidation, to obtain a fully dense material, the powder is vacuumed to outgas trapped gases and species adsorbed at the surface of the powder particles. This operation is commonly done at moderate to high temperature to evacuate as much as possible volatile species. This paper focuses on the influence of outgassing conditions on some properties of the further consolidated materials. Chemical composition and microstructural characterization of different materials obtained from various outgassing cycles are compared. Finally, impact toughness of those materials is evaluated by using Charpy testing. This study shows a significant influence of the outgassing conditions on the mechanical properties of the consolidated material. However, microstructure and oxygen contents seem poorly impacted by the various outgassing conditions.

  16. Limb Remote Ischemic Conditioning: Mechanisms, Anesthetics, and the Potential for Expanding Therapeutic Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gangling; Thakkar, Mrugesh; Robinson, Christopher; Doré, Sylvain

    2018-01-01

    Novel and innovative approaches are essential in developing new treatments and improving clinical outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a series of mechanical interruptions in blood flow of a distal organ, following end organ reperfusion, shown to significantly reduce infarct size through inhibition of oxidation and inflammation. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is what ultimately leads to the irreversible brain damage and clinical picture seen in stroke patients. There have been several reports and reviews about the potential of RIC in acute ischemic stroke; however, the focus here is a comprehensive look at the differences in the three types of RIC (remote pre-, per-, and postconditioning). There are some limited uses of preconditioning in acute ischemic stroke due to the unpredictability of the ischemic event; however, it does provide the identification of biomarkers for clinical studies. Remote limb per- and postconditioning offer a more promising treatment during patient care as they can be harnessed during or after the initial ischemic insult. Though further research is needed, it is imperative to discuss the importance of preclinical data in understanding the methods and mechanisms involved in RIC. This understanding will facilitate translation to a clinically feasible paradigm for use in the hospital setting. PMID:29467715

  17. Crack growth threshold under hold time conditions in DA Inconel 718 – A transition in the crack growth mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fessler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeroengine manufacturers have to demonstrate that critical components such as turbine disks, made of DA Inconel 718, meet the certification requirements in term of fatigue crack growth. In order to be more representative of the in service loading conditions, crack growth under hold time conditions is studied. Modelling crack growth under these conditions is challenging due to the combined effect of fatigue, creep and environment. Under these conditions, established models are often conservative but the degree of conservatism can be reduced by introducing the crack growth threshold in models. Here, the emphasis is laid on the characterization of crack growth rates in the low ΔK regime under hold time conditions and in particular, on the involved crack growth mechanism. Crack growth tests were carried out at high temperature (550 °C to 650 °C under hold time conditions (up to 1200 s in the low ΔK regime using a K-decreasing procedure. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify the fracture mode involved in the low ΔK regime. EBSD analyses and BSE imaging were also carried out along the crack path for a more accurate identification of the fracture mode. A transition from intergranular to transgranular fracture was evidenced in the low ΔK regime and slip bands have also been observed at the tip of an arrested crack at low ΔK. Transgranular fracture and slip bands are usually observed under pure fatigue loading conditions. At low ΔK, hold time cycles are believed to act as equivalent pure fatigue cycles. This change in the crack growth mechanism under hold time conditions at low ΔK is discussed regarding results related to intergranular crack tip oxidation and its effect on the crack growth behaviour of Inconel 718 alloy. A concept based on an “effective oxygen partial pressure” at the crack tip is proposed to explain the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture in the low ΔK regime.

  18. Effect of manufacturing and experimental conditions on the mechanical and surface properties of silicone elastomer scaffolds used in endothelial mechanobiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeau, Marc-Antoine; Lortie, Audrey; Tremblay, Pierrick; Béliveau, Marc-Olivier; Dubé, Dominic; Langelier, Ève; Rouleau, Léonie

    2017-07-14

    Mechanobiological studies allow the characterization of cell response to mechanical stresses. Cells need to be supported by a material with properties similar to the physiological environment. Silicone elastomers have been used to produce various in vitro scaffolds of different geometries for endothelial cell studies given its relevant mechanical, optical and surface properties. However, obtaining defined and repeatable properties is a challenge as depending on the different manufacturing and processing steps, mechanical and surface properties may vary significantly between research groups. The impact of different manufacturing and processing methods on the mechanical and surface properties was assessed by measuring the Young's modulus and the contact angle. Silicone samples were produced using different curing temperatures and processed with different sterilization techniques and hydrophilization conditions. Different curing temperatures were used to obtain materials of different stiffness with a chosen silicone elastomer, i.e. Sylgard 184 ® . Sterilization by boiling had a tendency to stiffen samples cured at lower temperatures whereas UV and ethanol did not alter the material properties. Hydrophilization using sulphuric acid allowed to decrease surface hydrophobicity, however this effect was lost over time as hydrophobic recovery occurred. Extended contact with water maintained decreased hydrophobicity up to 7 days. Mechanobiological studies require complete cell coverage of the scaffolds used prior to mechanical stresses exposure. Different concentrations of fibronectin and collagen were used to coat the scaffolds and cell seeding density was varied to optimize cell coverage. This study highlights the potential bias introduced by manufacturing and processing conditions needed in the preparation of scaffolds used in mechanobiological studies involving endothelial cells. As manufacturing, processing and cell culture conditions are known to influence cell

  19. Mineralogical, textural and physical-mechanical study of hydraulic lime mortars cured under different moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizzi, A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the chemical-mineralogical, textural and physical-mechanical properties of hydraulic lime mortars made with siliceous and calcareous aggregate. Mortars were cured at 60% and 90% of relative humidity, so as to assess the variability of mortar petrophysical properties in the hardened state due to the moisture conditions. The final aim was to determine the most adequate moisture conditions to be maintained during application and hardening of hydraulic mortars intended for repair interventions. We found out that using a calcareous aggregate and curing mortar at 90% of relative humidity give place to better textural and mechanical properties. However, these characteristics mostly depend on the maximum size of the aggregate grains, which should be smaller than 6 mm, in order to avoid the occurrence of mechanical discontinuities in the mortar.En este trabajo se han estudiado las propiedades químico-mineralógicas, texturales y físico-mecánicas de morteros de cal hidráulica elaborados con áridos silíceo y calcítico. Estos morteros se han curado al 60% y 90% de humedad relativa, con el fin de evaluar las eventuales diferencias en las propiedades petrofísicas de los morteros una vez endurecidos y así establecer cuál de los dos ambientes es recomendable durante la aplicación y fraguado de morteros de cal hidráulica destinados a obras de restauración. Se ha encontrado que el uso de un árido de composición calcítica y el curado al 90% de humedad relativa dan lugar a morteros hidráulicos con mejores características texturales y propiedades mecánicas. De todas formas, estas características dependen principalmente del tamaño máximo del árido empleado, que debería ser inferior a 6 mm para evitar discontinuidades mecánicas en el mortero.

  20. Breakdown conditioning of copper, CuZr and GlidCop® : effect of mechanical surface treatments

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsvik, T; Calatroni, S; Taborelli, M; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the need of novel materials for the CLIC accelerating structures to resist mechanical fatigue, the copper based metals Copper Zirconium C15000 (CuZr) and GlidCop® Al-15 C15715 have been investigated by DC breakdown measurements, and compared with commercially pure Oxygen-free Copper C10100 (Cu-OFE). In all three cases the saturated breakdown fields (Esat) are similar, despite significant differences in their tensile strengths. In addition, the choice of mechanical surface preparation techniques influences the final breakdown characteristics. For both CuZr and GlidCop® immediate conditioning takes place when the surfaces are prepared by milling. For electro discharge machined (EDM) surfaces, however, several breakdown events are needed to obtain saturation. Specifically, for EDM treated CuZr and GlidCop®, ~50 and ~200 breakdown events are required to reach Esat.

  1. Central heating in Norway. A study of the market trends for the period 2008-2011; Vannbaaren varme i Norge. Et studium av markedsutviklingen i perioden 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarberg, Karl Johan; Hansen, Eivind; Bjoerneng, Heidi; Vasvik, Truls

    2012-11-01

    Under floor heating distribution buildings gives the flexibility to accept multiple forms of renewable energy, whether from district heating, biomass, solar collectors or heat pumps. Central heating is therefore a joker for a flexible energy. This is why Prognosesenteret commissioned by Enova has conducted a survey on central heating systems aimed at plumbers over a 5-year period. (eb)

  2. Molecular Mechanisms Responsible for Neuron-Derived Conditioned Medium (NCM-Mediated Protection of Ischemic Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsin Lin

    Full Text Available The protective value of neuron-derived conditioned medium (NCM in cerebral ischemia and the underlying mechanism(s responsible for NCM-mediated brain protection against cerebral ischemia were investigated in the study. NCM was first collected from the neuronal culture growing under the in vitro ischemic condition (glucose-, oxygen- and serum-deprivation or GOSD for 2, 4 or 6 h. Through the focal cerebral ischemia (bilateral CCAO/unilateral MCAO animal model, we discovered that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced brain infarction was significantly reduced by NCM, given directly into the cistern magna at the end of 90 min of CCAO/MCAO. Immunoblocking and chemical blocking strategies were applied in the in vitro ischemic studies to show that NCM supplement could protect microglia, astrocytes and neurons from GOSD-induced cell death, in a growth factor (TGFβ1, NT-3 and GDNF and p-ERK dependent manner. Brain injection with TGFβ1, NT3, GDNF and ERK agonist (DADS alone or in combination, therefore also significantly decreased the infarct volume of ischemic brain. Moreover, NCM could inhibit ROS but stimulate IL-1β release from GOSD-treated microglia and limit the infiltration of IL-β-positive microglia into the core area of ischemic brain, revealing the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of NCM. In overall, NCM-mediated brain protection against cerebral ischemia has been demonstrated for the first time in S.D. rats, due to its anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and potentially anti-glutamate activities (NCM-induced IL-1β can inhibit the glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity and restriction upon the infiltration of inflammatory microglia into the core area of ischemic brain. The therapeutic potentials of NCM, TGFβ1, GDNF, NT-3 and DADS in the control of cerebral ischemia in human therefore have been suggested and require further investigation.

  3. Examining Differential Resilience Mechanisms by Comparing ‘Tipping Points’ of the Effects of Neighborhood Conditions on Anxiety by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Nicolae Coman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse environmental and social conditions affects physical and mental health through complex mechanisms. Different racial/ethnic (R/E groups may be more or less vulnerable to the same conditions, and the resilience mechanisms that can protect them likely operate differently in each population. We investigate how adverse neighborhood conditions (neighborhood disorder, NDis differentially impact mental health (anxiety, Anx in a sample of white and Black (African American young women from Southeast Texas, USA. We illustrate a simple yet underutilized segmented regression model where linearity is relaxed to allow for a shift in the strength of the effect with the levels of the predictor. We compare how these effects change within R/E groups with the level of the predictor, but also how the “tipping points,” where the effects change in strength, may differ by R/E. We find with classic linear regression that neighborhood disorder adversely affects Black women’s anxiety, while in white women the effect seems negligible. Segmented regressions show that the Ndis → Anx effects in both groups of women appear to shift at similar levels, about one-fifth of a standard deviation below the mean of NDis, but the effect for Black women appears to start out as negative, then shifts in sign, i.e., to increase anxiety, while for white women, the opposite pattern emerges. Our findings can aid in devising better strategies for reducing health disparities that take into account different coping or resilience mechanisms operating differentially at distinct levels of adversity. We recommend that researchers investigate when adversity becomes exceedingly harmful and whether this happens differentially in distinct populations, so that intervention policies can be planned to reverse conditions that are more amenable to change, in effect pushing back the overall social risk factors below such tipping points.

  4. Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning. Topical report No. 1, Literature review and assembly of theories on the interactions of ash and FGD sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  5. The short-term stress response - Mother nature's mechanism for enhancing protection and performance under conditions of threat, challenge, and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabhar, Firdaus S

    2018-03-26

    Our group has proposed that in contrast to chronic stress that can have harmful effects, the short-term (fight-or-flight) stress response (lasting for minutes to hours) is nature's fundamental survival mechanism that enhances protection and performance under conditions involving threat/challenge/opportunity. Short-term stress enhances innate/primary, adaptive/secondary, vaccine-induced, and anti-tumor immune responses, and post-surgical recovery. Mechanisms and mediators include stress hormones, dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking/function and local/systemic chemokine and cytokine production. Short-term stress may also enhance mental/cognitive and physical performance through effects on brain, musculo-skeletal, and cardiovascular function, reappraisal of threat/anxiety, and training-induced stress-optimization. Therefore, short-term stress psychology/physiology could be harnessed to enhance immuno-protection, as well as mental and physical performance. This review aims to provide a conceptual framework and targets for further investigation of mechanisms and conditions under which the protective/adaptive aspects of short-term stress/exercise can be optimized/harnessed, and for developing pharmacological/biobehavioral interventions to enhance health/healing, and mental/cognitive/physical performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of Polymerization Conditions with Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polyethylenes Made with Ziegler-Natta Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anwar Parvez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the synthesis of polyethylenes has been carried out with titanium-magnesium supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts in laboratory-scale reactors. A correlation of different polymerization conditions with thermal and mechanical properties of polyethylenes has been established. It is seen that there is lowering of molecular weight (Mw, polymer yield, and catalyst activity at high hydrogen pressure and high temperature. The Mw, polymer yield, and catalyst activity are improved with the increase in ethylene pressure. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA results show that the increase in temperature and hydrogen pressure decreases storage modulus. The samples with higher Mw showed high activation energy. The melting point decreases with the increase in hydrogen pressure but increases slightly with the increase in ethylene pressure. It is seen that the increase in reaction temperature, ethylene pressure, and hydrogen pressure leads to an increase in crystallinity. The tensile modulus increases with the increase in hydrogen pressure and can be correlated with the crystallinity of polymer. The Mw has a major influence on the flow activation energy and tensile strength. But the other mechanical and thermal properties depend on Mw as well as other parameters.

  7. Study some mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete with nano silica under severe saline environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habeeb Ghalib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to evaluate the performance of Nano silica self-compacting concrete which is subjected to severe saline conditions that contain sulfates and chlorides at concentrations similar to those existing in the soils and ground water of the middle and southern parts of Iraq. For this purpose, ordinary and sulfate resistant Portland cement without and with 3% Nano silica addition by weight of cementitious materials were used. Splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity were investigated for all exposure conditions and all types of mixes of self-compacting concrete at ages of 28, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days. Test results revealed that the inclusion of Nano Silica in concrete mixes improved clearly the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete compared with reference concrete.

  8. From microgravity to osmotic conditions: mechanical integration of plant cells in response to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaszek, Przemyslaw; Kasprowicz, Anna; Michalak, Michal; Janczara, Renata; Volkmann, Dieter; Baluska, Frantisek

    Chemical reactions and interactions between molecules are commonly thought of as being at the basis of Life. Research of recent years, however, is more and more evidently indicating that physical forces are profoundly affecting the functioning of life at all levels of its organiza-tion. To detect and to respond to such forces, plant cells need to be integrated mechanically. Cell walls are the outermost functional zone of plant cells. They surround the individual cells, and also form a part of the apoplast. In cell suspensions, cell walls are embedded in the cul-ture medium which can be considered as a superapoplast. Through physical and chemical interactions they provide a basis for the structural and functional cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton (WMC) continuum spanning the whole cell. Here, the working of WMC contin-uum, and the participation of signalling molecules, like NO, would be presented in the context of plant responses to stress. In addition, the effects of the changing composition of WMC continuum will be considered, with particular attention paid to the modifications of the WMC components. Plant cells are normally adapted to changing osmotic conditions, resulting from variable wa-ter availability. The appearance of the osmotic stress activates adaptory mechanisms. If the strength of osmotic stress grows relatively slowly over longer period of time, the cells are able to adapt to conditions that are lethal to non-adapted cells. During stepwise adaptation of tobacco BY-2 suspension cells to the presence of various osmotically active agents, cells diverged into independent, osmoticum type-specific lines. In response to ionic agents (NaCl, KCl), the adhe-sive properties were increased and randomly dividing cells formed clumps, while cells adapted to nonionic osmotica (mannitol, sorbitol, PEG) revealed ordered pattern of precisely positioned cell divisions, resulting in the formation of long cell files. Changes in the growth patterns were accompanied by

  9. Application of acoustic agglomeration to enhance air filtration efficiency in air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Bing Feng; Xiong, Jin Wen; Wan, Man Pun

    2017-01-01

    The recent episodes of haze in Southeast Asia have caused some of the worst regional atmospheric pollution ever recorded in history. In order to control the levels of airborne fine particulate matters (PM) indoors, filtration systems providing high PM capturing efficiency are often sought, which inadvertently also results in high airflow resistance (or pressure drop) that increases the energy consumption for air distribution. A pre-conditioning mechanism promoting the formation of particle cl...

  10. Behaviour at landfills of waste having undergone mechanic-biological and thermal conditioning; Deponieverhalten mechanisch-biologisch und thermisch behandelten Restabfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danhamer, H.; Dach, J.; Jager, J. [Institut WAR, Darmstadt (Germany). FG Abfalltechnik

    1998-12-31

    The work studies, in landfill test reactors, water, gas and heat transport as well as gas and leachate formation in waste having undergone mechanical-biological and thermal conditioning. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde der Wasser-, Gas- und Waermetransport, sowie die Gasbildung- und Sickerwasserbelastung mechanisch-biologisch und thermisch vorbehandelter Abfaelle in Deponieversuchsreaktoren untersucht. (orig.)

  11. Thermo-mechanical Properties of Upper Jurassic (Malm) Carbonate Rock Under Drained Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Liang; Blöcher, Guido; Milsch, Harald; Zimmermann, Günter; Sass, Ingo; Huenges, Ernst

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to quantify the thermo-mechanical properties of Neuburger Bankkalk limestone, an outcrop analog of the Upper Jurassic carbonate formation (Germany), and to provide a reference for reservoir rock deformation within future enhanced geothermal systems located in the Southern German Molasse Basin. Experiments deriving the drained bulk compressibility C were performed by cycling confining pressure p c between 2 and 50 MPa at a constant pore pressure p p of 0.5 MPa after heating the samples to defined temperatures between 30 and 90 °C. Creep strain was then measured after each loading and unloading stage, and permeability k was obtained after each creep strain measurement. The drained bulk compressibility increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing differential pressure p d = p c - p p showing hysteresis between the loading and unloading stages above 30 °C. The apparent values of the indirectly calculated Biot coefficient α ind containing contributions from inelastic deformation displayed the same temperature and pressure dependencies. The permeability k increased immediately after heating and the creep rates were also temperature dependent. It is inferred that the alteration of the void space caused by temperature changes leads to the variation of rock properties measured under isothermal conditions while the load cycles applied under isothermal conditions yield additional changes in pore space microstructure. The experimental results were applied to a geothermal fluid production scenario to constrain drawdown and time-dependent effects on the reservoir, overall, to provide a reference for the hydromechanical behavior of geothermal systems in carbonate, and more specifically, in Upper Jurassic lithologies.

  12. LCT-coil design: Mechanical interaction between composite winding and steel casing under various test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolensky, B.; Messemer, G.; Zehlein, H.; Erb, J.

    1981-01-01

    Finite element computations for the structural design of the large superconducting toroidal field coil contributed by EURATOM to the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) at ORNL, USA were performed at KfK, using the ASKA code. The layout of the coil must consider different types of requirements: firstly, an optimal D-shaped contour minimizing circumferential stress gradients under normal operation in the toroidal arrangement must be defined. Secondly, the three-dimensional real design effects due to the actual support conditions, manufacturing tolerances etc. must be mastered for different basic operational and failure load cases. And, thirdly, the design must stand a single coil qualification test in the TOSKA-facility at KfK, Karlsruhe, FRG, before it is plugged into the LCTF. The emphasis of the paper is three-pronged according to these requirements: i) the 3D magnetic body forces as well as the underlying magnetic fields as computed by the HEDO-code are described. ii) The mechanical interaction between casing and winding as given elsewhere in terms of high stress regions, gaps, slide movements and contact forces for various load cases representing the LCTF test conditions is illustrated here by a juxtaposition of the operational deformations and stresses within the LCTF and the TOSKA. iii) Particular effects like the restraint imposed by a corset-type reinforcement of the coil in the TOSKA test facility to limit the breathing deformation are parametrically studied. Moreover, the possibilities to derive scaling laws which make essential results transferable to larger coils by extracting a 1D mechanical response from the 3D finite element model is also demonstrated. (orig./GG)

  13. Mechanisms of action in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in people with physical and/or psychological conditions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Modi; Abbott, Rebecca; Dunn, Barnaby; Dickens, Chris; Keil, Tina Frieda; Henley, William; Kuyken, Willem

    2017-07-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for people with psychological and physical problems. However, the mechanisms of action in these interventions that lead to beneficial physical and psychological outcomes have yet to be clearly identified. The aim of this paper is to review, systematically, the evidence to date on the mechanisms of action in mindfulness interventions in populations with physical and/or psychological conditions. Searches of seven databases (PsycINFO, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, ClinicalTrials.gov) were undertaken in June 2014 and July 2015. We evaluated to what extent the studies we identified met the criteria suggested by Kazdin for establishing mechanisms of action within a psychological treatment (2007, 2009). We identified four trials examining mechanisms of mindfulness interventions in those with comorbid psychological and physical health problems and 14 in those with psychological conditions. These studies examined a diverse range of potential mechanisms, including mindfulness and rumination. Of these candidate mechanisms, the most consistent finding was that greater self-reported change in mindfulness mediated superior clinical outcomes. However, very few studies fully met the Kazdin criteria for examining treatment mechanisms. There was evidence that global changes in mindfulness are linked to better outcomes. This evidence pertained more to interventions targeting psychological rather than physical health conditions. While there is promising evidence that MBCT/MBSR intervention effects are mediated by hypothesised mechanisms, there is a lack of methodological rigour in the field of testing mechanisms of action for both MBCT and MBSR, which precludes definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of batch annealing conditions on the mechanical properties of a drawing steel. Influencia de las condiciones de recocido en campaa sobre las propiedades mecanicas de un acero de embuticion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saura, J.J.; Carcel, A.; Cembrero, J.; Villena, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y de Materiales, ETSI. Industriales Valencia (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish correlations between annealing conditions and mechanical properties of extra low carbon deep drawing steel sheets. The mechanical properties can be interpreted on the basis of the microstructures obtained and crystallographic textures. The relationship between process parameters allow to select annealing conditions to achieve the required mechanical and metallurgical characteristics. Author (7 refs.)

  15. Thermal Transport and Entropy Production Mechanisms in a Turbulent Round Jet at Supercritical Thermodynamic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ries

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, thermal transport and entropy production mechanisms in a turbulent round jet of compressed nitrogen at supercritical thermodynamic conditions are investigated using a direct numerical simulation. First, thermal transport and its contribution to the mixture formation along with the anisotropy of heat fluxes and temperature scales are examined. Secondly, the entropy production rates during thermofluid processes evolving in the supercritical flow are investigated in order to identify the causes of irreversibilities and to display advantageous locations of handling along with the process regimes favorable to mixing. Thereby, it turned out that (1 the jet disintegration process consists of four main stages under supercritical conditions (potential core, separation, pseudo-boiling, turbulent mixing, (2 causes of irreversibilities are primarily due to heat transport and thermodynamic effects rather than turbulence dynamics and (3 heat fluxes and temperature scales appear anisotropic even at the smallest scales, which implies that anisotropic thermal diffusivity models might be appropriate in the context of both Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS and large eddy simulation (LES approaches while numerically modeling supercritical fluid flows.

  16. Age and gender differences in mechanically induced intraoral temporal summation and conditioned pain modulation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junad; Korczeniewska, Olga; Benoliel, Rafael; Kalladka, Mythili; Eliav, Eli; Nasri-Heir, Cibelle

    2018-04-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate intraoral temporal summation (TS) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and compare the outcome with TS and CPM induced in the forearm. In addition, we aimed to study the effect of age and gender on intraoral and forearm TS and CPM. Mechanical stimulation was induced with # 5.46 von Frey filament applying 26 grams of force. A single stimulus, followed by a train of 30 successive stimuli, was applied intraorally and to the dominant forearm. CPM was assessed with the TS test as the painful stimulus and with immersion of the nondominant hand in a hot water bath as the conditioning stimulus. Gender was significantly associated with TS but not with CPM measures. Females had significantly lower mean TS measured in the face and in the dominant forearm compared with males. Age was significantly associated with CPM, but not with TS measures. In both sites examined, older patients had significantly lower mean CPM compared with younger patients. Mechanical TM elicited in the oral cavity can be used as test stimulus for CPM testing. Intraoral modulation, both TS and CPM, has an extent similar to that of the standard cutaneous extremity. TS was lower in females, and CPM was reduced with age. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An investigation of transition boiling mechanisms of subcooled water under forced convective conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang-Won, Lee; Sang-Yong, Lee

    1995-09-01

    A mechanistic model for forced convective transition boiling has been developed to investigate transition boiling mechanisms and to predict transition boiling heat flux realistically. This model is based on a postulated multi-stage boiling process occurring during the passage time of the elongated vapor blanket specified at a critical heat flux (CHF) condition. Between the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and the departure from film boiling (DFB) points, the boiling heat transfer is established through three boiling stages, namely, the macrolayer evaporation and dryout governed by nucleate boiling in a thin liquid film and the unstable film boiling characterized by the frequent touches of the interface and the heated wall. The total heat transfer rates after the DNB is weighted by the time fractions of each stage, which are defined as the ratio of each stage duration to the vapor blanket passage time. The model predictions are compared with some available experimental transition boiling data. The parametric effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling on the transition boiling heat transfer are also investigated. From these comparisons, it can be seen that this model can identify the crucial mechanisms of forced convective transition boiling, and that the transition boiling heat fluxes including the maximum heat flux and the minimum film boiling heat flux are well predicted at low qualities/high pressures near 10 bar. In future, this model will be improved in the unstable film boiling stage and generalized for high quality and low pressure situations.

  18. The comparison of two continuum damage mechanics-based material models for formability prediction of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z.; Li, N.; Lin, J.

    2017-09-01

    The hot stamping and cold die quenching process has experienced tremendous development in order to obtain shapes of structural components with great complexity in automotive applications. Prediction of the formability of a metal sheet is significant for practical applications of forming components in the automotive industry. Since microstructural evolution in an alloy at elevated temperature has a large effect on formability, continuum damage mechanics (CDM)-based material models can be used to characterise the behaviour of metals when a forming process is conducted at elevated temperatures. In this paper, two sets of unified multi-axial constitutive equations based on material’s stress states and strain states, respectively, were calibrated and used to effectively predict the thermo-mechanical response and forming limits of alloys under complex hot stamping conditions. In order to determine and calibrate the two material models, formability tests of AA6082 using a developed novel biaxial testing system were conducted at various temperatures and strain rates under hot stamping conditions. The determined unified constitutive equations from experimental data are presented in this paper. It is found that both of the stress-state based and strain-state based material models can predict the formability of AA6082 under hot stamping conditions.

  19. Thermal and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in Chinese patients with burning mouth syndrome--a probable neuropathic pain condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xueyin; Zhang, Jinglu; Fan, Yuan; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Kelun

    2015-01-01

    To explore the hypothesis that burning mouth syndrome (BMS) probably is a neuropathic pain condition, thermal and mechanical sensory and pain thresholds were tested and compared with age- and gender-matched control participants using a standardized battery of psychophysical techniques. Twenty-five BMS patients (men: 8, women: 17, age: 49.5 ± 11.4 years) and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included. The cold detection threshold (CDT), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), mechanical detection threshold (MDT) and mechanical pain threshold (MPT), in accordance with the German Network of Neuropathic Pain guidelines, were measured at the following four sites: the dorsum of the left hand (hand), the skin at the mental foramen (chin), on the tip of the tongue (tongue), and the mucosa of the lower lip (lip). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with repeated measures to compare the means within and between groups. Furthermore, Z-score profiles were generated, and exploratory correlation analyses between QST and clinical variables were performed. Two-tailed tests with a significance level of 5 % were used throughout. CDTs (P < 0.02) were significantly lower (less sensitivity) and HPTs (P < 0.001) were significantly higher (less sensitivity) at the tongue and lip in BMS patients compared to control participants. WDT (P = 0.007) was also significantly higher at the tongue in BMS patients compared to control subjects . There were no significant differences in MDT and MPT between the BMS patients and healthy subjects at any of the four test sites. Z-scores showed that significant loss of function can be identified for CDT (Z-scores = -0.9±1.1) and HPT (Z-scores = 1.5±0.4). There were no significant correlations between QST and clinical variables (pain intensity, duration, depressions scores). BMS patients had a significant loss of thermal function but not

  20. Mechanical design

    CERN Document Server

    Risitano, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    METHODOLOGICAL STATEMENT OF ENGINEERING DESIGNApproaches to product design and developmentMechanical design and environmental requirementsPROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALSMaterials for mechanical designCharacterization of metalsStress conditionsFatigue of materialsOptimum material selection in mechanical designDESIGN OF MECHANICAL COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMSFailure theoriesHertz theoryLubrificationShafts and bearingsSplines and keysSpringsFlexible machine elementsSpur gearsPress and shrink fitsPressure tubesCouplingsClutchesBrakes

  1. Influence of the mechanic boundary conditions on the dynamic and static properties of the ferromagnet with competing anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivtsova, A.V.; Meleshko, A.G.; Gorelikov, G.A.; Fridman, Yu.A.

    2014-01-01

    The phase transitions on the material constants in a semi-infinite ferromagnet with mechanic boundary conditions and competing “inclined” ease-axis anisotropy and easy-plane anisotropy have been investigated. The phase states and the spectra of coupled magnetoelastic waves have been researched. The analysis of the spectra of elementary excitations allowed the construction of the phase diagram of the system. - Highlights: • This article analyzes the influence of boundary conditions on the system's properties. • It is shown that the QU and IFM phases can be realized in the researched system. • Phase transition between these phases is not reorientation. • The inclined anisotropy increases the effect of quantum spin reducing. • The phase diagram of the investigated system is built

  2. Laboratory experiments for understanding mechanical properties of fractured granite under supercritical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, M.; Takahashi, M.; Takagi, K.; Hirano, N.; Tsuchiya, N.

    2017-12-01

    To extract geothermal energy effectively and safely from magma and/or adjacent hot rock, we need to tackle many issues which require new technology development, such as a technique to control a risk from induced-earthquakes. On a development of induced-earthquake mitigation technology, it is required to understand roles of factors on occurrences of the induced-earthquake (e.g., strength, crack density, and fluid-rock reaction) and their intercorrelations (e.g., Asanuma et al., 2012). Our purpose of this series of experiments is to clarify a relationship between the rock strength and the crack density under supercritical conditions. We conducted triaxial deformation test on intact granite rock strength under high-temperature (250 - 750°C), high-pressure (104 MPa) condition at a constant load velocity (0.1 μm/sec) using a gas-rig at AIST. We used Oshima granite, which has initially Young's modulus increased with decreasing the temperature from 32.3 GPa at 750°C to 57.4 GPa at 250°C. At 400 °C, the stress drop accelerated the deformation with 98 times faster velocity than that at load-point. In contrast, at 650°C and 750°C, the velocity during stress drop kept the same order of the load-point velocity. Therefore, the deformation mechanism may start to be changed from brittle to ductile when the temperature exceeds 650°C. Highly dense cracked granite specimens were formed by a rapid decompression test (RDT) using an autoclave settled at Tohoku University (Hirano et al., 2016JpGU), caused by a reduction of fluid pressure within 1-2 sec from vapor/supercritical state (10 - 48 MPa, 550 °C) to ambient pressure. The specimens after RDT show numerous microcracks on X-ray CT images. The RDT imposed the porosity increasing towards 3.75 % and Vp and Vs decreasing towards 1.37±0.52 km/s and 0.97±0.25 km/s. The Poisson's ratio shows the negative values in dry and 0.5 in wet. In the meeting, we will present results of triaxial deformation test on such cracked granites

  3. Modeling of the cold work stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes mechanical behavior under PWR operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.; Delobelle, P.; Leclercq, S.; Bouffioux, P.; Rousselier, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a damaged viscoplastic model to simulate, for different isotherms (320, 350, 380, 400 and 420 degC), the out-of-flux anisotropic mechanical behavior of cold work stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes over the fluence range 0-85.1024 nm -2 (E > 1 MeV). The model, identified from uni and biaxial tests conducted at 350 and 400 degC, is validated from tests performed at 320, 380 and 420 degC. This model is able to simulate strain hardening under internal pressure followed by a stress relaxation period (thermal creep), which is representative of a pellet cladding mechanical interaction occurring during a power transient (class 2 incidental condition). Both the integration of a scalar state variable, characterizing the damage caused by a bombardment with neutrons, and the modification of the static recovery law allowed us to simulate the fast neutron flux effect (irradiation creep). (author)

  4. Generalization of Abel's mechanical problem: The extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinugawa, Tohru, E-mail: kinugawa@phoenix.kobe-u.ac.jp [Institute for Promotion of Higher Education, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    This paper presents a simple but nontrivial generalization of Abel's mechanical problem, based on the extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle. There are two primary aims. The first one is to reveal the linear relation between the transit-time T and the travel-length X hidden behind the isochronicity problem that is usually discussed in terms of the nonlinear equation of motion (d{sup 2}X)/(dt{sup 2}) +(dU)/(dX) =0 with U(X) being an unknown potential. Second, the isochronicity condition is extended for the possible Abel-transform approach to designing the isochronous trajectories of charged particles in spectrometers and/or accelerators for time-resolving experiments. Our approach is based on the integral formula for the oscillatory motion by Landau and Lifshitz [Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), pp. 27–29]. The same formula is used to treat the non-periodic motion that is driven by U(X). Specifically, this unknown potential is determined by the (linear) Abel transform X(U) ∝ A[T(E)], where X(U) is the inverse function of U(X), A=(1/√(π))∫{sub 0}{sup E}dU/√(E−U) is the so-called Abel operator, and T(E) is the prescribed transit-time for a particle with energy E to spend in the region of interest. Based on this Abel-transform approach, we have introduced the extended isochronicity condition: typically, τ = T{sub A}(E) + T{sub N}(E) where τ is a constant period, T{sub A}(E) is the transit-time in the Abel type [A-type] region spanning X > 0 and T{sub N}(E) is that in the Non-Abel type [N-type] region covering X < 0. As for the A-type region in X > 0, the unknown inverse function X{sub A}(U) is determined from T{sub A}(E) via the Abel-transform relation X{sub A}(U) ∝ A[T{sub A}(E)]. In contrast, the N-type region in X < 0 does not ensure this linear relation: the region is covered with a predetermined potential U{sub N}(X) of some arbitrary choice, not necessarily obeying the Abel-transform relation. In

  5. Investigation on the Mechanical Properties of a Cement-Based Material Containing Carbon Nanotube under Drying and Freeze-Thaw Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to explore the mechanical properties of a cement-based material with carbon nanotube (CNT under drying and freeze-thaw environments. Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to analyze the pore structure and microstructure of CNT/cement composite, respectively. The experimental results showed that multi-walled CNT (MWCNT could improve to different degrees the mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strengths and physical performances (shrinkage and water loss of cement-based materials under drying and freeze-thaw conditions. This paper also demonstrated that MWCNT could interconnect hydration products to enhance the performance of anti-microcracks for cement-based materials, as well as the density of materials due to CNT’s filling action.

  6. The effect of grain and pore sizes on the mechanical behavior of thin Al films deposited under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-David, E.; Landa, M.; Janovská, M.; Seiner, H.; Gutman, O.; Tepper-Faran, T.; Shilo, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the relationships between deposition conditions, microstructure and mechanical behavior in thin aluminum films commonly used in micro and nano-devices. A particular focus is placed on the effect of porosity, which is present in all thin films deposited by evaporation or sputtering techniques. The influences of the deposition temperature on the grain size, pore size and crystallographic texture were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical behavior of the films was investigated using four different methods. Each method is suitable for characterizing different properties and for testing the material at different length scales. Nanoindentation was used to study hardness at the level of individual grains; resonant ultrasound spectroscopy was used to measure the elastic moduli and porosity; and bulge and tensile tests were used to study released films under biaxial and uniaxial tensions. Our results demonstrate that even low porosities may have tremendous effects on the mechanical properties and that different methods allow the capture of different aspects of these effects. Therefore, a combination of several methods is required to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical behavior of a film. It is also shown that porosity with different pore size leads to very different effects on the mechanical behavior

  7. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  8. Buckling resistance calculation of Guide Thimbles for the mechanical design of fuel assembly type PWR under normal reactor operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, C.B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The calculations demonstrate the fulfillment of one of the mechanical design criteria for the Fuel Assembly Structure under normal reactor operating conditions. The calculations of stresses in the Guide Thimbles are performed with the aid of the program ANSYS. This paper contains program parameters and modelling of a typical Fuel Assembly for a Reactor similar to ANGRA II. (author)

  9. Degradation of mechanical properties of CrMo creep resistant steel operating under conditions of creep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of a steam tube made of CrMo creep resistant steel are analysed in this contribution after up to 2,6•105 hours service life in creep conditions at temperature 530 °C and calculated stress level in the tube wall 46,5 MPa. During service life there were in the steel gradual micro structure changes, fi rst pearlite spheroidization, precipitation, coaugulation and precipitate coarsening. Nevertheless the strength and deformation properties of the steel (Re, Rm, A5, Z, and the resistance to brittle fracture and the creep strength limit, were near to unchanged after 2,1•105 hours in service. The steam tube is now in service more than 2,6•105 h.

  10. Corrosion mechanisms of spent fuel under oxidizing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Finch, R.; Buck, E.; Bates, J.

    1997-01-01

    The release of 99 Tc can be used as a reliable marker for the extent of spent oxide fuel reaction under unsaturated high-drip-rate conditions at 90 degrees C. Evidence from leachate data and from scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) examination of reacted fuel samples is presented for radionuclide release, potential reaction pathways, and the formation of alteration products. In the ATM-103 fuel, 0.03 of the total inventory of 99 Tc is released in 3.7 years under unsaturated and oxidizing conditions. Two reaction pathways that have been identified from SEM are (1) through-grain dissolution with subsequent formation of uranyl alteration products, and (2) grain-boundary dissolution. The major alteration product identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM, is Na-boltwoodite, Na[(UO 2 )(SiO 3 OH)]lg-bullet H 2 O, which is formed from sodium and silicon in the water leachant

  11. An application of liquid sublayer dryout mechanism to the prediction of critical heat flux under low pressure and low velocity conditions in round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Won; Yang, Jae-Young; Baik, Se-Jin

    1997-01-01

    Based on several experimental evidences for nucleate boiling in annular film and the existence of residual liquid film flow rate at the critical heat flux (CHF) location, the liquid sublayer dryout (LSD) mechanism under annular film is firstly introduced to evaluate the CHF data at low pressure and low velocity (LPLV) conditions, which would not be predicted by a normal annular film dryout (AFD) model. In this study, the CHF occurrence due to annular film separation or breaking down is phenomenologically modelled by applying the LSD mechanism to this situation. In this LSD mechanism, the liquid sublayer thickness, the incoming liquid velocity to the liquid sublayer, and the axial distance from the onset of annular flow to the CHF location are used as the phenomena-controlling parameters. From the model validation on the 1406 CHF data points ranging over P = 0.1 - 2 MPa, G = 4 - 499 kg/m 2 s, L/D = 4 - 402, most of CHF data (more than 1000 points) are predicted within ±30% error bounds by the LSD mechanism. However, some calculation results that critical qualities are less than 0.4 are considerably overestimated by this mechanism. These overpredictions seem to be caused by inadequate CHF mechanism classification criteria and an insufficient consideration of the flow instability effect on CHF. Further studies for a new classification criterion screening the CHF data affected by flow instabilities and a new bubble detachment model for LPLV conditions are needed to improve the model accuracy. (author)

  12. Fuel mechanical design as a boundary condition for fuel management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, F.; Aisch, F.W.; Heins, L.

    1988-01-01

    The incentive to reduce fuel cycle costs as well as the amount of active waste requires, among others, measures to optimize fuel management. Improved fuel management in this sense calls, e.g., for reduction of parasitic neutron absorption, for reduction of neutron leakage, and particularly for burnup extension. Such measures result in increased demands for fuel mechanical design. In the first part of this paper their impact on fuel mechanical behaviour is described. In the second part, some examples of practical importance for the interaction between fuel management optimization and fuel mechanical design are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Effects of Variations in Salt-Spray Conditions on the Corrosion Mechanisms of an AE44 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly J. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of how corrosion affects magnesium alloys is of utmost importance as the automotive and aerospace industries have become interested in the use of these lightweight alloys. However, the standardized salt-spray test does not produce adequate corrosion results when compared with field data, due to the lack of multiple exposure environments. This research explored four test combinations through three sets of cycles to determine how the corrosion mechanisms of pitting, intergranular corrosion, and general corrosion were affected by the environment. Of the four test combinations, Humidity-Drying was the least corrosive, while the most corrosive test condition was Salt Spray-Humidity-Drying. The differences in corrosivity of the test conditions are due to the various reactions needed to cause corrosion, including the presence of chloride ions to cause pit nucleation, the presence of humidity to cause galvanic corrosion, and the drying phase which trapped chloride ions beneath the corrosion by-products.

  14. Effect of Pr on the grain refinement and mechanical properties of AM50 alloy in as-cast condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimoory, Farzaneh Sadat; Emamy, Massoud; Malekan, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Mg alloys have many applications in different industries due to their high strength to weight ratio such as Aerospace, automotive and even bio materials. The formation of the appropriate structures in matrix from intermetallic compounds during solidification affects in improvement of properties. In this study, the effect of different amount of Pr (0, 1, 2 %wt) has been investigated on macro/microstructure and strengthening of AM50 alloy in ambient temperature. In order to characterize macro/microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloys, XRD, OM, SEM Microscopy and tensile test have been used. The reviews of result show that microstructures of AM50 just have presence β in the matrix. The results show that the presence of Pr will lead to interesting changes in the grain size and improvement in mechanical properties. The addition of 1wt. % Pr decreases the grain size from 76μm to 36μm in as-cast condition and When Pr is up to 1wt. %, the β phase becomes finer, and new needle-like or short-rod shaped intermetallic appear in matrix. The best result in microstructure and mechanical properties achieved with adding 1 (wt.) percent of Pr.

  15. Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    impairment of the synthesis of these cells, especially those in In addition to emesis. exposure to lower doses of ionizing bone marrow. However. since...pretreatment with fluoxetine in gustatory conditioning. 629-635. 1983. Pharmnat l Bioc/n-a 8,4,ui 17: 431-443. 1982. 100. Rabin. B. M. and J. S. Rabin

  16. Collapse mechanisms of metal foam matrix composites under static and dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linul, Emanoil, E-mail: emanoil.linul@upt.ro [Department of Mechanics and Strength of Materials, Politehnica University of Timisoara, 1 Mihai Viteazu Avenue, 300 222 Timisoara (Romania); Marsavina, Liviu [Department of Mechanics and Strength of Materials, Politehnica University of Timisoara, 1 Mihai Viteazu Avenue, 300 222 Timisoara (Romania); Kováčik, Jaroslav [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 13 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2017-04-06

    The collapse mechanisms of metal foam matrix composites under static and dynamic loading conditions were experimentally and analytically investigated. Closed-cell aluminium foam AlSi10 with 325±10 kg/m{sup 3} density was used as core material, while stainless-steel-mesh is the faces materials. Prior to characterizing the composite sandwich structure, the stainless steel mesh face material and closed-cell aluminium foam were characterized by tensile testing and compression testing, respectively. Experimental tests were performed on sandwich beams using both High Speed Camera and Digital Image Correlation system for strain distribution. All experimental tests were performed at room temperature with constant crosshead speed of 1.67×10{sup −4} m/s for static tests and 2 m/s impact loading speed for dynamic tests. Two main deformation behaviours of investigated metal foam matrix composites were observed following post-failure collapse: face failure and core shear. It was showed that the initiation, propagation and interaction of failure modes depend on the type of loading, constituent material properties and geometrical parameters.

  17. Mechanism of the rapid dissolution of Pu02 under oxidizing conditions and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.; Koehly, G.

    1991-01-01

    Until the recent years, plutonium dioxide was known to be among the metallic oxides the most difficult to dissolve. From thermodynamic calculations it can be predicted that PuO 2 will dissolve under oxidizing conditions. This can be achieved using Ag(II) species possibly regenerated by electrochemical means. The mechanism of such a process has been elucidated using carbon paste electrochemistry and 18 O labelling. These studies demonstrate that the chemical reaction limiting the overall proces is located on the surface of the solid PuO 2 , and that the first step consists in the oxidation of the plutonium into Pu(V) species. Applications of the dissolution process of PuO 2 by electrogenerated Ag(II) were growing in the recent years in FRANCE. These applications developed often in collaboration with SGN and COGEMA, concern the treatment of: out of specifications PuO 2 , incineration ashes, wastes produced during MOX fuel fabrication, and during the dismantling of old nuclear facilities. A general overview of these different applications is given

  18. A simple approach for the modeling of an ODS steel mechanical behavior in pilgering conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanegas-Márquez, E.; Mocellin, K.; Toualbi, L.; Carlan, Y. de; Logé, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The mechanical behavior of an ODS steel is investigated under pilgering conditions. ► Two mechanical tests show different trends, and are described with a simple model. ► Model parameters are identified using one sample, and considering strain range changes. ► The constitutive model involves few parameters but their values are strain path dependent. ► One identified set of parameters would be appropriate for FEM modeling of pilgering. - Abstract: The optimization of the forming of ODS tubes is linked to the choice of an appropriated constitutive model for modeling the metal forming process. In the framework of a unified plastic constitutive theory, the strain-controlled cyclic characteristics of a ferritic ODS steel were analyzed and modeled with two different tests. The first test is a classical tension–compression test, and leads to cyclic softening at low to intermediate strain amplitudes. The second test consists in alternated uniaxial compressions along two perpendicular axes, and is selected based on the similarities with the loading path induced by the Fe–14Cr–1W–Ti ODS cladding tube pilgering process. This second test exhibits cyclic hardening at all tested strain amplitudes. Since variable strain amplitudes prevail in pilgering conditions, the parameters of the considered constitutive law were identified based on a loading sequence including strain amplitude changes. A proposed semi automated inverse analysis methodology is shown to efficiently provide optimal sets of parameters for the considered loading sequences. When compared to classical approaches, the model involves a reduced number of parameters, while keeping a good ability to capture stress changes induced by strain amplitude changes. Furthermore, the methodology only requires one test, which is an advantage when the amount of available material is limited. As two distinct sets of parameters were identified for the two considered tests, it is recommended to

  19. The influence of processing conditions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of reaction sintered silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, J.

    1979-09-01

    The microstructure of reaction sintered silicon nitride (RBSN) was changed in a wide range of varying green density, grain size of the silicon starting powder, nitriding conditions, and by introducing artificial pores. The influence of single microstructural parameters on mechanical properties like room temperature strength, creep behaviour, and resistance to thermal shock has been investigated. The essential factors influencing these properties were found to be total porosity, pore size distribution, and the fractions of α- and β-Si 3 N 4 . In view of high temperature engineering applications of RBSN possibilities to optimize the material's properties by controlled processing are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Effect of melt conditioning on heat treatment and mechanical properties of AZ31 alloy strips produced by twin roll casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevdas80@gmail.com [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Barekar, N.S. [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); El Fakir, Omer; Wang, Liliang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Prasada Rao, A.K.; Patel, J.B.; Kotadia, H.R.; Bhagurkar, A. [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Dear, John P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Fan, Z. [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-03

    In the present investigation, magnesium strips were produced by twin roll casting (TRC) and melt conditioned twin roll casting (MC-TRC) processes. Detailed optical microscopy studies were carried out on as-cast and homogenized TRC and MC-TRC strips. The results showed uniform, fine and equiaxed grain structure was observed for MC-TRC samples in as-cast condition. Whereas, coarse columnar grains with centreline segregation were observed in the case of as-cast TRC samples. The solidification mechanisms for TRC and MC-TRC have been found completely divergent. The homogenized TRC and MC-TRC samples were subjected to tensile test at elevated temperature (250–400 °C). At 250 °C, MC-TRC sample showed significant improvement in strength and ductility. However, at higher temperatures the tensile properties were almost comparable, despite of TRC samples having larger grains compared to MC-TRC samples. The mechanism of deformation has been explained by detailed fractures surface and sub-surface analysis carried out by scanning electron and optical microscopy. Homogenized MC-TRC samples were formed (hot stamping) into engineering component without any trace of crack on its surface. Whereas, TRC samples cracked in several places during hot stamping process.

  1. Corrosion and mechanical performance of AZ91 exposed to simulated inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emily K; Der, Stephanie; Ehrensberger, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, including Mg-9%Al-1%Zn (AZ91), are biodegradable metals with potential use as temporary orthopedic implants. Invasive orthopedic procedures can provoke an inflammatory response that produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and an acidic environment near the implant. This study assessed the influence of inflammation on both the corrosion and mechanical properties of AZ91. The AZ91 samples in the inflammatory protocol were immersed for three days in a complex biologically relevant electrolyte (AMEM culture media) that contained serum proteins (FBS), 150 mM of H2O2, and was titrated to a pH of 5. The control protocol immersed AZ91 samples in the same biologically relevant electrolyte (AMEM & FBS) but without H2O2 and the acid titration. After 3 days all samples were switched into fresh AMEM & FBS for an additional 3-day immersion. During the initial immersion, inflammatory protocol samples showed increased corrosion rate determined by mass loss testing, increased Mg and Al ion released to solution, and a completely corroded surface morphology as compared to the control protocol. Although corrosion in both protocols slowed once the test electrolyte solution was replaced at 3 days, the samples originally exposed to the simulated inflammatory conditions continued to display enhanced corrosion rates as compared to the control protocol. These lingering effects may indicate the initial inflammatory corrosion processes modified components of the surface oxide and corrosion film or initiated aggressive localized processes that subsequently left the interface more vulnerable to continued enhanced corrosion. The electrochemical properties of the interfaces were also evaluated by EIS, which found that the corrosion characteristics of the AZ91 samples were potentially influenced by the role of intermediate adsorption layer processes. The increased corrosion observed for the inflammatory protocol did not affect the flexural mechanical properties of the AZ91

  2. Effect of mechanical boundary conditions on the dynamic and static properties of a strongly anisotropic ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelikov, G. A.; Fridman, Yu. A.

    2013-01-01

    The spectra of coupled magnetoelastic waves in a semi-infinite strongly anisotropic easy-plane ferromagnet with a rigidly fixed face are analyzed for two variants of fixation (in the basal plane and perpendicularly to it). The phase states of the system are determined. Differences in the phase diagrams and elementary excitation spectra depending on the choice of the sample fixation plane are considered. When rotational invariance is taken into account, the nonreciprocity effect for the velocities of sound in a crystal appears. It is shown that the velocity of sound in the sample considerably depends on the symmetry of the imposed mechanical boundary conditions. The phase diagrams of the system under investigation are presented

  3. Tokamak engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yuntao; Du, Shijun

    2013-01-01

    Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study

  4. The mechanical problems on additive manufacturing of viscoelastic solids with integral conditions on a surface increasing in the growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, D. A.; Manzhirov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Quasistatic mechanical problems on additive manufacturing aging viscoelastic solids are investigated. The processes of piecewise-continuous accretion of such solids are considered. The consideration is carried out in the framework of linear mechanics of growing solids. A theorem about commutativity of the integration over an arbitrary surface increasing in the solid growing process and the time-derived integral operator of viscoelasticity with a limit depending on the solid point is proved. This theorem provides an efficient way to construct on the basis of Saint-Venant principle solutions of nonclassical boundary-value problems for describing the mechanical behaviour of additively formed solids with integral satisfaction of boundary conditions on the surfaces expanding due to the additional material influx to the formed solid. The constructed solutions will retrace the evolution of the stress-strain state of the solids under consideration during and after the processes of their additive formation. An example of applying the proved theorem is given.

  5. Microstructure, mechanical property and metal release of As-SLM CoCrW alloy under different solution treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Gan, Yiliang; Zhang, Shuyuan; Guo, Sai; Lin, Junjie; Lin, Jinxin

    2015-03-01

    In the study, the microstructure, mechanical property and metal release behavior of selective laser melted CoCrW alloys under different solution treatment conditions were systemically investigated to assess their potential use in orthopedic implants. The effects of the solution treatment on the microstructure, mechanical properties and metal release were systematically studied by OM, SEM, XRD, tensile test, and ICP-AES, respectively. The XRD indicated that during the solution treatment the alloy underwent the transformation of γ-fcc to ε-hcp phase; the ε-hcp phase nearly dominated in the alloy when treated at 1200°C following the water quenching; the results from OM, SEM showed that the microstructural change was occurred under different solution treatments; solution at 1150°C with furnace cooling contributed to the formation of larger precipitates at the grain boundary regions, while the size and number of the precipitates was decreased as heated above 1100°C with the water quenching; moreover, the diamond-like structure was invisible at higher solution temperature over 1150°C following water quenching; compared with the furnace cooling, the alloy quenched by water showed excellent mechanical properties and low amount of metal release; as the alloy heated at 1200°C, the mechanical properties of the alloy reached their optimum combination at UTS=1113.6MPa, 0.2%YS=639.5MPa, and E%=20.1%, whilst showed the lower total quantity of metal release. It is suggested that a proper solution treatment is an efficient strategy for improving the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of As-SLM CoCrW alloy that show acceptable tensile ductility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Involvement of Mζ-Like Protein Kinase in the Mechanisms of Conditioned Food Aversion Memory Reconsolidation in the Helix lucorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, V P

    2015-06-01

    We studied the involvement of Mζ-like protein kinase (PKMζ) into mechanisms of conditioned food aversion memory reconsolidation in Helix lucorum. Injections PKMζ inhibitor ZIP in a dose of 5 mg/kg on day 2 or 10 after learning led to memory impairment and amnesia development. Injections of the inhibitor in doses of 1.5 or 2.5 mg/kg had no effect. Repeated training on day 11 after induction of amnesia resulted in the formation of memory on the same type of food aversion similar to first training. The number of combinations of conditional (food) and reinforcing (electrical shock) stimuli was similar during initial and repeated training. We hypothesize that the inhibition of Mζ-like protein kinase erases the memory trace and a new memory is formed during repeated training.

  7. The clinical impact and preventability of ventilator-associated conditions in critically ill patients who are mechanically ventilated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscedere, John; Sinuff, Tasnim; Heyland, Daren K; Dodek, Peter M; Keenan, Sean P; Wood, Gordon; Jiang, Xuran; Day, Andrew G; Laporta, Denny; Klompas, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Ventilator-associated conditions (VACs) and infection-related ventilator-associated complications (iVACs) are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's new surveillance paradigms for patients who are mechanically ventilated. Little is known regarding the clinical impact and preventability of VACs and iVACs and their relationship to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We evaluated these using data from a large, multicenter, quality-improvement initiative. We retrospectively applied definitions for VAC and iVAC to data from a prospective time series study in which VAP clinical practice guidelines were implemented in 11 North American ICUs. Each ICU enrolled 30 consecutive patients mechanically ventilated > 48 h during each of four study periods. Data on clinical outcomes and concordance with prevention recommendations were collected. VAC, iVAC, and VAP rates over time, the agreement (κ statistic) between definitions, associated morbidity/mortality, and independent risk factors for each were determined. Of 1,320 patients, 139 (10.5%) developed a VAC, 65 (4.9%) developed an iVAC, and 148 (11.2%) developed VAP. The agreement between VAP and VAC was 0.18, and between VAP and iVAC it was 0.19. Patients who developed a VAC or iVAC had significantly more ventilator days, hospital days, and antibiotic days and higher hospital mortality than patients who had neither of these conditions. Increased concordance with VAP prevention guidelines during the study was associated with decreased VAP and VAC rates but no change in iVAC rates. VACs and iVACs are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the agreement between VAC, iVAC, and VAP is poor, a higher adoption of measures to prevent VAP was associated with lower VAP and VAC rates.

  8. Effect of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Conditions and Beating Revolution on the Mechanical Properties of Paper made from Gigantochloa scortechinii (Semantan Bamboo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Husna Mohd Hassan; Suhaimi Muhammed

    2013-01-01

    The effect of soda-AQ pulping conditions and beating revolution on the mechanical properties of paper made from Semantan bamboo (Gigantochloa scortechinii) was studied. The bamboo chips were pulped using MK digester pulping unit with 10 to 20 % alkali charge and 150 to 170 degree Celsius cooking temperature. The screened yield varies from 38.7 to 48.4 %, and each yield went through beating process at 1000 or 8000 beating revolutions. The bamboo pulp was then made into 60 g/ m 2 laboratory scale papers and their mechanical properties were assessed conforming to TAPPI standards. The results revealed that tensile index, bursting index, tearing index and folding endurance ranged from 42.04 to 91.09 Nm/ g, 2.68 to 7.10 kPa.m 2 /g, 11.03 to 26.64 mN.m 2 /g and 30 to 1127 double folds, respectively. The highest paper properties were found from pulping condition of 15 % alkali charge and 150 degree Celsius cooking temperature based on the fibre bonding index, with tensile index at 87.71 Nm/g, bursting index at 6.94 kPa.m 2 / g, tearing index at 12.72 mN.m 2 / g and folding endurance at 613 double folds. Such findings indicate that comparable high strength mechanical properties of paper can be produced from Semantan bamboo pulp with more environmentally friendly pulping process compared to the kraft pulping process that had been used in bamboo pulping. (author)

  9. Electric radiant heating or, why are plumbers getting our work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, G. [Britech, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Electric radiant heating (ERH) technologies are now being installed in floors as a means of reducing heating costs. The radiant installations have seen a large increase in sales over the last decade, and are now being used in commercial applications. Sales of hydronic ERH systems have increased by 24 per cent over the last year. ERH systems are energy efficient and do not cause drafts. The systems consist of resistant heating cables installed within the floors of a room. The cables are supplied as loose cables and tracks with predetermined spacings or rugged, heavier cable that can be stapled onto wooden subfloors. Program temperature setbacks can be applied on a room-by-room basis. Electric thermal storage systems allow building owners to store heat in the floors and are ideal for use in combination with time-of-use electric metering. Some electric utilities are now promoting the use of electric thermal storage in order to reduce demand during peak times. Thermostats used with the systems should have floor sensors and ambient air sensors to control space heating in conjunction with the floor sensor. It was concluded that electrical contractors who gain knowledge in the application and installation of the systems will tap into a growing revenue stream. 5 figs.

  10. Electric radiant heating or, why are plumbers getting our work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, G.

    2009-01-01

    Electric radiant heating (ERH) technologies are now being installed in floors as a means of reducing heating costs. The radiant installations have seen a large increase in sales over the last decade, and are now being used in commercial applications. Sales of hydronic ERH systems have increased by 24 per cent over the last year. ERH systems are energy efficient and do not cause drafts. The systems consist of resistant heating cables installed within the floors of a room. The cables are supplied as loose cables and tracks with predetermined spacings or rugged, heavier cable that can be stapled onto wooden subfloors. Program temperature setbacks can be applied on a room-by-room basis. Electric thermal storage systems allow building owners to store heat in the floors and are ideal for use in combination with time-of-use electric metering. Some electric utilities are now promoting the use of electric thermal storage in order to reduce demand during peak times. Thermostats used with the systems should have floor sensors and ambient air sensors to control space heating in conjunction with the floor sensor. It was concluded that electrical contractors who gain knowledge in the application and installation of the systems will tap into a growing revenue stream. 5 figs

  11. Mechanism and kinetics of mineral weathering under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anbeek, C.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with the relationships between crystal structure, grain diameter, surface morphology and dissolution kinetics for feldspar and quartz under acid conditions.

    Intensively ground samples from large, naturally weathered mineral fragments are frequently used in

  12. HFCVD Diamond-Coated Mechanical Seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Simões

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical seal promotes the connection between systems or mechanisms, preventing the escape of fluids to the exterior. Nonetheless, due to extreme working conditions, premature failure can occur. Diamond, due to its excellent properties, is heralded as an excellent choice to cover the surface of these devices and extend their lifetime. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to deposit diamond films over mechanical seals and test the coated seals on a water pump, under real working conditions. The coatings were created by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD and two consecutive layers of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond were deposited. One of the main difficulties is the attainment of a good adhesion between the diamond films and the mechanical seal material (WC-Co. Nucleation, deposition conditions, and pre-treatments were studied to enhance the coating. Superficial wear or delamination of the film was investigated using SEM and Raman characterization techniques, in order to draw conclusions about the feasibility of these coatings in the WC-Co mechanical seals with the purpose of increasing their performance and life time. The results obtained gave a good indication about the feasibility of this process and the deposition conditions used, with the mechanical seals showing no wear and no film delamination after a real work environment test.

  13. Stabilization Mechanism of Roxithromycin Tablets under Gastric pH Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Koki; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Itai, Shigeru; Iwao, Yasunori

    2018-05-31

    Macrolide antibiotics are widely used at clinical sites. Clarithromycin (CAM), a 14-membered macrolide antibiotic, was reported to gelate under acidic conditions. Gelation allows oral administration of acid-sensitive CAM without enteric coating by hindering the penetration of gastric fluid into CAM tablets. However, it is unknown whether this phenomenon occurs in other macrolide antibiotics. In this study, we examined the gelation ability of three widely used macrolide antibiotics, roxithromycin (RXM), erythromycin A (EM), and azithromycin (AZM). The results indicated that not only CAM but also RXM gelated under acidic conditions. EM and AZM did not gelate under the same conditions. Gelation of RXM delayed the disintegration of the tablet and release of RXM from the tablet. Disintegration and release were also delayed in commercial RXM tablets containing disintegrants. This study showed that two of the four macrolides gelated, which affects tablet disintegration and dissolution and suggests that this phenomenon might also occur in other macrolides. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Numerical Simulation of PAHs Formation and Effect of Operating Conditions in DI-Diesel Engines Based on a Comprehensive Chemical Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-Jing Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional numerical simulations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH formation in a Chaochai 6102bzl direct injection diesel engine are performed. n-Heptane is chosen as the fuel. A detailed mechanism, which includes 108 species and 572 elementary reactions that describe n-heptane oxidation and PAH formation, is proposed. A reduced kinetic mechanism, with only 86 reactions and 57 species, is developed and incorporated into computational fluid dynamics (CFD software for the numerical simulations. Results show that PAHs, which were mostly deposited at the bottom of the diesel combustion chamber wall, first increased and then decreased with the increase in diesel crank angle. Furthermore, the diesel engine operating conditions (intake vortex intensity, intake air pressure, fuel injection advance angle, diesel load, and engine speed had a significant effect on PAH formation.

  15. A constitutive mechanical model for gas hydrate bearing sediments incorporating inelastic mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez, Marcelo

    2016-11-30

    Gas hydrate bearing sediments (HBS) are natural soils formed in permafrost and sub-marine settings where the temperature and pressure conditions are such that gas hydrates are stable. If these conditions shift from the hydrate stability zone, hydrates dissociate and move from the solid to the gas phase. Hydrate dissociation is accompanied by significant changes in sediment structure and strongly affects its mechanical behavior (e.g., sediment stiffenss, strength and dilatancy). The mechanical behavior of HBS is very complex and its modeling poses great challenges. This paper presents a new geomechanical model for hydrate bearing sediments. The model incorporates the concept of partition stress, plus a number of inelastic mechanisms proposed to capture the complex behavior of this type of soil. This constitutive model is especially well suited to simulate the behavior of HBS upon dissociation. The model was applied and validated against experimental data from triaxial and oedometric tests conducted on manufactured and natural specimens involving different hydrate saturation, hydrate morphology, and confinement conditions. Particular attention was paid to model the HBS behavior during hydrate dissociation under loading. The model performance was highly satisfactory in all the cases studied. It managed to properly capture the main features of HBS mechanical behavior and it also assisted to interpret the behavior of this type of sediment under different loading and hydrate conditions.

  16. Development and Validation of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Large-Scale Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2014-01-01

    This work is an extension to a previously reported work on chemical kinetic mechanism reduction scheme for large-scale mechanisms. Here, Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) was added as a criterion of data source for mechanism reduction instead of using only auto-ignition condition. As a result......) simulations were performed to study the spray combustion phenomena within a constant volume bomb. Both non-reacting and reacting conditions were applied in this study. Liquid and vapor penetration lengths were replicated for non-reacting diesel spray. For reacting diesel spray, both ignition delay and lift......-off length were simulated. The simulation results were then compared to the experimental data of Sandia National Laboratories and No. 2 Diesel Fuel (D2) was designated as the reference fuel. Both liquid and vapor penetrations for non-reacting condition were well-matched, while ignition delay was advanced...

  17. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  18. ACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE UNDER CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kamyshnyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced immune disregulation is a risk factor of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but, so far, the mechanisms for this effect are not fully known. Expression levels of specific mRNAs were assessed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT from Wistar rats subjected to chronic social stress (CSS. Gene expression was evaluated for NR3C1, Adrβ2, as well as IL-1β, IL-17α pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Nlrp, an inflammasome gene. Under the CSS conditions, we have shown altered distribution of RORγt +, FoxP3+, LMP2+, XBP1+ lymphocytes in GALT.The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats aged 5–6 months. Specific mRNA expression for the target genes was determined by means of real-time PCR performed in a CFX96™ thermocycler («BioRadLaboratories, Inc»,USA. Relative levels of a target gene expression were quantified by the ΔΔCt method, being compared with rat GAPDH reference gene expression. Statistical analysis was performed with available «BioRad СFX Manager 3.1» software. Specific monoclonal rat antibodes were used for detection of immunopositive lymphocytes by means of indirect immunofluorescence technique.CSS development leads to decreased levels of mRNA expression for Nr3c1 and Adrβ2-genes in the GALT cells, being accompanied with unidirectional changes, i.e., increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-17α and Nlrp3-inflammasome genes. These changes are accompanied by decreased FoxP3+/RORγt + cell ratio and predominant Th17 differentiation accompanied by suppressor failure. In addition, CSS development was characterized by unidirectional tendency for increasing total number of LMP2+ lymphocytes and reduced ХВР1+ cell population density in lymphoid structures of rat ileum.The events observed in GALT cell populations under CSS conditions are opposing classical paradigm of the stress response. The CSS-associated effects do not promote immunosuppression, however, are able to cause

  19. Simulation of drive of mechanisms, working in specific conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovskaya, A. V.; Rybak, A. T.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the dynamic loads on the lifting actuator device other than the conventional methods, for example, ship windlass. For such devices, the operation of their drives is typical under special conditions: different environments, the influence of hydrometeorological factors, a high level of vibration, variability of loading, etc. Hoisting devices working in such conditions are not considered in the standard; however, relevant studies concern permissible parameters of the drive devices of this kind. As an example, the article studied the work deck lifting devices - windlass. To construct a model, the windlass is represented by a rod of the variable cross-section. As a result, a mathematical model of the longitudinal oscillations of such rod is obtained. Analytic dependencies have also been obtained to determine the natural frequencies of the lowest forms of oscillations, which are necessary and are the basis for evaluating the parameters of operation of this type of the device.

  20. Conditions for substorm onset by the fast reconnection mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ugai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast reconnection mechanism, involving slow shocks and Alfvénic fast plasma jets, is most responsible for the explosive conversion of magnetic energy associated with geomagnetic substorms and solar flares. In this paper, the spontaneous fast reconnection model is applied to well-known phenomena of substorms. When the east-west width of the tail current sheet becomes 3–4 times larger than its north-south thickness, the fast reconnection mechanism can fully be established, which may lead to substorm onset. The resulting Alfvénic jet can exactly explain, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the in-situ satellite observations of the traveling compression regions (TCRs associated with large-scale plasmoids propagating down the tail. Also, the earthward fast reconnection jet causes drastic magnetic field dipolarization, so that the sheet current ahead of the magnetic loop of closed field lines suddenly turns its direction toward the loop footpoint and a large-scale current wedge is formed according to the growth of field-aligned currents. It is demonstrated that an MHD generator arises ahead of the magnetic loop and drives the current wedge to distinctly enhance the current density in a pair of thin layers of the loop footpoint, giving rise to drastic heating in the form of two ribbons.

  1. NMR chemical shift and J coupling parameterization and quantum mechanical reference spectrum simulation for selected nerve agent degradation products in aqueous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Harri; Anđelković, Boban

    2017-10-01

    The spectral parameters of selected nerve agent degradation products relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention, namely, ethyl methylphosphonate, isopropyl methylphosphonate, pinacolyl methylphosphonate and methylphosphonic acid, were studied in wide range of pH conditions and selected temperatures. The pH and temperature dependence of chemical shifts and J couplings was parameterized using Henderson-Hasselbalch-based functions. The obtained parameters allowed calculation of precise chemical shifts and J coupling constants in arbitrary pH conditions and typical measurement temperatures, thus facilitating quantum mechanical simulation of reference spectra in the chosen magnetic field strength for chemical verification. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  3. Program of assessment of mechanical and corrosion mechanical properties of reactor internals materials due to operation conditions in WWERs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruscak, M.; Zamboch, M.

    1998-01-01

    Reactor internals are subject to three principle operation influences: neutron and gamma irradiation, mechanical stresses, both static and dynamic, and coolant chemistry. Several cases of damage have been reported in previous years in both boiling and pressure water reactors. They are linked with the term of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking as a possible damage mechanism. In WWERs, the principal material used for reactor internals is austenitic titanium stabilized stainless steel 08Kh18N10T, however high strength steels are used as well. To assess the changes of mechanical properties and to determine whether sensitivity to intergranular cracking can be increased by high neutron fluences, the experimental program has been started. The goal is to assure safe operation of the internals as well as life management for all planned operation period. The program consists of tests of material properties, both mechanical and corrosion-mechanical. Detailed neutron fluxes calculation as well as stress and deformation calculations are part of the assessment. Model of change will be proposed in order to plan inspections of the facility. In situ measurements of internals will be used to monitor exact status of structure during operation. Tensile specimens manufactured from both base metal and model weld joint have been irradiated to the total fluences of 3-20 dpa. Changes of mechanical properties are tested by the tensile test, stress corrosion cracking tests are performed in the autoclave with water loop and active loading. Operation temperature, pressure and water chemistry are chosen for the tests. (author)

  4. Bridging the interval: theory and neurobiology of trace conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-01-01

    An early finding in the behavioral analysis of learning was that conditioned responding weakens as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) are separated in time. This "trace" conditioning effect has been the focus of years of research in associative learning. Theoretical accounts of trace conditioning have focused on mechanisms that allow associative learning to occur across long intervals between the CS and US. These accounts have emphasized degraded contingency effects, timing mechanisms, and inhibitory learning. More recently, study of the neurobiology of trace conditioning has shown that even a short interval between the CS and US alters the circuitry recruited for learning. Here, we review some of the theoretical and neurobiological mechanisms underlying trace conditioning with an emphasis on recent studies of trace fear conditioning. Findings across many studies have implications not just for how we think about time and conditioning, but also for how we conceptualize fear conditioning in general, suggesting that circuitry beyond the usual suspects needs to be incorporated into current thinking about fear, learning, and anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermo-mechanical modelling of salt caverns due to fluctuating loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, N.

    2015-12-01

    This work summarizes the development and application of a numerical model for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of salt caverns during cyclic gas storage. Artificial salt caverns are used for short term energy storage, such as power-to-gas or compressed air energy storage. Those applications are characterized by highly fluctuating operation pressures due to the unsteady power levels of power plants based on renewable energy. Compression and expansion of the storage gases during loading and unloading stages lead to rapidly changing temperatures in the host rock of the caverns. This affects the material behaviour of the host rock within a zone that extends several meters into the rock mass adjacent to the cavern wall, and induces thermo-mechanical stresses and alters the creep response.The proposed model features the thermodynamic behaviour of the storage medium, conductive heat transport in the host rock, as well as temperature dependent material properties of rock salt using different thermo-viscoplastic material models. The utilized constitutive models are well known and state-of-the-art in various salt mechanics applications. The model has been implemented into the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Thermal and mechanical processes are solved using a finite element approach, coupled via a staggered coupling scheme. The simulation results allow the conclusion, that the cavern convergence rate (and thus the efficiency of the cavern) is highly influenced by the loading cycle frequency and the resulting gas temperatures. The model therefore allows to analyse the influence of operation modes on the cavern host rock or on neighbouring facilities.

  6. Valuation of Conditions of Mechanized Milking of Cows and of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate mainly the conditions the milking and the mammary health status of cows in the central East Sousse (Tunisian Sahel). The study was conducted on a sample of 20 small and means dairy cattle herds aboveground divided into two study areas. This study examined the general conditions of ...

  7. Multisensor signal denoising based on matching synchrosqueezing wavelet transform for mechanical fault condition assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Cancan; Lv, Yong; Xiao, Han; Huang, Tao; You, Guanghui

    2018-04-01

    Since it is difficult to obtain the accurate running status of mechanical equipment with only one sensor, multisensor measurement technology has attracted extensive attention. In the field of mechanical fault diagnosis and condition assessment based on vibration signal analysis, multisensor signal denoising has emerged as an important tool to improve the reliability of the measurement result. A reassignment technique termed the synchrosqueezing wavelet transform (SWT) has obvious superiority in slow time-varying signal representation and denoising for fault diagnosis applications. The SWT uses the time-frequency reassignment scheme, which can provide signal properties in 2D domains (time and frequency). However, when the measured signal contains strong noise components and fast varying instantaneous frequency, the performance of SWT-based analysis still depends on the accuracy of instantaneous frequency estimation. In this paper, a matching synchrosqueezing wavelet transform (MSWT) is investigated as a potential candidate to replace the conventional synchrosqueezing transform for the applications of denoising and fault feature extraction. The improved technology utilizes the comprehensive instantaneous frequency estimation by chirp rate estimation to achieve a highly concentrated time-frequency representation so that the signal resolution can be significantly improved. To exploit inter-channel dependencies, the multisensor denoising strategy is performed by using a modulated multivariate oscillation model to partition the time-frequency domain; then, the common characteristics of the multivariate data can be effectively identified. Furthermore, a modified universal threshold is utilized to remove noise components, while the signal components of interest can be retained. Thus, a novel MSWT-based multisensor signal denoising algorithm is proposed in this paper. The validity of this method is verified by numerical simulation, and experiments including a rolling

  8. Mechanical conditions and modes of paraglacial deep-seated gravitational spreading in Valles Marineris, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Magdalena; Mège, Daniel; Gueydan, Frédéric; Chéry, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Deep-seated gravitational spreading (DSGS) affects the slopes of formerly glaciated mountain ridges. On Mars, DSGS has played a key role in shaping the landforms of the giant Valles Marineris troughs. Though less spectacular, DSGS is common in terrestrial orogens, where understanding its mechanics is critical in the light of the ongoing climate change because it is a potential source of catastrophic landslides in deglaciated valleys. We conducted parametric numerical studies in order to identify important factors responsible for DSGS initiation. DSGS models are computed using an elastoviscoplastic finite element code. Using ADELI's software, we reproduce topographic ridge spreading under the effect of valley unloading. Two types of spreading topographic ridges are investigated, homogeneous or with horizontal rheological layering. We find that gravitational instabilities are enhanced by high slopes, which increase gravitational stress, and low friction and cohesion, which decrease yield stress. In the unlayered ridge, instability is triggered by glacial unloading with plastic strain concentration inside the ridge and at the base of the high slopes. Vertical fractures develop in the upper part of the slope, potentially leading to fault scarps. Ridge homogeneity promotes a deformation mode controlled by uphill-facing normal faulting and basal bulging. In the second case, the ridge encompasses horizontal geological discontinuities that induce rock mass anisotropy. Discontinuity located at the base of the slope accumulates plastic strain, leading to the formation of a sliding plane evolving into a landslide. The presence of a weak layer at ridge base therefore promotes another slope deformation mode ending up with catastrophic failure. Mechanical conditions and slope height being equal, these conclusions can probably be extrapolated to Earth. Compared with Mars, DSGS on Earth is inhibited because terrestrial topographic gradients are lower than in Valles Marineris, an

  9. Fault condition stress analysis of NET 16 TF coil model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, C.T.J.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the design process of the NET/ITER toroidal field coils (TFCs), the mechanical behaviour of the magnetic system under fault conditions has to be analysed in some detail. Under fault conditions, either electrical or mechanical, the magnetic loading of the coils becomes extreme and further mechanical failure of parts of the overall structure might occur (e.g. failure of the coil, gravitational support, intercoil structure). The mechanical behaviour of the magnetic system under fault conditions has been analysed with a finite element model of the complete TFC system. The analysed fault conditions consist of: a thermal fault, electrical faults and mechanical faults. The mechanical faults have been applied simultaneously with an electrical fault. This report described the work carried out to create the finite element model of 16 TFCs and contains an extensive presentation of the results, obtained with this model, of a normal operating condition analysis and 9 fault condition analyses. Chapter 2-5 contains a detailed description of the finite element model, boundary conditions and loading conditions of the analyses made. Chapters 2-4 can be skipped if the reader is only interested in results. To understand the results presented chapter 6 is recommended, which contains a detailed description of all analysed fault conditions. The dimensions and geometry of the model correspond to the status of the NET/ITER TFC design of May 1990. Compared with previous models of the complete magnetic system, the finite element model of 16 TFCs is 'detailed', and can be used for linear elastic analysis with faulted loads. (author). 8 refs.; 204 figs.; 134 tabs

  10. Effects of Powder Attributes and Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) Process Conditions on the Densification and Mechanical Properties of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrinki, Harish; Dexter, Michael; Barmore, Brenton; Enneti, Ravi; Pasebani, Somayeh; Badwe, Sunil; Stitzel, Jason; Malhotra, Rajiv; Atre, Sundar V.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of powders attributes (shape and size distribution) and critical processing conditions (energy density) on the densification and mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) 17-4 PH stainless steel were studied using four types of powders. The % theoretical density, ultimate tensile strength and hardness of both water- and gas-atomized powders increased with increased energy density. Gas-atomized powders showed superior densification and mechanical properties when processed at low energy densities. However, the % theoretical density and mechanical properties of water-atomized powders were comparable to gas-atomized powders when sintered at a high energy density of 104 J/mm3. An important result of this study was that, even at high % theoretical density (97% ± 1%), the properties of as-printed parts could vary over a relatively large range (UTS: 500-1100 MPa; hardness: 25-39 HRC; elongation: 10-25%) depending on powder characteristics and process conditions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using relatively inexpensive water-atomized powders as starting raw material instead of the typically used gas-atomized powders to fabricate parts using L-PBF techniques by sintering at high energy densities.

  11. Innovative Acoustic Sensor Technologies for Leak Detection in Challenging Pipe Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    considerably based on region. The electrical costs used in the economic analysis at ERDC is $0.08 per kW-hr and $0.14 per kW-hr (average commercial...5.63 at the $50.37 per hour prevailing wage rate for plumbers. Based on the projected breakeven labor rate analysis , the labor rate could increase...63 Figure 6-10. LeakFinderRT Results for POI Identified at ERDC ..............................................66 Figure 6-11. LeakFinderRT

  12. Long-term stability of the near-field about high-level radioactive waste repository in thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling action condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuemiao; Wang Ju; Ke Dan; Cai Meifeng

    2008-01-01

    It is a long-term process for the high-level radioactive waste repository, from opening, construction to end of its service. The long-term stability of the near-field is the key issue for the design of HLW repository because the opening and heat generated from the HLW. Through a nationwide investigation, Beishan area, a Gobi desert in Gansu province, is considered as a suitable candidate and GMZ bentonite deposit which located in Xinghe County, Inner Mongolia has been proposed for the supplier of buffer/backfill material for HLW geological repository in China. According to the R and D guide of high-level radioactive waste disposal in China, the 3D model of HLW repository with high-level radioactive waste, canister and buffer/backfill material is established using FLAC3D. To take into account in situ stress, geothermal gradient, groundwater, thermal relief of HLW and swelling pressure of buffer/backfill material, the evolution of temperature, stress and displacement of HLW repository under thermo-mechanical coupling, hydro-mechanical coupling and thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling conditions was analyzed respectively. The long-term stability of HLW repository in Beishan area was studied. (authors)

  13. Time-dependent rheoforging of A6061 aluminum alloy on a mechanical servo press and the effects of forming conditions on homogeneity of rheoforged samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid and liquid phases in semisolid metal slurry exhibited different forming behaviours during deformation result in products with inhomogeneous quality. A6061 aluminum alloy was forged in the semisolid state on a mechanical servo press with the capability of multistage compression. To improve the homogeneity of rheoforged samples a time-dependent rheoforging strategy was designed. The distributions of the microstructure and mechanical properties the samples manufactured under various experimental conditions were investigated. The A6061 samples forged in the temperature range from 625 to 628 ∘C with a short holding time of 4 s and the upper die preheated to 300 ∘C exhibited a homogeneous microstructure and mechanical properties. The homogeneity of rheoforged samples resulted from the controllable free motion capability of the mechanical servo press and the adjustable fluidity and viscosity of the semisolid slurry.

  14. Mechanisms involved in regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by mechanical stress-loaded osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneuji, Takeshi; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Toshinaga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Effect of compressive force on osteoblasts were examined. → Compressive force induced OPG expression and suppressed osteoclastogenesis. → This enhancement of OPG is dependent on Wnt/Ca2+ signal pathway. -- Abstract: Mechanical stress is known to be important for regulation of bone turnover, though the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of mechanical stress on osteoblasts using a novel compression model. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in three-dimensional (3D) gels and cultured with continuous compressive force (0-10.0 g/cm 2 ) for 48 h, and the conditioned medium were collected. RAW264.7 cells were then incubated with the conditioned medium for various times in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Conditioned medium was found to inhibit the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts induced by RANKL via down-regulation of the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), phosphorylation of IκBα, and nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. Interestingly, the conditioned medium also had a high level of binding activity to RANKL and blocked the binding of RANK to RANKL. Furthermore, the binding activity of conditioned medium to RANKL was reduced when the 3D gel was supplemented with KN-93, an inhibitor of non-canonical Wnt/Ca 2+ pathway. In addition, expression level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA was increased in time- and force-dependent manners, and remarkably suppressed by KN-93. These results indicate that osteoblastic cells subjected to mechanical stress produce OPG, which binds to RANKL. Furthermore, this binding activity strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis through suppression of TRAF6 and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, suggesting that enhancement of OPG expression induced by mechanical stress is dependent on non-canonical Wnt/Ca 2+ pathway.

  15. Mechanisms involved in regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by mechanical stress-loaded osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneuji, Takeshi [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Toshinaga, Akihiro [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Takahashi, Tetsu [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of compressive force on osteoblasts were examined. {yields} Compressive force induced OPG expression and suppressed osteoclastogenesis. {yields} This enhancement of OPG is dependent on Wnt/Ca2+ signal pathway. -- Abstract: Mechanical stress is known to be important for regulation of bone turnover, though the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of mechanical stress on osteoblasts using a novel compression model. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in three-dimensional (3D) gels and cultured with continuous compressive force (0-10.0 g/cm{sup 2}) for 48 h, and the conditioned medium were collected. RAW264.7 cells were then incubated with the conditioned medium for various times in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL). Conditioned medium was found to inhibit the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts induced by RANKL via down-regulation of the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, and nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. Interestingly, the conditioned medium also had a high level of binding activity to RANKL and blocked the binding of RANK to RANKL. Furthermore, the binding activity of conditioned medium to RANKL was reduced when the 3D gel was supplemented with KN-93, an inhibitor of non-canonical Wnt/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. In addition, expression level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA was increased in time- and force-dependent manners, and remarkably suppressed by KN-93. These results indicate that osteoblastic cells subjected to mechanical stress produce OPG, which binds to RANKL. Furthermore, this binding activity strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis through suppression of TRAF6 and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling pathway, suggesting that enhancement of OPG expression induced by mechanical stress is dependent on non-canonical Wnt

  16. Excitation of lateral habenula neurons as a neural mechanism underlying ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shashank; Keefe, Kristen A; Taha, Sharif A

    2017-02-15

    The lateral habenula (LHb) has been implicated in regulation of drug-seeking behaviours through aversion-mediated learning. In this study, we recorded neuronal activity in the LHb of rats during an operant task before and after ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin. Ethanol-induced CTA caused significantly higher baseline firing rates in LHb neurons, as well as elevated firing rates in response to cue presentation, lever press and saccharin taste. In a separate cohort of rats, we found that bilateral LHb lesions blocked ethanol-induced CTA. Our results strongly suggest that excitation of LHb neurons is required for ethanol-induced CTA, and point towards a mechanism through which LHb firing may regulate voluntary ethanol consumption. Ethanol, like other drugs of abuse, has both rewarding and aversive properties. Previous work suggests that sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects negatively modulates voluntary alcohol intake and thus may be important in vulnerability to developing alcohol use disorders. We previously found that rats with lesions of the lateral habenula (LHb), which is implicated in aversion-mediated learning, show accelerated escalation of voluntary ethanol consumption. To understand neural encoding in the LHb contributing to ethanol-induced aversion, we recorded neural firing in the LHb of freely behaving, water-deprived rats before and after an ethanol-induced (1.5 g kg -1 20% ethanol, i.p.) conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin taste. Ethanol-induced CTA strongly decreased motivation for saccharin in an operant task to obtain the tastant. Comparison of LHb neural firing before and after CTA induction revealed four main differences in firing properties. First, baseline firing after CTA induction was significantly higher. Second, firing evoked by cues signalling saccharin availability shifted from a pattern of primarily inhibition before CTA to primarily excitation after CTA induction. Third, CTA induction reduced

  17. Excitation of lateral habenula neurons as a neural mechanism underlying ethanol‐induced conditioned taste aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Kristen A.; Taha, Sharif A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The lateral habenula (LHb) has been implicated in regulation of drug‐seeking behaviours through aversion‐mediated learning.In this study, we recorded neuronal activity in the LHb of rats during an operant task before and after ethanol‐induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin.Ethanol‐induced CTA caused significantly higher baseline firing rates in LHb neurons, as well as elevated firing rates in response to cue presentation, lever press and saccharin taste.In a separate cohort of rats, we found that bilateral LHb lesions blocked ethanol‐induced CTA.Our results strongly suggest that excitation of LHb neurons is required for ethanol‐induced CTA, and point towards a mechanism through which LHb firing may regulate voluntary ethanol consumption. Abstract Ethanol, like other drugs of abuse, has both rewarding and aversive properties. Previous work suggests that sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects negatively modulates voluntary alcohol intake and thus may be important in vulnerability to developing alcohol use disorders. We previously found that rats with lesions of the lateral habenula (LHb), which is implicated in aversion‐mediated learning, show accelerated escalation of voluntary ethanol consumption. To understand neural encoding in the LHb contributing to ethanol‐induced aversion, we recorded neural firing in the LHb of freely behaving, water‐deprived rats before and after an ethanol‐induced (1.5 g kg−1 20% ethanol, i.p.) conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin taste. Ethanol‐induced CTA strongly decreased motivation for saccharin in an operant task to obtain the tastant. Comparison of LHb neural firing before and after CTA induction revealed four main differences in firing properties. First, baseline firing after CTA induction was significantly higher. Second, firing evoked by cues signalling saccharin availability shifted from a pattern of primarily inhibition before CTA to primarily excitation after CTA

  18. Batch culture of Azotobacter vinelandii under oxygen limitation conditionS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Rubio, F.; Martinez Nieto, L.; Fernandez Serrano, M.; Jimenez Moleon, M.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    The batch culture of Azotobacter vinealandii on glucose under nitrogen-fixing conditions, seeking oxygen limitation conditions, has been studied in order to use it as a Biological Test System for the experimental study of oxygen transfer enhancement methods in aerobic fermenters. overall kinetic parameters for exponential growth and for linear growth (under oxygen limitation) have been determined. It was noted an appreciable influence of the oxygen transfer rate on glucose and oxygen uptake, which seems to be due to alginate production, excreted as a nitrogenase protection mechanisms. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. Quadratic measurement and conditional state preparation in an optomechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Brawley, George; Vanner, Michael A.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator....

  20. Role of failure-mechanism identification in accelerated testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. M.; Barker, D.; Dasgupta, A.; Arora, A.

    1993-01-01

    Accelerated life testing techniques provide a short-cut method to investigate the reliability of electronic devices with respect to certain dominant failure mechanisms that occur under normal operating conditions. However, accelerated tests have often been conducted without knowledge of the failure mechanisms and without ensuring that the test accelerated the same mechanism as that observed under normal operating conditions. This paper summarizes common failure mechanisms in electronic devices and packages and investigates possible failure mechanism shifting during accelerated testing.

  1. Pavlovian conditioning of nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Steingrueber, Hans-Joachim; Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2006-10-30

    Cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic drug treatment often experience side-effects, the most distressing being nausea and vomiting. Despite antiemetic drugs, 25-30% of the chemotherapy patients report these side-effects when being re-exposed to the stimuli that usually signal the chemotherapy session and its drug infusion. These symptoms are called anticipatory nausea and anticipatory vomiting. The present paper summarizes the evidence that anticipatory vomiting is acquired by Pavlovian conditioning, and, consequently, may be alleviated by conditioning techniques. To explore the mechanisms that induce and alleviate conditioned nausea and vomiting further, a conditioned nausea model was established in healthy humans using body rotation as the nausea-inducing treatment. The validity of this motion sickness model to examine conditioning mechanisms in the acquisition and alleviation of conditioned nausea was demonstrated. Cortisol and tumor-necrosis factor-alpha were elevated as endocrine and immunological correlates of nausea. Data in the rotation-induced motion sickness model indicated that gender is an important moderator variable to be considered in further studies. The paper concludes with a review of applications of the demonstrated conditioning principles as interventions to ameliorate distressing anticipatory nausea or anticipatory vomiting in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  2. Effects of Cooling Rates on Hydride Reorientation and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Alloy Claddings under Interim Dry Storage Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Su-Jeong; Kim, Myeong-Su; Won, Chu-chin; Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    As-received Zr-Nb cladding tubes and 600 ppm hydrogen-charged tubes were employed to evaluate the effects of cladding cooling rates on the extent of hydride reorientation from circumferential hydrides to radial ones and mechanical property degradations with the use of cooling rates of 2, 4 and 15 °C/min from 400 °C to room temperature simulating cladding cooling under interim dry storage conditions. The as-received cladding tubes generated nearly the same ultimate tensile strengths and plastic elongations, regardless of the cooling rates, because of a negligible hydrogen content in the cladding. The 600 ppm-H cladding tubes indicate that the slower cooling rate generated the larger radial hydride fraction and the longer radial hydrides, which resulted in greater mechanical performance degradations. The cooling rate of 2 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 758 MPa and a plastic elongation of 1.0%, whereas the cooling rate of 15 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 825 MPa and a plastic elongation of 15.0%. These remarkable mechanical property degradations of the 600 ppm-H cladding tubes with the slowest cooling rate may be characterized by cleavage fracture surface appearance enhanced by longer radial hydrides and their higher fraction that have been precipitated through a relatively larger nucleation and growth rate.

  3. Determination of mechanical damage from wells under oil and gas flow condition; Determinacao de dano mecanico em pocos sob condicao de escoamento de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, J. B.D. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, O. V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The well bore effect is one of the most difficult variables obtained from well test analysis under two-phase condition. The presence of the gas in a well inserted in reservoir, which operates under gas drive solution, hinders the development of the analytical model to determine the mechanical damage. It is one of the reasons of the using the single phase well test analysis methodologies become suitable to the multiphase cases. The determination of the well bore effect is justified; therefore it is possible to work over in the well in order to determinate the real potential productive. The main objective of this work is to reevaluate a method of determination of the mechanical damage gotten from a well test under two-phase condition. In this work a simplified model of reservoir simulation is constructed in a commercial simulator in order to validate the methodology. The refinement of the blocks near to the well adopted in the simulation is a good representation of the well mechanical damage which occurs in a homogeneous reservoir. The types of well test analysis used in this work are two: drawdown and buildup test. The results gotten for this methodology, as will be shown, are excellent quality and the model of simulation presented here can be used for other analytical methods studies in order to determinate the mechanical damage or other variable of the reservoir. (author)

  4. Tokamak engineering mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yuntao; Wu, Weiyue; Du, Shijun

    2014-01-01

    Provides a systematic introduction to tokamaks in engineering mechanics. Includes design guides based on full mechanical analysis, which makes it possible to accurately predict load capacity and temperature increases. Presents comprehensive information on important design factors involving materials. Covers the latest advances in and up-to-date references on tokamak devices. Numerous examples reinforce the understanding of concepts and provide procedures for design. Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study of mechanical/fusion engineering with a general understanding of tokamak engineering mechanics.

  5. A fracture mechanics method of evaluating structural integrity of a reactor vessel due to thermal shock effects following LOCA condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of knowledge of structural integrity of a reactor vessel due to thermal shock effects, is related to safety and operational requirements in assessing the adequacy and flawless functioing of the nuclear power systems. Followig a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) condition the integrity of the reactor vessel due to a sudden thermal shock induced by actuation of emergency core cooling system (ECCS), must be maintained to ensure safe and orderly shutdown of the reactor and its components. The paper encompasses criteria underlaying a fracture mechanics method of analysis to evaluate structural integrity of a typical 950 MWe PWR vessel as a result of very drastic changes in thermal and mechanical stress levels in the reactor vessel wall. The main object of this investigation therefore consists in assessing the capability of a PWR vessel to withstand the most critical thermal shock without inpairing its ability to conserve vital coolant owing to probable crack propagation. (Auth.)

  6. Anti-angiogenic mechanism of cordycepin on rhesus macaque choroid-retinal endothelial cell line cultured in high glucose condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Zhu*

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the angiogenesis effect and protective mechanism of cordycepin on rhesus macaque choroid-retinal endothelial(RF/6Acell line cultured in high glucose condition. METHODS: Cultured RF/6A cells were divided into normal control group, high glucose group and high glucose(HG+ different concentration cordycepin groups(HG+10μg/mL group, HG+50μg/mL group, HG+100μg/mL group. The cell proliferation was assessed using cholecystokinin octapeptide dye after treated for 48h. The cell migration was investigated by a Transwell assay. The tube formation was measured on Matrigel. Furthermore, the impact of cordycepin on high glucose-induced activation of VEGF and VEGF receptor 2(VEGFR-2was tested by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Compared with normal control group, cell viability markedly increased in high glucose group(PPPPPPvs normal control group, oppositely gradually decreased with the increase of cordycepin concentrations, and had a statistically significant difference vs high glucose group(PCONCLUSION: Cordycepin can suppress the proliferation, migration and tubu formation of RF/6A in high glucose condition, might via inhibiting expression of VEGF and VEGFR-2.

  7. Development of mechanical brake assist; Mechanical brake assist no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, M; Shingyoji, S; Nakamura, I; Tagawa, T; Saito, Y; Ishihara, T; Kobayashi, S; Yoshida, M [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have recognized that there are drivers who cannot apply strong brake pedal force , in spite of the necessity of hard braking in emergencies. We have developed a `mechanical brake assist system` which assists drivers appropriately, according to the drivers` characteristics based on studying the characteristic`s of conditions of drivers applying the brake pedal force in emergency conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Scope and Mechanism of a True Organocatalytic Beckmann Rearrangement with a Boronic Acid/Perfluoropinacol System under Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiaobin; Morgan, Timothy D R; Ang, Hwee Ting; Hall, Dennis G

    2018-04-18

    Catalytic activation of hydroxyl functionalities is of great interest for the production of pharmaceuticals and commodity chemicals. Here, 2-alkoxycarbonyl- and 2-phenoxycarbonyl-phenylboronic acid were identified as efficient catalysts for the direct and chemoselective activation of oxime N-OH bonds in the Beckmann rearrangement. This classical organic reaction provides a unique approach to prepare functionalized amide products that may be difficult to access using traditional amide coupling between carboxylic acids and amines. Using only 5 mol % of boronic acid catalyst and perfluoropinacol as an additive in a polar solvent mixture, the operationally simple protocol features mild conditions, a broad substrate scope, and a high functional group tolerance. A wide variety of diaryl, aryl-alkyl, heteroaryl-alkyl, and dialkyl oximes react under ambient conditions to afford high yields of amide products. Free alcohols, amides, carboxyesters, and many other functionalities are compatible with the reaction conditions. Investigations of the catalytic cycle revealed a novel boron-induced oxime transesterification providing an acyl oxime intermediate involved in a fully catalytic nonself-propagating Beckmann rearrangement mechanism. The acyl oxime intermediate was prepared independently and was subjected to the reaction conditions. It was found to be self-sufficient; it reacts rapidly, unimolecularly without the need for free oxime. A series of control experiments and 18 O labeling studies support a true catalytic pathway involving an ionic transition structure with an active and essential role for the boronyl moiety in both steps of transesterification and rearrangement. According to 11 B NMR spectroscopic studies, the additive perfluoropinacol provides a transient, electrophilic boronic ester that is thought to serve as an internal Lewis acid to activate the ortho-carboxyester and accelerate the initial, rate-limiting step of transesterification between the precatalyst

  9. Fretting Wear Damage Mechanism of Uranium under Various Atmosphere and Vacuum Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A fretting wear experiment with uranium has been performed on a linear reciprocating tribometer with ball-on-disk contact. This study focused on the fretting behavior of the uranium under different atmospheres (Ar, Air (21% O2 + 78% N2, and O2 and vacuum conditions (1.05 and 1 × 10−4 Pa. Evolution of friction was assessed by coefficient of friction (COF and friction-dissipated energy. The oxide of the wear surface was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. The result shows that fretting wear behavior presents strong atmosphere and vacuum condition dependence. With increasing oxygen content, the COF decreases due to abrasive wear and formation of oxide film. The COF in the oxygen condition is at least 0.335, and it has a maximum wear volume of about 1.48 × 107 μm3. However, the COF in a high vacuum condition is maximum about 1.104, and the wear volume is 1.64 × 106 μm3. The COF in the low vacuum condition is very different: it firstly increased and then decreased rapidly to a steady value. It is caused by slight abrasive wear and the formation of tribofilm after thousands of cycles.

  10. The role of mechanical boundary conditions in the soft mode dynamics of PbTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCash, Kevin; Mani, B K; Chang, C-M; Ponomareva, I

    2014-10-29

    The role of different mechanical boundary conditions in the soft mode dynamics of ferroelectric PbTiO3 is systematically investigated using first-principles-based simulations and analytical model. The change in the soft mode dynamics due to hydrostatic pressure, uniaxial and biaxial stresses and biaxial strains is studied in a wide temperature range. Our computations predict: (i) the existence of Curie-Weiss laws that relate the soft mode frequency to the stress or strain; (ii) a non-trivial temperature evolution of the associated Curie-Weiss constants; (iii) a qualitative difference between the soft mode response to stresses/strains and hydrostatic pressure. The latter finding implies that the Curie-Weiss pressure law commonly used for residual stress estimation may not apply for the cases of uniaxial and biaxial stresses and strains. On the other hand, our systematic study offers a way to eliminate this difficulty through the establishment of Curie-Weiss stress and strain laws. Implications of our predictions for some available experimental data are discussed.

  11. From fracture mechanics to damage mechanics: how to model structural deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolet, S.; Lorentz, E.; Barbier, G.

    1998-01-01

    Modelling of structural deteriorations of thermo-mechanical origin is highly enhanced when using damage mechanics. Indeed, the latter offers both a fine description of the material behaviour and an ability to deal with any loading conditions, moving away the current limits of fracture mechanics. But new difficulties can arise, depending on the examined problem: if forecasts of rack initiation are well mastered, the study of crack propagation remains more complex and needs sophisticated modelizations, which are nevertheless on the point of being well understood too. (authors)

  12. Deficiency indices and singular boundary conditions in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulla, W.

    1984-01-01

    We consider Schroedinger operators H in L 2 (Rsup(n)), n from IN, with countably infinitely many local singularities of the potential which are separated from each other by a positive distance. It is proved that due to locality each singularity yields a separate contribution to the deficiency index of H. In the special case where the singularities are pointlike and the potential exhibits certain symmetries near these points we give an explicit construction of self-adjoint boundary conditions

  13. A Plumber's-Eye View of Xylem Water Transport in Woody Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Pinol, Josep

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical for university-level students aimed at measuring and comparing xylem hydraulic properties of co-existing plant species. After sampling branches of several woody species in the field, their main hydraulic properties were measured using a simple set-up. Hydraulic conductivity ("K[subscript h]") was calculated as the ratio…

  14. Mechanical properties of steel 8 CrMoNiNb 9 10 in dependence on the microstructural condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabritius, H.; Schnabel, E.

    1976-01-01

    Tension tests at room temperature to 600 0 C and creep-rupture tests at 500 to 600 0 C lasting up to about 75,000 h on two casts of steel 8 CrMoNiNb 9 10 with about 0.08% C, 0.3% Si, 0.7% Mn, 0.012% N, 0.005% Al, 2.34% Cr, 0.95% Mo, 0.8% Nb and 0.64% Ni in bainitic and ferritic microstructural condition. Influence of annealing at 650 to 800 0 C on the properties in the tension test. Influence of aging at 500 to 600 0 C lasting up to 30,000 h with and without mechanical stress on the properties in the tension test at aging temperature and on the toughness behaviour in the notched bar impact bend test at room temperature. (orig.) [de

  15. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae) resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) under greenhouse condition in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alex; Labrín, Natalia; Alvarez, Rosa M; Jayaro, Yorman; Gamboa, Carlos; Reyes, Edicta; Barrientos, Venancio

    2012-03-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the "Rice hoja blanca virus". During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundaci6n Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundaci6n Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition). Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control 'Bluebonnet 50' was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control 'Makalioka' had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and oviposition. The genotype 'FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1' was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata.

  16. Dissipative properties of materials with microplastic mechanism of damping under conditions of separate and joint action of static stresses and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpak, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Static stress and temperature are studied experimentally for their separate and joint effect on dissipative properties of VT3-1 and Ehp 718 alloys whose dissipation energy is conditioned by microplastic strains. The results of the study are presented. It is shown that for the materials studied in contrast to the materials with other basic damping mechanisms joint effect of static stresses and temperature is close to a simple summation of the separate effect of these factors without any changes in the character of energy dissipation dependence

  17. Dissipative properties of materials with microplastic mechanism of damping under conditions of separate and joint action of static stresses and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpak, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Static stress and temperature are studied experimentally for their separate and joint effect on dissipative properties of VT3-1 and Ehp 718 alloys whose dissipation energy is conditioned by microplastic strains. The results of the study are presented. It is shown that for the materials studied in contrast to the materials with other basic damping mechanisms joint effect of static stresses and temperature is close to a simple summation of the separate effect of these factors without any changes in the character of energy dissipation dependence.

  18. Relationship between Air Pollution and Weather Conditions under Complicated Geographical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.; Jiang, P.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious issues all over the world, especially in megacities with constrained geographical conditions for air pollution diffusion. However, the dynamic mechanism of air pollution diffusion under complicated geographical conditions is still be confused. Researches to explore relationship between air pollution and weather conditions from the perspective of local atmospheric circulations can contribute more to solve such problem. We selected three megacities (Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) under different geographical condition (mountain-plain transition region, coastal alluvial plain and coastal hilly terrain) to explore the relationship between air pollution and weather conditions. RDA (Redundancy analysis) model was used to analyze how the local atmospheric circulation acts on the air pollutant diffusion. The results show that there was a positive correlation between the concentration of air pollutants and air pressure, while temperature, precipitation and wind speed have negative correlations with the concentration of air pollutants. Furthermore, geographical conditions, such as topographic relief, have significant effects on the direction, path and intensity of local atmospheric circulation. As a consequence, air pollutants diffusion modes in different cities under various geographical conditions are diverse from each other.

  19. Influence of thermodynamic mechanism of inter- facial adsorption on purifying air-conditioning engineering under intensification of electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yun-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of mass transfer process as well as the basis of separating and purifying mixtures, interfacial adsorption has been widely applied to fields like chemical industry, medical industry and purification engineering in recent years. Influencing factors of interfacial adsorption, in addition to the traditional temperature, intensity of pressure, amount of substance and concentration, also include external fields, such as magnetic field, electric field and electromagnetic field, etc. Starting from the point of thermodynamics and taking the Gibbs adsorption as the model, the combination of energy axiom and the first law of thermodynamics was applied to boundary phase, and thus the theoretical expression for the volume of interface absorption under electric field as well as the mathematical relationship between surface tension and electric field intensity was obtained. In addition, according to the obtained theoretical expression, the volume of interface absorption of ethanol solution under different electric field intensities and concentrations was calculated. Moreover, the mechanism of interfacial adsorption was described from the perspective of thermodynamics and the influence of electric field on interfacial adsorption was explained reasonably, aiming to further discuss the influence of thermodynamic mechanism of interfacial adsorption on purifying air-conditioning engineering under intensification of electric field.

  20. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF FEAR LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Joshua P.; Cain, Christopher K.; Ostroff, Linnaea E.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a useful behavioral paradigm for exploring the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory because a well-defined response to a specific environmental stimulus is produced through associative learning processes. Synaptic plasticity in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) underlies this form of associative learning. Here we summarize the molecular mechanisms that contribute to this synaptic plasticity in the context of auditory fear conditioning, the form of fear conditioning best understood at the molecular level. We discuss the neurotransmitter systems and signaling cascades that contribute to three phases of auditory fear conditioning: acquisition, consolidation, and reconsolidation. These studies suggest that multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including those triggered by activation of Hebbian processes and neuromodulatory receptors, interact to produce neural plasticity in the LA and behavioral fear conditioning. Together, this research illustrates the power of fear conditioning as a model system for characterizing the mechanisms of learning and memory in mammals, and potentially for understanding fear related disorders, such as PTSD and phobias. PMID:22036561

  1. Molecular mechanisms of fear learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Joshua P; Cain, Christopher K; Ostroff, Linnaea E; LeDoux, Joseph E

    2011-10-28

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a particularly useful behavioral paradigm for exploring the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory because a well-defined response to a specific environmental stimulus is produced through associative learning processes. Synaptic plasticity in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) underlies this form of associative learning. Here, we summarize the molecular mechanisms that contribute to this synaptic plasticity in the context of auditory fear conditioning, the form of fear conditioning best understood at the molecular level. We discuss the neurotransmitter systems and signaling cascades that contribute to three phases of auditory fear conditioning: acquisition, consolidation, and reconsolidation. These studies suggest that multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including those triggered by activation of Hebbian processes and neuromodulatory receptors, interact to produce neural plasticity in the LA and behavioral fear conditioning. Collectively, this body of research illustrates the power of fear conditioning as a model system for characterizing the mechanisms of learning and memory in mammals and potentially for understanding fear-related disorders, such as PTSD and phobias. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Failure conditions from push out tests of a steel-concrete joint: fracture mechanics approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusák, Jan; Seitl, Stanislav; De Corte, W.; Helincks, P.; Boel, V.; De Schutter, G.

    488-489, - (2012), s. 710-713 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics - FDM 2011 /10./. Dubrovník, 19.09.2011-21.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Push out test * generalized linear elastic fracture mechanics * bi-material notch Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. Kinematic Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Novel PRS Parallel Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, K.; Khan, B. Shahul Hamid

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a 3 DoF (Degree of Freedom) novel PRS (Prismatic-Revolute- Spherical) type parallel mechanisms has been designed and presented. The combination of striaght and arc type linkages for 3 DOF parallel mechanism is introduced for the first time. The performances of the mechanisms are evaluated based on the indices such as Minimum Singular Value (MSV), Condition Number (CN), Local Conditioning Index (LCI), Kinematic Configuration Index (KCI) and Global Conditioning Index (GCI). The overall reachable workspace of all mechanisms are presented. The kinematic measure, dexterity measure and workspace analysis for all the mechanism have been evaluated and compared.

  4. Tutorial review of spent-fuel degradation mechanisms under dry-storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einziger, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    This tutorial reviews our present understanding of fuel-rod degradation over a range of possible dry-storage environments. Three areas are covered: (1) why study fuel-rod degradation; (2) cladding-degradation mechanisms; and (3) the status of fuel-oxidation studies

  5. The effect of air dried conditions on mechanical and physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... small dimension wooden material is used and this affects the cost of ... The first serious application of laminating technique ... buildings, stock hangar, farms and stables constructions ... resistant lamine elements to air dried condition were easy .... the other was organic solvent water repellent protim WR230.

  6. Variational boundary conditions based on the Nitsche method for fitted and unfitted isogeometric discretizations of the mechanically coupled Cahn-Hilliard equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Schillinger, Dominik; Xu, Bai-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    The primal variational formulation of the fourth-order Cahn-Hilliard equation requires C1-continuous finite element discretizations, e.g., in the context of isogeometric analysis. In this paper, we explore the variational imposition of essential boundary conditions that arise from the thermodynamic derivation of the Cahn-Hilliard equation in primal variables. Our formulation is based on the symmetric variant of Nitsche's method, does not introduce additional degrees of freedom and is shown to be variationally consistent. In contrast to strong enforcement, the new boundary condition formulation can be naturally applied to any mapped isogeometric parametrization of any polynomial degree. In addition, it preserves full accuracy, including higher-order rates of convergence, which we illustrate for boundary-fitted discretizations of several benchmark tests in one, two and three dimensions. Unfitted Cartesian B-spline meshes constitute an effective alternative to boundary-fitted isogeometric parametrizations for constructing C1-continuous discretizations, in particular for complex geometries. We combine our variational boundary condition formulation with unfitted Cartesian B-spline meshes and the finite cell method to simulate chemical phase segregation in a composite electrode. This example, involving coupling of chemical fields with mechanical stresses on complex domains and coupling of different materials across complex interfaces, demonstrates the flexibility of variational boundary conditions in the context of higher-order unfitted isogeometric discretizations.

  7. The behavior of Kevlar fibers under environmental-stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark Charles

    There are a myriad of mechanisms by which polymers can degrade and fail. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanics, chemistry, their interactions, and kinetics. This pursuit becomes more than just "academic" because these mechanisms might just change with service conditions (i.e. environment and loading). If one does not understand these processes from the molecular to macroscopic scale it would be exceedingly difficult to gain information from accelerated testing because the mechanisms just might change from one condition to another. The purpose of this study was to probe these processes on scales ranging from molecular to macroscopic in environmental stress conditions. This study reports the results of environmental-stress degradation of Kevlar 49 fibers. The environmental agent of focus was the ubiquitous air pollutant complex NOsb{x}. Other materials and environments were investigated to a lesser extent for purposes of comparison. Mechanical property (i.e., short-term strength, modulus, and creep lifetime) degradation was examined using single fiber, yarn, and epoxy coated yarn (composite) specimens under environmental-stress conditions. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were employed to examine and compare the appearance of fracture features resulting from the various testing conditions. Atomic force microscopy augmented these studies with detailed topographical mappings and measures of the fracture surface frictional and modulus properties. Molecular processes (i.e., chain scission and other mechanical-chemical reactions) were probed by measures of changes in viscosity average molecular weight and the infrared spectra. It was demonstrated that environmental-stress degradation effects do occur in the Kevlar-NOsb{x} gas system. Strength decay in environmentally exposed unloaded fibers was demonstrated and a synergistic response in creep reduced fiber lifetimes by three orders of magnitude at moderate loadings. That is to say, the

  8. Optimization of Thermo-mechanical Conditions in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal

    with the Seqquential Quadratic Programming (SQP) gradient-based optimization algorithm in order to find the welding speed and the heat input that would yield a prescribed average temperature close to the solidus temperature under the tool, thereby expressing a condition which is favourable for the process.......Several models for the FSW process have been applied. Initially, the thermal models were addressed since they in essence constitute the basis of all other models of FSW, be it microstructural, flow or residual stress models. Both analytical and numerical models were used and combined...

  9. Evaluation of combustion experiments conducted during the research and development project ``Mechanical-biological waste conditioning in combination with thermal processing of partial waste fractions``; Auswertung der Verbrennungsversuche zum Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhaben ``mechanisch-biologische Restmuellbehandlung unter Einbindung thermischer Verfahren fuer Teilfraktionen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, J.; Lohf, A.; Herr, C. [Institut WAR, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The technical code on municipal waste makes specific demands on waste to be deposited at landfills which can only be met if mechanical-biological conditioning of waste as well as thermal processing of partial waste fractions are continued also in the future. But waste that has undergone mechanical or mechanical-biological conditioning presents different combustion properties from those of unconditioned waste. In this second stage of the research project, the thermal processability of waste having undergone mechanical or mechanical-biological conditioning was studied. Together with the results from the first project stage, where the throughput represented exclusively mechanically conditioned material, the results of the latter measuring campaigns comprehensively demonstrate possibilities for the thermal processing of partial waste fractions having undergone biological-mechanical conditioning, and inform on changes in plant performance. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um die in der TA-Siedlungsabfall an den abzulagernden Restmuell gestellten Deponieeingangsbedingungen zu erfuellen, muss neben einer mechanisch-biologischen Aufbereitung bei Teilfraktionen auch weiterhin eine thermische Behandlung eingeplant werden. Die Verbrennungseigenschaften von mechanisch oder mechanisch-biologisch vorbehandeltem Restmuell weichen allerdings von denen von unbehandeltem Restmuell ab. In dieser zweiten Projektphase des Forschungsvorhabens wurde eine Untersuchung bezueglich der thermischen Behandelbarkeit von mechanisch und auch biologisch vorbehandeltem Muell durchgefuehrt. Die Ergebnisse der Messkampagnen bilden zusammen mit den Ergebnissen der ersten Projektphase, in der ausschliesslich mechanisch vorbehandeltes Material durchgesetzt wurde, eine umfassende Darstellung ueber Moeglichkeiten und veraenderte Anlagenverhalten bei der thermischen Behandlung von Teilfraktionen aus der biologisch-mechanisch Vorbehandlung. (orig.)

  10. Investigation of the mechanical properties of organoplastic under shock wave loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragov, A. M.; Igumnov, L. A.; Konstantinov, A. Yu; Lomunov, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents results of dynamic tests of a typical representative of new composite and damping materials: organoplastics. Compression testing was performed using the traditional Kolsky method and its original modification. The strength and deformation properties of organoplastics under conditions of uniaxial stress and uniaxial deformation were studied. When the organoplastic is compressed transversely to the Kevlar fabric layers under conditions of a uniaxial stress state, the material begins to break down (to lose the layer cohesion) at a stress of about 200 MPa, while under the conditions of uniaxial strain, it retains its apparent integrity at stresses up to 500 MPa. The small value of the lateral thrust factor indicates a large internal strength of the material in tension in the radial direction.

  11. Quantum mechanical metastability: When and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Willey, R.; Holman, R.

    1992-01-01

    We study quantum mechanical metastability with an eye towards false vacuum decay. We point out some technical and conceptual problems with the familiar bounce treatment of this process. We illustrate with simple quantum mechanical examples that the bounce formalism fails to account for the correct boundary conditions. It is also shown, that the bounce approach overestimates the time scales for tunneling of localized packets in typical (slightly) biased double well potentials. We present a thorough WKB analysis with particular attention to semiclassical trajectories corresponding to complex saddle points. We point out that the boundary conditions determine the proper choice of saddle points and the bounce approach fails to account for semiclassical trajectories in many physically relevant cases. We recognize that these saddle points account for the matching conditions of the WKB wave functions beyond the barriers and restore unitarity and reality of eigenvalues for self-adjoint boundary conditions. We provide a novel approach to the semiclassical analysis of out of equilibrium decay in real time in quantum statistical mechanics. (orig.)

  12. Nanosilica supported CaO: A regenerable and mechanically hard CO2 sorbent at Ca-looping conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Jimenez, P.E.; Perez-Maqueda, L.A.; Valverde, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A synthetic CO 2 sorbent is prepared by impregnation of calcium nitrate on a nanosilica matrix. • Sintering of the nascent CaO in the calcination stage of carbonation/calcination cycles is hindered. • CaO conversion reaches a stable value well above the residual conversion of natural limestone. • Particle fragmentation as caused by ultrasonic irradiation in a liquid dispersion is hindered. - Abstract: This work presents a CO 2 sorbent that may be synthesized from low-cost and widely available materials following a simple method basically consisting of impregnation of a nanostructured silica support with a saturated solution of calcium nitrate. In a first impregnation stage, the use of a stoichiometric CaO/SiO 2 ratio serves to produce a calcium silicate matrix after calcination. This calcium silicate matrix acts as a thermally stable and mechanically hard support for CaO deposited on it by further impregnation. The CaO-impregnated sorbent exhibits a stable CaO conversion at Ca-looping conditions whose value depends on the CaO wt% deposited on the calcium silicate matrix, which can be increased by successive reimpregnations. A 10 wt% CaO impregnated sorbent reaches a stable conversion above 0.6 whereas the stable conversion of a 30 wt% CaO impregnated sorbent is around 0.3, which is much larger than the residual conversion of CaO derived from natural limestone (between 0.07 and 0.08). Moreover, particle size distribution measurements of samples predispersed in a liquid and subjected to high energy ultrasonic waves indicate that the CaO-impregnated sorbent has a relatively high mechanical strength as compared to limestone derived CaO

  13. Modelling of the UO2 dissolution mechanisms in synthetic groundwater. Experiments carried out under anaerobic and reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cera, E.; Grive, M.; Bruno, J.; Ollila, K.

    2000-07-01

    The experimental data generated under anaerobic and reducing conditions within the EU R and D programme 1996-1998 entitled 'Source term for performance assessment of spent fuel as a waste form' and published as a POSIVA report (Ollila, 1999) have been modelled in the present work. The dissolution data available, mainly U in the aqueous phase as a function of time and redox potentials have been used to elucidate the redox pairs controlling the redox potential of the systems studied. Dissolution experiments carried out under anaerobic conditions have shown the important role of the uranium system on buffering the redox capacity of these systems. In the presence of carbonates in the system, the redox control has been given by the UO 2 (c)/U(VI) aqueous redox couple while in absence of carbonates in the system, the redox control has been governed by the UO 2 (c)/UO 2+x transition. In addition dissolution rates have been satisfactorily modelled by assuming an oxidative dissolution mechanism consisting in an initial oxidation of the surface of the uranium dioxide, binding of the HCO 3 or H+ at the U(VI) sites of the oxidised surface layer and detachment of these surface complexes. The redox controls in the experiments carried out under reducing conditions have been exerted by the different reducing agents added in the systems. Therefore, the addition of Fe 2+ lead to a redox control exerted by the Fe 2+ /Fe(OH) 3 (s) redox pair, while the addition of sulphide lead to a different redox control governed by the HS/SO 3 2- redox pair. (orig.)

  14. Fear Conditioning Effects on Sensitivity to Drug Reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    motivational responses and self-administration behaviors (Robbins et al., 2008). Pavlovian conditioning mechanisms link unconditioned drug responses...model. Induction of fear conditioning is followed by measurement of sensitivity to drug reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP) model to...morphine. Conditioned drug reward is a relevant model in addiction because environmental cues (e.g. a barroom) induce craving and persistent

  15. Effect of hygrothermal conditioning on the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy grouts for offshore pipeline rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Manalo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Offshore oil and gas pipelines are susceptible to corrosion and need rehabilitation to keep them operating in-service conditions. Fibre composite filled with epoxy-based grout is emerging as an effective repair and rehabilitation system for offshore pipelines performing underwater. In such applications, the infill grout is often subjected to moisture and elevated temperature along with compressive, tensile and localised stresses at the defect. Current standards and practices for composite repairs suggest detailed investigation of the fibre reinforced sleeve, while the characterisation of the infill material is yet to be conducted for performance evaluation. The present work investigates the mechanical and thermal properties of three epoxy grouts as candidates for infill in a grouted sleeve repair for underwater pipeline. An understanding on the effect of hygrothermal ageing on the grout properties for defining the period of 1000 hours as “long-term” according to ISO/TS 24817, in comparison to their unconditioned state, is also presented. The compressive and tensile strength of the unconditioned grouts ranges from 100–120 MPa, and 19–32 MPa, respectively, which indicates that these grouts are suitable for structural rehabilitation of the pipelines. Moreover, the glass transition temperatures, Tg and Tt of the unconditioned grouts are found to be within the ranges of 50–60 °C, and 80–90 °C, respectively, which are reduced by about 20°C after conditioning.

  16. Draft fracture mechanics code case for American Society of Mechanical Engineers NUPACK rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, P.; Sorenson, K.; Nickell, R.; Saegusa, T.

    2004-01-01

    The containment boundaries of most spent-fuel casks certified for use in the United States by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are constructed with stainless steel, a material that is ductile in an engineering sense at all temperatures and for which, therefore, fracture mechanics principles are not relevant for the containment application. Ferritic materials may fail in a nonductile manner at sufficiently low temperatures, so fracture mechanics principles may be applied to preclude nonductile fracture. Because of the need to transport and store spent nuclear fuel safely in all types of climatic conditions, these vessels have regulatory lowest service temperatures that range down to -40 C (-40 F) for transport application. Such low service temperatures represent a severe challenge in terms of fracture toughness to many ferritic materials. Linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics principles provide a methodology for evaluating ferritic materials under such conditions

  17. Trace conditioning in insects-keep the trace!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Kristina V; Galili, Dana S; Szyszka, Paul; Lüdke, Alja

    2013-01-01

    Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination-a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (Rut-AC), which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  18. Damage mechanisms in PBT-GF30 under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, A.; De Monte, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Vormwald, M.; Quaresimin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the investigation of damage mechanisms at microscopic scale on a short glass fiber reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (PBT-GF30) under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. In addition the principal mechanisms are verified through micro mechanical FE models. In order to investigate the fatigue behavior of the material both isothermal strain controlled fatigue (ISCF) tests at three different temperatures and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on plain and notched specimens, manufactured by injection molding. The goal of the work is to determine the damage mechanisms occurring under TMF conditions and to compare them with the mechanisms occurring under ISCF. For this reason fracture surfaces of TMF and ISCF samples loaded at different temperature levels were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, specimens that failed under TMF were examined on microsections revealing insight into both crack initiation and crack propagation. The findings of this investigation give valuable information about the main damage mechanisms of PBT-GF30 under TMF loading and serve as basis for the development of a TMF life estimation methodology

  19. Early Extinction after Fear Conditioning Yields a Context-Independent and Short-Term Suppression of Conditional Freezing in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-hui; Maren, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats is a useful model for therapeutic interventions in humans with anxiety disorders. Recently, we found that delivering extinction trials soon (15 min) after fear conditioning yields a short-term suppression of fear, but little long-term extinction. Here, we explored the possible mechanisms underlying…

  20. Projection of Patient Condition Code Distributions Based on Mechanism of Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zouris, James M; Walker, G. J; Blood, Christopher G

    2003-01-01

    The Medical Readiness and Strategic Plan 1998-2004 requires that the military services develop a method for linking real world patient load data with modern patient condition codes to enable planners...

  1. Climate change and its potential impact on mechanical, hydraulic and chemical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naslund, J.O.

    2009-01-01

    The strategy for managing climate related conditions in SKB ' s safety assessments are based on the notion that it is not possible to predict climate in a 100 000-year time perspective. Instead, the approach in the SR-Can safety assessment was to identify and analyse both moderate climate evolutions as well as extremes within which the climate in Scandinavia may vary. To this end, knowledge on general climate variations in Scandinavia was used to identify characteristic climate domains which in turn were used to build a number of selected climate scenarios. The relevant climate domains for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites in the 100 000-year time perspective are; 1) a temperate climate domain, 2) a peri-glacial climate domain, and 3) a glacial climate domain. Also submerged/non-submerged conditions at the sites are of importance. In the SR-Can safety assessment several climate scenarios were investigated, including a reference evolution based on a repetition of reconstructed conditions for last glacial cycle (the Weichselian glaciation and the Holocene interglacial). For this reconstruction, extensive numerical simulations of ice sheets, isostatic changes, and permafrost were conducted. The resulting scenario showed site-specific timing and duration of the three climate domains and submerged periods for the full glacial cycle. This scenario is not a prediction of a future climate evolution. Instead it is one example of a future evolution that in a realistic and consistent way covers all relevant climate related changes that can be expected in a 100 000-year time perspective. Subsequently, this scenario formed the basis for the construction of additional climate scenarios that were used to analyse the effects of more extreme climate evolutions than during the last glacial cycle. Examples of complementary scenarios are a warmer and wetter climate scenario caused by an increased greenhouse effect, and colder scenarios with deeper permafrost or thicker ice sheets than in

  2. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, N K; Lampe, J W

    2000-11-01

    Fibrocystic breast conditions, formerly referred to as fibrocystic breast disease, affect about half of all women and typically present as any combination of breast nodularity, swelling, and pain. We reviewed the literature to evaluate evidence supporting nutrition interventions commonly recommended for fibrocystic breast conditions by health care providers. Randomized, controlled studies of the effectiveness of caffeine restriction fail to support any benefit in fibrocystic breast conditions. Similarly, evidence supporting evening primrose oil, vitamin E, or pyridoxine as treatments for the discomforts of fibrocystic breast conditions is insufficient to draw conclusions about effectiveness. Dietary alterations that influence the intermediate markers for fibrocystic breast conditions include low-fat (15% to 20% energy), high-fiber (30 g/day), and soy isoflavone regimens. However, our findings provide no solid evidence for secondary prevention or treatment of fibrocystic breast conditions through a dietary approach. Health care providers should limit recommendations to proven diet therapies supported by randomized, placebo-controlled trials, given the instability inherent in fibrocystic breast conditions and the near 20% placebo effect associated with intervention. Because excessive estrogen or altered sensitivity to estrogen is the dominant theory of etiology, interventions that may modulate endogenous steroid hormones warrant further investigation as potential treatments for symptomatic fibrocystic breast conditions.

  3. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  4. Condition trees as a mechanism for communicating the meaning of uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beven, Keith

    2015-04-01

    Uncertainty communication for environmental problems is fraught with difficulty for good epistemic reasons. The fact that most sources of uncertainty are subject to, and often dominated by, epistemic uncertainties means that the unthinking use of probability theory might actually be misleading and lead to false inference (even in some cases where the assumptions of a probabilistic error model might seem to be reasonably valid). This therefore creates problems in communicating the meaning of probabilistic uncertainties of model predictions to potential users (there are many examples in hydrology, hydraulics, climate change and other domains). It is suggested that one way of being more explicit about the meaning of uncertainties is to associate each type of application with a condition tree of assumptions that need to be made in producing an estimate of uncertainty. The condition tree then provides a basis for discussion and communication of assumptions about uncertainties with users. Agreement of assumptions (albeit generally at some institutional level) will provide some buy-in on the part of users, and a basis for commissioning of future studies. Even in some relatively well-defined problems, such as mapping flood risk, such a condition tree can be rather extensive, but by making each step in the tree explicit then an audit trail is established for future reference. This can act to provide focus in the exercise of agreeing more realistic assumptions.

  5. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  6. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernstein, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, II, Gregory Von [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glover, Steven F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Gary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williamson, Kenneth Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zutavern, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gelbard, Fred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In a submerged environment, power cables may experience accelerated insulation degradation due to water - related aging mechanisms . Direct contact with water or moisture intrusion in the cable insulation s ystem has been identified in the literature as a significant aging stressor that can affect performance and lifetime of electric cables . Progressive reduction of the dielectric strength is commonly a result of water treeing which involves the development of permanent hydrophilic structures in the insulation coinciding with the absorption of water into the cable . Water treeing is a phenomenon in which dendritic microvoids are formed in electric cable insulation due to electrochemic al reactions , electromechanical forces , and diffusion of contaminants over time . These reactions are caused by the combined effect s of water presence and high electrical stress es in the material . Water tree growth follow s a tree - like branching pattern , i ncreasing in volume and length over time . Although these cables can be "dried out," water tree degradation , specifically the growth of hydrophilic regions, is believed to be permanent and typically worsens over time. Based on established research , water treeing or water induced damage can occur in a variety of electric cables including XLPE, TR - XLPE and other insulating materials, such as EPR and butyl rubber . Once water trees or water induced damage form, the dielectric strength of an insulation materia l will decrease gradually with time as the water trees grow in length, which could eventually result in failure of the insulating material . Under wet conditions or i n submerged environments , several environmental and operational parameters can influence w ater tree initiation and affect water tree growth . These parameters include voltage cycling, field frequency, temperature, ion concentration and chemistry, type of insula tion material , and the characteristics of its defects. In this effort, a review of academic

  7. LORETA Neurofeedback in the Precuneus: Operant Conditioning in Basic Mechanisms of Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Rex L; Baldwin, Debora R; Diloreto, Dominic J; Phillips, Sherman T; Shaw, Tiffany L; Levy, Jacob J

    2014-10-01

    Low-resolution brain electomagnetic tomography (LORETA) neurofeedback provides a mechanism to influence the electrical activity of the brain in intracranial space. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of LORETA neurofeedback (LNFB) in the precuneus as a mechanism for improving self-regulation in controls and a heterogeneous diagnostic group (DX). Thirteen participants completed between 10 and 20 sessions of LNFB training in a 3-voxel cluster in the left precuneus. The participants included 5 nonclinical university students, and 8 adults with heterogeneous psychiatric diagnoses. We assessed the effects of LNFB with neurophysiological measures as well as pre- and post-Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) subscales and selected subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (DKEFS). There was a significant total relative power increase at the precuneus for baseline contrasts for the control group. The DX group did not reach significant levels. All participants showed improvements in executive functions and tended to report significantly less psychopathology. The basic neural mechanisms of self-regulation are poorly understood. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that LNFB in a heterogeneous population enhances executive functions while concordantly decreasing endorsement of psychological symptoms. The alpha frequency in the brain may represent integrative functioning relative to operant efficiency and self-regulatory mechanisms. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  8. Condition Monitoring Using Computational Intelligence Methods Applications in Mechanical and Electrical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2012-01-01

    Condition monitoring uses the observed operating characteristics of a machine or structure to diagnose trends in the signal being monitored and to predict the need for maintenance before a breakdown occurs. This reduces the risk, inherent in a fixed maintenance schedule, of performing maintenance needlessly early or of having a machine fail before maintenance is due either of which can be expensive with the latter also posing a risk of serious accident especially in systems like aeroengines in which a catastrophic failure would put lives at risk. The technique also measures responses from the whole of the system under observation so it can detect the effects of faults which might be hidden deep within a system, hidden from traditional methods of inspection. Condition Monitoring Using Computational Intelligence Methods promotes the various approaches gathered under the umbrella of computational intelligence to show how condition monitoring can be used to avoid equipment failures and lengthen its useful life, m...

  9. Fear conditioning induced by interpersonal conflicts in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takaki; Konishi, Mika; Umeda, Satoshi; Terasawa, Yuri; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes. In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors' face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts. Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR). Correlations between the SCR changes, and personality traits measured by the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory were explored. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder.

  10. Fear Conditioning Induced by Interpersonal Conflicts in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takaki; Konishi, Mika; Umeda, Satoshi; Terasawa, Yuri; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes. In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors’ face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts. Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR). Correlations between the SCR changes, and personality traits measured by the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory were explored. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder. PMID:25978817

  11. Mechanism of glucose electrochemical oxidation on gold surface

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; La Mantia, Fabio; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The complex oxidation of glucose at the surface of gold electrodes was studied in detail in different conditions of pH, buffer and halide concentration. As observed in previous studies, an oxidative current peak occurs during the cathodic sweep showing a highly linear dependence on glucose concentration, when other electrolyte conditions are unchanged. The effect of the different conditions on the intensity of this peak has stressed the limitations of the previously proposed mechanisms. A mechanism able to explain the presence of this oxidative peak was proposed. The mechanism takes into account ion-sorption and electrochemical adsorption of OH-, buffer species (K2HPO4/KH2PO4) and halides. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanism of glucose electrochemical oxidation on gold surface

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-08-01

    The complex oxidation of glucose at the surface of gold electrodes was studied in detail in different conditions of pH, buffer and halide concentration. As observed in previous studies, an oxidative current peak occurs during the cathodic sweep showing a highly linear dependence on glucose concentration, when other electrolyte conditions are unchanged. The effect of the different conditions on the intensity of this peak has stressed the limitations of the previously proposed mechanisms. A mechanism able to explain the presence of this oxidative peak was proposed. The mechanism takes into account ion-sorption and electrochemical adsorption of OH-, buffer species (K2HPO4/KH2PO4) and halides. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Generalized classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, M.; Rodrigues, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The geometrical study of Classical Mechanics shows that the Hamiltonian (respectively, Lagrangian) formalism may be characterized by intrinsical structures canonically defined on the cotangent (respectively, tangent) bundle of a differentiable manifold. A generalized formalism for higher order Lagrangians is developed. Then the Hamiltonian form of the theory is developed. Finally, the Poisson brackets are defined and the conditions under which a mapping is a canonical transformation are studied. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this type of mechanics is established. (Auth.)

  14. Mechanisms of embodiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dijkstra (Katinka); L.S. Post (Lysanne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is a critical review of recent studies demonstrating the mechanism of sensorimotor simulation in different cognitive domains. Empirical studies that specify conditions under which embodiment occurs in different domains will be discussed and evaluated. Examples of relevant

  15. Inflation with generalized initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Matzner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In many current models of the early Universe a scalar field phi which is only very weakly coupled to other quantum fields is used to generate inflation. In such models there are no forces which could thermalize the scalar field, and previous assumptions about its preinflation ''initial'' conditions must be abandoned. In this paper the onset of inflation is studied classically for more general initial conditions of the scalar field configuration. In particular, initial conditions with a nonvanishing spatial average of phi, with phi chosen at random in each initial horizon volume, and with random initial momenta are considered. We identify and discuss several mechanisms that can drive these more general initial conditions toward an inflationary state. The analysis is done in one spatial dimension

  16. Two Parameter Fracture Mechanics: Fatigue Crack Behavior under Mixed Mode Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3-4 (2008), s. 857-865 ISSN 0013-7944. [Crack Paths 2006. Parma, 14.09.2006-16.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP101/04/P001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Constraint * Mixed-mode loading * Fatigue crack * Crack growth * Crack path Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.713, year: 2008

  17. Performance Investigation of A Mix Wind Turbine Using A Clutch Mechanism At Low Wind Speed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamanun, M. J.; Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, M.; Muzammil, W. K.

    2017-07-01

    Wind energy is one of the methods that generates energy from sustainable resources. This technology has gained prominence in this era because it produces no harmful product to the society. There is two fundamental type of wind turbine are generally used this day which is Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). The VAWT technology is more preferable compare to HAWT because it gives better efficiency and cost effectiveness as a whole. However, VAWT is known to have distinct disadvantage compared to HAWT; self-start ability and efficiency at low wind speed condition. Different solution has been proposed to solve these issues which includes custom design blades, variable angle of attack mechanism and mix wind turbine. A new type of clutch device was successfully developed in UMS to be used in a mix Savonius-Darrieus wind turbine configuration. The clutch system which barely audible when in operation compared to a ratchet clutch system interconnects the Savonius and Darrieus rotor; allowing the turbine to self-start at low wind speed condition as opposed to a standalone Darrieus turbine. The Savonius height were varied at three different size in order to understand the effect of the Savonius rotor to the mix wind turbine performance. The experimental result shows that the fabricated Savonius rotor show that the height of the Savonius rotor affecting the RPM for the turbine. The swept area (SA), aspect ratio (AR) and tip speed ratio (TSR) also calculated in this paper. The highest RPM recorded in this study is 90 RPM for Savonius rotor 0.22-meter height at 2.75 m/s. The Savonius rotor 0.22-meter also give the highest TSR for each range of speed from 0.75 m/s, 1.75 m/s and 2.75 m/s where it gives 1.03 TSR, 0.76 TSR, and 0.55 TSR.

  18. Plug cementing: Horizontal to vertical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, D.G.; Heathman, J.F.; Griffith, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an in-depth study of cement plug placement that was conducted with large-scale models for the improvement of plug cementing practices and plug integrity. Common hole and workstring geometries were examined with various rheology and density ratios between the drilling fluid and cement. The critical conditions dictating the difference between success and failure for various wellbore angles and conditions were explored, and the mechanisms controlling slurry movement before and after placement are now better understood. An understanding of these mechanisms allows the engineer to better tailor a design to specific hole conditions. Controversial concepts regarding plug-setting practices have been examined and resolved. The cumulative effects of density, rheology, and hole angle are major factors affecting plug success. While the Boycott effect and an extrusion effect were observed to be predominant in inclined wellbores, a spiraling or {open_quotes}roping{close_quotes} effect controls slurry movement in vertical wellbores. Ultimate success of a cement plug can be obtained if allowances are made for these effects in the job design, provided all other previously published recommended placement practices are followed. Results of this work can be applied to many sidetracking and plug-to-abandon operations. Additionally, the understanding of the fluid movement (creep) mechanisms holds potential for use in primary and remedial cementing work, and in controlling the placement of noncementitious fluids in the wellbore.

  19. Conditions precedent and indemnities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    The use of certain conditions which allow purchase and sale agreements to be voided without any liability to either the vendor or purchaser are discussed. The drafting issues that arise when preparing these conditions are described and some common types of conditions precedent found in oil and gas purchase and sale transactions are explained. A 'conditions precedent' was defined as being something which must happen before an interest can vest or grow or before an obligation can be performed. Vendors and purchasers use conditions precedent to provide protection against having to conclude a transaction in circumstances that are not acceptable to them. The manner in which indemnity provisions in an oil and gas purchase and sale agreement work, is also explained. These usually relate to breaches of the contract by either vendors or purchasers. Indemnity clauses are used to allocate risk between the vendor and the purchaser and to set out the mechanics by which either party may make a claim against the other. Ways in which to prepare indemnity clauses are described. 2 refs

  20. Modelling of the UO{sub 2} dissolution mechanisms in synthetic groundwater. Experiments carried out under anaerobic and reducing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cera, E.; Grive, M.; Bruno, J. [EnvirosQuantiSci (Spain); Ollila, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The experimental data generated under anaerobic and reducing conditions within the EU R and D programme 1996-1998 entitled 'Source term for performance assessment of spent fuel as a waste form' and published as a POSIVA report (Ollila, 1999) have been modelled in the present work. The dissolution data available, mainly U in the aqueous phase as a function of time and redox potentials have been used to elucidate the redox pairs controlling the redox potential of the systems studied. Dissolution experiments carried out under anaerobic conditions have shown the important role of the uranium system on buffering the redox capacity of these systems. In the presence of carbonates in the system, the redox control has been given by the UO{sub 2}(c)/U(VI) aqueous redox couple while in absence of carbonates in the system, the redox control has been governed by the UO{sub 2}(c)/UO{sub 2+x} transition. In addition dissolution rates have been satisfactorily modelled by assuming an oxidative dissolution mechanism consisting in an initial oxidation of the surface of the uranium dioxide, binding of the HCO{sub 3} or H+ at the U(VI) sites of the oxidised surface layer and detachment of these surface complexes. The redox controls in the experiments carried out under reducing conditions have been exerted by the different reducing agents added in the systems. Therefore, the addition of Fe{sup 2+} lead to a redox control exerted by the Fe{sup 2+}/Fe(OH){sub 3}(s) redox pair, while the addition of sulphide lead to a different redox control governed by the HS/SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} redox pair. (orig.)

  1. Ice-sheet flow conditions deduced from mechanical tests of ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Narita, Hideki; Hondoh, Takeo

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate....... It was revealed that cloudy bands affect ice-deformation processes, but the details remain unclear. Udgivelsesdato: June......Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate......-core samples with basal planes parallel to the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. The ice-flow enhancement factors show a gradual increase with depth down to approximately 2000 m. These results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in the fourth-order Schmid factor. Below 2000 m depth, the flow...

  2. Calorimetric investigation on mechanically activated storage energy mechanism of sphalerite and pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhongliang; Chen Qiyuan; Yin Zhoulan; Hu Huiping; Wu Daoxin

    2005-01-01

    The structural changes of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite under different grinding conditions were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), laser particle size analyzer and elemental analysis. The storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite was measured by a calorimetric method. A thermochemical cycle was designed so that mechanically activated and non-activated minerals reached the same final state when dissolved in the same oxidizing solvent. The results show that the storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite rises with increased in grinding time, and reaches a maximum after a certain grinding period. The storage energy of mechanically activated pyrite decreases when heated under inert atmosphere. The storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite remains constant when treated below 573 K under inert atmosphere. The percentage of the storage energy caused by surface area increase during mechanical activation decreases with increasing grinding time. These results support our opinion that the mechanically activated storage energy of sphalerite is closely related to lattice distortions, and the mechanically activated storage energy of pyrite is mainly caused by the formation of reactive sites on the surface

  3. Mechanical properties of copper-lithium alloys produced by mechanic alloyed and hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo B, Ricardo; Gorziglia S, Ezio; Penaloza V, Augusto

    2004-01-01

    In this work are presented the progress carried out on the characterization of some physical and mechanical properties, together with the determination of the micro mechanism of fracture of the Cu-2% wt Li, that was obtained by mechanical alloying followed hot extrusion at 500 o C and 700 o C. Hardness and tensile mechanical tests were performed together with metallographic and fractographic analysis. The experimental results obtained with powders of the Cu-Li alloy studied are compared with powder of pure copper, under similar test conditions. The results show that by hot extrusion was allowed to obtain very high densification levels for the materials under study. Moreover, it was found that lithium reduce both the tensile strength and elongation, of copper by a mechanism of embrittlement. The results are compares with the literature (au)

  4. Time evolution of some quantum-mechanical systems. Wavefunction cloning in evolving rotating systems. Finite range boundary conditions for time dependent Schroedinger Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvieu, R.; Carbonell, J.; Gignoux, C.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Rozmej, P.

    1997-01-01

    The time evolution of coherent rotational wave packets associated to a diatomic molecule or to a deformed nucleus has been studied. Assuming a rigid body dynamics the J(J+1) law leads to a mechanism of cloning: the way function is divided into wave packets identical to the initial one at specific time. Applications are studied for a nuclear wave packed formed by Coulomb excitation. Exact boundary conditions at finite distance for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation are derived. A numerical scheme based on Crank-Nicholson method is proposed to illustrate its applicability in several examples. (authors)

  5. Customized lifting multiwavelet packet information entropy for equipment condition identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jinglong; Zi, Yanyang; He, Zhengjia; Chen, Xuefeng; Zuo, Ming J; Yuan, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Condition identification of mechanical equipment from vibration measurement data is significant to avoid economic loss caused by unscheduled breakdowns and catastrophic accidents. However, this task still faces challenges due to the complexity of equipment and the harsh environment. This paper provides a possibility for equipment condition identification by proposing a method called customized lifting multiwavelet packet information entropy. Benefiting from the properties of multi-resolution analysis and multiple wavelet basis functions, the multiwavelet method has advantages in characterizing non-stationary vibration signals. In order to realize the accurate detection and identification of the condition features, a customized lifting multiwavelet packet is constructed via a multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then the vibration signal from the mechanical equipment is processed by the customized lifting multiwavelet packet transform. The relative energy in each frequency band of the multiwavelet packet transform coefficients that equals a percentage of the whole signal energy is taken as the probability. The normalized information entropy is obtained based on the relative energy to describe the condition of a mechanical system. The proposed method is applied to the condition identification of a rolling mill and a demountable disk–drum aero-engine. The results support the feasibility of the proposed method in equipment condition identification. (paper)

  6. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Christopher B; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner's arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC) by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children's language learning.

  7. Trace conditioning in insects – Keep the trace!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina V Dylla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS and an unconditioned stimulus (US following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination – a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase, which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  8. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  9. Turbocharging Normalization in Highland Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure many production processes are used compressors of various types, including turbochargers, which produce compressed air. The actual performance values of turbochargers used in highlands are significantly different from the certified values, and parameters of compressed air do not always guarantee the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.The paper presents research results of the turbochargers of 4CI 425MX4 type, a series of "CENTAC", manufactured by INGERSOL – RAND Company. The research has been conducted in industrial highland conditions in difficult climatic environment. There were almost no investigations of turbochargers running in highland conditions. The combination of low atmospheric pressure with high temperature of the intake air causes the abnormal operating conditions of a turbocharger. Only N. M. Barannikov in his paper shows the results of theoretical studies of such operating conditions, but as to the practical research, there is no information at all.To normalize the turbocharger operation an option of the mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe is adopted. As a result of theoretical research, a TurboMAX blower MAX500 was chosen as a supercharger. The next stage of theoretical research was to construct characteristics of the turbocharger 4CI 425MX4 with a mechanical supercharger in the suction pipe. The boost reduces to the minimum the time of using additional compressors when parameters of the intake air are changed and ensures the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.To verify the results of theoretical studies, namely, the technique for recalculation of the turbocharger characteristics under the real conditions of suction, were carried out the experimental researches. The average error between experimental and theoretical data is 2,9783 %, which confirms the validity of the technique used for reduction of the turbocharger characteristics to those under the real conditions of suction.

  10. Relationships between the curing conditions and some mechanical properties of hybrid thermosetting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Filho, Newton L.; Aquino, Hermes A. de; Cardoso, Celso X.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the heat of polymerization (ΑH) and activation energy (E a ) parameters, obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the ratio of epoxy resin to hardener of the thermosetting materials based on an organic-inorganic hybrid epoxy resin (OG) was investigated. Activation energy (E a ) and heat of polymerization (ΑH) increased with an increasing OG content, up to 70 wt %. Further increase in OG content to 80 wt % reduced E a and ΑH. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicates that the maximum cross-link density is obtained at 83 wt % OG, whereas fracture toughness and tensile modulus mechanical properties are maximized at 70 wt % OG. (author)

  11. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions

  12. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Woo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Machine Convergence Technology, Hankyong National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions.

  13. Robust and general method for determining surface fluid flow boundary conditions in articular cartilage contact mechanics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2010-03-01

    Contact detection in cartilage contact mechanics is an important feature of any analytical or computational modeling investigation when the biphasic nature of cartilage and the corresponding tribology are taken into account. The fluid flow boundary conditions will change based on whether the surface is in contact or not, which will affect the interstitial fluid pressurization. This in turn will increase or decrease the load sustained by the fluid phase, with a direct effect on friction, wear, and lubrication. In laboratory experiments or clinical hemiarthroplasty, when a rigid indenter or metallic prosthesis is used to apply load to the cartilage, there will not be any fluid flow normal to the surface in the contact region due to the impermeable nature of the indenter/prosthesis. In the natural joint, on the other hand, where two cartilage surfaces interact, flow will depend on the pressure difference across the interface. Furthermore, in both these cases, the fluid would flow freely in non-contacting regions. However, it should be pointed out that the contact area is generally unknown in advance in both cases and can only be determined as part of the solution. In the present finite element study, a general and robust algorithm was proposed to decide nodes in contact on the cartilage surface and, accordingly, impose the fluid flow boundary conditions. The algorithm was first tested for a rigid indenter against cartilage model. The algorithm worked well for two-dimensional four-noded and eight-noded axisymmetric element models as well as three-dimensional models. It was then extended to include two cartilages in contact. The results were in excellent agreement with the previous studies reported in the literature.

  14. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions. Incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, D.

    2000-05-01

    Among the various existing incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, like the pollution regulations and the financial help for energy mastery, this document analyzes the conditions of efficiency of the negotiated voluntary agreements and of the tradable emission quotas and their articulation with the fiscality. (J.S.)

  15. Nuclear-Mechanical Coupling: Small Amplitude Mechanical Vibrations and High Amplitude Power Oscillations in Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2008-11-01

    The cores of nuclear reactors, including its structural parts and cooling fluids, are complex mechanical systems able to vibrate in a set of normal modes and frequencies, if suitable perturbed. The cyclic variations in the strain state of the core materials may produce changes in density. Changes in density modify the reactivity. Changes in reactivity modify thermal power. Modifications in thermal power produce variations in temperature fields. Variations in temperature produce variations in strain due to thermal-elastic effects. If the variation of the temperature field is fast enough and if the Doppler Effect and other stabilizing prompt effects in the fuel are weak enough, a fast oscillatory instability could be produced, coupled with mechanical vibrations of small amplitude. A recently constructed, simple mathematical model of nuclear reactor kinetics, that improves the one due to A.S. Thompson, is reviewed. It was constructed in order to study, in a first approximation, the stability of the reactor: a nonlinear nuclear-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to reactor point kinetics with thermal-elastic feedback and with frozen delayed neutron effects) is coupled nonlinearly with a linear mechanical-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to the first normal mode of mechanical vibrations excited by thermo-elastic effects). This mathematical model is studied here from the standpoint of mechanical vibrations. It is shown how, under certain conditions, a suitable mechanical perturbation could elicit fast and growing oscillatory instabilities in the reactor power. Applying the asymptotic method due to Krylov, Bogoliubov and Mitropolsky, analytical formulae that may be used in the calculation of the time varying amplitude and phase of the mechanical oscillations are given, as functions of the mechanical, thermal and nuclear parameters of the reactor. The consequences for the mechanical integrity of the reactor are assessed. Some conditions, mainly, but not exclusively

  16. Casein Films: The Effects of Formulation, Environmental Conditions and the Addition of Citric Pectin on the Structure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia M. Bonnaillie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin casein films for food packaging applications reportedly possess good strength and low oxygen permeability, but low elasticity and high sensitivity to moisture. Modifying the films to target specific behaviors depending on environmental conditions can enable a variety of commercial applications for casein-based films. The mechanical properties of solvent-cast (15% solids calcium-caseinate/glycerol films (CaCas:Gly ratio of 3:1 were characterized as a function of processing and environmental conditions, including film thickness, solution formulation and ambient humidity (from 22% to 70% relative humidity (RH at ~20 °C. At constant RH, the elongation at break (EAB had a strong positive dependence on the film thickness. When RH increased, the tensile strength (TS and modulus (E decreased approximately linearly, while EAB increased. From 0.05% to 1% (w/w of citric pectin (CP was then incorporated into CaCas/Gly films following seven different formulations (mixing sequences, to alter the protein network and to evaluate the effects of CP on the tensile properties of CaCas/Gly/CP films. At constant film thickness and ~60% RH, the addition of 0.1% or 1.0% CP to the films considerably increased or decreased EAB, TS and E in different directions and to different extents, depending on the formulation, while optical micrographs also showed vastly differing network configurations, suggesting complex formulation- and stoichiometry-dependent casein-pectin interactions within the dried films. Depending on the desired film properties and utilization conditions, pectin may be a useful addition to casein film formulations for food packaging applications.

  17. Periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Rong [Coll. of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Tech., Nanjing (China); Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China); Zhang Dongfeng [Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)

    2010-05-15

    In dynamical system theory, especially in many fields of applications from mechanics, Hamiltonian systems play an important role, since many related equations in mechanics can be written in an Hamiltonian form. In this paper, we study the existence of periodic solutions for a class of Hamiltonian systems. By applying the Galerkin approximation method together with a result of critical point theory, we establish the existence of periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions. Twist conditions play crucial roles in the study of periodic solutions for asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems. The lack of twist conditions brings some difficulty to the study. To the authors' knowledge, very little is known about the case, where twist conditions do not hold. (orig.)

  18. Relationships between the curing conditions and some mechanical properties of hybrid thermosetting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias Filho, Newton L.; Aquino, Hermes A. de [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: nldias@dfq.feis.unesp.br; Cardoso, Celso X. [UNESP, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia

    2006-09-15

    The relationship between the heat of polymerization ({alpha}H) and activation energy (E{sub a}) parameters, obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the ratio of epoxy resin to hardener of the thermosetting materials based on an organic-inorganic hybrid epoxy resin (OG) was investigated. Activation energy (E{sub a}) and heat of polymerization ({alpha}H) increased with an increasing OG content, up to 70 wt %. Further increase in OG content to 80 wt % reduced E{sub a} and {alpha}H. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicates that the maximum cross-link density is obtained at 83 wt % OG, whereas fracture toughness and tensile modulus mechanical properties are maximized at 70 wt % OG. (author)

  19. Fracture Mechanics Analyses of Subsurface Defects in Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Joggles Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Song, Kyongchan

    2011-01-01

    Coating spallation events have been observed along the slip-side joggle region of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels. One potential contributor to the spallation event is a pressure build up within subsurface voids or defects due to volatiles or water vapor entrapped during fabrication, refurbishment, or normal operational use. The influence of entrapped pressure on the thermo-mechanical fracture-mechanics response of reinforced carbon-carbon with subsurface defects is studied. Plane-strain simulations with embedded subsurface defects are performed to characterize the fracture mechanics response for a given defect length when subjected to combined elevated-temperature and subsurface-defect pressure loadings to simulate the unvented defect condition. Various subsurface defect locations of a fixed-length substrate defect are examined for elevated temperature conditions. Fracture mechanics results suggest that entrapped pressure combined with local elevated temperatures have the potential to cause subsurface defect growth and possibly contribute to further material separation or even spallation. For this anomaly to occur, several unusual circumstances would be required making such an outcome unlikely but plausible.

  20. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Christopher B.; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC) by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children’s language learning. PMID:29163295

  1. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Sturdy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children’s language learning.

  2. Elastic Multi-scale Mechanisms: Computation and Biological Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Ochoa, Juan G

    2018-01-01

    Explanations based on low-level interacting elements are valuable and powerful since they contribute to identify the key mechanisms of biological functions. However, many dynamic systems based on low-level interacting elements with unambiguous, finite, and complete information of initial states generate future states that cannot be predicted, implying an increase of complexity and open-ended evolution. Such systems are like Turing machines, that overlap with dynamical systems that cannot halt. We argue that organisms find halting conditions by distorting these mechanisms, creating conditions for a constant creativity that drives evolution. We introduce a modulus of elasticity to measure the changes in these mechanisms in response to changes in the computed environment. We test this concept in a population of predators and predated cells with chemotactic mechanisms and demonstrate how the selection of a given mechanism depends on the entire population. We finally explore this concept in different frameworks and postulate that the identification of predictive mechanisms is only successful with small elasticity modulus.

  3. The semi-brittle to ductile transition in peridotite on oceanic faults: mechanisms and P-T condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, C.; Warren, J. M.; Kohli, A. H.; Teyssier, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Experimental and geological-petrological studies suggest that the transition from brittle faulting to ductile flow of olivine, i.e. from seismic to aseismic behavior of mantle rocks (peridotites), occurs close to 600°C. However, recent seismological studies on oceanic transform faults (TFs) and ridges have documented earthquakes to temperatures (T) up to 700-800°C. In this study, we carried out a petrological, microstructural and geochemical analysis of natural samples of peridotites dredged at 3 different oceanic TFs of the Southwest Indian Ridge: Shaka, Prince Edward and Atlantis II. We selected samples displaying variable amounts of ductile deformation (from porphyroclastic tectonites to ultramylonites) prior to serpentinization in order to characterize their relatively high-T mechanical behavior. We find that the most deformed samples record cycles of ductile and brittle deformation. Peridotite ductile flow is characterized by drastic grain size reduction and the development of (ultra)mylonitic shear zones. In these zones, a switch in olivine deformation mechanism from dislocation creep to grain-size sensitive creep is associated with dissolution/precipitation processes. Brittle deformation of these samples is evidenced by the presence of (at least centimetric) transgranular and intragranular fractures that fragment coarser grained minerals. Both kinds of fractures are filled with the same phase assemblage as in the ultramylonitic bands: olivine + amphibole ± orthopyroxene ± Al-phase (plagioclase and/or spinel) ± sulfides. The presence of amphibole indicates that this semi-brittle deformation was assisted by hydrous fluids and its composition (e.g. high concentration of chlorine) suggests that the fluids have most likely a hydrothermal origin. We interpret these fractures to have formed under fluid-assisted conditions, recording paleo-seismic activity that alternated with periods of relatively slow interseismic ductile flow. The presence of Mg

  4. Place of Mitochondrial Potassium-ATP Channels in The Mechanism of Effect of Ischemic Conditionings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Şengül

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion episodes in a short interval “just before” ischemia performed experimentally have been called preconditioning, where as “just after” ischemia have been called postconditioning and tissue protective effects of these endogenous mechanisms have been shown in various organs via various studies. Although multipl mechanisms have been being propounded about these phenomenons which have been found area of usage from hearth surgery to organ transplantation, mitochondrial potassium ATP-channels have been maintaining its importance.

  5. Mechanisms of ultrafine-grained austenite formation under different isochronal conditions in a cold-rolled metastable stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celada-Casero, C., E-mail: c.celada@cenim.csic.es [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Huang, B.M. [National Taiwan University, Dpt. of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 Roosvelt Road, Section 4, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Aranda, M.M. [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yang, J.-R. [National Taiwan University, Dpt. of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 Roosvelt Road, Section 4, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Martin, D. San [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    The primary objective of this work is to obtain fundamental insights on phase transformations, with focus on the reaustenitization process (α′→γ transformation), of a cold-rolled (CR) semi-austenitic metastable stainless steel upon different isochronal conditions (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 °C/s). For this purpose, an exhaustive microstructural characterization has been performed by using complementary experimental such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), micro-hardness Vickers and magnetization measurements. It has been detected that all microstructural changes shift to higher temperatures as the heating rate increases. The reaustenitization occurs in two-steps for all heating rates, which is attributed to the chemical banding present in the CR state. The α′→γ transformation is controlled by the migration of substitutional alloying elements across the austenite/martensite (γ/α′) interface, which finally leads to ultrafine-grained reaustenitized microstructures (440–280 nm). The morphology of the martensite phase in the CR state has been found to be the responsible for such a grain refinement, along with the presence of χ-phase and nanometric Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Al) precipitates that pin the austenite grain growth, especially upon slowly heating at 0.1 °C/s. - Highlights: •Ultrafine-grained austenite structures are obtained isochronally at 0.1–100 °C/s •The α′→γ transformation occurs in two steps due to the initial chemical banding •A diffusional mechanism governs the α′→γ transformation for all heating rates •The dislocation-cell-type of martensite promotes a diffusional mechanism •Precipitates located at α′/γ interfaces hinder the austenite growth.

  6. Mechanisms of strain accommodation in plastically-deformed zircon under simple shear deformation conditions during amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs; Wheeler, John; Habler, Gerlinde

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the strain accommodation mechanisms in zircon under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions in simple shear. Microstructural data from undeformed, fractured and crystal-plastically deformed zircon crystals are described in the context of the host shear zone, and evaluated in the light of zircon elastic anisotropy. Our work challenges the existing model of zircon evolution and shows previously undescribed rheological characteristics for this important accessory mineral. Crystal-plastically deformed zircon grains have axis oriented parallel to the foliation plane, with the majority of deformed grains having axis parallel to the lineation. Zircon accommodates strain by a network of stepped low-angle boundaries, formed by switching between tilt dislocations with the slip systems {010} and {110} and rotation axis [001], twist dislocations with the rotation axis [001], and tilt dislocations with the slip system {001} and rotation axis [010]. The slip system {110} is newly described for zircon. Most misorientation axes in plastically-deformed zircon grains are parallel to the XY plane of the sample and have [001] crystallographic direction. Such behaviour of strained zircon lattice is caused by elastic anisotropy that has a direct geometric control on the rheology, deformation mechanisms and dominant slip systems in zircon. Young's modulus and P wave velocity have highest values parallel to zircon [001] axis, indicating that zircon is elastically strong along this direction. Poisson ratio and Shear modulus demonstrate that zircon is also most resistant to shearing along [001]. Thus, [001] axis is the most common rotation axis in zircon. The described zircon behaviour is important to take into account during structural and geochronological investigations of (poly)metamorphic terrains. Geometry of dislocations in zircon may help reconstructing the geometry of the host shear zone(s), large-scale stresses in the crust, and, possibly, the timing of

  7. The effect of sintering conditions and ZrN volume fraction on the mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered W/ZrN composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongju; Umer, Malik Adeel; Shin, Yoochul; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soonhyung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of sintering conditions on properties of W composites was investigated. ► Effect of ZrN volume fraction on properties of W composites was investigated. ► The grain size and relative density increased with increasing sintering temperature. ► ZrN particles led to an increase in strength of W and a decrease in grain size. ► Highest flexural strength was obtained for 10 vol.% W/ZrN with lowest agglomeration. - Abstract: In an effort to improve the room temperature mechanical properties of tungsten, W/ZrN composites were fabricated by high energy ball milling followed by spark plasma sintering at temperatures in a range of 1200–1700 °C under a pressure of 50 MPa. The effects of sintering conditions and ZrN volume fraction on the mechanical properties of the W/ZrN composites were studied and the results were compared to the properties of monolithic tungsten. The grain size of monolith tungsten and W/ZrN composites was found to increase with an increase in sintering temperature and time. In the case of the W/ZrN composites, ZrN particles led to an increase in the compressive strength of tungsten and a decrease in grain size. The increase in compressive strength of the composites was attributed to a reinforcement effect of ZrN particles as well as grain size refinement according to the Hall–Petch relation. Compressive strength of the composites increased with increasing ZrN content while the flexural strength decreased for samples with ZrN content exceeding 10 vol.%. This was attributed to the effects of ZrN agglomeration within the tungsten matrix.

  8. Formation Mechanisms of the Spring-Autumn Asymmetry of the Midlatitudinal NmF2 under Daytime Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions at Low Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.; Pavlova, N. M.

    2018-05-01

    Formation mechanism of the spring-autumn asymmetry of the F2-layer peak electron number density of the midlatitudinal ionosphere, NmF2, under daytime quiet geomagnetic conditions at low solar activity are studied. We used the ionospheric parameters measured by the ionosonde and incoherent scatter radar at Millstone Hill on March 3, 2007, March 29, 2007, September 12, 2007, and September 18, 1984. The altitudinal profiles of the electron density and temperature were calculated for the studied conditions using a one-dimensional, nonstationary, ionosphere-plasmasphere theoretical model for middle geomagnetic latitudes. The study has shown that there are two main factors contributing to the formation of the observed spring-autumn asymmetry of NmF2: first, the spring-autumn variations of the plasma drift along the geomagnetic field due to the corresponding variations in the components of the neutral wind velocity, and, second, the difference between the composition of the neutral atmosphere under the spring and autumn conditions at the same values of the universal time and the ionospheric F2-layer peak altitude. The seasonal variations of the rate of O+(4S) ion production, which are associated with chemical reactions with the participation of the electronically excited ions of atomic oxygen, does not significantly affect the studied NmF2 asymmetry. The difference in the degree of influence of O+(4S) ion reactions with vibrationally excited N2 and O2 on NmF2 under spring and autumn conditions does not significantly change the spring-autumn asymmetry of NmF2.

  9. Characteristics of Acceleration and Acoustic Emission Signals from Mechanical Seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Do Hwan; Ha, Che Woong

    2015-01-01

    Based on these results, the applicability of acceleration signals for condition monitoring of mechanical seals is examined in the present study. Mechanical seals are used for pumps to prevent excessive leakage that might be occurred between rotational and stationary parts. The mechanical seals account for the major pump component failures. In spite of its importance, there have been few studies on condition monitoring of the components. Recently, some researchers have paid attention to the application of acoustic emission (AE) sensors for the fault detection of seals. The characteristics of acceleration and AE signals obtained from various defects are investigated. In order to prevent excessive leakage from mechanical seals, a condition monitoring technique is necessary. Based on the previous studies on AE techniques for seal monitoring, the signal characteristics from accelerometer

  10. Characteristics of Acceleration and Acoustic Emission Signals from Mechanical Seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Hwan; Ha, Che Woong [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Based on these results, the applicability of acceleration signals for condition monitoring of mechanical seals is examined in the present study. Mechanical seals are used for pumps to prevent excessive leakage that might be occurred between rotational and stationary parts. The mechanical seals account for the major pump component failures. In spite of its importance, there have been few studies on condition monitoring of the components. Recently, some researchers have paid attention to the application of acoustic emission (AE) sensors for the fault detection of seals. The characteristics of acceleration and AE signals obtained from various defects are investigated. In order to prevent excessive leakage from mechanical seals, a condition monitoring technique is necessary. Based on the previous studies on AE techniques for seal monitoring, the signal characteristics from accelerometer.

  11. Challenges in land model representation of heat transfer in snow and frozen soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, K. N.; Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.; Arnold, J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate model simulations of soil thermal and moisture states are critical for realistic estimates of exchanges of energy, water, and biogeochemical fluxes at the land-atmosphere interface. In cold regions, seasonal snow-cover and organic soils form insulating barriers, modifying the heat and moisture exchange that would otherwise occur between mineral soils and the atmosphere. The thermal properties of these media are highly dynamic functions of mass, water and ice content. Land surface models vary in their representation of snow and soil processes, and thus in the treatment of insulation and heat exchange. For some models, recent development efforts have improved representation of heat transfer in cold regions, such as with multi-layer snow treatment, inclusion of soil freezing and organic soil properties, yet model deficiencies remain prevalent. We evaluate models that participated in the Protocol for the Analysis of Land Surface Models (PALS) Land Surface Model Benchmarking Evaluation Project (PLUMBER) experiment for proficiency in simulating heat transfer between the soil through the snowpack to the atmosphere. Using soil observations from cold region sites and a controlled experiment with Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA), we explore the impact of snow and soil model decisions and parameter values on heat transfer model skill. Specifically, we use SUMMA to mimic the spread of behaviors exhibited by the models that participated in PLUMBER. The experiment allows us to isolate relationships between model skill and process representation. The results are aimed to better understand existing model challenges and identify potential advances for cold region models.

  12. The Plumbing of Land Surface Models: Is Poor Performance a Result of Methodology or Data Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Ned; Abramowitz, Gab; Pitman, Andy J.; Or, Dani; Best, Martin J.; Johnson, Helen R.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Boone, Aaron; Cuntz, Matthais; Decharme, Bertrand; hide

    2016-01-01

    The PALS Land sUrface Model Benchmarking Evaluation pRoject (PLUMBER) illustrated the value of prescribing a priori performance targets in model intercomparisons. It showed that the performance of turbulent energy flux predictions from different land surface models, at a broad range of flux tower sites using common evaluation metrics, was on average worse than relatively simple empirical models. For sensible heat fluxes, all land surface models were outperformed by a linear regression against downward shortwave radiation. For latent heat flux, all land surface models were outperformed by a regression against downward shortwave, surface air temperature and relative humidity. These results are explored here in greater detail and possible causes are investigated. We examine whether particular metrics or sites unduly influence the collated results, whether results change according to time-scale aggregation and whether a lack of energy conservation in fluxtower data gives the empirical models an unfair advantage in the intercomparison. We demonstrate that energy conservation in the observational data is not responsible for these results. We also show that the partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes in LSMs, rather than the calculation of available energy, is the cause of the original findings. Finally, we present evidence suggesting that the nature of this partitioning problem is likely shared among all contributing LSMs. While we do not find a single candidate explanation forwhy land surface models perform poorly relative to empirical benchmarks in PLUMBER, we do exclude multiple possible explanations and provide guidance on where future research should focus.

  13. Structural analyses of ITER toroidal field coils under fault conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, C.T.J.

    1992-04-01

    ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is intended to be an experimental thermonuclear tokamak reactor testing the basic physics performance and technologies essential to future fusion reactors. The magnet system of ITER consists essentially of 4 sub-systems, i.e. toroidal field coils (TFCs), poloidal field coils (PFCs), power supplies, and cryogenic supplies. These subsystems do not contain significant radioactivity inventories, but the large energy inventory is a potential accident initiator. The aim of the structural analyses is to prevent accidents from propagating into vacuum vessel, tritium system and cooling system, which all contain significant amounts of radioactivity. As part of design process 3 conditions are defined for PF and TF coils, at which mechanical behaviour has to be analyzed in some detail, viz: normal operating conditions, upset conditions and fault conditions. This paper describes the work carried out by ECN to create a detailed finite element model of 16 TFCs as well as results of some fault condition analyses made with the model. Due to fault conditions, either electrical or mechanical, magnetic loading of TFCs becomes abnormal and further mechanical failure of parts of the overall structure might occur (e.g. failure of coil, gravitational supports, intercoil structure). The analyses performed consist of linear elastic stress analyses and electro-magneto-structural analyses (coupled field analyses). 8 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  14. Acceptance conditions in automated negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarslag, T.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In every negotiation with a deadline, one of the negotiating parties has to accept an offer to avoid a break off. A break off is usually an undesirable outcome for both parties, therefore it is important that a negotiator employs a proficient mechanism to decide under which conditions to accept.

  15. Analysis of a burning fuel on a water sublayer: conditions of triggering mechanism of superheated water explosion ('boilover')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan Y Hristov

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The communication considers the burning of fuel on water sublayer that commonly occurs during tanks fires of combustible liquids. The main efforts are stressed on the qualitative assessments of the heat transfer mechanisms and the prediction of the boilover onset. Boilover is generally considered as one of the most dangerous fire phenomena. Fires in storage plants can and still do happen and cause severe damage and high losses. The boilover phenomenon is attractive from a fundamental point of view that address to better understanding of its mechanism and theoretical prediction of the critical condition of its onset. The analysis employed various data obtained by different research groups all over the world [1-5]. The evaluation of the suitable functional relationships predicting the pre-boilover time was done on the basis of dimensionless forms of two types of single layer heat conduction models: Surface absorption models [2,3,5] and In-depth absorption models [1,2,5]. Dimensional analysis of the models has detected several dimensionless numbers allowing easy buildup of similarity regression models predicting the pre-boilover time (critical Fourier number correlations) [ 5].The present work continues the study already started on the unified analysis of the boilover phenomenon [5] and the pre-explosion time prediction. The thermal conditions of the water sublayer are considered in order to evaluate the critical conditions for superheated water explosions. The latter have not been considered in the previous studies [1-5] due to both insufficient amount of data and incorrect interpretation of the phenomenon. REFERENCES: 1. Garo JP and Vantelon JP (1999) Thin layer boilover of pure or multicomponent fuel, in: Prevention of Hazardous Fires and Explosions. The transfer to Civil Applications of Military Experiences (Zarko V.E., Weiser V, Eisenreich N and Vasil'ev AA, Eds.), NATO Science Series, Series 1. Disarmament Technologies-vol. 26

  16. Contact geometry and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczeg, Gabriel; Waldron, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    We present a generally covariant approach to quantum mechanics in which generalized positions, momenta and time variables are treated as coordinates on a fundamental "phase-spacetime". We show that this covariant starting point makes quantization into a purely geometric flatness condition. This makes quantum mechanics purely geometric, and possibly even topological. Our approach is especially useful for time-dependent problems and systems subject to ambiguities in choices of clock or observer. As a byproduct, we give a derivation and generalization of the Wigner functions of standard quantum mechanics.

  17. Oxidation of coals in the course of mechanical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.G. Proidakov; G.A. Kalabin [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15

    The results of a study of coal oxidation under stationary conditions and during mechanical treatment are presented. A considerable increase in the reaction rate constants of coal oxidation during mechanical treatment because of oxidative mechanical degradation was found.

  18. Quantum “violation” of Dirichlet boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Y. Park

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dirichlet boundary conditions have been widely used in general relativity. They seem at odds with the holographic property of gravity simply because a boundary configuration can be varying and dynamic instead of dying out as required by the conditions. In this work we report what should be a tension between the Dirichlet boundary conditions and quantum gravitational effects, and show that a quantum-corrected black hole solution of the 1PI action no longer obeys, in the naive manner one may expect, the Dirichlet boundary conditions imposed at the classical level. We attribute the ‘violation’ of the Dirichlet boundary conditions to a certain mechanism of the information storage on the boundary.

  19. Quantum “violation” of Dirichlet boundary condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I.Y., E-mail: inyongpark05@gmail.com

    2017-02-10

    Dirichlet boundary conditions have been widely used in general relativity. They seem at odds with the holographic property of gravity simply because a boundary configuration can be varying and dynamic instead of dying out as required by the conditions. In this work we report what should be a tension between the Dirichlet boundary conditions and quantum gravitational effects, and show that a quantum-corrected black hole solution of the 1PI action no longer obeys, in the naive manner one may expect, the Dirichlet boundary conditions imposed at the classical level. We attribute the ‘violation’ of the Dirichlet boundary conditions to a certain mechanism of the information storage on the boundary.

  20. Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Crack Growth of RR1000

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher John Pretty; Mark Thomas Whitaker; Steve John Williams

    2017-01-01

    Non-isothermal conditions during flight cycles have long led to the requirement for thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) evaluation of aerospace materials. However, the increased temperatures within the gas turbine engine have meant that the requirements for TMF testing now extend to disc alloys along with blade materials. As such, fatigue crack growth rates are required to be evaluated under non-isothermal conditions along with the development of a detailed understanding of related failure mechan...

  1. Surface Damage Mechanism of Monocrystalline Si Under Mechanical Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Zhang, Quanli; To, Suet; Guo, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Single-point diamond scratching and nanoindentation on monocrystalline silicon wafer were performed to investigate the surface damage mechanism of Si under the contact loading. The results showed that three typical stages of material removal appeared during dynamic scratching, and a chemical reaction of Si with the diamond indenter and oxygen occurred under the high temperature. In addition, the Raman spectra of the various points in the scratching groove indicated that the Si-I to β-Sn structure (Si-II) and the following β-Sn structure (Si-II) to amorphous Si transformation appeared under the rapid loading/unloading condition of the diamond grit, and the volume change induced by the phase transformation resulted in a critical depth (ductile-brittle transition) of cut (˜60 nm ± 15 nm) much lower than the theoretical calculated results (˜387 nm). Moreover, it also led to abnormal load-displacement curves in the nanoindentation tests, resulting in the appearance of elbow and pop-out effects (˜270 nm at 20 s, 50 mN), which were highly dependent on the loading/unloading conditions. In summary, phase transformation of Si promoted surface deformation and fracture under both static and dynamic mechanical loading.

  2. Assessment and manifestation of central sensitisation across different chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt-Nielsen, L; Morlion, B; Perrot, S; Dahan, A; Dickenson, A; Kress, H G; Wells, C; Bouhassira, D; Mohr Drewes, A

    2018-02-01

    Different neuroplastic processes can occur along the nociceptive pathways and may be important in the transition from acute to chronic pain and for diagnosis and development of optimal management strategies. The neuroplastic processes may result in gain (sensitisation) or loss (desensitisation) of function in relation to the incoming nociceptive signals. Such processes play important roles in chronic pain, and although the clinical manifestations differ across condition processes, they share some common mechanistic features. The fundamental understanding and quantitative assessment of particularly some of the central sensitisation mechanisms can be translated from preclinical studies into the clinic. The clinical perspectives are implementation of such novel information into diagnostics, mechanistic phenotyping, prevention, personalised treatment, and drug development. The aims of this paper are to introduce and discuss (1) some common fundamental central pain mechanisms, (2) how they may translate into the clinical signs and symptoms across different chronic pain conditions, (3) how to evaluate gain and loss of function using quantitative pain assessment tools, and (4) the implications for optimising prevention and management of pain. The chronic pain conditions selected for the paper are neuropathic pain in general, musculoskeletal pain (chronic low back pain and osteoarthritic pain in particular), and visceral pain (irritable bowel syndrome in particular). The translational mechanisms addressed are local and widespread sensitisation, central summation, and descending pain modulation. Central sensitisation is an important manifestation involved in many different chronic pain conditions. Central sensitisation can be different to assess and evaluate as the manifestations vary from pain condition to pain condition. Understanding central sensitisation may promote better profiling and diagnosis of pain patients and development of new regimes for mechanism based

  3. The Influence of As-Built Surface Conditions on Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y. Y.; Gulizia, S.; Oh, C. H.; Fraser, D.; Leary, M.; Yang, Y. F.; Qian, M.

    2016-03-01

    Achieving a high surface finish is a major challenge for most current metal additive manufacturing processes. We report the first quantitative study of the influence of as-built surface conditions on the tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V produced by selective electron beam melting (SEBM) in order to better understand the SEBM process. Tensile ductility was doubled along with noticeable improvements in tensile strengths after surface modification of the SEBM-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V by chemical etching. The fracture surfaces of tensile specimens with different surface conditions were characterised and correlated with the tensile properties obtained. The removal of a 650- μm-thick surface layer by chemical etching was shown to be necessary to eliminate the detrimental influence of surface defects on mechanical properties. The experimental results and analyses underline the necessity to modify the surfaces of SEBM-fabricated components for structural applications, particularly for those components which contain complex internal concave and convex surfaces and channels.

  4. Biomaterials Based on Electrospun Chitosan. Relation between Processing Conditions and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Enrique Garcia Garcia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is shown that pure chitosan nanofibers and films were prepared with success in 0.5 M acetic acid as solvent using poly (ethylene oxide (PEO at different yields, allowing electrospinning of the blends. After processing, a neutralization step of chitosan followed by water washing is performed, preserving the initial morphology of chitosan materials. The influence of the yield in PEO in the blend on the degree of swelling and hydrophilicity of films and nanofibers is demonstrated. Then, the mechanical behavior of blended nanofibers and films used as reference are determined for small stress applied in the linear domain by DMA and by uniaxial traction up to rupture. The dried and wet states are covered for the first time. It is shown that the mechanical properties are increased when electrospinning is performed in the presence of PEO up to a 70/30 chitosan/PEO weight ratio even after PEO extraction. This result can be explained by a better dispersion of the chitosan in the presence of PEO.

  5. Alteration of Basaltic Glass to Mg/Fe-Smectite under Acidic Conditions: A Potential Smectite Formation Mechanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyazhko, Tanya; Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    Phyllosilicates of the smectite group including Mg- and Fe-saponite and Fe(III)-rich nontronite have been identified on Mars. Smectites are believed to be formed under neutral to alkaline conditions that prevailed on early Mars. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of smectite and carbonate deposits in Noachian terrain on Mars. However, smectite may have formed under mildly acidic conditions. Abundant smectite formations have been detected as layered deposits hundreds of meters thick in intracrater depositional fans and plains sediments, while no large deposits of carbonates are found. Development of mildly acidic conditions at early Mars might allow formation of smectite but inhibit widespread carbonate precipitation. Little is known regarding the mechanisms of smectite formation from basaltic glass under acidic conditions. The objective of this study was to test a hypothesis that Mars-analogue basaltic glass alters to smectite minerals under acidic conditions (pH 4). The effects of Mg and Fe concentrations and temperature on smectite formation from basaltic glass were evaluated. Phyllosilicate synthesis was performed in batch reactors (Parr acid digestion vessel) under reducing hydrothermal conditions at 200 C and 100 C. Synthetic basaltic glass with a composition similar to that of the Gusev crater rock Adirondack (Ground surface APXS measurement) was used in these experiments. Basaltic glass was prepared by melting and quenching procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the synthesized glass was composed of olivine, magnetite and X-ray amorphous phase. Samples were prepared by mixing 250 mg Adirondack with 0.1 M acetic acid (final pH 4). In order to study influence of Mg concentration on smectite formation, experiments were performed with addition of 0, 1 and 10 mM MgCl2. After 1, 7 and 14 day incubations the solution composition was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the altered glass and formed

  6. Mechanism study of pulsus paradoxus using mechanical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-yang Xing

    Full Text Available Pulsus paradoxus is an exaggeration of the normal inspiratory decrease in systolic blood pressure. Despite a century of attempts to explain this sign consensus is still lacking. To solve the controversy and reveal the exact mechanism, we reexamined the characteristic anatomic arrangement of the circulation system in the chest and designed these mechanical models based on related hydromechanic principles. Model 1 was designed to observe the primary influence of respiratory intrathoracic pressure change (RIPC on systemic and pulmonary venous return systems (SVR and PVR respectively. Model 2, as an equivalent mechanical model of septal swing, was to study the secondary influence of RIPC on the motion of the interventriclar septum (IVS, which might be the direct cause for pulsus paradoxus. Model 1 demonstrated that the simulated RIPC had different influence on the simulated SVR and PVR. It increased the volume of the simulated right ventricle (SRV when the internal pressure was kept constant (8.16 cmH2O, while it had the opposite effect on PVR. Model 2 revealed the three major factors determining the respiratory displacement of IVS in normal and different pathophysiological conditions: the magnitude of RIPC, the pressure difference between the two ventricles and the intrapericardial pressure. Our models demonstrate that the different anatomical arrangement of the two venous return systems leads to a different effect of RIPC on right and left ventricles, and thus a pressure gradient across IVS that tends to shift IVS left- and rightwards. When the leftward displacement of IVS reaches a considerable amplitude in some pathologic condition such as cardiac tamponade, the pulsus paradoxus occurs.

  7. Perivalvular pannus and valve thrombosis: two concurrent mechanisms of mechanical valve prosthesis dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnáiz-García, María Elena; González-Santos, Jose María; Bueno-Codoñer, María E; López-Rodríguez, Javier; Dalmau-Sorlí, María José; Arévalo-Abascal, Adolfo; Arribas-Jiménez, Antonio; Diego-Nieto, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Collado, Javier; Rodríguez-López, Jose María

    2015-02-01

    A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our institution with progressive dyspnea. She had previously been diagnosed with rheumatic heart disease and had undergone cardiac surgery for mechanical mitral valve replacement ten years previously. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed blockage of the mechanical prosthesis and the patient was scheduled for surgery, in which a thrombus was removed from the left atrial appendage. A partial thrombosis of the mechanical prosthesis and circumferential pannus overgrowth were concomitantly detected. Prosthetic heart valve blockage is a rare but life-threatening complication, the main causes of which are thrombosis and pannus formation. The two conditions are different but both are usually misdiagnosed. Two concurrent mechanisms of prosthesis blockage were found in this patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanism and conditions of the chessboard structure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Yong; Khachaturyan, Armen G.

    2008-01-01

    The observations of the pseudo-periodical chessboard (CB) microstructure in metal and ceramic solid solutions indicate that this is a general phenomenon. We propose a theory and three-dimensional (3-D) computational modeling explaining the origin of the CB microstructure in the cubic → tetragonal decomposition. The 3-D modeling demonstrates that the formation of two-phase CB structures is contingent on the formation of a compositionally stabilized precursor state with the tweed structure that is spontaneously formed at the initial stage of the transformation. The modeling has shown that this tweed structure is a distribution of spatially correlated tetragonal nanodomains whose spatial arrangement has the CB topological features. This precursor tweed structure serves as a template for the precipitation of the equilibrium cubic phase. The CB-like tweed template channels the microstructure evolution towards the two-phase CB structure whose complex and detailed 3-D geometry is in excellent agreement with electron microscopic observations. The thermodynamic analysis and obtained evolution sequences allow us to formulate the necessary thermodynamic, structural and kinetic conditions for the CB structure formation. Reasons for its relative stability are discussed. It is also shown that the coherency between the cubic and tetragonal phases comprising the CB structure produces the stress-induced tetragonality of the cubic phase, orthorhombicity of the tetragonal phase, and rotations of cubic phase rods. These effects should diminish and disappear upon lifting of coherency

  9. Research on the Pathological Mechanism and Drug Treatment Mechanism of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guo-jiang; Tian, Jun-sheng; Gao, Xiao-xia; Zhou, Yu-zhi; Qin, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    Depression is one of the prevalent and persistent psychiatric illnesses. It brings heavy socioeconomic burden such as healthcare expenditures and even higher suicide rates. Despite many hypotheses about its mechanism have been put forward, so far it is still unclear, not to mention the precise and effective diagnostic or therapeutic methods. In this paper, the current conditions of pathological and pharmacological mechanism of depression were reviewed systematically. Firstly, the most recent hypotheses and metabolomics based research including hereditary, neurotransmitter systems, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), hyperactivity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammatory as well as metabolomics were summarized. Secondly, the present situation and development on antidepressant drugs at home and abroad were reviewed. Finally, a conclusion and prospect on the pathological and pharmacological mechanism of depression were provided primarily.

  10. Increase on the initial soluble heme levels in acidic conditions is an important mechanism for spontaneous heme crystallization in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stiebler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemozoin (Hz is a heme crystal that represents a vital pathway for heme disposal in several blood-feeding organisms. Recent evidence demonstrated that β-hematin (βH (the synthetic counterpart of Hz formation occurs under physiological conditions near synthetic or biological hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. This seems to require a heme dimer acting as a precursor of Hz crystals that would be formed spontaneously in the absence of the competing water molecules bound to the heme iron. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of medium polarity on spontaneous βH formation in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the effect of water content on spontaneous βH formation by using the aprotic solvent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO and a series of polyethyleneglycols (PEGs. We observed that both DMSO and PEGs (3.350, 6.000, 8.000, and 22.000 increased the levels of soluble heme under acidic conditions. These compounds were able to stimulate the production of βH crystals in the absence of any biological sample. Interestingly, the effects of DMSO and PEGs on βH formation were positively correlated with their capacity to promote previous heme solubilization in acidic conditions. Curiously, a short chain polyethyleneglycol (PEG 300 caused a significant reduction in both soluble heme levels and βH formation. Finally, both heme solubilization and βH formation strongly correlated with reduced medium water activity provided by increased DMSO concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here support the notion that reduction of the water activity is an important mechanism to support spontaneous heme crystallization, which depends on the previous increase of soluble heme levels.

  11. Effect of Nb additions on the microstructure, thermal stability and mechanical behavior of high pressure Zr phases under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhilyaev, A.P.; Sabirov, I.; Gonzalez-Doncel, G.; Molina-Aldareguia, J.; Srinivasarao, B.; Perez-Prado, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We analyze the influence of Nb additions on the shear-induced α → ω → β phase transformations in pure Zr by high pressure torsion (HPT). → Nb reduces the transition pressures and increases the transformation kinetics. → High pressure phases are retained under ambient conditions due to the presence of an internal stress. → Post-HPT annealing allows to fabricate bimodal/biphase nanostructures with enhanced mechanical behavior. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the influence of Nb on the shear-induced α → ω → β transformation taking place when processing Zr by high pressure torsion (HPT) under suitable conditions of pressure and shear. With that purpose, pure Zr and Zr-2.5%Nb were processed by HPT at room temperature and at pressures ranging from 0.25 to 6 GPa using 5 anvil turns. Nb causes a further reduction of the transition pressures, which are already lower when applying shear besides pressure. Thus, the transition pressure to the β phase is reduced at least 100 times in the Zr-Nb alloy. Alloying with Nb decreases the grain size of the transformed phases, significantly enhances their thermal stability and increases their UTS and elongation to failure. Selected post-HPT annealing treatments lead to the development of very tough, multiphase Zr and Zr-Nb with bimodal grain size distributions. The retention of the high pressure phases under ambient conditions is explained by the development of a high internal stress during processing. This stress is measured by synchrotron radiation diffraction at HZB-BESSY II. It is proposed that the presence of Nb reduces the internal stress level required for the retention of the high pressure phases.

  12. On obtaining classical mechanics from quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2007-01-01

    Constructing a classical mechanical system associated with a given quantum-mechanical one entails construction of a classical phase space and a corresponding Hamiltonian function from the available quantum structures and a notion of coarser observations. The Hilbert space of any quantum-mechanical system naturally has the structure of an infinite-dimensional symplectic manifold ('quantum phase space'). There is also a systematic, quotienting procedure which imparts a bundle structure to the quantum phase space and extracts a classical phase space as the base space. This works straightforwardly when the Hilbert space carries weakly continuous representation of the Heisenberg group and one recovers the linear classical phase space R 2N . We report on how the procedure also allows extraction of nonlinear classical phase spaces and illustrate it for Hilbert spaces being finite dimensional (spin-j systems), infinite dimensional but separable (particle on a circle) and infinite dimensional but non-separable (polymer quantization). To construct a corresponding classical dynamics, one needs to choose a suitable section and identify an effective Hamiltonian. The effective dynamics mirrors the quantum dynamics provided the section satisfies conditions of semiclassicality and tangentiality

  13. Mechanical behavior and high-resolution EBSD investigation of the microstructural evolution in AISI 321 stainless steel under dynamic loading condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiamiyu, A.A.; Eskandari, M.; Sanayei, Mohsen; Odeshi, A.G.; Szpunar, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact response of three regions (top, mid and center) across the thickness of AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel plate at high strain rates (>6000 s −1 ) was studied using the split Hopkinson pressure bar system. The result shows that texture and stored energy heterogeneity across plate thickness influenced the mechanical responses of the investigated steel in these regions. Microstructural evaluation using high-resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HR-EBSD) analysis showed that strengthening in AISI 321 steel originates from the evolution of strain-induced martensite and formation of nano-carbides in addition to plastic deformation by mechanical twinning and slip. This resulted in a desirable combination of high strength and good ductility (approx. 2000 MPa at 0.42 true strain). Phase transformation, dynamic recrystallization and formation of nano-carbides were confirmed within the adiabatic shear band (ASB) region. The average dynamic recrystallized (DRX) grain size in the shear band region is 0.28 µm in comparison to grain size of 15 µm outside the shear bands. The nano-sized grain inside the shear bands is proposed to form by rotational dynamic recrystallization. A comparative study of the alloy's behavior under dynamic and quasi-static compression shows that the stability of austenite is higher at high strain rates and lower at a low strain rate. The strength in the dynamically impacted specimen is compromised as a result of the suppressed evolution of strain-induced martensite and mechanical twin. Martensitic transformation under both loading conditions follows the FCC É£-austenite→BCC ά-martensite kinetic path and both phases obey the Kurdjumov-Sachs' {(111)É£||(110)ά and <−101>É£||<1–11>ά} orientation relationship.

  14. Mechanical behavior and high-resolution EBSD investigation of the microstructural evolution in AISI 321 stainless steel under dynamic loading condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiamiyu, A.A., E-mail: ahmed.tiamiyu@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. (Canada); Eskandari, M. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sanayei, Mohsen; Odeshi, A.G.; Szpunar, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    The impact response of three regions (top, mid and center) across the thickness of AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel plate at high strain rates (>6000 s{sup −1}) was studied using the split Hopkinson pressure bar system. The result shows that texture and stored energy heterogeneity across plate thickness influenced the mechanical responses of the investigated steel in these regions. Microstructural evaluation using high-resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HR-EBSD) analysis showed that strengthening in AISI 321 steel originates from the evolution of strain-induced martensite and formation of nano-carbides in addition to plastic deformation by mechanical twinning and slip. This resulted in a desirable combination of high strength and good ductility (approx. 2000 MPa at 0.42 true strain). Phase transformation, dynamic recrystallization and formation of nano-carbides were confirmed within the adiabatic shear band (ASB) region. The average dynamic recrystallized (DRX) grain size in the shear band region is 0.28 µm in comparison to grain size of 15 µm outside the shear bands. The nano-sized grain inside the shear bands is proposed to form by rotational dynamic recrystallization. A comparative study of the alloy's behavior under dynamic and quasi-static compression shows that the stability of austenite is higher at high strain rates and lower at a low strain rate. The strength in the dynamically impacted specimen is compromised as a result of the suppressed evolution of strain-induced martensite and mechanical twin. Martensitic transformation under both loading conditions follows the FCC É£-austenite→BCC ά-martensite kinetic path and both phases obey the Kurdjumov-Sachs' {(111)É£||(110)ά and <−101>É£||<1–11>ά} orientation relationship.

  15. Thermomechanical characterization of thiol-epoxy shape memory thermosets for mechanical actuators design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Alberto; Fernández-Francos, Xavier; De la Flor, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, shape-memory "thiol-epoxy" polymers are synthesized and characterized as potential thermomechanical actuators. Their thermomechanical properties are investigated through dynamo mechanical and tensile analyses and related to their network structural properties by using "thiol" and "epoxy" compounds of different functionality and structure. Their mechanical properties (resistance at break, elongation limits and strain energy) are related to their shape-memory response under free-recovery conditions and partially-constrained conditions, thus, establishing the connection between network relaxation (free-recovery) with the work output capabilities (partially-constrained). Results show high mechanical performance, achieving high elongation at break values (up to 100%) and stress at break values (up to 50 MPa). The shape-memory experiments reveal strong dependence of the programming conditions and network structure on the recovery efficiency at free-conditions, whereas under partially-constrained conditions, the controlling factors are the mechanical limits at high temperature. Moreover, some recommendations to achieve the maximum work output efficiency for a given operational design of a thermomechanical actuator are deduced.

  16. Conditions for formation of electron pairs in a metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhtman, A.Z., E-mail: shekhtmanalexander@gmail.com

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A new approach has been developed for consideration of electron pairing in metals. • Binding energy of a single pair induced by electron-phonon interaction is very small. • A new mechanism for electron pairing in metals has been considered. • Conditions for feasibility of the mechanism give conditions for electron pairing. • The mechanism gives wide opportunities to study new conditions for electron pairing. - Abstract: In an isotropic model of the electron system of metal that is presented by the Fröhlich’s initial Hamiltonian, in the approximation of a weak electron–phonon interaction at T = 0, first time, we show that the ground state of the system is the state with pairing correlations of electrons (the pair correlations of occupied electron states). In contrast to the BCS approach, the initial point in our approach is not electron pairing but is the maximum reduction of the energy of the considered system due to virtual processes of the electron–phonon interaction and to the exchange effect for the indirect electron–electron interaction (which is induced by certain phonon modes separately from others). In contrast to the BCS approach, we take into account the portion of the energy of the electron system that is connected with the above exchange effect. In the BCS approach, the corresponding portion is missed, and its role is prescribed to the portion that does not relate to the electron pairing. We show that expectation values of the above Hamiltonian for different wave functions for two interacting electrons above the Fermi sea of the non-interacting system (with interaction between the electrons that is induced by different phonon modes separately from others) are minimum for a certain structure of these functions and simultaneously for phonon modes that can induce the transitions of the interacting electrons between electron states in which they are (without violation of the Pauli exclusion principle and at everything else

  17. Introduction to continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, W Michael; Rubin, David

    1996-01-01

    Introduction to Continuum Mechanics is a recently updated and revised text which is perfect for either introductory courses in an undergraduate engineering curriculum or for a beginning graduate course.Continuum Mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation, and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, a

  18. Effect of thermo mechanical treatments and aging parameters on mechanical properties of Al–Mg–Si alloy containing 3 wt.% Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamas, Ud Din; Kamran, Javed; Hasan, B.A.; Tariq, N.H.; Mehmood, M.; Shamas uz Zuha, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TMT studies of 3 wt.% Li on Al–0.5Mg–0.2Si in W, T6 and T8 conditions. • Artificial aging at 175 °C for 2–12 h with prior cold reductions of 10–60%. • Hardness surveys, YS and UTS, microscopy, fractography and DSC studies. • Mechanical properties significantly enhanced in T8 condition. • Property enhancement attributed to a possible refinement of δ′ (Al 3 Li) precipitates. - Abstract: In the present work, microstructure and mechanical properties of 3 wt.% Li addition in a Al–Mg–Si alloy of target composition 0.5 wt.% Mg and 0.2 wt.% Si in W (solution heat treated), T6 (solution heat treated and artificially aged) and T8 (solution heat treated, cold worked and artificially aged) conditions was studied. The age-hardening response of the alloy was determined after systematic cold reductions from 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% in quenched condition followed by aging at 175 °C (448 K) for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h (T8 condition). The results were compared with samples aged in the same conditions with 0% cold reduction (T6 condition). The alloy displayed a strong artificial aging response and maximum hardness value achieved was after 60% cold work and 10 h of aging time. Furthermore, the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength were increased from 123 MPa to 224 MPa and 356 MPa to 540 MPa respectively with a slight decrease in ductility. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) based fractography showed a uniform network of bigger and deeper dimples with round morphology in T6 condition while a ductile tearing with few discernable cleavage planes was observed in T8 condition. The interplay of various precipitation hardening mechanisms and relevant phases was established by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was concluded that the enhancement in mechanical properties, with the degree of cold work, was attributed due to a possible refinement of δ′ (Al 3 Li) precipitates resulted after aging

  19. Triaxial slide-hold-slide shear experiment of sedimentary rock under drain condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Kiyoshi; Yano, Takao; Elsworth, Derek; Yasuhara, Hideaki; Nakashima, Shinichiro

    2011-01-01

    When discussing the mechanical and hydro-mechanical properties of rock masses under the long-term holding, the variation of rock structure and the change of shear band condition should be discussed in considering the effect of thermal and chemical influences. In this research, the triaxial shear experiment under drain condition was conducted through sedimentary rock, and in the residual stress state, the slide-hold-slide processes were applied to these triaxial experiments. The experiments were carried out in 3 kinds of confining conditions and 2 kinds of thermal conditions. Consequently, the healing phenomena can be observed and the shear strength recovery is also confirmed in process of the holding time. (author)

  20. Retrocausality and conditional probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.I.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Costa de Beauregard has proposed that physical causality be identified with conditional probability. The proposal is shown to be vulnerable on two accounts. The first, though mathematically trivial, seems to be decisive so far as the current formulation of the proposal is concerned. The second lies in a physical inconsistency which seems to have its source in a Copenhagenlike disavowal of realism in quantum mechanics. 6 refs. (Author)

  1. Effect of molybdenum addition on aluminium grain refined by titanium on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the as cast condition and after pressing by the equal angular channel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.; Atieh, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium and its alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in industrial and engineering applications due to their attractive characteristics. However, they solidify in columnar structure which tends to reduce their surface quality and mechanical strength. It is therefore, grain refined by grain refiners i.e. titanium or titanium+boron. The equal angular channel pressing, ECAP, process is a recent method for producing severe plastic deformation in materials. In this research work, the effect of addition of molybdenum either alone or in the presence of titanium to commercially pure aluminium on microstructure and mechanical behaviour is investigated in two conditions; first, in the as cast condition, and second after pressing by the ECAP process at room temperature. It was found that addition of Ti alone at a rate of 0.15 percentage weight to commercially pure Al resulted in grain refining of microstructure and a grain size of 91 meu m was obtained. However, after pressing by the ECAP process further refinement was achieved and the grain size was reduced to 18 meu m. Addition of Mo alone to aluminium at a rate of 0.1 percentage resulted in grain size of 76 meu m in the as cast condition and 32 meu m after pressing by the ECAP process. The combination of the two elements Ti and Mo together resulted in 48 meu m grain size in the as cast condition, compared to 40 meu m after pressing by the ECAP process. Furthermore, it was found that in the as cast condition: addition of Ti alone to Al resulted in enhancement of its mechanical behaviour by an increase of 5.2 percentage increase in its flow stress at 20 percentage true strain, whereas addition of Mo either alone or in the presence of Ti resulted in decrease of its flow stress at 20 percentage by 9 percentage and 5.6 percentage respectively. However, after pressing by ECAP: it was found that addition of Ti or Mo either alone or together to Al resulted in increase of its flow stress at 20 percentage strain by

  2. Effect of molybdenum addition on aluminium grain refined by titanium on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the as cast condition and after pressing by the equal angular channel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A I O; Atieh, A M

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium and its alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in industrial and engineering applications due to their attractive characteristics. However, they solidify in columnar structure which tends to reduce their surface quality and mechanical strength. It is therefore, grain refined by grain refiners i.e. titanium or titanium+boron. The equal angular channel pressing, ECAP, process is a recent method for producing severe plastic deformation in materials. In this research work, the effect of addition of molybdenum either alone or in the presence of titanium to commercially pure aluminium on microstructure and mechanical behaviour is investigated in two conditions; first, in the as cast condition, and second after pressing by the ECAP process at room temperature. It was found that addition of Ti alone at a rate of 0.15% weight to commercially pure Al resulted in grain refining of microstructure and a grain size of 91μm was obtained. However, after pressing by the ECAP process further refinement was achieved and the grain size was reduced to 18μm. Addition of Mo alone to aluminium at a rate of 0.1% resulted in grain size of 76μm in the as cast condition and 32μm after pressing by the ECAP process. The combination of the two elements Ti and Mo together resulted in 48μm grain size in the as cast condition, compared to 40μm after pressing by the ECAP process. Furthermore, it was found that in the as cast condition: addition of Ti alone to Al resulted in enhancement of its mechanical behaviour by an increase of 5.2% increase in its flow stress at 20% true strain, whereas addition of Mo either alone or in the presence of Ti resulted in decrease of its flow stress at 20% by 9% and 5.6% respectively. However, after pressing by ECAP: it was found that addition of Ti or Mo either alone or together to Al resulted in increase of its flow stress at 20 % strain by the following percentages 5.49, 4.74 and 10.3% respectively

  3. Conditioned sounds enhance visual processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Leo

    Full Text Available This psychophysics study investigated whether prior auditory conditioning influences how a sound interacts with visual perception. In the conditioning phase, subjects were presented with three pure tones ( =  conditioned stimuli, CS that were paired with positive, negative or neutral unconditioned stimuli. As unconditioned reinforcers we employed pictures (highly pleasant, unpleasant and neutral or monetary outcomes (+50 euro cents, -50 cents, 0 cents. In the subsequent visual selective attention paradigm, subjects were presented with near-threshold Gabors displayed in their left or right hemifield. Critically, the Gabors were presented in synchrony with one of the conditioned sounds. Subjects discriminated whether the Gabors were presented in their left or right hemifields. Participants determined the location more accurately when the Gabors were presented in synchrony with positive relative to neutral sounds irrespective of reinforcer type. Thus, previously rewarded relative to neutral sounds increased the bottom-up salience of the visual Gabors. Our results are the first demonstration that prior auditory conditioning is a potent mechanism to modulate the effect of sounds on visual perception.

  4. Assessing the international parity conditions and transmission mechanism for Malaysia-China

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Tze-Haw

    2012-01-01

    We construct a structural system that jointly examines Purchasing Power and Interest Parity conditions for Malaysia-China during 1996Q1-2010Q4. Structural VARX, VECMX, over-identifying restrictions, bootstrapping and persistent profiles are utilized in the analyses. We find support for interaction between the goods and capital markets of Malaysia-China, when Asia crisis and subprime crisis are taken into accounts. The faster pace of adjustment towards price instead of interest equilibrium imp...

  5. The Pavlovian analysis of instrumental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, I; Tait, R W

    1976-01-01

    An account was given of the development within the Russian literature of a uniprocess formulation of classical and instrumental conditioning, known as the bidirectional conditioning hypothesis. The hypothesis purports to offer a single set of Pavlovian principles to account for both paradigms, based upon a neural model which assumes that bidirectional (forward and backward) connections are formed in both calssical and instrumental conditioning situations. In instrumental conditioning, the bidirectional connections are hypothesized to be simply more complex than those in classical conditioning, and any differences in empirical functions are presumed to lie not in difference in mechanism, but in the strength of the forward and backward connections. Although bidirectional connections are assumed to develop in instrumental conditioning, the experimental investigation of the bidirectional conditioning hypothesis has been essentially restricted to the classical conditioning operations of pairing two CSs (sensory preconditioning training), a US followed by a CS (backward conditioning training) and two USs. However, the paradigm involving the pairing of two USs, because of theoretical and analytical considerations, is the one most commonly employed by Russian investigators. The results of an initial experiment involving the pairing of two USs, and reference to the results of a more extensive investigation, leads us to tentatively question the validity of the bidirectional conditioning account of instrumental conditioning.

  6. Reaction mechanisms and kinetics of processing glucose, xylose and glucose-xylose mixtures under hot compressed water conditions for predicting bio-crude composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    Mechanisms for bio-crude formation during the conversion of glucose, xylose and glucose-xylose mixtures as biomass model compounds under hot compressed water conditions are investigated. Studies in literature have shown that the diverse products formed at the early stages of glucose or xylose...... conversion are 5-HMF, erythrose, glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, pyruvaldehyde, and saccharinic acids resulted through reactions such as dehydration, retro-aldol condensation and isomerization. However, these compounds are mostly water soluble compounds and lack the final steps towards formation of water...... insoluble components at longer reaction times. The effects of pressure, pH, catalyst and reaction time on the main products are examined thoroughly. The possible routes for the formation of oil compounds are developed....

  7. Ly α Absorption at Transits of HD 209458b: A Comparative Study of Various Mechanisms Under Different Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodachenko, M. L.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Arkhypov, O. V. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria); Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Berezutsky, A. G.; Miroshnichenko, I. B.; Posukh, V. G. [Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Johnstone, C. P., E-mail: maxim.khodachenko@oeaw.ac.at [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2017-10-01

    To shed more light on the nature of the observed Ly α absorption during transits of HD 209458b and to quantify the major mechanisms responsible for the production of fast hydrogen atoms (the so-called energetic neutral atoms, ENAs) around the planet, 2D hydrodynamic multifluid modeling of the expanding planetary upper atmosphere, which is driven by stellar XUV, and its interaction with the stellar wind has been performed. The model self-consistently describes the escaping planetary wind, taking into account the generation of ENAs due to particle acceleration by the radiation pressure and by the charge exchange between the stellar wind protons and planetary atoms. The calculations in a wide range of stellar wind parameters and XUV flux values showed that under typical Sun-like star conditions, the amount of generated ENAs is too small, and the observed absorption at the level of 6%–8% can be attributed only to the non-resonant natural line broadening. For lower XUV fluxes, e.g., during the activity minima, the number of planetary atoms that survive photoionization and give rise to ENAs increases, resulting in up to 10%–15% absorption at the blue wing of the Ly α line, caused by resonant thermal line broadening. A similar asymmetric absorption can be seen under the conditions realized during coronal mass ejections, when sufficiently high stellar wind pressure confines the escaping planetary material within a kind of bowshock around the planet. It was found that the radiation pressure in all considered cases has a negligible contribution to the production of ENAs and the corresponding absorption.

  8. Nano/micro particle beam for ceramic deposition and mechanical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Doo-Man; Kim, Min-Saeng; Kim, Min-Hyeng; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Yeo, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2010-01-01

    Nano/micro particle beam (NPB) is a newly developed ceramic deposition and mechanical etching process. Additive (deposition) and subtractive (mechanical etching) processes can be realized in one manufacturing process using ceramic nano/micro particles. Nano- or micro-sized powders are sprayed through the supersonic nozzle at room temperature and low vacuum conditions. According to the process conditions, the ceramic powder can be deposited on metal substrates without thermal damage, and mechanical etching can be conducted in the same process with a simple change of process conditions and powders. In the present work, ceramic aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) thin films were deposited on metal substrates. In addition, the glass substrate was etched using a mask to make small channels. Deposited and mechanically etched surface morphology, coating thickness and channel depth were investigated. The test results showed that the NPB provides a feasible additive and subtractive process using ceramic powders.

  9. Extending In Vitro Conditioning in "Aplysia" to Analyze Operant and Classical Processes in the Same Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Bjorn; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Operant and classical conditioning are major processes shaping behavioral responses in all animals. Although the understanding of the mechanisms of classical conditioning has expanded significantly, the understanding of the mechanisms of operant conditioning is more limited. Recent developments in "Aplysia" are helping to narrow the gap in the…

  10. Rate constants and mechanisms for the crystallization of Al nano-goethite under environmentally relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina; Archibald, Douglas D.; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2012-07-01

    Mobile inorganic and organic nanocolloidal particles originate-from and interact-with bulk solid phases in soil and sediment environments, and as such, they contribute to the dynamic properties of environmental systems. In particular, ferrihydrite and (nano)goethite are the most abundant of nanocolloidal Fe oxy(hydr)oxides in these environments. We therefore investigated the ferrihydrite to goethite phase transformation using experimental reaction conditions that mimicked environmental conditions where the formation of nanocolloidal Fe oxy(hydr)oxides may occur: slow titration of dilute solutions to pH 5 at 25 °C with and without 2 mol% Al. Subsequently, the rate constants from 54-d nano-goethite aging/crystallization experiments at 50 °C were determined using aliquots pulled for vibrational spectroscopy (including multivariate curve resolution, MCR, analyses of infrared spectra) and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD). We also present a mechanistic model that accounts for the nano-goethite crystallization observed by the aforementioned techniques, and particle structural characteristics observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In contrast to the common assumption that metastable ferrihydrite precipitates first, before it transforms to goethite, the presence of characteristic infrared bands in freshly synthesized nanoparticle suspensions indicate goethite can precipitate directly from solution under environmentally relevant conditions: low Fe concentration, ambient temperature, and pH maintained at 5. However, the presence of 2 mol% Al prevented direct goethite precipitation. Rate constants obtained by fitting the contributions from the MCR-derived goethite-like component to the OH-stretching region were (7.4 ± 1.1) × 10-7 s-1 for 0% Al and (4.2 ± 0.4) × 10-7 s-1 for 2 mol% Al suspensions. Rate constants derived from intensities of OH-bending infrared vibrations (795 and 895 cm-1) showed similar values

  11. Stochastic mechanism of symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseyan, H.Z.

    1983-01-01

    A new symmetry breaking mechanism conditioned by presence of random fields in vacuum is proposed. Massive Yang-Mills fields finally arise, that may be interpreted as ''macroscopic'' manifestation of the ''microscopic'' Yang-Mills massless theory

  12. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  13. Zeno dynamics in quantum statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Andreas U

    2003-01-01

    We study the quantum Zeno effect in quantum statistical mechanics within the operator algebraic framework. We formulate a condition for the appearance of the effect in W*-dynamical systems, in terms of the short-time behaviour of the dynamics. Examples of quantum spin systems show that this condition can be effectively applied to quantum statistical mechanical models. Furthermore, we derive an explicit form of the Zeno generator, and use it to construct Gibbs equilibrium states for the Zeno dynamics. As a concrete example, we consider the X-Y model, for which we show that a frequent measurement at a microscopic level, e.g. a single lattice site, can produce a macroscopic effect in changing the global equilibrium

  14. Pessimistic Determination of Mechanical Conditions and Micro/macroeconomic Evaluation of Mine Pillar Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfa; Zhao, Fuyu

    2017-12-01

    Numerous pillars are left after mining of underground mineral resources using the open stope method or after the first step of the partial filling method. The mineral recovery rate can, however, be improved by replacement recovery of pillars. In the present study, the relationships among the pillar type, minimum pillar width, and micro/macroeconomic factors were investigated from two perspectives, namely mechanical stability and micro/macroeconomic benefit. Based on the mechanical stability formulas for ore and artificial pillars, the minimum width for a specific pillar type was determined using a pessimistic criterion. The microeconomic benefit c of setting an ore pillar, the microeconomic benefit w of artificial pillar replacement, and the economic net present value (ENPV) of the replacement process were calculated. The values of c and w were compared with respect to ENPV, based on which the appropriate pillar type and economical benefit were determined.

  15. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence......, clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  16. A Fuzzy Query Mechanism for Human Resource Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lien-Fu; Wu, Chao-Chin; Huang, Liang-Tsung; Kuo, Jung-Chih

    Users' preferences often contain imprecision and uncertainty that are difficult for traditional human resource websites to deal with. In this paper, we apply the fuzzy logic theory to develop a fuzzy query mechanism for human resource websites. First, a storing mechanism is proposed to store fuzzy data into conventional database management systems without modifying DBMS models. Second, a fuzzy query language is proposed for users to make fuzzy queries on fuzzy databases. User's fuzzy requirement can be expressed by a fuzzy query which consists of a set of fuzzy conditions. Third, each fuzzy condition associates with a fuzzy importance to differentiate between fuzzy conditions according to their degrees of importance. Fourth, the fuzzy weighted average is utilized to aggregate all fuzzy conditions based on their degrees of importance and degrees of matching. Through the mutual compensation of all fuzzy conditions, the ordering of query results can be obtained according to user's preference.

  17. Shared Leadership Improves Team Novelty: The Mechanism and Its Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaomin; Jie, Yuan; Wang, Yilu; Xue, Gang; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has revealed the significant impact of shared leadership on team creativity, yet the mechanism underlying this relationship has rarely been investigated. The current research examined how shared leadership influenced team creativity (novelty and usefulness) across 3 studies using both long-term project teams and temporal task teams in the laboratory. The results showed that shared leadership enhanced the novelty dimension of team creativity by improving constructive controversy. Furthermore, team goal orientation moderated this effect. The indirect effect of constructive controversy holds for teams with learning goal orientation but not for those with performance goal orientation. Such patterns were not found in the usefulness dimension of team creativity. PMID:28066289

  18. Preparative conditions and vibrational study of HUP : phase transition and conductivity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, M.P.; Novak, A.; Colomban, Ph.

    1985-01-01

    Among solid protonic conductors HUP (H 3 OUO 2 PO 4 .3 H 2 O) exhibits very high conducting properties. Uranyl/phosphate hydrates belonging to the HUP family (HUP ; UO 2 (H 2 PO 4 ) 2 .3 H 2 O ; (U= 2 ) 3 (PO 4 ) 2 .4 H 2 O ; (UO O 2 )sub(1.43)PO 4 Hsub(0.14) 2-3.5 H 2 O) have been synthesized in different forms (crystals, powders, films, ...) and characterized by various methods: chemical analysis, DTA, TGA, SEM, X-Ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy. Morphological studies reveal the presence of various particulat es, from ultrafine powders ( 2 O washing of HUP. Infrared and Raman spectra of polycrystalline H 3 OUO 2 PO 4 .3 H 2 O (HUP) have been investigated at various temperatures between 50 K and 300 K. The most temperature-sensitive bands correspond to PO 4 and H 2 O librations; U-OPO 3 stretching and OH stretching vibrations indicate four different phases of HUP and allow to propose a phasetransition mechanism from a bidimensionnal, quasi-liquid state of a protonated species in the room-temperature phase to a fully ordered crystal below 130 K. The protonic conductivity mechanism of room- and low-temperature phases is discussed. (author)

  19. Impact Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, W. J.

    2004-03-01

    Impact mechanics is concerned with the reaction forces that develop during a collision and the dynamic response of structures to these reaction forces. The subject has a wide range of engineering applications, from designing sports equipment to improving the crashworthiness of automobiles. This book develops several different methodologies for analysing collisions between structures. These range from rigid body theory for structures that are stiff and compact, to vibration and wave analyses for flexible structures. The emphasis is on low-speed impact where damage is local to the small region of contact between the colliding bodies. The analytical methods presented give results that are more robust or less sensitive to initial conditions than have been achieved hitherto. As a text, Impact Mechanics builds upon foundation courses in dynamics and strength of materials. It includes numerous industrially relevant examples and end-of-chapter homework problems drawn from industry and sports. Practising engineers will also find the methods presented in this book useful in calculating the response of a mechanical system to impact.

  20. Corrosion mechanism of model zinc-magnesium alloys in atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosek, T.; Nazarov, A.; Bexell, U.; Thierry, D.; Serak, J.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, superior corrosion properties of zinc coatings alloyed with magnesium have been reported. Corrosion behaviour of model zinc-magnesium alloys was studied to understand better the protective mechanism of magnesium in zinc. Alloys containing from 1 to 32 wt.% magnesium, pure zinc, and pure magnesium were contaminated with sodium chloride and exposed to humid air for 28 days. Composition of corrosion products was analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ion chromatography (IC), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The exposure tests were completed with scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) and electrochemical measurements. Weight loss of ZnMg alloys with 1-16 wt.% magnesium was lower than that of pure zinc. Up to 10-fold drop in weight loss was found for materials with 4-8 wt.% Mg in the structure. The improved corrosion stability of ZnMg alloys was connected to the presence of an Mg-based film adjacent to the metal surface. It ensured stable passivity in chloride environment and limited the efficiency of oxygen reduction

  1. An objective interpretation of Lagrangian quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, K.V.

    1978-01-01

    Unlike classical mechanics, the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics does not provide an objective space-time picture of the actual history of a physical system. This paper suggests how the conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics can be reformulated, without changing the mathematical content of the theory or its detailed agreement with experiment and without introducing any hidden variables, in order to provide an objective, covariant, Lagrangian description of reality which is deterministic and time-symmetric on the microscopic scale. The basis of this description can be expressed either as an action functional or as a summation over Feynman diagrams or paths. The probability laws associated with the quantum-mechanical measurement process, and the asymmetry in time of the principles of macroscopic causality and of the laws of statistical mechanics, are interpreted as consequences of the particular boundary conditions that apply to the actual universe. The objective interpretation does not include the observer and the measurement process among the fundamental concepts of the theory, but it does not entail a revision of the ideas of determinism and of time, since in a Lagrangian theory both initial and final boundary conditions on the action functional are required. (author)

  2. Super-low dose endotoxin pre-conditioning exacerbates sepsis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keqiang; Geng, Shuo; Yuan, Ruoxi; Diao, Na; Upchurch, Zachary; Li, Liwu

    2015-04-01

    Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditionings with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP). This is in opposite to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks.

  3. Super-low Dose Endotoxin Pre-conditioning Exacerbates Sepsis Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqiang Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditioning with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP. This is in contrast to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks.

  4. Thermo-mechanical ratcheting in jointed rock masses

    KAUST Repository

    Pasten, C.

    2015-09-01

    Thermo-mechanical coupling takes place in jointed rock masses subjected to large thermal oscillations. Examples range from exposed surfaces under daily and seasonal thermal fluctuations to subsurface rock masses affected by engineered systems such as geothermal operations. Experimental, numerical and analytical results show that thermo-mechanical coupling can lead to wedging and ratcheting mechanisms that result in deformation accumulation when the rock mass is subjected to a biased static-force condition. Analytical and numerical models help in identifying the parameter domain where thermo-mechanical ratcheting can take place.

  5. Thermo-mechanical ratcheting in jointed rock masses

    KAUST Repository

    Pasten, C.; Garcí a, M.; Santamarina, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical coupling takes place in jointed rock masses subjected to large thermal oscillations. Examples range from exposed surfaces under daily and seasonal thermal fluctuations to subsurface rock masses affected by engineered systems such as geothermal operations. Experimental, numerical and analytical results show that thermo-mechanical coupling can lead to wedging and ratcheting mechanisms that result in deformation accumulation when the rock mass is subjected to a biased static-force condition. Analytical and numerical models help in identifying the parameter domain where thermo-mechanical ratcheting can take place.

  6. Overlapping Chronic Pain Conditions: Implications for Diagnosis and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maixner, William; Fillingim, Roger B; Williams, David A; Smith, Shad B; Slade, Gary D

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing recognition that many if not most common chronic pain conditions are heterogeneous with a high degree of overlap or coprevalence of other common pain conditions along with influences from biopsychosocial factors. At present, very little attention is given to the high degree of overlap of many common pain conditions when recruiting for clinical trials. As such, many if not most patients enrolled into clinical studies are not representative of most chronic pain patients. The failure to account for the heterogeneous and overlapping nature of most common pain conditions may result in treatment responses of small effect size when these treatments are administered to patients with chronic overlapping pain conditions (COPCs) represented in the general population. In this brief review we describe the concept of COPCs and the putative mechanisms underlying COPCs. Finally, we present a series of recommendations that will advance our understanding of COPCs. This brief review describes the concept of COPCs. A mechanism-based heuristic model is presented and current knowledge and evidence for COPCs are presented. Finally, a set of recommendations is provided to advance our understanding of COPCs. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fission product release mechanisms and groupings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesia, F.C.; Brito, A.C.; Liu, Y.

    1995-01-01

    During CANDU postulated accidents the reactor fuel is estimated to be exposed to a variety of conditions. These conditions are dynamic and, during the course of an accident, the fuel may experience a wide range of temperatures and conditions from highly oxidizing to mildly reducing environments. The exposure of the reactor fuel to these environments and temperatures may affect its stoichiometry and release performance. In this paper a review of the important fission product release mechanisms is presented, the results of three out-of-pile experimental programs are summarized, and fission product release groups, for both oxidizing and reducing conditions are proposed. (author)

  8. Model development for air conditioning system in heavy duty trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Zhang, Quansheng; Li, Shengbo Eben; Deng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a modelling approach for the air conditioning (AC) system in heavy duty trucks. The presented model entails two major elements: a mechanical compressor model and a thermal AC model. The compressor model describes the massflow of the refrigerant as well as the mechanical power

  9. LHC IRQ cryostat support mechanical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darve, C.; Nicol, T.; Knauf, A.

    1999-01-01

    The LHC Interaction Region Quadrupoles (IRQ) will be shipped from Fermilab to CERN. The IRQ magnets are supported by glass fiber supports. A prototype cryostat support has been tested under various mechanical forces in order to check its mechanical behavior. These measurements have been made in order to validate a numerical model. A large range of mechanical loads simulates loads due to the shipment of the device, the weight of the cold mass as well as the cool down conditions. Its mechanical properties are measured by means of a dedicated arrangement operating at room temperature. This study appears to be essential to optimize the design of the support. The purpose of this note is to summarize the first measurements related to mechanical tests performed with the support

  10. Influence of stationary and non-stationary conditions on drying time and mechanical properties of a porcelain slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Imen; Mihoubi, Daoued

    2017-12-01

    This work deals with a numerical study of the response of a porcelain slab when subjected to convective drying in stationary and non-stationary conditions. The used model describes heat, mass, and momentum transfers is applied to an unsaturated viscoelastic medium described by a Maxwell model. The numerical code allows us to determine the effect of the surrounding air temperature on drying kinetics and on mechanical stress intensities. Von Mises stresses are analysed in order to foresee an eventual damage that may occur during drying. Simulation results for several temperatures in the range of [30 °C, 90 °C] shows that for the temperature from 30 °C to 60 °C, Von Mises stresses are always lower than the yield strength. But above 70 °C, Von Mises stresses are higher than the ultimate strength, and consequently there is a risk of crack at the end of the constant drying rate period. The idea proposed in this work is to integrate a reducing temperature phase when the predicted Von Mises stress intensity exceeds the admissible stress. Simulation results shows that a non-stationary convective drying (90-60 °C) allows us to optimize costs and quality by reducing the drying time and maintaining Von Mises stress values under the admissible stress.

  11. On conditions of negativity of friction resistance for nonstationary modes of blood flow and possible mechanism of affecting of environmental factors on energy effectiveness of cardiovascular system function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that initiated by action of molecular viscosity impulse flow, directed usually from the moving fluid to limiting it solid surface, can, under certain conditions, turn to zero and get negative values in the case of non-stationary flow caused by alternating in time longitudinal (along the pipe axis pressure gradient. It is noted that this non-equilibrium mechanism of negative friction resistance in the similar case of pulsating blood flow in the blood vessels, in addition to the stable to turbulent disturbances swirled blood flow structure providing, can also constitute hydro-mechanical basis of the observed but not explained yet paradoxically high energy effectiveness of the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system (CVS. We consider respective mechanism of affecting on the stability of the normal work of CVS by environmental variable factors using shifting of hydro-dynamic mode with negative resistance realization range boundaries and variation of linear hydrodynamic instability leading to the structurally stable swirled blood flow organization.

  12. Principles of Refrigeration. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with the principles of refrigeration. Covered in the module are defining the term heat, defining the term British Thermal Unit (BTU), defining the term latent heat, listing…

  13. Nutrition in children with long-term health conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Westwood, A

    2015-01-01

    Long-term health conditions (LTHCs) in children may affect nutrition and growth by means of multiple mechanisms. Both undernutrition and overweight/obesity are risk factors. Direct effects of the condition that may cause undernutrition include increased resting energy expenditure, excess losses through malabsorption, difficulty ingesting food, and decreased appetite. Indirect effects of LTHCs may be mediated by learnt or adaptive behaviours, secondary anorexia, inappropriate diets, or conditi...

  14. A statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory: Total statistical mechanical interpretation based on physical argument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadaki, Kohtaro

    2010-01-01

    The statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory (AIT, for short) was introduced and developed by our former works [K. Tadaki, Local Proceedings of CiE 2008, pp. 425-434, 2008] and [K. Tadaki, Proceedings of LFCS'09, Springer's LNCS, vol. 5407, pp. 422-440, 2009], where we introduced the notion of thermodynamic quantities, such as partition function Z(T), free energy F(T), energy E(T), statistical mechanical entropy S(T), and specific heat C(T), into AIT. We then discovered that, in the interpretation, the temperature T equals to the partial randomness of the values of all these thermodynamic quantities, where the notion of partial randomness is a stronger representation of the compression rate by means of program-size complexity. Furthermore, we showed that this situation holds for the temperature T itself, which is one of the most typical thermodynamic quantities. Namely, we showed that, for each of the thermodynamic quantities Z(T), F(T), E(T), and S(T) above, the computability of its value at temperature T gives a sufficient condition for T is an element of (0,1) to satisfy the condition that the partial randomness of T equals to T. In this paper, based on a physical argument on the same level of mathematical strictness as normal statistical mechanics in physics, we develop a total statistical mechanical interpretation of AIT which actualizes a perfect correspondence to normal statistical mechanics. We do this by identifying a microcanonical ensemble in the framework of AIT. As a result, we clarify the statistical mechanical meaning of the thermodynamic quantities of AIT.

  15. External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z L; Dosher, B A

    1998-05-01

    We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian random noise) to the visual stimulus and observes the effect on performance of a perceptual task for attended and unattended stimuli. The three mechanisms of attention yield three "signature" patterns of performance. The general framework for characterizing the mechanisms of attention is used here to investigate the attentional mechanisms in a concurrent location-cued orientation discrimination task. Test stimuli--Gabor patches tilted slightly to the right or left--always appeared on both the left and the right of fixation, and varied independently. Observers were cued on each trial to attend to the left, the right, or evenly to both stimuli, and decide the direction of tilt of both test stimuli. For eight levels of added external noise and three attention conditions (attended, unattended, and equal), subjects' contrast threshold levels were determined. At low levels of external noise, attention affected threshold contrast: threshold contrasts for non-attended stimuli were systematically higher than for equal attention stimuli, which were, in turn, higher than for attended stimuli. Specifically, when the rms contrast of the external noise is below 10%, there is a consistent 17% elevation of contrast threshold from attended to unattended condition across all three subjects. For higher levels of external noise, attention conditions did not affect threshold contrast values at all. These strong results are characteristic of a signal enhancement, or equivalently, an internal additive noise reduction mechanism of attention.

  16. Molecular mechanics of silk nanostructures under varied mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzel, Graham; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-06-01

    Spider dragline silk is a self-assembling tunable protein composite fiber that rivals many engineering fibers in tensile strength, extensibility, and toughness, making it one of the most versatile biocompatible materials and most inviting for synthetic mimicry. While experimental studies have shown that the peptide sequence and molecular structure of silk have a direct influence on the stiffness, toughness, and failure strength of silk, few molecular-level analyses of the nanostructure of silk assemblies, in particular, under variations of genetic sequences have been reported. In this study, atomistic-level structures of wildtype as well as modified MaSp1 protein from the Nephila clavipes spider dragline silk sequences, obtained using an in silico approach based on replica exchange molecular dynamics and explicit water molecular dynamics, are subjected to simulated nanomechanical testing using different force-control loading conditions including stretch, pull-out, and peel. The authors have explored the effects of the poly-alanine length of the N. clavipes MaSp1 peptide sequence and identify differences in nanomechanical loading conditions on the behavior of a unit cell of 15 strands with 840-990 total residues used to represent a cross-linking β-sheet crystal node in the network within a fibril of the dragline silk thread. The specific loading condition used, representing concepts derived from the protein network connectivity at larger scales, have a significant effect on the mechanical behavior. Our analysis incorporates stretching, pull-out, and peel testing to connect biochemical features to mechanical behavior. The method used in this study could find broad applications in de novo design of silk-like tunable materials for an array of applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A sexually conditioned switch of chemosensory behavior in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Sakai

    Full Text Available In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communication, but other mechanisms may also be used to optimize mate location. Here we describe associative learning whereby males use sodium chloride as a cue for hermaphrodite location. Both males and hermaphrodites normally avoid sodium chloride after associative conditioning with salt and starvation. However, we found that males become attracted to sodium chloride after conditioning with salt and starvation if hermaphrodites are present during conditioning. For this conditioning, which we call sexual conditioning, hermaphrodites are detected by males through pheromonal signaling and additional cue(s. Sex transformation experiments suggest that neuronal sex of males is essential for sexual conditioning. Altogether, these results suggest that C. elegans males integrate environmental, internal and social signals to determine the optimal strategy for mate location.

  18. Simulation of the irradiation-induced thermo-mechanical behaviors evolution in monolithic U–Mo/Zr fuel plates under a heterogeneous irradiation condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yunmei; Gong, Xin; Ding, Shurong, E-mail: dsr1971@163.com

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The three-dimensional stress update algorithms in a co-rotational framework are developed for U–Mo and Zircalloy with the irradiation effects. • An effective method for three-dimensional modeling of the in-pile behaviors in heterogeneously irradiated monolithic fuel plates is established and validated. • The effects of the fission-induced creep effects in the U–Mo foil are investigated in detail. • A deformation phenomenon similar to the irradiation experimental results is obtained. - Abstract: For monolithic fuel plates with U–Mo foil and Zircalloy cladding, the three-dimensional large deformation incremental constitutive relations and stress update algorithms in the co-rotational coordinate framework are developed for the fuel and cladding with their respective irradiation effects involved. Three-dimensional finite element simulation of their in-pile thermo-mechanical coupling behaviors under a location-dependent irradiation condition is implemented via the validated user-defined subroutines UMATHT and UMAT in ABAQUS. Comparison of the simulation results for two cases with or without creep considered in the U–Mo foil indicates that with the irradiation creep included (1) considerable stress-relaxation appears in the U–Mo foil, and the mechanical interaction between fuel and cladding is weakened; (2) approximately identical thickness increments in the plate and fuel foil exist and become comparably larger; (3) plastic deformation in the cladding is significantly diminished.

  19. Peripheral Mechanisms of Ischemic Myalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Queme

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain due to ischemia is present in a variety of clinical conditions including peripheral vascular disease (PVD, sickle cell disease (SCD, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, and even fibromyalgia (FM. The clinical features associated with deep tissue ischemia are unique because although the subjective description of pain is common to other forms of myalgia, patients with ischemic muscle pain often respond poorly to conventional analgesic therapies. Moreover, these patients also display increased cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction, which often leads to exercise intolerance or exacerbation of underlying cardiovascular conditions. This suggests that the mechanisms of myalgia development and the role of altered cardiovascular function under conditions of ischemia may be distinct compared to other injuries/diseases of the muscles. It is widely accepted that group III and IV muscle afferents play an important role in the development of pain due to ischemia. These same muscle afferents also form the sensory component of the exercise pressor reflex (EPR, which is the increase in heart rate and blood pressure (BP experienced after muscle contraction. Studies suggest that afferent sensitization after ischemia depends on interactions between purinergic (P2X and P2Y receptors, transient receptor potential (TRP channels, and acid sensing ion channels (ASICs in individual populations of peripheral sensory neurons. Specific alterations in primary afferent function through these receptor mechanisms correlate with increased pain related behaviors and altered EPRs. Recent evidence suggests that factors within the muscles during ischemic conditions including upregulation of growth factors and cytokines, and microvascular changes may be linked to the overexpression of these different receptor molecules in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG that in turn modulate pain and sympathetic reflexes. In this review article, we will discuss the

  20. Study on AE in Mechanical Seal Lift-off Recognition of Mechanical Main Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erqing Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of the determination of lift-off position and the measurement of end face thickness for mechanical seal more difficult, the method based on acoustic emission signal end face lift-off condition monitoring technology for mechanical seal was proposed. The electric eddy current sensor made direct measurement in the internal of mechanical seal device, and the acoustic emission sensor was fixed in the outside for indirect measurement. The acoustic emission signals were de-noised by wavelet threshold de-noising method. The representative energy features were selected by wavelet packet energy spectrum algorithm. It was established that the Radial Basis Function neural network model used for identification of the mechanical seal lift-off position, and the extracted wavelet energy features as its input. It was confirmed accurate and effective that the acoustic emission identification technology through comparing with the data detected by electric eddy current sensor. So using the acoustic emission technology realized the identification of the mechanical seal lift-off position of mechanical main shaft from inside to outside. It is convenient to be used and promotion in industrial field.

  1. Mechanical and Hydrologic Effects of Riparian Vegetation on Critical Conditions for Streambank Stability: Upper Truckee River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Pollen, N. L.; Langendoen, E. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Upper Truckee River is the single largest contributor of sediment to Lake Tahoe with a large proportion of the suspended-sediment load coming from eroding streambanks. Recent advances in quantifying streambank processes highlight the combined effects of hydraulic erosion at the bank toe with geotechnical stability of the upper part of the bank and resulted in the development of a deterministic model of bank-toe erosion and streambank stability (Simon et al., 1999). The use of riparian vegetation in schemes of bank stabilization and stream restoration have become popular but are often implemented on a trial and error basis because of a lack of quantifiable information on the mechanical and hydrologic effects of vegetation on bank stability. This study, conducted along an unstable reach of the Upper Truckee River, combines field data with numerical modeling to quantify (1) hydraulic and geotechnical driving and resisting forces that control bank failures, (2) the mechanical and hydrologic effects of vegetation on shear strength, and (3) the critical conditions for bank stability with and without indigenous riparian species. Tests were conducted using three top-bank treatments: bare (control), Lemmon's willow, and young Lodgepole pine. The susceptibility of the bank toe to erosion by hydraulic forces was quantified by conducting submerged jet tests of in situ material to determine the erodibility coefficient (k) and the critical shear stress of the material. Drained, shear-strength parameters (cohesion and friction angle) of the banks were determined from borehole shear tests at various depths. Pore-water pressure and matric suction were monitored at three depths (30, 100, and 150 cm) with digital tensiometers to calculate changes in apparent cohesion for the period (September 2003 - May 2004) and to differentiate between the hydrologic effects of the two species. Root reinforcement of the two species was quantified by determining the relation between root

  2. Effect of molybdenum, vanadium, boron on mechanical properties of high chromium white cast iron in as-cast condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjaman, F.; Sumardi, S.; Shofi, A.; Aryati, M.; Suharno, B.

    2016-02-01

    In this experiment, the effect of the addition carbide forming elements on high chromium white cast iron, such as molybdenum, vanadium and boron on its mechanical properties and microstructure was investigated. The high chromium white cast iron was produced by casting process and formed in 50 mm size of grinding balls with several compositions. Characterization of these grinding balls was conducted by using some testing methods, such as: chemical and microstructure analysis, hardness, and impact test. From the results, the addition of molybdenum, vanadium, and boron on high chromium white cast iron provided a significant improvement on its hardness, but reduced its toughness. Molybdenum induced fully austenitic matrix and Mo2C formation among eutectic M7C3 carbide. Vanadium was dissolved in the matrix and carbide. While boron was played a role to form fine eutectic carbide. Grinding balls with 1.89 C-13.1 Cr-1.32 Mo-1.36 V-0.00051 B in as-cast condition had the highest hardness, which was caused by finer structure of eutectic carbide, needle like structure (upper bainite) matrix, and martensite on its carbide boundary.

  3. Prediction of mining conditions from bore core information: rock mechanics investigations in the Whybrow Seam at Wambo Colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, A.; Levers, R.; Smith, K.

    1979-12-01

    Rock mechanics investigations were conducted at Wambo Colliery as part of the series designed to study the stability of mining structures and obtain geomechanical properties. The roof and floor were drilled in order to obtain core for rock testing and samples of coal were collected to measure the coal properties. A successful overcoring of a CSIR strain cell was achieved to determine the absolute stress field. The core which was recovered was logged prior to laboratory testing to determine a C index (modified RQD index based on core fragmentation). This was used to estimate the in-situ strata properties from the laboratory results. The roof material was found to consist predominantly of a competent laminite. The Whybrow seam above the Cow Manure band had an average uniaxial strength of 26 MPa. The Cow Manure band was extremely weak with a strength of 1 MPa, while the coal below this band was much weaker than the upper section coal with a strength of 7 MPa. The floor strata was made up of competent carbonaceous siltstone and alternate bands of shale and sandstone. Finite element analyses indicate very stable roof, floor and rib, corresponding closely to the in-situ conditions.

  4. The impact of asbestos exposure in Swedish construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, Bengt; Englund, Anders

    2014-01-01

    To study the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma as a measure of the impact on health from asbestos exposure in the construction industry. The occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in different occupations, time periods and birth cohorts was studied in a cohort of construction workers. They were prospectively followed after they had participated in health examinations between 1971 and 1993. The analysis was restricted to men and in total 367,568 men was included in the analysis. In total there were 419 cases of pleural mesotheliomas between 1972 and 2009. As expected the age adjusted incidence was high in insulation workers and plumbers (39 and 16 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively). However, only 21% of the pleural mesotheliomas occurred in those occupational groups. Occupational groups with many cases of pleural mesothelioma were concrete workers (N = 56), wood workers (N = 55), painters (N = 32), electricians (N = 48), and foremen (N = 37). The highest risk was in birth cohorts born between 1935 and 1945. Between 1995 and 2009 around one-third of all male cases in the country occurred in this birth cohort. The risk seemed to decrease considerably in men born after 1955. In Sweden a considerable proportion of pleural mesotheliomas occur among construction workers; and not only in jobs traditionally associated with asbestos exposure such as insulators and plumbers but also among electricians, for example. The results shows that asbestos exposure occurs in many occupational groups, indicating that safe handling of asbestos is a very difficult or even impossible task in the construction industry. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mechanisms and predictions for subcooled flow boiling CHF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Nariai, Hideki; Inasaka, Fujio

    2000-01-01

    Corresponding to the two kinds of flow pattern reported in literature for subcooled flow boiling, two kinds of CHF triggering mechanism are considered existing with working in different working scope. On the base of a criterion proposed recently by the present authors, subcooled flow boiling data firstly are categorized into two groups by judging whether the first kind or the second kind of flow pattern is established. Possible CHF triggering mechanisms and prediction methods for the two kinds of flow pattern condition are discussed. By considering both the flow pattern development and CHF triggering mechanism, a detailed data categorization is carried out. The corresponding CHF occurrence properties in different data groups are summarized. Parametric trends are reviewed for the first and second kind of data group working condition respectively. Mass flux, pressure, inlet subcooling and inner diameter show almost same effects in the two different working conditions, while the ratio of heated length to diameter's effects on CHF show to be different. Research for the L/D effect on the CHF transverse the interface of the different data groups is carried out. (author)

  6. Memory Mechanisms in Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Constanze; Franz, Volker H.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of visual information influences the execution of goal-directed movements. This is very prominent in memory conditions, where a delay is introduced between stimulus presentation and execution of the movement. The corresponding effects could be due to a decay of the visual information or to different processing mechanisms used for…

  7. Size-controlled synthesis and formation mechanism of manganese oxide OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Cheng, Xiaodi; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a simplified approach for size-controlled synthesis of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanowires using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and different inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4) under reflux conditions. The morphology and nanostructure of the synthesized products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption, and electron microscopy analysis, in order to elucidate the controlling effects of acid concentration and type as well as the formation mechanism of OMS-2 nanowires. The concentration of inorganic acid is a crucial factor controlling the phase of the synthesized products. OMS-2 nanowires are obtained with HCl at the concentration ≥0.96 mol/L or with HNO3 and H2SO4 at the concentrations ≥0.72 mol/L. Differently, the type of inorganic acid effectively determines the particle size of OMS-2 nanowires. When the acid is changed from HCl to HNO3 and H2SO4 in the reflux system, the average length of OMS-2 declines significantly by 60-70% (1104-442 and 339 nm), with minor decreased in the average width (43-39 and 34 nm). The formation of OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids involves a two-step process, i.e., the initial formation of layered manganese oxides, and subsequent transformation to OMS-2 via a dissolution-recrystallization process under acidic conditions. The proposed reflux route provides an alternative approach for synthesizing OMS-2 nanowires as well as other porous nano-crystalline OMS materials.

  8. Evaluation of fuel release rate and mechanism tests under RBCB conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M.G.

    1981-09-01

    This task includes theoretical evaluation of fuel/fission product release behavior from failed LMFBR fuel elements as well as an on-going experimental investigation of the mechanism of oxide fuel dispersal into flowing liquid sodium. The primary objectives of this work are to develop a fuel source term that can be used in predictive models for primary heat transfer system contamination and to understand the separate influences of important system variables (such as flow rate, oxygen impurity level) on this source term. The present report is written in two parts: the first, in condensed form, is an updated evaluation of fuel (U,Pu) and fission product release data, and the second describes the current status of supporting experimental work at General Electric's Vallecitos Laboratory

  9. General treatment of a non-linear gauge condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malleville, C.

    1982-06-01

    A non linear gauge condition is presented in the frame of a non abelian gauge theory broken with the Higgs mechanism. It is shown that this condition already introduced for the standard SU(2) x U(1) model can be generalized for any gauge model with the same type of simplification, namely the suppression of any coupling of the form: massless gauge boson, massive gauge boson, unphysical Higgs [fr

  10. Flux Balance Analysis of Escherichia coli under Temperature and pH Stress Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    important roles in specific conditions and are essential genes under those conditions. E. coli is a model organism, which is widely used. It can adapt to many stress conditions, including temperature, pH, osmotic, antibiotic, etc. Underlying mechanisms

  11. Multidimensional Quantum Mechanical Modeling of Electron Transfer and Electronic Coherence in Plant Cryptochromes: The Role of Initial Bath Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendive-Tapia, David; Mangaud, Etienne; Firmino, Thiago; de la Lande, Aurélien; Desouter-Lecomte, Michèle; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Gatti, Fabien

    2018-01-11

    A multidimensional quantum mechanical protocol is used to describe the photoinduced electron transfer and electronic coherence in plant cryptochromes without any semiempirical, e.g., experimentally obtained, parameters. Starting from a two-level spin-boson Hamiltonian we look at the effect that the initial photoinduced nuclear bath distribution has on an intermediate step of this biological electron transfer cascade for two idealized cases. The first assumes a slow equilibration of the nuclear bath with respect to the previous electron transfer step that leads to an ultrafast decay with little temperature dependence; while the second assumes a prior fast bath equilibration on the donor potential energy surface leading to a much slower decay, which contrarily displays a high temperature dependence and a better agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results. Beyond Marcus and semiclassical pictures these results unravel the strong impact that the presence or not of equilibrium initial conditions has on the electronic population and coherence dynamics at the quantum dynamics level in this and conceivably in other biological electron transfer cascades.

  12. Fission product release mechanisms and groupings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesia, F C; Brito, A C; Liu, Y [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); and others

    1996-12-31

    During CANDU postulated accidents the reactor fuel is estimated to be exposed to a variety of conditions. These conditions are dynamic and, during the course of an accident, the fuel may experience a wide range of temperatures and conditions from highly oxidizing to mildly reducing environments. The exposure of the reactor fuel to these environments and temperatures may affect its stoichiometry and release performance. In this paper a review of the important fission product release mechanisms is presented, the results of three out-of-pile experimental programs are summarized, and fission product release groups, for both oxidizing and reducing conditions are proposed. (author) 92 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Flux Balance Analysis of Escherichia coli under Temperature and pH Stress Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-05-12

    An interesting discovery in biology is that most genes in an organism are dispensable. That means these genes have minor effects on survival of the organism in standard laboratory conditions. One explanation of this discovery is that some genes play important roles in specific conditions and are essential genes under those conditions. E. coli is a model organism, which is widely used. It can adapt to many stress conditions, including temperature, pH, osmotic, antibiotic, etc. Underlying mechanisms and associated genes of each stress condition responses are usually different. In our analysis, we combined protein abundance data and mutant conditional fitness data into E. coli constraint-based metabolic models to study conditionally essential metabolic genes under temperature and pH stress conditions. Flux Balance Analysis was employed as the modeling method to analysis these data. We discovered lists of metabolic genes, which are E. coli dispensable genes, but conditionally essential under some stress conditions. Among these conditionally essential genes, atpA in low pH stress and nhaA in high pH stress found experimental evidences from previous studies. Our study provides new conditionally essential gene candidates for biologists to explore stress condition mechanisms.

  14. Pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance in different conditions in humans, i.e. in obesity, during lipid infusions, after hypercaloric feeding, and glucocorticoid treatment. We focused on 3 important hypotheses that are suggested to be implicated in the

  15. Parallel inter channel interaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovic, V.; Afgan, N.; Jovic, L.

    1995-01-01

    Parallel channels interactions are examined. For experimental researches of nonstationary regimes flow in three parallel vertical channels results of phenomenon analysis and mechanisms of parallel channel interaction for adiabatic condition of one-phase fluid and two-phase mixture flow are shown. (author)

  16. A Mechanism for Land-Atmosphere Feedback Involving Planetary Wave Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Chang, Yehui; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2014-01-01

    While the ability of land surface conditions to influence the atmosphere has been demonstrated in various modeling and observational studies, the precise mechanisms by which land-atmosphere feedback occurs are still largely unknown particularly the mechanisms that allow land moisture state in one region to affect atmospheric conditions in another. Such remote impacts are examined here in the context of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations, leading to the identification of one potential mechanism: the phase-locking and amplification of a planetary wave through the imposition of a spatial pattern of soil moisture at the land surface. This mechanism, shown here to be relevant in the AGCM, apparently also operates in nature, as suggested by supporting evidence found in reanalysis data.

  17. Computer-based mechanical design of overhead lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinaru, D.; Bratu, C.; Dinu, R. C.; Manescu, L. G.

    2016-02-01

    Beside the performance, the safety level according to the actual standards is a compulsory condition for distribution grids’ operation. Some of the measures leading to improvement of the overhead lines reliability ask for installations’ modernization. The constraints imposed to the new lines components refer to the technical aspects as thermal stress or voltage drop, and look for economic efficiency, too. The mechanical sizing of the overhead lines is after all an optimization problem. More precisely, the task in designing of the overhead line profile is to size poles, cross-arms and stays and locate poles along a line route so that the total costs of the line's structure to be minimized and the technical and safety constraints to be fulfilled.The authors present in this paper an application for the Computer-Based Mechanical Design of the Overhead Lines and the features of the corresponding Visual Basic program, adjusted to the distribution lines. The constraints of the optimization problem are adjusted to the existing weather and loading conditions of Romania. The outputs of the software application for mechanical design of overhead lines are: the list of components chosen for the line: poles, cross-arms, stays; the list of conductor tension and forces for each pole, cross-arm and stay for different weather conditions; the line profile drawings.The main features of the mechanical overhead lines design software are interactivity, local optimization function and high-level user-interface

  18. Mechanism of laser ablation for aqueous media irradiated under confined-stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oraevsky, A.A.; Jacques, S.L.; Tittel, F.K.

    1995-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of aqueous medium irradiated under conditions of temporal confinement of thermal stress is described. Time-resolved measurements of laser-induced transient stress waves with simultaneous imaging of ablation process by laser-flash photography were performed. Stress transients induced in aqueous solution of K 2 CrO 4 by ablative nanosecond laser pulses at 355 nm were studied by a broad-band lithium niobate acoustic transducer. Recoil momentum upon material ejection was measured from the temporal profiles of the acoustic transducer signal as a function of incident laser fluence. Cavitation bubbles produced in the irradiated volume during the tensile phase of thermoelastic stress were shown to drive material ejection at temperatures substantially below 100 degree C. Experimental data are evident that nanosecond-pulse laser ablation of aqueous media (when temporal stress-confinement conditions are satisfied) include the following two main stages of material ejection: (1) ejection of water microdroplets due to expansion and rupture of subsurface cavitation bubbles; (2) ejection of liquid streams with substantial volume upon collapse of initial crater and large cavitation bubbles in the depth of irradiated volume (after coalescence of smaller bubbles). copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Transient Fuel Behavior and Failure Condition in the CABRI-2 Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Ikken; Lemoine, Francette; Struwe, Dankward

    2004-01-01

    In the CABRI-2 program, 12 tests were performed under various transient conditions covering a wide range of accident scenarios using two types of preirradiated fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel pins with different smear densities and burnups. For each fuel, a nonfailure-transient test was performed, and it provided basic information such as fuel thermal condition, fuel swelling, and gas release. From the failure tests, information on failure mode, failure time, and axial location was obtained. Based on this information, failure conditions such as fuel enthalpy and cladding temperature were evaluated. These failure conditions were compared with the CABRI-1 tests in which different fuels as well as different transient conditions were used. This comparison, together with supporting information available from existing in-pile and out-of-pile experiments, allowed an effective understanding on failure mechanisms depending on fuel and transient conditions. It is concluded that pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) due to fuel thermal expansion and fission-gas-induced swelling is playing an important role on mechanical clad loading especially with high smear density and low fuel-heating-rate conditions. At very high heating-rate conditions, there is no sufficient time to allow significant fuel swelling, so that cavity pressurization with fuel melting becomes the likely failure mechanism. Fuel smear density and fission-gas retention have a strong impact both on PCMI and cavity pressurization. Furthermore, pin failure is strongly dependent on cladding temperature, which plays an important role in the axial failure location. With the low smear-density fuel, considerable PCMI mitigation is possible leading to a high failure threshold as well as in-pin molten-fuel relocation along the central hole. However, even with the low smear density fuel, PCMI failure could take place with an elevated cladding-temperature condition. On the other hand, in case of a sufficiently long

  20. Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms Induced by Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Felipe Santos Fernandes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RVT is one of the main natural compounds studied worldwide due to its potential therapeutic use in the treatment of many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic disorders. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of RVT in all of these conditions is not completely understood, as it can modify not only biochemical pathways but also epigenetic mechanisms. In this paper, we analyze the biological activities exhibited by RVT with a focus on the epigenetic mechanisms, especially those related to DNA methyltransferase (DNMT, histone deacetylase (HDAC and lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1.

  1. Atmospheric degradation mechanism of organic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benter, T; Arsene, C

    2002-02-01

    In the present work a detailed product study has been performed on the OH radical initiated oxidation of dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl sulphoxide, under different conditions of temperature, partial pressure of oxygen and NO{sub x} concentration, in order to better define the degradation mechanism of the above compounds under conditions which prevail in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of deep geological environment condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Dae Seok; Han, Kyung Won; Joen, Kwan Sik

    2003-05-01

    The main tasks of geoscientific study in the 2nd stage was characterized focusing mainly on a near-field condition of deep geologic environment, and aimed to generate the geologic input data for a Korean reference disposal system for high level radioactive wastes and to establish site characterization methodology, including neotectonic features, fracture systems and mechanical properties of plutonic rocks, and hydrogeochemical characteristics. The preliminary assessment of neotectonics in the Korean peninsula was performed on the basis of seismicity recorded, Quarternary faults investigated, uplift characteristics studied on limited areas, distribution of the major regional faults and their characteristics. The local fracture system was studied in detail from the data obtained from deep boreholes in granitic terrain. Through this deep drilling project, the geometrical and hydraulic properties of different fracture sets are statistically analysed on a block scale. The mechanical properties of intact rocks were evaluated from the core samples by laboratory testing and the in-situ stress conditions were estimated by a hydro fracturing test in the boreholes. The hydrogeochemical conditions in the deep boreholes were characterized based on hydrochemical composition and isotopic signatures and were attempted to assess the interrelation with a major fracture system. The residence time of deep groundwater was estimated by C-14 dating. For the travel time of groundwater between the boreholes, the methodology and equipment for tracer test were established

  3. Infrared Thermographic Diagnosis Mechanism for Fault Detection of Ball Bearing under Dynamic Loading Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jin Ju; Yoon, Hanvit; Kim, Dong Yeon; Hong, Dong Pyo; Kim, Won Tae

    2011-01-01

    Fault detection for dynamic loading conditions of rotational machineries was considered from the contactless, non-destructive infrared thermographic method, rather than the traditional diagnosis method. In this paper, by applying a rotating deep-grooved ball bearing, passive thermographic experiment was performed as an alternative way proceeding the traditional fault monitoring. In addition, the thermographic experiments were compared with the vibration spectrum analysis to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method. Based on the results, it was concluded the temperature characteristics of the ball bearing under dynamic loading conditions were analyzed thoroughly

  4. Experimental studies of the mechanisms and the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the uranium reduction by sedimentary organic materials from ligneous origin under diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis reports experimental studies of fixation and reduction of the uranyl cation by sedimentary organic materials from ligneous origin in order to understand the mechanisms and quantitative aspects of these processes in diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions. Two fixation mechanisms have been identified. Reduction appears to be governed by the oxidation of hydroxyl functions and the dehydrogenation of aliphatic hydro-carbonated entities. A kinetic study of this reduction process is reported, as well as a simulation of these processes by simple organic compounds (alcohols, aliphatic hydrocarbons). The assessment of thermodynamic parameters of the reduction process is discussed, and the obtained thermodynamic data show that almost the totality of uranium present in natural waters precipitates under the form of uraninite in presence of lignite. The extension of the obtained results to all sedimentary organic materials is finally discussed [fr

  5. Reinstatement of Conditioned Suppression in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinette Dirikx

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Return of fear after successful exposure therapy calls for a better understanding of the mechanisms of relapse. Classical conditioning research provides a useful framework for conceptualising the acquisition, extinction and reappearance of fear. The present paper focuses on reinstatement, the return of extinguished conditioned responses due to the experience of one or more unconditioned stimuli (USs after extinction. This phenomenon illustrates that unpredictable USs can lead to a return of fear after successful exposure. The data we present is one of the first demonstrations that conditioned suppression of instrumental behaviour can be used as an index of classical conditioning in laboratory mice. The procedure proves to be a promising instrument for assessing fear in mice, both in the context of research aimed at unravelling the functional characteristics of learning and memory in healthy mice and in the context of research aimed at unravelling the neurobiological substrate of psychiatric disorders, e.g., in studies with transgenic and knockout mice. Using this procedure, we report the first observation of reinstatement of conditioned suppression in this species.

  6. Methodology for determining time-dependent mechanical properties of tuff subjected to near-field repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacic, J.D.; Andersen, R.

    1983-01-01

    We have established a methodology to determine the time dependence of strength and transport properties of tuff under conditions appropriate to a nuclear waste repository. Exploratory tests to determine the approximate magnitudes of thermomechanical property changes are nearly complete. In this report we describe the capabilities of an apparatus designed to precisely measure the time-dependent deformation and permeability of tuff at simulated repository conditions. Preliminary tests with this new apparatus indicate that microclastic creep failure of tuff occurs over a narrow strain range with little precursory Tertiary creep behavior. In one test, deformation under conditions of slowly decreasing effective pressure resulted in failure, whereas some strain indicators showed a decreasing rate of strain

  7. Methodology for determining time-dependent mechanical properties of tuff subjected to near-field repository conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacic, J.D.; Andersen, R.

    1983-01-01

    We have established a methodology to determine the time dependence of strength and transport properties of tuff under conditions appropriate to a nuclear waste repository. Exploratory tests to determine the approximate magnitudes of thermomechanical property changes are nearly complete. In this report we describe the capabilities of an apparatus designed to precisely measure the time-dependent deformation and permeability of tuff at simulated repository conditions. Preliminary tests with this new apparatus indicate that microclastic creep failure of tuff occurs over a narrow strain range with little precursory Tertiary creep behavior. In one test, deformation under conditions of slowly decreasing effective pressure resulted in failure, whereas some strain indicators showed a decreasing rate of strain.

  8. On the dynamic mechanical property and deformation mechanism of as-extruded Mg-Sn-Ca alloys under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiuyan; Pan, Hucheng; Tang, Aitao; Ren, Yuping; Song, Bo; Qin, Gaowu; Zhang, Mingxing; Pan, Fusheng

    2016-01-01

    To further understand the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys and expand their applications under dynamic conditions, the newly developed Mg-2Sn-1Ca alloy (TX21) is selected as the representative sample and tested under wide loading rate ranging from quasi-static to dynamic level (10"−"3–500/s). Both ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the as-extruded TX21 alloys increase with strain rate. Although twinning is accompanied due to the enhanced activity at higher strain rate, the preferential activation of dislocations is readily clarified and confirmed as the dominant deformation modes. Active interactions of pyramidal dislocations result in the higher strain hardening ability and could be correlated to the obviously positive strain-rate sensitivity for mechanical properties. Moreover, it is observed that the larger grain size and higher content of solute atoms dissolved in matrix would lead to the more active dislocations and twinning formations. The present results would provide insight into further understanding the deformation mechanism under dynamic rate loading and designing Mg alloy suitable for impact conditions.

  9. On the dynamic mechanical property and deformation mechanism of as-extruded Mg-Sn-Ca alloys under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiuyan [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Hucheng [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Tang, Aitao, E-mail: tat@cqu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ren, Yuping [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Song, Bo [Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Qin, Gaowu, E-mail: qingw@smm.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Mingxing [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Pan, Fusheng [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-05-10

    To further understand the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys and expand their applications under dynamic conditions, the newly developed Mg-2Sn-1Ca alloy (TX21) is selected as the representative sample and tested under wide loading rate ranging from quasi-static to dynamic level (10{sup −3}–500/s). Both ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the as-extruded TX21 alloys increase with strain rate. Although twinning is accompanied due to the enhanced activity at higher strain rate, the preferential activation of dislocations is readily clarified and confirmed as the dominant deformation modes. Active interactions of pyramidal dislocations result in the higher strain hardening ability and could be correlated to the obviously positive strain-rate sensitivity for mechanical properties. Moreover, it is observed that the larger grain size and higher content of solute atoms dissolved in matrix would lead to the more active dislocations and twinning formations. The present results would provide insight into further understanding the deformation mechanism under dynamic rate loading and designing Mg alloy suitable for impact conditions.

  10. Pump failure leads to alternative vertical pump condition monitoring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVilliers, Adriaan; Glandon, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Condition monitoring and detecting early signs of potential failure mechanisms present particular problems in vertical pumps. Most often, the majority of the pump assembly is not readily accessible for visual or audible inspection or conventional vibration monitoring techniques using accelerometers and/or proximity sensors. The root cause failure analysis of a 2-stage vertical centrifugal service-water pump at a nuclear power generating facility in the USA is presented, highlighting this long standing challenge in condition monitoring of vertical pumps. This paper will summarize the major findings of the root cause analysis (RCA), highlight the limitations of traditional monitoring techniques, and present an expanded application of motor current monitoring as a means to gain insight into the mechanical performance and condition of a pump. The 'real-world' example of failure, monitoring and correlation of the monitoring technique to a detailed pump disassembly inspection is also presented. This paper will explain some of the reasons behind well known design principles requiring natural frequency separation from known forcing frequencies, as well as explore an unexpected submerged brittle fracture failure mechanism, and how such issues may be avoided. (author)

  11. Observed Human Actions, and Not Mechanical Actions, Induce Searching Errors in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Moriguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent neurophysiological studies have shown that several human brain regions involved in executing actions are activated by merely observing such actions via a human, and not by a mechanical hand. At a behavioral level, observing a human’s movements, but not those of a robot, significantly interferes with ongoing executed movements. However, it is unclear whether the biological tuning in the observation/execution matching system are functional during infancy. The present study examines whether a human’s actions, and not a mechanical action, influence infants’ execution of the same actions due to the observation/execution matching system. Twelve-month-old infants were given a searching task. In the tasks, infants observed an object hidden at location A, after which either a human hand (human condition or a mechanical one (mechanical condition searched the object correctly. Next, the object was hidden at location B and infants were allowed to search the object. We examined whether infants searched the object at location B correctly. The results revealed that infants in the human condition were more likely to search location A than those in the mechanical condition. Moreover, the results suggested that infants’ searching behaviors were affected by their observations of the same actions by a human, but not a mechanical hand. Thus, it may be concluded that the observation/execution matching system may be biologically tuned during infancy.

  12. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, Alastair I M

    2007-01-01

    PREFACESINTRODUCTION The Photoelectric Effect The Compton Effect Line Spectra and Atomic Structure De Broglie Waves Wave-Particle Duality The Rest of This Book THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation The Time-Independent Schrödinger Equation Boundary ConditionsThe Infinite Square Well The Finite Square Well Quantum Mechanical Tunneling The Harmonic Oscillator THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Wave Equations Separation in Cartesian Coordinates Separation in Spherical Polar Coordinates The Hydrogenic Atom THE BASIC POSTULATES OF QUANTUM MEC

  13. COPING MECHANISM OF CAREER WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosnani Rosnani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with cancer may experience psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, anger, helplessness, and unappreciated, so in certain situations require defense mechanisms (coping mechanism to oppose or resist feelings of anxiety, fear or stress that haunt her. The aim of this study was to know the coping mechanism of career women with breast cancer reviewed by phenomenology in Palembang 2016. Method: Type of this study was a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Total samples were 8 participants with inclusion criteria: career women, productive age range, health physic and physiologic. Independent variable was a coping mechanism, and the dependent variable was breast cancer. The instrument used the voice recorder, and interview guides. Data analyze used verbatim transcript with credibility, dependability, and confirmability. Result: The results showed that working women who have breast cancer have a coping strategy that is adjusted to the psychological condition and physical reactions of the therapy in progress. Psychologically, the coping mechanism is in the form of rejecting, drawing closer to Allah SWT, seeking the opinion of other health workers, discussing conditions with spouse and family, seeking alternative treatment and asking for doctor's direction. The coping mechanism of the body's reaction to therapy is done by taking medicine according to the rules and remember Allah SWT. Conclusions: Need the support of the coping mechanism in patients with breast cancer and nursing care approach with the pattern of coping mechanisms with the involvement of the family.

  14. Experimental approach and micro-mechanical modeling of the mechanical behavior of irradiated zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onimus, F.

    2003-12-01

    Zirconium alloys cladding tubes containing nuclear fuel of the Pressurized Water Reactors constitute the first safety barrier against the dissemination of radioactive elements. Thus, it is essential to predict the mechanical behavior of the material in-reactor conditions. This study aims, on the one hand, to identify and characterize the mechanisms of the plastic deformation of irradiated zirconium alloys and, on the other hand, to propose a micro-mechanical modeling based on these mechanisms. The experimental analysis shows that, for the irradiated material, the plastic deformation occurs by dislocation channeling. For transverse tensile test and internal pressure test this channeling occurs in the basal planes. However, for axial tensile test, the study revealed that the plastic deformation also occurs by channeling but in the prismatic and pyramidal planes. In addition, the study of the macroscopic mechanical behavior, compared to the deformation mechanisms observed by TEM, suggested that the internal stress is higher in the case of irradiated material than in the case of non-irradiated material, because of the very heterogeneous character of the plastic deformation. This analysis led to a coherent interpretation of the mechanical behavior of irradiated materials, in terms of deformation mechanisms. The mechanical behavior of irradiated materials was finally modeled by applying homogenization methods for heterogeneous materials. This model is able to reproduce adequately the mechanical behavior of the irradiated material, in agreement with the TEM observations. (author)

  15. Composite mechanism of the Büyükçekmece (Turkey) landslide as conditioning factor for earthquake-induced mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, S.; Lenti, L.; Bourdeau, C.

    2018-05-01

    Earthquake-induced displacements of landslides are significantly conditioned by their 1D and 2D interactions with seismic waves, as currently proven by several studies. Nevertheless, the role of a more complex geological setting, responsible for a heterogeneous composition of the landslide mass, can significantly influence these phenomena. The heterogeneity can also depend on multiple phases of the landslide activity, responsible for dislodging the whole landslide mass into submasses, each one delimited by secondary scarps and characterized by individual mobility. Hence, in the framework of the European project "MARSite - Marmara Supersite: new directions in seismic hazard assessment through focused Earth observation in the Marmara Supersite", the Büyükçekmece landslide, located approximately 30 km W of Istanbul (Turkey), was considered as a case study. This landslide involves a large mass of approximately 140 million cubic metres, composed of silty clays, tuffs and sands ascribable to Cenozoic geological formations. The landslide is characterized by multiple phases of activity with a composite rototranslational mechanism, which created seven submasses delimited by secondary scarps. The scheme of water circulation in the landslide slope, based on piezometer data as well as on a geological survey, accounts for two flow nets: the first, shallower flow net is located in superficial sandy deposits, outcropping in the dislodged landslide submasses; the second, deeper flow net is located in the main sliding surface. A slope stability analysis following a global limit equilibrium approach provided a distribution of the pseudostatic coefficient vs. pore water pressure. The results show that the stability of the landslide submasses increases moving downslope, and reactivations are expected in the case of earthquakes with a return period between 475 and 2475 yr, according to the local seismic hazard. Dynamic numerical modelling was also performed using the stress

  16. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  17. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  18. Quantization in classical mechanics and its relation to the Bohmian Ψ-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusov, V.D.; Vlasenko, D.S.; Mavrodiev, S.Cht.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: →The Schroedinger equation is derived from the classical Hamiltonian mechanics. →This derivation is based on the Chetaev theorem on stable dynamical trajectories. →The conditions for correctness of trajectory quantum mechanics are discussed. - Abstract: Based on the Chetaev theorem on stable dynamical trajectories in the presence of dissipative forces, we obtain the generalized condition for stability of Hamilton systems in the form of the Schroedinger equation. It is shown that the energy of dissipative forces, which generate the Chetaev generalized condition of stability, coincides exactly with the Bohm 'quantum' potential. Within the frame-work of Bohmian quantum mechanics supplemented by the generalized Chetaev theorem and on the basis of the principle of least action for dissipative forces, we show that the squared amplitude of a wave function in the Schroedinger equation is equivalent semantically and syntactically to the probability density function for the number of particle trajectories, relative to which the velocity and the position of the particle are not hidden parameters. The conditions for the correctness of trajectory interpretation of quantum mechanics are discussed.

  19. Evaluating mechanical properties and degradation of YTZP dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, Pablo; Sandino, Clara; Arciniegas, Milena; Martinez-Gomis, Jordi; Peraire, Maria; Gil, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    Lately new biomedical grade yttria stabilized zirconia (YTZP) dental implants have appeared in the implantology market. This material has better aesthetical properties than conventional titanium used for implants but long term behaviour of these new implants is not yet well known. The aim of this paper is to quantify the mechanical response of YTZP dental implants previously degraded under different time conditions and compare the toughness and fatigue strength with titanium implants. Mechanical response has been studied by means of mechanical testing following the ISO 14801 for Standards for dental implants and by finite element analysis. Accelerated hydrothermal degradation has been achieved by means of water vapour and studied by X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation tests. The results show that the degradation suffered by YTZP dental implants will not have a significant effect on the mechanical behaviour. Otherwise the fracture toughness of YTZP ceramics is still insufficient in certain implantation conditions.

  20. Controlling chaos based on an adaptive adjustment mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the ideas and techniques developed by Huang [Huang W. Stabilizing nonlinear dynamical systems by an adaptive adjustment mechanism. Phys Rev E 2000;61:R1012-5] for controlling discrete-time chaotic system using adaptive adjustment mechanism to continuous-time chaotic system. Two control approaches, namely adaptive adjustment mechanism (AAM) and modified adaptive adjustment mechanism (MAAM), are investigated. In both case sufficient conditions for the stabilization of chaotic systems are given analytically. The simulation results on Chen chaotic system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed techniques

  1. Emergence of quantum mechanics from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C

    2009-01-01

    The conceptual setting of quantum mechanics is subject to an ongoing debate from its beginnings until now. The consequences of the apparent differences between quantum statistics and classical statistics range from the philosophical interpretations to practical issues as quantum computing. In this note we demonstrate how quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistical systems. We discuss conditions and circumstances for this to happen. Quantum systems describe isolated subsystems of classical statistical systems with infinitely many states. While infinitely many classical observables 'measure' properties of the subsystem and its environment, the state of the subsystem can be characterized by the expectation values of only a few probabilistic observables. They define a density matrix, and all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem.

  2. Comparative analysis of deterministic and probabilistic fracture mechanical assessment tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckmann, Klaus [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Saifi, Qais [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    Uncertainties in material properties, manufacturing processes, loading conditions and damage mechanisms complicate the quantification of structural reliability. Probabilistic structure mechanical computing codes serve as tools for assessing leak- and break probabilities of nuclear piping components. Probabilistic fracture mechanical tools were compared in different benchmark activities, usually revealing minor, but systematic discrepancies between results of different codes. In this joint paper, probabilistic fracture mechanical codes are compared. Crack initiation, crack growth and the influence of in-service inspections are analyzed. Example cases for stress corrosion cracking and fatigue in LWR conditions are analyzed. The evolution of annual failure probabilities during simulated operation time is investigated, in order to identify the reasons for differences in the results of different codes. The comparison of the tools is used for further improvements of the codes applied by the partners.

  3. Generation of RNA in abiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Mauro, Ernesto

    Generation of RNA in abiotic conditions. Ernesto Di Mauro Dipartimento di Genetica Bi-ologia Molecolare, Universit` "Sapienza" Roma, Italy. a At least four conditions must be satisfied for the spontaneous generation of (pre)-genetic poly-mers: 1) availability of precursors that are activated enough to spontaneously polymerize. Preliminary studies showed that (a) nucleic bases and acyclonucleosides can be synthesized from formamide H2NCOH by simply heating with prebiotically available mineral catalysts [last reviewed in (1)], and that b) nucleic bases can be phosphorylated in every possible posi-tion [2'; 3'; 5'; cyclic 2',3'; cyclic 3',5' (2)]. The higher stability of the cyclic forms allows their accumulation. 2) A polymerization mechanism. A reaction showing the formation of RNA polymers starting from prebiotically plausible precursors (3',5' cyclic GMP and 3', 5'cyclic AMP) was recently reported (3). Polymerization in these conditions is thermodynamically up-hill and an equilibrium is attained that limits the maximum length of the polymer produced to about 40 nucleotides for polyG and 100 nucleotides for polyA. 3) Ligation of the synthesized oligomers. If this type of reaction could occur according to a terminal-joining mechanism and could generate canonical 3',5' phosphodiester bonds, exponential growth would be obtained of the generated oligomers. This type of reaction has been reported (4) , limited to homogeneous polyA sequences and leading to the production of polyA dimers and tetramers. What is still missing are: 4) mechanisms that provide the proof of principle for the generation of sequence complexity. We will show evidence for two mechanisms providing this proof of principle for simple complementary sequences. Namely: abiotic sequence complementary-driven terminal ligation and sequence-complementary terminal growth. In conclusion: all the steps leading to the generation of RNA in abiotic conditions are satisfied. (1) R Saladino, C Crestini, F

  4. Evolution of shutdown mechanism for PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manjit; Govindarajan, G.

    1997-01-01

    In 500 MWe PHWR, there are two independent fast acting shutdown systems namely (1) mechanical shut-off rod system and (2) liquid poison injection system. Both systems are independently capable of keeping the reactor in sub-critical condition during long shutdown. Mechanical shut-off rod system being primary shutdown system calls for a very high reliability of operation as well as effectiveness, which are mainly governed by its ability to operate within a very short time and the magnitude of negative reactivity worth it can provide. Mechanical shut-off rods are normally parked above the core by shut-off rod drive mechanism. On receiving a scram signal, shut-off rods are released from the holding electromagnetic clutch and fall under gravity into the core. This paper discusses the salient features of mechanical shut-off rod system. A brief account of detailed design and development of sub-assemblies of shut-off rod drive mechanism is also presented. (author)

  5. Mechanically activated synthesis of PZT and its electromechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Akdogan, E.K.; Safari, A.; Riman, R.E. [Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Department of Ceramic and Materials Engineering, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Mechanical activation was successfully used to synthesize nanostructured phase-pure Pb(Zr{sub 0.7}Ti{sub 0.3})O{sub 3} (PZT) powders. Lead-zirconium-titanium (PbZrTi) hydrous oxide precursor, synthesized from chemical co-precipitation, was mechanically activated in a NaCl matrix. The synthesized PZT particles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, laser-light diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis were used to monitor dehydration and phase transformation of PbZrTi hydrous oxide precursor during mechanical activation. The best mechanical activation conditions corresponded to mechanically activating PbZrTi hydrous oxide precursor in a NaCl matrix with a NaCl/precursor weight ratio of 4:1 for 8 h. These conditions resulted in a dispersible phase-pure PZT powder with a median secondary-particle size of {proportional_to}110 nm. The properties of PZT 70/30 from mechanically activated powder, as measured on discs sintered at 1150 C for 2 h, were found to be in close conformity to those obtained by a conventional mixed oxide solid state reaction route. (orig.)

  6. Mechanically activated synthesis of PZT and its electromechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Riman, R. E.

    2005-08-01

    Mechanical activation was successfully used to synthesize nanostructured phase-pure Pb(Zr0.7Ti0.3)O3 (PZT) powders. Lead zirconium titanium (PbZrTi) hydrous oxide precursor, synthesized from chemical co-precipitation, was mechanically activated in a NaCl matrix. The synthesized PZT particles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, laser-light diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis were used to monitor dehydration and phase transformation of PbZrTi hydrous oxide precursor during mechanical activation. The best mechanical activation conditions corresponded to mechanically activating PbZrTi hydrous oxide precursor in a NaCl matrix with a NaCl/precursor weight ratio of 4:1 for 8 h. These conditions resulted in a dispersible phase-pure PZT powder with a median secondary-particle size of ˜110 nm. The properties of PZT 70/30 from mechanically activated powder, as measured on discs sintered at 1150 °C for 2 h, were found to be in close conformity to those obtained by a conventional mixed oxide solid state reaction route.

  7. Obesity and Pulmonary Hypertension: A Review of Pathophysiologic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Friedman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a potentially life-threatening condition arising from a wide variety of pathophysiologic mechanisms. Effective treatment requires a systematic diagnostic approach to identify all reversible mechanisms. Many of these mechanisms are relevant to those afflicted with obesity. The unique mechanisms of PH in the obese include obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anorexigen use, cardiomyopathy of obesity, and pulmonary thromboembolic disease. Novel mechanisms of PH in the obese include endothelial dysfunction and hyperuricemia. A wide range of effective therapies exist to mitigate the disability of PH in the obese.

  8. Why ductile fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, the engineering application of fracture mechanics has been specific to a description of macroscopic fracture behavior in components and structural parts which remain nominally elastic under loading. While this approach, termed linear elastic fracture mechanics, has been found to be invaluable for the continuum analysis of crack growth in brittle and high strength materials, it is clearly inappropriate for characterizing failure in lower strength ductile alloys where extensive inelastic deformation precedes and accompanies crack initiation and subsequent propagation. Accordingly, much effort has been devoted in recent years toward the development of nonlinear or ductile fracture mechanics methodology to characterize fracture behavior under elastic/plastic conditions; an effort which has been principally motivated by problems in nuclear industry. In this paper, the concepts of ductile (elastic/plastic) fracture mechanics are introduced and applied to the problem of both stationary and nonstationary cracks. Specifically, the limitations inherent in this approach are defined, together with a description of the microstructural considerations and applications relevant to the failure of ductile materials by fracture, fatigue, and creep

  9. Thermo-mechanical simulations of early-age concrete cracking with durability predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlásek, Petr; Šmilauer, Vít; Hájková, Karolina; Baquerizo, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Concrete performance is strongly affected by mix design, thermal boundary conditions, its evolving mechanical properties, and internal/external restraints with consequences to possible cracking with impaired durability. Thermo-mechanical simulations are able to capture those relevant phenomena and boundary conditions for predicting temperature, strains, stresses or cracking in reinforced concrete structures. In this paper, we propose a weakly coupled thermo-mechanical model for early age concrete with an affinity-based hydration model for thermal part, taking into account concrete mix design, cement type and thermal boundary conditions. The mechanical part uses B3/B4 model for concrete creep and shrinkage with isotropic damage model for cracking, able to predict a crack width. All models have been implemented in an open-source OOFEM software package. Validations of thermo-mechanical simulations will be presented on several massive concrete structures, showing excellent temperature predictions. Likewise, strain validation demonstrates good predictions on a restrained reinforced concrete wall and concrete beam. Durability predictions stem from induction time of reinforcement corrosion, caused by carbonation and/or chloride ingress influenced by crack width. Reinforcement corrosion in concrete struts of a bridge will serve for validation.

  10. A skeletal mechanism for biodiesel blend surrogates combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H.; Yang, W.M.; Maghbouli, A.; Li, J.; Chua, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A skeletal biodiesel reaction mechanism with 112 species was constructed. • The developed mechanism contains the CO, NO x and soot formation kinetics. • It was well validated against detailed reaction mechanism and experimental results. • The mechanism is suitable to simulate biodiesel, diesel and their blend fuels. - Abstract: A tri-component skeletal reaction mechanism consisting of methyl decanoate, methyl-9-decenoate, and n-heptane was developed for biodiesel combustion in diesel engine. It comprises 112 species participating in 498 reactions with the CO, NO x and soot formation mechanisms embedded. In this study, a detailed tri-component biodiesel mechanism was used as the start of mechanism reduction and the reduced mechanism was combined with a previously developed skeletal reaction mechanism for n-heptane to integrate the soot formation kinetics. A combined mechanism reduction strategy including the directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA), peak concentration analysis, isomer lumping, unimportant reactions elimination and reaction rate adjustment methods was employed. The reduction process for biodiesel was performed over a range of initial conditions covering the pressures from 1 to 100 atm, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and temperatures from 700 to 1800 K, whereas for n-heptane, ignition delay predictions were compared against 17 shock tube experimental conditions. Extensive validations were performed for the developed skeletal reaction mechanism with 0-D ignition delay testing and 3-D engine simulations. The results indicated that the developed mechanism was able to accurately predict the ignition delay timings of n-heptane and biodiesel, and it could be integrated into 3-D engine simulations to predict the combustion characteristics of biodiesel. As such, the developed 112-species skeletal mechanism can accurately mimic the significant reaction pathways of the detailed reaction

  11. Phonon number measurements using single photon opto-mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiri-Esfahani, S; Akram, U; Milburn, G J

    2012-01-01

    We describe a system composed of two coupled optical cavity modes with a coupling modulated by a bulk mechanical resonator. In addition, one of the cavity modes is irreversibly coupled to a single photon source. Our scheme is an opto-mechanical realization of the Jaynes–Cummings model where the qubit is a dual rail optical qubit while the bosonic degree of freedom is a matter degree of freedom realized as the bulk mechanical excitation. We show the possibility of engineering phonon number states of the mechanical oscillator in such a system by computing the conditional state of the mechanics after successive photon counting measurements. (paper)

  12. Quantum mechanics in coherent algebras on phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesche, B.; Seligman, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is formulated on a quantum mechanical phase space. The algebra of observables and states is represented by an algebra of functions on phase space that fulfills a certain coherence condition, expressing the quantum mechanical superposition principle. The trace operation is an integration over phase space. In the case where the canonical variables independently run from -infinity to +infinity the formalism reduces to the representation of quantum mechanics by Wigner distributions. However, the notion of coherent algebras allows to apply the formalism to spaces for which the Wigner mapping is not known. Quantum mechanics of a particle in a plane in polar coordinates is discussed as an example. (author)

  13. Integrating optical, mechanical, and test software (with applications to freeform optics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, Victor; Michels, Gregory; Myer, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Optical systems must perform under environmental conditions including thermal and mechanical loading. To predict the performance in the field, integrated analysis combining optical and mechanical software is required. Freeform and conformal optics offer many new opportunities for optical design. The unconventional geometries can lead to unconventional, and therefore unintuitive, mechanical behavior. Finite element (FE) analysis offers the ability to predict the deformations of freeform optics under various environments and load conditions. To understand the impact on optical performance, the deformations must be brought into optical analysis codes. This paper discusses several issues related to the integrated optomechanical analysis of freeform optics.

  14. Conditional Reasoning in Schizophrenic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Charles; Delle-Vigne, Dyna; Brevers, Damien; Tecco, Juan; Campanella, Salvatore; Noël, Xavier; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Conditional reasoning (if p then q) is used very frequently in everyday situations. Conditional reasoning is impaired in brain-lesion patients, psychopathy, alcoholism, and polydrug dependence. Many neurocognitive deficits have also been described in schizophrenia. We assessed conditional reasoning in 25 patients with schizophrenia, 25 depressive patients, and 25 controls, using the Wason selection task in three different domains: social contracts, precautionary rules, and descriptive rules. Control measures included depression, anxiety, and severity of schizophrenia measures as a Verbal Intelligence Scale. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly impaired on all conditional reasoning tasks compared to depressives and controls. However, the social contract and precautions tasks yielded better results than the descriptive tasks. Differences between groups disappeared for social contract but remained for precautions and descriptive tasks when verbal intelligence was used as a covariate. These results suggest that domain-specific reasoning mechanisms, proposed by evolutionary psychologists, are relatively resilient in the face of brain network disruptions that impair more general reasoning abilities. Nevertheless, patients with schizophrenia could encounter difficulties understanding precaution rules and social contracts in real-life situations resulting in unwise risk-taking and misunderstandings in the social world.

  15. Size dependent elastic modulus and mechanical resilience of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Zhao, Xiaoli; Abbott, Paul V; Munroe, Paul; Xu, Jiang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2014-03-21

    Human tooth enamel exhibits a unique microstructure able to sustain repeated mechanical loading during dental function. Although notable advances have been made towards understanding the mechanical characteristics of enamel, challenges remain in the testing and interpretation of its mechanical properties. For example, enamel was often tested under dry conditions, significantly different from its native environment. In addition, constant load, rather than indentation depth, has been used when mapping the mechanical properties of enamel. In this work, tooth specimens are prepared under hydrated conditions and their stiffnesses are measured by depth control across the thickness of enamel. Crystal arrangement is postulated, among other factors, to be responsible for the size dependent indentation modulus of enamel. Supported by a simple structure model, effective crystal orientation angle is calculated and found to facilitate shear sliding in enamel under mechanical contact. In doing so, the stress build-up is eased and structural integrity is maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermo-hydro mechanical modeling in unsaturated hard clay: application to nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Y.

    2006-07-01

    This work presents an elastoplastic damage model for argillite in unsaturated conditions. A short resume of experimental investigations is presented in the first part. The results obtained show an important plastic deformation coupled with damage induced by initiation and growth of microcracks. Influences of water content on the mechanical behaviour are also investigated. Based on experimental data and micro-mechanical considerations, a general constitutive model is proposed for the poro-mechanical behavior of argillite in unsaturated conditions. The time dependent creep has also been incorporated in they model. The performance of the model is examined by comparing numerical simulation with experimental data in various load paths under saturated and unsaturated conditions. Finally, the model is applied to hydro-mechanical coupling study of the REP experiment and thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling study of the HE-D experiment. A good agreement is obtained between experimental data and numerical predictions. It has been shown that the proposed model describe correctly the main features of the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated rocks. (author)

  17. Atmospheric particle formation in spatially and temporally varying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauros, J.

    2011-07-01

    Atmospheric particles affect the radiation balance of the Earth and thus the climate. New particle formation from nucleation has been observed in diverse atmospheric conditions but the actual formation path is still unknown. The prevailing conditions can be exploited to evaluate proposed formation mechanisms. This study aims to improve our understanding of new particle formation from the view of atmospheric conditions. The role of atmospheric conditions on particle formation was studied by atmospheric measurements, theoretical model simulations and simulations based on observations. Two separate column models were further developed for aerosol and chemical simulations. Model simulations allowed us to expand the study from local conditions to varying conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer, while the long-term measurements described especially characteristic mean conditions associated with new particle formation. The observations show statistically significant difference in meteorological and back-ground aerosol conditions between observed event and non-event days. New particle formation above boreal forest is associated with strong convective activity, low humidity and low condensation sink. The probability of a particle formation event is predicted by an equation formulated for upper boundary layer conditions. The model simulations call into question if kinetic sulphuric acid induced nucleation is the primary particle formation mechanism in the presence of organic vapours. Simultaneously the simulations show that ignoring spatial and temporal variation in new particle formation studies may lead to faulty conclusions. On the other hand, the theoretical simulations indicate that short-scale variations in temperature and humidity unlikely have a significant effect on mean binary water sulphuric acid nucleation rate. The study emphasizes the significance of mixing and fluxes in particle formation studies, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer. The further

  18. The mechanics of soft biological composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thao D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Grazier, John Mark; Boyce, Brad Lee; Jones, Reese E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-01

    Biological tissues are uniquely structured materials with technologically appealing properties. Soft tissues such as skin, are constructed from a composite of strong fibrils and fluid-like matrix components. This was the first coordinated experimental/modeling project at Sandia or in the open literature to consider the mechanics of micromechanically-based anisotropy and viscoelasticity of soft biological tissues. We have exploited and applied Sandia's expertise in experimentation and mechanics modeling to better elucidate the behavior of collagen fibril-reinforced soft tissues. The purpose of this project was to provide a detailed understanding of the deformation of ocular tissues, specifically the highly structured skin-like tissue in the cornea. This discovery improved our knowledge of soft/complex materials testing and modeling. It also provided insight into the way that cornea tissue is bio-engineered such that under physiologically-relevant conditions it has a unique set of properties which enhance functionality. These results also provide insight into how non-physiologic loading conditions, such as corrective surgeries, may push the cornea outside of its natural design window, resulting in unexpected non-linear responses. Furthermore, this project created a clearer understanding of the mechanics of soft tissues that could lead to bio-inspired materials, such as highly supple and impact resistant body armor, and improve our design of human-machine interfaces, such as micro-electrical-mechanical (MEMS) based prosthetics.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laminated Al–Cu–Mg ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-11-29

    Nov 29, 2017 ... Initially, aluminium, copper and magnesium strips were alternatively stacked together. Then these ... These differences in mechanical behaviour have been attributed to ... hand, Cu has a good formability and a good corrosion resis- tance [16]. .... Under ideal conditions, for two layers with the same mechan-.

  20. Failure analysis and seal life prediction for contacting mechanical seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J. J.; He, X. Y.; Wei, L.; Feng, X.

    2008-11-01

    Fault tree analysis method was applied to quantitatively investigate the causes of the leakage failure of mechanical seals. It is pointed out that the change of the surface topography is the main reasons causing the leakage of mechanical seals under the condition of constant preloads. Based on the fractal geometry theory, the relationship between the surface topography and working time were investigated by experiments, and the effects of unit load acting on seal face on leakage path in a mechanical seal were analyzed. The model of predicting seal life of mechanical seals was established on the basis of the relationship between the surface topography and working time and allowable leakage. The seal life of 108 mechanical seal operating at the system of diesel fuel storage and transportation was predicted and the problem of the condition monitoring for the long-period operation of mechanical seal was discussed by this method. The research results indicate that the method of predicting seal life of mechanical seals is feasible, and also is foundation to make scheduled maintenance time and to achieve safe-reliability and low-cost operation for industrial devices.

  1. Mechanical, electrical and microstructural properties of cement-based materials in conditions of current flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, A.; Koleva, D.A.; Copuroglu, O.; Van Beek, C.; Van Breugel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion in reinforced concrete structures is not only induced by the penetration of aggressive substances (e.g. chlorides and/or CO2) but also influenced by stray currents. Further, the degradation mechanisms in reinforced cement-based systems due to the combined effect of stray current and

  2. A rare condition of anorectal dysfunction in a patient with multiple sclerosis: Coexistence of faecal incontinence and mechanical constipation: Report of case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandin, Özgür; Akpak, Yaşam Kemal; Karakaş, Dursun Özgür; Hazer, Batuhan; Ergin, Tuncer; Dandinoğlu, Taner; Teomete, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease and causing a variety of neurological symptoms, including discomfort of anorectal function. Constipation and faecal incontinence present as anorectal dysfunction in MS and anal manometry, colonic transit time, electromyography, and defecography can be used for assessment. We presented a thirty-three years old woman with rare condition of anorectal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Anal manometry, defecography were done, and synchronously anal incontinence and mechanical constipation due to rectocele and anismus were detected in this patient. Although anal incontinence and constipation are seen often in patients with multiple sclerosis, in the literature, coexistence of animus, rectocele and anal incontinence are quite rare. Defecography and anal manometry are useful diagnostic methods for demonstration of anorectal dysfuntions in patients with MS. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of heat treatment conditions on microstructure and mechanical properties of AISI 420 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuer, C.J.; Fraga, R.A.; Cardoso, R.P.; Brunatto, S.F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Tecnologia de Fabricacao Assistida por Plasma e Metalurgia do Po

    2014-07-01

    The cycle control of heat treatments, on the quenching and tempering operation of AISI 420 stainless steel, is essential for improved material performance. The adequate choice of heat treatment parameters, can lead an optimization on its mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the effects of quenchants medium, and austenitizing and tempering temperatures, on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AISI 420 steel. Different heat treatments cycles were studied: 1) samples were austenitized at 1050°C and water, oil and air quenched; 2) samples were austenitized at range temperatures of 950-1050°C and oil quenched; and 3) as-quenched samples were tempering at range temperatures of 400-500°C. Treated samples were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and hardness measurements. The samples hardness increases with increasing cooling rate (water > oil > air quenched). Water quenched samples presented crack after cooling to room temperature. Samples hardness also increases with austenitizing temperature increasing, and decreases with increasing tempering temperature. (author)

  4. Importance of the nature of comparison conditions for testing theory-based interventions: reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Prestwich, Andrew; de Bruin, Marijn

    2010-09-01

    The nature of comparison conditions is a much overlooked feature of designing and interpreting the results of randomized controlled trials, as outlined by Williams (see record 2010-18776-001). We agree that understanding the components and mechanisms of the comparison condition is necessary for making inferences about both intervention effectiveness (whether the intervention worked and which components may have contributed to such an effect) and about theoretical mediators (how it worked). The extent to which one can draw strong inferences regarding the efficacy and mechanisms of an intervention over the comparison is conditional upon a number of key points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. MILLING MECHANICS OF MATERIALS ROLLED IN THICK LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Lojechnikov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Powder rolling conditions are systematized with the purpose of their compacting and milling. The generalized  condition of solid and free-flowing bulk material deformation is proposed in the  paper. The analytical solution of a stressed state of powder being shaped mechanically that ensures milling of its particles has been obtained.

  6. A soil moisture-rainfall feedback mechanism. 1. Theory and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltahir, E.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a hypothesis regarding the fundamental role of soil moisture conditions in land-atmosphere interactions. We propose that wet soil moisture conditions over any large region should be associated with relatively large boundary layer moist static energy, which favors the occurrence of more rainfall. Since soil moisture conditions themselves reflect past occurrence of rainfall, the proposed hypothesis implies a positive feedback mechanism between soil moisture and rainfall. This mechanism is based on considerations of the energy balance at the land-atmosphere boundary, in contrast to similar mechanisms that were proposed in the past and that were based on the concepts of water balance and precipitation recycling. The control of soil moisture on surface albedo and Bowen ratio is the fundamental basis of the proposed soil moisture-rainfall feedback mechanism. The water content in the upper soil layer affects these two important properties of the land surface such that both variables decrease with any increase in the water content of the top soil layer. The direct effect of soil moisture on surface albedo implies that wet soil moisture conditions enhance net solar radiation. The direct effect of soil moisture on Bowen ratio dictates that wet soil moisture conditions would tend to enhance net terrestrial radiation at the surface through cooling of surface temperature, reduction of upwards emissions of terrestrial radiation, and simultaneous increase in atmospheric water vapor content and downwards flux of terrestrial radiation. Thus, under wet soil moisture conditions, both components of net radiation are enhanced, resulting in a larger total flux of heat from the surface into the boundary layer. This total flux represents the sum of the corresponding sensible and latent heat fluxes. Simultaneously, cooling of surface temperature should be associated with a smaller sensible heat flux and a smaller depth of the boundary layer

  7. [Likeness between respiratory responses on CO2 in conditions of natural breathing and voluntary-controlled mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodin, M A; Granstrem, M P; Dimitrienko, A I

    2007-04-01

    We did Read CO2 rebreathing tests in 8 adult males. Both at natural breathing, and at self-controlled mechanical ventilation, volunteers increased ventilation proportionally to growth end-tidal PCO2. Inside individual distinctions of responses to CO2 during controlled mechanical ventilation are result of the voluntary motor control.

  8. Mechanical alloying in the Fe-Cu system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gente, C.; Bormann, R.

    1998-01-01

    The studies of mechanical alloying on the Fe-Cu system, as a model system for those with positive heats of mixing, are reviewed. Several problems involved in the mechanical alloying process are discussed. For example, (1) whether alloying occurs on an atomic level; (2) what the solid solubility...... in the Fe-Cu system is; (3) where the positive energy is stored in the alloys; (4) what the decomposition process of the supersaturated alloys is; and (5) what type of magnetic properties the new materials have. The elucidation of these problems will shed light on the understanding of the mechanisms...... for the preparation of materials under highly non-equilibrium conditions in systems with positive heats of mixing by mechanical alloying....

  9. Two oxidation pathways of bioactive flavonol rhamnazin under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramešová, Šárka; Degano, Ilaria; Sokolová, Romana

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The oxidation mechanism of rhamnazin has not been solved yet. • Rhamnazin decomposes in solution during minutes handled in the presence of air. • The main oxidation product of rhamnazin was identified even if it is not stable. • Two parallel oxidation mechanisms of rhamnazin in air were determined. - Abstract: Two pathways of the oxidation mechanism of rhamnazin under ambient conditions are proposed. The redox potential of rhamnazin strongly depends on the presence of dissociation forms in solution. In situ spectroelectrochemistry and identification of degradation products by HPLC-DAD and HPLC–ESI-MS/MS confirmed the presence of fast subsequent chemical reactions following the electron transfer. As demonstrated, strict anaerobic conditions have to be preserved in studies of antioxidant properties and of its pharmacological efficiency. In the absence of oxygen, 2,4-dihydroxy-2-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxybenzoyl) -6-methoxy-benzofuran-3(2H)-one was identified as the only oxidation product

  10. Research of thermal dynamic characteristics for variable load single screw refrigeration compressor with different capacity control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zengli; Wang, Zhenbo; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Wenchun; Feng, Quanke

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Theoretical models of SSRC under part-load condition have been established. • The experiment of SSRC performance under part-load condition was conducted. • Thermal dynamic characteristic of SSRC under part-load condition was gained. • Economy and reliability of SSRC under part-load condition was analyzed. - Abstract: In the single screw refrigeration compressor (SSRC), the capacity control mechanism is normally employed to meet the actual required cooling capacity under different load conditions. In this paper, theoretical calculation models describing the working process of the SSRC with the single slide valve capacity control mechanism (SVCCM) and SSRC with the frequency conversion regulating mechanism (FCRM) are established to research the thermal dynamic characteristics for variable load SSRC under part-load conditions. Experimental investigation on a SSRC under part-load conditions is also carried out to verify the theoretical calculation models. By using these validated models, the thermodynamic performances and dynamic characteristics of the SSRC with different capacity control mechanism under part-load conditions have been analyzed and compared. Through the comparison, the economical efficiency and reliability of the SSRC with different capacity control mechanism were obtained. All of these works can provide the basis for the later optimization design for the variable load single screw refrigeration compressor.

  11. Properties and mechanisms of olfactory learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T Tong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Memories are dynamic physical phenomena with psychometric forms as well as characteristic timescales. Most of our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the neurophysiology of memory, however, derives from one-trial learning paradigms that, while powerful, do not fully embody the gradual, representational, and statistical aspects of cumulative learning. The early olfactory system -- particularly olfactory bulb -- comprises a reasonably well-understood and experimentally accessible neuronal network with intrinsic plasticity that underlies both one-trial (adult aversive, neonatal and cumulative (adult appetitive odor learning. These olfactory circuits employ many of the same molecular and structural mechanisms of memory as, for example, hippocampal circuits following inhibitory avoidance conditioning, but the temporal sequences of post-conditioning molecular events are likely to differ owing to the need to incorporate new information from ongoing learning events into the evolving memory trace. Moreover, the shapes of acquired odor representations, and their gradual transformation over the course of cumulative learning, also can be directly measured, adding an additional representational dimension to the traditional metrics of memory strength and persistence. In this review, we describe some established molecular and structural mechanisms of memory with a focus on the timecourses of post-conditioning molecular processes. We describe the properties of odor learning intrinsic to the olfactory bulb and review the utility of the olfactory system of adult rodents as a memory system in which to study the cellular mechanisms of cumulative learning.

  12. Thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of fractured rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, F.

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to model Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical behavior of fractured rock mass regarding a nuclear waste re-depository. For this, a methodology of modeling was proposed and was applied to a real underground site (EDF site at Nouvelle Romanche). This methodology consists, in a first step, to determine hydraulic and mechanical REV. Beyond the greatest of these REV, development of a finite element code allows to model all the fractures in an explicit manner. The homogenized mechanical properties are determined in drained and undrained boundary conditions by simulating triaxial tests that represent rock mass subject to loading. These simulations allow to study the evolution of hydraulic and mechanical properties as a function of stress state. Drained and undrained boundary conditions enable to discuss the validity of assimilation of a fractured rock mass to a porous medium. The simulations lead to a better understanding of the behavior of the fractured rock masses and allow to show the dominant role of the shear behavior of the fractures on the hydraulic and mechanical homogenized properties. From a thermal point of view, as long as conduction is dominant, thermal properties of the rock mass are almost the same as those the intact rock. (author)

  13. Effects of surface condition on aqueous corrosion and environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, R.L.; Buchanan, R.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Effects of retained high-temperature surface oxides, produced during thermomechanical processing and/or heat treatment, on the aqueous-corrosion and environmental-embrittlement characteristics of Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides (FA-84, FA-129 and FAL-Mo), a FeAl-based iron aluminide (FA-385), and a disordered low-aluminum Fe-Al alloy (FAPY) were evaluated. All tests were conducted at room temperature in a mild acid-chloride solution. In cyclic-anodic-polarization testing for aqueous-corrosion behavior, the surface conditions examined were: as-received (i.e., with the retained high-temperature oxides), mechanically cleaned and chemically cleaned. For all materials, the polarization tests showed the critical pitting potentials to be significantly lower in the as-received condition than in the mechanically-cleaned and chemically-cleaned conditions. These results indicate detrimental effects of the retained high-temperature oxides in terms of increased susceptibilities to localized corrosion. In 200-hour U-bend stress-corrosion-cracking tests for environmental-embrittlement behavior, conducted at open-circuit corrosion potentials and at a hydrogen-charging potential of {minus}1500 mV (SHE), the above materials (except FA-385) were examined with retained oxides and with mechanically cleaned surfaces. At the open-circuit corrosion potentials, none of the materials in either surface condition underwent cracking. At the hydrogen-charging potential, none of the materials with retained oxides underwent cracking, but FA-84, FA-129 and FAL-Mo in the mechanically cleaned condition did undergo cracking. These results suggest beneficial effects of the retained high-temperature oxides in terms of increased resistance to environmental hydrogen embrittlement.

  14. Transnational multistakeholder partnerships for sustainable development: Conditions for success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattberg, P.H.; Widerberg, O.E.

    2016-01-01

    This perspective discusses nine conditions for enhancing the performance of multistakeholder partnerships for sustainable development. Such partnerships have become mainstream implementation mechanisms for attaining international sustainable development goals and are also frequently used in other

  15. Mechanical Components from Highly Recoverable, Low Apparent Modulus Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo, II (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Stanford, Malcolm K. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A material for use as a mechanical component is formed of a superelastic intermetallic material having a low apparent modulus and a high hardness. The superelastic intermetallic material is conditioned to be dimensionally stable, devoid of any shape memory effect and have a stable superelastic response without irrecoverable deformation while exhibiting strains of at least 3%. The method of conditioning the superelastic intermetallic material is described. Another embodiment relates to lightweight materials known as ordered intermetallics that perform well in sliding wear applications using conventional liquid lubricants and are therefore suitable for resilient, high performance mechanical components such as gears and bearings.

  16. Finite element study of scaffold architecture design and culture conditions for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Andy L; Marsal, Elia; Planell, Josep A; Lacroix, Damien

    2009-10-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds provide temporary mechanical support for tissue regeneration and transfer global mechanical load to mechanical stimuli to cells through its architecture. In this study the interactions between scaffold pore morphology, mechanical stimuli developed at the cell microscopic level, and culture conditions applied at the macroscopic scale are studied on two regular scaffold structures. Gyroid and hexagonal scaffolds of 55% and 70% porosity were modeled in a finite element analysis and were submitted to an inlet fluid flow or compressive strain. A mechanoregulation theory based on scaffold shear strain and fluid shear stress was applied for determining the influence of each structures on the mechanical stimuli on initial conditions. Results indicate that the distribution of shear stress induced by fluid perfusion is very dependent on pore distribution within the scaffold. Gyroid architectures provide a better accessibility of the fluid than hexagonal structures. Based on the mechanoregulation theory, the differentiation process in these structures was more sensitive to inlet fluid flow than axial strain of the scaffold. This study provides a computational approach to determine the mechanical stimuli at the cellular level when cells are cultured in a bioreactor and to relate mechanical stimuli with cell differentiation.

  17. Mechanism of aromatic hydroxylation of lidocaine at a Pt electrode under acidic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, Turan; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic hydroxylation reactions, which are mainly catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vivo, are some of the most important reactions of Phase I metabolism, because insertion of a hydroxyl group into a lipophilic drug compound increases its hydrophilicity and prepares it for subsequent Phase II metabolic conjugation reactions as a prerequisite to excretion. Aromatic hydroxylation metabolites of pharmaceuticals may be obtained through various synthetic and enzymatic methods Electrochemical oxidation is an alternative with advantages in terms of mild reaction conditions and less hazardous chemicals. In the present study, we report that aromatic hydroxylation metabolites of lidocaine can be readily obtained electrochemically under aqueous acidic conditions at platinum electrodes. Our results show that the dominant N-dealkylation reaction can be suppressed by decreasing the solution pH below 0.5 resulting in selective 3-hydroxylidocaine, which is an in vivo metabolite of lidocaine. Experiments in 18 O labelled water indicated that water is the primary source of oxygen, while dissolved molecular oxygen contributes to a minor extent to the hydroxylation reaction.

  18. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  19. Remarks on Higgs mechanism for gravitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    We construct two kinds of model exhibiting Higgs mechanism for gravitons in potentials of scalar fields. One class of the model is based on a potential which is a generic function of the induced internal metric H AB , and the other involves a potential which is a generic function of the usual metric tensor g μν and the induced curved metric Y μν . In the both models, we derive conditions on the scalar potential in such a way that gravitons acquire mass in a flat Minkowski space-time without non-unitary propagating modes in the process of spontaneous symmetry breaking of diffeomorphisms through the condensation of scalar fields. We solve the conditions and find a general solution for the potential. As an interesting specific solution, we present a simple potential for which the Higgs mechanism for gravitons holds in any value of cosmological constant.

  20. Durability of cemented waste in repository and under simulated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Nicu, M.; Lungu, L.; Turcanu, C.; Rotarescu, Gh.

    2000-01-01

    The Romanian Radioactive Waste National Repository for low level and intermediate level radioactive waste was built in Baita - Bihor county, in an extinct uranium exploitation. The site is at 840 m above sea level and the host rock is crystalline with a low porosity, a good chemical homogeneity and impermeability, keeping these qualities over a considerable horizontal and vertical spans. To obtain the experimental data necessary for the waste form and package characterization together with the back-filling material behaviour in the repository environment, a medium term research programme (1996 - 2010) was implemented. The purpose of this experimental programme is to obtain a part of the data base necessary for the approach of medium and long term assessment of the safety and performance of Baita - Bihor Repository. The programme will provide: a deeper knowledge of the chemical species and reaction mechanisms, the structure, properties and performances of the final products. For safety reasons the behaviour of waste package, which is a main barrier, must be properly known in terms of long term durability in real repository conditions. Characterization of the behaviour includes many interactions between the waste package itself and the surrounding near field conditions such as mineralogy, hydrogeology and groundwater chemistry. To obtain a more deeper knowledge of the species and physical-chemical reactions participating in the matrix formation, as well as their future behaviour during the disposal period, a thorough XRD study started in 1998. For Romanian Radioactive Waste National Repository (DNDR) Baita - Bihor the following steps are planned for the conditioned waste matrix characterization in simulated and real conditions: - preparation and characterization of normal reference matrices based on different cement formulations; - preparation of reference simulated sludge cemented matrices containing iron hydroxide and iron phosphate; - selection of real and

  1. Quantum opto-mechanics with micromirrors : combining nano-mechanics with quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeblacher, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes more than four years of research on the effects of the radiation-pressure force of light on macroscopic mechanical structures. The basic system studied here is a mechanical oscillator that is highly reflective and part of an optical resonator. It interacts with the optical cavity mode via the radiation-pressure force. Both the dynamics of the mechanical oscillation and the properties of the light field are modified through this interaction. In our experiments we use quantum optical tools (such as homodyning and down-conversion) with the goal of ultimately showing quantum behavior of the mechanical center of mass motion. In this thesis we present several experiments that pave the way towards this goal and when combined should allow the demonstration of the envisioned quantum phenomena, including entanglement, teleportation and Schroeodinger cat states. The study of quantum behavior of truly macroscopic systems is a long outstanding goal, which will help to answer some of the most fundamental questions in quantum physics today: Why is the world around us classical and not quantum? Is there a size- or mass-limit to systems for them to behave according to quantum mechanics? Is quantum theory complete or do we have to extend it to include mechanisms such as decoherence? Can we use the quantum nature of macroscopic objects to, for example, improve the measurement precision of classical apparatuses? The experiments discussed in this thesis include the very first passive radiation-pressure cooling of a mechanical oscillator in a cryogenic optical resonator, as well as the experimental demonstration of radiation-pressure cooling close to the mechanical quantum ground state. Cooling of the mechanical motion is an important pre-condition for observing quantum effects of the mechanical oscillator. In another experiment, we have demonstrated that we are able to enter the strong-coupling regime of the optomechanical system a regime where coherent energy

  2. Reinforcement Learning Explains Conditional Cooperation and Its Moody Cousin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ezaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct reciprocity, or repeated interaction, is a main mechanism to sustain cooperation under social dilemmas involving two individuals. For larger groups and networks, which are probably more relevant to understanding and engineering our society, experiments employing repeated multiplayer social dilemma games have suggested that humans often show conditional cooperation behavior and its moody variant. Mechanisms underlying these behaviors largely remain unclear. Here we provide a proximate account for this behavior by showing that individuals adopting a type of reinforcement learning, called aspiration learning, phenomenologically behave as conditional cooperator. By definition, individuals are satisfied if and only if the obtained payoff is larger than a fixed aspiration level. They reinforce actions that have resulted in satisfactory outcomes and anti-reinforce those yielding unsatisfactory outcomes. The results obtained in the present study are general in that they explain extant experimental results obtained for both so-called moody and non-moody conditional cooperation, prisoner's dilemma and public goods games, and well-mixed groups and networks. Different from the previous theory, individuals are assumed to have no access to information about what other individuals are doing such that they cannot explicitly use conditional cooperation rules. In this sense, myopic aspiration learning in which the unconditional propensity of cooperation is modulated in every discrete time step explains conditional behavior of humans. Aspiration learners showing (moody conditional cooperation obeyed a noisy GRIM-like strategy. This is different from the Pavlov, a reinforcement learning strategy promoting mutual cooperation in two-player situations.

  3. Biologically Safe Poly(l-lactic acid) Blends with Tunable Degradation Rate: Microstructure, Degradation Mechanism, and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hideko T; Tanishima, Daisuke; Ogawa, Ryohei

    2017-04-10

    Although poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) is reputed to be biodegradable in the human body, its hydrophobic nature lets it persist for ca. 5.5 years. This study demonstrates that biologically safe lactide copolymers, poly(aspartic acid-co-l-lactide) (PAL) and poly(malic acid-co-l-lactide) (PML), dispersed in the PLLA function as detonators (triggers) for its hydrolytic degradation under physiological conditions. The copolymers significantly enhance hydrolysis, and consequently, the degradation rate of PLLA becomes easily tunable by controlling the amounts of PAL and PML. The present study elucidates the effects of uniaxial drawing on the structural development, mechanical properties, and hydrolytic degradation under physiological conditions of PLLA blend films. At initial degradation stages, the mass loss was not affected by uniaxial drawing; however, at late degradation stages, less developed crystals as well as amorphous chains were degradable at low draw ratio (DR), whereas not only highly developed crystals but also the oriented amorphous chains became insensitive to hydrolysis at high DR. Our work provides important molecular level results that demonstrate that biodegradable materials can have superb mechanical properties and also disappear in a required time under physiological conditions.

  4. Chapter 2. Experimental testing methods of materials under hot working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossard, C.

    1976-01-01

    The deformation under hot working conditions is defined and the purpose of laboratory tests is explained: strength, structure, hot-workability. The concepts of generalized stress strain and strain rate are introduced. These concepts find an interesting application in the equivalence principle. The different testing methods (tension, compression, torsion) and their possibilities are reviewed. The softening mechanisms are recalled: dynamic recovery and recrystallization, static and post-dynamic recrystallization. To explain the possibilities of simulation tests in hot working conditions, some examples are given: the evaluation of the stress-strain relationship (effect of the mechanical and thermal history); the determination of structural behavior (quenching, controled cooling law, decomposition kinetics) [fr

  5. Spent fuel dissolution mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1993-11-01

    This study is a literature survey on the dissolution mechanisms of spent fuel under disposal conditions. First, the effects of radiolysis products on the oxidative dissolution mechanisms and rates of UO 2 are discussed. These effects have mainly been investigated by using electrochemical methods. Then the release mechanisms of soluble radionuclides and the dissolution of the UO 2 matrix including the actinides, are treated. Experimental methods have been developed for measuring the grain-boundary inventories of radionuclides. The behaviour of cesium, strontium and technetium in leaching tests shows different trends. Comparison of spent fuel leaching data strongly suggests that the release of 90 Sr into the leachant can be used as a measure of the oxidation/dissolution of the fuel matrix. Approaches to the modelling UO 2 , dissolution are briefly discussed in the next chapter. Lastly, the use of natural material, uraninite, in the evaluation of the long-term performance of spent fuel is discussed. (orig.). (81 ref., 37 figs., 8 tabs.)

  6. Involvement of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 in the Mechanisms of Conditioned Food Aversion Memory Reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V P; Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A

    2017-02-01

    Experiments were performed on the snails trained in conditioned food aversion for 3 days. Injection of TDZD-8 (glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor, 2 mg/kg) in combination with reminder (presentation of a conditioned food stimulus) led to memory impairment developing 3 days after inhibitor/reminder exposure and followed by spontaneous recovery in 10 days. Injections of TDZD-8 in a dose of 4 or 20 mg/kg before reminder were shown to cause amnesia that persisted for more than 10 days. Memory recovery during repeated training was observed at the earlier period than after initial training. The impairment of memory reconsolidation by TDZD-8 after training of snails for 1 day was less pronounced than under standard training conditions (3 days). The effect of a glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor during memory reconsolidation is probably followed by impairment of memory retrieval and/or partial loss, which can be compensated spontaneously or after repeated training.

  7. The application of remote ischemic conditioning in cardiac surgery [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko J. Bosnjak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality following anesthesia and surgery. The discovery of endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms has led to testing of new methods to protect the human heart. These approaches have included ischemic pre-conditioning, per-conditioning, post-conditioning, and remote conditioning of the myocardium. Pre-conditioning and per-conditioning include brief and repetitive periods of sub-lethal ischemia before and during prolonged ischemia, respectively; and post-conditioning is applied at the onset of reperfusion. Remote ischemic conditioning involves transient, repetitive, non-lethal ischemia and reperfusion in one organ or tissue (remote from the heart that renders myocardium more resistant to lethal ischemia/reperfusion injury. In healthy, young hearts, many conditioning maneuvers can significantly increase the resistance of the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The large multicenter clinical trials with ischemic remote conditioning have not been proven successful in cardiac surgery thus far. The lack of clinical success is due to underlying risk factors that interfere with remote ischemic conditioning and the use of cardioprotective agents that have activated the endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms prior to remote ischemic conditioning. Future preclinical research using remote ischemic conditioning will need to be conducted using comorbid models.

  8. Modulation of opiate-related signaling molecules in morphine-dependent conditioned behavior: conditioned place preference to morphine induces CREB phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, José A; Gullapalli, Srinivas; Taylor, Chirisse; Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2010-03-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic, relapsing behavioral disorder where learned associations that develop between the abused opiate and the environment in which it is consumed are brought about through Pavlovian (classical) conditioning processes. However, the signaling mechanisms/pathways regulating the mechanisms that underlie the responses to opiate-associated cues or the development of sensitization as a consequence of repeated context-independent administration of opiates are unknown. In this study we examined the phosphorylation levels of various classic signaling molecules in brain regions implicated in addictive behaviors after acute and repeated morphine administration. An unbiased place conditioning protocol was used to examine changes in phosphorylation that are associated with (1) the expression of the rewarding effects of morphine and (2) the sensitization that develops to this effect. We also examined the effects of a delta-receptor antagonist on morphine-induced conditioned behavior and on the phosphorylation of classic signaling molecules in view of data showing that blockade of delta-opioid receptor (deltaOR) prevents the development of sensitization to the rewarding effects of morphine. We find that CREB phosphorylation is specifically induced upon the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-induced conditioned behavior in brain areas related to memory consolidation, such as the hippocampus and cortex. A similar effect is also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the case of the GluR1 subunit of AMPA glutamate receptor. These increases in the phosphorylation levels of CREB and pGluR1 are significantly blocked by pretreatment with a deltaOR antagonist. These results indicate a critical role for phospho-CREB, AMPA, and deltaOR activities in mediating the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-dependent conditioned behavior.

  9. Mechanisms of embodiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka eDijkstra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a critical review of recent studies demonstrating the mechanism of sensorimotor simulation in different cognitive domains. Empirical studies that specify conditions under which embodiment occurs in different domains will be discussed and evaluated. Examples of relevant domains are language comprehension (Tucker & Ellis, 2004, autobiographical memory (Dijkstra, Kaschak, & Zwaan, 2007, gestures (Alibali, Boncoddo, & Hostetter, 2014, facial mimicry (Stel & Vonk, 2010, and problem solving (Wiemers, Bekkering, & Lindemann, 2014. The focus of the review is on supporting claims regarding sensorimotor simulation as well as on factors that modulate dynamic relationships between sensorimotor components in action and cognitive domains, such as expertise (Boschker, Bakker, & Michaels, 2002. This discussion takes place within the context of currently debated issues, specifically the need to specify the underlying mechanisms of embodied representations (Zwaan, 2014; Körner, Topolinski, & Strack, 2015.

  10. Mechanisms of embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Post, Lysanne

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of recent studies demonstrating the mechanism of sensorimotor simulation in different cognitive domains. Empirical studies that specify conditions under which embodiment occurs in different domains will be discussed and evaluated. Examples of relevant domains are language comprehension (Tucker and Ellis, 1998), autobiographical memory (Dijkstra et al., 2007), gestures (Alibali et al., 2014), facial mimicry (Stel and Vonk, 2010), and problem solving (Wiemers et al., 2014). The focus of the review is on supporting claims regarding sensorimotor simulation as well as on factors that modulate dynamic relationships between sensorimotor components in action and cognitive domains, such as expertise (Boschker et al., 2002). This discussion takes place within the context of currently debated issues, specifically the need to specify the underlying mechanisms of embodied representations (Zwaan, 2014; Körner et al., 2015).

  11. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    OpenAIRE

    Sturdy, Christopher B.; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in ...

  12. The geological characteristics and forming conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangang, Li; Hangshou, Tong; Mingyue, Feng; Yuexiang, Li; Zhan, Xu [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology (China)

    1993-03-01

    The forming conditions and concentration mechanism of rich ore, criteria of ore prospecting and selection of uranium-rich ore target area are introduced in the article that is based on the studying of geological characteristics and conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits of No 201 and 361 and on the comparisons of rich and poor ore deposits in geological conditions. Some new view points are also presented as the separate deposition of uranium minerals and gangue minerals is the main mechanism to form rich ore, for rich ore formation the ore enrichment by superimposition is not a universal regularity and most uranium-rich ore deposits are formed within one mineralization stage or mainly in one mineralization stage.

  13. The geological characteristics and forming conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiangang; Tong Hangshou; Feng Mingyue; Li Yuexiang; Xu Zhan

    1993-03-01

    The forming conditions and concentration mechanism of rich ore, criteria of ore prospecting and selection of uranium-rich ore target area are introduced in the article that is based on the studying of geological characteristics and conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits of No 201 and 361 and on the comparisons of rich and poor ore deposits in geological conditions. Some new view points are also presented as the separate deposition of uranium minerals and gangue minerals is the main mechanism to form rich ore, for rich ore formation the ore enrichment by superimposition is not a universal regularity and most uranium-rich ore deposits are formed within one mineralization stage or mainly in one mineralization stage

  14. Mechanisms of the initial stage of fuel elements degradation of BN reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorul'ko, Yu.I.; Kashcheev, M.V.; Ganichev, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    On the base of developed calculational technique numerical evaluation is carried out to the time of fuel element fracture in conditions of loss of sodium flow through fuel element jacket. Data on mechanical properties of steel EhK-164 is used in calculations. Calculations are carried out for different conditions of jacket outer surface cooling: by sodium of 1073 K temperature, by boiling sodium and by sodium in condition of film boiling. It is shown that time to jacket fracture under considered rupture mechanisms essentially depends on fuel element cooling conditions [ru

  15. Novel error propagation approach for reducing H2S/O2 reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, H.; Gupta, A.K.; Sassi, M.

    2012-01-01

    A reduction strategy of hydrogen sulfide/oxygen reaction mechanism is conducted to simplify the detailed mechanism. Direct relation graph and error propagation methodology (DRGEP) has been used. A novel approach of direct elementary reaction error (DERE) has been developed in this study. The developed approach allowed for further reduction of the reaction mechanism. The reduced mechanism has been compared with the detailed mechanism under different conditions to emphasize its validity. The results obtained from the resulting reduced mechanism showed good agreement with that from the detailed mechanism. However, some discrepancies have been found for some species. Hydrogen and oxygen mole fractions showed the largest discrepancy of all combustion products. The reduced mechanism was also found to be capable of tracking the changes that occur in chemical kinetics through the change in reaction conditions. A comparison on the ignition delay time obtained from the reduced mechanism and previous experimental data showed good agreement. The reduced mechanism was used to track changes in mechanistic pathways of Claus reactions with the reaction progress.

  16. Creep deformation mechanisms in a γ titanium aluminide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, Zakaria [Institute of Structural Materials, College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA18EN (United Kingdom); Ding, Rengen [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT (United Kingdom); Martin, Nigel; Dixon, Mark [Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby DE248BJ (United Kingdom); Bache, Martin [Institute of Structural Materials, College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA18EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Titanium aluminides (TiAl) are considered as potential alternatives to replace nickel-based alloys of greater density for selected components within future gas turbine aero-engines. This is attributed to the high specific strength as well as the good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. The gamma (γ) titanium aluminide system Ti-45Al-2Mn-2Nb has previously demonstrated promising performance in terms of its physical and mechanical properties. The main aim of the current study, which is a continuation of a previously published paper, aims at evaluating the performance of this titanium aluminide system under high temperature creep conditions. Of particular interest, the paper is strongly demonstrating the precise capability of the Wilshire Equations technique in predicting the long-term creep behaviour of this alloy. Moreover, it presents a physically meaningful understanding of the various creep mechanisms expected under various testing conditions. To achieve this, two creep specimens, tested under distinctly different stress levels at 700 °C have been extensively examined. Detailed microstructural investigations and supporting transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have explored the differences in creep mechanisms active under the two stress regimes, with the deformation mechanisms correlated to Wilshire creep life prediction curves.

  17. A novel Fe(III) dependent bioflocculant from Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08: culture conditions optimization and flocculation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Tang, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Jia; Chen, Rong-Ping; Liu, Xin; Qiao, Wei-Chuan; Li, Wen-Wei; Ruan, Hong-Hua; Song, Xin

    2016-10-07

    In this work, the effect of cultivation factors on the flocculation efficiency (FE) of bioflocculant P-GS408 from Klebsiella oxytoca was optimized by the response surface methodology. The most significant factor, i.e. culture time, was determined by gray relational analysis. A total of 240 mg of purified P-GS408 was prepared from 1 liter of culture solution under the optimal conditions. GC-MS analysis results indicated that the polysaccharide of P-GS408 mainly contains Rhamnose and Galactose, and the existence of abundant hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups was evidenced by FTIR and XPS analyses. With the aid of Fe 3+ , the FE of kaolin solution by P-GS408 could achieve 99.48% in ten minutes. Functional groups of polysaccharide were involved in the first adsorption step and the zeta potential of kaolin solution changed from -39.0 mV to 43.4 mV in the presence of Fe 3+ and P-GS408. Three-dimensional excitation-emission (EEM) fluorescence spectra demonstrates that the trivalent Fe 3+ and Al 3+ can bind efficiently with P-GS408, while those univalent and divalent cations cannot. With the help of SEM images, FTIR, zeta potential and EEM spectra, we proposed the P-GS408 flocculation mechanism, which consists of coordination bond combination, charge neutrality, adsorption and bridging, and net catching.

  18. Mechanisms that control aqueous leaching of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.H.; Barkatt, A.; Macedo, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    The development of predictive models and risk calculations for the time evolution of radioactive isotope leaching from fixation solids depends on many factors, including measurement accuracy, measurement relevance, a complete understanding of possible dissolution mechanisms, and the ability to project worst case conditions for all appropriate mechanisms. Some of the mechanisms observed and understood at present are the mechanisms of dissolution of glasses in neutral unbuffered water, the effects of structural disintegration of the glass protective layer, the effects of slowly flowing bath waters and possibly, the mechanisms of leach-rate reduction by solution saturation. The mechanisms that control radiation and temperature effects including alpha particle emission and nuclear transmutations are as yet little understood or investigated

  19. Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical stresses and microstructure of sputter-deposited molybdenum and reactively sputter-deposited molybdenum nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.G.

    2003-01-01

    A combined investigation of mechanical stress generation by in situ substrate curvature measurements during the growth of MoN x thin films, with 0≤x≤0.35, and of structural properties by ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is reported. It was found that the Mo film stresses strongly depended on the Ar sputtering pressure and changed from highly compressive to highly tensile in a relatively narrow pressure range of 6-12 mTorr. For pressures exceeding ∼40 mTorr, the stress in the film was nearly zero. Cross-sectional TEM measurements indicated that the compressively stressed films contained a dense microstructure without any columns, while the films having tensile stress had a very columnar microstructure. High sputtering-gas pressure conditions yielded dendritic-like film growth, resulting in complete relaxation of the mechanical tensile stresses. It was also found that the properties of the deposited MoN x films depended not only on the nitrogen partial pressure in Ar-N 2 gas mixtures but also on the total sputtering-gas pressure. Cross-sectional TEM studies showed that an average column width for 160 nm-thick films near stoichiometry of Mo 2 N was about ∼15-20 nm. Using the electron scattering data collected from a range of crystalline samples for calculating the pair distribution function (PDF) by Fourier transformation in real space, Mo-N and Mo-Mo bonding in the films was also identified. Once the Mo 2 N phase was formed, the density, microstructure and bonding feature were similar and insensitive to the total sputtering pressure used in this study

  20. Pavlovian conditioning of multiple opioid-like responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Camron D; Roberts, Kristofer W; Culbertson, Christopher S; Le, Alan; Evans, Christopher J; Fanselow, Michael S

    2009-07-01

    Conditional responses in rodents such as locomotion have been reported for drugs of abuse and similar to the placebo response in humans, may be associated with the expectation of reward. We examined several conditional opioid-like responses and the influence of drug expectation on conditioned place preference and concomitant conditional locomotion. Male C57BL/6J mice were conditioned with the selective mu opioid receptor agonist fentanyl (0.2mg/kg, i.p.) in a novel context and subsequently given a vehicle injection. In separate experiments, locomotor activity, Straub tail, hot plate sensitivity, and conditioned place preference (CPP) were measured. Mice exhibited multiple conditional opioid-like responses including conditional hyperlocomotion, a conditional pattern of opioid-like locomotion, Straub tail, analgesia, and place preference. Modulating drug expectation via administration of fentanyl to "demonstrator" mice in the home cage did not affect the expression of conditioned place preference or the concomitant locomotor activity in "observer" mice. In summary, Pavlovian conditioning of an opioid in a novel context induced multiple conditional opioid-like behaviors and provides a model for studying the neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo response in mice.

  1. DEPENDENCE OF WASTE PAPER QUALITATIVE INDICES ON ITS STORAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karpunin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates an influence of component quantity (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose on qualitative (physical and mechanical indices of waste-paper in relation to its storage period and weather conditions. It has been established that while storing (in waste dumps waste paper it is to be kept at a definite temperature and humidity in order to reduce impact of weather conditions.

  2. Diffusion modeling of fission product release during depressurized core conduction cooldown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A simple model for diffusion through the silicon carbide layer of TRISO particles is applied to the data for accident condition testing of fuel spheres for the High-Temperature Reactor program of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Categorization of sphere release of 137 Cs based on fast neutron fluence permits predictions of release with an accuracy comparable to that of the US/FRG accident condition fuel performance model. Calculations are also performed for 85 Kr, 90 Sr, and 110m Ag. Diffusion of cesium through SiC suggests that models of fuel failure should consider fuel performance during repeated accident condition thermal cycling. Microstructural considerations in models of fission product release are discussed. The neutron-induced segregation of silicon within the SiC structure is postulated as a mechanism for enhanced fission product release during accident conditions. As oxygen-enhanced SiC decomposition mechanism is also discussed. (author). 12 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Maltreatment Exposure, Brain Structure, and Fear Conditioning in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gold, Andrea L; Duys, Andrea; Lambert, Hilary K; Peverill, Matthew; Heleniak, Charlotte; Shechner, Tomer; Wojcieszak, Zuzanna; Pine, Daniel S

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in learning processes and the neural circuitry that supports fear conditioning and extinction represent mechanisms through which trauma exposure might influence risk for psychopathology. Few studies examine how trauma or neural structure relates to fear conditioning in children. Children (n=94) aged 6-18 years, 40.4% (n=38) with exposure to maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, or domestic violence), completed a fear conditioning paradigm utilizing blue and yellow bells as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-) and an aversive alarm noise as the unconditioned stimulus. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and self-reported fear were acquired. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 60 children. Children without maltreatment exposure exhibited strong differential conditioning to the CS+ vs CS-, based on SCR and self-reported fear. In contrast, maltreated children exhibited blunted SCR to the CS+ and failed to exhibit differential SCR to the CS+ vs CS- during early conditioning. Amygdala and hippocampal volume were reduced among children with maltreatment exposure and were negatively associated with SCR to the CS+ during early conditioning in the total sample, although these associations were negative only among non-maltreated children and were positive among maltreated children. The association of maltreatment with externalizing psychopathology was mediated by this perturbed pattern of fear conditioning. Child maltreatment is associated with failure to discriminate between threat and safety cues during fear conditioning in children. Poor threat-safety discrimination might reflect either enhanced fear generalization or a deficit in associative learning, which may in turn represent a central mechanism underlying the development of maltreatment-related externalizing psychopathology in children.

  4. Understanding the mechanical and acoustical characteristics of sand aggregates compacting under triaxial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Brantut, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms such as grain rearrangement, coupled with elastic deformation, grain breakage, grain rearrangement, grain rotation, and intergranular sliding, play a key role in determining porosity and permeability reduction during burial of clastic sediments. Similarly, in poorly consolidated, highly porous sands and sandstones, grain rotation, intergranular sliding, grain failure, and pore collapse often lead to significant reduction in porosity through the development of compaction bands, with the reduced porosity and permeability of such bands producing natural barriers to flow within reservoir rocks. Such time-independent compaction processes operating in highly porous water- and hydrocarbon-bearing clastic reservoirs can exert important controls on production-related reservoir deformation, subsidence, and induced seismicity. We performed triaxial compression experiments on sand aggregates consisting of well-rounded Ottawa sand (d = 300-400 μm; φ = 36.1-36.4%) at room temperature, to systematically investigate the effect of confining pressure (Pceff = 5-100 MPa), strain rate (10-6-10-4 s-1) and chemical environment (decane vs. water; Pf = 5 MPa) on compaction. For a limited number of experiments grain size distribution (d = 180-500 μm) and grain shape (subangular Beaujean sand; d = 180-300 μm) were varied to study their effect. Acoustic emission statistics and location, combined with microstructural and grain size analysis, were used to verify the operating microphysical compaction mechanisms. All tests showed significant pre-compaction during the initial hydrostatic (set-up) phase, with quasi-elastic loading behaviour accompanied by permanent deformation during the differential loading stage. This permanent volumetric strain involved elastic grain contact distortion, particle rearrangement, and grain failure. From the acoustic data and grain size analysis, it was evident that at low confining pressure grain rearrangement controlled compaction, with grain

  5. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  6. Separating monocular and binocular neural mechanisms mediating chromatic contextual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, Anthony D; Christiansen, Jens H; Shevell, Steven K

    2014-04-17

    When seen in isolation, a light that varies in chromaticity over time is perceived to oscillate in color. Perception of that same time-varying light may be altered by a surrounding light that is also temporally varying in chromaticity. The neural mechanisms that mediate these contextual interactions are the focus of this article. Observers viewed a central test stimulus that varied in chromaticity over time within a larger surround that also varied in chromaticity at the same temporal frequency. Center and surround were presented either to the same eye (monocular condition) or to opposite eyes (dichoptic condition) at the same frequency (3.125, 6.25, or 9.375 Hz). Relative phase between center and surround modulation was varied. In both the monocular and dichoptic conditions, the perceived modulation depth of the central light depended on the relative phase of the surround. A simple model implementing a linear combination of center and surround modulation fit the measurements well. At the lowest temporal frequency (3.125 Hz), the surround's influence was virtually identical for monocular and dichoptic conditions, suggesting that at this frequency, the surround's influence is mediated primarily by a binocular neural mechanism. At higher frequencies, the surround's influence was greater for the monocular condition than for the dichoptic condition, and this difference increased with temporal frequency. Our findings show that two separate neural mechanisms mediate chromatic contextual interactions: one binocular and dominant at lower temporal frequencies and the other monocular and dominant at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz).

  7. Mechanical and tribological behaviour of molten salt processed self-lubricated aluminium composite under different treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, C.; Ramanujam, R.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research work is to evaluate the mechanical and tribological behaviour of Al 7075 based self-lubricated hybrid nanocomposite under different treated conditions viz. as-cast, T6 and deep cryo treated. In order to overcome the drawbacks associated with conventional stir casting, a combinational approach that consists of molten salt processing, ultrasonic assistance and optimized mechanical stirring is adopted in this study to fabricate the nanocomposite. The mechanical characterisation tests carried out on this nanocomposite reveals an improvement of about 39% in hardness and 22% in ultimate tensile strength possible under T6 condition. Under specific conditions, the wear rate can be reduced to the extent of about 63% through the usage of self-lubricated hybrid nanocomposite under T6 condition.

  8. Mechanized hyperbaric welding by robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Santos, J.F. dos; Bohm, K.H.; Hensel, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    At the GKSS-Forschungszentrum investigations are carried out on mechanized welded test plates produced under working pressure between 10 to 110 bar in breathable TRIMIX-5-atmosphere. The welds are performed by a modified industrial robot, which was adapted in its components to withstand these severe conditions. Variations on the welding parameters were made to maintain a stable arc as well as to provide on indication of the effect of the variables on the mechanical properties of the welded joint. During all tests the robot showed a very good function. Good reliable welds were achieved meeting the requirements according API II04 or BS 4515-1984. (orig.) [de

  9. Mechanical properties of ion-implanted alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    Monolithic oxide ceramics are being proposed as structural materials in continuously more-demanding applications. The demands being placed on these materials have caused concern pertaining to the continued growth of oxide structural ceramics due to limited toughness. The realization that ceramic strength and toughness can be affected by surface conditions has led to many surface-modification techniques, all striving to improve the mechanical properties of ceramics. Along these lines, the effects of ion implantation as a surface modification technique for improvement of the mechanical properties of alumina were studied. Initially, sapphire samples were implanted with elemental ion species that would produce oxide precipitates within the sapphire surface when annealed in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Optimum conditions as determined from implantation into sapphire were then used to modify a polycrystalline alumina. Specific modifications in microhardness, indentation fracture toughness and flexure strength are reported for the parameters studied. Microstructure and phase relationships related to modified surfaces properties are also reported

  10. Research of mechanism of density lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengfei; Yan Changqi; Gu Haifeng

    2010-01-01

    Mechanism of density lock was analyzed according to the work conditions of density lock. The results showed that: the stratification with no disturbance satisfied the work conditions of density lock; fluids between the stratification were not mixed at the condition of connected to each other; the density lock can be open automatically by controlled the pressure balance at the stratification. When disturbance existed, the stratification might be broken and mass would be transferred by convection. The stability of stratification can be enhanced by put the special structure in density lock to ensure the normal work of density lock. At last, the minimum of heat loss in density lock was also analyzed. (authors)

  11. Materials and Mechanisms of Photo-Assisted Chemical Reactions under Light and Dark Conditions: Can Day-Night Photocatalysis Be Achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, M; Nguyen, Chinh-Chien; Vu, Manh-Hiep; Do, Trong-On

    2018-03-09

    The photoassisted catalytic reaction, conventionally known as photocatalysis, is expanding into the field of energy and environmental applications. It is widely known that the discovery of TiO 2 -assisted photochemical reactions has led to several unique applications, such as degradation of pollutants in water and air, hydrogen production through water splitting, fuel conversion, cancer treatment, antibacterial activity, self-cleaning glasses, and concrete. These multifaceted applications of this phenomenon can be enriched and expanded further if this process is equipped with more tools and functions. The term "photoassisted" catalytic reactions clearly emphasizes that photons are required to activate the catalyst; this can be transcended even into the dark if electrons are stored in the material for the later use to continue the catalytic reactions in the absence of light. This can be achieved by equipping the photocatalyst with an electron-storage material to overcome current limitations in photoassisted catalytic reactions. In this context, this article sheds lights on the materials and mechanisms of photocatalytic reactions under light and dark conditions. The manifestation of such systems could be an unparalleled technology in the near future that could influence all spheres of the catalytic sciences. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Experimental study on performance characteristics of servo-piston hydraulic control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Mingrui; Han Weishi; Zhou Jie; Liu Chunyu; Yang Zhida; Wang Ge

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study on the performance characteristics of the servo-piston hydraulic control rod driving mechanism is carried out, the dynamic processes of the driving mechanism are obtained through the experiments in different working conditions. Combined with the structure characteristics of the driving mechanism, the change rule between the characteristics parameters and the working condition is analyzed. The results indicate that the traction of the servo-tube decreases quickly at first, then slowly and finally trends to be a constant with the working pressure increasing, the tractions are the largest in the startup and deboost phases. The under pressure of the drive cylinder rises slowly and the upper pressure decreases rapidly at the beginning of the rise, the variation trend is opposite in the falling stage. There exists quick and clear flow change processes in the startup and deboost phases, the flow mutation value reduces and the mutation time changes a little with the working pressure increasing. The driving mechanism runs stable and has high sensitivity precision, the load does not vibrate at all when working conditions has small disturbance, a steady transform can be realized among every condition. (authors)

  13. In-situ determination of the mechanical properties of gliding or non-motile bacteria by atomic force microscopy under physiological conditions without immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Dhahri

    Full Text Available We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions.

  14. In-Situ Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Gliding or Non-Motile Bacteria by Atomic Force Microscopy under Physiological Conditions without Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Samia; Ramonda, Michel; Marlière, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM) around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions. PMID:23593493

  15. On the radiation mechanism of repeating fast radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan

    2018-06-01

    Recent observations show that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are energetic but probably non-catastrophic events occurring at cosmological distances. The properties of their progenitors are largely unknown in spite of many attempts to determine them using the event rate, duration, and energetics. Understanding the radiation mechanism for FRBs should provide the missing insights regarding their progenitors, which is investigated in this paper. The high brightness temperatures (≳1035 K) of FRBs mean that the emission process must be coherent. Two general classes of coherent radiation mechanisms are considered - maser and the antenna mechanism. We use the observed properties of the repeater FRB 121102 to constrain the plasma conditions needed for these two mechanisms. We have looked into a wide variety of maser mechanisms operating in either vacuum or plasma and find that none of them can explain the high luminosity of FRBs without invoking unrealistic or fine-tuned plasma conditions. The most favourable mechanism is antenna curvature emission by coherent charge bunches where the burst is powered by magnetic reconnection near the surface of a magnetar (B ≳ 1014 G). We show that the plasma in the twisted magnetosphere of a magnetar may be clumpy due to two-stream instability. When magnetic reconnection occurs, the pre-existing density clumps may provide charge bunches for the antenna mechanism to operate. This model should be applicable to all FRBs that have multiple outbursts like FRB 121102.

  16. Stress-corrosion mechanisms in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccotti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    The present review is intended to revisit the advances and debates in the comprehension of the mechanisms of subcritical crack propagation in silicate glasses almost a century after its initial developments. Glass has inspired the initial insights of Griffith into the origin of brittleness and the ensuing development of modern fracture mechanics. Yet, through the decades the real nature of the fundamental mechanisms of crack propagation in glass has escaped a clear comprehension which could gather general agreement on subtle problems such as the role of plasticity, the role of the glass composition, the environmental condition at the crack tip and its relation to the complex mechanisms of corrosion and leaching. The different processes are analysed here with a special focus on their relevant space and time scales in order to question their domain of action and their contribution in both the kinetic laws and the energetic aspects.

  17. Differential effects of MPEP and diazepam in tests of conditioned emotional response and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer suggests 'anxiolytic' effects are mediated by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S A; Hutson, P H; Stephens, D N

    2009-06-01

    The selective mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) is reported to be anxiolytic in several animal models of anxiety, including the conditioned emotional response (CER) paradigm. Suppression of responding during conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation in CER may reflect behavioural competition between lever pressing a