WorldWideScience

Sample records for conditional mutualism limits

  1. A strong conditional mutualism limits and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, R.; Rejmanek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. Therefore, we used a combination of observations and field experiments to determine the degree to which germination rates of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum varied with abundance of a small mammal seed predator/disperser, Heteromysdesmarestianus, in a lowland tropical forest. Patterns of abundance of the two species were strongly related; density of H. desmarestianus was low in sites with low density of A. mexicanum and vice versa. Rates of predation and dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds depended on abundance of H. desmarestianus; sites with high densities of H. desmarestianus had the highest rates of seed predation and lowest rates of seed germination, but a greater total number of seeds were dispersed and there was greater density of seedlings, saplings, and adults of A. mexicanum in these sites. When abundance of H. desmarestianus was experimentally reduced, rates of seed predation decreased, but so did dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds. Critically, rates of germination of dispersed seeds were 5 times greater than undispersed seeds. The results suggest that the relationship between A. mexicanum and H. desmarestianus is a conditional mutualism that results in a strong local effect on the abundance of each species. However, the magnitude and direction of these effects are determined by the relative strength of opposing, but related, mechanisms. A. mexicanum nuts provide H. desmarestianus with a critical food resource, and while seed predation on A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is very intense, A. mexicanum ultimately benefits because of the relatively high germination rates of its seeds that are dispersed by H. desmarestianus. ?? The Author(s) 2010.

  2. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ ABC is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I α (A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one

  3. Mutuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, E. J.; Rose, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    and epistemological grounds and reproduces an array of problematic modernist dichotomies (e.g., agency/structure, nurturing family/instrumental public, gift/market, and altruism/self-interest) that significantly constrain the analytical enterprise. This work redresses some of the conceptual problems in the current...... formulation. The critique highlights a focus on resource distribution based on a more holistic, socially grounded perspective on circulation. We offer the alternative concept of mutuality or generalized exchange and the metaphor of inclusion rather than exchange as central to this perspective. We argue...

  4. Conditional Mutual Information Based Feature Selection for Classification Task

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana; Somol, Petr; Haindl, Michal; Pudil, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4756 (2007), s. 417-426 ISSN 0302-9743 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Pattern classification * feature selection * conditional mutual information * text categorization Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005

  5. Conditional mutual information of bipartite unitaries and scrambling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Dawei; Hayden, Patrick; Walter, Michael [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-12-28

    One way to diagnose chaos in bipartite unitary channels is via the tripartite information of the corresponding Choi state, which for certain choices of the subsystems reduces to the negative conditional mutual information (CMI). We study this quantity from a quantum information-theoretic perspective to clarify its role in diagnosing scrambling. When the CMI is zero, we find that the channel has a special normal form consisting of local channels between individual inputs and outputs. However, we find that arbitrarily low CMI does not imply arbitrary proximity to a channel of this form, although it does imply a type of approximate recoverability of one of the inputs. When the CMI is maximal, we find that the residual channel from an individual input to an individual output is completely depolarizing when the other input is maximally mixed. However, we again find that this result is not robust. We also extend some of these results to the multipartite case and to the case of Haar-random pure input states. Finally, we look at the relationship between tripartite information and its Rényi-2 version which is directly related to out-of-time-order correlation functions. In particular, we demonstrate an arbitrarily large gap between the two quantities.

  6. The Impact of Mutual Recognition: Inbuilt Limits and Domestic Responses to the Single Market

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, S.

    2002-01-01

    What have been the consequences of integrating the single market via mutual recognition? Did competitive deregulation result? Or were its implications less significant than expected? In this paper I analyse two previously highly regulated service sectors, insurance and road haulage, and study the impact of European policies in Germany and France. I find that the Council instituted mutual recognition in a restrictive way. This limits its impact on member states, which is moreover mediated by n...

  7. Oklahoma Retailers' Perspectives on Mutual Benefit Exchange to Limit Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andie; Douglas, Malinda Reddish; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-09-01

    Businesses changing their practices in ways that support tobacco control efforts recently have gained interest, as demonstrated by CVS Health's voluntary policy to end tobacco sales. Point-of-sale (POS) advertisements are associated with youth smoking initiation, increased tobacco consumption, and reduced quit attempts among smokers. There is interest in encouraging retailers to limit tobacco POS advertisements voluntarily. This qualitative exploratory study describes Oklahoma tobacco retailers' perspectives on a mutual benefit exchange approach, and preferred message and messenger qualities that would entice them to take voluntary action to limit tobacco POS advertisements. This study found that mutual benefit exchange could be a viable option along with education and law as strategies to create behavior change among tobacco retailers. Many retailers stated that they would be willing to remove noncontractual POS advertisements for a 6-month commitment period when presented with mutual exchange benefit, tailored message, and appropriate messenger. Mutual benefit exchange, as a behavior change strategy to encourage voluntary removal of POS tobacco advertisements, was acceptable to retailers, could enhance local tobacco control in states with preemption, and may contribute to setting the foundation for broader legislative efforts. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. Conditional selectivity performance of Indian mutual fund schemes: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Roy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the stock-selection performance of the sample open-ended equity mutual fund schemes of Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund Company based on traditional and conditional performance measures. It is generally expected that inclusion of some relevant predetermined public information variables in the conditional CAPM provides better performance estimates as compared to the traditional measures. The study reports that after inclusion of conditioning public information variables, the selectivity performances of the schemes have dramatically improved relative to the traditional measure and also found that conditional measure is superior to traditional measure in statistical test.

  9. ITER Operating Limits and Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciattaglia, S.; Barabaschi, P.; Carretero, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Operating Limits and Conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which together define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER status (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components important for personnel or public safety (Safety Important Class, SIC) are identified from the overall plant safety analysis on functional importance to safety of the components. SIC classification has to be presented already inside the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing safety authority before the relevant construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits, i.e. that if exceeded could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems and the operational limits on equipment which warn from or stop a functional departure from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. The safety limits have to indicate clearly states that leave the nominal safety state of ITER; they are derived from the safety analysis of ITER. OLCs can represent in some cases few parameters grouping together. Some operational conditions, e.g. inventories, will be controlled through no real time measurements and procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants is considered at the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines to develop the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits. A few examples are reported as well as open issues on some OLCs control and measurement and the relevant R-and-D planned to solve the issues. (author)

  10. Information-Theoretic Limits on Broadband Multi-Antenna Systems in the Presence of Mutual Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taluja, Pawandeep Singh

    2011-12-01

    Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems have received considerable attention over the last decade due to their ability to provide high throughputs and mitigate multipath fading effects. While most of these benefits are obtained for ideal arrays with large separation between the antennas, practical devices are often constrained in physical dimensions. With smaller inter-element spacings, signal correlation and mutual coupling between the antennas start to degrade the system performance, thereby limiting the deployment of a large number of antennas. Various studies have proposed transceiver designs based on optimal matching networks to compensate for this loss. However, such networks are considered impractical due to their multiport structure and sensitivity to the RF bandwidth of the system. In this dissertation, we investigate two aspects of compact transceiver design. First, we consider simpler architectures that exploit coupling between the antennas, and second, we establish information-theoretic limits of broadband communication systems with closely-spaced antennas. We begin with a receiver model of a diversity antenna selection system and propose novel strategies that make use of inactive elements by virtue of mutual coupling. We then examine the limits on the matching efficiency of a single antenna system using broadband matching theory. Next, we present an extension to this theory for coupled MIMO systems to elucidate the impact of coupling on the RF bandwidth of the system, and derive optimal transceiver designs. Lastly, we summarize the main findings of this dissertation and suggest open problems for future work.

  11. Conditional entropy and mutual information in Pb+Pb interactions at 158 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, T.H.

    2017-01-01

    Many models have been proposed to explain the phenomenon, usually called intermittency. Most of them contain essentially a kind of self-similar cascading process. In this context, self-similar random cascading is the most natural and hopeful mechanism that can reproduce the intermittency phenomena in multiparticle production. Wu Yuanfang and Liu Lianshou developed a method for observing and examining this mechanism of self- similar random cascading, making use of the concepts of conditional entropy and mutual information. In the study we examine the data on photon multiplicity produced in Lead - Lead central collisions at 158 A GeV for the existence of self-similar random cascading using conditional entropy and mutual information variables. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation studies using VENUS event generator and GEANT detector simulation software. The experiment is also compared with predictions from Alpha-Model

  12. Sarcocystosis of chital-dhole: conditions for evolutionary stability of a predator parasite mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watve Milind G

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For parasites with a predator-prey life cycle, the completion of the life cycle often depends on consumption of parasitized prey by the predator. In the case of such parasite species the predator and the parasite have common interests and therefore a mutualistic relationship is possible. Some evidence of a predator-parasite mutualism was reported from spotted deer or chital (Axix axis as a prey species, dhole or Indian wild-dog (Cuon alpinus as the predator and a protozoan (Sarcocystis axicuonis as the parasite. We examine here, with the help of a model, the ecological conditions necessary for the evolution and stability of such a mutualistic relationship. A two – level game theory model was designed in which the payoff of a parasite is decided not only by alternative parasite strategies but also by alternative host strategies and vice versa. Conditions for ESS were examined. Results A tolerant predator strategy and a low or moderately virulent parasite strategy which together constitute mutualism are stable only at a high frequency of recycling of parasite and a substantial prey – capture benefit to the predator. Unlike the preliminary expectation, parasite will not evolve towards reduced virulence, but reach an optimum moderate level of virulence. Conclusion The available data on the behavioral ecology of dhole and chital suggest that they are likely to meet the stability criteria and therefore a predator-parasite mutualism can be stable in this system. The model also points out the gaps in the current data and could help directing further empirical work.

  13. Bet hedging based cooperation can limit kin selection and form a basis for mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Joost C M

    2011-07-07

    Mutualism is a mechanism of cooperation in which partners that differ help each other. As such, mutualism opposes mechanisms of kin selection and tag-based selection (for example the green beard mechanism), which are based on giving exclusive help to partners that are related or carry the same tag. In contrast to kin selection, which is a basis for parochialism and intergroup warfare, mutualism can therefore be regarded as a mechanism that drives peaceful coexistence between different groups and individuals. Here the competition between mutualism and kin (tag) selection is studied. In a model where kin selection and tag-based selection are dominant, mutualism is promoted by introducing environmental fluctuations. These fluctuations cause reduction in reproductive success by the mechanism of variance discount. The best strategy to counter variance discount is to share with agents who experience the most anticorrelated fluctuations, a strategy called bet hedging. In this way, bet hedging stimulates cooperation with the most unrelated partners, which is a basis for mutualism. Analytic results and simulations reveal that, if this effect is large enough, mutualistic strategies can dominate kin selective strategies. In addition, mutants of these mutualistic strategies that experience fluctuations that are more anticorrelated to their partner, can outcompete wild type, which can lead to the evolution of specialization. In this way, the evolutionary success of mutualistic strategies can be explained by bet hedging-based cooperation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of Training Signal Transmission for Estimating MIMO Channel under Antenna Mutual Coupling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports investigations on the effect of antenna mutual coupling on performance of training-based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO channel estimation. The influence of mutual coupling is assessed for two training-based channel estimation methods, Scaled Least Square (SLS and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE. It is shown that the accuracy of MIMO channel estimation is governed by the sum of eigenvalues of channel correlation matrix which in turn is influenced by the mutual coupling in transmitting and receiving array antennas. A water-filling-based procedure is proposed to optimize the training signal transmission to minimize the MIMO channel estimation errors.

  15. LCD denoise and the vector mutual information method in the application of the gear fault diagnosis under different working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangfeng, Zhang; Hong, Jiang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the full vector LCD method is proposed to solve the misjudgment problem caused by the change of the working condition. First, the signal from different working condition is decomposed by LCD, to obtain the Intrinsic Scale Component (ISC)whose instantaneous frequency with physical significance. Then, calculate of the cross correlation coefficient between ISC and the original signal, signal denoising based on the principle of mutual information minimum. At last, calculate the sum of absolute Vector mutual information of the sample under different working condition and the denoised ISC as the characteristics to classify by use of Support vector machine (SVM). The wind turbines vibration platform gear box experiment proves that this method can identify fault characteristics under different working conditions. The advantage of this method is that it reduce dependence of man’s subjective experience, identify fault directly from the original data of vibration signal. It will has high engineering value.

  16. Limited gene dispersal and spatial genetic structure as stabilizing factors in an ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malé, P-J G; Leroy, C; Humblot, P; Dejean, A; Quilichini, A; Orivel, J

    2016-12-01

    Comparative studies of the population genetics of closely associated species are necessary to properly understand the evolution of these relationships because gene flow between populations affects the partners' evolutionary potential at the local scale. As a consequence (at least for antagonistic interactions), asymmetries in the strength of the genetic structures of the partner populations can result in one partner having a co-evolutionary advantage. Here, we assess the population genetic structure of partners engaged in a species-specific and obligatory mutualism: the Neotropical ant-plant, Hirtella physophora, and its ant associate, Allomerus decemarticulatus. Although the ant cannot complete its life cycle elsewhere than on H. physophora and the plant cannot live for long without the protection provided by A. decemarticulatus, these species also have antagonistic interactions: the ants have been shown to benefit from castrating their host plant and the plant is able to retaliate against too virulent ant colonies. We found similar short dispersal distances for both partners, resulting in the local transmission of the association and, thus, inbred populations in which too virulent castrating ants face the risk of local extinction due to the absence of H. physophora offspring. On the other hand, we show that the plant populations probably experienced greater gene flow than did the ant populations, thus enhancing the evolutionary potential of the plants. We conclude that such levels of spatial structure in the partners' populations can increase the stability of the mutualistic relationship. Indeed, the local transmission of the association enables partial alignments of the partners' interests, and population connectivity allows the plant retaliation mechanisms to be locally adapted to the castration behaviour of their symbionts. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Oklahoma Retailers’ Perspectives on Mutual Benefit Exchange to Limit Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Andie; Douglas, Malinda Reddish; Ling, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Businesses changing their practices in ways that support tobacco control efforts recently have gained interest, as demonstrated by CVS Health’s voluntary policy to end tobacco sales. Point of sale (POS) advertisements are associated with youth smoking initiation, increased tobacco consumption, and reduced quit attempts among smokers. There is interest in encouraging retailers to limit tobacco POS advertisements voluntarily. This qualitative exploratory study describes Oklahoma tobacco retaile...

  18. Limiting conditions for operation relaxation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to assess the impact of system maintenance unavailability on plant risk to provide technical justification for the relaxation of system limiting conditions for operation from three to seven days. The primary goal of the relaxation program is to allow for more thorough equipment maintenance. A potential increase in out-of-service time for a particular outage caused by the performance of more effective repairs will be counterbalanced by a probable decrease in the frequency in the outage rate of a component. Benefits resulting from an increase in allowed outage time include: (a) a potential reduction in total system out-of-service time, (b) a minimization of challenges to plant systems, and (c) a reduction in the number of emergency technical specification change requests. This program therefore offers an opportunity to more effectively manage plant maintenance and operation

  19. THE MARKET OF ELECTRICAL POWER MUTUAL INVESTMENT FUNDS IN THE CONDITIONS OF REFORM OF ELECTRICAL POWER BRANCH OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Zhdanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the quantitative and qualitativeanalysis of the Russian market of electrical power mutual investment funds (Mutual funds is carried out, problems andprospects of its development in modernconditions are revealed.

  20. Mutual relationships among body condition score, live weight, and back tissue development in meat sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ptáček

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Body tissue development and proportion affect predisposition to optimum functioning of production attributes, health, and fertility of sheep. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine relationships among indicators of mature ewes’ nutritional status documented by the body condition score and live weight using ultrasonic evaluation of backfat thickness and depth of musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis. The monitoring was carried out in Suffolk sheep (n = 942 for a period of 2 years. A significant increase (P P P P in vivo. Results of the present study could serve in flock management as a tool for evaluation of the current nutritional status as well as a basic ground for further research focused on development of sheep fattiness and carcass traits evaluation.

  1. Bed roughness experiments in supply limited conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Tuijnder, Arjan; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Parsons, D.R.; Garlan, T.; Best, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable roughness models are of great importance, for example, when predicting water levels in rivers. The currently available roughness models are based on fully mobile bed conditions. However, in rivers where widely graded sediments are present more or less permanent armour layers can develop

  2. Weak diffusion limits of dynamic conditional correlation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Christian M.; Laurent, Sebastien; Violante, Francesco

    The properties of dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) models are still not entirely understood. This paper fills one of the gaps by deriving weak diffusion limits of a modified version of the classical DCC model. The limiting system of stochastic differential equations is characterized...... by a diffusion matrix of reduced rank. The degeneracy is due to perfect collinearity between the innovations of the volatility and correlation dynamics. For the special case of constant conditional correlations, a non-degenerate diffusion limit can be obtained. Alternative sets of conditions are considered...

  3. Temporal Limitations in the Effective Binding of Attended Target Attributes in the Mutual Masking of Visual Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommuk, Karita; Bachmann, Talis

    2009-01-01

    The problem of feature binding has been examined under conditions of distributed attention or with spatially dispersed stimuli. We studied binding by asking whether selective attention to a feature of a masked object enables perceptual access to the other features of that object using conditions in which spatial attention was directed at a single…

  4. Limiting conditional distributions for birth-death processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijima, M.; Nair, M.G.; Pollett, P.K.; van Doorn, Erik A.

    1997-01-01

    In a recent paper one of us identified all of the quasi-stationary distributions for a non-explosive, evanescent birth-death process for which absorption is certain, and established conditions for the existence of the corresponding limiting conditional distributions. Our purpose is to extend these

  5. Teachers Communicating about Life-Limiting Conditions, Death and Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Ekins, Alison; Durrant, Ian; Summers, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    The number of children with life-limiting or life-threatening conditions in England is double what it was at the millennium. These conditions include cystic fibrosis, cancer, organ failure and severe neurological injuries. The Teaching for Life project aimed to explore the needs of teachers working in English schools in relation to working with…

  6. Quantitative risk stratification in Markov chains with limiting conditional distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David C; Pollett, Philip K; Weinstein, Milton C

    2009-01-01

    Many clinical decisions require patient risk stratification. The authors introduce the concept of limiting conditional distributions, which describe the equilibrium proportion of surviving patients occupying each disease state in a Markov chain with death. Such distributions can quantitatively describe risk stratification. The authors first establish conditions for the existence of a positive limiting conditional distribution in a general Markov chain and describe a framework for risk stratification using the limiting conditional distribution. They then apply their framework to a clinical example of a treatment indicated for high-risk patients, first to infer the risk of patients selected for treatment in clinical trials and then to predict the outcomes of expanding treatment to other populations of risk. For the general chain, a positive limiting conditional distribution exists only if patients in the earliest state have the lowest combined risk of progression or death. The authors show that in their general framework, outcomes and population risk are interchangeable. For the clinical example, they estimate that previous clinical trials have selected the upper quintile of patient risk for this treatment, but they also show that expanded treatment would weakly dominate this degree of targeted treatment, and universal treatment may be cost-effective. Limiting conditional distributions exist in most Markov models of progressive diseases and are well suited to represent risk stratification quantitatively. This framework can characterize patient risk in clinical trials and predict outcomes for other populations of risk.

  7. Reconstruction of limited-angle dual-energy CT using mutual learning and cross-estimation (MLCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huayu; Xing, Yuxiang

    2016-03-01

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging has gained a lot of attenuation because of its capability to discriminate materials. We proposes a flexible DECT scan strategy which can be realized on a system with general X-ray sources and detectors. In order to lower dose and scanning time, our DECT acquires two projections data sets on two arcs of limited-angular coverage (one for each energy) respectively. Meanwhile, a certain number of rays from two data sets form conjugate sampling pairs. Our reconstruction method for such a DECT scan mainly tackles the consequent limited-angle problem. Using the idea of artificial neural network, we excavate the connection between projections at two different energies by constructing a relationship between the linear attenuation coefficient of the high energy and that of the low one. We use this relationship to cross-estimate missing projections and reconstruct attenuation images from an augmented data set including projections at views covered by itself (projections collected in scanning) and by the other energy (projections estimated) for each energy respectively. Validated by our numerical experiment on a dental phantom with rather complex structures, our DECT is effective in recovering small structures in severe limited-angle situations. This DECT scanning strategy can much broaden DECT design in reality.

  8. A Necessary Moment Condition for the Fractional Central Limit Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the moment condition for the fractional functional central limit theorem (FCLT) for partial sums of x(t)=¿^{-d}u(t) , where -1/2classical condition is existence of q=2 and q>1/(d+1/2) moments...... of the innovation sequence. When d is close to -1/2 this moment condition is very strong. Our main result is to show that when -1/2conditions on u(t), the existence of q=1/(d+1/2) moments is in fact necessary for the FCLT for fractionally integrated processes and that q>1/(d+1....../2) moments are necessary for more general fractional processes. Davidson and de Jong (2000, Econometric Theory 16, 643-- 666) presented a fractional FCLT where onlyq>2 finite moments are assumed. As a corollary to our main theorem we show that their moment condition is not sufficient and hence...

  9. The Limits of Conditionality: Turkey – EU Taxation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Cavlak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conditionality is mostly defined as the EU policy engendered for candidate countries. However, the mere use of conditionality by the EU does not essentially explain transferring of policies and EU rules towards the candidate countries. EU conditionality may be considered as a comprising approach but in certain policy areas or countries it might not be as successful as it was on other ones. The EU conditionality basically defined as a bargaining policy of affecting through reward, under which the EU provides inducements to candidate or neighbor countries to aligning with the conditions of the EU. In this study the explanatory power of conditionality would be questioned; so the main question will be “to what extent does the EU have influence on policy convergence in a candidate country that does not have a clear membership perspective? Taxation chapter in accession negotiations between Turkey and the EU has been chosen as the case of this research as providing to have an answer on this question. The main objective of this paper is ‘analyzing the extent of EU conditionality on Turkish taxation policy.’ Furthermore, it is argued in this study that “without a concrete incentive, European Union’s impact on a candidate country would be limited.”  

  10. Operational limits and conditions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It covers the concept of operational limits and conditions, their content as applicable to various types of thermal reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The principles of the operational limits and conditions are established in section 3 of the Agency's Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Operation, including Commissioning and Decommissioning (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O), which this present Safety Guide supplements. In order to present all pertinent information in this Guide, the provisions of section 3 of the Code are repeated

  11. Evaluation some Forage Legumes in Limited Irrigation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moniri Far

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage legumes respond differently to limited irrigation regimes. Their evaluation may, thus, help to select drought tolerant types for limited irrigation conditions. In this study four type of forage legume were studied for two years in Tikma-Dash Research Station of East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, in a randomized complete block design using split-plot experiment in 2011-2013 years. Irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one irrigation and two irrigations were assigned to main plots and four forage types (hairy vetch, grass pea, Pannonica sativa and lathyrus were assigned to subplots. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation on plant height, number of shoots, leaf area and plant fresh and dry weights were not significant. Howere, legume types affected these traits significantly (P≤0.01. The effect of irrigation levels and legume types on protein content of hay were significant (P

  12. Batch culture of Azotobacter vinelandii under oxygen limitation conditionS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Rubio, F.; Martinez Nieto, L.; Fernandez Serrano, M.; Jimenez Moleon, M.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    The batch culture of Azotobacter vinealandii on glucose under nitrogen-fixing conditions, seeking oxygen limitation conditions, has been studied in order to use it as a Biological Test System for the experimental study of oxygen transfer enhancement methods in aerobic fermenters. overall kinetic parameters for exponential growth and for linear growth (under oxygen limitation) have been determined. It was noted an appreciable influence of the oxygen transfer rate on glucose and oxygen uptake, which seems to be due to alginate production, excreted as a nitrogenase protection mechanisms. (Author) 12 refs.

  13. First-wall and limiter conditioning in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.; Blanchard, W.R.; Hawryluk, R.J.

    1984-10-01

    A progress report on the experimental studies of vacuum vessel conditioning during the first year of TFTR operation is presented. A previous paper described the efforts expended to condition the TFTR vessel prior to and during the initial plasma start-up experiments. During the start-up phase, discharge cleaning was performed with the vessel at room temperature. For the second phase of TFTR operations, which was directed towards the optimization of ohmically heated plasmas, the vacuum vessel could be heated to 150 0 C. The internal configuration of the TFTR vessel was more complex during the second phase with the addition of a TiC/C moveable limiter array, Inconel bellows cover plates, and ZrAl getter pumps. A quantitative comparison is given on the effectiveness of vessel bakeout, glow discharge cleaning, and pulse discharge cleaning in terms of the total quantity of removed carbon and oxygen, residual gas base pressures and the resulting plasma impurity levels as measured by visible, uv, and soft x-ray spectroscopy. The initial experience with hydrogen isotope changeover in TFTR is presented including the results of the attempt to hasten the changeover time by using a glow discharge to precondition the vessel with the new isotope

  14. ESPRIT-Like Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar with Electromagnetic Vector Received Sensors under the Condition of Gain and Phase Uncertainties and Mutual Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Yongshun; Zheng, Guimei; Feng, Cunqian; Tang, Jun

    2017-10-26

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA) estimation for monostatic MIMO Radar with electromagnetic vector received sensors (MIMO-EMVSs) under the condition of gain and phase uncertainties (GPU) and mutual coupling (MC). GPU would spoil the invariance property of the EMVSs in MIMO-EMVSs, thus the effective ESPRIT algorithm unable to be used directly. Then we put forward a C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It estimates the 2D-DOA and polarization station angle (PSA) based on the instrumental sensors method (ISM). The C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm can obtain good angle estimation accuracy without knowing the GPU. Furthermore, it can be applied to arbitrary array configuration and has low complexity for avoiding the angle searching procedure. When MC and GPU exist together between the elements of EMVSs, in order to make our algorithm feasible, we derive a class of separated electromagnetic vector receiver and give the S-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It can solve the problem of GPU and MC efficiently. And the array configuration can be arbitrary. The effectiveness of our proposed algorithms is verified by the simulation result.

  15. ESPRIT-Like Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar with Electromagnetic Vector Received Sensors under the Condition of Gain and Phase Uncertainties and Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the problem of two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA estimation for monostatic MIMO Radar with electromagnetic vector received sensors (MIMO-EMVSs under the condition of gain and phase uncertainties (GPU and mutual coupling (MC. GPU would spoil the invariance property of the EMVSs in MIMO-EMVSs, thus the effective ESPRIT algorithm unable to be used directly. Then we put forward a C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It estimates the 2D-DOA and polarization station angle (PSA based on the instrumental sensors method (ISM. The C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm can obtain good angle estimation accuracy without knowing the GPU. Furthermore, it can be applied to arbitrary array configuration and has low complexity for avoiding the angle searching procedure. When MC and GPU exist together between the elements of EMVSs, in order to make our algorithm feasible, we derive a class of separated electromagnetic vector receiver and give the S-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It can solve the problem of GPU and MC efficiently. And the array configuration can be arbitrary. The effectiveness of our proposed algorithms is verified by the simulation result.

  16. Center conditions and limit cycles for BiLienard systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Gine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the center problem for polynomial BiLienard systems of degree n. Computing the focal values and using Grobner bases we find the center conditions for such systems for n=6. We also establish a conjecture about the center conditions for polynomial BiLienard systems of arbitrary degree.

  17. Understanding the limit order book: Conditioning on trade informativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran, Héléna; Grammig, Joachim; Menkveld, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic limit order books are ubiquitous in markets today. However, theoretical models for limit order markets fail to explain the real world data well. Sandas (2001) tests the classic Glosten (1994) model for order book equilibrium and rejects it. We reconfirm this result for one of the largest European stock markets. We then relax one of the model's assumptions and allow the informational content of trades to change over time. Adapting Hasbrouck's (1991a,b) methodology to estimate time v...

  18. Asset Allocation of Mutual Fund Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Dengpan Luo

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies mutual fund investors' asset allocation decisions using monthly flow data of U.S mutual fund industry from 1984 to 1998. We find that mutual fund investors change their asset allocations between stocks and bonds in reaction to business conditions tracked by changes in expected stock market returns. They tend to allocate less into stock funds during the trough of a business cycle when expected stock market returns are higher and to allocate more into stock funds during the p...

  19. Biological effects of extreme environmental conditions. [considering limits of biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imshenetskiy, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Actions of extreme physical and chemical space factors on microorganisms and plants are elaborated in order to establish limits for the biosphere. Considered are effects of low and high temperatures; ionizing and ultraviolet radiation; various gases; and effects of vibration, desiccation and acceleration.

  20. Advances and limitations of visual conditioning protocols in harnessed bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Mota, Theo

    2016-10-01

    Bees are excellent invertebrate models for studying visual learning and memory mechanisms, because of their sophisticated visual system and impressive cognitive capacities associated with a relatively simple brain. Visual learning in free-flying bees has been traditionally studied using an operant conditioning paradigm. This well-established protocol, however, can hardly be combined with invasive procedures for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. Different efforts have been made to develop protocols in which harnessed honey bees could associate visual cues with reinforcement, though learning performances remain poorer than those obtained with free-flying animals. Especially in the last decade, the intention of improving visual learning performances of harnessed bees led many authors to adopt distinct visual conditioning protocols, altering parameters like harnessing method, nature and duration of visual stimulation, number of trials, inter-trial intervals, among others. As a result, the literature provides data hardly comparable and sometimes contradictory. In the present review, we provide an extensive analysis of the literature available on visual conditioning of harnessed bees, with special emphasis on the comparison of diverse conditioning parameters adopted by different authors. Together with this comparative overview, we discuss how these diverse conditioning parameters could modulate visual learning performances of harnessed bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring the Microcirculation in Critical Conditions: Possibilities and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Tokmakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analytical review of the references on the role of microcirculatory disorders in the development of critical conditions, the significance of circulatory monitoring, specifically, to make a presumptive prognosis of multiple organ dysfunction. It defines main directions in the diagnosis and correction of microcirculatory disorders as direct (infusion therapy and indirect (influence on the components of a systemic inflammatory response, by extending to microcirculatory correction microcirculatory exposures. Key words: critical conditions, multiple organ dysfunction, procedures to evaluate and correct microcirculation.

  2. The Limits of Knowledge Management in Contemporary Corporate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on Jean-François Lyotard's (1984) seminal study "The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge" to reflect on two macro-level catastrophes: the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2009 (and its continuing effects throughout the Eurozone and elsewhere) and Fukushima. These two case studies probe aspects of these grand…

  3. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for transport category airplane type certification, no pilot may fly— (1) Under IFR into known or... authorized by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may authorize an airplane to take off and no pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be...

  4. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appendix C of this part or those for transport category airplane type certification, no pilot may fly— (1... pilot may fly an airplane into known or forecast severe icing conditions. (e) If current weather reports... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD...

  5. The transition towards renewable energies: Physical limits and temporal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediavilla, Margarita; Castro, Carlos de; Capellán, Iñigo; Javier Miguel, Luis; Arto, Iñaki; Frechoso, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of the depletion of fossil energy resources, together with the consequences of climate change, have provoked the development of numerous national and pluri-national energy policies. However, there have been few overall studies on the evolution of these resources. This paper uses a dynamic model to study the exhaustion patterns of world fossil and nuclear fuels and their possible replacement by renewable energy sources. The results show that peak oil will be the first restriction and it will not be easily overcome. Electric vehicles can produce some interesting savings, but they are insufficient to avoid the decline in oil. Biofuels are even more limited, due to the enormous extensions of fertile land they require and their low productivity. This shows that overcoming the decline in oil will need much more ambitious policies than the mere substitution of technology. If the “oil–economy” relationship does not change substantially, world economic growth may be seriously limited or even negative. In contrast, the production of electrical energy is not such a worrying problem in the short and middle-term. - Highlights: ► We study world energy demand and resources with a systems dynamics model. ► We find that peak oil cannot be overcomed with simple technological substitution. ► Past economic growth and energy intensity trends cannot be maintained. ► Electric vehicles are only a partial solution, biofuels are even more limited. ► Substitution of electric energy by renewables is much easier than oil substitution.

  6. Is knee pain during adolescence a self-limiting condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S.; Rathleff, Camilla R.; Olesen, Jens L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adolescent knee pain is 33%, and patellofemoral pain (PFP) is the most common diagnosis with a nontraumatic onset. The 2-year prognosis of adolescent PFP compared with other types of knee pain is unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the 2-year prognosis of knee pain amon...... without knee pain at baseline. CONCLUSION: Knee pain during adolescence, and PFP in particular, is in most cases present after 2 years and thus may not be self-limiting. A greater focus on early detection and prevention of knee pain during adolescence is needed....

  7. Defined Contribution Pension Plans: Mutual Fund Asset Allocation Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Sialm; Laura Starks; Hanjiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare changes in asset allocations between mutual funds held in defined contribution pension plans and funds held by other investors. We investigate how flows into equity and fixed income mutual funds depend on macroeconomic conditions. We find that defined contribution plans react more sensitively to these conditions, suggesting effects on mutual fund managers and other investors.

  8. Minimizing Mutual Couping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna.......Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna....

  9. An Analysis of the Mutual Fund Industry: Mutual Fund Investors, Mutual Fund Managers and Mutual Fund Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jieyan

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I investigate the mutual fund industry, especially the three most important participants within this industry: mutual fund investors, mutual fund companies and mutual fund managers. The main research questions of this dissertation are: 1. Does rapid trading exist among German equity mutual fund investors? What are the determinants of rapid trading? Does rapid trading have a negative impact on mutual fund performance? 2. Do mutual fund investors, as a whole, have...

  10. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for research reactors. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides practical guidance on all important aspects of developing, formulating and presenting the operational limits and conditions as well as the operating procedures for research reactors. It covers the concept of operational limits and conditions, their content, and the responsibilities of the operating organization with respect to their establishment, modification, documentation and compliance. The guidance also covers the training of operating personnel on performing periodic testing, established by the operational limits and conditions, and operating procedures

  11. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor......The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired...... countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  12. Evolution of mutualism between species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  13. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Barbaglia

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation.

  15. 76 FR 44245 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... Conditions No. 25-441-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for... for transport category airplanes. These design features include engine size and the potential torque... engine mounts and the supporting structures must be designed to withstand a ``limit engine torque load...

  16. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  17. Rating Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund’s peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  18. Danish mutual fund performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article provides the first independent performance analysis of Danish mutual funds. We analyse selectivity and market timing abilities for 71 mutual funds that have been in operation from 2001 to 2010. The results show great fund performance diversity. Half the funds have performed neutrally......, whereas 42% of the funds have shown significantly negative performance and only 7% of the funds have over-performed their benchmark. Furthermore, 14% of the funds analysed possess market timing abilities, but for 8 out of 10 funds, their market timing ability has been unsuccessful....

  19. Phase stability limit of c-BN under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jianwei; Du, Jinglian; Wen, Bin; Zhang, Xiangyi; Melnik, Roderick; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Phase stability limit of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has been investigated by the crystal structure search technique. It indicated that this limit is ∼1000 GPa at hydrostatic pressure condition. Above this pressure, c-BN turns into a metastable phase with respect to rocksalt type boron nitride (rs-BN). However, rs-BN cannot be retained at 0 GPa owing to its instability at pressure below 250 GPa. For non-hydrostatic pressure conditions, the phase stability limit of c-BN is substantially lower than that under hydrostatic pressure conditions and it is also dramatically different for other pressure mode

  20. Mutually unbiased bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mutually unbiased bases play an important role in quantum cryptography [2] and in the optimal determination of the density operator of an ensemble [3,4]. A density operator ρ in N-dimensions depends on N2 1 real quantities. With the help of MUB's, any such density operator can be encoded, in an optimal way, in terms of ...

  1. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglia, Gabriela; Adroher, Núria D; Vilagut, Gemma; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bunting, Brentan; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Matschinger, Herbert; Alonso, Jordi

    To describe the distribution of role limitation in the European population aged 18-64 years and to examine the contribution of health conditions to role limitation using a public-health approach. Representative samples of the adult general population (n=13,666) aged 18-64 years from 10 European countries of the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys Initiative, grouped into three regions: Central-Western, Southern and Central-Eastern. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess six mental disorders and standard checklists for seven physical conditions. Days with full and with partial role limitation in the month previous to the interview were reported (WMH-WHODAS). Population Attributable Fraction (PAFs) of full and partial role limitation were estimated. Health conditions explained a large proportion of full role limitation (PAF=62.6%) and somewhat less of partial role limitation (46.6%). Chronic pain was the single condition that consistently contributed to explain both disability measures in all European Regions. Mental disorders were the most important contributors to full and partial role limitation in Central-Western and Southern Europe. In Central-Eastern Europe, where mental disorders were less prevalent, physical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases, were the highest contributors to disability. The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. A singular perturbation limit of diffused interface energy with a fixed contact angle condition

    OpenAIRE

    Kagaya, Takashi; Tonegawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    We study a general asymptotic behavior of critical points of a diffused interface energy with a fixed contact angle condition defined on a domain $\\Omega \\subset \\mathbb{R}^n$. We show that the limit varifold derived from the diffused energy satisfies a generalized contact angle condition on the boundary under a set of assumptions.

  3. Estimation of Radiation Limit from a Huygens' Box under Non-Free-Space Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2013-01-01

    The recently studied Huygens' box method has difficulties when radiation of an electronic module is to be determined under non-free-space conditions, i.e. with an enclosure. We propose an estimate on radiation limit under such conditions based only on the Huygens' box data from free...

  4. Limits and conditions for permanent operation of the LVR-15 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The ''Limits and Conditions'' have been set up to demonstrate compliance with all nuclear safety requirements specified by the Decree of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission No. 9/1985, and to serve as a guide for the reactor operators to respond adequately to deviations from the required values in normal operation conditions. The publications is divided into the following chapters: (1) Safety limits of the LVR-15 reactor; (2) Adjusting the reactor protection and control system parameters; (3) Limiting conditions for normal operation modes; (4) Control requirements; and (5) reactor operation management. A document by the Institute for Research, Production, and Application of Radioisotopes specifying conditions for the acceptance of radioactive wastes to the central repository is appended. (P.A.). 7 tabs

  5. Anoxic conditions drive phosphorus limitation in humid tropical forest soil microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Weber, P. K.; Blazewicz, S.; Silver, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    The elemental stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of soil microorganisms (C:N:P ratios) regulates transfers of energy and nutrients to higher trophic levels. In humid tropical forests that grow on P-depleted soils, the ability of microbes to concentrate P from their surroundings likely plays a critical role in P-retention and ultimately in forest productivity. Models predict that climate change will cause dramatic changes in rainfall patterns in the humid tropics and field studies have shown these changes can affect the redox state of tropical forest soils, influencing soil respiration and biogeochemical cycling. However, the responses of soil microorganisms to changing environmental conditions are not well known. Here, we incubated humid tropical soils under oxic or anoxic conditions with substrates differing in both C:P stoichiometry and lability, to assess how soil microorganisms respond to different redox regimes. We found that under oxic conditions, microbial C:P ratios were similar to the global optimal ratio (55:1), indicating most microbial cells can adapt to persistent aerated conditions in these soils. However, under anoxic conditions, the ability of soil microbes to acquire soil P declined and their C:P ratios shifted away from the optimal ratio. NanoSIMS elemental imaging of single cells extracted from soil revealed that under anoxic conditions, C:P ratios were above the microbial optimal value in 83% of the cells, in comparison to 41% under oxic conditions. These data suggest microbial growth efficiency switched from being energy limited under oxic conditions to P-limited under anoxic conditions, indicating that, microbial growth in low P humid tropical forests soils may be most constrained by P-limitation when conditions are oxygen-limited. We suggest that differential microbial responses to soil redox states could have important implications for productivity of humid tropical forests under future climate scenarios.

  6. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  7. Competition as a mechanism structuring mutualisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Itamar Giladi; Mark A. Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Summary 1. Hutchinsonian niche theory posits that organisms have fundamental abiotic resource requirements from which they are limited by competition. Organisms also have fundamental biotic requirements, such as mutualists, for which they also might compete. 2. We test this idea with a widespread ant–plant mutualism. Ant-mediated seed dispersal (myrmecochory) in...

  8. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered

  9. 50 CFR 22.32 - Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Golden Eagles § 22.32 Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order. (a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit is authorized for the seasonal protection of livestock, such birds may be taken by firearms, traps, or other suitable means except by poison or from aircraft...

  10. Silicon enhances leaf remobilization of iron in cucumber under limited iron conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, Jelena; Samardzic, Jelena; Kostic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    leaves and the subsequent retranslocation of Fe to young leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants growing under Fe-limiting conditions was investigated. METHODS: Iron ((57)Fe or naturally occurring isotopes) was measured in leaves at different positions on plants hydroponically growing with or without...

  11. Prevalence of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis’ type II under phosphate limiting conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welles, L.; Lopez Vazquez, C.M.; Hooijmans, C. M.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Brdjanovic, D

    2016-01-01

    P-limitation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems fed with acetate, has generally been considered as a condition leading to enrichment of organisms of the genotype’ Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis’ expressing the glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) phenotype. Recent

  12. Pitfalls in Using Limitation Clauses in the International General Conditions ECE 188 and Orgalime S 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2008-01-01

    various individual provisions contained in the general conditions - for example limitation of the right to require repair and further limitation of liability. If this is not motivated by the circumstances surrounding the particular contract, the parties risk creating imbalances in the otherwise well-balanced......The article centers on the rules on the limitation of liability in the general conditions ECE 188 and Orgalime S 2000. ECE 188 differ considerably from S 2000, as the provisions in ECE 188 do not give the necessary consideration to the development in industry practices and legal rules, including...... the approximation and harmonization of legal systems that have taken place during the last 50 years. S 2000 reflects an international trend that increasingly recognizes the importance of striking a balance between the interests of the parties. However, in practice the parties often derogate considerably from...

  13. Performance Evaluation of Equity Mutual Funds in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rini Demi Pangestuti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutual funds considered as an investment alternative for investors. One type of mutual fund that attracts many investors was the equity mutual funds. Equity mutual fund is a type of mutual funds that most part of the investment consists of stocks in the capital market so the risk rate was higher than the other types of mutual funds. For its different characteristic, the measurement for equity funds performance did not be same with other types of mutual funds. As a stock portfolio, equity mutual funds can be measured by portfolio measurement methods such as Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, Jensen Index, Adjusted Sharpe Index, Adjusted Jensen Index, and Sortino Ratio. This study was conducted by using all of those performance measurements as most research in Indonesia was conducted by using limited performance measurements (focusing on Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, and Jensen Index. This study aims to evaluated the performance of 42 equity mutual funds available in Indonesia by employing Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, Jensen Index, Adjusted Sharpe Index (ASI, Adjusted Jensen Index (AJI, and Sortino Ratio because most previous researches in Indonesian setting disregards ASI and AJI. In general, it was concluded that the SAM Indonesian Equity was the best performing equity fund during the study period. It was further found that most equity mutual fund studied have been well diversified.

  14. Holographic mutual information of two disjoint spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Fan, Zhong-Ying; Li, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Cheng-Yong

    2018-04-01

    We study quantum corrections to holographic mutual information for two disjoint spheres at a large separation by using the operator product expansion of the twist field. In the large separation limit, the holographic mutual information is vanishing at the semiclassical order, but receive quantum corrections from the fluctuations. We show that the leading contributions from the quantum fluctuations take universal forms as suggested from the boundary CFT. We find the universal behavior for the scalar, the vector, the tensor and the fermionic fields by treating these fields as free fields propagating in the fixed background and by using the 1 /n prescription. In particular, for the fields with gauge symmetries, including the massless vector boson and massless graviton, we find that the gauge parts in the propagators play an indispensable role in reading the leading order corrections to the bulk mutual information.

  15. Forming Limits in Sheet Metal Forming for Non-Proportional Loading Conditions - Experimental and Theoretical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofenheimer, Aldo; Buchmayr, Bruno; Kolleck, Ralf; Merklein, Marion

    2005-01-01

    The influence of strain paths (loading history) on material formability is well known in sheet forming processes. Sophisticated experimental methods are used to determine the entire shape of strain paths of forming limits for aluminum AA6016-T4 alloy. Forming limits for sheet metal in as-received condition as well as for different pre-deformation are presented. A theoretical approach based on Arrieux's intrinsic Forming Limit Stress Curve (FLSC) concept is employed to numerically predict the influence of loading history on forming severity. The detailed experimental strain paths are used in the theoretical study instead of any linear or bilinear simplified loading histories to demonstrate the predictive quality of forming limits in the state of stress

  16. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  17. Mutual capacitor and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new ac circuit element – the mutual capacitor, being a dual of the mutual inductor, which is also a new ac transformer. This element is characteristic of the mutual-capacitance coupling of a multi-capacitance system. A unity-coupled mutual capacitor works as an ideal current or voltage transformer, and incidentally acts as waveform separating when inductor employed or waveform converting from square-wave to quasi-sine or waveform filtering, between ports. As a transformer, the mutual capacitor is easy to design, easy for heat cooling, more accurate for current or voltage transformation, dissipating less energy as well as saving materials, suitable for high-power and high-voltage applications. Experiments to demonstrate performances of unity-coupled mutual capacitors are also given.

  18. Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited, 2010 asset condition assessment audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotho, K.; Wang, F. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited (THESL) has long been devoted to the enhancement of its asset management program. In 2006, Kinectrics Incorporated (Kinectrics) performed a full asset condition assessment (ACA) for important distribution assets. Subsequently, THESL made efforts to follow the recommendations given by the 2006 ACA and to enhance the quality of its asset condition data. THESL also created an application that measures the health indices of assets based on current and best available inspection data. In 2009, THESL performed a new ACA with this health index calculator. Kinectrics was requested to evaluate the improvement achieved by THESL between 2006 and 2009, and to compare the results obtained from the two ACA performed. An examination of the changes and ACA results between 2009 and 2010 has been conducted by Kinectrics. The Kinectrics findings were reported into the 2010 asset condition assessment audit report. The Health Index (HI) formulation and the results obtained between 2009 and 2010 were examined for twenty-one asset categories. The health index formulation including condition parameters, condition parameter weights and condition criteria, the granularity within the asset category, the percentage of the population presenting sufficient condition data and the health index classification distribution were compared for each one of the asset categories between 2009 and 2010. This report provides recommendations to facilitate future improvements.

  19. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing safety standards relating to nuclear power plants. The present Safety Guide supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Operational Limits and Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants which was issued in 1979 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-O3. For a nuclear power plant to be operated in a safe manner, the provisions made in the final design and subsequent modifications shall be reflected in limitations on plant operating parameters and in the requirements on plant equipment and personnel. Under the responsibility of the operating organization, these shall be developed during the design safety evaluation as a set of operational limits and conditions (OLCs). A major contribution to compliance with the OLCs is made by the development and utilization of operating procedures (OPs) that are consistent with and fully implement the OLCs. The requirements for the OLCs and OPs are established in Section 5 of the IAEA Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which this Safety Guide supplements. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the development, content and implementation of OLCs and OPs. The Safety Guide is directed at both regulators and owners/operators. This Safety Guide covers the concept of OLCs, their content as applicable to land based stationary power plants with thermal neutron reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The OPs to support the implementation of the OLCs and to ensure their observance are also within the scope of this Safety Guide. The particular aspects of the procedures for maintenance, surveillance, in-service inspection and other safety related activities in connection with the safe operation of nuclear power plants are outside the scope of this Safety Guide but can be found in other IAEA Safety Guides. Section 2 indicates the

  20. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing safety standards relating to nuclear power plants. The present Safety Guide supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Operational Limits and Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants which was issued in 1979 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-O3. For a nuclear power plant to be operated in a safe manner, the provisions made in the final design and subsequent modifications shall be reflected in limitations on plant operating parameters and in the requirements on plant equipment and personnel. Under the responsibility of the operating organization, these shall be developed during the design safety evaluation as a set of operational limits and conditions (OLCs). A major contribution to compliance with the OLCs is made by the development and utilization of operating procedures (OPs) that are consistent with and fully implement the OLCs. The requirements for the OLCs and OPs are established in Section 5 of the IAEA Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which this Safety Guide supplements. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the development, content and implementation of OLCs and OPs. The Safety Guide is directed at both regulators and owners/operators. This Safety Guide covers the concept of OLCs, their content as applicable to land based stationary power plants with thermal neutron reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The OPs to support the implementation of the OLCs and to ensure their observance are also within the scope of this Safety Guide. The particular aspects of the procedures for maintenance, surveillance, in-service inspection and other safety related activities in connection with the safe operation of nuclear power plants are outside the scope of this Safety Guide but can be found in other IAEA Safety Guides. Section 2 indicates the

  1. Role of microRNAs involved in plant response to nitrogen and phosphorous limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giao N; Rothstein, Steven J; Spangenberg, German; Kant, Surya

    2015-01-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs which target and regulate the expression of genes involved in several growth, development, and metabolism processes. Recent researches have shown involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of uptake and utilization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and more importantly for plant adaptation to N and P limitation conditions by modifications in plant growth, phenology, and architecture and production of secondary metabolites. Developing strategies that allow for the higher efficiency of using both N and P fertilizers in crop production is important for economic and environmental benefits. Improved crop varieties with better adaptation to N and P limiting conditions could be a key approach to achieve this effectively. Furthermore, understanding on the interactions between N and P uptake and use and their regulation is important for the maintenance of nutrient homeostasis in plants. This review describes the possible functions of different miRNAs and their cross-talk relevant to the plant adaptive responses to N and P limiting conditions. In addition, a comprehensive understanding of these processes at molecular level and importance of biological adaptation for improved N and P use efficiency is discussed.

  2. A Necessary Moment Condition for the Fractional Functional Central Limit Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We discuss the moment condition for the fractional functional central limit theorem (FCLT) for partial sums of x(t)=¿^(-d)u(t), where d ¿ (-1/2,1/2) is the fractional integration parameter and u(t) is weakly dependent. The classical condition is existence of q>max(2,(d+1/2)-¹) moments...... of the innovation sequence. When d is close to -1/2 this moment condition is very strong. Our main result is to show that under some relatively weak conditions on u(t), the existence of q=max(2,(d+1/2)-¹) is in fact necessary for the FCLT for fractionally integrated processes and that q>max(2,(d+1/2)-¹) moments...... are necessary and sufficient for more general fractional processes. Davidson and de Jong (2000) presented a fractional FCLT where only q>2 finite moments are assumed, which is remarkable because it is the only FCLT where the moment condition has been weakened relative to the earlier condition. As a corollary...

  3. A necessary moment condition for the fractional functional central limit theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We discuss the moment condition for the fractional functional central limit theorem (FCLT) for partial sums of x_{t}=Delta^{-d}u_{t}, where d in (-1/2,1/2) is the fractional integration parameter and u_{t} is weakly dependent. The classical condition is existence of q>max(2,(d+1/2)^{-1}) moments...... of the innovation sequence. When d is close to -1/2 this moment condition is very strong. Our main result is to show that under some relatively weak conditions on u_{t}, the existence of q≥max(2,(d+1/2)^{-1}) is in fact necessary for the FCLT for fractionally integrated processes and that q>max(2,(d+1....../2)^{-1}) moments are necessary and sufficient for more general fractional processes. Davidson and de Jong (2000) presented a fractional FCLT where only q>2 finite moments are assumed, which is remarkable because it is the only FCLT where the moment condition has been weakened relative to the earlier condition...

  4. Accuracy of the Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index using MODIS under water-limited vs. energy-limited evapotranspiration conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Monica; Fernández, N.; Villagarcía, L.

    2014-01-01

    surface fluxes using MODIS data; and (ii) provide insights about the factors most affecting the accuracy of results. Factors considered included the type of climatic control on evapotranspiration, λE, (i.e. water-limited vs. energy-limited), the quality of Tair estimates, the heterogeneity of land cover...

  5. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance... insurance companies and mutual fire insurance companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or...

  6. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  7. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  8. Failure strains and proposed limit strains for an reactor pressure vessel under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    2005-01-01

    The local failure strains of essential design elements of a reactor vessel are investigated. The size influence of the structure is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial load. Within one test family the specimen geometry and the load conditions are similar, but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for the reactor vessel. A key problem is to determine the local failure strain. Here suitable methods had to be developed including the so-called 'vanishing gap method', and the 'forging die method'. They are based on post-test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields using finite element models. The results indicate that stresses versus dimensionless deformations are approximately size independent up to failure for specimens of similar geometry under similar load conditions. Local failure strains could be determined. The values are rather high and size dependent. Statistical evaluation allow the proposal of limit strains which are also size dependent. If these limit strains are not exceeded, the structures will not fracture

  9. Evaluation of physical conditional capabilities in athletes with physical motors limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira de las Mercedes Saínz-Reyes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in the province of Holguin with the disabled athletes competing in T53 mode event 100 m levels. It was determined as a scientific problem: How to evaluate the conditional physical capabilities in athletes with physical motor limitations in athletics? and as objective: To adapt functional tests to evaluate the conditional physical capabilities in athletes with physical motor limitations in athletics. A selection of functional test was carried out applying then some methodological modifications in order to make them easier for disabled athletes in wheelchairs. Theoretical and empirical levels methods as well as consensus techniques were used. The research has an adequate scientific rigor since a methodologies theoretical foundation on conditional physical capabilities and their evaluation by functional testing. Through the nominal group it could be determined the feasibility of the proposal, since the consulted experts came to the consensus that the chosen and modified functional tests can be applied to disabled athletes in wheelchairs, and recognized that through them it can be checked the training level of these athletes and the influence of the physical exercise in their organism.

  10. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis of premium deposits; taxable years... fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies...

  11. A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation. (paper)

  12. Generalized conditions for the distributional zero-mass limit of renormalized Feynman amplitudes in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukian, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Generalized conditions (rules) are set up for the existence of the distributional zero-mass limit of renormalized Feynman amplitudes in Minkowski space. These rules are generalizations of rules that have been set up earlier by us and hence are applicable to a larger class of graphs. The study is very general as the vanishing masses are led to vanish at different rates. All subtractions of renormalization are carried out directly in momentum space, about the origin, with the degree of divergence of a subtraction coinciding with the dimensionality of the corresponding subdiagram

  13. Transcriptome analysis documents induced competence of Bacillus subtilis during nitrogen limiting conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Berka, R.; Knudsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    DNA microarrays were used to analyze the changes in gene expression in Bacillus subtilis strain 168 when nitrogen limiting (glutamate) and nitrogen excess (ammonium plus glutamate) growth conditions were compared. Among more than 100 genes that were significantly induced during nitrogen starvation...... we detected the comG, comF, comE, nin-nucA and comK transcription units together with recA. DNA was added to B. subtilis grown in minimal medium with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source and it was demonstrated that the cells were competent. Based on these observations we propose a simplification...

  14. A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-09-01

    Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation.

  15. 'Massfunktionen' as limit conditions of an optimization scheme for the telecobalt therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, M.; Forth, E.; Schumann, E.

    1978-01-01

    The basic ideas of the 'Score-Funktionen-Modell' of Hope and his collaborators are used for the establishment of the first stage of an optimization scheme for the telecobalt therapy. The new 'Massfunktionen' for the telecobalt therapy are limit conditions for the criterion of the optimum, i.e. the dose distribution in a body section. The 'Massfunktionen' are an analytic registration of parameters for the dose distribution such as dose homogeneity in the focal region and sparing of the subcutaneous tissues, the radiosensitive organs and the sound surroundings of the tumor. The functions are derived from the dose conditions in the irradiated body section. At the actual stage of development of the optimization scheme, these functions allow to decide whether an irradiation scheme is acceptable or not. (orig.) [de

  16. Returns on Sustainable Mutual Funds in India

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anant

    2011-01-01

    The world has seen a huge growth in investment through the sustainable sector. But the study on the cost in construction and measuring the performance of such investments is confined to the limited countries. Thus to compare the performance of the sustainable investment with that of traditional investments it is necessary to increase the sample size of the study. Considering this in mind the paper aims to study the performance and risk of the sustainable mutual fund investments with that of t...

  17. Bacillus spp. from rainforest soil promote plant growth under limited nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X-F; Zhou, D; Guo, J; Manter, D K; Reardon, K F; Vivanco, J M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) isolated from rainforest soil on different plants under limited nitrogen conditions. Bacterial isolates from a Peruvian rainforest soil were screened for plant growth-promoting effects on Arabidopsis (Col-0). Four selected isolates including one Bacillus subtilis, two B. atrophaeus and one B. pumilus significantly promoted growth of Zea mays L. and Solanum lycopersicum under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, the PGPRs significantly promoted growth of S. lycopersicum in both low and nitrogen-amended soil conditions. These PGPR strains were further studied to obtain insights into possible mechanisms of plant growth promotion. Volatile chemicals from those isolates promoted Arabidopsis growth, and the expression of genes related to IAA production was induced in the Arabidopsis plants treated with PGPRs. Further, selected PGPR strains triggered induced systemic resistance (ISR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis. PGPR strains isolated from the rainforest soil promoted the plant growth of Arabidopsis, corn and tomato. New PGPR that have wider adaptability to different crops, soils and environmental conditions are needed to decrease our reliance on agricultural amendments derived from fossil-based fuels. The PGPRs isolated from a nonagricultural site constitute new plant growth-promoting strains that could be developed for agricultural uses. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Approximate source conditions for nonlinear ill-posed problems—chances and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Torsten; Hofmann, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    In the recent past the authors, with collaborators, have published convergence rate results for regularized solutions of linear ill-posed operator equations by avoiding the usual assumption that the solutions satisfy prescribed source conditions. Instead the degree of violation of such source conditions is expressed by distance functions d(R) depending on a radius R ≥ 0 which is an upper bound of the norm of source elements under consideration. If d(R) tends to zero as R → ∞ an appropriate balancing of occurring regularization error terms yields convergence rates results. This approach was called the method of approximate source conditions, originally developed in a Hilbert space setting. The goal of this paper is to formulate chances and limitations of an application of this method to nonlinear ill-posed problems in reflexive Banach spaces and to complement the field of low order convergence rates results in nonlinear regularization theory. In particular, we are going to establish convergence rates for a variant of Tikhonov regularization. To keep structural nonlinearity conditions simple, we update the concept of degree of nonlinearity in Hilbert spaces to a Bregman distance setting in Banach spaces

  19. Soil texture and climatc conditions for biocrust growth limitation: a meta analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas; Subbotina, Mariia

    2015-04-01

    clay content and with study site as a random effect. (III) Threshold values of texture and climatc effects were identified using a regression tree. Three mean annual temperature classes for texture dependent BSC growth limitation were identified: (1) 19 °C at soils with 17% silt and clay. Because biocrust development is limited under certain climatic and soil texture conditions, it is suggested to consider soil texture for biocrust rehabilitation purposes and in biogeochemical modeling of cryptogamic ground covers. References Belnap, J. & Eldridge, D. 2001. Disturbance and Recovery of Biological Soil Crusts. In: Belnap, J. & Lange, O. (eds.) Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Springer, Berlin. Belnap, J. 2001. Biological Soil Crusts and Wind Erosion. In: Belnap, J. & Lange, O. (eds.) Fischer, T., Subbotina, M. 2014. Climatic and soil texture threshold values for cryptogamic cover development: a meta analysis. Biologia 69/11:1520-1530,

  20. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage, one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  1. Revisiting Mutual Fund Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Angelidis, Timotheos; Giamouridis, Daniel; Tessaromatis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Mutual fund manager excess performance should be measured relative to their self-reported benchmark rather than the return of a passive portfolio with the same risk characteristics. Ignoring the self-reported benchmark introduces biases in the measurement of stock selection and timing components of excess performance. We revisit baseline empirical evidence in mutual fund performance evaluation utilizing stock selection and timing measures that address these biases. We introduce a new factor e...

  2. Prediction of knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2005-01-01

    Computer models of engine processes are valuable tools for predicting and analyzing engine performance and allow exploration of many engine design alternatives in an inexpensive fashion. In the present work, a zero-dimensional, two zone thermodynamic model was used to determine the knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine. Experimentally based burning rate models were used for flame initiation and propagation calculations. A knock model was incorporated with the zero-dimensional model. Comparison of the measured and calculated cylinder pressure data indicated that the model is able to match the measured cylinder pressure data with less than 8% error in magnitudes if the computations are started at the experimental spark timing. The knock predictions agreed with the measurements also. With the established knock model, it is possible not only to investigate whether knock is observed with changing operating and design parameters, but also to evaluate their effects on the maximum possible knock intensity

  3. Oxygen collection in the limiter shadow of TEXTOR depending on wall conditioning with boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienhold, P.; Seggern, J. v.; Kuenzli, H.

    1991-01-01

    One of the major consequences of the boronization of TEXTOR compared to the carbonized machine was the further and remaining decrease of the oxygen contamination of the plasma. This has lowered also the carbon chemical sputtering by a factor of two in spite of higher radiative power loads to the graphite limiters and made auxiliary heating up to 6 MW possible. The fact, that oxygen did not reoccur as it happened during operation with carbonized walls caused the suggestion of gettering by the formation of a stable bond to the boron. Therefore, a period (May/June 89) where different conditioning treatments with boron were applied to TEXTOR gave ideal circumstances for collection experiments in the SOL and the subsequent analysis of the deposits aiming at the understanding of this hypothesis. (author) 10 refs., 2 figs

  4. Biocorrosion and biofilm formation in a nutrient limited heating system subjected to alternating microaerophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup, B V; Kjeldsen, K U; Lopes, F; Abildgaard, L; Ingvorsen, K; Frølund, B; Sowers, K R; Nielsen, P H

    2009-11-01

    Severe biofilm formation and biocorrosion have been observed in heating systems even when the water quality complied with existing standards. The coupling between water chemistry, biofilm formation, species composition, and biocorrosion in a heating system was investigated by adding low concentrations of nutrients and oxygen under continuous and alternating dosing regimes. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments demonstrated that the amendments did not cause changes in the overall bacterial community composition. The combined alternating dosing of nutrients and oxygen caused increased rates of pitting (bio-) corrosion. Detection of bacteria involved in sulfide production and oxidation by retrieval of the functional dsrAB and apsA genes revealed the presence of Gram-positive sulfate- and sulfite-reducers and an unknown sulfur-oxidizer. Therefore, to control biocorrosion, sources of oxygen and nutrients must be limited, since the effect of the alternating operational conditions apparently is more important than the presence of potentially corrosive biofilm bacteria.

  5. Limiting conditions for nuclear power plant competitiveness vs. fossil and wind plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, Danilo; Cavlina, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare potential energy options for future electricity generation. The paper considers comparison of discounted total cost of electricity generated by nuclear power plant and by combined natural gas and wind plants, having in total equal electricity generation. Large uncertainty in the future fuel costs makes planning of optimal power generating mix very difficult to justify. Probabilistic method is used in the analysis which allows inclusion of uncertainties in future electricity generating cost prediction. Additionally, an informative functional relation between nuclear plant investment cost, natural gas price and wind plant efficiency, that determines competitive power generation between considered options, is also shown. Limiting conditions for nuclear power plant competitiveness vs. fossil and wind plants are presented. (authors)

  6. Investing in Uncertainty: Young Adults with Life-Limiting Conditions Achieving Their Developmental Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karen A; Jack, Susan M; Siden, Hal; Thabane, Lehana; Browne, Gina

    2016-08-01

    With improvements in pediatric care and technology, more young adults (YAs) with life-limiting conditions (LLCs) are surviving into adulthood. However, they have limited expectations to live beyond the first decade of adulthood. This study describes the monumental efforts required for YAs with LLCs to achieve their goals in an abbreviated life. The experiences and aspirations of YAs with LLCs to achieve their goals are relatively unknown. This report focuses on their experiences of living with uncertainty and its impact on achieving developmental goals. This study is one component of a larger descriptive study using an innovative bulletin board focus group to examine life experiences of YAs with LLCs. YAs with LLCs share the aspirations and goals of all YAs. Some participants demonstrated a striking capacity to navigate system barriers and achieve their goals, whereas others "got stuck" resulting in lost opportunities. Successful personal life investments were possible if resources were made available, coordinated, navigable, and responsive to new and special requests. Transformative changes to health, social care, and community services are necessary to support their YA ambitions. This study gave voice to those who were previously unheard and demonstrates the monumental hurdles YAs with LLCs face to achieve their goals. A palliative approach to care can mitigate unnecessary hardships and support their goals.

  7. Siblings of children with life-limiting conditions: psychological adjustment and sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, J M; Totsika, V; Hain, R; Hastings, R P

    2017-05-01

    This study explored psychological adjustment and sibling relationships of siblings of children with life-limiting conditions (LLCs), expanding on previous research by defining LLCs using a systematic classification of these conditions. Thirty-nine siblings participated, aged 3-16 years. Parents completed measures of siblings' emotional and behavioural difficulties, quality of life, sibling relationships and impact on families and siblings. Sibling and family adjustment and relationships were compared with population norms, where available, and to a matched comparison group of siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), as a comparable 'high risk' group. LLC siblings presented significantly higher levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties, and lower quality of life than population norms. Their difficulties were at levels comparable to siblings of children with ASD. A wider impact on the family was confirmed. Family socio-economic position, time since diagnosis, employment and accessing hospice care were factors associated with better psychological adjustment. Using a systematic classification of LLCs, the study supported earlier findings of increased levels of psychological difficulties in siblings of children with a LLC. The evidence is (i) highlighting the need to provide support to these siblings and their families, and (ii) that intervention approaches could be drawn from the ASD field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Murao, Mio [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.

  9. Entanglement in mutually unbiased bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesniak, M; Zeilinger, A [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology (VCQ), Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Paterek, T, E-mail: tomasz.paterek@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-05-15

    One of the essential features of quantum mechanics is that most pairs of observables cannot be measured simultaneously. This phenomenon manifests itself most strongly when observables are related to mutually unbiased bases. In this paper, we shed some light on the connection between mutually unbiased bases and another essential feature of quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement. It is shown that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases of a bipartite system contains a fixed amount of entanglement, independent of the choice of the set. This has implications for entanglement distribution among the states of a complete set. In prime-squared dimensions we present an explicit experiment-friendly construction of a complete set with a particularly simple entanglement distribution. Finally, we describe the basic properties of mutually unbiased bases composed of product states only. The constructions are illustrated with explicit examples in low dimensions. We believe that the properties of entanglement in mutually unbiased bases may be one of the ingredients to be taken into account to settle the question of the existence of complete sets. We also expect that they will be relevant to applications of bases in the experimental realization of quantum protocols in higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces.

  10. Generalized Mutual Synchronization between Two Controlled Interdependent Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Quan; Zhuang, Shengxian; Hu, Dan; Zeng, Yingfeng; Xiao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the generalized mutual synchronization between two controlled interdependent networks. First, we propose the general model of controlled interdependent networks $A$ and $B$ with time-varying internetwork delays coupling. Then, by constructing Lyapunov functions and utilizing adaptive control technique, some sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the mutual synchronization errors between the state variables of networks $A$ and $B$ can asymptotically c...

  11. International Children's Palliative Care Network: A Global Action Network for Children With Life-Limiting Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Joan; Boucher, Sue; Downing, Julia

    2018-02-01

    The International Children's Palliative Care Network (ICPCN) is a global network of individuals and organizations working together to reach the estimated 21 million children with life-limiting conditions and life-threatening illnesses. The drive to establish the ICPCN was born from the recognition of the gaps in service provision for children's palliative care and the need to collaborate, network, and share resources. Established in 2005 during a meeting in Seoul, South Korea, the ICPCN has developed over the years into an established network with a global membership. The history of the organization is described, including some of the key events since its inception. Working in collaboration with others, ICPCN has five key focus areas: Communication; Advocacy; Research; Education; and Strategic development, and is the only international charity working globally for the rights of children with palliative care needs. Activities in these areas are discussed, along with the inter-connection between the five areas. Without the ICPCN, palliative care for children would not have developed as far as it has over the years and the organization is committed to ongoing work in this area until all children requiring palliative care have access to quality services, wherever they live around the world. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A probabilistic evaluation of temporarily extending the diesel generator limiting condition for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukielka, C.A.; Detamore, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Pennsylvania Power and Light Company is installing a fifth diesel generator at its Susquehanna Steam Electric Station. This new diesel generator will serve as a ''swing'' diesel generator, i.e., perform the function of any of the existing diesel generators. The addition of this diesel generator avoids a dual unit shutdown should a diesel generator outage for maintenance or repair exceed the three day Technical Specification Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO). It is estimated that up to fifteen days per diesel generator will be required to complete the tie-in. In accordance with the existing three day LCO, a dual unit shutdown would then result. To preclude such a shutdown, a one time temporary extension to the three day LCO was requested of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper presents a probabilistic evaluation that was used to estimate the increased risk due to extending the LCO to a cumulative sixty days to allow the tie-in of the fifth diesel generator

  13. Oxidative Uranium Release from Anoxic Sediments under Diffusion-Limited Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Sharon E; Cahill, Melanie R; Jones, Morris E; Fendorf, Scott; Davis, James; Williams, Kenneth H; Bargar, John R

    2017-10-03

    Uranium (U) contamination occurs as a result of mining and ore processing; often in alluvial aquifers that contain organic-rich, reduced sediments that accumulate tetravalent U, U(IV). Uranium(IV) is sparingly soluble, but may be mobilized upon exposure to nitrate (NO 3 - ) and oxygen (O 2 ), which become elevated in groundwater due to seasonal fluctuations in the water table. The extent to which oxidative U mobilization can occur depends upon the transport properties of the sediments, the rate of U(IV) oxidation, and the availability of inorganic reductants and organic electron donors that consume oxidants. We investigated the processes governing U release upon exposure of reduced sediments to artificial groundwater containing O 2 or NO 3 - under diffusion-limited conditions. Little U was mobilized during the 85-day reaction, despite rapid diffusion of groundwater within the sediments and the presence of nonuraninite U(IV) species. The production of ferrous iron and sulfide in conjunction with rapid oxidant consumption suggested that the sediments harbored large concentrations of bioavailable organic carbon that fueled anaerobic microbial respiration and stabilized U(IV). Our results suggest that seasonal influxes of O 2 and NO 3 - may cause only localized mobilization of U without leading to export of U from the reducing sediments when ample organic carbon is present.

  14. Continuous aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using a trickle bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Prade, Rolf A; Müller, Michael; Wilkins, Mark R

    2018-05-01

    An A. nidulans strain with a pyridoxine marker was used for continuous production of aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO) in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). Modified medium with reduced zinc, no copper, and 5 g/L ascorbic acid that reduced melanin production and increased AAO productivity under growth limited conditions was used. Two air flow rates, 0.11 L/min (0.1 vvm) and 1.1 L/min (1.0 vvm) were tested. More melanin formation and reduced protein productivity were observed with air flow rate of 1.1 L/min. Three random packings were used as support for the fungus inside the TBR column, two of which were hydrophobic and one which was hydrophilic, and three different dilution rates were tested. The use of GEA BCN 030 hydrophobic packing resulted in greater AAO yield and productivity than the other packings. Increasing dilution rates favored melanin formation and citric, lactic and succinic acid accumulation, which decreased AAO yield and productivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Kinetically limited weathering at low denudation rates in semiarid climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonejans, Jérôme; Vanacker, Veerle; Opfergelt, Sophie; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Christl, Marcus

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycling within the Critical Zone depends on the interactions between minerals and fluids controlling chemical weathering and physical erosion rates. In this study, we explore the role of water availability in controlling soil chemical weathering in semiarid climatic conditions. Weathering rates and intensities were evaluated for nine soil profiles located on convex ridge crests of three mountain ranges in the Spanish Betic Cordillera. We combine a geochemical mass balance with 10Be cosmogenic nuclides to constrain chemical weathering intensities and long-term denudation rates. As such, this study presents new data on chemical weathering and 10Be-derived denudation for understudied semiarid climate systems. In the Betic Cordillera, chemical weathering intensities are relatively low (~5 to 30% of the total denudation of the soil) and negatively correlated with the magnitude of the water deficit in soils. Chemical mass losses are inversely related to denudation rates (14-109 mm/kyr) and positively to soil thickness (14-58 cm); these results are consistent with kinetic limitation of chemical weathering rates. A worldwide compilation of chemical weathering data suggests that soil water balance may regulate the coupling between chemical weathering and physical erosion by modulating soil solute fluxes. Therefore, future landscape evolution models that seek to link chemical weathering and physical erosion should include soil water flux as an essential driver of weathering.

  16. The limiting conditional probability distribution in a stochastic model of T cell repertoire maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirk, Emily R; Lythe, Grant; van den Berg, Hugo A; Hurst, Gareth A D; Molina-París, Carmen

    2010-04-01

    The limiting conditional probability distribution (LCD) has been much studied in the field of mathematical biology, particularly in the context of epidemiology and the persistence of epidemics. However, it has not yet been applied to the immune system. One of the characteristic features of the T cell repertoire is its diversity. This diversity declines in old age, whence the concepts of extinction and persistence are also relevant to the immune system. In this paper we model T cell repertoire maintenance by means of a continuous-time birth and death process on the positive integers, where the origin is an absorbing state. We show that eventual extinction is guaranteed. The late-time behaviour of the process before extinction takes place is modelled by the LCD, which we prove always exists for the process studied here. In most cases, analytic expressions for the LCD cannot be computed but the probability distribution may be approximated by means of the stationary probability distributions of two related processes. We show how these approximations are related to the LCD of the original process and use them to study the LCD in two special cases. We also make use of the large N expansion to derive a further approximation to the LCD. The accuracy of the various approximations is then analysed. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation on current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin-film wire considering electric coupling condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, H.-I.; Han, B.-S.; Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Song, S.-S.; Han, T.-H.; Han, S.-C.

    2011-01-01

    The basic way to improve the performance of a superconducting current limiter is to apply and evaluate a superconducting device that is appropriate to the superconducting current limiter. Among the many types of superconducting devices, the YBCO thin film wire has excellent current-limiting performance that is appropriate for actual system application. For the application of the YBCO thin film wire to superconducting current limiters, its current-limiting performance as a unit device must be accurately evaluated, and measures to improve its current-limiting performance must be sought. Accordingly, to evaluate the current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin film wire, this study was conducted to evaluate its resistance-increasing trend, V max , T r , I max , I qt , and current-limiting rate as a unit device, after which the electric coupling condition that consists of a core and windings was used to evaluate the current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin film wire.

  18. Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Anna K; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-04-01

    A common empirical observation in mutualistic interactions is the persistence of variation in partner quality and, in particular, the persistence of exploitative phenotypes. For mutualisms between hosts and symbionts, most mutualism theory assumes that exploiters always impose fitness costs on their host. We exposed legume hosts to mutualistic (nitrogen-fixing) and exploitative (non-nitrogen-fixing) symbiotic rhizobia in field conditions, and manipulated the presence or absence of insect herbivory to determine if the costly fitness effects of exploitative rhizobia are context-dependent. Exploitative rhizobia predictably reduced host fitness when herbivores were excluded. However, insects caused greater damage on hosts associating with mutualistic rhizobia, as a consequence of feeding preferences related to leaf nitrogen content, resulting in the elimination of fitness costs imposed on hosts by exploitative rhizobia. Our experiment shows that herbivory is potentially an important factor in influencing the evolutionary dynamic between legumes and rhizobia. Partner choice and host sanctioning are theoretically predicted to stabilize mutualisms by reducing the frequency of exploitative symbionts. We argue that herbivore pressure may actually weaken selection on choice and sanction mechanisms, thus providing one explanation of why host-based discrimination mechanisms may not be completely effective in eliminating nonbeneficial partners. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. The Mutual Benchmarking Method for Smes’ Competitive Strategy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostek Katarzyna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitive advantage is a relative feature, evaluated in respect of other competing enterprises. The gaining of sustainable competitive advantage is conditioned by knowledge of own performance and the results of the competitive environment. SMEs have limited opportunities to obtain such information on their own. The method of mutual benchmarking changes this situation by introducing the collaborative network. The aim of the cooperation is to support each of the group members to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, which is the result of a conscious strategy, and not only a matter of chance. This cooperation is based on the collecting and processing of data and sharing information through a common IT platform: for example, a group of Polish SMEs was shown how to implement such a common IT solution and how to provide the information preparing within the proposed service. The whole is a complete proposal for effective support of creating a competitive strategy in SMEs.

  20. Evaluation of the international limitations and conditions of the Argentinian nuclear politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Hugo R.

    2003-01-01

    It is a broadly accepted fact that the Argentine Republic is one of the few development countries that has reached an advance status in the world in pacific applications of nuclear science and technology. A retrospective vision of the main technical and political aspects that characterized the process to global scale allows to confirm, starting from the theory of the International Relations, that the position reached by the country was the consequence of a coherent effort sustained under the almost exclusive conduction of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). The Nuclear politics of Argentine in the international concert during the last fifty years, sample a behavior of non adhesion to the juridical treaties commitments that were considered limitative for the initial objectives proposed when President General J. D. Peron created the CNEA in 1950: self-sufficiency and national autonomy. This continuity shows an unusual coherence in the foreign policy of the country maintained by all the governments that exercised the power during five decades. The result of this investigation task has allowed to elaborate a complex, reasonably coherent vision of the consequences that the limitations and conditions on the Argentine nuclear politics had in the three temporary dimensions and in different levels. From the theoretical point of view, the scenario starts from the crisis of the Utopism that revaluate the Classic Realism (H. Morgenthau) after the Second World War. In the next stage K. Waltz's Structural Realism starts when the internationalization process of the nuclear technology begins in the 50. Other theoretical models: Complex Interdependence (R. Keohane and J. Nye) and Peripheric Realism (C. Escude) at local level seem to be the representative models to describe the Argentine political behavior in the nuclear politic and to prove that the main variable in this field was the genuine domain of the scientific and technological knowledge developed in the national

  1. Metabolite profiling uncovers plasmid-induced cobalt limitation under methylotrophic growth conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kiefer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction and maintenance of plasmids in cells is often associated with a reduction of growth rate. The reason for this growth reduction is unclear in many cases.We observed a surprisingly large reduction in growth rate of about 50% of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 during methylotrophic growth in the presence of a plasmid, pCM80 expressing the tetA gene, relative to the wild-type. A less pronounced growth delay during growth under non-methylotrophic growth conditions was observed; this suggested an inhibition of one-carbon metabolism rather than a general growth inhibition or metabolic burden. Metabolome analyses revealed an increase in pool sizes of ethylmalonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA of more than 6- and 35-fold, respectively, relative to wild type, suggesting a strongly reduced conversion of these central intermediates, which are essential for glyoxylate regeneration in this model methylotroph. Similar results were found for M. extorquens AM1 pCM160 which confers kanamycin resistance. These intermediates of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway have in common their conversion by coenzyme B(12-dependent mutases, which have cobalt as a central ligand. The one-carbon metabolism-related growth delay was restored by providing higher cobalt concentrations, by heterologous expression of isocitrate lyase as an alternative path for glyoxylate regeneration, or by identification and overproduction of proteins involved in cobalt import.This study demonstrates that the introduction of the plasmids leads to an apparent inhibition of the cobalt-dependent enzymes of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Possible explanations are presented and point to a limited cobalt concentration in the cell as a consequence of the antibiotic stress.

  2. Individualised advance care planning in children with life-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, Erik A H; Tissing, Wim J E; Schuiling-Otten, Meggi A; de Kruiff, Chris C; Kremer, Leontien C M; Verhagen, A A Eduard

    2018-05-01

    In 2013, the Pediatric Association of the Netherlands launched an evidence-based guideline 'Palliative care for children'. To promote implementation in daily practice and hereby improve quality of paediatric palliative care, we aimed to develop a functional individualised paediatric palliative care plan (IPPCP) that covers physical, psychological, spiritual and social functioning, with great emphasis on the guideline's recommendations, advance care planning and patients' and parents' preferences and desires. A Dutch working group (28 individuals) with a strong multidisciplinary character developed a draft IPPCP, which was piloted retrospectively and prospectively. In the pilots we completed, the IPPCPs for patients who were recently diagnosed with a life-threatening or life-limiting condition and evaluated completeness, usability and user-friendliness. The final IPPCP comprised five domains: (1) IPPCP data, (2) basics, (3) social, (4) psychosocial and spiritual and (5) physical care. Each domain covered various components. In both pilots, the IPPCP was considered a comprehensive document that covered all areas of paediatric palliative care and was experienced as an improvement to the present situation. However, the current form was regarded to lack user-friendliness. We propose a set of essential components of a comprehensive IPPCP for paediatric palliative care with extra attention for advance care planning and anticipatory action. Patients' and parents' preferences and desires are included next to the recommendations of the evidence-based guideline 'Palliative care for children'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Mutual Recogniton of Professional Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Plimmer, Francis

    The publication aims to review the concept of mutual recognition of qualifications within the world wide surveying community, and to develop a framework for the introduction of standards of global professional competence in this area. The publication also includes a number of case studies from...

  4. The evolution of mutual ornamentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Kraaijeveld-Smit, Femmie J. L.; Komdeur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Many conspicuous ornamental traits in animals are expressed in both males and females. Despite this, most research has focused on sexually dimorphic ornamentation. Mutual ornamentation has often been viewed as a result of either a nonadaptive genetic correlation between the sexes or similar

  5. The Mutual Storytelling Writing Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.; Gold, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Because of differences in cultural backgrounds and learning styles, some children have a difficult time verbalizing their emotions or appear resistant to talking about themselves. Describes a technique, referred to as the mutual storytelling writing game, that has been found to be useful for children who have difficulty in engaging in traditional…

  6. An implementation of mutual inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwoord, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    We consider the parallel composition of two cyclic programs. The interaction of these programs consists of a form of synchronisation sometimes referred to as ‘mutual inclusion’. For a given implementation of this synchronisation by means of semaphore operations, we prove the correctness of the

  7. Generalized Mutual Synchronization between Two Controlled Interdependent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on the generalized mutual synchronization between two controlled interdependent networks. First, we propose the general model of controlled interdependent networks A and B with time-varying internetwork delays coupling. Then, by constructing Lyapunov functions and utilizing adaptive control technique, some sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the mutual synchronization errors between the state variables of networks A and B can asymptotically converge to zero. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results and to explore potential application in future smart grid. The simulation results also show how interdependent topologies and internetwork coupling delays influence the mutual synchronizability, which help to design interdependent networks with optimal mutual synchronizability.

  8. Solubility limits in Mn–Mg ferrites system under hydrothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemeda, O.M., E-mail: omhemeda@yahoo.co.uk [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Mostafa, N.Y. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Faculty of Science, Taif University, PO Box 888, Al-Haweiah, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Abd Elkader, O.H. [Electron Microscope and Thin Films Department, National Research Center, Dokki 12622, Cairo (Egypt); Electron Microscope Unit, Zoology Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahmed, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-09-01

    In the present investigation, we successfully synthesized a pure MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite by the hydrothermal method. Moreover, the effect of Mg ion content on the formation of Mn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles (with x varying from 0.1 to 1.0) was also investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM and Mossbauer Spectroscopy. Phases formed in the system Mn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}; 0.0≤x≤1.0 were investigated under hydrothermal conditions at 453 K.The produced phases were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning, transmission microscopy and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The information of composition, cation distribution in the spinel structure and the particle size of the products were obtained. The spinel ferrites; Mn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were formed in the range 0.0≤x≤0.3. However, sample with x>0.3 showed semi-crystalline magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) and hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) beside the ferrite phase. For x=1.0, only magnesium hydroxide and hematite are formed without any ferrites. Particles of uniform size around 10–20 nm were obtained in the spinel structure of Mn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x=0.0 and 0.1. The corresponding average crystallite size for each sample was 40.3 nm and 39.2 nm respectively. In addition, the Mossbauer spectra were analyzed into two subspectra, one for the tetrahedral A-site and the other for the octahedral B-site. The Mossbauer parameters were determined and discussed for the studied system. The cation distribution was estimated from the analysis of the Mossbauer spectra as well as the X-ray diffraction patterns. The results showed that Mg ions occupy mainly B-site while both Mn and Fe ions are distributed between A- and B-sites. - Highlights: • Mossbauer characterization of Mg–Mn ferrite prepared by hydrothermal route. • X-ray powder diffraction analysis of Mg–Mn ferrite prepared by hydrothermal route. • Solubility limit of MgMn ferrite under

  9. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict. We measured response functions linking carbon (C) assimilation and temperature- and moisture-related microclimatic factors for limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedlings growing in a heating × watering experiment within and above the alpine treeline. We then extrapolated these response functions using observed microclimate conditions to estimate the net effects of warming and associated soil drying on C assimilation across an entire growing season. Moisture and temperature limitations were each estimated to reduce potential growing season C gain from a theoretical upper limit by 15-30% (c. 50% combined). Warming above current treeline conditions provided relatively little benefit to modeled net assimilation, whereas assimilation was sensitive to either wetter or drier conditions. Summer precipitation may be at least as important as temperature in constraining C gain by establishing subalpine trees at and above current alpine treelines as seasonally dry subalpine and alpine ecosystems continue to warm. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Modified LMI condition for the realization of limit cycle-free digital filters using saturation arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vimal

    2007-01-01

    A criterion in the form of linear matrix inequality for the elimination of limit cycles in a class of state-space digital filters using saturation arithmetic is presented. The criterion is a modified form of a previously reported criterion

  11. Oxygen transfer rate during the production of alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Carlos F

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxygen transfer rate (OTR and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT play an important role in determining alginate production and its composition; however, no systematic study has been reported about the independent influence of the OTR and DOT. In this paper, we report a study about alginate production and the evolution of the molecular mass of the polymer produced by a wild-type A. vinelandii strain ATCC 9046, in terms of the maximum oxygen transfer rate (OTRmax in cultures where the dissolved oxygen tension (DOT was kept constant. Results The results revealed that in the two dissolved oxygen conditions evaluated, strictly controlled by gas blending at 0.5 and 5% DOT, an increase in the agitation rate (from 300 to 700 rpm caused a significant increase in the OTRmax (from 17 to 100 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 5% and from 6 to 70 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 0.5%. This increase in the OTRmax improved alginate production, as well as the specific alginate production rate (SAPR, reaching a maximal alginate concentration of 3.1 g L-1 and a SAPR of 0.031 g alg g biom-1 h-1 in the cultures at OTRmax of 100 mmol L-1 h-1. In contrast, the mean molecular mass (MMM of the alginate isolated from cultures developed under non-oxygen limited conditions increased by decreasing the OTRmax, reaching a maximal of 550 kDa at an OTRmax of 17 mmol L-1 h-1 . However, in the cultures developed under oxygen limitation (0.5% DOT, the MMM of the polymer was practically the same (around 200 kDa at 300 and 700 rpm, and this remained constant throughout the cultivation. Conclusions Overall, our results showed that under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions, alginate production and its molecular mass are linked to the OTRmax, independently of the DOT of the culture.

  12. Increased biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis during energetically limited growth and respiratory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Blank, Lars Mathias; Solem, Christian

    2008-01-01

    (glucose/mannose-specific phosphotransferase system). Amino acid catabolism could be excluded as the source of the additional ATP. Since mutants without a functional H+-ATPase produced less ATP under sugar starvation and respiratory conditions, the additional ATP yield appears to come partly from energy......Lactococcus lactis is known to be capable of respiration under aerobic conditions in the presence of haemin. In the present study the effect of respiration on ATP production during growth on different sugars was examined. With glucose as the sole carbon source, respiratory conditions in L. lactis...... MG1363 resulted in only a minor increase, 21%, in biomass yield. Since ATP production through substrate-level phosphorylation was essentially identical with and without respiration, the increased biomass yield was a result of energy-saving under respiratory conditions estimated to be 0.4 mol of ATP...

  13. Mutuality in the provision of Scottish healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Brian

    2015-11-01

    The backdrop to this article is provided by the Better Health, Better Care Action Plan (Scottish Government, 2007), Section 1 of which is entitled 'Towards a Mutual NHS'. According to Better Health, Better Care (Scottish Government, 2007: 5): 'Mutual organisations are designed to serve their members. They are designed to gather people around a common sense of purpose. They are designed to bring the organisation together in what people often call "co-production."' The aim of this article is to précis the current knowledge of mutuality in the provision of Scottish healthcare. In detail, it will: introduce the 'mutual' organisation; offer a historical perspective of mutuality; suggest why healthcare mutuality is important; and briefly, detail the differences in mutual health-care policy in England and Scotland. It is hoped that this analysis will help researchers and practitioners alike appreciate further the philosophy of mutuality in the provision of Scottish healthcare. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Anomalous behaviour of mutual information in finite flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, L.; Brown, J.; Bossomaier, T.

    2017-11-01

    The existing consensus is that flocks are poised at criticality, entailing long correlation lengths and a maximal value of Shannon mutual information in the large-system limit. We show, by contrast, that for finite flocks which do not truly break ergodicity in the long-observation-time limit, mutual information may not only fail to peak at criticality —as observed for other critical systems— but also diverge as noise tends to zero. This result carries implications for other finite-size, out-of-equilibrium systems, where observation times may vary widely compared to time scales of internal system dynamics; thus it may not be assumed that mutual information locates the phase transition.

  15. The Arabidopsis halophytic relative Thellungiella halophila tolerates nitrogen-limiting conditions by maintaining growth, nitrogen uptake, and assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Bi, Yong-Mei; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth; Barak, Simon; Rothstein, Steven J

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of mechanisms regulating nitrogen (N) use efficiency is required to reduce excessive input of N fertilizers while maintaining acceptable crop yields under limited N supply. Studying plant species that are naturally adapted to low N conditions could facilitate the identification of novel regulatory genes conferring better N use efficiency. Here, we show that Thellungiella halophila, a halophytic relative of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grows better than Arabidopsis under moderate (1 mm nitrate) and severe (0.4 mm nitrate) N-limiting conditions. Thellungiella exhibited a lower carbon to N ratio than Arabidopsis under N limitation, which was due to Thellungiella plants possessing higher N content, total amino acids, total soluble protein, and lower starch content compared with Arabidopsis. Furthermore, Thellungiella had higher amounts of several metabolites, such as soluble sugars and organic acids, under N-sufficient conditions (4 mm nitrate). Nitrate reductase activity and NR2 gene expression in Thellungiella displayed less of a reduction in response to N limitation than in Arabidopsis. Thellungiella shoot GS1 expression was more induced by low N than in Arabidopsis, while in roots, Thellungiella GS2 expression was maintained under N limitation but was decreased in Arabidopsis. Up-regulation of NRT2.1 and NRT3.1 expression was higher and repression of NRT1.1 was lower in Thellungiella roots under N-limiting conditions compared with Arabidopsis. Differential transporter gene expression was correlated with higher nitrate influx in Thellungiella at low (15)NO(3)(-) supply. Taken together, our results suggest that Thellungiella is tolerant to N-limited conditions and could act as a model system to unravel the mechanisms for low N tolerance.

  16. Mutual funds: temporary problem or permanent morass?

    OpenAIRE

    Paula A. Tkac

    2004-01-01

    The improprieties in the mutual fund industry that surfaced in the fall of 2003 prompted the passage and drafting of legislation and regulations that cover nearly every facet of mutual fund pricing and operations. While this regulatory flurry is clearly intended to protect shareholders’ interests, the question remains: How will these scandals and regulatory changes ultimately affect mutual fund investors? ; When considering the problems inherent in mutual fund management and the best ways to ...

  17. Comparison of investment opportunities in mutual funds

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the comparison of selected mutual funds in the Czech Republic. The main aim of this thesis is to evaluate the situation on the securities market of mutual funds and help to the investor with right choice of mutual fund. Work is initially devoted to the characteristics and history of collective investment. The following section describes mutual funds their characteristics, classification, creation and termination. Conclusion of the theoretical part is devoted to investme...

  18. THE MATHEMATIC MODEL OF POTENTIAL RELAXATION IN COULOSTATIC CONDITIONS FOR LIMITING DIFFUSION CURRENT CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Kapitonov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of coulostatic relaxation of the potential for solid metallic electrode was presented. The solution in the case of limiting diffusion current was obtained. On the basis of this model the technique of concentration measurements for heavy metal ions in diluted solutions was suggested. The model adequacy was proved by experimental data.

  19. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures which account for existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, the variability of... ocean discharges; (8) Incorporate alternative effluent limitations or standards where warranted by... identified in a storm water pollution prevention plan are adequate and properly implemented in accordance...

  20. Limits and conditions for continuous operation of WWR-S reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittermann, P.; Listik, E.

    1979-02-01

    The fundamental technological and nuclear characteristics of the WWR-S reactor, safety limits and concepts of technical surveillance with particular attention to radiation safety of staff and of neighbouring population are outlined. The rules are mandatory for the reactor staff and for the users. The material is part of safety documentation for the WWR-S reactor. (author)

  1. Species-rich grassland can persist under nitrogen-rich but phosphorus-limited conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van Han F.; Wamelink, Wieger; Slim, Pieter A.; Kamiński, Jan; Piórkowski, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Deposition of nitrogen is assumed to cause loss of botanical diversity, probably through increased production and exclusion of less competitive species. However, if production is (co-)limited by phosphorus, acceleration of the phosphorus cycle may be responsible for the diversity loss and,

  2. Root water extraction and limiting soil hydraulic conditions estimated by numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong van Lier, de Q.; Metselaar, K.; Dam, van J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Root density, soil hydraulic functions, and hydraulic head gradients play an important role in the determination of transpiration-rate-limiting soil water contents. We developed an implicit numerical root water extraction model to solve the Richards equation for the modeling of radial root water

  3. Implementation of mutual exclusion in VHDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.V.; Benders, L.P.M.; Stevens, M.P.J.; Wilsey, P.A.; Rhodes, D.

    1994-01-01

    In VHDL it is difficult to implement mutual exclusion at an abstract level since atomic actions are required. A local status model and an arbiter model are presented to achieve mutual exclusion in VHDL. Shared data, protected by a mutual exclusion mechanism, cannot be modelled as a simple, resolved

  4. Biomass and cellulosic ethanol production of forage sorghum under limited water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two year field study was conducted to evaluate biofuel production potential of two forage sorghum cultivars differing in brown midrib trait under non-irrigated and deficit irrigation conditions in the semiarid Southern High Plains of the U.S. Cultivar SP1990 (non-bmr = conventional cell wall comp...

  5. On incompressible limits for the Navier-Stokes system on unbounded domains under slip boundary conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Donatelli, D.; Feireisl, Eduard; Novotný, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2010), s. 783-798 ISSN 1531-3492 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06052; GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equations * singular limits * low Mach number * compressible fluids * unbounded domains Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.874, year: 2010 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=4976

  6. Contribution of chronic conditions to functional limitations using a multinomial outcome: Results for the older population in Belgium and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokota, R.T.C. (Renata T.C.); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); J-M. Robine (Jean-Marie); J. Tafforeau (Jean); P. Deboosere (Patrick); Moura, L. (Lenildo); Andrade, S.S.C.A. (Silvânia S.C.A.); Castro, S.S. (Shamyr S.); H. van Oyen (Herman)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The global phenomenon of population ageing is creating new challenges in both high and middle income countries, as functional limitations are expected to increase with age. The attribution method has been proposed to identify which conditions contribute most to disability

  7. High-frequency limit of the transport cross section in scattering by an obstacle with impedance boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksenko, A I; Cruz, J P; Lakshtanov, E L [Department of Mathematics, Aveiro University, Aveiro 3810 (Portugal)], E-mail: lakshtanov@rambler.ru

    2008-06-27

    The scalar scattering of a plane wave by a strictly convex obstacle with impedance boundary conditions is considered. A uniform bound of the total cross section for all values of the frequency is presented. The high-frequency limit of the transport cross section is calculated and presented as a classical functional of the variational calculus.

  8. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed.

  9. High-frequency limit of the transport cross section in scattering by an obstacle with impedance boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksenko, A I; Cruz, J P; Lakshtanov, E L

    2008-01-01

    The scalar scattering of a plane wave by a strictly convex obstacle with impedance boundary conditions is considered. A uniform bound of the total cross section for all values of the frequency is presented. The high-frequency limit of the transport cross section is calculated and presented as a classical functional of the variational calculus

  10. An Individual-Based Diploid Model Predicts Limited Conditions Under Which Stochastic Gene Expression Becomes Advantageous

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka

    2015-11-24

    Recent studies suggest the existence of a stochasticity in gene expression (SGE) in many organisms, and its non-negligible effect on their phenotype and fitness. To date, however, how SGE affects the key parameters of population genetics are not well understood. SGE can increase the phenotypic variation and act as a load for individuals, if they are at the adaptive optimum in a stable environment. On the other hand, part of the phenotypic variation caused by SGE might become advantageous if individuals at the adaptive optimum become genetically less-adaptive, for example due to an environmental change. Furthermore, SGE of unimportant genes might have little or no fitness consequences. Thus, SGE can be advantageous, disadvantageous, or selectively neutral depending on its context. In addition, there might be a genetic basis that regulates magnitude of SGE, which is often referred to as “modifier genes,” but little is known about the conditions under which such an SGE-modifier gene evolves. In the present study, we conducted individual-based computer simulations to examine these conditions in a diploid model. In the simulations, we considered a single locus that determines organismal fitness for simplicity, and that SGE on the locus creates fitness variation in a stochastic manner. We also considered another locus that modifies the magnitude of SGE. Our results suggested that SGE was always deleterious in stable environments and increased the fixation probability of deleterious mutations in this model. Even under frequently changing environmental conditions, only very strong natural selection made SGE adaptive. These results suggest that the evolution of SGE-modifier genes requires strict balance among the strength of natural selection, magnitude of SGE, and frequency of environmental changes. However, the degree of dominance affected the condition under which SGE becomes advantageous, indicating a better opportunity for the evolution of SGE in different genetic

  11. Limit strains for severe accident conditions. Final report of the EU-project LISSAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Seidenfuss, M.

    2003-10-01

    The local failure strains of essential reactor vessel components are investigated. The size influence of the components is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial static and dynamic loads. Within one test family the specimen geometries and the load conditions are similar, the temperature is the same; but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for reactor components. There are indications that for such non-uniform distributions size effects may be stronger than for uniform distributions. Thus size effects on the failure strains and failure processes are determined under realistic conditions. Several tests with nominal identical parameters are performed for small size specimens. In this way some information is obtained about the scatter. A reduced number of tests is carried out for medium size specimens and only a few tests are carried out for large size specimens to reduce the costs to an acceptable level. To manufacture all specimens sufficient material was available from the unused reactor pressure vessel Biblis C consisting of the material 22NiMoCr37. Thus variations of the mechanical material properties, which could impair the interpretation of the test results, are quite small. This has been confirmed by an adequate number of additional quality assurance tests. A key problem was the definition of failure and the determination of the local strains at failure for very different specimens under varying load conditions. Here appropriate methods had to be developed including the so-called 'vanishing gap method' and the 'forging die method'. They are based on post test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields

  12. Fathers' experiences of their child's life-limiting condition: An attachment narrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey-Pearce, Oliver; Stedmon, Jacqui; Dallos, Rudi; Davis, George

    2017-09-01

    When a child has a life-limiting illness, parental involvement is amplified, having to respond to the increased needs of the child. Both parents are affected by the illness, yet research has largely under-represented fathers' experiences of their child's illness. Seven fathers were interviewed about their experiences with their child's life-limiting illness. In addition, fathers' attachment strategies were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. Narrative analysis was implemented to explore the interviews, and indicators of attachment markers employed in the Adult Attachment Interview were also identified. The dominant themes were found to be 'experience of the diagnosis', 'living with the illness', 'struggling with emotions' and 'relationship with staff'. Within each theme, there were differences which related to the father's attachment strategies. This was particularly evident in parts of their narratives recounting critical moments of threat and anxiety in the course of discovering and adjusting to their child's illness. Importantly, the findings also suggested that the experience for the fathers stressed, and in some cases disrupted, their attachment coping strategies. All fathers told stories of trying to get it right for their children and family. Their experiences of, and adjustment to, the illness were related to their attachment strategies. The clinical implications for health professionals are discussed.

  13. Food consumption in ground beetles is limited under hypoxic conditions in response to ad libitum feeding, but not restricted feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2018-02-09

    Habitats on land with low oxygen availability provide unique niches inhabited by numerous species. The occupation of such hypoxic niches by animals is hypothesized to come at a cost linked to the limitations of aerobic metabolism and thus energy budget but may also provide benefits through physical protection from predators and parasitoids or reduced competition for food. We investigated the effects of hypoxic conditions on standard metabolic rate (SMR) and specific dynamic action (SDA) in male Carabus nemoralis. SMR and SDA were determined under three manipulated oxygen availabilities: 7, 14 and 21% O 2 and two feeding regimes: limited or ad libitum food consumption. In both hypoxic conditions, C. nemoralis was able to maintain SMR at levels similar to those in normoxia. When the meal size was limited, SDA duration did not differ among the oxygen availability conditions, but SDA was smaller under hypoxic conditions than at normoxic levels. The relative cost of digestion was significantly higher in normoxia than in hypoxia, but it did not affect net energy intake. In contrast, when offered a large meal to simulate ad libitum food conditions, beetles reduced their food consumption and net energy gain by 30% under hypoxia. Oxygen availability may influence the consumed prey size: the hypoxic condition did not limit net energy gain when the beetles fed on a small meal but did when they fed on a large meal. The results indicate that meal size is an important variable in determining differences in physiological costs and whole animal energy budgets at different concentrations of environmental oxygen levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Common Fixed Point Theorems in Fuzzy Metric Spaces Satisfying -Contractive Condition with Common Limit Range Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to emphasize the role of “common limit range property” to ascertain the existence of common fixed point in fuzzy metric spaces. Some illustrative examples are furnished which demonstrate the validity of the hypotheses and degree of utility of our results. We derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of self-mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any finite number of mappings. As an application to our main result, we prove an integral-type fixed point theorem in fuzzy metric space. Our results improve and extend a host of previously known results including the ones contained in Imdad et al. (2012.

  15. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  16. Mutual attraction of magnetic knots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    It is observed that the magnetic knots associated with active regions on the Sun have an attraction for each other during the formative period of the active regions, when new magnetic flux is coming to the surface. The attraction disappears when new flux ceases to rise through the surface. Then the magnetic spots and knots tend to come apart, leading to disintegration of the sunspots previously formed. The dissolution of the fields is to be expected, as a consequence of the magnetic repulsion of knots of like polarity and as a consequence of the hydromagnetic exchange instability.The purpose of this paper is to show that the mutual attraction of knots during the formative stages of a sunspot region may be understood as the mutual hydrodynamic attraction of the rising flux tubes. Two rising tubes attract each other, as a consequence of the wake of the leading tube when one is moving behind the other, and as a consequence of the Bernoulli effect when rising side by side

  17. Limit strains for severe accident conditions. Synthesis report of the EU-project LISSAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Seidenfuss, M.

    2003-10-01

    The local failure strains of essential reactor vessel components are investigated. The size influence of the components is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial static and dynamic loads. Within one test family the specimen geometry and the load conditions are similar, the temperature is the same; but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for reactor components. To manufacture all specimens sufficient material was available from the unused reactor pressure vessel Biblis C. Thus variations of the mechanical material properties, which could impair the interpretation of the test results, are rather small. This has been confirmed by an adequate number of additional quality assurance tests. A key problem was to determine the local strain at failure. Here suitable methods had to be developed including the so-called ''vanishing gap method'' and the ''forging die method''. They are based on post test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields using finite element calculations, for instance. To deepen the understanding of structural degradation and fracture and to allow extrapolations, advanced computational methods including damage models have been developed and validated. Several approaches were tried in parallel including so-called non-local concepts and descriptions of stochastic properties at grain size level. The experimental results indicate that stresses versus dimensionless deformations are approximately size independent up to failure for specimens of similar geometry under similar load conditions. Also the maximum stress is approximately size independent, if failure occurs after the maximum stress is reached

  18. Does Coordinated, Multidisciplinary Treatment Limit Medical Disability and Attrition Related to Spine Conditions in the US Navy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, Gregg; Campello, Marco; Hiebert, Rudi; Weiner, Shira Schecter; Rennix, Chris; Nordin, Margareta

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions account for the largest proportion of cases resulting in early separation from the US Navy. This study evaluates the impact of the Spine Team, a multidisciplinary care group that included physicians, physical therapists, and a clinical psychologist, for the treatment of active-duty service members with work-disabling, nonspecific low back pain at the Naval Medical Center, Portsmouth, VA, USA. We compared the impact of the introduction of the Spine Team in limiting disability and attrition from work-disabling spine conditions with the experience of the Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA, where there is no comparable spine team. Is a multidisciplinary spine team effective in limiting disability and attrition related to work-disabling spine conditions as compared with the current standard of care for US military active-duty service members? This is a retrospective, pre-/post-study with a separate, concurrent control group using administratively collected data from two large military medical centers during the period 2007 to 2009. In this study, disability is expressed as the proportion of active-duty service members seeking treatment for a work-disabling spine condition that results in the assignment of a first-career limited-duty status. Attrition is expressed as the proportion of individuals assigned a first-career limited-duty status for a work-disabling spine condition who were referred to a Physical Evaluation Board. We analyzed 667 individuals assigned a first-career limited-duty for a work-disabling spine condition between 2007 and 2009 who received care at the Naval Medical Center Portsmouth or Naval Medical Center San Diego. Rates of first-career limited-duty assignments for spine conditions decreased from 2007 to 2009 at both sites, but limited-duty rates decreased to a greater extent at the intervention site (Naval Medical Center Portsmouth; from 8.5 per 100 spine cases in 2007 to 5.1 per 100 cases in 2009, p Team was

  19. The Profile of a Polish Mutual Fund Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics that are typical of mutual fund managers. Design/methodology/approach - The study concentrates on a set of socio-demographic data, such as: age, gender, education, experience, and professional qualifications of 336 portfolio managers. The applied research strategy relies on an analysis concerning a set of statistical metrics describing the population under examination. Findings - The average Polish fund manager is a 37-year-old man, a holder of a stock-broker or investment adviser license. He obtained the authorization from the Polish Financial Supervision Authority (KNF a few years after graduating from the Warsaw School of Economics (SGH. He has 11 years' experience in financial markets and 7 years' experience in the mutual fund industry. Research implications/limitations - The identification of managerial characteristics for the purpose of creating a profile of a Polish mutual fund manager will provide an important basis for further surveys and analyses aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mutual funds. Originality/value/contribution - There are no investigations within the discussed area in Polish studies. Therefore, the identification of the characteristics that are typical of mutual fund managers will make a contribution to the finance literature.(original abstract

  20. Dynamics of chaotic oscillations in mutually coupled microchip lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, A; Kinugawa, S; Yoshimori, S

    2003-01-01

    We have numerically and experimentally investigated the dynamics of mutually coupled microchip lasers. Chaotic oscillations are observed in the vicinity of the boundary of the injection-locking range when the coupling strength and the difference of the optical frequencies are varied. Synchronization of chaos is always achieved under the condition to generate chaos.

  1. Market Timing : A Decomposition of Mutual Fund Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, L.A.P.; van der Sluis, P.J.; Verbeek, M.J.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    We decompose the conditional expected mutual fund return in ve parts.Two parts, selectivity and expert market timing, can be attributed to manager skill, and three to variation in market exposure that can be achieved by private investors as well.The dynamic model that we use to estimate the relative

  2. Dispositions taken in France to limit gaseous releases from PWR power plants in abnormal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinet, J.; Guieu, S.; Mulcey, P.

    1989-12-01

    The implementation of France's major nuclear programme - 56 PWR units in service or under construction - has gone hand in hand with the development of an original philosophy in the field of nuclear safety. From an initial core of deterministic safety philosophy current in the seventies, which has been wholly retained and, in some instances, refined, a range of complements has been made to include consideration of a number of additional situations based on a probabilistic approach. This has resulted in a better coherence for safety and a reduction of the severe accident probability. Furthermore, the establishment of emergency plans has enabled the Safety Authorities and the utility to adopt a coherent and logical approach to severe accidents, with the aim of better achieving defence in depth. This has resulted in the provision of certain additional measures intended to further reduce the consequences of severe accidents. In a accordance with the safety philosophy, adopted in France for nuclear PWR power stations, filtration systems have been specified and installed to limit the radiological consequences of consecutive gaseous emissions, on the one hand, in accidents taken into account in the design and, on the other hand, in accidents liable to jeopardize the integrity of the containment

  3. Mathematical model of the competition life cycle under limited resources conditions: Problem statement for business community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelomentsev, A. G.; Medvedev, M. A.; Berg, D. B.; Lapshina, S. N.; Taubayev, A. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Savina, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Present study is devoted to the development of competition life cycle mathematical model in the closed business community with limited resources. Growth of each agent is determined by the balance of input and output resource flows: input (cash) flow W is covering the variable V and constant C costs and growth dA/dt of the agent's assets A. Value of V is proportional to assets A that allows us to write down a first order non-stationary differential equation of the agent growth. Model includes the number of such equations due to the number of agents. The amount of resources that is available for agents vary in time. The balances of their input and output flows are changing correspondingly to the different stages of the competition life cycle. According to the theory of systems, the most complete description of any object or process is the model of its life cycle. Such a model describes all stages of its development: from the appearance ("birth") through development ("growth") to extinction ("death"). The model of the evolution of an individual firm, not contradicting the economic meaning of events actually observed in the market, is the desired result from modern AVMs for applied use. With a correct description of the market, rules for participants' actions, restrictions, forecasts can be obtained, which modern mathematics and the economy can not give.

  4. A surgical simulator for peeling the inner limiting membrane during wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Seiji; Someya, Yusei; Adachi, Shyn'ya; Masuda, Taisuke; Hayakawa, Takeshi; Harada, Kanako; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Totsuka, Kiyohito; Araki, Fumiyuki; Takao, Muneyuki; Aihara, Makoto; Arai, Fumihito

    2018-01-01

    The present study was performed to establish a novel ocular surgery simulator for training in peeling of the inner limited membrane (ILM). This simulator included a next-generation artificial ILM with mechanical properties similar to the natural ILM that could be peeled underwater in the same manner as in actual surgery. An artificial eye consisting of a fundus and eyeball parts was fabricated. The artificial eye was installed in the eye surgery simulator. The fundus part was mounted in the eyeball, which consisted of an artificial sclera, retina, and ILM. To measure the thickness of the fabricated ILM on the artificial retina, we calculated the distance of the step height as the thickness of the artificial ILM. Two experienced ophthalmologists then assessed the fabricated ILM by sensory evaluation. The minimum thickness of the artificial ILM was 1.9 ± 0.3 μm (n = 3). We were able to perform the peeling task with the ILM in water. Based on the sensory evaluation, an ILM with a minimum thickness and 1000 degrees of polymerization was suitable for training. We installed the eye model on an ocular surgery simulator, which allowed for the performance of a sequence of operations similar to ILM peeling. In conclusion, we developed a novel ocular surgery simulator for ILM peeling. The artificial ILM was peeled underwater in the same manner as in an actual operation.

  5. Using Upland Rice Root Traits to Identify N Use Efficient Genotypes for Limited Soil Nutrient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traore, K.; Traore, O. [INERA / Station de Farakoba, Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso); Bado, V. B. [Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), Saint Louis (Senegal)

    2013-11-15

    Crop production in the Sahelian countries of Africa is limited by many factors. The most important are low potential yields of local varieties, low inherent soil fertility and low applications of external inputs (organic and mineral fertilizers). A field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2008 with the objective to develop and validate screening protocols for plant traits that enhance N acquisition and utilization in upland rice grown in low N soils of two hundred (200) upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes from WAB, NERICA, CNA, CNAX, IRAT and IR lines. An experiment in small pots was carried out in a greenhouse of Farakoba research center. The pots were filled with a sandy soil and upland rice genotypes were grown during three weeks, harvested and studied for their root characteristics (seminal root length, adventitious root number, lateral root length and number and roots hair density). The small pot method was reliable for root trait characterisation at the seedling stage. A large variability among genotypes was exhibited for the root characteristics. The variability was larger within the NERICA and WAB lines compared to the other lines. The length of the seminal roots varied from 10 to 40 cm, the lateral root number ranged between 3 and 15 and the number of adventitious roots varied between 2 and 7. The selected root traits can be used to identify high nutrients and water use efficient genotypes. (author)

  6. Mutually unbiased coarse-grained measurements of two or more phase-space variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, E. C.; Walborn, S. P.; Tasca, D. S.; Rudnicki, Łukasz

    2018-05-01

    Mutual unbiasedness of the eigenstates of phase-space operators—such as position and momentum, or their standard coarse-grained versions—exists only in the limiting case of infinite squeezing. In Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 040403 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.040403, it was shown that mutual unbiasedness can be recovered for periodic coarse graining of these two operators. Here we investigate mutual unbiasedness of coarse-grained measurements for more than two phase-space variables. We show that mutual unbiasedness can be recovered between periodic coarse graining of any two nonparallel phase-space operators. We illustrate these results through optics experiments, using the fractional Fourier transform to prepare and measure mutually unbiased phase-space variables. The differences between two and three mutually unbiased measurements is discussed. Our results contribute to bridging the gap between continuous and discrete quantum mechanics, and they could be useful in quantum-information protocols.

  7. Localized corrosion of Alloy C22 nuclear waste canister material under limiting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.G.; Solomon, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Localized corrosion behavior of Alloy C22 in simulated Yucca Mountain (YM) repository environments was studied at the highest achievable but realistic temperatures under boiling and dripping scenarios. Temperatures measured in concentrated boiling solutions of KCl and NaNO 3 were found to be stable at 140 deg. C, although transient boiling before dryout was observed at temperatures as high as 160 deg. C, as the electrolyte became progressively more concentrated. Experiments that simulated a dripping scenario with simulated J13 well water confirmed the existence of concentrated solutions stable at 142 ± 3 deg. C under controlled drip conditions leading to pit initiation in Alloy C22 after only a few hours. The polarization experiments conducted at 140 deg. C in a solution with 0.5 mol L -1 chloride concentration showed that the critical potential for localized corrosion was 250 mV (versus Ag/AgCl). Potentiostatic tests confirmed that active metal dissolution occurred only in the crevice region at this potential. The crevice corrosion of Alloy C22 required an incubation time to develop a critical crevice solution, and it was triggered by severe local chemistry (enrichment of Cl - and H + ) aided by the high temperature

  8. Water-limiting conditions alter the structure and biofilm-forming ability of bacterial multispecies communities in the alfalfa rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Bogino

    Full Text Available Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect. The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and α- and γ-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices.

  9. A tool to estimate bar patterns and flow conditions in estuaries when limited data is available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, J.; Verhoeve, S.; Bruijns, A. J.; Selakovic, S.; van Dijk, W. M.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of human interventions, natural evolution of estuaries and rising sea-level on food security and flood safety are largely unknown. In addition, ecologists require quantified habitat area to study future evolution of estuaries, but they lack predictive capability of bathymetry and hydrodynamics. For example, crucial input required for ecological models are values of intertidal area, inundation time, peak flow velocities and salinity. While numerical models can reproduce these spatial patterns, their computational times are long and for each case a new model must be developed. Therefore, we developed a comprehensive set of relations that accurately predict the hydrodynamics and the patterns of channels and bars, using a combination of the empirical relations derived from approximately 50 estuaries and theory for bars and estuaries. The first step is to predict local tidal prisms, which is the tidal prism that flows through a given cross-section. Second, the channel geometry is predicted from tidal prism and hydraulic geometry relations. Subsequently, typical flow velocities can be estimated from the channel geometry and tidal prism. Then, an ideal estuary shape is fitted to the measured planform: the deviation from the ideal shape, which is defined as the excess width, gives a measure of the locations where tidal bars form and their summed width (Leuven et al., 2017). From excess width, typical hypsometries can be predicted per cross-section. In the last step, flow velocities are calculated for the full range of occurring depths and salinity is calculated based on the estuary shape. Here, we will present a prototype tool that predicts equilibrium bar patterns and typical flow conditions. The tool is easy to use because the only input required is the estuary outline and tidal amplitude. Therefore it can be used by policy makers and researchers from multiple disciplines, such as ecologists, geologists and hydrologists, for example for paleogeographic

  10. Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport System Planning:An Exploration of Sustainable Urban Transport Development on Condition of Limited Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With "integration" as the direction,Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport Planning integrates the plan,construction and management of all kinds of transport mode in the transport system,and integrates the transport with the social,economic and environment development.The planning specifies the strategic targets,key indicators,development strategies as well as major policies of the comprehensive transport system,which explores an alternative way for the sustainable urban transport development under the condition of limited resources in Shenzhen.

  11. REQUIREMENTS TO THE LIMITATION OF POPULATION EXPO-SURE FROM THE NATIRAL IONIZING IRRADIATION SOURCES IN INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents conceptually new requirements to the limitation of population exposure from the natural ionizing irradiation sources in industrial conditions, introduced into Basic Sanitary Rules of Radiation Safety (OSPORB-99/2010. It is shown that, first of all, introduction of these requirements is aimed at the resolution of variety of previously existing serious contradictions in organization of radiation safety control and supervision for the impact of natural ionizing irradiation sources in industry.

  12. Empirical study on mutual fund objective classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xue-jun; Yang, Xiao-lan

    2004-05-01

    Mutual funds are usually classified on the basis of their objectives. If the activities of mutual funds are consistent with their stated objectives, investors may look at the latter as signals of their risks and incomes. This work analyzes mutual fund objective classification in China by statistical methods of distance analysis and discriminant analysis; and examines whether the stated investment objectives of mutual funds adequately represent their attributes to investors. That is, if mutual funds adhere to their stated objectives, attributes must be heterogeneous between investment objective groups and homogeneous within them. Our conclusion is to some degree, the group of optimized exponential funds is heterogeneous to other groups. As a whole, there exist no significant differences between different objective groups; and 50% of mutual funds are not consistent with their objective groups.

  13. Explaining mutualism variation: a new evolutionary paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-02-01

    The paradox of mutualism is typically framed as the persistence of interspecific cooperation, despite the potential advantages of cheating. Thus, mutualism research has tended to focus on stabilizing mechanisms that prevent the invasion of low-quality partners. These mechanisms alone cannot explain the persistence of variation for partner quality observed in nature, leaving a large gap in our understanding of how mutualisms evolve. Studying partner quality variation is necessary for applying genetically explicit models to predict evolution in natural populations, a necessary step for understanding the origins of mutualisms as well as their ongoing dynamics. An evolutionary genetic approach, which is focused on naturally occurring mutualist variation, can potentially synthesize the currently disconnected fields of mutualism evolution and coevolutionary genetics. We outline explanations for the maintenance of genetic variation for mutualism and suggest approaches necessary to address them. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Wall conditioning by ECRH discharges and He-GDC in the limiter phase of Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, T.; Brakel, R.; Brezinsek, S.; Dinklage, A.; Goriaev, A.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Moseev, D.; Stange, T.; Schlisio, G.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Volzke, O.; Wenzel, U.; the W7-X Team

    2018-06-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) relies on wall conditioning to control the density and the impurity content of the plasma. Wall conditioning in the first operation campaign of W7-X consisted of baking at 150 °C during 1 week prior to operation, glow discharge conditioning (GDC) in helium (He) and electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) discharges. Additionally, the usage of He-GDC was limited to avoid sputtering and migration of metallic plasma facing components. This presented a unique opportunity for studying the applicability of ECRH discharges for initial wall conditioning on a stellarator, albeit in the carbon limiter configuration. A single envelope curve is observed in the normalised outgassing data that takes into account all ECRH discharges. This illustrates that the majority of discharges operates at the limits of a radiative collapse. Hydrogen recycling dominated the fuelling of ECRH discharges throughout while CO outgassing was found strongest at the start of the campaign. A reduction of recycling was observed throughout the campaign. Temporarily depleting the walls from H and impurities was possible by He-GDC. It was shown that the recycling coefficient in -ECRH plasmas could be reduced and the pulse duration significantly extended by He-’recovery’ ECRH plasmas. Good wall conditions were defined by normalised outgassing values below mbar kJ‑1. In absence of -GDC, more than 311 cumulated discharge seconds of ECRH discharges are needed for obtaining lasting low outgassing levels. A release model with two trapping reservoirs could reproduce the normalised outgassing trend, including ECRH and GDC plasma wall interactions.

  15. Obesity as a risk factor for developing functional limitation among older adults: A conditional inference tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feon W; Gao, Xiang; Bao, Le; Mitchell, Diane C; Wood, Craig; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Still, Christopher D; Rolston, David D K; Jensen, Gordon L

    2017-07-01

    To examine the risk factors of developing functional decline and make probabilistic predictions by using a tree-based method that allows higher order polynomials and interactions of the risk factors. The conditional inference tree analysis, a data mining approach, was used to construct a risk stratification algorithm for developing functional limitation based on BMI and other potential risk factors for disability in 1,951 older adults without functional limitations at baseline (baseline age 73.1 ± 4.2 y). We also analyzed the data with multivariate stepwise logistic regression and compared the two approaches (e.g., cross-validation). Over a mean of 9.2 ± 1.7 years of follow-up, 221 individuals developed functional limitation. Higher BMI, age, and comorbidity were consistently identified as significant risk factors for functional decline using both methods. Based on these factors, individuals were stratified into four risk groups via the conditional inference tree analysis. Compared to the low-risk group, all other groups had a significantly higher risk of developing functional limitation. The odds ratio comparing two extreme categories was 9.09 (95% confidence interval: 4.68, 17.6). Higher BMI, age, and comorbid disease were consistently identified as significant risk factors for functional decline among older individuals across all approaches and analyses. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  16. Control-limit preventive maintenance policies for components subject to imperfect preventive maintenance and variable operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Mingyi; Li Hongguang; Meng Guang

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops two component-level control-limit preventive maintenance (PM) policies for systems subject to the joint effect of partial recovery PM acts (imperfect PM acts) and variable operational conditions, and investigates the properties of the proposed policies. The extended proportional hazards model (EPHM) is used to model the system failure likelihood influenced by both factors. Several numerical experiments are conducted for policy property analysis, using real lifetime and operational condition data and typical characterization of imperfect PM acts and maintenance durations. The experimental results demonstrate the necessity of considering both factors when they do exist, characterize the joint effect of the two factors on the performance of an optimized PM policy, and explore the influence of the loading sequence of time-varying operational conditions on the performance of an optimized PM policy. The proposed policies extend the applicability of PM optimization techniques.

  17. The mutuality metaphor: understanding healthcare provision in NHS Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Brian

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Better Health, Better Care Action Plan (Scottish Government, 2007) sets out how the Scottish Government intends to strengthen public ownership of the National Health Service in Scotland. The purpose of this paper is to advance extant knowledge by understanding how a state-led mutual health policy may be interpreted, and importantly, communicated. Design/methodology/approach - The definitional problem of mutuality will be discussed and analysed in terms of how it is (or perhaps should be) communicated? will be offered. Findings - It actually may be more instructive to think of, and communicate, mutuality as a metaphor to aid understanding of the openness and fluidity found in NHS Scotland. Research limitations/implications - The existence of paradox and ambiguity does not, however, negate the usefulness of the term "mutuality". Quite the opposite in fact: it is precisely by examining healthcare and its delivery through the lens of mutuality (rather than rejecting its complexity as a failure) that this amorphousness can be better appreciated. Practical implications - There is a need for more public, professional, and academic debate to explore and clarify its implementation, and how it is to be led. This must be provided whilst recognising the daily imperatives that NHS leaders must face. This would suggest, therefore, that a dual development path may help. Originality/value - Although Better Health, Better Care Action Plan was published in 2007, some eight years on there is still confusion and misunderstanding as to what mutuality in healthcare is, not only in policy and theory, but also in practice. It is hoped that this analysis will help address, in part, some of this confusion and misunderstanding.

  18. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Is Required to Maintain Visual Conditioning-Induced Behavioral Plasticity by Limiting Local Protein Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Hsuan; Cline, Hollis T

    2016-07-06

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to regulate neuronal plasticity by limiting dendritic protein synthesis, but direct demonstration of a requirement for FMRP control of local protein synthesis during behavioral plasticity is lacking. Here we tested whether FMRP knockdown in Xenopus optic tectum affects local protein synthesis in vivo and whether FMRP knockdown affects protein synthesis-dependent visual avoidance behavioral plasticity. We tagged newly synthesized proteins by incorporation of the noncanonical amino acid azidohomoalanine and visualized them with fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging (FUNCAT). Visual conditioning and FMRP knockdown produce similar increases in FUNCAT in tectal neuropil. Induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally in FMRP knockdown animals, but plasticity degrades over 24 h. These results indicate that FMRP affects visual conditioning-induced local protein synthesis and is required to maintain the visual conditioning-induced behavioral plasticity. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Exaggerated dendritic protein synthesis resulting from loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to underlie cognitive deficits in FXS, but no direct evidence has demonstrated that FMRP-regulated dendritic protein synthesis affects behavioral plasticity in intact animals. Xenopus tadpoles exhibit a visual avoidance behavior that improves with visual conditioning in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. We showed that FMRP knockdown and visual conditioning dramatically increase protein synthesis in neuronal processes. Furthermore, induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally after FMRP knockdown, but performance rapidly deteriorated in the absence of FMRP. These studies show that FMRP negatively regulates local protein synthesis and is required to maintain visual conditioning

  19. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. under different Plant Density and Limited Irrigation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Rezvan Beidokhti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on crop response to deficit irrigation is important to reduce agriculture water use in areas where water is limited resource. Using drought resistant landraces with irrigation scheduling based on phenological stages in semi-arid and arid regions may provide an opportunity to optimize irrigation efficiency and water savings in these regions. In order to evaluate of yield and yield components of black cumin under different plant density and limited irrigation condition an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Islamic Azad University of Damghan during growing season of 2007-2008. The experimental treatments were arranged in split plots based on a complete randomized block design with three replications. The limited irrigation (based on phenological stages treatments were included: cutting irrigation at blooming (folded flowers, cutting irrigation at flowering stage, cutting irrigation at seed formation and normal weekly irrigation (control were allocated to the main plots and different plant density: 100, 150, 200 and 250 plant per square meter (m2 were allocated to sub plots. The results showed that the effect of limited irrigation, plant density and their interaction on plant height, number of follicle, follicle weight, number of seed, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index Black Cumin. The highest yield and yield components was obtained in normal irrigation (control and 200 plant density and the lowest yield were obtained when irrigation cut at the blooming stage and 250 plant density. There was a significant correlation between seed yield and number (r=0.90, 1000 seed weight (r=0.95 and biological yield (r=0.97. Optimum plant density of black cumin was decreased under limited irrigation treatments. Under normal (control and limited irrigation, optimum plant density was 200 and 150 plant per (m2 respectively.

  20. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  1. Forming mutually beneficial Aboriginal partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, L.; Shaw, M. [ATCO Frontec, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The Alberta-based ATCO Group is engaged in power generation, utilities logistics and energy services and technologies in Alaska, Canada's north, and around the world. In 2001, 56 per cent of ATCO's revenue came from Aboriginal joint ventures. ATCO's foundation for successful partnerships is a mutual trust, an understanding of the environment, and constant communication. The partnerships begin with a long term vision, resulting in community-based northern businesses that benefit Aboriginal partners, shareholders, customers and local staff. This paper described 2 unique joint venture case studies: (1) the north warning system in Cambridge Bay, a radar and communication service for government, and (2) Yellowknife's Tli Cho logistics site for support and municipal services to the mining industry. The north warning system joint venture includes Pan Arctic Inuit Logistics (PAIL), representing Inuvialuit, Labrador, Nunavik and Nunavut, while the Tli Cho joint venture includes participation of the Dog Rib Rae band. Management practices in all joint ventures reflect cultural differences, and Aboriginal people are involved in long term jobs relating to northern pipeline development. 21 figs.

  2. A multiscale approach to mutual information matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluim, J.P.W.; Maintz, J.B.A.; Viergever, M.A.; Hanson, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Methods based on mutual information have shown promising results for matching of multimodal brain images. This paper discusses a multiscale approach to mutual information matching, aiming for an acceleration of the matching process while considering the accuracy and robustness of the method. Scaling

  3. Bright Lights and Questions: Using Mutual Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Aishikin; Alangui, Willy; Barton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Mutual Interrogation is a research methodology for ethnomathematics proposed by Alangui in 2006 in an attempt to avoid the potential inequality set up when a restricted cultural practice is viewed through the lens of the near-universal and highly developed research domain of mathematics. Using three significant examples of mutual interrogation in…

  4. Trading Cost Management of Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Xing (Rang)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper documents the trading behaviour of actively managed equity mutual funds from the perspective of their trading cost management. Consistent with the predictions in the literature of portfolio choice with trading costs, I present three main findings. Firstly, mutual funds trade

  5. Longitudinal analysis of mutual fund performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Many different motivations for investing in mutual funds have been provided in the literature, including the claim that managers of mutual funds have special abilities that can be used to outperform the market. Testing of the validity of these claims is complicated by two facts. First, the expected

  6. Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyl, E Glen; Frederickson, Megan E; Yu, Douglas W; Pierce, Naomi E

    2010-09-07

    Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host-symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume-rhizobia and yucca-moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature.

  7. Effect of sample matrix composition on INAA sample weights, measurement precisions, limits of detection, and optimum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Nakazawa, L.; Leslie, J.

    1984-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Advance Prediction Computer Program (APCP) is extremely useful in guiding one to optimum subsequent experimental analyses of samples of all types of matrices. By taking into account the contributions to the cumulative Compton-continuum levels from all significant induced gamma-emitting radionuclides, it provides good INAA advance estimates of detectable photopeaks, measurement precisions, concentration lower limits of detection (LOD's) and optimum irradiation/decay/counting conditions - as well as of the very important maximum allowable sample size for each set of conditions calculated. The usefulness and importance of the four output parameters cited in the title are discussed using the INAA APCP outputs for NBS SRM-1632 Coal as the example

  8. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  9. Basolateral amygdala lesions abolish mutual reward preferences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lallement, Julen; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schäble, Sandra; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that rats prefer mutual rewards in a Prosocial Choice Task. Here, employing the same task, we show that the integrity of basolateral amygdala was necessary for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Actor rats received bilateral excitotoxic (n=12) or sham lesions (n=10) targeting the basolateral amygdala and were subsequently tested in a Prosocial Choice Task where they could decide between rewarding ("Both Reward") or not rewarding a partner rat ("Own Reward"), either choice yielding identical reward to the actors themselves. To manipulate the social context and control for secondary reinforcement sources, actor rats were paired with either a partner rat (partner condition) or with an inanimate rat toy (toy condition). Sham-operated animals revealed a significant preference for the Both-Reward-option in the partner condition, but not in the toy condition. Amygdala-lesioned animals exhibited significantly lower Both-Reward preferences than the sham group in the partner but not in the toy condition, suggesting that basolateral amygdala was required for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Critically, in a reward magnitude discrimination task in the same experimental setup, both sham-operated and amygdala-lesioned animals preferred large over small rewards, suggesting that amygdala lesion effects were restricted to decision making in social contexts, leaving self-oriented behavior unaffected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of an expert system for real time diagnosis of the limiting conditions for operation in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Gustavo Varanda; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: gustavopaiva@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    In the history of nuclear power plants operation safety is an important factor to be considered and for this, the use of resistant materials and the application of redundant systems are used to make a plant with high reliability. Through the acquisition of experience with time and accidents that happened in the area, it was observed that the importance of creating methods that simplify the operator work in making decisions in accidents scenarios is an important factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This work aims to create a program made with the Python language, which with the use of an expert systems be able to apply, in real time, the rules contained in the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) and tell to the operator the occurrence of any limiting conditions and the occurrence of failure to perform the require actions in the time to completion. The generic structure used to represent the knowledge of the expert system was a fault tree where the events of this tree are objects in program. To test the accuracy of the program a simplified model of a fault tree was used that represents the LCO of the nuclear power station named Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto 1. With the results obtained in the analysis of the simplified model it was observed a significant reduction in the time to identify the LCO, showing that the implementation of this program to more complex models of fault tree would be viable.(author)

  11. Oxygen Response of the Wine Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 Grown under Carbon-Sufficient, Nitrogen-Limited Enological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, Felipe F.; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W.; Melo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 μM, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663

  12. Application of an expert system for real time diagnosis of the limiting conditions for operation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Gustavo Varanda; Schirru, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In the history of nuclear power plants operation safety is an important factor to be considered and for this, the use of resistant materials and the application of redundant systems are used to make a plant with high reliability. Through the acquisition of experience with time and accidents that happened in the area, it was observed that the importance of creating methods that simplify the operator work in making decisions in accidents scenarios is an important factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This work aims to create a program made with the Python language, which with the use of an expert systems be able to apply, in real time, the rules contained in the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) and tell to the operator the occurrence of any limiting conditions and the occurrence of failure to perform the require actions in the time to completion. The generic structure used to represent the knowledge of the expert system was a fault tree where the events of this tree are objects in program. To test the accuracy of the program a simplified model of a fault tree was used that represents the LCO of the nuclear power station named Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto 1. With the results obtained in the analysis of the simplified model it was observed a significant reduction in the time to identify the LCO, showing that the implementation of this program to more complex models of fault tree would be viable.(author)

  13. Oxygen response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 grown under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited enological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, Felipe F; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 μM, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations.

  14. Conditional solvation thermodynamics of isoleucine in model peptides and the limitations of the group-transfer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Weber, Valéry; Pettitt, B Montgomery; Asthagiri, D

    2014-04-17

    The hydration thermodynamics of the amino acid X relative to the reference G (glycine) or the hydration thermodynamics of a small-molecule analog of the side chain of X is often used to model the contribution of X to protein stability and solution thermodynamics. We consider the reasons for successes and limitations of this approach by calculating and comparing the conditional excess free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of hydration of the isoleucine side chain in zwitterionic isoleucine, in extended penta-peptides, and in helical deca-peptides. Butane in gauche conformation serves as a small-molecule analog for the isoleucine side chain. Parsing the hydrophobic and hydrophilic contributions to hydration for the side chain shows that both of these aspects of hydration are context-sensitive. Furthermore, analyzing the solute-solvent interaction contribution to the conditional excess enthalpy of the side chain shows that what is nominally considered a property of the side chain includes entirely nonobvious contributions of the background. The context-sensitivity of hydrophobic and hydrophilic hydration and the conflation of background contributions with energetics attributed to the side chain limit the ability of a single scaling factor, such as the fractional solvent exposure of the group in the protein, to map the component energetic contributions of the model-compound data to their value in the protein. But ignoring the origin of cancellations in the underlying components the group-transfer model may appear to provide a reasonable estimate of the free energy for a given error tolerance.

  15. Incidence of WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions following initiation of anti-retroviral therapy in resource limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Curtis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of WHO clinical stage 3 and 4 conditions during early anti-retroviral therapy (ART in resource limited settings (RLS. DESIGN/SETTING: A descriptive analysis of routine program data collected prospectively from 25 Médecins Sans Frontières supported HIV treatment programs in eight countries between 2002 and 2010. SUBJECTS/PARTICIPANTS: 35,349 study participants with median follow-up on ART of 1.33 years (IQR 0.51-2.41. OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence in 100 person-years of WHO stage 3 or 4 conditions during 5 periods after ART initiation. Diagnoses of conditions were made according to WHO criteria and relied upon clinical assessments supported by basic laboratory investigations. RESULTS: The incidence of any WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 condition over 3 years was 40.02 per 100 person-years (31.77 for stage 3 and 8.25 for stage 4. The incidence of stage 3 and 4 conditions fell by over 97% between months 0-3 and months 25-36 (77.81 to 2.40 for stage 3 and 28.70 to 0.64 for stage 4. During months 0-3 pulmonary tuberculosis was the most common condition diagnosed in adults (incidence 22.24 per 100 person-years and children aged 5-14 years (25.76 and oral candidiasis was the most common in children <5 years (25.79. Overall incidences were higher in Africa compared with Asia (43.98 versus 12.97 for stage 3 and 8.98 versus 7.05 for stage 4 conditions, p<0.001. Pulmonary tuberculosis, weight loss, oral and oesophageal candidiasis, chronic diarrhoea, HIV wasting syndrome and severe bacterial infections were more common in Africa. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection, cryptococcosis, penicilliosis and toxoplasmosis were more common in Asia. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions during the early period after ART initiation in RLS is high, but greatly reduces over time. This is likely due to both the benefits of ART and deaths of the sickest patients occurring shortly

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of fluctuating populations with strong mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David

    2013-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory with finite interacting populations is receiving increased attention, including subtle phenomena associated with number fluctuations, i.e., ``genetic drift.'' Models of cooperation and competition often utilize a simplified Moran model, with a strictly fixed total population size. We explore a more general evolutionary model with independent fluctuations in the numbers of two distinct species, in a regime characterized by ``strong mutualism.'' The model has two absorbing states, each corresponding to fixation of one of the two species, and allows exploration of the interplay between growth, competition, and mutualism. When mutualism is favored, number fluctuations eventually drive the system away from a stable fixed point, characterized by cooperation, to one of the absorbing states. Well-mixed populations will thus be taken over by a single species in a finite time, despite the bias towards cooperation. We calculate both the fixation probability and the mean fixation time as a function of the initial conditions and carrying capacities in the strong mutualism regime, using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Our results are compared to computer simulations.

  17. Lived experiences of parents caring for a child with a life-limiting condition in Australia: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Hennessy-Anderson, Nicole; Hosking, Sarah; Hynson, Jenny; Remedios, Cheryl; Thomas, Kristina

    2016-12-01

    Experiential studies in paediatric palliative care are needed to enable an ongoing international agenda which supports the development of responsive family supports. To provide an in-depth exploration of the prevalent lived experiences of parents who are currently providing care for a child with a life-limiting condition in Australia. Cross-sectional, prospective, qualitative study guided by an advisory group and reported according to the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative studies. Transcripts were subjected to a thematic analysis, underpinned by an interpretative phenomenological framework. Purposively sampled parents (n = 14) recruited from a statewide paediatric hospice who self-identified as a 'primary caregiver' for one or more children and/or adolescents (⩽18 years) with a life-limiting condition. Four key themes represented the prevalent experiences of parents: (1) trapped inside the house, (2) the protector, (3) living with the shadow and (4) travelling a different pathway. They describe parents' physical and social isolation, exclusion from the workforce, pervasive grief and associated impacts to their health and well-being. Limited professional and diminished social supports resulted in full ownership of care responsibility. Yet, parents embraced their role as 'protector', reporting acquired meaning and purpose. This study builds upon the growing body of evidence available in paediatric palliative care internationally. The key themes highlight the substantial demand for both physical and emotional support beyond what is currently offered and call for the implementation of carefully planned support services and other societal initiatives which seek to alleviate the broad health impacts to caregivers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Current Guidelines Have Limited Applicability to Patients with Comorbid Conditions: A Systematic Analysis of Evidence-Based Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Marjolein; Burgers, Jako S.; Clancy, Carolyn; Westert, Gert P.; Schneider, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Guidelines traditionally focus on the diagnosis and treatment of single diseases. As almost half of the patients with a chronic disease have more than one disease, the applicability of guidelines may be limited. The aim of this study was to assess the extent that guidelines address comorbidity and to assess the supporting evidence of recommendations related to comorbidity. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic analysis of evidence-based guidelines focusing on four highly prevalent chronic conditions with a high impact on quality of life: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depressive disorder, diabetes mellitus type 2, and osteoarthritis. Data were abstracted from each guideline on the extent that comorbidity was addressed (general comments, specific recommendations), the type of comorbidity discussed (concordant, discordant), and the supporting evidence of the comorbidity-related recommendations (level of evidence, translation of evidence). Of the 20 guidelines, 17 (85%) addressed the issue of comorbidity and 14 (70%) provided specific recommendations on comorbidity. In general, the guidelines included few recommendations on patients with comorbidity (mean 3 recommendations per guideline, range 0 to 26). Of the 59 comorbidity-related recommendations provided, 46 (78%) addressed concordant comorbidities, 8 (14%) discordant comorbidities, and for 5 (8%) the type of comorbidity was not specified. The strength of the supporting evidence was moderate for 25% (15/59) and low for 37% (22/59) of the recommendations. In addition, for 73% (43/59) of the recommendations the evidence was not adequately translated into the guidelines. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed that the applicability of current evidence-based guidelines to patients with comorbid conditions is limited. Most guidelines do not provide explicit guidance on treatment of patients with comorbidity, particularly for discordant combinations. Guidelines should be more

  19. Impact of Australian Dekkera bruxellensis strains grown under oxygen-limited conditions on model wine composition and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Chris D; Langhans, Geoffrey; Henschke, Paul A; Grbin, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Spoilage of red wine by the yeast species Dekkera bruxellensis is a common problem for the global wine industry. When conditions are conducive for growth of these yeasts in wine, they efficiently convert non-volatile hydroxycinnamic acids into aroma-active ethylphenols, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. It has been demonstrated previously that dissolved oxygen is a key factor which stimulates D. bruxellensis growth in wine. We demonstrate that whereas the presence of oxygen accelerates the growth of this species, oxygen-limited conditions favour 4-ethylphenol production. Consequently, we evaluated wine spoilage potential of three D. bruxellensis strains (AWRI1499, AWRI1608 and AWRI1613) under oxygen-limited conditions. Each strain was cultured in a chemically-defined wine medium and the fermentation products were analysed using HPLC and HS-SPME-GC/MS. The strains displayed different growth characteristics but were equally capable of producing ethylphenols. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for 18 of the remaining 33 metabolites analysed and duo-trio sensory analysis indicated significant aroma differences between wines inoculated with AWRI1499 and AWRI1613. When these wines were spiked with low concentrations of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, no sensorial differences could be perceived. Together these data suggest that the three predominant D. bruxellensis strains previously isolated during a large survey of Australian wineries do not differ substantively in their capacity to grow in, and spoil, a model wine medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Semantic Representation of Mutual-Consent Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مهری سادات موسوی

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discussed mutual-consent divorce in the context of thoughts and attitude of female applicants of this type of divorce with an inductive qualitative and ethnographic method. Based on the qualitative purposive sampling, 30 women of those who had referred for divorce to family court of Karaj, were selected and deeply interviewed. The results obtained in six major categories as follows: Rethinking the role of men as families’ breadwinners, inappropriate sexual relationships, emotional conflicts, cultural- social dissensions, normative pressures of family and relatives, and personality and behavioral disorders. The core-oriented category of this study is "Women's attitude towards mutual-consent divorce" that includes other major categories and can semantically alter and redirect women’s opinion about mutual-consent divorce. According to the results, the term of mutual-consent is thought-provoking in this type of divorce; because considering the situations which were leaded to mutual-consent divorce and quantifying them revealed that nearly 32% of mutual-consent divorces were not mutual in fact; since, these women accepted divorce with desperation, coercion and threat.

  1. The evolution of plant-insect mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Judith L; Alarcón, Ruben; Geber, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Mutualisms (cooperative interactions between species) have had a central role in the generation and maintenance of life on earth. Insects and plants are involved in diverse forms of mutualism. Here we review evolutionary features of three prominent insect-plant mutualisms: pollination, protection and seed dispersal. We focus on addressing five central phenomena: evolutionary origins and maintenance of mutualism; the evolution of mutualistic traits; the evolution of specialization and generalization; coevolutionary processes; and the existence of cheating. Several features uniting very diverse insect-plant mutualisms are identified and their evolutionary implications are discussed: the involvement of one mobile and one sedentary partner; natural selection on plant rewards; the existence of a continuum from specialization to generalization; and the ubiquity of cheating, particularly on the part of insects. Plant-insect mutualisms have apparently both arisen and been lost repeatedly. Many adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain these transitions, and it is unlikely that any one of them dominates across interactions differing so widely in natural history. Evolutionary theory has a potentially important, but as yet largely unfilled, role to play in explaining the origins, maintenance, breakdown and evolution of insect-plant mutualisms.

  2. Simulation and Validation of Cisco Lethal Conditions in Minnesota Lakes under Past and Future Climate Scenarios Using Constant Survival Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish habitat in lakes is strongly constrained by water temperature (T and available dissolved oxygen (DO that are changed under climate warming. A one dimensional, dynamic water quality model MINLAKE2012 was used for T and DO simulation over 48 years. A fish habitat model FishHabitat2013 using simulated T and DO profiles as input was developed to determine lethal conditions of cisco Corgenous artedi in Minnesota lakes. Twenty-three lakes that had observations of cisco mortality or survival in the unusually warm summer of 2006 were used for model validation. The cisco habitat model used a lethal temperature of 22.1 °C and DO survival limit of 3 mg/L determined through model validation and sensitivity analysis. Cisco lethal conditions in 12 shallow, 16 medium-depth, and 30 deep virtual lakes were then simulated. Isopleths of total number of years with cisco kill and average cisco kill days for the years with kills under past (1961–2008 and future climate were generated to understand/extrapolate climate impacts on cisco in 620 Minnesota lakes. Shallow and medium-depth lakes are projected to not be good candidates for cisco refuge lakes, but deep lakes are possible cisco refuge lakes based on lethal condition projection under future warmer climate.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF SELECT MUTUAL FUNDS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Dash*

    2018-01-01

    Mutual funds is one of the major instruments for wealth creation and wealth saving in the current years. It is a financial instrument which gives positive result and satisfactory return to its investors. The mutual industries in have undergone a most successful phase in the last 15 years. The AUM has shown tremendous growth since inception from Rs. 25 crore in 1965 to Rs. 22,36,717 crore in December 2017. But this tremendous growth in the mutual fund industries in India is still lacking for b...

  4. Geometric Performance Analysis of Mutual Exclusion: The Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Marc

    1990-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the need to better understand parallel program run-time behavior. The paper first formally describes a general model of program execution based on Djkstra's progress graphs. The paper then defines a special case of the model representing two cyclic processes sharing mutually exclusive, reusable resources. Processes synchronize through semaphore operations that are not embedded in conditionally executed code segments. Model parameters are the times at which each ...

  5. Existence of positive periodic solution of mutualism system with several delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haihui; Xia Yonghui; Lin Muren

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, by using Mawhin coincidence degree, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the global existence of positive periodic solutions of a mutualism systems with bounded and unbounded delays. Our results generalize significantly improve those of Gopalsamy and He [Gopalsamy K, He XZ. Persistence, attractivity, and delay in facultative mutualism. J Math Anal Appl 1997;215:154-73], Yang et al. [Yang F, Jiang D, Ying A. Existence of positive solution of multidelays facultative mutualism system. J Eng Math 2002;3:64-8], Chen et al. [Chen FD, Shi JL, Chen XX. Periodicity in Lotka-Volterra facultative mutualism system with several delays. J Eng Math 2004;21(3)] and Xia and Lin [Xia YH, Lin M, Existence of positive periodic solution of mutualism system with infinite delays. Ann Diff Eqs 2005;21(3):448-53

  6. A relational understanding of sibling experiences of children with rare life-limiting conditions: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Cari; Gibson, Faith; Adams, Sally; Anderson, Gillian; Forbat, Liz

    2014-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) and Batten disease are rare life-limiting conditions (LLCs) characterised by progressive and permanent physical and cognitive decline. The impact of such conditions on families, and notably on siblings, has not yet been described or documented. This paper presents data from a UK-wide study that sought to understand the family experience of supporting a child with the rare degenerative LLCs of MPS and Batten disease. The aim of this paper is to report sibling experiences related to these rare degenerative and progressive conditions, in order to inform the future development of supportive interventions. Eight siblings of children with MPS (n = 7) and Batten Disease (n = 1) participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. A card sort technique was utilised to support and engage the children. Siblings are clearly impacted emotionally, pragmatically and relationally by the ill health of another child in the family. The data indicate four key themes which demonstrate impacts on siblings: perceptions of the condition and its symptoms, impact on daily life, emotional consequences and ways of coping. Siblings often had considerable knowledge of the condition and took on important roles in symptom management. However, these experiences were in the context of managing relationships within the family (often protecting parents from an awareness of how much they knew) and relationships at school (including distraction from learning and being bullied by peers). The data highlight how sibling experiences are generated through a combination of negative disability discourses and support through peers and family members. The data indicate how these features shift as a consequence of witnessing the advancement of their brother's or sister's condition and the emotional sequelae of disease progression. Exploration of siblings' experiences of living with such rare progressive and degenerative LLCs suggest the focus of interventions to support this

  7. Prevention of melanin formation during aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using an Aspergillus nidulans cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Prade, Rolf A; Müller, Michael; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2017-11-01

    An Aspergillus nidulans cell factory was genetically engineered to produce an aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO). The cell factory initiated production of melanin when growth-limited conditions were established using stationary plates and shaken flasks. This phenomenon was more pronounced when the strain was cultured in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). This study investigated different approaches to reduce melanin formation in fungal mycelia and liquid medium in order to increase the enzyme production yield. Removal of copper from the medium recipe reduced melanin formation in agar cultures and increased enzyme activities by 48% in agitated liquid cultures. Copper has been reported as a key element for tyrosinase, an enzyme responsible for melanin production. Ascorbic acid (0.44g/L) stopped melanin accumulation, did not affect growth parameters and resulted in AAO activity that was more than two-fold greater than a control treatment with no ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions: A realist review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Helen; Price, Jayne; Nicholl, Honor; O'Halloran, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Improvements in care and treatment have led to more young adults with life-limiting conditions living beyond childhood, which means they must make the transition from children's to adult services. This has proved a challenging process for both young adults and service providers, with complex transition interventions interacting in unpredictable ways with local contexts. To explain how intervention processes interact with contextual factors to help transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions. Systematic realist review of the literature. Literature was sourced from four electronic databases: Embase, MEDLINE, Science Direct and Cochrane Library from January 1995 to April 2016. This was supplemented with a search in Google Scholar and articles sourced from reference lists of included papers. Data were extracted using an adapted standardised data extraction tool which included identifying information related to interventions, mechanisms, contextual influences and outcomes. Two reviewers assessed the relevance of papers based on the inclusion criteria. Methodological rigor was assessed using the relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. 78 articles were included in the review. Six interventions were identified related to an effective transition to adult services. Contextual factors include the need for children's service providers to collaborate with adult service providers to prepare an environment with knowledgeable staff and adequate resources. Mechanisms triggered by the interventions include a sense of empowerment and agency amongst all stakeholders. Early planning, collaboration between children's and adult service providers, and a focus on increasing the young adults' confidence in decision-making and engaging with adult services, are vital to a successful transition. Interventions should be tailored to their context and focused not only on organisational procedures but on equipping young adults, parents

  9. Performance evaluation of five Mediterranean species to optimize ecosystem services of green roofs under water-limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeñas, V; Janner, I; Medrano, H; Gulías, J

    2018-04-15

    Rapid urban growth in Mediterranean cities has become a serious environmental concern. Due to this expansion, which covers adjacent horizontal ground, a critical deficit of green areas has been increasing. Moreover, irrigation is considered an important issue since water is one of the most limiting natural resources all over the world. The main objective of this study was to perform a long-term experiment to assess five Mediterranean species for extensive green roof implementation in Mediterranean-climate conditions. Brachypodium phoenicoides, Crithmum maritimum, Limonium virgatum, Sedum sediforme and Sporobolus pungens were grown in experimental modules under well-watered and water-limited conditions (irrigation at 50% and 25% ET 0 , respectively). Plant growth and cover, relative appearance, color evolution and water use were determined periodically for two years. Shoot and root biomass were quantified at the end of the experimental period. The effects of the irrigation treatments and seasonal changes were assessed to identify the advantages and disadvantages of each species according to their environmental performance. All species survived and showed adequate esthetic performance and plant cover during the experiment. S. sediforme registered the lowest variation of relative appearance along the experiment, the highest biomass production and the lowest water consumption. Nevertheless, B. phoenicoides appeared to be an interesting alternative to S. sediforme, showing high esthetic performance and water consumption throughout the rainy season, suggesting a potential role of this species in stormwater regulation related with runoff reduction. S. pungens performed well in summer but presented poor esthetics during winter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. THE PERFORMANCE OF MUTUAL FUNDS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tudorache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A good indicator for the financial markets performance in different countries is the evolution of mutual funds in terms of their inflows and outflows. The goal of the present paper is to analyse the performance of the mutual funds in Slovakia. The research objectives are twofold: to study the flows of funds into and out of mutual funds from Slovakia during the period 2007-2014 and to analyse how investors in Slovakian mutual funds behave in terms of their investment choice. The analysis focuses on identifying patterns in investors' decision making process and on examining the similarity of their behavioural patterns with the ones identi¬fied at international level.

  11. Sino-U.S. Strategic Mutual Trust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Peng; Zhang Yimeng

    2008-01-01

    Relations between China and the U.S. have been relatively stable for nearly seven years, for the first time since the end of the Cold War. Strategic mutual trust, however, is not enough and there is a long way to go before both countries can achieve a permanent strategic stability. Four problems have prevented stability in bilateral relations, namely structural, internal, accidental, and cognitive issues. The goal of building strategic mutual trust still remains distant, and developing a good understanding between each other is the thorniest problem for both countries. Better mutual understanding can lead to an expansion of bilateral relations. China and the U.S. need to increase mutual trust and work towards achieving strategic stability.

  12. Determination of the solubility limiting solid of the selenium in the presence of iron under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Y.; Yamaguchi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, A.; Nakayama, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dissolution experiments of selenium were performed from both under saturation and over saturation directions to determine the solubility limiting solid of selenium under the conditions which thermodynamically prefer the formation of ferroselite (FeSe 2 ). X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that FeSe 2 was formed in the over-saturation experiments. However, the ion activity products for the reaction of 0.5 FeSe 2 + H + + e - 0.5 Fe 2+ + HSe - , aFe 2+0.5 aHSe - a H+ -1 a e- -1 , obtained from both under saturation and over saturation directions were 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the equilibrium constants calculated from existing thermodynamic data. The dependencies of the selenium concentration on pH, Eh and the iron concentration were better interpreted as a dissolution reaction of selenium solid (Se(s)) than the iron-selenium compounds. The equilibrium constant of: Se(s) + H + + 2e - = HSe - was determined to be logK 0 -7.46±0.11. This value agrees with the value of logK 0 = -7.62±0.06 calculated from existing thermodynamic data of crystalline selenium within errors. Because crystalline selenium was not identified in the solid phases by XRD, the solubility limiting solid would be amorphous or minor amount of crystalline selenium, even if the iron-selenium compound was formed. (authors)

  13. Driving force of PCMI failure under reactivity initiated accident conditions and influence of hydrogen embrittlement on failure limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Kunihiko; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Takehiko; Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2005-09-01

    In order to clarify the driving force of PCMI (Pellet/Cladding Mechanical Interaction) failure on high burnup fuels and to investigate the influence of hydrogen embrittlement on failure limit under RIA (Reactivity Initiated Accident) conditions, RIA-simulation experiments were performed on fresh fuel rods in the NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor). The driving force of PCMI was restricted only to thermal expansion of pellet by using fresh UO 2 pellets. Fresh claddings were pre-hydrided to simulate hydrogen absorption of high burnup fuel rods. In seven experiments out of fourteen, test rods resulted in PCMI failure, which has been observed in the NSRR tests on high burnup PWR fuels, in terms of the transient behavior and the fracture configuration. This indicates that the driving force of PCMI failure is sufficiently explained with thermal expansion of pellet and a contribution of fission gas on it is small. A large number of incipient cracks were generated in the outer surface of the cladding even on non-failed fuel rods, and they stopped at the boundary between hydride rim, which was a hydride layer localized in the periphery of the cladding, and metallic layer. It suggests that the integrity of the metallic layer except for the hydride rim has particular importance for failure limit. Fuel enthalpy at failure correlates with the thickness of hydride rim, and tends to decrease with thicker hydride layer. (author)

  14. Indian mutual fund industry: Opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jayant R. Kale; Venkatesh Panchapagesan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the mutual fund industry in India and the reasons for its poor penetration, which includes lack of objective research. It benchmarks the industry globally, and raises key issues regarding the ownership and performance of mutual funds, the sensitivity of fund flows to performance, and the importance of regulation to its growth, all of which have been largely under researched in India. It then captures the views of leading practitioners on these and other is...

  15. Downside Risk Timing by Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnaruk, Andriy; Chokaev, Bekhan; Simonov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We study whether mutual funds systematically manage downside risk of their portfolios in ways that improve their performance. We find that actively managed mutual funds on average possess positive downside risk timing ability. Funds investing in large-cap and value stocks have stronger downside risk timing skills. Managers adjust funds’ downside risk exposure in response to macroeconomic information. The economic value of downside risk timing is comparable to that of market timing.

  16. Mutual Fund Competition and Stock Market Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    We study how competition in the mutual fund industry affects stock market liquidity. We argue that mutual fund families operate as multi-product firms, jointly choosing fees, performance and number of funds and sharing common research facilities. The family-based organization generates economies of scale in information that induce a trade off between performance and number of funds. The presence of more and relatively less-informed funds impacts the market, increasing stock liquidity. This in...

  17. Can Chinese Mutual Fund Time Market Liquidity?

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Xiaoqing

    2012-01-01

    Extant researches have focused on mutual fund managers’ ability to time market returns or volatility. In this paper, the author offers a new perspective on the traditional timing issue by examining Chinese fund managers’ liquidity timing ability. Using the Chinese mutual fund database, the author finds little evidence that over the period from 2004 to 2012, fund managers cannot demonstrate the ability to time market liquidity in China, i.e., increase (reduce) market exposure in anticipation o...

  18. Mutual Visibility by Robots with Persistent Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagat, Subhash; Mukhopadhyaya, Krishnendu

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the mutual visibility problem for a set of semi-synchronous, opaque robots occupying distinct positions in the Euclidean plane. Since robots are opaque, if three robots lie on a line, the middle robot obstructs the visions of the two other robots. The mutual visibility problem asks the robots to coordinate their movements to form a configuration, within finite time and without collision, in which no three robots are collinear. Robots are endowed with a constant bits of pe...

  19. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Cabeza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules, was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants.

  20. Improving Estimation of Evapotranspiration under Water-Limited Conditions Based on SEBS and MODIS Data in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for improving the estimation of surface turbulent fluxes in surface energy balance system (SEBS model under water stress conditions using MODIS data. The normalized difference water index (NDWI as an indicator of water stress is integrated into SEBS. To investigate the feasibility of the new approach, the desert-oasis region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB is selected as the study area. The proposed model is calibrated with meteorological and flux data over 2008–2011 at the Yingke station and is verified with data from 16 stations of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER project in 2012. The results show that soil moisture significantly affects evapotranspiration (ET under water stress conditions in the study area. Adding the NDWI in SEBS can significantly improve the estimations of surface turbulent fluxes in water-limited regions, especially for spare vegetation cover area. The daily ET maps generated by the new model also show improvements in drylands with low ET values. This study demonstrates that integrating the NDWI into SEBS as an indicator of water stress is an effective way to improve the assessment of the regional ET in semi-arid and arid regions.

  1. A novel method of calibrating a MEMS inertial reference unit on a turntable under limited working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Liang, Shufang; Yang, Yanqiang

    2017-10-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement devices tend to be widely used in inertial navigation systems and have quickly emerged on the market due to their characteristics of low cost, high reliability and small size. Calibration is the most effective way to remove the deterministic error of an inertial reference unit (IRU), which in this paper consists of three orthogonally mounted MEMS gyros. However, common testing methods in the lab cannot predict the corresponding errors precisely when the turntable’s working condition is restricted. In this paper, the turntable can only provide a relatively small rotation angle. Moreover, the errors must be compensated exactly because of the great effect caused by the high angular velocity of the craft. To deal with this question, a new method is proposed to evaluate the MEMS IRU’s performance. In the calibration procedure, a one-axis table that can rotate a limited angle in the form of a sine function is utilized to provide the MEMS IRU’s angular velocity. A new algorithm based on Fourier series is designed to calculate the misalignment and scale factor errors. The proposed method is tested in a set of experiments, and the calibration results are compared to a traditional calibration method performed under normal working conditions to verify their correctness. In addition, a verification test in the given rotation speed is implemented for further demonstration.

  2. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

  3. On the spatial distribution of the transpiration and soil moisture of a Mediterranean heterogeneous ecosystem in water-limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreli, Matteo; Corona, Roberto; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.; Oren, Ram

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are characterized by a strong heterogeneity, and often by water-limited conditions. In these conditions contrasting plant functional types (PFT, e.g. grass and woody vegetation) compete for the water use. Both the vegetation cover spatial distribution and the soil properties impact the soil moisture (SM) spatial distribution. Indeed, vegetation cover density and type affects evapotranspiration (ET), which is the main lack of the soil water balance in these ecosystems. With the objective to carefully estimate SM and ET spatial distribution in a Mediterranean water-limited ecosystem and understanding SM and ET relationships, an extended field campaign is carried out. The study was performed in a heterogeneous ecosystem in Orroli, Sardinia (Italy). The experimental site is a typical Mediterranean ecosystem where the vegetation is distributed in patches of woody vegetation (wild olives mainly) and grass. Soil depth is low and spatially varies between 10 cm and 40 cm, without any correlation with the vegetation spatial distribution. ET, land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy covariance technique based micrometeorological tower. But in heterogeneous ecosystems a key assumption of the eddy covariance theory, the homogeneity of the surface, is not preserved and the ET estimate may be not correct. Hence, we estimate ET of the woody vegetation using the thermal dissipation method (i.e. sap flow technique) for comparing the two methodologies. Due the high heterogeneity of the vegetation and soil properties of the field a total of 54 sap flux sensors were installed. 14 clumps of wild olives within the eddy covariance footprint were identified as the most representative source of flux and they were instrumented with the thermal dissipation probes. Measurements of diameter at the height of sensor installation (height of 0.4 m above ground) were recorded in all the clumps. Bark thickness and sapwood depth were measured on several

  4. The Mutual Impact of Global Strategy and Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Lyles, Marjorie A.; Easterby-Smith, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in issues of knowing and learning in the global strategy field, there has been limited mutual engagement and interaction between the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. The purpose of our article is to reflect on and articulate how the mutual exchange...... of ideas between these fields can be encouraged. To this end, we first conduct a review of the intersection of the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. We then present two recommendations regarding how the interaction between the two fields can be enhanced. Our first recommendation...... is for global strategy research to adopt a broader notion of organizational learning. Our second recommendation is for global strategy research to capitalize on its attention to context in order to inform and enhance organizational learning theory. We discuss the use of context in a number of common research...

  5. Mutual diffusion of sodium hyaluranate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veríssimo, Luís M.P.; Valada, Teresa I.C.; Sobral, Abilio J.F.N.; Azevedo, Eduarda E.F.G.; Azevedo, Maria L.G.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Binary diffusion coefficients for the systems containing sodium hyaluronate. • Influence of the aggregation on diffusion of the sodium hyaluronate in the aqueous media. • Estimation of the thermodynamic and mobility factors from mutual diffusion. -- Abstract: The Taylor dispersion technique has been used for measuring mutual diffusion coefficients of sodium hyaluronate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K, and concentrations ranging from (0.00 to 0.50) g · dm −3 . The results are interpreted on the basis of Nernst, and Onsager and Fuoss theoretical equations. From the diffusion coefficient at infinitesimal concentration, the limiting ionic conductivity and the tracer diffusion coefficient of hyaluronate ion were estimated. These studies have been complemented by molecular mechanics calculations

  6. Cocoa butter-like lipid production ability of non-oleaginous and oleaginous yeasts under nitrogen-limited culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), POS (C16:0-C18:1-C18:0), and SOS (C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). The storage lipids of yeasts, mainly TAGs, also contain relative high-level of C16 and C18 fatty acids and might be used as CB-like lipids (CBL). In this study, we cultivated six different yeasts, including one non-oleaginous yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, and five oleaginous yeast strains, Trichosporon oleaginosus DSM11815, Rhodotorula graminis DSM 27356, Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296, Rhodosporidium toruloides DSM 70398, and Yarrowia lipolytica CBS 6124, in nitrogen-limited medium and compared their CBL production ability. Under the same growth conditions, we found that TAGs were the main lipids in all six yeasts and that T. oleaginosus can produce more TAGs than the other five yeasts. Less than 3% of the total TAGs were identified as potential SOS in the six yeasts. However, T. oleaginosus produced 27.8% potential POP and POS at levels of 378 mg TAGs/g dry cell weight, hinting that this yeast may have potential as a CBL production host after further metabolic engineering in future.

  7. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict.

  8. Experimentation of a fixed in-core-based system for core limiting conditions of operation (LCO) monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piguet, F.; Carrasco, M.; Mourlevat, J.L.; Rio, G.; Verneret, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to comply with the needs of Utilities for improvements in the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, one of the solutions proposed is to reduce the cost of the fuel cycle. To this aim, increasing the lifetime of cycles by introducing so-called 'low leakage' fuel loading patterns to the reactor is a rather promising solution. However, these loading patterns lead to an increase in the core hotspot factors and therefore to a reduction in the operating margins with respect to the core operating limits also called 'Limiting Conditions of Operations (LCO)'. For many years FRAMATOME-ANP has developed and proposed solutions aiming at increasing and therefore restoring these margins, namely: the improvement in design methods based on three-dimensional modelling of the core, on kinetic representation of transients and on neutron-thermohydraulic coupling or the improvement in the fuel with the introduction of intermediate grids. A complementary approach is to improve the core instrumentation associated with the system for monitoring the core operating margins to the LCO thresholds. The core operating limits monitoring function calls on real-time knowledge of the current power distribution in the core. If we take the French 1300 MWe units as an example, this knowledge is based on the measurement of the mean axial power distribution made by six sections neutron detectors, located outside the pressure vessel and equipped with a fast neutron filtering device. The results of this measurement are combined with pre-tabulated radial hotspot factors (Fxy), in order to calculate the total hotspot factor (FQ) of the core, the minimum Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) and, consequently, the margins with respect to the core operating limits. The limitations of a measurement made outside the vessel, and those of the 1D/2D modelling adopted, mean that these margins calculations have a high potential for improving the level of their accuracy. This is the reason why

  9. The course of physical functional limitations and occupational conditions in a middle-aged working population in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Stampa Matthieu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical functional limitations (PFL have mainly been studied in older populations. The aim of this study was to better understand the course of PFL and associations with occupational factors by gender in a middle-aged working population. Methods The data came from 16,950 workers in the ESTEV (Enquête Santé Travail et Vieillissement cohort in France. PFL were assessed using the physical abilities section of the Nottingham Health Profile. Occupational conditions were measured with a self-administered questionnaire covering physical and psychosocial factors in 1990 and 1995. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations. Results The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was the same by gender (6.3%; the rate of PFL recovery was higher in men (23.9% versus 20.9%. Age was an independent factor of PFL at age 47 years or older in both genders after adjusting for confounding factors. The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was higher with physical occupational exposure in 1990, such as awkward work with a dose relation in both genders, while the PFL recovery rate decreased significantly only for men. Exposure to psychosocial occupational conditions, such as having the means to produce quality work in 1990, was significantly associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 in both genders, and having high decision latitude in 1990 was associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 only in men. Changes in exposure to occupational factors between 1990 and 1995 were associated with the PFL appearance and recovery rates in 1995 in both genders. Conclusions After five years, the course of PFL in this working population changed and was associated with physical and psychosocial occupational factors. Relationships were stronger for the PFL appearance rate in both genders and were weaker for recovery from PFL, mainly among women.

  10. Environmental variation shifts the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders along the continuum from mutualism to antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Gina M; Goldberg, Adam S; Steele, Michael A; Dalgleish, Harmony J

    2018-05-01

    The conditional mutualism between scatterhoarders and trees varies on a continuum from mutualism to antagonism and can change across time and space, and among species. We examined 4 tree species (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], American chestnut [Castanea dentata] and hybrid chestnut [C. dentata × Castanea mollissima) across 5 sites and 3 years to quantify the variability in this conditional mutualism. We used a published model to compare the rates of seed emergence with and without burial to the probability that seeds will be cached and left uneaten by scatterhoarders to quantify variation in the conditional mutualism that can be explained by environmental variation among sites, years, species, and seed provenance within species. All species tested had increased emergence when buried. However, comparing benefits of burial to the probability of caching by scatterhoarders indicated a mutualism in red oak, while white oak was nearly always antagonistic. Chestnut was variable around the boundary between mutualism and antagonism, indicating a high degree of context dependence in the relationship with scatterhoarders. We found that different seed provenances did not vary in their potential for mutualism. Temperature did not explain microsite differences in seed emergence in any of the species tested. In hybrid chestnut only, emergence on the surface declined with soil moisture in the fall. By quantifying the variation in the conditional mutualism that was not caused by changes in scatterhoarder behavior, we show that environmental conditions and seed traits are an important and underappreciated component of the variation in the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders. © 2018 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Expert system applied at the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant to assist in the resolution of limiting conditions for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechter, André D.; Nicolau, Andressa S.; Schirru, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Expert Systems (ES) are widely used to help a common user act as an expert on a particular subject, the information is saved in the program database and the user introduces facts to be interpreted in real time. The inference engine will take these facts and return the answer of the expert. This tool is widely used, for example, in medicine to diagnose patients, game development, the mining industry, and the operation of nuclear power plants. In this article, a model of ES, of the real time, is development in order to treat the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant. In this PWR plant, all information from the LCO comes from failure trees and the ES was adapted to be able to handle the facts with the values True, False, None and Null of the tree. The simulations results of this article and experiments with ES applied in LCOs show that it is an efficient computational tool to deal with this type of problem. The use of this type of technology in the operation of nuclear power plants can reduce the risk of an accident caused by human error, which is one of the most common causes in the history of the nuclear industry. (author)

  12. Expert system applied at the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant to assist in the resolution of limiting conditions for operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, André D.; Nicolau, Andressa S.; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: schechterandre@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: andressa@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Expert Systems (ES) are widely used to help a common user act as an expert on a particular subject, the information is saved in the program database and the user introduces facts to be interpreted in real time. The inference engine will take these facts and return the answer of the expert. This tool is widely used, for example, in medicine to diagnose patients, game development, the mining industry, and the operation of nuclear power plants. In this article, a model of ES, of the real time, is development in order to treat the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant. In this PWR plant, all information from the LCO comes from failure trees and the ES was adapted to be able to handle the facts with the values True, False, None and Null of the tree. The simulations results of this article and experiments with ES applied in LCOs show that it is an efficient computational tool to deal with this type of problem. The use of this type of technology in the operation of nuclear power plants can reduce the risk of an accident caused by human error, which is one of the most common causes in the history of the nuclear industry. (author)

  13. Dominant acceleration processes of ambient energetic protons (E>= 50 keV) at the bow shock: conditions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, G.C.; Sarris, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    Energetic proton (Esub(p)>= 50 keV) and magnetic field observations during crossings of the Earth's Bow Shock by the IMP-7 and 8 spacecraft are incorporated in this work in order to examine the effect of the Bow Shock on a pre-existing proton population under different ''interplanetary magnetic field-Bow Shock'' configurations, as well as the conditions for the presence of the Bow Shock associated energetic proton intensity enhancements. The presented observations indicate that the dominant process for the efficient acceleration of ambient energetic particles to energies exceeding approximately 50 keV is by ''gradient-B'' drifting parallel to the induced electric field at quasi-perpendicular Bow Shocks under certain well defined limitations deriving from the finite and curved Bow Shock surface. It is shown that the proton acceleration at the Bow Shock is most efficient for high values of the upstream magnetic field (in general B 1 > 8#betta#), high upstream plasma speed and expanded Bow Shock fronts, as well as for direction of the induced electric field oriented almost parallel to the flanks of the Bow Shock, i.e. when the drift distance of protons parallel to the electric field at the shock front is considerably smaller than the local radius of curvature of the Bow Shock. The implications of the presented observations of Bow Shock crossings as to the source of the energetic proton intensity enhancements are discussed. (author)

  14. Link overlap, viability, and mutual percolation in multiplex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byungjoon; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems are best modeled by multiplex networks. The multiplexity has proved to have broad impact on the system’s structure and function. Most theoretical studies on multiplex networks to date, however, have largely ignored the effect of the link overlap across layers despite strong empirical evidences for its significance. In this article, we investigate the effect of the link overlap in the viability of multiplex networks, both analytically and numerically. After a short recap of the original multiplex viability study, the distinctive role of overlapping links in viability and mutual connectivity is emphasized and exploited for setting up a proper analytic framework. A rich phase diagram for viability is obtained and greatly diversified patterns of hysteretic behavior in viability are observed in the presence of link overlap. Mutual percolation with link overlap is revisited as a limit of multiplex viability problem, and the controversy between existing results is clarified. The distinctive role of overlapping links is further demonstrated by the different responses of networks under random removals of overlapping and non-overlapping links, respectively, as well as under several link-removal strategies. Our results show that the link overlap facilitates the viability and mutual percolation; at the same time, the presence of link overlap poses a challenge in analytical approaches to the problem

  15. The Analysis of Mutual Fund Performance: Evidence from U.S. Equity Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Budiono (Diana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe study the mutual fund performance for about 45 years. There are several key points that we can withdraw from this dissertation. First, to study the persistence of mutual fund performance, it is important to consider time-varying exposures because when they are ignored, the persistence

  16. Skimming the Profit Pool: The American Mutual Fund Scandals and the Risk for Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines conditions and structures that led to abuses in the American mutual fund industry. The scandals unfolded in 2003 when a whistleblower alerted authorities to illegal and unethical trading practices between institutional investors and mutual fund companies. The abuses included late trading, market timing, illegal sales practices, and excessive fees, with damages estimated at well over US $4 billion per year. While this scandal involved American companies, there are indicatio...

  17. Frontal alpha oscillations distinguish leaders from followers: Multivariate decoding of mutually interacting brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Bauer, Markus; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    -person paradigms to quantify the neuronal dynamics underlying social interaction. While several studies have shown the relevance of understanding complementary and mutually adaptive processes, the neural mechanisms underlying such coordinative behavioral patterns during joint action remain largely unknown. Here......, we employed a synchronized finger-tapping task while measuring dual-EEG from pairs of human participants who either mutually adjusted to each other in an interactive task or followed a computer metronome. Neurophysiologically, the interactive condition was characterized by a stronger suppression...

  18. Mutualism and impacts of global change: response of an important and neglected component of the biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossaert-Mckey, M.

    2007-01-01

    We are studying the impact of global change on two obligate species-specific insect-plant mutualisms. Our approach combines correlative methods (examining spatial patterns of genetic diversity in populations of pairs of mutualists, to examine their responses to past climate change) and experiments (studying responses of plant partners to CO 2 fertilization). Mutualisms function because the partners have contrasting and complementary biological traits, so that a service implying only a low cost to one partner may confer a great benefit to the other. Because they can lead mutualist partners to respond differently to rapid ecological change, the biological differences that are fundamental to mutualisms may also make them vulnerable. Imbalances thereby introduced can disrupt the functioning of the mutualism. By comparing two strongly contrasting systems-fig/wasp pollination mutualisms and ant-plant protection mutualisms-we aim to characterize the diversity of responses of mutualisms to global change. By identifying points in common, we also aim to propose robust generalizations about the response to global change of obligate, specific mutualisms, an important and neglected component of tropical biodiversity. Our results show that the two mutualisms studied differ greatly in their response to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic fluctuations. Fig/wasp systems show little spatial genetic differentiation, indicating that the great dispersal capacities of both figs and their pollinating wasps resulted in maintenance of high effective population sizes throughout cycles of climatic and vegetation change. In contrast, limited dispersal capacity of both ant and plant partners has resulted in greater impact of climatic fluctuations on ant/plant protection mutualisms: species-distribution patterns suggest restriction of the system to refugia, and strong spatial genetic structure indicates widespread bottlenecks during fragmentation and expansion. Alternate contraction and expansion

  19. Inferring the Directionality of Coupling with Conditional Mutual Information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejmelka, Martin; Paluš, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, - (2008), Art.no.-026214 ISSN 1539-3755 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 517133 - BRACCIA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : directionality * chaotic oscillators * time series analysis * information theory * phase dynamics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.508, year: 2008

  20. Renyi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Physical Review Letters, 100(23):230501, June 2008. [20] Frederic Dupuis , Lea Kramer, Philippe Faist, Joseph M. Renes, and Renato Renner. Pro- ceedings...relative Rényi entropy. Journal of Mathematical Physics, 54(12):122201, December 2013. arXiv:1306.5358. 49 [25] Christopher A. Fuchs and Jeroen van de...Lennert, Frédéric Dupuis , Oleg Szehr, Serge Fehr, and Marco Tomamichel. On quantum Rényi entropies: a new definition and some properties. Journal

  1. Mutual Fund Flight-to-Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    This paper examines the liquidity choices of mutual funds during times of market uncertainty. I find that when markets are uncertain, mutual funds actively increase the liquidity of their portfolio – often referred to as a ‘flight-to-liquidity.’ In aggregate, mutual fund behaviour has implications...... for the market; the market driven flight-toliquidity places upward pressure on the liquidity premium. I examine the underlying mechanisms driving fund behaviour. I show that market volatility is associated with lower fund performance and withdrawals, which causes funds to adjust the composition...... of their portfolio towards more liquid assets in order to meet potential redemptions. This causal chain is consistent with Vayanos (2004), who argues that fund managers are investors with time-varying liquidity preferences due to threat of withdrawal. Aggregated over funds, the effect is substantial: a one standard...

  2. Mutual Fund Flight-to-Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    This paper examines the liquidity choices of mutual funds during times of market uncertainty. I find that when markets are uncertain, mutual funds actively increase the liquidity of their portfolio { often referred to as a `flight-to-liquidity.' In aggregate, mutual fund behaviour has implications...... for the market; the market driven flight-toliquidity places upward pressure on the liquidity premium. I examine the underlying mechanisms driving fund behaviour. I show that market volatility is associated with lower fund performance and withdrawals, which causes funds to adjust the composition...... of their portfolio towards more liquid assets in order to meet potential redemptions. This causal chain is consistent with Vayanos (2004), who argues that fund managers are investors with time-varying liquidity preferences due to threat of withdrawal. Aggregated over funds, the effect is substantial: a one standard...

  3. Elections to the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Every two years, according to Article 6 of the Regulations of the Mutual Aid Fund, the Committee of the Mutual Aid Fund must renew one third of its membership. This year three members are outgoing. Of these three, two will stand again and one will not.   Candidates should be ready to give approximately two hours a month during working time to the Fund whose aim is to assist colleagues in financial difficulties. We invite applications from CERN Staff who wish to stand for election as a member of the CERN Mutual Aid Fund to send in their application before 17 June 2016, by email to the Fund’s President, Connie Potter (connie.potter@cern.ch).

  4. Human spermatogonial stem cells display limited proliferation in vitro under mouse spermatogonial stem cell culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Jose V; Rombaut, Charlotte; Simon, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Goossens, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    To study the ability of human spermatogonial stem cells (hSSCs) to proliferate in vitro under mouse spermatogonial stem cell (mSSC) culture conditions. Experimental basic science study. Reproductive biology laboratory. Cryopreserved testicular tissue with normal spermatogenesis obtained from three donors subjected to orchiectomy due to a prostate cancer treatment. Testicular cells used to create in vitro cell cultures corresponding to the following groups: [1] unsorted human testicular cells, [2] differentially plated human testicular cells, and [3] cells enriched with major histocompatibility complex class 1 (HLA - )/epithelial cell surface antigen (EPCAM + ) in coculture with inactivated testicular feeders from the same patient. Analyses and characterization including immunocytochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for somatic and germ cell markers, testosterone and inhibin B quantification, and TUNEL assay. Putative hSSCs appeared in singlets, doublets, or small groups of up to four cells in vitro only when testicular cells were cultured in StemPro-34 medium supplemented with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with HLA - /EPCAM + resulted in an enrichment of 27% VASA + /UTF1 + hSSCs, compared to 13% in unsorted controls. Coculture of sorted cells with inactivated testicular feeders gave rise to an average density of 112 hSSCs/cm 2 after 2 weeks in vitro compared with unsorted cells (61 hSSCs/cm 2 ) and differentially plated cells (49 hSSCS/cm 2 ). However, putative hSSCs rarely stained positive for the proliferation marker Ki67, and their presence was reduced to the point of almost disappearing after 4 weeks in vitro. We found that hSSCs show limited proliferation in vitro under mSSC culture conditions. Coculture of HLA - /EPCAM + sorted cells with testicular

  5. A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L

    2010-05-01

    Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer-resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant-mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

  6. A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

  7. EGYPTIAN MUTUAL FUNDS ANALYSIS: HISTORY, PERFORMANCE, OBJECTIVES, RISK AND RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru STEFEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to overview the mutual fund in Egypt. The establishment of the first mutual funds was achieved in 1994. Nowadays, the total mutual funds reached 90 funds , approximately. The income funds represent the largest share of the Egyptian mutual funds (40%, growth funds (25% and the private equity funds is at least (1%. The total population of the Egyptian mutual funds reached 22. Finally, the study proved that the Egyptian mutual funds have an impact on fund return , total risk and systemic; when analysis relationship between risk and return. The study found influencing for mutual fund's objectives on Sharpe and Terynor ratios.

  8. Performance of mutual funds in european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Γκογκάκη, Ελεωνόρα

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the performance of 220 open-end domestic equity mutual funds of european countries (from 'weak' and 'strong' economies) is analyzed for an eight- year period from 1st January 2004 until 31st December 2011, which is then split in two four-year sub periods in order to examine their performance prior to the global financial crisis and after its burst in 2008. In order to compare the mutual funds' performance to that of each country's market, it used as benchmarks the countries' m...

  9. Indian mutual fund industry: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant R. Kale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the mutual fund industry in India and the reasons for its poor penetration, which includes lack of objective research. It benchmarks the industry globally, and raises key issues regarding the ownership and performance of mutual funds, the sensitivity of fund flows to performance, and the importance of regulation to its growth, all of which have been largely under researched in India. It then captures the views of leading practitioners on these and other issues, including the challenges posed by poor financial literacy, the equity culture in the country, and the weakly supportive regulatory environment.

  10. Ranking mutual funds using Sortino method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Faghani Makrani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on most business activities is to determine an efficient method for ranking mutual funds. This paper performs an empirical investigation to rank 42 mutual funds listed on Tehran Stock Exchange using Sortino method over the period 2011-2012. The results of survey have been compared with market return and the results have confirmed that there were some positive and meaningful relationships between Sortino return and market return. In addition, there were some positive and meaningful relationship between two Sortino methods.

  11. A study on framework for assessing limiting condition for operation(LCOs) quantitatively in a CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyung Min

    2003-02-01

    Limiting conditions for operations define the allowed outage times and the actions to be taken if the repair cannot be completed within the AOT. Typically the actions required are plant shutdown. In situations where the risk associated with the action, i.e., the risk of plant shutdown given a failure in the safety system, may be substantial, a strategy is needed to control the risk implications. In this study the strategy is evaluated quantitatively using a tool of system dynamics. The strategic actions associated with LCO needs to be assessed dynamically. System dynamics technique is easy enough to be applied for quantitative assessment of LCO, where the system dynamics is an important factor in evaluating operational modes of nuclear power plants. The review on the improvements of overly conservative technical specification has been performed in this study. The VENSIM tool has been applied to evaluate quantitatively the LCO of the auxiliary feed water systems in the Wol-Sung nuclear power plant. A value of core damage frequency in PSA is used as risk measure. The analysis of both full power operation and shutdown operation has been compared for the value of the CDF. This study shows a plot of LCO full power operating and shutdown risks in term of core damage probability for failure of AFWS (auxiliary feedwater system). Obtaining a lower risk level in a stable mode, compared to the LCO operation alternative, is the principal motivation of going to full power operational mode or shutdown operational mode. A time dependent framework developed in this study has been applied to assess the LCO of the example problem and it is shown that it is very flexible in that it can be applied to assess LCO quantitatively under any operational context of the technical specifications. This study contributes risk informed regulation to enhance and optimize the LCO of previous technical specifications for CANDU through developing framework in application proposed in this methodology

  12. Children with life-limiting conditions in paediatric intensive care units: a national cohort, data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K; Parslow, Roger

    2017-07-13

    To determine how many children are admitted to paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with life-limiting conditions (LLCs) and their outcomes. National cohort, data-linkage study. PICUs in England. Children admitted to a UK PICU (1 January 2004 and 31 March 2015) were identified in the Paediatric Intensive Care Audit Network dataset. Linkage to hospital episodes statistics enabled identification of children with a LLC using an International Classification of Diseases (ICD10) code list. Random-effects logistic regression was undertaken to assess risk of death in PICU. Flexible parametric survival modelling was used to assess survival in the year after discharge. Overall, 57.6% (n=89 127) of PICU admissions and 72.90% (n=4821) of deaths in PICU were for an individual with a LLC.The crude mortality rate in PICU was 5.4% for those with a LLC and 2.7% of those without a LLC. In the fully adjusted model, children with a LLC were 75% more likely than those without a LLC to die in PICU (OR 1.75 (95% CI 1.64 to 1.87)).Although overall survival to 1 year postdischarge was 96%, children with a LLC were 2.5 times more likely to die in that year than children without a LLC (OR 2.59 (95% CI 2.47 to 2.71)). Children with a LLC accounted for a large proportion of the PICU population. There is an opportunity to integrate specialist paediatric palliative care services with paediatric critical care to enable choice around place of care for these children and families. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Variation of Enzyme Activities and Metabolite Levels in 24 Arabidopsis Accessions Growing in Carbon-Limited Conditions1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Joanna M.; von Korff, Maria; Altmann, Thomas; Bartzetko, Linda; Sulpice, Ronan; Gibon, Yves; Palacios, Natalia; Stitt, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Our understanding of the interaction of carbon (C) metabolism with nitrogen (N) metabolism and growth is based mainly on studies of responses to environmental treatments, and studies of mutants and transformants. Here, we investigate which metabolic parameters vary and which parameters change in a coordinated manner in 24 genetically diverse Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions, grown in C-limited conditions. The accessions were grown in short days, moderate light, and high nitrate, and analyzed for rosette biomass, levels of structural components (protein, chlorophyll), total phenols and major metabolic intermediates (sugars, starch, nitrate, amino acids), and the activities of seven representative enzymes from central C and N metabolism. The largest variation was found for plant weight, reducing sugars, starch at the end of the night, and several enzyme activities. High levels of one sugar correlated with high levels of other sugars and starch, and a trend to increased amino acids, slightly lower nitrate, and higher protein. The activities of enzymes at the interface of C and N metabolism correlated with each other, but were unrelated to carbohydrates, amino acid levels, and total protein. Rosette weight was unrelated or showed a weak negative trend to sugar and amino acid contents at the end of the day in most of the accessions, and was negatively correlated with starch at the end of the night. Rosette weight was positively correlated with several enzyme activities. We propose that growth is not related to the absolute levels of starch, sugars, and amino acids; instead, it is related to flux, which is indicated by the enzymatic capacity to use these central resources. PMID:17085515

  14. Self-Management Interventions to Prevent the Secondary Condition of Pain in People with Disability Due to Mobility Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Froehlich-Grobe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This focused review examines the use and effectiveness of self-management strategies in preventing or managing pain, which is among the most common secondary conditions faced by individuals with a mobility disability. Methods This focused review was part of a two-phase comprehensive scoping review. Phase I was a comprehensive scoping review of the literature targeting multiple outcomes of self-management interventions for those with mobility impairment, and Phase II was a focused review of the literature on self-management interventions that target pain as a primary or secondary outcome. Two authors searched CINAHL, PubMed, and PsyclNFO for papers published from January 1988 through August 2014 using specified search terms. Following the scoping review, the authors independently screened and selected the studies and reviewed the eligible studies, and the first author extracted data from the included studies. Results The scoping review yielded 40 studies that addressed pain self-management interventions for those living with mobility impairment. These 40 accumulated papers revealed a heterogeneous evidence base in terms of setting (clinic, community, and online, target populations, intervention duration (3 weeks to 24 months, and mode (health-care providers and lay leaders. Most of the reviewed studies reported that the self-management intervention led to significant reduction of pain over time, suggesting that self-management may be a promising approach for addressing pain experienced by people who live with mobility limitations. Discussion This review also reveals moderate-to-high bias across studies, and findings indicate that future research should enhance the methodological quality to provide stronger evidence about the effectiveness of self-management strategies for reducing pain among those with mobility impairments.

  15. Stability of mutualisms in a lattice gas system of two species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanshi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers mutualisms in a lattice gas system of two species. The species are mutualistic since each one can provide resources to the other. They are also competitive since they compete for empty sites on the same lattice. The mutualisms are assumed to have a saturated response, and the intraspecific competition is considered because of self-limitation. The mutualism system is characterized by differential equations, which are derived from reactions on lattice and are extension of a previous model. Global stability analysis demonstrates that (i When neither species can survive alone, they can coexist if mutualisms between them are strong and population densities are large, which exhibits the Allee effect in obligate mutualism; (ii When one species can survive alone but the other cannot, the latter one will survive if the mutualistic effect from the former is strong. Even if the effect is intermediate, the latter species can survive by strengthening its mutualistic effect on the former and enhancing its population density; (iii When either species can survive alone, a weak mutualism will lead to extinction of one species. When in coexistence, intermediate strength of mutualism is shown to be beneficial under certain parameter range, while over- or under- mutualism is not good. Furthermore, extremely strong/weak mutualism is exhibited to result in extinction of one/both species. While seven typical dynamics are displayed by numerical simulation in a previous work, they are proved in this work and the eighth one is exhibited. Numerical simul ations validate and extend our conclusions.

  16. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  17. Mutual fund performance: dividends do matter

    OpenAIRE

    De Mingo López, Diego Víctor; Matallín Sáez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the bias in mutual fund performance when a nondividend-reinvesting benchmark is used. Our empirical findings show how performance worsens when using a benchmark that includes reinvestment dividends. We also find that inferences about managers’ ability related to economic states are biased by the effect of omitting dividends when selecting a benchmark.

  18. The Persistence of Mutual Fund Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Grinblatt, Mark; Titman, Sheridan

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes how mutual fund performance relates to past performance. These tests are based on a multiple portfolio benchmark that was formed on the basis of securities characteristics. The authors find evidence that differences in performance between funds persist over time and that this persistence is consistent with the ability of fund managers to earn abnormal returns. Copyright 1992 by American Finance Association.

  19. MISTIC: mutual information server to infer coevolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonetti, Franco L.; Teppa, Elin; Chernomoretz, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    of several information-related quantities using a circos representation. This provides an integrated view of the MSA in terms of (i) the mutual information (MI) between residue pairs, (ii) sequence conservation and (iii) the residue cumulative and proximity MI scores. Further, an interactive interface...... of circos representation of MI networks and the visualization of the cumulative MI and proximity MI concepts is novel....

  20. Starvation-free mutual exclusion with semaphores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; IJbema, Mark

    The standard implementation of mutual exclusion by means of a semaphore allows starvation of processes. Between 1979 and 1986, three algorithms were proposed that preclude starvation. These algorithms use a special kind of semaphore. We model this so-called buffered semaphore rigorously and provide

  1. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...

  2. Management of mutual health organizations in Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Bruce, E.; Rhodes, G.; Narh-Bana, S.A.; Agyepong, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mutual Health Organizations (MHO) emerged in Ghana in the mid-1990s. The organizational structure and financial management of private and public MHO hold important lessons for the development of national health insurance in Ghana, but there is little evidence to date on their features.

  3. Canonical analysis based on mutual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2015-01-01

    combinations with the information theoretical measure mutual information (MI). We term this type of analysis canonical information analysis (CIA). MI allows for the actual joint distribution of the variables involved and not just second order statistics. While CCA is ideal for Gaussian data, CIA facilitates...

  4. Information Content of Mutual Fund Portfolio Disclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yu)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAcademic financial economists have been keenly interested in the value of active portfolio management since the seminal paper of Jensen (1968). This book examines the information advantages that active mutual fund managers attain in financial markets through an analysis of disclosed fund

  5. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, G.D.A.; Kiers, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that

  6. Paul Drude's prediction of nonreciprocal mutual inductance for Tesla transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuyer, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Inductors, transmission lines, and Tesla transformers have been modeled with lumped-element equivalent circuits for over a century. In a well-known paper from 1904, Paul Drude predicts that the mutual inductance for an unloaded Tesla transformer should be nonreciprocal. This historical curiosity is mostly forgotten today, perhaps because it appears incorrect. However, Drude's prediction is shown to be correct for the conditions treated, demonstrating the importance of constraints in deriving equivalent circuits for distributed systems. The predicted nonreciprocity is not fundamental, but instead is an artifact of the misrepresentation of energy by an equivalent circuit. The application to modern equivalent circuits is discussed.

  7. Hypoxic areas, density-dependence and food limitation drive the body condition of a heavily exploited marine fish predator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Käll, Filip; Hansson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the factors regulating fish condition is crucial in ecology and the management of exploited fish populations. The body condition of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea has dramatically decreased during the past two decades, with large implications for the fishery relying on this re...

  8. (Mutual Security Mutual Affluence) Negative Factors = Sustained Stability: A Framework for Establishing Stability Between Like States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    160-163. 2 The Concept of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) dates back to the post-WWFI em and the Cold War where the United States and Soviet Unions...United States. Following its defeat in W\\VH, Japan was in shambles. The bombing campaigns left nine million Japanese homeless and three million more...the United States, the Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris in 2015, and the bombings in Istanbul in 2016. Michael Bamier, “From Mutual Assistance to

  9. Water stress strengthens mutualism among ants, trees, and scale insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Pringle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant-plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant-plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism.

  10. Water Stress Strengthens Mutualism Among Ants, Trees, and Scale Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Akçay, Erol; Raab, Ted K.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant–plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant–plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism. PMID:24223521

  11. Water stress strengthens mutualism among ants, trees, and scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G; Akçay, Erol; Raab, Ted K; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-11-01

    Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant-plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant-plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism.

  12. The Arabidopsis Halophytic Relative Thellungiella halophila Tolerates Nitrogen-Limiting Conditions by Maintaining Growth, Nitrogen Uptake, and Assimilation1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Bi, Yong-Mei; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth; Barak, Simon; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of mechanisms regulating nitrogen (N) use efficiency is required to reduce excessive input of N fertilizers while maintaining acceptable crop yields under limited N supply. Studying plant species that are naturally adapted to low N conditions could facilitate the identification of novel regulatory genes conferring better N use efficiency. Here, we show that Thellungiella halophila, a halophytic relative of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grows better than Arabidopsis under moderate (1 mm nitrate) and severe (0.4 mm nitrate) N-limiting conditions. Thellungiella exhibited a lower carbon to N ratio than Arabidopsis under N limitation, which was due to Thellungiella plants possessing higher N content, total amino acids, total soluble protein, and lower starch content compared with Arabidopsis. Furthermore, Thellungiella had higher amounts of several metabolites, such as soluble sugars and organic acids, under N-sufficient conditions (4 mm nitrate). Nitrate reductase activity and NR2 gene expression in Thellungiella displayed less of a reduction in response to N limitation than in Arabidopsis. Thellungiella shoot GS1 expression was more induced by low N than in Arabidopsis, while in roots, Thellungiella GS2 expression was maintained under N limitation but was decreased in Arabidopsis. Up-regulation of NRT2.1 and NRT3.1 expression was higher and repression of NRT1.1 was lower in Thellungiella roots under N-limiting conditions compared with Arabidopsis. Differential transporter gene expression was correlated with higher nitrate influx in Thellungiella at low 15NO3− supply. Taken together, our results suggest that Thellungiella is tolerant to N-limited conditions and could act as a model system to unravel the mechanisms for low N tolerance. PMID:18467466

  13. Fast mutual-information-based contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Yu, Lifang; Tian, Huawei; Huang, Xianglin; Wang, Yongbin

    2017-07-01

    Recently, T. Celik proposed an effective image contrast enhancement (CE) method based on spatial mutual information and PageRank (SMIRANK). According to the state-of-the-art evaluation criteria, it achieves the best visual enhancement quality among existing global CE methods. However, SMIRANK runs much slower than the other counterparts, such as histogram equalization (HE) and adaptive gamma correction. Low computational complexity is also required for good CE algorithms. In this paper, we novelly propose a fast SMIRANK algorithm, called FastSMIRANK. It integrates both spatial and gray-level downsampling into the generation of pixel value mapping function. Moreover, the computation of rank vectors is speeded up by replacing PageRank with a simple yet efficient row-based operation of mutual information matrix. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed FastSMIRANK could accelerate the processing speed of SMIRANK by about 20 times, and is even faster than HE. Comparable enhancement quality is preserved simultaneously.

  14. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  15. Mutual Learning in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    in the European employment strategy have been either determined by the sender's interests or have underestimated how mutual learning between countries takes place. In stead the article develops a constructivist approach to learning and uses it to generate some concrete hypothesis about when learning in committees...... is most likely to take place. Afterwards, this constructivist approach is used to analyse the institutional framework surrounding the European employment strategy in order to evaluate whether the potential for learning is optimal. Finally, the article concludes that even though some basic premises......Mutual learning among the Member States is the primary purpose of the employment policy of the European Union. The two most important questions in this regard are how learning occurs and how much learning takes place. In this article I argue that the existing analyses of the effects of learning...

  16. Behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, D.; Hopmann, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    This article surveys theory and research about the process of international negotiation. The goal, of this paper is to apply behavioral science research to find ways to negotiate an improved mutual security regime between the nuclear superpowers that would make nuclear war less likely in the years ahead. When President John F. Kennedy presented the first nuclear arms control agreement, the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, to the U.S. public in 1963 he noted the ancient Chinese proverb: A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step. Just as the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty represented for Kennedy the first step on the road to nuclear arms control, so the research reviewed here represents at best the first few steps in a long journey to a better understanding of how to negotiate a regime of mutual security between the nuclear superpowers

  17. Managerial multitasking in the mutual fund industry

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Vikas; Ma, Linlin; Mullally, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We examine the determinants and consequences of mutual fund managers simultaneously managing multiple funds. Well-performing managers multitask by taking over poorly performing funds or launching new funds. Subsequent to multitasking, funds run by managers prior to multitasking (i.e., incumbent funds) experience performance deterioration while the performance of the acquired funds improves. Multitasking increases the assets of fund companies but results in a wealth transfer from shareholders ...

  18. A STUDY ON THE RISK-ADJUSTED PERFORMANCE OF MUTUAL FUNDS INDUSTRY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Agarwal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Investing through mutual funds has gained interest in recent years as it offers optimal risk adjusted returns to investors. The Indian market is no exception and has witnessed a multifold growth in mutual funds over the years. As of 2016, the Indian market is crowded with over two thousand mutual fund schemes, each promising higher returns compared to their peers. This comes as a challenge for an ordinary investor to select the best portfolio to invest making it critical to analyse the performance of these funds. While understanding and analysing the historical performance of mutual funds do not guarantee future performance, however, this may give an idea of how the fund is likely to perform in different market conditions. In this research we address multiple research issues. These include measuring the performance of selected mutual schemes on the basis of risk and return and compare the performance of these selected schemes with benchmark index to see whether the scheme is outperforming or underperforming the benchmark. We also rank funds on the basis of performance and suggest strategies to invest in a mutual fund and therefore, our findings have significant relevance for investing public.

  19. 76 FR 63822 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, Limit Engine Torque Loads...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Airplane, Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine Stoppage AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... unusual design feature associated with engine torque loads imposed by sudden engine stoppage. The... airplane incorporates a novel or unusual design feature involving engine size and related torque load that...

  20. Performance Evaluation of Investment (Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Vyšniauskas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an investment fund is one of the main components in evaluating the performance of the fund. This study seeks for introducing and comparing risk and performance evaluation ratios. The paper is aimed at testing the worked out ratios and at distinguishing between the best ones for the purpose of evaluating the performance of Lithuanian mutual funds. Scientific studies show that a standard deviation, alpha, beta, Sharpe and Treynor ratios are mostly employed for identifying the performance of mutual funds that are also compared with their benchmark index to establish if these funds are outperformed and if is it worth paying management fees to investment banks for managing mutual funds. Historical data were selected for the period from 2012-01-02 to 2013-10-15 analysing the prices of monthly funds. The paper points out the areas of a practical application of the proposed model for investment fund valuation, which may not only provide valuable outcomes for practitioners but also may inspire further research on this article.

  1. mutual participation in the health worker-patient relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medunsa) ... Keywords: mutual participation, health worker-patient relationship, decision ... The importance of a mutual participatory model in medical care and decision ... workers become aware of differences in opinion or in the balance of power, ...

  2. 78 FR 11554 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane, Limit Pilot Forces for Sidestick Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... approximately 6,540 pounds of thrust for normal takeoff. The primary flight controls consist of hydraulically... FAA must issue a finding of regulatory adequacy under section 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in accordance with...

  3. 76 FR 10213 - Special Conditions: Embraer Model EMB-135BJ (Legacy 650) Airplanes, Limit Engine Torque Loads for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Torque Loads for Sudden Engine Stoppage AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... torque load imposed by sudden engine-stoppage conditions. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not... incorporate novel or unusual design features involving engine size and the potential torque load imposed by...

  4. Obesity as a risk factor for developing functional limitation among older adults: A conditional inference tree analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the risk factors of developing functional decline and make probabilistic predictions by using a tree-based method that allows higher order polynomials and interactions of the risk factors. Methods: The conditional inference tree analysis, a data mining approach, was used to con...

  5. Cocoa butter-like lipid production ability of non-oleaginous and oleaginous yeasts under nitrogen-limited culture conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0–C18:1–C16......, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, and five oleaginous yeast strains, Trichosporon oleaginosus DSM11815, Rhodotorula graminis DSM 27356, Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296, Rhodosporidium toruloides DSM 70398, and Yarrowia lipolytica CBS 6124, in nitrogen-limited medium and compared their CBL production ability...... and POS at levels of 378 mg TAGs/g dry cell weight, hinting that this yeast may have potential as a CBL production host after further metabolic engineering in future....

  6. Assessment of sorghum-cowpea intercrop system under water-limited conditions using a decision support tool

    OpenAIRE

    Chimonyo, VGP; Modi, AT; Mabhaudhi, T

    2016-01-01

    Intercropping can improve crop productivity through increased water use efficiency (WUE). However, limited information exists to support its adoption and subsequent management. In such instances, crop models can be used as decision support tools to complement data from field trials. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator Model (APSIM) was used to develop best management practices for improved yield and WUE for a sorghum-cowpea intercrop system for 5 sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...

  7. Estimation of time-delayed mutual information and bias for irregularly and sparsely sampled time-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, D.J.; Hripcsak, George

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Time-delayed mutual information for irregularly sampled time-series. ► Estimation bias for the time-delayed mutual information calculation. ► Fast, simple, PDF estimator independent, time-delayed mutual information bias estimate. ► Quantification of data-set-size limits of the time-delayed mutual calculation. - Abstract: A method to estimate the time-dependent correlation via an empirical bias estimate of the time-delayed mutual information for a time-series is proposed. In particular, the bias of the time-delayed mutual information is shown to often be equivalent to the mutual information between two distributions of points from the same system separated by infinite time. Thus intuitively, estimation of the bias is reduced to estimation of the mutual information between distributions of data points separated by large time intervals. The proposed bias estimation techniques are shown to work for Lorenz equations data and glucose time series data of three patients from the Columbia University Medical Center database.

  8. Danish Mutual Fund Performance - Selectivity, Market Timing and Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    Funds under management by Danish mutual funds have increased by 25% annually during the last 10 years and measured per capita Denmark has the third largest mutual fund industry in Europe. This paper provides the first independent performance analysis of Danish mutual funds. We analyse selectivity...

  9. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the funds for redemption are raised by the issuance of mutual capital certificates approved pursuant... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section 563...-OPERATIONS Securities and Borrowings § 563.74 Mutual capital certificates. (a) General. No savings...

  10. Mutual funds : Management styles, social responsibility, performance and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkó, Tamás; Renneboog, Luc; Baker, H.; Filbeck, G.; Kiymaz, H.

    2015-01-01

    The mutual fund industry represents a substantial part of global financial markets with approximately 20 percent invested in mutual funds. Mutual funds offer a simple and easy-to-understand way to invest either into stocks or fixed income products, both for retail and institutional investors. This

  11. The Importance of Awareness and Communication for the Inclusion of Young People with Life-Limiting and Life-Threatening Conditions in Mainstream Schools and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asprey, Anthea; Nash, Tricia

    2006-01-01

    Anthea Asprey and Tricia Nash both belong to the Children's Hospice South West Research Group, based at the University of Exeter. In this article, they report one aspect of a research project designed to determine the adequacy of support for young people with life-limiting and life-threatening conditions in the education system. They describe here…

  12. Fault Ride Though Control of Photovoltaic Grid-connected Inverter with Current-limited Capability under Offshore Unbalanced Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) inverter installed on board experiences the excessive current stress in case of the offshore unbalanced voltage fault ride through (FRT), which significantly affects the operation reliability of the power supply system. In order to solve the problem, the inherent mechanism...... of the excessive current phenomenon with the conventional fault ride through control is discussed. The quantitative analysis of the current peak value is conducted and a new current-limiting control strategy is proposed to achieve the flexible power control and successful fault ride through in a safe current...

  13. Standard guide for mutual inductance bridge applications for wall thickness determinations in boiler tubing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide describes a procedure for obtaining relative wall thickness indications in ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic steels using the mutual inductance bridge method. The procedure is intended for use with instruments capable of inducing two substantially identical magnetic fields and noting the change in inductance resulting from differing amounts of steel. It is used to distinguish acceptable wall thickness conditions from those which could place tubular vessels or piping at risk of bursting under high temperature and pressure conditions. 1.2 This guide is intended to satisfy two general needs for users of industrial Mutual Inductance Bridge (MIB) equipment: (1) the need for a tutorial guide addressing the general principles of Mutual Inductance Bridges as they apply to industrial piping; and (2) the need for a consistent set of MIB performance parameter definitions, including how these performance parameters relate to MIB system specifications. Potential users and buyers, as well as experienced M...

  14. Pushing the limits of photoreception in twilight conditions: The rod-like cone retina of the deep-sea pearlsides

    KAUST Repository

    Busserolles, Fanny de

    2017-11-09

    Most vertebrates have a duplex retina comprising two photoreceptor types, rods for dim-light (scotopic) vision and cones for bright-light (photopic) and color vision. However, deep-sea fishes are only active in dim-light conditions; hence, most species have lost their cones in favor of a simplex retina composed exclusively of rods. Although the pearlsides, Maurolicus spp., have such a pure rod retina, their behavior is at odds with this simplex visual system. Contrary to other deep-sea fishes, pearlsides are mostly active during dusk and dawn close to the surface, where light levels are intermediate (twilight or mesopic) and require the use of both rod and cone photoreceptors. This study elucidates this paradox by demonstrating that the pearlside retina does not have rod photoreceptors only; instead, it is composed almost exclusively of transmuted cone photoreceptors. These transmuted cells combine the morphological characteristics of a rod photoreceptor with a cone opsin and a cone phototransduction cascade to form a unique photoreceptor type, a rod-like cone, specifically tuned to the light conditions of the pearlsides\\' habitat (blue-shifted light at mesopic intensities). Combining properties of both rods and cones into a single cell type, instead of using two photoreceptor types that do not function at their full potential under mesopic conditions, is likely to be the most efficient and economical solution to optimize visual performance. These results challenge the standing paradigm of the function and evolution of the vertebrate duplex retina and emphasize the need for a more comprehensive evaluation of visual systems in general.

  15. Healthcare users' experiences of communicating with healthcare professionals about children who have life-limiting conditions: a qualitative systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Stuart; Bradford, Natalie; Herbert, Anthony; Danby, Susan; Yates, Patsy

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this review is to identify and synthesize the best international qualitative evidence on healthcare users' experiences of communication with healthcare professionals about children who have life-limiting conditions. For the purposes of this review, "healthcare users" will be taken to include children who have life-limiting conditions and their families. The question to be addressed is:What are healthcare users' experiences of communicating with healthcare professionals about children who have life-limiting conditions? The prospect of the death of a child from an incurable medical condition is harrowing, yet finding a way to discuss this prospect is crucial to maximize the quality of life for such children and their families. High-quality communication is well recognized as a core skill health care professionals need to maximize the quality of care they provide. This skill is valued by service users, who consistently rate it as one of the highest priorities for the care they receive. Evidence suggests, however, that healthcare professionals can feel ill-equipped or uncomfortable communicating with and about such children. Therefore, it is important to understand what represents high-quality communication and what is involved in accomplishing this within pediatric palliative care.In recent decades there has been an increased focus on providing palliative care for children who have life-limiting conditions. These are conditions for which no cure is available and for which the probable outcome is premature death. Palliative care may also be appropriate for children who have life-threatening conditions; these are conditions where there is not only a high probability of premature death but also a chance of long-term survival into adulthood Although pediatric palliative care is underpinned by the same philosophy as adult palliative care, children who have life-limiting conditions and their families have particular needs that distinguish them from users of

  16. Leaders' limitations and approaches to creating conditions for interaction and communication in parental groups: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykedal, Karin Forslund; Rosander, Michael; Barimani, Mia; Berlin, Anita

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and understand parental group (PG) leaders' experiences of creating conditions for interaction and communication. The data consisted of 10 interviews with 14 leaders. The transcribed interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that the leaders' ambition was to create a parent-centred learning environment by establishing conditions for interaction and communication between the parents in the PGs. However, the leaders' experience was that their professional competencies were insufficient and that they lacked pedagogical tools to create constructive group discussions. Nevertheless, they found other ways to facilitate interactive processes. Based on their experience in the PG, the leaders constructed informal socio-emotional roles for themselves (e.g. caring role and personal role) and let their more formal task roles (e.g. professional role, group leader and consulting role) recede into the background, so as to remove the imbalance of power between the leaders and the parents. They believed this would make the parents feel more confident and make it easier for them to start communicating and interacting. This personal approach places them in a vulnerable position in the PG, in which it is easy for them to feel offended by parents' criticism, questioning or silence.

  17. MUTUAL CONCESSIONS - SPECIFIC ELEMENT OF THE COMPROMISE/TRANSACTION CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta-Bianca Spîrchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the usefulness and practical importance of the compromise contract conclusion and of the amicably dispute resolution, within the business world, we aim to analyze, in what follows, the concrete means by which these kind of settlement are achieved. Two questions become legitimate in the context of concerns about mutual concessions which the parties make in a compromise contract. These questions are the following: “What are the mutual concessions? Do mutual concessions mean equivalent concessions?” and “How mutual concessions are required to complete a valid settlement? Is the requirement of mutual concessions grounded?”

  18. Singular inextensible limit in the vibrations of post-buckled rods: Analytical derivation and role of boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Neukirch, Sébastien

    2014-02-01

    In-plane vibrations of an elastic rod clamped at both extremities are studied. The rod is modeled as an extensible planar Kirchhoff elastic rod under large displacements and rotations. Equilibrium configurations and vibrations around these configurations are computed analytically in the incipient post-buckling regime. Of particular interest is the variation of the first mode frequency as the load is increased through the buckling threshold. The loading type is found to have a crucial importance as the first mode frequency is shown to behave singularly in the zero thickness limit in the case of prescribed axial displacement, whereas a regular behavior is found in the case of prescribed axial load. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  20. The corrective effects of warning on false memories in the DRM paradigm are limited to full attention conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Maarten J V; Jelicic, Marko; Gorski, Benny; Sijstermans, Kevin; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2008-10-01

    Effects of attention control and forewarning on the activation and monitoring of experimentally induced false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm were investigated in a young adult sample (N=77). We found that reducing the degree of attention during encoding led to a decrease in veridical recall and an increase in non-presented critical lure intrusions. This effect could not be counteracted by a forewarning instruction. However, these findings did not emerge in a (retrieval supportive) recognition task. It seems that divided attention increases false recall when attention control and forewarning have to compete for limited cognitive resources in a generative free recall as opposed to a retrieval supportive recognition task. Forewarning instructions do not always protect young adults against experimentally induced false memories.

  1. Creating a culture of mutual respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kathryn; Mestel, Pamela; Feldman, David L

    2010-04-01

    The Joint Commission mandates that hospitals seeking accreditation have a process to define and address disruptive behavior. Leaders at Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, took the initiative to create a code of mutual respect that not only requires respectful behavior, but also encourages sensitivity and awareness to the causes of frustration that often lead to inappropriate behavior. Steps to implementing the code included selecting code advocates, setting up a system for mediating disputes, tracking and addressing operational system issues, providing training for personnel, developing a formal accountability process, and measuring the results. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    A revised document on ''Mutual Emergency Assistance for Radiation Accidents'' jointly prepared by the Agency with the participation of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO) was issued in 1980 as TECDOC-237. The present document lists the additional information received after publication of the 1980 edition and is issued as a Supplement to TECDOC-237 (1980 Edition). Some useful information contained in TECDOC-237 such as the IAEA arrangement and the WHO Collaborating Centres for Radiation Emergency Assistance are reprinted for ready reference

  3. Group-ID based RFID Mutual Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For passive type RFID tags, EPCglobal Class 1 Generation-2 Revision is used widely as a de facto standard. As it was designed for low cost, it is quite vulnerable to security issues, such as privacy concerns. This paper presents a new RFID mutual authentication protocol, which is designed to be configured on EPC Gen2 platform and to meet various security requirements while providing efficiency using PRNG (Pseudo Random Number Generator. Group-ID is used to minimize the authentication time. Security analysis of the proposed protocol is discussed.

  4. Cash Holdings and Mutual Fund Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Simutin

    2014-01-01

    Cash holdings of equity mutual funds impose a drag on fund performance but also allow managers to make quick investments in attractive stocks and satisfy outflows without costly fire sales. This article shows that actively managed equity funds with high abnormal cash—that is, with cash holdings in excess of the level predicted by fund attributes—outperform their low abnormal cash peers by over 2% per year. Managers carrying high abnormal cash compensate for the low return on cash by making su...

  5. THE COOPERATIVE CREDIT MUTUAL IN BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Baptista da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial system by offering credit and return on capital with fairer interest rates.

  6. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  7. Feature Selection Based on Mutual Correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Somol, Petr; Ververidis, D.; Kotropoulos, C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4225 (2006), s. 569-577 ISSN 0302-9743. [Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition. CIARP 2006 /11./. Cancun, 14.11.2006-17.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : feature selection Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/haindl-feature selection based on mutual correlation.pdf

  8. Effects of tungsten and titanium oxide nanoparticles on the diazotrophic growth and metals acquisition by Azotobacter vinelandii under molybdenum limiting condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Patrick; Darnajoux, Romain; Phalyvong, Karine; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe

    2013-02-19

    The acquisition of essential metals, such as the metal cofactors (molybdenum (Mo) and iron (Fe)) of the nitrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the reduction of dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonium, is critical to N(2) fixing bacteria in soil. The release of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) to the environment could be detrimental to N(2) fixing bacteria by introducing a new source of toxic metals and by interfering with the acquisition of essential metals such as Mo. Since Mo has been reported to limit nonsymbiotic N(2) fixation in many ecosystems from tropical to cold temperate, this question is particularly acute in the context of Mo limitation. Using a combination of microbiology and analytical chemistry techniques, we have evaluated the effect of titanium (Ti) and tungsten (W) oxide nanoparticles on the diazotrophic growth and metals acquisition in pure culture of the ubiquitous N(2) fixing bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii under Mo replete and Mo limiting conditions. We report that under our conditions (≤10 mg·L(-1)) TiO(2) NPs have no effects on the diazotrophic growth of A. vinelandii while WO(3) NPs are highly detrimental to the growth especially under Mo limiting conditions. Our results show that the toxicity of WO(3) NPs to A. vinelandii is due to an interference with the catechol-metalophores assisted uptake of Mo.

  9. Environmental and ecological conditions at Arctic breeding sites have limited effects on true survival rates of adult shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Emily L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Gates, H. River; Bentzen, Rebecca L.; Bêty, Joël; Boldenow, Megan L.; English, Willow B.; Franks, Samantha E.; Koloski, Laura; Kwon, Eunbi; Lamarre, Jean-Francois; Lank, David B.; Liebezeit, Joseph R.; McKinnon, Laura; Nol, Erica; Rausch, Jennie; Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Senner, Nathan R.; Ward, David H.; Woodard, Paul F.; Sandercock, Brett K.

    2018-01-01

    Many Arctic shorebird populations are declining, and quantifying adult survival and the effects of anthropogenic factors is a crucial step toward a better understanding of population dynamics. We used a recently developed, spatially explicit Cormack–Jolly–Seber model in a Bayesian framework to obtain broad-scale estimates of true annual survival rates for 6 species of shorebirds at 9 breeding sites across the North American Arctic in 2010–2014. We tested for effects of environmental and ecological variables, study site, nest fate, and sex on annual survival rates of each species in the spatially explicit framework, which allowed us to distinguish between effects of variables on site fidelity versus true survival. Our spatially explicit analysis produced estimates of true survival rates that were substantially higher than previously published estimates of apparent survival for most species, ranging from S = 0.72 to 0.98 across 5 species. However, survival was lower for the arcticolasubspecies of Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola; S = 0.54), our only study taxon that migrates through the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Like other species that use that flyway, arcticola Dunlin could be experiencing unsustainably low survival rates as a result of loss of migratory stopover habitat. Survival rates of our study species were not affected by timing of snowmelt or summer temperature, and only 2 species showed minor variation among study sites. Furthermore, although previous reproductive success, predator abundance, and the availability of alternative prey each affected survival of one species, no factors broadly affected survival across species. Overall, our findings of few effects of environmental or ecological variables suggest that annual survival rates of adult shorebirds are generally robust to conditions at Arctic breeding sites. Instead, conditions at migratory stopovers or overwintering sites might be driving adult survival rates and should be the

  10. Successful Aging in the Context of the Disablement Process: Working and Volunteering as Moderators on the Association Between Chronic Conditions and Subsequent Functional Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Ben Lennox; Carr, Dawn C

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the successful aging model by assessing the impact of two forms of productive engagement-working and volunteering-as potential interventions in the process of disablement. The Health and Retirement Study was used to (a) estimate two-stage selection equations of (i) currently working part time and full time and (ii) currently volunteering less than 100 hours and volunteering 100 hours or more per year (net of chronic health problems) and (b) assess whether, net of selection, working, and volunteering moderate the association between chronic conditions and subsequent functional limitations. Chronic conditions were associated with elevated levels of subsequent functional limitations, whereas both working and volunteering were associated with lower levels of subsequent functional limitations. Moreover, workers and volunteers of less than 100 hours per year experienced a reduction in the association of chronic conditions on subsequent functional limitations. This research highlights the role of productive engagement as a key element in successful aging. Not only do work and volunteering have direct associations with health outcomes themselves, but they also act as potential interventions in the process of disablement by attenuating the way in which chronic conditions are translated into subsequent functional limitations. This suggests that (a) future research should apply successful aging models to health processes as well as health outcomes and (b) policy makers should support social institutions that foster late-life productive engagement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The significance of nitrogen limited condition in the initiation of lipid biosynthesis in Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladu, Zangoma Maryam; Ibrahim, Izyanti; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2018-04-01

    The manner of the onset of lipid synthesis in Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 as well as the possible role of NAD+ dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD+: ICDH) in the initiation of lipid biosynthesis were studied. The initiation of lipid synthesis in the microalgae was not associated with the cessation of growth, but commence at the early phase of growth. Substantial amount of lipid (30 %, g/g biomass) was accumulated during the active growth phase at 48 h with growth rate decreasing from 0.11 g/L/h during active growth to 0.02 g/L/h in the limited growth phase. At that period the activity of NAD+: ICDH was still detectable although it slightly decreased to 20 nmol/min/mg in 48 h from 25 nmol/min/mg at 24 h. Analysis of ammonium sulfate fractionated of NAD+: ICDH activity showed that NAD+: ICDH was not completely dependent on adenosine monophosphate (AMP) for its activity, although the presence of AMP increased the enzyme's affinity towards its substrate (isocitrate) indicated by the low Km value of the enzyme for isocitrate. While citrate acts as inhibitor of the enzyme only at high concentration. The probable implications of these properties to the regulation of lipid are discussed.

  12. Predictive Simulation of Gas Adsorption in Fixed-Beds and Limitations due to the Ill-Posed Danckwerts Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James Clinton

    2016-01-01

    The 1-D axially dispersed plug flow model is a mathematical model widely used for the simulation of adsorption processes. Lumped mass transfer coefficients such as the Glueckauf linear driving force (LDF) term and the axial dispersion coefficient are generally obtained by fitting simulation results to the experimental breakthrough test data. An approach is introduced where these parameters, along with the only free parameter in the energy balance equations, are individually fit to specific test data that isolates the appropriate physics. It is shown that with this approach this model provides excellent simulation results for the C02 on zeolite SA sorbent/sorbate system; however, for the H20 on zeolite SA system, non-physical deviations from constant pattern behavior occur when fitting dispersive experimental results with a large axial dispersion coefficient. A method has also been developed that determines a priori what values of the LDF and axial dispersion terms will result in non-physical simulation results for a specific sorbent/sorbate system when using the one-dimensional axially dispersed plug flow model. A relationship between the steepness of the adsorption equilibrium isotherm as indicated by the distribution factor, the magnitude of the axial dispersion and mass transfer coefficient, and the resulting non-physical behavior is derived. This relationship is intended to provide a guide for avoiding non-physical behavior by limiting the magnitude of the axial dispersion term on the basis of the mass transfer coefficient and distribution factor.

  13. An Investigation into the Effects of Process Conditions on the Tribological Performance of Pack Carburized Titanium with Limited Oxygen Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R.; Sun, Y.

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, a new pack carburization technique for titanium has been investigated. The aim of this treatment is to produce a titanium carbide/oxycarbide layer atop of an extended oxygen diffusion zone [α-Ti(O)]. The effects of treatment temperature and pack composition have been investigated in order to determine the optimal conditions required to grant the best tribological response. The resulting structural features were investigated with particular interest in the carbon and oxygen concentrations across the samples cross section. The optimization showed that a temperature of 925 °C with a pack composition of 1 part carbon to 1 part energizer produced surface capable of withstanding a contact pressure of ≈ 1.5 GPa for 1 h. The process resulted in TiC surface structure which offers enhanced hardness (2100 HV) and generates a low friction coefficient (μ ≈ 0.2) when in dry sliding contact with an alumina (Al2O3) ball. The process also produced an extended oxygen diffusion zone that helps to improve the load bearing capacity of the substrate.

  14. Medical Underwriting In Long-Term Care Insurance: Market Conditions Limit Options For Higher-Risk Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Portia Y; Grabowski, David C; Cohen, Marc; Shi, Xiaomei; Stevenson, David G

    2016-08-01

    A key feature of private long-term care insurance is that medical underwriters screen out would-be buyers who have health conditions that portend near-term physical or cognitive disability. We applied common underwriting criteria based on data from two long-term care insurers to a nationally representative sample of individuals in the target age range (50-71 years) for long-term care insurance. The screening criteria put upper bounds on the current proportion of Americans who could gain coverage in the individual market without changes to medical underwriting practice. Specifically, our simulations show that in the target age range, approximately 30 percent of those whose wealth meets minimum industry standards for suitability for long-term care insurance would have their application for such insurance rejected at the underwriting stage. Among the general population-without considering financial suitability-we estimated that 40 percent would have their applications rejected. The predicted rejection rates are substantially higher than the rejection rates of about 20-25 percent of applicants in the actual market. In evaluating reforms for long-term care financing and their potential to increase private insurance rates, as well as to reduce financial pressure on public safety-net programs, policy makers need to consider the role of underwriting in the market for long-term care insurance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  16. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  17. Calculation of the mutual diffusion coefficient by equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, J.J.; Kincaid, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method for the calculation of the mutual diffusion coefficient for a mixture of hard spheres is described. The method is applied to a 50-50 mixture of equidiameter particles having a mass ratio of 0.1 for the two species, at a volume of three times close-packing. By extrapolating the results to the limit of vanishing concentration gradient and infinite system size, we obtain a value in statistical agreement with the result obtained using a Green-Kubo molecular dynamics procedure which is also described. The nonequilibrium calculation yields a mutual diffusion coefficient which decreases slightly with increasing concentration gradient. The Green-Kubo time correlation function for mutual diffusion displays a slow decay with time, qualitatively similar to the long-time tail which has been predicted by the hydrodynamic theory of Pomeau

  18. Calculation of the mutual diffusion coefficient by equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, J.J.; Kincaid, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method for the calculation of the mutual diffusion coefficient for a mixture of hard spheres is described. The method is applied to a 50-50 mixture of equidiameter particles having a mass ratio of 0.1 for the two species, at a volume of three times close-packing. By extrapolating the results to the limit of vanishing concentration gradient and infinite system size, we obtain a value in statistical agreement with the result obtained using a Green-Kubo molecular dynamics procedure, which is also described. The nonequilibrium calculation yields a mutual diffusion coefficient which decreases slightly with increasing concentration gradient. The Green-Kubo timecorrelation function for mutual diffusion displays a slow decay with time, qualitatively similar to the long-time tail which has been predicted by the hydrodynamic theory of Pomeau

  19. Do firm characteristics influence mutual fund performance? An empirical study for European mutual funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Wingens, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of fund management firm characteristics on mutual fund performance. Using a sample of European domiciled open-end equity funds for the period 1998-2008, this study finds that the funds of private companies have performed better than the funds of public

  20. Prior Knowledge Facilitates Mutual Gaze Convergence and Head Nodding Synchrony in Face-to-face Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsoonthorn, C; Yokozuka, T; Miura, S; Ogawa, K; Miyake, Y

    2016-12-02

    As prior knowledge is claimed to be an essential key to achieve effective education, we are interested in exploring whether prior knowledge enhances communication effectiveness. To demonstrate the effects of prior knowledge, mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony are observed as indicators of communication effectiveness. We conducted an experiment on lecture task between lecturer and student under 2 conditions: prior knowledge and non-prior knowledge. The students in prior knowledge condition were provided the basic information about the lecture content and were assessed their understanding by the experimenter before starting the lecture while the students in non-prior knowledge had none. The result shows that the interaction in prior knowledge condition establishes significantly higher mutual gaze convergence (t(15.03) = 6.72, p < 0.0001; α = 0.05, n = 20) and head nodding synchrony (t(16.67) = 1.83, p = 0.04; α = 0.05, n = 19) compared to non-prior knowledge condition. This study reveals that prior knowledge facilitates mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. Furthermore, the interaction with and without prior knowledge can be evaluated by measuring or observing mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony.

  1. Experimenting with Theory of Change for Interculturality and Mutual Learning in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Annalisa L.

    2016-01-01

    With a goal of creating conditions wherein college students of adult learning paired with international adult learners form mutual partnerships for educational mentoring, where to begin? How to take into account the contextual factors and priorities of multiple stakeholders in creating academic courses and learning-focused partnerships while…

  2. Determining the parameters of Weibull function to estimate the wind power potential in conditions of limited source meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisova, Yu. A.; Ermolenko, B. V.; Ermolenko, G. V.; Kiseleva, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    We studied the information basis for the assessment of wind power potential on the territory of Russia. We described the methodology to determine the parameters of the Weibull function, which reflects the density of distribution of probabilities of wind flow speeds at a defined basic height above the surface of the earth using the available data on the average speed at this height and its repetition by gradations. The application of the least square method for determining these parameters, unlike the use of graphical methods, allows performing a statistical assessment of the results of approximation of empirical histograms by the Weibull formula. On the basis of the computer-aided analysis of the statistical data, it was shown that, at a fixed point where the wind speed changes at different heights, the range of parameter variation of the Weibull distribution curve is relatively small, the sensitivity of the function to parameter changes is quite low, and the influence of changes on the shape of speed distribution curves is negligible. Taking this into consideration, we proposed and mathematically verified the methodology of determining the speed parameters of the Weibull function at other heights using the parameter computations for this function at a basic height, which is known or defined by the average speed of wind flow, or the roughness coefficient of the geological substrate. We gave examples of practical application of the suggested methodology in the development of the Atlas of Renewable Energy Resources in Russia in conditions of deficiency of source meteorological data. The proposed methodology, to some extent, may solve the problem related to the lack of information on the vertical profile of repeatability of the wind flow speeds in the presence of a wide assortment of wind turbines with different ranges of wind-wheel axis heights and various performance characteristics in the global market; as a result, this methodology can become a powerful tool for

  3. A role of the transcriptional regulator LldR (NCgl2814) in glutamate metabolism under biotin-limited conditions in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supkulsutra, Tanyanut; Maeda, Tomoya; Kumagai, Kosuke; Wachi, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium used for the fermentative production of L-glutamate. LldR (NCgl2814) is known as a repressor for ldhA and lldD encoding lactate dehydrogenases. LdhA is responsible for production of L-lactate, while LldD is for its assimilation. Since L-lactate production was observed as a by-product of glutamate production under biotin-limited conditions, LldR might play a regulatory role in the glutamate metabolism. Here for the first time, we investigated effects of overproduction or deletion of LldR on the glutamate metabolism under biotin-limited conditions in C. glutamicum. It was found that glutamate production under biotin-limited conditions was decreased by overproduction of LldR. In the wild-type cells, L-lactate was produced in the first 24 h and it was re-consumed thereafter. On the other hand, in the overproduced cells, L-lactate was produced like the wild type, but it was not re-consumed. This means that L-lactate assimilation, which is catalyzed by LldD, was suppressed by the overproduction of LldR, but L-lactate production, which is catalyzed by LdhA, was not affected, indicating that LldR mainly controls the expression of lldD but not of ldhA under biotin-limited conditions. This was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. From these results, it is suggested that L-lactate metabolism, which is controlled by LldR, has a buffering function of the pyruvate pool for glutamate production.

  4. {sup 90}Y -PET imaging: Exploring limitations and accuracy under conditions of low counts and high random fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.carlier@chu-nantes.fr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Nantes, Place Alexis Ricordeau, Nantes 44093, France and CRCNA–UMR 892 INSERM 6299 CNRS, 8 quai Moncousu BP 70721, Nantes 44007 (France); Willowson, Kathy P. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Fourkal, Eugene [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States); Bailey, Dale L. [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe 2141, Australia and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales 2065 (Australia); Doss, Mohan [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States); Conti, Maurizio [Siemens Healthcare Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    high random fraction and low counts for iterative algorithms. Point spread function (PSF) correction and TOF reconstruction in general reduce background variability and noise and increase recovered concentration. Results for patient data indicated a good correlation between the expected and PET reconstructed activities. A linear relationship between the expected and the measured activities in the organ of interest was observed for all reconstruction method used: a linearity coefficient of 0.89 ± 0.05 for the Biograph mCT and 0.81 ± 0.05 for the Biograph TruePoint. Conclusions: Due to the low counts and high random fraction, accurate image quantification of {sup 90}Y during selective internal radionuclide therapy is affected by random coincidence estimation, scatter correction, and any positivity constraint of the algorithm. Nevertheless, phantom and patient studies showed that the impact of number of true and random coincidences on quantitative results was found to be limited as long as ordinary Poisson ordered subsets expectation maximization reconstruction algorithms with random smoothing are used. Adding PSF correction and TOF information to the reconstruction greatly improves the image quality in terms of bias, variability, noise reduction, and detectability. On the patient studies, the total activity in the field of view is in general accurately measured by Biograph mCT and slightly overestimated by the Biograph TruePoint.

  5. (90)Y -PET imaging: Exploring limitations and accuracy under conditions of low counts and high random fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Thomas; Willowson, Kathy P; Fourkal, Eugene; Bailey, Dale L; Doss, Mohan; Conti, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    . Point spread function (PSF) correction and TOF reconstruction in general reduce background variability and noise and increase recovered concentration. Results for patient data indicated a good correlation between the expected and PET reconstructed activities. A linear relationship between the expected and the measured activities in the organ of interest was observed for all reconstruction method used: a linearity coefficient of 0.89 ± 0.05 for the Biograph mCT and 0.81 ± 0.05 for the Biograph TruePoint. Due to the low counts and high random fraction, accurate image quantification of (90)Y during selective internal radionuclide therapy is affected by random coincidence estimation, scatter correction, and any positivity constraint of the algorithm. Nevertheless, phantom and patient studies showed that the impact of number of true and random coincidences on quantitative results was found to be limited as long as ordinary Poisson ordered subsets expectation maximization reconstruction algorithms with random smoothing are used. Adding PSF correction and TOF information to the reconstruction greatly improves the image quality in terms of bias, variability, noise reduction, and detectability. On the patient studies, the total activity in the field of view is in general accurately measured by Biograph mCT and slightly overestimated by the Biograph TruePoint.

  6. 90Y -PET imaging: Exploring limitations and accuracy under conditions of low counts and high random fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlier, Thomas; Willowson, Kathy P.; Fourkal, Eugene; Bailey, Dale L.; Doss, Mohan; Conti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    iterative algorithms. Point spread function (PSF) correction and TOF reconstruction in general reduce background variability and noise and increase recovered concentration. Results for patient data indicated a good correlation between the expected and PET reconstructed activities. A linear relationship between the expected and the measured activities in the organ of interest was observed for all reconstruction method used: a linearity coefficient of 0.89 ± 0.05 for the Biograph mCT and 0.81 ± 0.05 for the Biograph TruePoint. Conclusions: Due to the low counts and high random fraction, accurate image quantification of 90 Y during selective internal radionuclide therapy is affected by random coincidence estimation, scatter correction, and any positivity constraint of the algorithm. Nevertheless, phantom and patient studies showed that the impact of number of true and random coincidences on quantitative results was found to be limited as long as ordinary Poisson ordered subsets expectation maximization reconstruction algorithms with random smoothing are used. Adding PSF correction and TOF information to the reconstruction greatly improves the image quality in terms of bias, variability, noise reduction, and detectability. On the patient studies, the total activity in the field of view is in general accurately measured by Biograph mCT and slightly overestimated by the Biograph TruePoint

  7. Mutual benefits in academic-service partnership: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghnezhad, Maliheh; Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Kareshki, Hossein; Esmaily, Habibollah

    2018-05-30

    Academic and service institutions involve with many challenges. Partnership programs are a golden opportunity to achieve mutual benefits to overcome these challenges. Identifying mutual benefits is the cornerstone of forming a successful partnership and guarantee to its continuity. There are definitions and instances of mutual benefits in the literature related to partnership programs, but there is no coherent evidence and clear picture of these benefits. This study is conducted to identify mutual benefits in academic-service partnership by analyzing the definitions and instances of it in the literature. An integrative review of key papers regarding mutual benefits in academic-service partnership was undertaken. This review was guided by the framework described by Whittemore and Knafl. Search of the following databases was conducted: MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, Emerald Insight and Science Direct. The search terms were mutual benefits, mutual gains, mutual interest, mutual expectations, mutual goals, mutual demand, partnership, collaboration, academic-service partnership and academic service collaboration. Cooper's five-stage integrative review method was used. Quality evaluation of articles was conducted. Data were abstracted from included articles. The analysis was conducted based on the qualitative content analysis of the literature suggested by Zhang and Wildemuth. 28 articles were included in this review. Mutual benefits are described in four categories include: synergy in training and empowerment of human resources, education improvement, access to shared resources, facilitate production and application of beneficial knowledge into practice. Mutual benefits in the academic-service partnership include a range of goals, interests, expectations, and needs of partner organizations that is achievable and measurable through joint planning and collaboration. We suggest academic and service policymakers to consider these benefits in the planning and evaluating

  8. Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Jiang, Xin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of a red paddy soil polluted with PAHs. • 1% (w/w) methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and 20 mM nitrate addition acted as solubility-enhancing agent and electron acceptor respectively. • Tenax extraction and a first-three-compartment modeling were applicable to explore the rate-limiting factors in the biodegradation. • Lack of PAH-degraders hindered biodegradation in control and MCD addition treatments. • Inadequate bioaccessible PAHs was vital rate-limiting factor in nitrate addition treatments. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20 mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies

  9. Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming, E-mail: sunmingming@njau.edu.cn [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil Environmental and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ye, Mao [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.cn [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Huixin [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Teng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Jiang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Department of Chemistry, Maseno University, Private Bag, Maseno 40105 (Kenya)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of a red paddy soil polluted with PAHs. • 1% (w/w) methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and 20 mM nitrate addition acted as solubility-enhancing agent and electron acceptor respectively. • Tenax extraction and a first-three-compartment modeling were applicable to explore the rate-limiting factors in the biodegradation. • Lack of PAH-degraders hindered biodegradation in control and MCD addition treatments. • Inadequate bioaccessible PAHs was vital rate-limiting factor in nitrate addition treatments. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20 mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies.

  10. On the Capacity of Densely Packed Arrays with Mutual Coupling and Correlated Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Dehghanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacity of a wireless link can be enhanced by increasing the number of receive antennas. However, imposed receiver physical size constraints necessitate that the antenna elements be in close proximity, which typically reduces the overall link capacity of the wireless channel. Counterintuitively, under certain conditions the capacity of the overall link can be enhanced by decreasing antenna spacings. The focus of this paper is that of identifying the fundamental mechanisms and the conditions that give rise to this excess capacity. Closed-form expressions that directly quantify this capacity gain are derived based on a representative circuit theoretic model. Interesting insights are developed about the impact of different noise and interference sources and the limiting effect of heat losses in the antenna system. The capacity analysis is subsequently generalized to encompass the effect of antenna current deformation and load mismatch due to mutual coupling, based on the standard Method of Moments (MoM analysis, demonstrating similar capacity enhancement behavior as predicted by the closed-form expressions.

  11. Steady-State Growth under Inorganic Carbon Limitation Conditions Increases Energy Consumption for Maintenance and Enhances Nitrous Oxide Production in Nitrosomonas europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellbye, Brett L; Giguere, Andrew; Chaplen, Frank; Bottomley, Peter J; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A

    2016-06-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that oxidizes ammonia (NH3) to obtain energy for growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) and can also produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas. We interrogated the growth, physiological, and transcriptome responses of N. europaea to conditions of replete (>5.2 mM) and limited inorganic carbon (IC) provided by either 1.0 mM or 0.2 mM sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) supplemented with atmospheric CO2 IC-limited cultures oxidized 25 to 58% of available NH3 to nitrite, depending on the dilution rate and Na2CO3 concentration. IC limitation resulted in a 2.3-fold increase in cellular maintenance energy requirements compared to those for NH3-limited cultures. Rates of N2O production increased 2.5- and 6.3-fold under the two IC-limited conditions, increasing the percentage of oxidized NH3-N that was transformed to N2O-N from 0.5% (replete) up to 4.4% (0.2 mM Na2CO3). Transcriptome analysis showed differential expression (P ≤ 0.05) of 488 genes (20% of inventory) between replete and IC-limited conditions, but few differences were detected between the two IC-limiting treatments. IC-limited conditions resulted in a decreased expression of ammonium/ammonia transporter and ammonia monooxygenase subunits and increased the expression of genes involved in C1 metabolism, including the genes for RuBisCO (cbb gene cluster), carbonic anhydrase, folate-linked metabolism of C1 moieties, and putative C salvage due to oxygenase activity of RuBisCO. Increased expression of nitrite reductase (gene cluster NE0924 to NE0927) correlated with increased production of N2O. Together, these data suggest that N. europaea adapts physiologically during IC-limited steady-state growth, which leads to the uncoupling of NH3 oxidation from growth and increased N2O production. Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is an important process in the global nitrogen cycle. This process is generally dependent on ammonia

  12. Speech Intelligibility Prediction Based on Mutual Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Taal, Cees H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of predicting the average intelligibility of noisy and potentially processed speech signals, as observed by a group of normal hearing listeners. We propose a model which performs this prediction based on the hypothesis that intelligibility is monotonically related...... to the mutual information between critical-band amplitude envelopes of the clean signal and the corresponding noisy/processed signal. The resulting intelligibility predictor turns out to be a simple function of the mean-square error (mse) that arises when estimating a clean critical-band amplitude using...... a minimum mean-square error (mmse) estimator based on the noisy/processed amplitude. The proposed model predicts that speech intelligibility cannot be improved by any processing of noisy critical-band amplitudes. Furthermore, the proposed intelligibility predictor performs well ( ρ > 0.95) in predicting...

  13. Quantum corrections to holographic mutual information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agón, Cesar A.; Faulkner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We compute the leading contribution to the mutual information (MI) of two disjoint spheres in the large distance regime for arbitrary conformal field theories (CFT) in any dimension. This is achieved by refining the operator product expansion method introduced by Cardy http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/46/28/285402. For CFTs with holographic duals the leading contribution to the MI at long distances comes from bulk quantum corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi area formula. According to the FLM proposal http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)074 this equals the bulk MI between the two disjoint regions spanned by the boundary spheres and their corresponding minimal area surfaces. We compute this quantum correction and provide in this way a non-trivial check of the FLM proposal.

  14. Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

  15. Quantum corrections to holographic mutual information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agón, Cesar A. [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University,Waltham, MA 02453 (United States); Faulkner, Thomas [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States)

    2016-08-22

    We compute the leading contribution to the mutual information (MI) of two disjoint spheres in the large distance regime for arbitrary conformal field theories (CFT) in any dimension. This is achieved by refining the operator product expansion method introduced by Cardy http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/46/28/285402. For CFTs with holographic duals the leading contribution to the MI at long distances comes from bulk quantum corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi area formula. According to the FLM proposal http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)074 this equals the bulk MI between the two disjoint regions spanned by the boundary spheres and their corresponding minimal area surfaces. We compute this quantum correction and provide in this way a non-trivial check of the FLM proposal.

  16. Market timing and selectivity performance of mutual funds in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Musah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in mutual funds in Ghana has been tremendous over the last decade as evidenced by the continuous increases in number and total funds under management. However, no empirical work has been done on the selectivity and timing ability of the mutual fund managers. Using monthly returns data hand-collected from the reports of the mutual fund managers for the period January 2007-December 2012, this paper examines the market timing and selectivity ability of mutual fund managers in Ghana using the classic Treynor-Mazuy (1966 model and Henriksson- Merton (1981 model. The results suggest that, in general mutual fund managers in Ghana are not able to effectively select stocks and also are not able to predict both the magnitude and direction of future market returns. More specifically, all of the sample mutual fund managers attain significant negative selectivity coefficients and also most of them attain insignificant negative timing coefficients.

  17. Performance Measurement without Benchmarks: An Examination of Mutual Fund Returns.

    OpenAIRE

    Grinblatt, Mark; Titman, Sheridan

    1993-01-01

    This article introduces a new measure of portfolio performance and applies it to study the performance of a large sample of mutual funds. In contrast to previous studies of mutual fund performance, the measure used in this study employs portfolio holdings and does not require the use of a benchmark portfolio. It finds that the portfolio choices of mutual fund managers, particularly those that managed aggressive growth funds, earned significantly positive risk-adjusted returns in the 1976-85 p...

  18. Risk and Return Analysis of Mutual Fund Industry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Ahmad Pandow; Khurshid Ahmad Butt

    2017-01-01

    The mutual funds is one of the important classes of financial intermediaries which enables millions of small and large savers spread across India as well as internationally to participate in and derive the benefits of the capital market growth. Thus the involvement of mutual funds in the transformation of Indian economy has made it urgent to view their services as they are playing role in mobilizing and allocation of investable funds through markets. The fact is that mutual funds have a lot o...

  19. Investors’ perception on mutual funds with reference to Chidambaram town

    OpenAIRE

    N. Geetha; M. Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Mutual funds in India play a vital role in mobilizing funds for capital and financial markets. The role of mutual funds in India felt significant as it generates funds from small investors at large across the country. The main objective of the study is to elucidate the perceptions and behaviours of the small investors located in the town of Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, South India towards the mutual funds and also suggest some measures to increase the quantum of investors and investments as well.

  20. Performance of Mutual Funds In INDIA: 2000 - 2006.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabra, Krishna

    2006-01-01

    Numerous scholarly researches have been carried out to evaluate the performance of mutual funds. These researches may differ in time period but most studies conclude that mutual funds on average have failed to outperform the market and therefore the efficient market hypothesis holds good. This research is carried out to evaluate the performance of 20 surviving diversified equity growth mutual funds for the period of 6 years from July 2000 to June 2006. The data of the fund is collected on Mon...

  1. Modeling the Substrate Skin Effects in Mutual RL Characteristics.,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. de Roest

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to model the influence of the substrateskin effects on the distributed mutual impedance per unit lengthparameters of multiple coupled on-chip interconnects. The proposedanalytic model is based on the frequency-dependent distribution of thecurrent in the silicon substrate and the closed form integrationapproach. It is shown that the calculated frequency-dependentdistributed mutual inductance and the associated mutual resistance arein good agreement with the results obtained from CAD-oriented circuitmodeling technique.

  2. Financial Crisis and Corporate Social Responsible Mutual Fund Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Sitikantha Parida; Zhihong Wang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate investment flows into mutual funds that hold more high corporate social responsible stocks (top CSR funds) vs. mutual funds that hold more low corporate social responsible stocks (bottom CSR funds). Using a large sample of equity mutual funds spanning 2003–2012, we find that top CSR funds on average receive about 5% less investment per annum compared to the other funds; whereas bottom CSR funds receive about 5.6% more investments. These relative negative and posi...

  3. Tax-Efficient Asset Management: Evidence from Equity Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Sialm; Hanjiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Investment taxes have a substantial impact on the performance of taxable mutual fund investors. Mutual funds can reduce the tax burdens of their shareholders by avoiding securities that are heavily taxed and by avoiding realizing capital gains that trigger higher tax burdens to the funds’ investors. Such tax avoidance strategies constrain the investment opportunities of the mutual funds and might reduce their before-tax performance. Our paper empirically investigates the costs and benefits of...

  4. Mutual couling reduction using a lumped LC circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    A technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two Planar Inverted F Antennas (PIFA) is presented in this paper. By the use of a parallel LC circuit it is possible to reduce the mutual coupling between two antennas. This results in a 16 % improvement in the radiation efficiency.......A technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two Planar Inverted F Antennas (PIFA) is presented in this paper. By the use of a parallel LC circuit it is possible to reduce the mutual coupling between two antennas. This results in a 16 % improvement in the radiation efficiency....

  5. Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sprinzak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression perturbations. For lateral inhibition, we find that mutual inactivation speeds up patterning dynamics, relieves the need for cooperative regulatory interactions, and expands the range of parameter values that permit pattern formation, compared to canonical models. Furthermore, mutual inactivation enables a simple lateral inhibition circuit architecture which requires only a single downstream regulatory step. Both model systems show how mutual inactivation can facilitate robust fine-grained patterning processes that would be difficult to implement without it, by encoding a difference-promoting feedback within the signaling system itself. Together, these results provide a framework for analysis of more complex Notch-dependent developmental systems.

  6. Happiness and life satisfaction prospectively predict self-rated health, physical health, and the presence of limiting, long-term health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matt; Singh, Gopal K

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of happiness and life satisfaction on health. Longitudinal data from waves 1 and 3, conducted in 2001 and 2004, respectively, of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. Australia. A total of 9981 respondents aged 18 years and older. Outcomes were self-reported health; the absence of long-term, limiting health conditions; and physical health. Happiness was assessed with the following question: "During the past 4 weeks, have you been a happy person"? Life satisfaction was determined with the following question: "All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life"? We used multiple regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs), beta coefficients (beta), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between baseline happiness or life satisfaction and health at wave 3. Baseline happiness and life satisfaction both were positively associated at wave 3 with excellent, very good, or good health (OR = 1.50, CI = 1.33-1.70, p < .0001; and OR = 1.62, CI = 1.27-2.08, p < .0001, respectively); with the absence of long-term, limiting health conditions (OR = 1.53, CI = 1.35-1.75, p < .0001; and OR = 1.51, CI = 1.25-1.82, p < .0001, respectively); and with higher physical health levels (beta = .99, CI = .60-1.39, p < .0001; and beta = .99, CI = .20-1.78, p < .0145, respectively). This study showed that happier people and those who were more satisfied with their lives at baseline reported better health (self-rated health; absence of limiting, long-term conditions; and physical health) at the 2-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline health and other relevant covariates.

  7. Separation of parent homopolymers from diblock copolymers by liquid chromatography under limiting conditions of desorption 4. Role of eluent and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, Dušan

    2010-11-01

    Liquid chromatography under limiting conditions of desorption (LC LCD) enables fast, base-line discrimination of both parent homopolymers from various diblock copolymers in one single step. The low molecular admixtures are fully separated, as well. General rules are discussed in detail for selection of mobile phases and temperature applied in LC LCD of block copolymers. Typical practical separation examples are presented. It is shown that both the composition of the well-selected LC LCD mobile phase and the temperature of experiment may vary in a broad range without affecting the basics of method. This implies that the method is robust and user friendly.

  8. UV disinfection of water. 1. Effect on microorganisms/virus conditions which can limit the use of UV radiation as a means of disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, E; Johansen,; Myhrstad, J A [Statens Inst. for Folkehelse, Oslo (Norway)

    1978-01-01

    UV radiation has been found to have advantages over chloration for the disinfection of water. New regulations for dietary conditions on Norwegian ships introduced in 1974 led to increased use of UV disinfection, and this has in the following years spread to waterworks. The present article is based on a study to determine possible limitation. The nature of the injuries to the microorganisms is first discussed, together with repair mechanisms. A table is given showing the energy required for 90 and 100 percent inactivation of a number of microorganisms. Some other factors affecting UV inactivation are briefly mentioned. (JIW).

  9. Controls on dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation in a headwater stream: the influence of photochemical and hydrological conditions in determining light-limitation or substrate-limitation of photo-degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, R. M.; Harrold, K. H.; Neilson, B. T.; Kling, G. W.

    2015-11-01

    -degradation is "light-limited" or "substrate-limited". We suggest that degradation of DOM in CDOM-rich streams or ponds similar to Imnavait is typically light-limited under most flow conditions. Thus, export of DOM from this stream will be less under conditions that increase the light available for DOM photo-degradation (i.e., low flows, sunny days).

  10. Oxygen Partial Pressure Is a Rate-Limiting Parameter for Cell Proliferation in 3D Spheroids Grown in Physioxic Culture Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Aurélie; Guillaume, Ludivine; Grimes, David Robert; Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The in situ oxygen partial pressure in normal and tumor tissues is in the range of a few percent. Therefore, when studying cell growth in 3D culture systems, it is essential to consider how the physiological oxygen concentration, rather than the one in the ambient air, influences the proliferation parameters. Here, we investigated the effect of reducing oxygen partial pressure from 21% to 5% on cell proliferation rate and regionalization in a 3D tumor spheroid model. We found that 5% oxygen concentration strongly inhibited spheroid growth, changed the proliferation gradient and reduced the 50% In Depth Proliferation index (IDP50), compared with culture at 21% oxygen. We then modeled the oxygen partial pressure profiles using the experimental data generated by culturing spheroids in physioxic and normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia occurred at similar depth in spheroids grown in the two conditions, oxygen partial pressure was a major rate-limiting factor with a critical effect on cell proliferation rate and regionalization only in spheroids grown in physioxic condition and not in spheroids grown at atmospheric normoxia. Our findings strengthen the need to consider conducting experiment in physioxic conditions (i.e., tissue normoxia) for proper understanding of cancer cell biology and the evaluation of anticancer drugs in 3D culture systems.

  11. Clinical supervision, is it mutually beneficial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Clinical education in Nuclear Medicine is essential for student learning as it enables them to develop knowledge and competence and put theory into practice. While the benefit to the student is clear, the clinical education experience should be mutually beneficial. The role of the clinical supervisor involves teaching, role modelling, management and assessment. It could be assumed that the Supervisor would find the teaching role leading to increased knowledge; role modelling leading to increased reflection which improves practice; management skills being enhanced and assessment improving critical evaluation skills. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived benefits of taking on the role of a clinical supervisor. Clinical Supervisors participating in the Nuclear Medicine program were surveyed. Questions were grouped into three main categories - professional, interpersonal and communication. A Likert scale was used to assess perceived level of benefit and open-ended questions were included to obtain additional understanding of Supervisors' perceptions. Results from the survey indicate that 64% of supervisors felt an increase in work satisfaction by taking students, 68% agreed their level of performance was improved and 61% agreed that it deepened their understanding of Nuclear Medicine. It is concluded that respondents perceived a positive benefit to areas within the role of Clinical Supervisor. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  12. Grounding Animal Rights in Mutual Advantage Contractarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to critics and advocates of contractarianism alike, I argue that mutual advantage contractarianism entails rights and protections for animals. In section one I outline the criteria that must be met in order for an individual to qualify for moral rights on the contractarian view. I then introduce an alternative form of ‘rights,’ which I call ‘protectorate status,’ from which an individual can receive protections indirectly. In section two I suggest guidelines for assigning animal rights based on two ways of categorizing animals. On the basis of the categorization according to benefit derived, I argue that animals used for companionship, security, hunting assistance, transportation, entertainment, medical service, nourishment, or clothing will tend to qualify for basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease. On the basis of the categorization according to species, I argue that, on top of the basic rights above, dogs tend to qualify for rights against abuse, and against frivolous medical experimentation, as well as further negotiated rights. Cows have the basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease, but squirrels and bears have no rights. In section three I argue that some animals qualify for protectorate status, which would establish various protections for different animals, but would also generally prohibit cruelty towards animals.

  13. Economic game theory for mutualism and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István; Hoffman, Moshe; Frederickson, Megan E; Pierce, Naomi E; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-12-01

    We review recent work at the interface of economic game theory and evolutionary biology that provides new insights into the evolution of partner choice, host sanctions, partner fidelity feedback and public goods. (1) The theory of games with asymmetrical information shows that the right incentives allow hosts to screen-out parasites and screen-in mutualists, explaining successful partner choice in the absence of signalling. Applications range from ant-plants to microbiomes. (2) Contract theory distinguishes two longstanding but weakly differentiated explanations of host response to defectors: host sanctions and partner fidelity feedback. Host traits that selectively punish misbehaving symbionts are parsimoniously interpreted as pre-adaptations. Yucca-moth and legume-rhizobia mutualisms are argued to be examples of partner fidelity feedback. (3) The theory of public goods shows that cooperation in multi-player interactions can evolve in the absence of assortment, in one-shot social dilemmas among non-kin. Applications include alarm calls in vertebrates and exoenzymes in microbes. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca2+ signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  15. Friendly Home and Inhabitants' Morality: Mutual Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartova-Bochaver, Sofya K.; Kuznetsova, Valeriya B.

    2018-01-01

    The study is aimed at investigating the connection between the friendliness of the home environment and the moral motives' level. The friendliness of the home environment includes two aspects: the number of functions provided by home (functionality) and the congruence of these functions with inhabitants' needs (relevance). The theoretical framework of the study was formed by research and ideas emphasizing the interplay between people and their environments. We hypothesized that the friendliness of the home environment and inhabitants' moral motives would have a reciprocal relationship: the friendlier the home the higher the inhabitants' moral motives' level, and, vice versa, the higher the person's moral motives' level the more positive home image. The respondents were 550 students (25% male). The Home Environment Functionality Questionnaire, the Home Environment Relevance Questionnaire, and the Moral Motivation Model Scale were used. As expected, it was found that the friendliness of the home environment and the inhabitants' moral motives are in reciprocal synergetic relationships. Relevance formed more nuanced correlation patterns with moral motives than functionality did. Functionality predicted moral motives poorly whereas moral motives predicted functionality strongly. Finally, relevance and moral motives were found to be in mutual relationships whereas the perceived functionality was predicted by moral motives only. PMID:29375450

  16. Indirect control and power in mutual control structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karos, D.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In a mutual control structure agents exercise control over each other. Typical examples occur in the area of corporate governance: firms and investment companies exercise mutual control, in particular by owning each others’ stocks. In this paper we formulate a general model for such situations.

  17. Estimation of skill of Russian mutual fund managers

    OpenAIRE

    Parshakov, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Our work is focused on Russian mutual funds managers’ skills versus luck estimating. Using bootstrap procedure we build Jensen’s alpha density for each fund. We find that only 5% of Russian equity mutual funds do have skills (in contrast to luck) to outperform the benchmark.

  18. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

  19. Two high-frequency mutual inductance bridges with high resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra, Jakob; Gerritsma, G.J.; Kreuwel, H.J.M.; van der Marel, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Two mutual inductance bridges are described for operation up to about 100 kHz. Special attention is paid to the sensitivity and resolution of the bridges. Both bridges can be used to measure variations of about 10 pH in the mutual inductance. The first bridge consists of passive elements only

  20. Performance Evaluation of Open-Ended ELSS Mutual Fund ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the performance of the open-ended equity linked saving mutual fund schemes (ELSS) in India during the financial distress in 2008-2009. In this study, the month end net asset values of selected equity linked saving mutual fund schemes were considered and the data was obtained from the website of ...

  1. Mutual intelligibility between closely related language in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent; Golubovic, Jelena; Schüppert, Anja; Swarte, Femke; Voigt, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  2. Mutual intelligibility between closely related languages in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.; Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Golubović, J.; Schüppert, A.; Swarte, F.; Voigt, S.

    2017-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  3. The chain rule implies Tsirelson's bound: an approach from generalized mutual information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri; Murao, Mio

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze an information theoretical derivation of Tsirelson's bound based on information causality, we introduce a generalized mutual information (GMI), defined as the optimal coding rate of a channel with classical inputs and general probabilistic outputs. In the case where the outputs are quantum, the GMI coincides with the quantum mutual information. In general, the GMI does not necessarily satisfy the chain rule. We prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived by imposing the chain rule on the GMI. We formulate a principle, which we call the no-supersignaling condition, which states that the assistance of nonlocal correlations does not increase the capability of classical communication. We prove that this condition is equivalent to the no-signaling condition. As a result, we show that Tsirelson's bound is implied by the nonpositivity of the quantitative difference between information causality and no-supersignaling. (paper)

  4. Reducing Deviance Through Youths' Mutual Aid Group Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-01-01

    The mutual aid group, as supported by the social worker, emerges to play a vital role in helping group members reduce their deviance or behavioral problem. However, how the collaboration of the group and social worker accomplishes the reduction has remained uncharted. Based on social capital theory, mutual aid and cohesion within the group and social workers' specific aid for the group are likely responsible for the reduction. The test of such hypotheses relies on a two-wave panel survey of the members of 60 mutual aid groups who had deviant behavioral problems, located in Hong Kong, China. These groups had 241 youths completing both initial and 1-year follow-up surveys. Results manifested the direct or unconditional contributions of mutual aid, group cohesion, and social workers' specific aid to reducing deviance. Hence, social workers can enhance the effectiveness of the mutual aid group in reducing youths' deviance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Mutual proximity graphs for improved reachability in music recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexer, Arthur; Stevens, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the impact of hubness, a general problem of machine learning in high-dimensional spaces, on a real-world music recommendation system based on visualisation of a k-nearest neighbour (knn) graph. Due to a problem of measuring distances in high dimensions, hub objects are recommended over and over again while anti-hubs are nonexistent in recommendation lists, resulting in poor reachability of the music catalogue. We present mutual proximity graphs, which are an alternative to knn and mutual knn graphs, and are able to avoid hub vertices having abnormally high connectivity. We show that mutual proximity graphs yield much better graph connectivity resulting in improved reachability compared to knn graphs, mutual knn graphs and mutual knn graphs enhanced with minimum spanning trees, while simultaneously reducing the negative effects of hubness.

  6. Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor Discharge-Flow Overexpansion and Limit-Loading Condition, Part I: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Cheng S.

    2017-01-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) investigation is conducted over a two-dimensional axial-flow turbine rotor blade row to study the phenomena of turbine rotor discharge flow overexpansion at subcritical, critical, and supercritical conditions. Quantitative data of the mean-flow Mach numbers, mean-flow angles, the tangential blade pressure forces, the mean-flow mass flux, and the flow-path total pressure loss coefficients, averaged or integrated across the two-dimensional computational domain encompassing two blade-passages, are obtained over a series of 14 inlet-total to exit-static pressure ratios, from 1.5 (un-choked; subcritical condition) to 10.0 (supercritical with excessively high pressure ratio.) Detailed flow features over the full domain-of-computation, such as the streamline patterns, Mach contours, pressure contours, blade surface pressure distributions, etc. are collected and displayed in this paper. A formal, quantitative definition of the limit loading condition based on the channel flow theory is proposed and explained. Contrary to the comments made in the historical works performed on this subject, about the deficiency of the theoretical methods applied in analyzing this phenomena, using modern CFD method for the study of this subject appears to be quite adequate and successful. This paper describes the CFD work and its findings.

  7. Stress-inducible expression of At DREB1A in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) increases transpiration efficiency under water-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Devi, M Jyostna; Reddy, D Srinivas; Lavanya, M; Vadez, Vincent; Serraj, R; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K; Sharma, Kiran K

    2007-12-01

    Water deficit is the major abiotic constraint affecting crop productivity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Water use efficiency under drought conditions is thought to be one of the most promising traits to improve and stabilize crop yields under intermittent water deficit. A transcription factor DREB1A from Arabidopsis thaliana, driven by the stress inducible promoter from the rd29A gene, was introduced in a drought-sensitive peanut cultivar JL 24 through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. The stress inducible expression of DREB1A in these transgenic plants did not result in growth retardation or visible phenotypic alterations. T3 progeny of fourteen transgenic events were exposed to progressive soil drying in pot culture. The soil moisture threshold where their transpiration rate begins to decline relative to control well-watered (WW) plants and the number of days needed to deplete the soil water was used to rank the genotypes using the average linkage cluster analysis. Five diverse events were selected from the different clusters and further tested. All the selected transgenic events were able to maintain a transpiration rate equivalent to the WW control in soils dry enough to reduce transpiration rate in wild type JL 24. All transgenic events except one achieved higher transpiration efficiency (TE) under WW conditions and this appeared to be explained by a lower stomatal conductance. Under water limiting conditions, one of the selected transgenic events showed 40% higher TE than the untransformed control.

  8. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    mutual assistance in the event of radiation accidents

  9. Effects of Reentry Plasma Sheath on Mutual-Coupling Property of Array Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasma sheath enveloping a reentry vehicle would cause the failure of on-board antennas, which is an important effect that contributes to the “blackout” problem. The method of replacing the on-board single antenna with the array antennas and using beamforming technology has been proposed to mitigate “blackout” problem by many other researchers. Because the plasma sheath is a reflective medium, plasma will alter the mutual coupling between array elements and degrade the beamforming performance of array antenna. In this paper, the effects of the plasma sheath on the mutual coupling properties between adjacent array elements are studied utilizing the algorithm of finite integration technique. Results show that mutual coupling coefficients of array elements are deteriorating more seriously with the decrease of collision frequency. Moreover, when electron density and collision frequency are both large, plasma sheath improves the mutual coupling property of array elements; this conclusion suggests that replacing the on-board single antenna with the array antennas and using beamforming technology can be adopted to mitigate the blackout problem in this condition.

  10. Mutually orthogonal Latin squares from the inner products of vectors in mutually unbiased bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Joanne L; Rao, Asha

    2010-01-01

    Mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) are important in quantum information theory. While constructions of complete sets of d + 1 MUBs in C d are known when d is a prime power, it is unknown if such complete sets exist in non-prime power dimensions. It has been conjectured that complete sets of MUBs only exist in C d if a maximal set of mutually orthogonal Latin squares (MOLS) of side length d also exists. There are several constructions (Roy and Scott 2007 J. Math. Phys. 48 072110; Paterek, Dakic and Brukner 2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 012109) of complete sets of MUBs from specific types of MOLS, which use Galois fields to construct the vectors of the MUBs. In this paper, two known constructions of MUBs (Alltop 1980 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 26 350-354; Wootters and Fields 1989 Ann. Phys. 191 363-381), both of which use polynomials over a Galois field, are used to construct complete sets of MOLS in the odd prime case. The MOLS come from the inner products of pairs of vectors in the MUBs.

  11. Use of organic mulch to enhance water-use efficiency and peach production under limiting soil conditions in a three-year-old orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordan, J.; Pascual, M.; Villar, J.M.; Fonseca, F.; Papió, J.; Montilla, V.; Rufat, J.

    2015-07-01

    Mulching techniques have emerged in recent years to overcome soil constraints and improve fruit tree productivity. The object of this study was to evaluate the effects of a low-cost organic mulch application in a newly planted peach orchard under a ridge planting system. Three treatments were performed in 12 elementary plots using a randomized complete block design. The orchard was drip-irrigated. Mulch was applied in two treatments, which differed in fertigation (none vs. multi-nutrient fertigation), while the third treatment did not include either mulch or fertigation and served as the control. Treatments were compared in terms of their effects on the physical properties of the soil, crop response, and water-use efficiency. Mulch treatments did not alter the soil bulk density. However, the mulch significantly (p=0.0004) increased the water infiltration rate (2.21 mm/h vs. 121 mm/h), which is a key issue when working in high frequency irrigation systems under soil limiting conditions. Similarly, mulched treatments showed a more favorable water status both in the second and the third year, which was translated in a better crop response. Thus, mulched treatments recorded higher yields both in the second (+155%, p=0.0005) and the third year (+53%, p=0.0007) of the experiment. Water use efficiency (WUEagr) was higher in the mulch treatments (+50% in average, p=0.0007) than in the control in the third year of the study. On the basis of our results, we propose that organic-mulching techniques should be considered as a beneficial practice to apply in fruit-trees production under limiting soil conditions.(Author)

  12. Use of organic mulch to enhance water-use efficiency and peach production under limiting soil conditions in a three-year-old orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Lordan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulching techniques have emerged in recent years to overcome soil constraints and improve fruit tree productivity. The object of this study was to evaluate the effects of a low-cost organic mulch application in a newly planted peach orchard under a ridge planting system. Three treatments were performed in 12 elementary plots using a randomized complete block design. The orchard was drip-irrigated. Mulch was applied in two treatments, which differed in fertigation (none vs. multi-nutrient fertigation, while the third treatment did not include either mulch or fertigation and served as the control. Treatments were compared in terms of their effects on the physical properties of the soil, crop response, and water-use efficiency. Mulch treatments did not alter the soil bulk density. However, the mulch significantly (p=0.0004 increased the water infiltration rate (2.21 mm/h vs. 121 mm/h, which is a key issue when working in high frequency irrigation systems under soil limiting conditions. Similarly, mulched treatments showed a more favorable water status both in the second and the third year, which was translated in a better crop response. Thus, mulched treatments recorded higher yields both in the second (+155%, p=0.0005 and the third year (+53%, p=0.0007 of the experiment. Water use efficiency (WUEagr was higher in the mulch treatments (+50% in average, p=0.0007 than in the control in the third year of the study. On the basis of our results, we propose that organic-mulching techniques should be considered as a beneficial practice to apply in fruit-trees production under limiting soil conditions.

  13. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janota, Aleš; Holečko, Peter; Gregor, Michal; Hruboš, Marián

    2017-12-01

    Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA) can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  14. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janota Aleš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  15. Seasonal asset allocation: Evidence from mutual fund flows

    OpenAIRE

    Kamstra, Mark J.; Kramer, Lisa A.; Levi, Maurice D.; Wermers, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, mutual funds have become the dominant vehicle through which individual investors prepare for retirement via defined contribution plans. Further, money market mutual funds, which hold $2.7 trillion as of September 2013, are now a major part of the cash economy in the U.S. Accordingly, the flow of money to and from different mutual fund categories (e.g., equities vs. money funds) increasingly reflects the sentiment or risk aversion of the general population. In this stud...

  16. Landauer current and mutual information in a bosonic quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikant Sable, Hrushikesh; Singh Bhakuni, Devendra; Sharma, Auditya

    2018-02-01

    We study the quantum transport of bosons through a quantum dot coupled to two macroscopic heat baths L and R, held at fixed temperatures TL and TR respectively. We manage to cast the particle as well as the heat current into the Landauer form. Following the correlation matrix approach, we compute the time-dependent mutual information of the dot with the baths. We find that mutual information goes logarithmically as the number of bosons, and at low temperatures, it is possible to set up the parameters in such a way that in steady-state, the mutual information goes quadratically as a function of current.

  17. Controlled mutual quantum entity authentication using entanglement swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Min-Sung; Hong, Chang-Ho; Heo, Jino; Lim, Jong-In; Yang, Hyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a controlled mutual quantum entity authentication protocol by which two users mutually certify each other on a quantum network using a sequence of Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ)-like states. Unlike existing unidirectional quantum entity authentication, our protocol enables mutual quantum entity authentication utilizing entanglement swapping; moreover, it allows the managing trusted center (TC) or trusted third party (TTP) to effectively control the certification of two users using the nature of the GHZ-like state. We will also analyze the security of the protocol and quantum channel. (paper)

  18. Performance of Mutual Funds in India: (2002-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Saboo, Manish

    2006-01-01

    There has been many studies in the past on performance of Mutual Funds in comparison to the market. These studies might differ in time and the market under study but most of them concluded that on an average, Mutual Funds have failed to outperform the market and thus the Efficient Market Hypothesis holds good. This research was based on performance of 25 mutual funds for a period of almost 5 years on monthly basis. Funds were evaluated using measures like Sharpe ratio, Treynor ratio, Jense...

  19. Performance of Mutual Funds in India 2003-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Raizada, Shantanu

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the past on the performance of Mutual Funds in comparison to the market index. These studies may differ in their time period, but most of them concluded that on an average the Mutual Funds failed to outperform the market thus the Efficient Market Hypothesis holds good. This research was based on the performance of 20 open ended equity diversified growth Mutual Funds for a period of 5 years from April 2003 to March 2008 and was compared to the BSE 500. Funds...

  20. The Mutual Investments in Romania - Current Developments and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutual fund industry in Romania has undergone significant growth in recent years in the number of investors and the net assets managed, but still very small compared to other European countries. Capital market development in Romania, the emergence of new investment instruments provides a greater variety of mutual funds investments. Managers decide on the structure of the portfolio by selecting categories of assets in accordance with the rules set out in the Prospectus and according to the degree of risk. In this paper we propose to realize an analysis of mutual investments system in Romania, the progress and their efficiency.

  1. Mutually unbiased bases and semi-definite programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, Stephen; Weigert, Stefan, E-mail: steve.brierley@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: stefan.weigert@york.ac.uk

    2010-11-01

    A complex Hilbert space of dimension six supports at least three but not more than seven mutually unbiased bases. Two computer-aided analytical methods to tighten these bounds are reviewed, based on a discretization of parameter space and on Groebner bases. A third algorithmic approach is presented: the non-existence of more than three mutually unbiased bases in composite dimensions can be decided by a global optimization method known as semidefinite programming. The method is used to confirm that the spectral matrix cannot be part of a complete set of seven mutually unbiased bases in dimension six.

  2. Mutually unbiased bases and semi-definite programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, Stephen; Weigert, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A complex Hilbert space of dimension six supports at least three but not more than seven mutually unbiased bases. Two computer-aided analytical methods to tighten these bounds are reviewed, based on a discretization of parameter space and on Groebner bases. A third algorithmic approach is presented: the non-existence of more than three mutually unbiased bases in composite dimensions can be decided by a global optimization method known as semidefinite programming. The method is used to confirm that the spectral matrix cannot be part of a complete set of seven mutually unbiased bases in dimension six.

  3. Mutual Coupling Effects on Pattern Diversity Antennas for MIMO Femtocells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity antennas play an important role in wireless communications. However, mutual coupling between multiple ports of a diversity antenna has significant effects on wireless radio links and channel capacity. In this paper, dual-port pattern diversity antennas for femtocell applications are proposed to cover GSM1800, UMTS, and WLAN frequency bands. The channel capacities of the proposed antennas and two ideal dipoles with different mutual coupling levels are investigated in an indoor environment. The relation between mutual coupling and channel capacity is observed through investigations of these antennas.

  4. Mutual best friendship involvement, best friends' rejection sensitivity, and psychological maladaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C; Thomas, Katelyn K; Norman, Kelly E; Spencer, Sarah V

    2011-05-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) refers to the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to experiences of possible rejection. RS is a clear risk factor for psychological maladaptation during early adolescence. However, there is growing evidence of significant heterogeneity in the psychological correlates of RS. To investigate when RS poses the greatest psychological risk during early adolescence, this study examines mutual best friendship involvement (or lack thereof) and the best friends' RS as potential moderators of the associations between RS and psychological difficulties. Participants were 150 7th grade students (58 boys; M age = 13.05 years) who nominated their best friends, and reported on their RS, social anxiety, and self-esteem. Results from a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that mutual best friendship involvement and best friends' RS were both significant moderators when fear of negative evaluation (a type of social anxiety) served as the dependent variable. The association between RS and fear of negative evaluation was stronger for adolescents without mutual best friends than adolescents with mutual best friends. In addition, the association between RS and fear of negative evaluation was the strongest for adolescents whose best friends were highly rejection sensitive (relative to adolescents whose best friends were moderately or low in RS). Findings highlight the importance of considering best friendships in studies of RS and strongly suggest that, although having mutual best friendships may be protective for rejection sensitive adolescents, having a rejection sensitive best friend may exacerbate difficulties. The significance of friends in the lives of rejection sensitive adolescents is discussed as well as possible applied implications of the findings and study limitations.

  5. Mutual powerlessness in client participation practices in mental health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Tineke; Nieboer, Anna P.; Bal, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background  Client participation has become a dominant policy goal in many countries including the Netherlands and is a topic much discussed in the literature. The success of client participation is usually measured in terms of the extent to which clients have a say in the participation process. Many articles have concluded that client participation is limited; professionals often still control the participation process and outcomes. Objective  The objective of this study is to gain insight into (i) the practice of client participation within a quality improvement collaborative in mental health care and (ii) the consequences of a Foucauldian conceptualization of power in analysing practices of client participation. Design  We used an ethnographic design consisting of observations of national events and improvement team meetings and interviews with the collaborative’s team members and programme managers. Results  Contrary to many studies on client participation, we found both clients and service providers frequently felt powerless in its practice. Professionals and clients alike struggled with the contributions clients could make to the improvement processes and what functions they should fulfil. Moreover, professionals did not want to exert power upon clients, but ironically just for that reason sometimes struggled with shaping practices of client participation. This mutual powerlessness (partly) disappeared when clients helped to determine and execute specific improvement actions instead of participating in improvement teams. Conclusion  Recognizing that power is inescapable might allow for a more substantive discussion concerning the consequences that power arrangements produce, rather than looking at who is exerting how much power. PMID:22390793

  6. Transposon domestication versus mutualism in ciliate genome rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vogt

    Full Text Available Ciliated protists rearrange their genomes dramatically during nuclear development via chromosome fragmentation and DNA deletion to produce a trimmer and highly reorganized somatic genome. The deleted portion of the genome includes potentially active transposons or transposon-like sequences that reside in the germline. Three independent studies recently showed that transposase proteins of the DDE/DDD superfamily are indispensible for DNA processing in three distantly related ciliates. In the spirotrich Oxytricha trifallax, high copy-number germline-limited transposons mediate their own excision from the somatic genome but also contribute to programmed genome rearrangement through a remarkable transposon mutualism with the host. By contrast, the genomes of two oligohymenophorean ciliates, Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia, encode homologous PiggyBac-like transposases as single-copy genes in both their germline and somatic genomes. These domesticated transposases are essential for deletion of thousands of different internal sequences in these species. This review contrasts the events underlying somatic genome reduction in three different ciliates and considers their evolutionary origins and the relationships among their distinct mechanisms for genome remodeling.

  7. Formation of solid solution during mutual diffusion of tungsten and molybdenum in the process of sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, A.A.; Bulat, I.B.; Voronin, Yu.V.; Fedoseev, G.K.; Karasev, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    A process of a solid solution homogenization during sintering of W-15Mo and W-5Mo alloys is studied by the methods of density measurements, analysis of the X-ray lines physical broadening and determination of crystalline lattice constant. Study of the process of solid solution formation under conditions of powder composite sintering is shown to be conducted with account of peculiarities of tungsten and molybdenum mutual diffusion in the investigated temperature range of concentrations

  8. On the effects of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions: A 2D numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Vera, M.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions is explored by means of a 2D/1D multiphysics across-the-channel model. The numerical formulation incorporates a comprehensive 2D description of the anode GDL, including two-phase phenomena, non-uniform anisotropic transport properties, and electrical contact resistances at the GDL/BPP interface. GDL effective properties are evaluated using empirical data corresponding to Toray® carbon paper. A simplified but physically sound 1D description, locally coupled to the 2D anode GDL model, is adopted to describe transport processes in the MPLs, membrane and cathode GDL, whereas the catalyst layers are treated as infinitely thin surfaces. Good agreement is found between the numerical results and previous experimental data. The interplay between assembly compression, bipolar plate material, and channel configuration is also investigated. The results show that there is an optimum GDL compression ratio in terms of overall power density, the optimal compression level being strongly dependent on bipolar plate material. Beyond the optimum, the detrimental effect of compression is larger in non-parallel flow fields due to the additional reduction of methanol transported by under-rib convection. The results suggest that, under certain conditions, this transport mechanism could be more important than diffusion in the anode of liquid-feed DMFCs.

  9. Remarks about the thermodynamics of astrophysical systems in mutual interaction and related notions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, L

    2016-01-01

    Aspects concerning the thermodynamics of astrophysical systems are discussed, generally, and also more specifically those relating to astrophysical systems in mutual interaction (or the so-called open astrophysical systems). A special interest is devoted in this paper to clarifying several misconceptions that are still common in the recent literature, such as the direct application to the astrophysical scenario of notions and theoretical frameworks that were originally conceived to deal with extensive systems of everyday practice (large systems with short-range interactions). This discussion starts by reviewing the current understanding of the notion of negative heat capacity. Beyond this, to clarify its physical relevance, the conciliation of this notion with classical fluctuation theory is discussed, as well as equilibrium conditions concerning systems with negative heat capacities. These results prompt a revision of our understanding about critical phenomena, phase transitions and the so-called zeroth law of thermodynamics. Afterwards, general features about the thermodynamics of astrophysical systems are presented through the consideration of simple models available in the literature. Particular attention is devoted to the influence of evaporation on the macroscopic behavior of these systems. These antecedents are then applied to a critical approach towards the thermodynamics of astrophysical systems in mutual interaction. It is discussed that the long-range character of gravitation leads to the incidence of long-range correlations. This peculiarity imposes a series of important consequences, such as the non-separability of a single astrophysical structure into independent subsystems, the breakdown of additivity and conventional thermodynamic limit, a great sensibility of the macroscopic behavior to the external conditions, the restricted applicability of the so-called thermal contact in astrophysics, and hence, the non-relevance of conventional statistical

  10. Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Analyses Reveal the Structure and Dynamics of a Dechlorinating Community Containing Dehalococcoides mccartyi and Corrinoid-Providing Microorganisms under Cobalamin-Limited Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Yujie; Yu, Ke; Bælum, Jacob; Gao, Ying; Tremblay, Julien; Prestat, Emmanuel; Stenuit, Ben; Tringe, Susannah G.; Jansson, Janet; Zhang, Tong; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2017-02-10

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this study is to obtain a systems-level understanding of the interactions betweenDehalococcoidesand corrinoid-supplying microorganisms by analyzing community structures and functional compositions, activities, and dynamics in trichloroethene (TCE)-dechlorinating enrichments. Metagenomes and metatranscriptomes of the dechlorinating enrichments with and without exogenous cobalamin were compared. Seven putative draft genomes were binned from the metagenomes. At an early stage (2 days), more transcripts of genes in theVeillonellaceaebin-genome were detected in the metatranscriptome of the enrichment without exogenous cobalamin than in the one with the addition of cobalamin. Among these genes, sporulation-related genes exhibited the highest differential expression when cobalamin was not added, suggesting a possible release route of corrinoids from corrinoid producers. Other differentially expressed genes include those involved in energy conservation and nutrient transport (including cobalt transport). The most highly expressed corrinoidde novobiosynthesis pathway was also assigned to theVeillonellaceaebin-genome. Targeted quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses confirmed higher transcript abundances of those corrinoid biosynthesis genes in the enrichment without exogenous cobalamin than in the enrichment with cobalamin. Furthermore, the corrinoid salvaging and modification pathway ofDehalococcoideswas upregulated in response to the cobalamin stress. This study provides important insights into the microbial interactions and roles played by members of dechlorinating communities under cobalamin-limited conditions.

    IMPORTANCEThe key

  11. The mutual recognition arrangement and primary standard dosimetry laboratory comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Burns, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The majority of the Member States of the Metre Convention have signed an arrangement for the mutual recognition (MRA) of national measurement standards and calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs). Part of the MRA involves an open access database of CMCs that in turn need to be supported by key and supplementary comparisons of national standards. This paper outlines the MRA, describing the comparisons of national primary standards in the field of dosimetry that support the claims of the CMCs in the key comparison database (KCDB). The MRA was drawn up by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (Comite International des Poids et Mesures CIPM) and was signed at a meeting held in Paris on 14 October 1999 by the directors of the national metrology institutes (NMIs) of thirty-eight Member States of the Metre Convention and representatives of two international organizations. Since that date, the directors of the NMIs of several other Member States and nine Associates of the General Conference (Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures CGPM) have also signed the MRA. The metrological objectives of the MRA are to establish the degree of equivalence of national measurement standards maintained by NMIs and thus provide the basis for the mutual recognition of calibration and measurement certificates issued by NMIs. The NMIs provide the traceability to the international system of units (SI) required for these services and thus mutual recognition of the capabilities of the NMIs is a prerequisite for the mutual recognition of the metrology services of countries in general. The objectives of the MRA are achieved through a process of: (a) international comparisons of measurements, known as key comparisons (b) supplementary international comparisons of measurements, and (c) quality systems and demonstrations of competence by the NMIs. The outcome of the MRA is a determination of the degrees of equivalence of national standards and a set of statements of

  12. Secure anonymous mutual authentication for star two-tier wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maged Hamada; Kumari, Saru; Das, Ashok Kumar; Wazid, Mohammad; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-10-01

    Mutual authentication is a very important service that must be established between sensor nodes in wireless body area network (WBAN) to ensure the originality and integrity of the patient's data sent by sensors distributed on different parts of the body. However, mutual authentication service is not enough. An adversary can benefit from monitoring the traffic and knowing which sensor is in transmission of patient's data. Observing the traffic (even without disclosing the context) and knowing its origin, it can reveal to the adversary information about the patient's medical conditions. Therefore, anonymity of the communicating sensors is an important service as well. Few works have been conducted in the area of mutual authentication among sensor nodes in WBAN. However, none of them has considered anonymity among body sensor nodes. Up to our knowledge, our protocol is the first attempt to consider this service in a two-tier WBAN. We propose a new secure protocol to realize anonymous mutual authentication and confidential transmission for star two-tier WBAN topology. The proposed protocol uses simple cryptographic primitives. We prove the security of the proposed protocol using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, and also through rigorous informal security analysis. In addition, to demonstrate the practicality of our protocol, we evaluate it using NS-2 simulator. BAN logic and informal security analysis prove that our proposed protocol achieves the necessary security requirements and goals of an authentication service. The simulation results show the impact on the various network parameters, such as end-to-end delay and throughput. The nodes in the network require to store few hundred bits. Nodes require to perform very few hash invocations, which are computationally very efficient. The communication cost of the proposed protocol is few hundred bits in one round of communication. Due to the low computation cost, the energy consumed by the nodes is

  13. Mutual information and redundancy in spontaneous communication between cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanski, J; Arnold, M; Wajnryb, E; Amigó, J M; Sanchez-Vives, M V

    2011-03-01

    An important question in neural information processing is how neurons cooperate to transmit information. To study this question, we resort to the concept of redundancy in the information transmitted by a group of neurons and, at the same time, we introduce a novel concept for measuring cooperation between pairs of neurons called relative mutual information (RMI). Specifically, we studied these two parameters for spike trains generated by neighboring neurons from the primary visual cortex in the awake, freely moving rat. The spike trains studied here were spontaneously generated in the cortical network, in the absence of visual stimulation. Under these conditions, our analysis revealed that while the value of RMI oscillated slightly around an average value, the redundancy exhibited a behavior characterized by a higher variability. We conjecture that this combination of approximately constant RMI and greater variable redundancy makes information transmission more resistant to noise disturbances. Furthermore, the redundancy values suggest that neurons can cooperate in a flexible way during information transmission. This mostly occurs via a leading neuron with higher transmission rate or, less frequently, through the information rate of the whole group being higher than the sum of the individual information rates-in other words in a synergetic manner. The proposed method applies not only to the stationary, but also to locally stationary neural signals.

  14. Combined metals and EDTA control: An integrated and scalable lipid enhancement strategy to alleviate biomass constraints in microalgae under nitrogen limited conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Poonam; Guldhe, Abhishek; Kumari, Sheena; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A. obliquus showed highest lipid productivity amongst all seven microalgal strains. • Combined metals stress eased the constraint of low biomass under limited nitrogen. • Combined metals stress enhanced the overall lipid productivity (1.99 fold). • EDTA addition further improved the lipid productivity (2.18 fold). • This strategy showed 2.08 fold increase in lipid productivity at 3000 L cultivation. - Abstract: The commercial realization of microalgal biodiesel production necessitates substantial impulsion towards development of strategies to improve lipid yields upstream. Nitrogen stress is the most widely used lipid enhancement strategy; yet, it is associated with compromised biomass productivity. In this novel approach, combined effect of metals and EDTA on lipid productivity of Acutodesmus obliquus was investigated under nitrogen limited conditions. The effect of metal concentrations, individually and in combination, on microalgal lipids and biomass production is a scarcely exploited area. Combined metal stress alleviates the constraint of low biomass production under nitrogen limitation and improved the overall lipid productivity. Highest lipid productivity of 73.23 mg L"−"1 d"−"1 was achieved with a combination of iron 9 mg L"−"1, magnesium 100 mg L"−"1 and calcium 27 mg L"−"1 at limited nitrogen (750 mg L"−"1). This was 1.72 fold higher than nitrogen stress alone and 1.99 fold higher than BG11 medium. Iron was found to be most significantly influencing metal followed by magnesium in response surface methodology data analysis. The enhanced photosynthetic performance and chlorophyll content further confirmed the significant impact of iron and magnesium on the microalgal biomass. The addition of EDTA to the optimised metal combination further improved the lipid productivity to 80.23 mg L"−"1 d"−"1 (2.18 fold). At 3000 L open cultivation pond this strategy has resulted in an increase of 2.08 fold in lipid productivity

  15. Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability: The Global Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -Cold War era: the search for an analytical framework that will help us understand this turbulent and chaotic period in human history. His lucid and visionary analysis rests on the concept of mutual vulnerability: that in an increasingly ...

  16. The decision making on mutual investment of thai investors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decision making on mutual investment of thai investors. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home ... The study was a research survey that used questionnaires to collect data from 400 samples of Thai investors.

  17. Mutual incomprehension: U.S.- German value gaps beyond Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Larres, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Differences over Iraq policy have revealed deep U.S.- German value gaps over multilateralism, nationalism, and the role of force in international relations. Cooperation in four areas of mutual importance can help compensate for them.

  18. 75 FR 47063 - Mutual Fund Distribution Fees; Confirmations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... section 12(b) is to prevent mutual funds from incurring ``excessive sales, promotion expenses, and so... plans and used the revenue to pay for advertising and sales materials.\\55\\ In time, however, funds began... to revenue sharing. [[Page 47069

  19. Public-channel cryptography based on mutual chaos pass filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Einat; Gross, Noam; Kopelowitz, Evi; Rosenbluh, Michael; Khaykovich, Lev; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kanter, Ido

    2006-10-01

    We study the mutual coupling of chaotic lasers and observe both experimentally and in numeric simulations that there exists a regime of parameters for which two mutually coupled chaotic lasers establish isochronal synchronization, while a third laser coupled unidirectionally to one of the pair does not synchronize. We then propose a cryptographic scheme, based on the advantage of mutual coupling over unidirectional coupling, where all the parameters of the system are public knowledge. We numerically demonstrate that in such a scheme the two communicating lasers can add a message signal (compressed binary message) to the transmitted coupling signal and recover the message in both directions with high fidelity by using a mutual chaos pass filter procedure. An attacker, however, fails to recover an errorless message even if he amplifies the coupling signal.

  20. Information asymmetry, mutual funds and earnings management: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhao Dai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how information asymmetry and mutual fund ownership affect listed companies’ earnings management. We show that (1 reducing information asymmetry improves firms’ earnings management behavior; (2 relative to short-term mutual funds, long-term mutual funds promote earnings quality by adopting a monitoring role; and (3 by dividing firms into high/low information asymmetry groups, we find that the information environment significantly increases the effect of long-term mutual funds on firms’ earnings management. In this paper, we provide new evidence for the role that institutional investors play in a typical emerging capital market. Our results have clear policy implications: to increase earnings quality, it is essential to improve information transparency and develop long-term institutional investors.

  1. Measuring the performance of mutual funds: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the performance of eight open-end mutual funds in the Republic of Serbia for the period 2009-2012, with the aim of testing the justification of active portfolio management of mutual funds, and determining the selection capability of Serbian portfolio managers. Risk-weighted returns of mutual funds are compared with the risk-weighted return of the leading Belgrade Stock Exchange index, Belex15, whereas the following are used as performance measures: Sharpe ratio (Si, Treynor ratio (Ti, and Jensen's or Alpha index (αi. The results suggest that the portfolio of Serbian mutual funds has inferior performance compared to the market portfolio, which indicates the lack of selection capabilities of domestic portfolio managers.

  2. Mutual emergency assistance arrangements at the international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.; Ha Vinh Phuong

    1979-01-01

    All countries do not necessarily have resources in skilled manpower and equipment enabling them to deal satisfactorily with the consequences of a nuclear incident. Therefore, a mechanism whereby such countries could obtain or provide mutual emergency assistance at international level is extremely useful. This article analyses the provisions of the Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement and the measures taken in respect of emergency assistance by international organisations such as IAEA. (NEA) [fr

  3. Importance of mutual benefits in online knowledge sharing communities

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Y.; Lau, L.M.S.; Dew, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The sustainability of knowledge sharing e-communities is a major issue at present. A hypothesis was\\ud proposed at the outset in the paper that the provision of mutual benefits among participants will lead to positive\\ud participation. Drawing from the economic and social theories, a framework for analysis was developed and tested in\\ud an empirical study. The preliminary results demonstrated a direct relationship between mutual benefits and the level\\ud of participation, and hence supported ...

  4. On the behavior of mutual fund investors and managers

    OpenAIRE

    Goriaev, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates empirically and theoretically the behavior of mutual fund investors and managers. These two aspects are closely related to each other. Investors try to select funds that follow an optimal investment policy from their point of view, while fund managers are typically interested in maximizing net fund inflows. In the first part of the thesis, we analyze the determinants of mutual fund flows, concentrating on the impact of past performance on fund flows. In particular, we...

  5. Mutually shared team competence of professionals in early childhood intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Ališauskienė, Stefanija; Kairienė, Daiva

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on theoretical study as well as on written survey. The aim of theoretical analysis to present a theoretical model of the concept of the mutually shared team competence in an interprofessional team meeting early special needs of child and family and to find out presumptions of its development. The aim of survey is to reveal ECI professionals' reflections about competences necessary for teamwork. The mutually shared team competence is analysed on the basis of the teamwork p...

  6. Liquidity risk and the performance of UK mutual funds

    OpenAIRE

    Foran, Jason; O'Sullivan, Niall

    2014-01-01

    We examine the role of liquidity risk, both as a stock characteristic as well as systematic liquidity risk, in UK mutual fund performance for the first time. Using four alternative measures of stock liquidity we extract principal components across stocks in order to construct systematic or market liquidity factors. We find that on average UK mutual funds are tilted towards liquid stocks (except for small stock funds as might be expected) but that, counter-intuitively, liquidity as a stock cha...

  7. Enhanced mutual capture of colored solitons by matched modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Eyal; Orenstein, Meir

    2004-08-01

    The mutual capture of two colored solitons is enhanced by a modulator, to a level which enables its practical exploitation, e.g., for a read- write mechanism in a soliton buffer. The enhanced capture was analyzed using closed form particle-like soliton perturbation, and verified by numerical simulations. Optimal modulator frequency and modulation depth are obtained. This mutual capture can be utilized for all-optical soliton logic and memory.

  8. Quantum process reconstruction based on mutually unbiased basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Perez, A.; Saavedra, C.; Klimov, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    We study a quantum process reconstruction based on the use of mutually unbiased projectors (MUB projectors) as input states for a D-dimensional quantum system, with D being a power of a prime number. This approach connects the results of quantum-state tomography using mutually unbiased bases with the coefficients of a quantum process, expanded in terms of MUB projectors. We also study the performance of the reconstruction scheme against random errors when measuring probabilities at the MUB projectors.

  9. Team Reasoning and Intentional Cooperation for Mutual Benefit

    OpenAIRE

    Sugden Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept of intentional cooperation for mutual benefit. This concept uses a form of team reasoning in which team members aim to achieve common interests, rather than maximising a common utility function, and in which team reasoners can coordinate their behaviour by following pre-existing practices. I argue that a market transaction can express intentions for mutually beneficial cooperation even if, extensionally, participation in the transaction promotes each party’s self...

  10. Benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William F; Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P

    2010-05-01

    Mutualisms provide benefits to interacting species, but they also involve costs. If costs come to exceed benefits as population density or the frequency of encounters between species increases, the interaction will no longer be mutualistic. Thus curves that represent benefits and costs as functions of interaction frequency are important tools for predicting when a mutualism will tip over into antagonism. Currently, most of what we know about benefit and cost curves in pollination mutualisms comes from highly specialized pollinating seed-consumer mutualisms, such as the yucca moth-yucca interaction. There, benefits to female reproduction saturate as the number of visits to a flower increases (because the amount of pollen needed to fertilize all the flower's ovules is finite), but costs continue to increase (because pollinator offspring consume developing seeds), leading to a peak in seed production at an intermediate number of visits. But for most plant-pollinator mutualisms, costs to the plant are more subtle than consumption of seeds, and how such costs scale with interaction frequency remains largely unknown. Here, we present reasonable benefit and cost curves that are appropriate for typical pollinator-plant interactions, and we show how they can result in a wide diversity of relationships between net benefit (benefit minus cost) and interaction frequency. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to fit net-benefit curves to measures of female reproductive success for three typical pollination mutualisms from two continents, and for each system we chose the most parsimonious model using information-criterion statistics. We discuss the implications of the shape of the net-benefit curve for the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms, as well as the challenges that lie ahead for disentangling the underlying benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

  11. On the Importance of Mutual Fund Families in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Anders; Pasternack, Daniel; Sandvall, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This study contributes to the mutual fund literature by looking at performance persistence on a fund family level, allowing for individual equity, bond and balanced funds to be included under single family umbrellas. The study is conducted on the emerging Finnish mutual fund market, an environment in which the importance of superior fund family teams is likely to be accentuated. Using both non–parametric and parametric tests we find robust evidence of performance persistence for the fund fami...

  12. Modelling nutritional mutualisms: challenges and opportunities for data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Teresa J; Friel, Colleen A; Grman, Emily; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Friesen, Maren L

    2017-09-01

    Nutritional mutualisms are ancient, widespread, and profoundly influential in biological communities and ecosystems. Although much is known about these interactions, comprehensive answers to fundamental questions, such as how resource availability and structured interactions influence mutualism persistence, are still lacking. Mathematical modelling of nutritional mutualisms has great potential to facilitate the search for comprehensive answers to these and other fundamental questions by connecting the physiological and genomic underpinnings of mutualisms with ecological and evolutionary processes. In particular, when integrated with empirical data, models enable understanding of underlying mechanisms and generalisation of principles beyond the particulars of a given system. Here, we demonstrate how mathematical models can be integrated with data to address questions of mutualism persistence at four biological scales: cell, individual, population, and community. We highlight select studies where data has been or could be integrated with models to either inform model structure or test model predictions. We also point out opportunities to increase model rigour through tighter integration with data, and describe areas in which data is urgently needed. We focus on plant-microbe systems, for which a wealth of empirical data is available, but the principles and approaches can be generally applied to any nutritional mutualism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Mutual information against correlations in binary communication channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregowska, Agnieszka; Szczepanski, Janusz; Wajnryb, Eligiusz

    2015-05-19

    Explaining how the brain processing is so fast remains an open problem (van Hemmen JL, Sejnowski T., 2004). Thus, the analysis of neural transmission (Shannon CE, Weaver W., 1963) processes basically focuses on searching for effective encoding and decoding schemes. According to the Shannon fundamental theorem, mutual information plays a crucial role in characterizing the efficiency of communication channels. It is well known that this efficiency is determined by the channel capacity that is already the maximal mutual information between input and output signals. On the other hand, intuitively speaking, when input and output signals are more correlated, the transmission should be more efficient. A natural question arises about the relation between mutual information and correlation. We analyze the relation between these quantities using the binary representation of signals, which is the most common approach taken in studying neuronal processes of the brain. We present binary communication channels for which mutual information and correlation coefficients behave differently both quantitatively and qualitatively. Despite this difference in behavior, we show that the noncorrelation of binary signals implies their independence, in contrast to the case for general types of signals. Our research shows that the mutual information cannot be replaced by sheer correlations. Our results indicate that neuronal encoding has more complicated nature which cannot be captured by straightforward correlations between input and output signals once the mutual information takes into account the structure and patterns of the signals.

  14. Adaptive DSPI phase denoising using mutual information and 2D variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiyang; Li, Jian; Wu, Sijin; Li, Weixian; Yang, Lianxiang; Dong, Mingli; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2018-04-01

    In digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI), noise interference leads to a low peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and measurement errors in the phase map. This paper proposes an adaptive DSPI phase denoising method based on two-dimensional variational mode decomposition (2D-VMD) and mutual information. Firstly, the DSPI phase map is subjected to 2D-VMD in order to obtain a series of band-limited intrinsic mode functions (BLIMFs). Then, on the basis of characteristics of the BLIMFs and in combination with mutual information, a self-adaptive denoising method is proposed to obtain noise-free components containing the primary phase information. The noise-free components are reconstructed to obtain the denoising DSPI phase map. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce noise interference, giving a PSNR that is higher than that of two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition methods.

  15. In vivo analysis of NH4+ transport and central N-metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic N-limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto-Rojas, H F; Maleki Seifar, R; Ten Pierick, A; van Helmond, W; Pieterse M, M; Heijnen, J J; Wahl, S A

    2016-09-16

    Ammonium is the most common N-source for yeast fermentations. Although, its transport and assimilation mechanisms are well documented, there have been only few attempts to measure the in vivo intracellular concentration of ammonium and assess its impact on gene expression. Using an isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)-based method we were able to measure the intracellular ammonium concentration in N-limited aerobic chemostat cultivations using three different N-sources (ammonium, urea and glutamate) at the same growth rate (0.05 h -1 ). The experimental results suggest that, at this growth rate, a similar concentration of intracellular ammonium, about 3.6 mmol NH 4 + /L IC , is required to supply the reactions in the central N-metabolism independent of the N-source. Based on the experimental results and different assumptions, the vacuolar and cytosolic ammonium concentrations were estimated. Furthermore, we identified a futile cycle caused by NH 3 leakage to the extracellular space, which can cost up to 30% of the ATP production of the cell under N-limited conditions, and a futile redox cycle between reactions Gdh1 and Gdh2. Finally, using shotgun proteomics with labeled reference-relative protein expression, differences between the various environmental conditions were identified and correlated with previously identified N-compound sensing mechanisms. In our work, we study central N-metabolism using quantitative approaches. First, intracellular ammonium was measured under different N-sources. The results suggest that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells keep a constant NH 4 + concentration (around 3 mmol NH 4 + /L IC ), independent of the applied nitrogen source. We hypothesize that this amount of intracellular ammonium is required to obtain sufficient thermodynamic driving force.Furthermore, our calculations based on thermodynamic analysis of the transport mechanisms of ammonium suggest that ammonium is not equally distributed, indicating a high degree of

  16. The height of choosiness : Mutual mate choice for stature results in suboptimal pair formation for both sexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Kurzban, Robert; Verhulst, Simon

    Mutual mate choice is prevalent in humans, where both males and females have a say in their choice of partner. How the choices made by one sex constrain the choice of the other remains poorly understood, however, because human studies have mostly limited themselves to measuring preferences. We used

  17. Validity limits in J-resistance curve determination: A computational approach to ductile crack growth under large-scale yielding conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.F.; Xia, L.; Hutchinson, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, Volume 2, Mode I crack initiation and growth under plane strain conditions in tough metals are computed using an elastic/plastic continuum model which accounts for void growth and coalescence ahead of the crack tip. The material parameters include the stress-strain properties, along with the parameters characterizing the spacing and volume fraction of voids in material elements lying in the plane of the crack. For a given set of these parameters and a specific specimen, or component, subject to a specific loading, relationships among load, load-line displacement and crack advance can be computed with no restrictions on the extent of plastic deformation. Similarly, there is no limit on crack advance, except that it must take place on the symmetry plane ahead of the initial crack. Suitably defined measures of crack tip loading intensity, such as those based on the J-integral, can also be computed, thereby directly generating crack growth resistance curves. In this report, the model is applied to five specimen geometries which are known to give rise to significantly different crack tip constraints and crack growth resistance behaviors. Computed results are compared with sets of experimental data for two tough steels for four of the specimen types. Details of the load, displacement and crack growth histories are accurately reproduced, even when extensive crack growth takes place under conditions of fully plastic yielding. A description of material resistance to crack initiation and subsequent growth is essential for assessing structural integrity such as nuclear pressure vessels and piping

  18. Sorting mutual funds with respect to process-oriented social responsibility: A FLOWSORT application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verheyden

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We establish a robust FLOWSORT-based tool to sort mutual funds with respect to process-oriented social responsibility and recommend the use of limiting profiles with open classes. The tool provides an alternative for the limited dichotomous classification of funds, i.e. socially responsible investing (SRI versus conventional funds. By allowing for more heterogeneity in social responsibility the sorting tool is promising for scholars to improve fund performance measurements, and useful for governments to better regulate the supply of SRI products.

  19. Mutual information identifies spurious Hurst phenomena in resting state EEG and fMRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wegner, Frederic; Laufs, Helmut; Tagliazucchi, Enzo

    2018-02-01

    Long-range memory in time series is often quantified by the Hurst exponent H , a measure of the signal's variance across several time scales. We analyze neurophysiological time series from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state experiments with two standard Hurst exponent estimators and with the time-lagged mutual information function applied to discretized versions of the signals. A confidence interval for the mutual information function is obtained from surrogate Markov processes with equilibrium distribution and transition matrix identical to the underlying signal. For EEG signals, we construct an additional mutual information confidence interval from a short-range correlated, tenth-order autoregressive model. We reproduce the previously described Hurst phenomenon (H >0.5 ) in the analytical amplitude of alpha frequency band oscillations, in EEG microstate sequences, and in fMRI signals, but we show that the Hurst phenomenon occurs without long-range memory in the information-theoretical sense. We find that the mutual information function of neurophysiological data behaves differently from fractional Gaussian noise (fGn), for which the Hurst phenomenon is a sufficient condition to prove long-range memory. Two other well-characterized, short-range correlated stochastic processes (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck, Cox-Ingersoll-Ross) also yield H >0.5 , whereas their mutual information functions lie within the Markovian confidence intervals, similar to neural signals. In these processes, which do not have long-range memory by construction, a spurious Hurst phenomenon occurs due to slow relaxation times and heteroscedasticity (time-varying conditional variance). In summary, we find that mutual information correctly distinguishes long-range from short-range dependence in the theoretical and experimental cases discussed. Our results also suggest that the stationary fGn process is not sufficient to describe neural data, which

  20. Quantitative proteomic view on secreted, cell surface-associated, and cytoplasmic proteins of the methicillin-resistant human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus under iron-limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Kristina; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Moche, Martin; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is capable of colonizing and infecting humans by its arsenal of surface-exposed and secreted proteins. Iron-limited conditions in mammalian body fluids serve as a major environmental signal to bacteria to express virulence determinants. Here we present a comprehensive, gel-free, and GeLC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteome profiling of S. aureus under this infection-relevant situation. (14)N(15)N metabolic labeling and three complementing approaches were combined for relative quantitative analyses of surface-associated proteins. The surface-exposed and secreted proteome profiling approaches comprise trypsin shaving, biotinylation, and precipitation of the supernatant. By analysis of the outer subproteomic and cytoplasmic protein fraction, 1210 proteins could be identified including 221 surface-associated proteins. Thus, access was enabled to 70% of the predicted cell wall-associated proteins, 80% of the predicted sortase substrates, two/thirds of lipoproteins and more than 50% of secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. For iron-deficiency, 158 surface-associated proteins were quantified. Twenty-nine proteins were found in altered amounts showing particularly surface-exposed proteins strongly induced, such as the iron-regulated surface determinant proteins IsdA, IsdB, IsdC and IsdD as well as lipid-anchored iron compound-binding proteins. The work presents a crucial subject for understanding S. aureus pathophysiology by the use of methods that allow quantitative surface proteome profiling.

  1. A New Methodology for Open Pit Slope Design in Karst-Prone Ground Conditions Based on Integrated Stochastic-Limit Equilibrium Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Cao, Ping; Ma, Guowei; Fan, Wenchen; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Kaihui

    2016-07-01

    Using the Chengmenshan Copper Mine as a case study, a new methodology for open pit slope design in karst-prone ground conditions is presented based on integrated stochastic-limit equilibrium analysis. The numerical modeling and optimization design procedure contain a collection of drill core data, karst cave stochastic model generation, SLIDE simulation and bisection method optimization. Borehole investigations are performed, and the statistical result shows that the length of the karst cave fits a negative exponential distribution model, but the length of carbonatite does not exactly follow any standard distribution. The inverse transform method and acceptance-rejection method are used to reproduce the length of the karst cave and carbonatite, respectively. A code for karst cave stochastic model generation, named KCSMG, is developed. The stability of the rock slope with the karst cave stochastic model is analyzed by combining the KCSMG code and the SLIDE program. This approach is then applied to study the effect of the karst cave on the stability of the open pit slope, and a procedure to optimize the open pit slope angle is presented.

  2. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF Production from Hexoses: Limits of Heterogeneous Catalysis in Hydrothermal Conditions and Potential of Concentrated Aqueous Organic Acids as Reactive Solvent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Essayem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF is an important bio-sourced intermediate, formed from carbohydrates such as glucose or fructose. The treatment at 150–250 °C of glucose or fructose in pure water and batch conditions, with catalytic amounts of most of the usual acid-basic solid catalysts, gave limited yields in 5-HMF, due mainly to the fast formation of soluble oligomers. Niobic acid, which possesses both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites, gave the highest 5-HMF yield, 28%, when high catalyst/glucose ratio is used. By contrast, we disclose in this work that the reaction of fructose in concentrated aqueous solutions of carboxylic acids, formic, acetic or lactic acids, used as reactive solvent media, leads to the selective dehydration of fructose in 5-HMF with yields up to 64% after 2 hours at 150 °C. This shows the potential of such solvent systems for the clean and easy production of 5-HMF from carbohydrates. The influence of adding solid catalysts to the carboxylic acid media was also reported, starting from glucose.

  3. Metabolic and transcriptomic response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EC1118 after an oxygen impulse under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited fermentative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Marcelo; Aceituno, Felipe F; Slater, Alex W; Almonacid, Leonardo I; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to continuously changing environmental conditions, such as decreasing sugar and increasing ethanol concentrations. Oxygen, a critical nutrient to avoid stuck and sluggish fermentations, is only discretely available throughout the process after pump-over operation. In this work, we studied the physiological response of the wine yeast S. cerevisiae strain EC1118 to a sudden increase in dissolved oxygen, simulating pump-over operation. With this aim, an impulse of dissolved oxygen was added to carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited anaerobic continuous cultures. Results showed that genes related to mitochondrial respiration, ergosterol biosynthesis, and oxidative stress, among other metabolic pathways, were induced after the oxygen impulse. On the other hand, mannoprotein coding genes were repressed. The changes in the expression of these genes are coordinated responses that share common elements at the level of transcriptional regulation. Beneficial and detrimental effects of these physiological processes on wine quality highlight the dual role of oxygen in 'making or breaking wines'. These findings will facilitate the development of oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Footprint area analysis of binary imaged Cupriavidus necator cells to study PHB production at balanced, transient, and limited growth conditions in a cascade process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlja, Denis; Koller, Martin; Novak, Mario; Braunegg, Gerhart; Horvat, Predrag

    2016-12-01

    Statistical distribution of cell and poly[3-(R)-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) granule size and number of granules per cell are investigated for PHB production in a five-stage cascade (5CSTR). Electron microscopic pictures of cells from individual cascade stages (R1-R5) were converted to binary pictures to visualize footprint areas for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and non-PHA biomass. Results for each stage were correlated to the corresponding experimentally determined kinetics (specific growth rate μ and specific productivity π). Log-normal distribution describes PHA granule size dissimilarity, whereas for R1 and R4, gamma distribution best reflects the situation. R1, devoted to balanced biomass synthesis, predominately contains cells with rather small granules, whereas with increasing residence time τ, maximum and average granule sizes by trend increase, approaching an upper limit determined by the cell's geometry. Generally, an increase of intracellular PHA content and ratio of granule to cell area slow down along the cascade. Further, the number of granules per cell decreases with increasing τ. Data for μ and π obtained by binary picture analysis correlate well with the experimental results. The work describes long-term continuous PHA production under balanced, transient, and nutrient-deficient conditions, as well as their reflection on the granules size, granule number, and cell structure on the microscopic level.

  5. Microbial mutualism at a distance: The role of geometry in diffusive exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaudecerf, François J.; Bunbury, Freddy; Bhardwaj, Vaibhav; Bees, Martin A.; Smith, Alison G.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Croze, Ottavio A.

    2018-02-01

    The exchange of diffusive metabolites is known to control the spatial patterns formed by microbial populations, as revealed by recent studies in the laboratory. However, the matrices used, such as agarose pads, lack the structured geometry of many natural microbial habitats, including in the soil or on the surfaces of plants or animals. Here we address the important question of how such geometry may control diffusive exchanges and microbial interaction. We model mathematically mutualistic interactions within a minimal unit of structure: two growing reservoirs linked by a diffusive channel through which metabolites are exchanged. The model is applied to study a synthetic mutualism, experimentally parametrized on a model algal-bacterial co-culture. Analytical and numerical solutions of the model predict conditions for the successful establishment of remote mutualisms, and how this depends, often counterintuitively, on diffusion geometry. We connect our findings to understanding complex behavior in synthetic and naturally occurring microbial communities.

  6. Sets of Mutually Orthogonal Sudoku Latin Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Timothy; Petersen, Ryan M.

    2009-01-01

    A Latin square of order "n" is an "n" x "n" array using n symbols, such that each symbol appears exactly once in each row and column. A set of Latin squares is c ordered pairs of symbols appearing in the cells of the array are distinct. The popular puzzle Sudoku involves Latin squares with n = 9, along with the added condition that each of the 9…

  7. 12 CFR 575.9 - Charters and bylaws for mutual holding companies and their savings association subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...' Loan Act, 12 U.S.C. 1467a(o), and to exercise all of the express, implied, and incidental powers... account holders of the Association on such basis and in accordance with such terms and conditions as may... corporate title of each mutual holding company shall include the term “mutual” or the abbreviation “M.H.C...

  8. Persistence of pollination mutualisms in the presence of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wang, Shikun

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers plant-pollinator-ant systems in which the plant-pollinator interaction is mutualistic but ants have both positive and negative effects on plants. The ants also interfere with pollinators by preventing them from accessing plants. While a Beddington-DeAngelis (BD) formula can describe the plant-pollinator interaction, the formula is extended in this paper to characterize the pollination mutualism under the ant interference. Then, a plant-pollinator-ant system with the extended BD functional response is discussed, and global dynamics of the model demonstrate the mechanisms by which pollination mutualism can persist in the presence of ants. When the ant interference is strong, it can result in extinction of pollinators. Moreover, if the ants depend on pollination mutualism for survival, the strong interference could drive pollinators into extinction, which consequently lead to extinction of the ants themselves. When the ant interference is weak, a cooperation between plant-ant and plant-pollinator mutualisms could occur, which promotes survival of both ants and pollinators, especially in the case that ants (respectively, pollinators) cannot survive in the absence of pollinators (respectively, ants). Even when the level of ant interference remains invariant, varying ants' negative effect on plants can result in survival/extinction of both ants and pollinators. Therefore, our results provide an explanation for the persistence of pollination mutualism when there exist ants.

  9. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E Aslan

    Full Text Available As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create "widow" species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem - the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses - remains unknown.We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1-4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40-58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses.Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions.

  10. Balancing former opposites as mutual preconditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmström, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Luhmann: Contingency, risk, trust and reflection. In Ø. Ihlen, M. Fredriksson, & B. van Ruler (Eds.), Public relations and social theory (pp. 187–211). New York: Routledge. Holmström, S. (2010a) Society’s Constitution and Corporate Legitimacy, in Rendtorff, J.D. (ed.) Ethics in the Economy: Power...... legitimacy under conditions of complexity: The case of the multinational enterprise. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 64–81. Luhmann, N. (1982). Trust and power. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. (Original work published 1968) Luhmann, N. (1989). Ecological communication. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. (Original work....... Journal of Business Ethics, 81, 1–12....

  11. The effect of flow limitation on the cardiorespiratory response to arousal from sleep under controlled conditions of chemostimulation in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Elizabeth A; Nicholas, Christian L; Kleiman, Jan; Spear, Owen; Morrell, Mary J; Trinder, John

    2012-12-01

    The influence of flow limitation on the magnitude of the cardiorespiratory response to arousal from sleep is of interest in older people, because they experience considerable flow limitation and frequent arousals from sleep. We studied older flow-limiting subjects, testing the hypothesis that the cardiorespiratory activation response would be larger when arousal occurred during flow limitation, compared to no flow limitation, and chemical stimuli were controlled. In 11 older adults [mean ± standard deviation (SD) age: 68 ± 5 years] ventilation was stabilized using continuous positive airway pressure, and flow limitation was induced by dialling down the pressure. Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) was maintained by titration of the inspired CO(2) and hyperoxia was maintained using 40% O(2) balanced with nitrogen. Flow limitation at the time of arousal did not augment cardiovascular activation response (heart rate P = 0.7; systolic blood pressure P = 0.6; diastolic blood pressure P = 0.3), whereas ventilation was greater following arousals during flow limitation compared to no flow limitation (P sleep is not influenced by flow limitation at the time of arousal, when chemical stimuli are controlled in older adults. This finding may contribute to the decreased cardiovascular burden associated with sleep-disordered breathing reported in older adults, although our data do not exclude the possibility that flow limitation in the presence of mild hypoxic hypercapnia could increase the cardiovascular response to arousal. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Coding "We-ness" in couple's relationship stories: A method for assessing mutuality in couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve, Sara; Singer, Jefferson A; Skerrett, Karen; Wein, Shelter

    2017-05-01

    "We-ness," a couple's mutual investment in their relationship and in each other, has been found to be a potent dimension of couple resilience. This study examined the development of a method to capture We-ness in psychotherapy through the coding of relationship narratives co-constructed by couples ("We-Stories"). It used a coding system to identify the core thematic elements that make up these narratives. Couples that self-identified as "happy" (N = 53) generated We-Stories and completed measures of relationship satisfaction and mutuality. These stories were then coded using the We-Stories coding manual. Findings indicated that security, an element that involves aspects of safety, support, and commitment, was most common, appearing in 58.5% of all narratives. This element was followed by the elements of pleasure (49.1%) and shared meaning/vision (37.7%). The number of "We-ness" elements was also correlated with and predictive of discrepancy scores on measures of relationship mutuality, indicating the validity of the We-Stories coding manual. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  13. Efficiency of mutual funds in Croatia: a DEA-based approach applied in the pre-crisis, crisis and post crisis period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Gardijan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the overall performance of mutual funds in Croatia in terms of their relative efficiency based on several performance indicators using data envelopment analysis (DEA. DEA is a non-parametric method that can provide an overall relative efficiency score of a certain fund given a number of risk, cost or reward or profitability measures. Since traditional mutual fund performance indicators are mostly based on the CAPM paradigm that demands using rigid assumptions and questionable benchmarks, we endeavor to overcome the limitations of such an approach by considering more appropriate risk and reward measures, such as Expected Shortfall, stochastic dominance and higher order moments. In this way, we developed an adjusted DEA-based mutual fund performance index. The efficiency scores obtained from the DEA model help in identifying efficient funds and ranking the funds based on certain criteria. DEA also identifies mutual fund(s that can be benchmarks for other mutual funds that have similar investment strategies. These results were compared to various traditional indicators of absolute and relative risk-adjusted performance of mutual funds. The analysis was divided into three periods: the pre-crisis period, crisis period and post-crisis period with different conclusions for mutual fund performances in Croatia. The analysis includes altogether 60 UCITS funds in Croatia, in the period from the beginning of 2005 until the end of 2015, and was conducted on daily data of share prices, available from the Bloomberg terminal.

  14. Thermalization of mutual information in hyperscaling violating backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhayi, M. Reza [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science,Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB),P.O. Box 14676-86831, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2015)165 to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description of entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We show that during the thermalization process, the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior of mutual information (e.g., at the pre-local-equilibration regime). It is shown that the scaling violating parameter can be employed to define an effective dimension.

  15. Sparse Bayesian Learning for DOA Estimation with Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs. Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise.

  16. Occurrence and characteristics of mutual interference between LIDAR scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Seonghyeon; Park, Yongwan

    2015-05-01

    The LIDAR scanner is at the heart of object detection of the self-driving car. Mutual interference between LIDAR scanners has not been regarded as a problem because the percentage of vehicles equipped with LIDAR scanners was very rare. With the growing number of autonomous vehicle equipped with LIDAR scanner operated close to each other at the same time, the LIDAR scanner may receive laser pulses from other LIDAR scanners. In this paper, three types of experiments and their results are shown, according to the arrangement of two LIDAR scanners. We will show the probability that any LIDAR scanner will interfere mutually by considering spatial and temporal overlaps. It will present some typical mutual interference scenario and report an analysis of the interference mechanism.

  17. Impact of Competition on Mutual Fund Marketing Expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitikantha Parida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I study the impact of market competition on mutual fund marketing expenses. In a sample of US domestic equity mutual funds, I find that marketing expenses decrease with the competition. This effect is stronger for top-performing funds. These results are counterintuitive, as one would ordinarily expect funds to incur more marketing expenses in response to pressure from competing funds. However, these results support the narrative that mutual funds employ marketing to draw attention to their performance in a tournament-like market, where the top-performing funds (the winners are rewarded with disproportionately high new investments. Higher competition decreases the chances of each fund to outperform the others and adversely affect their ability to attract new investments, and the funds respond by decreasing marketing expenses. Thus, competition appears to have implications for investor search cost.

  18. The Cybathlon BCI race: Successful longitudinal mutual learning with two tetraplegic users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikis, Serafeim; Tonin, Luca; Saeedi, Sareh; Schneider, Christoph; Millán, José Del R

    2018-05-01

    This work aims at corroborating the importance and efficacy of mutual learning in motor imagery (MI) brain-computer interface (BCI) by leveraging the insights obtained through our participation in the BCI race of the Cybathlon event. We hypothesized that, contrary to the popular trend of focusing mostly on the machine learning aspects of MI BCI training, a comprehensive mutual learning methodology that reinstates the three learning pillars (at the machine, subject, and application level) as equally significant could lead to a BCI-user symbiotic system able to succeed in real-world scenarios such as the Cybathlon event. Two severely impaired participants with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), were trained following our mutual learning approach to control their avatar in a virtual BCI race game. The competition outcomes substantiate the effectiveness of this type of training. Most importantly, the present study is one among very few to provide multifaceted evidence on the efficacy of subject learning during BCI training. Learning correlates could be derived at all levels of the interface-application, BCI output, and electroencephalography (EEG) neuroimaging-with two end-users, sufficiently longitudinal evaluation, and, importantly, under real-world and even adverse conditions.

  19. The Cybathlon BCI race: Successful longitudinal mutual learning with two tetraplegic users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafeim Perdikis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at corroborating the importance and efficacy of mutual learning in motor imagery (MI brain-computer interface (BCI by leveraging the insights obtained through our participation in the BCI race of the Cybathlon event. We hypothesized that, contrary to the popular trend of focusing mostly on the machine learning aspects of MI BCI training, a comprehensive mutual learning methodology that reinstates the three learning pillars (at the machine, subject, and application level as equally significant could lead to a BCI-user symbiotic system able to succeed in real-world scenarios such as the Cybathlon event. Two severely impaired participants with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI, were trained following our mutual learning approach to control their avatar in a virtual BCI race game. The competition outcomes substantiate the effectiveness of this type of training. Most importantly, the present study is one among very few to provide multifaceted evidence on the efficacy of subject learning during BCI training. Learning correlates could be derived at all levels of the interface-application, BCI output, and electroencephalography (EEG neuroimaging-with two end-users, sufficiently longitudinal evaluation, and, importantly, under real-world and even adverse conditions.

  20. UK equity mutual fund alphas make a comeback

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus, Irina B.; Mateus, Cesario; Todorovic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we re-visit the performance of 887 active UK equity mutual funds using a new approach proposed by Angelidis, Giamouridis, and Tessaromatis. The authors argue that mutual funds stock selection is driven by the benchmark index, so if the benchmark generates alpha, there will be a bias in interpretation of manager's stock-picking ability. In their model, the alpha of a fund is adjusted by the benchmark's alpha. By applying this method, we eliminate bias inflicted by the persistent...

  1. Mutual Impact of Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Yan Lin; Wang, Li Xia; Chen, Ming Ting

    2017-05-01

    China has a double burden of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis, and many studies have been carried out on the mutual impact of these two diseases. This paper systematically reviewed studies conducted in China covering the mutual impact of epidemics of diabetes and tuberculosis, the impact of diabetes on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and on the tuberculosis clinical manifestation and treatment outcome, the yields of bi-directional screening, and economic evaluation for tuberculosis screening among diabetes patients. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross Correlation versus Normalized Mutual Information on Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Tilton, James C.; Lin, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to quantitatively assess and compare cross correlation and normalized mutual information methods used to register images in subpixel scale. The study shows that the normalized mutual information method is less sensitive to unaligned edges due to the spectral response differences than is cross correlation. This characteristic makes the normalized image resolution a better candidate for band to band registration. Improved band-to-band registration in the data from satellite-borne instruments will result in improved retrievals of key science measurements such as cloud properties, vegetation, snow and fire.

  3. Use of the mutual exclusivity assumption by young word learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markman, Ellen M.; Wasow, Judith L.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual...... these concerns by having only a familiar object visible. Fifteen to seventeen and 18-20-month-olds were selected to straddle the vocabulary spurt. In Study 1, babies saw a familiar object and an opaque bucket as a location to search. Study 2 handed babies the familiar object to play with. Study 3 eliminated...

  4. External Monitoring and Dynamic Behavior in Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of external monitoring on the behavior in mutual funds. Specifically, we investigate how and why external monitoring can alleviate contracting inefficiency caused by information asymmetry between investors and the manager. It is shown that efficiency loss emerges when investors contract with the manager just relying on her investment return history. The establishment of external monitoring that provides investors more information about the manager’s ability can improve contracting efficiency, which converges to first-best as external monitoring strengthens. These results provide strong support for tightening supervision in mutual fund industry.

  5. Evaluating Selection and Timing Ability of a Mutual Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duguleană L.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and a case study to evaluate the performance of a mutual fund by taking a look at the timing and selection abilities of a portfolio manager. Separating the timing and selection abilities of the fund manager is taken into consideration by two major models. The data about the mutual fund chosen for study is the German blue chip fund “DWS Deutsche Aktien Typ O”, which includes most of the DAX 30 companies. The data consists of 117 monthly observations of the fund returns from January 1999 to September 2008. We used EViews to analyse the data.

  6. The Tradeoff Between Mutual Fund and Direct Stock Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marekwica, Marcel; Steininger, Bertram I.

    2014-01-01

    We study the tradeoff between direct and indirect stock investments through equity mutual funds for a utility-maximizing investor. Whereas direct investments impose higher transaction costs on the formation of a well-diversified portfolio, mutual funds charge fees for their services. Our results...... show that the fee levels that make private investors indifferent between direct and indirect stock investments vary heavily according to risk aversion, the amounts invested, correlations between assets, transaction costs, and the length of investment horizon. In particular, our results suggest...

  7. Dynamics of a macroscopic model characterizing mutualism of search engines and web sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wu, Hong

    2006-05-01

    We present a model to describe the mutualism relationship between search engines and web sites. In the model, search engines and web sites benefit from each other while the search engines are derived products of the web sites and cannot survive independently. Our goal is to show strategies for the search engines to survive in the internet market. From mathematical analysis of the model, we show that mutualism does not always result in survival. We show various conditions under which the search engines would tend to extinction, persist or grow explosively. Then by the conditions, we deduce a series of strategies for the search engines to survive in the internet market. We present conditions under which the initial number of consumers of the search engines has little contribution to their persistence, which is in agreement with the results in previous works. Furthermore, we show novel conditions under which the initial value plays an important role in the persistence of the search engines and deduce new strategies. We also give suggestions for the web sites to cooperate with the search engines in order to form a win-win situation.

  8. Mudaraba-Venture Capital Closed-end Mutual Funds and Mudaraba-Venture Capital Open-end Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Ibrahim Bulut

    2008-01-01

    The important part of this study attempts to explain that both venture capital and interest-free financing are based on similar ground, if not the same. Two new models called Mudaraba-Venture Capital Closed-End Mutual Funds and Mudaraba-Venture Capital Open-End Mutual Funds, based on both the similarities and the needs of financial innovation in the interest-free financing system, are detailed. It is believed that the development of these two models could make some improvements not only in th...

  9. Information content when mutual funds deviate from benchmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Jiang (Hao); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno); Y. Wang (Yu)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The consensus wisdom of active mutual fund managers, as reflected in their average over-and underweighting decisions, contains valuable information about future stock returns. Analyzing a comprehensive sample of active U.S. equity funds from 1984 to 2008, we find that

  10. Mutual Funds as a Form of Collective Investment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tershukova, Marina B.; Savinov, Oleg G.; Zhegalova, Elena V.; Zhuruhinc, Georgy I.; Zhegalova, Alexandra S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem inspired with the fact nowadays there is a need for theoretical generalization based on international experience the essence of the collective investment system and the rationale for prioritizing the mutual funds development as the most attractive form of collective investment. The goal of the article lies in…

  11. Spillover Effects of Marketing in Mutual Fund Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno); J.J. Huij (Joop)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the presence of spillover effects of marketing in mutual fund families. We find that funds with high marketing expenses generate spillovers, and enhance cash inflows to family members with low marketing expenses. In particular, low-marketing funds that are

  12. By-product mutualism with evolving common enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The common-enemy hypothesis of by-product mutualism states that organisms cooperate when it is in their individual interests to do so, with benefits for other organisms arising as a by-product; in particular, such cooperation is hypothesized to arise when organisms face the common enemy of a

  13. High-Contention Mutual Exclusion by Elevator Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhr, Peter A.; Dice, Dave; Hesselink, Wim H.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents new starvation-free hardware-assisted and software-only algorithms for the N-thread mutual-exclusion problem. The hardware-assisted versions use a single atomic-CAS instruction and no fences. The software-only algorithms simulate the CAS instruction using a variation of

  14. Front-running of Mutual Fund Fire-sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyakov, T.C.; Verbeek, M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that a real-time trading strategy which front-runs the anticipated forced sales by mutual funds experiencing extreme capital outflows generates an alpha of 0.5% per month during the 1990-2010 period. The abnormal return stems from selling pressure among stocks that are below the NYSE mean

  15. Application of Joint Error Maximal Mutual Compensation to hexapod robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veryha, Yauheni; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2008-01-01

    A good practice to ensure high-positioning accuracy in industrial robots is to use joint error maximum mutual compensation (JEMMC). This paper presents an application of JEMMC for positioning of hexapod robots to improve end-effector positioning accuracy. We developed an algorithm and simulation ...

  16. On the determination of the mutual exclusion statistics parameter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the determination of the mutual exclusion statistics parameter. SAPTARSHI MANDAL. Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science,. 2A&2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032, India. E-mail: mandal.saptarshi1@gmail.com. MS received 7 September 2012; revised ...

  17. Synchronization scenario of two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mirasso, Claudio; Heil, Tilmann

    2004-01-01

    We present numerical and experimental investigations of the synchronization of the coupling-induced instabilities in two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers. In our experiments, two similar Fabry-Perot lasers are coupled via their coherent optical fields. Our theoretical framework is ba...

  18. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  19. Measurement reduction for mutual coupling calibration in DOA estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Taylan; Tuncer, T. Engin

    2012-01-01

    Mutual coupling is an important source of error in antenna arrays that should be compensated for super resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) algorithms, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. A crucial step in array calibration is the determination of the mutual coupling coefficients for the antenna array. In this paper, a system theoretic approach is presented for the mutual coupling characterization of antenna arrays. The comprehension and implementation of this approach is simple leading to further advantages in calibration measurement reduction. In this context, a measurement reduction method for antenna arrays with omni-directional and identical elements is proposed which is based on the symmetry planes in the array geometry. The proposed method significantly decreases the number of measurements during the calibration process. This method is evaluated using different array types whose responses and the mutual coupling characteristics are obtained through numerical electromagnetic simulations. It is shown that a single calibration measurement is sufficient for uniform circular arrays. Certain important and interesting characteristics observed during the experiments are outlined.

  20. Investor Attrition and Fund Flows in Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Xu, Haoyu

    2017-01-01

    We explore the properties of equity mutual funds that experience a loss of assets after poor performance. We document that both inflows and outflows are less sensitive to performance, because performance-sensitive investors leave or decide not to invest after bad performance. Consistent with the ...

  1. When are enhanced relationship tax compliance programs mutually beneficial?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Simone, L.; Sansing, R.; Seidman, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the circumstances under which “enhanced relationship” tax-compliance programs are mutually beneficial to taxpayers and tax authorities, as well as how these benefits are shared. We develop a model of taxpayer and tax authority behavior inside and outside of an enhanced

  2. 77 FR 48566 - The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 30164; File No. 812-14024] The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application August 8, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of the Investment...

  3. Sensitivity Analysis for Urban Drainage Modeling Using Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to evaluate the sensitivity of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM output to its input parameters. A global parameter sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to determine which parameters mostly affect the model simulation results. Two different methods of sensitivity analysis are applied in this study. The first one is the partial rank correlation coefficient (PRCC which measures nonlinear but monotonic relationships between model inputs and outputs. The second one is based on the mutual information which provides a general measure of the strength of the non-monotonic association between two variables. Both methods are based on the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS of the parameter space, and thus the same datasets can be used to obtain both measures of sensitivity. The utility of the PRCC and the mutual information analysis methods are illustrated by analyzing a complex SWMM model. The sensitivity analysis revealed that only a few key input variables are contributing significantly to the model outputs; PRCCs and mutual information are calculated and used to determine and rank the importance of these key parameters. This study shows that the partial rank correlation coefficient and mutual information analysis can be considered effective methods for assessing the sensitivity of the SWMM model to the uncertainty in its input parameters.

  4. Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability: The Global Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability: The Global Political Economy of Development and ... that will help us understand this turbulent and chaotic period in human history. ... The Rapid Research Fund (RRF) for Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks will fund ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics ...

  5. Reducing Interpolation Artifacts for Mutual Information Based Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, H.; Khosravifard, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Medical image registration methods which use mutual information as similarity measure have been improved in recent decades. Mutual Information is a basic concept of Information theory which indicates the dependency of two random variables (or two images). In order to evaluate the mutual information of two images their joint probability distribution is required. Several interpolation methods, such as Partial Volume (PV) and bilinear, are used to estimate joint probability distribution. Both of these two methods yield some artifacts on mutual information function. Partial Volume-Hanning window (PVH) and Generalized Partial Volume (GPV) methods are introduced to remove such artifacts. In this paper we show that the acceptable performance of these methods is not due to their kernel function. It's because of the number of pixels which incorporate in interpolation. Since using more pixels requires more complex and time consuming interpolation process, we propose a new interpolation method which uses only four pixels (the same as PV and bilinear interpolations) and removes most of the artifacts. Experimental results of the registration of Computed Tomography (CT) images show superiority of the proposed scheme. PMID:22606673

  6. Collision detection and prediction using a mutual configuration state approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoute, Albert L.; Weiss, N.; Jesse, N.; Reusch, B.

    A configuration state approach is presented that simplifies the mutual collision analysis of objects with known shapes that move along known paths. Accurate and fast prediction of contact situations in games such as robot soccer enables improved anticipatory and corrective actions of the state

  7. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  8. On the behavior of mutual fund investors and managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goriaev, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates empirically and theoretically the behavior of mutual fund investors and managers. These two aspects are closely related to each other. Investors try to select funds that follow an optimal investment policy from their point of view, while fund managers are typically

  9. On the Empirical Evidence of Mutual Fund Strategic Risk Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goriaev, A.P.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    We reexamine empirical evidence on strategic risk-taking behavior by mutual fund managers.Several studies suggest that fund performance in the first semester of a year influences risk-taking in the second semester.However, we show that previous empirical studies implicitly assume that idiosyncratic

  10. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon adoption...

  11. Mutual recognition and the right to damages for criminal investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Fuglsang Madsen Sørensen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    This article considers how the citizen who has been surrendered on an EAW in a case ending with acquittal or non-prosecution may achieve compensation for the loss of freedom and the surrender to another Member State. The analysis shows how the EAW and the principle of mutual recognition have been...

  12. Quantum mutual information and the one-time pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Benjamin; Westmoreland, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Alice and Bob share a correlated composite quantum system AB. If AB is used as the key for a one-time pad cryptographic system, we show that the maximum amount of information that Alice can send securely to Bob is the quantum mutual information of AB

  13. Effect mutual carrying away of electrons and photons on thermomagnet and thermoelectric phenomena in semiconductors with generated statistics of current carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuliev, I.G.

    2000-01-01

    One studied the effects of the mutual carrying away of electrons and phonons on the thermomagnetic and thermoelectric phenomena in semiconductors with the degenerated statistics of current carriers. One estimated the conduction current within nonequilibrium electron-phonon system in the linear approximation on the basis of the degeneration parameter. Under the isothermal conductors the mutual carrying away was shown to affect essentially the values of the Nernst-Ettingshausen effects. One estimated the heat flow and analyzed the dependence of heat conductivity and of the Muggy-Regge (MR) effect on the magnetic field. The contribution of the mutual carrying away into the isothermal MR-effect was determined to be proportional to the degeneration parameter. One studied thermomagnetic and thermoelectric effects in the degenerated conductors with regard to the mutual carrying away of electrons and phonons both under the isothermal and under the adiabatic conditions [ru

  14. 40 CFR Appendix L to Subpart A of... - Approved Critical Uses and Limiting Critical Conditions for Those Uses for the 2010 Control Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing Deciduous Tree Fruit Growers Moderate to severe nematode infestation.Medium to heavy clay soils... Slips (a) California growers Local township limits prohibiting 1,3-dichloropropene. Tomatoes (a...

  15. An Impulsive Three-Species Model with Square Root Functional Response and Mutual Interference of Predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An impulsive two-prey and one-predator model with square root functional responses, mutual interference, and integrated pest management is constructed. By using techniques of impulsive perturbations, comparison theorem, and Floquet theory, the existence and global asymptotic stability of prey-eradication periodic solution are investigated. We use some methods and sufficient conditions to prove the permanence of the system which involve multiple Lyapunov functions and differential comparison theorem. Numerical simulations are given to portray the complex behaviors of this system. Finally, we analyze the biological meanings of these results and give some suggestions for feasible control strategies.

  16. Aircraft performance in slippery runway conditions : a simulation study of the accuracy and limitations of real-time runway friction estimation based on airplane onboard data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Runway overrun accidents occurring during landings in slippery conditions continue to occur frequently worldwide. After a : number of specific landing overrun accidents in the U.S., the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) issued a safety : re...

  17. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals Topology Dependent Mutual Relaxation of Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Abadi, Maram

    2015-08-24

    The motion and relaxation of linear and cyclic polymers under entangled conditions are investigated by means of a newly developed single-molecule tracking technique, cumulative-area (CA) tracking. CA tracking enables simultaneous quantitative characterization of the diffusion mode, diffusion rate, and relaxation time that have been impossible with a widely used conventional single-molecule localization and tracking method, by analyzing cumulative areas occupied by the moving molecule. Using the novel approach, we investigate the motion and relaxation of entangled cyclic polymers, which have been an important but poorly understood question. Fluorescently labeled 42 kbp linear or cyclic tracer dsDNAs in concentrated solutions of unlabeled linear or cyclic DNAs are used as model systems. We show that CA tracking can explicitly distinguish topology-dependent diffusion mode, rate, and relaxation time, demonstrating that the method provides an invaluable tool for characterizing topological interaction between the entangled chains. We further demonstrate that the current models proposed for the entanglement between cyclic polymers which are based on cyclic chains moving through an array of fixed obstacles cannot correctly describe the motion of the cyclic chain under the entangled conditions. Our results rather suggest the mutual relaxation of the cyclic chains, which underscore the necessity of developing a new model to describe the motion of cyclic polymer under the entangled conditions based on the mutual interaction of the chains.

  18. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals Topology Dependent Mutual Relaxation of Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Abadi, Maram; Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The motion and relaxation of linear and cyclic polymers under entangled conditions are investigated by means of a newly developed single-molecule tracking technique, cumulative-area (CA) tracking. CA tracking enables simultaneous quantitative characterization of the diffusion mode, diffusion rate, and relaxation time that have been impossible with a widely used conventional single-molecule localization and tracking method, by analyzing cumulative areas occupied by the moving molecule. Using the novel approach, we investigate the motion and relaxation of entangled cyclic polymers, which have been an important but poorly understood question. Fluorescently labeled 42 kbp linear or cyclic tracer dsDNAs in concentrated solutions of unlabeled linear or cyclic DNAs are used as model systems. We show that CA tracking can explicitly distinguish topology-dependent diffusion mode, rate, and relaxation time, demonstrating that the method provides an invaluable tool for characterizing topological interaction between the entangled chains. We further demonstrate that the current models proposed for the entanglement between cyclic polymers which are based on cyclic chains moving through an array of fixed obstacles cannot correctly describe the motion of the cyclic chain under the entangled conditions. Our results rather suggest the mutual relaxation of the cyclic chains, which underscore the necessity of developing a new model to describe the motion of cyclic polymer under the entangled conditions based on the mutual interaction of the chains.

  19. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of Soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO2] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on 1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the ma...

  20. Mutual punishment promotes cooperation in the spatial public goods game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai

    2015-01-01

    Punishment has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. In previous studies, punishment is unidirectional: an individual i can punish j but j cannot punish i. In this paper, we propose a mechanism of mutual punishment, in which the two individuals will punish each other if their strategies are different. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might expect intuitively the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Surprisingly, we find that the mutual punishment can promote cooperation in the spatial public goods game. Other pertinent quantities such as the time evolution of cooperator density and the spatial distribution of cooperators and defectors are also investigated

  1. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-05-11

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  2. Role of mutual punishment in the snowdrift game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    The effects of punishment on cooperation have drawn increasing attention. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism of punishment, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. We incorporate the mutual punishment into the snowdrift game. Results for well-mixed and structured populations have shown that, for no punishment or small values of punishment fine, the fraction of cooperators continuously decreases with the temptation to defect. However, for large values of punishment fine, there exists an abrupt transition point, at which the fraction of cooperators suddenly drops from 1 to 0. Compared to no punishment, mutual punishment promotes cooperation when the temptation to defect is small but inhibits cooperation when the temptation to defect is large. For weak (strong) temptation to defect, the cooperation level increases (decreases) with the punishment fine. For moderate temptation to defect, there exists an optimal value of the punishment fine that leads to the highest cooperation level.

  3. Mutual information as an order parameter for quantum synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, V.; Eghbali-Arani, M.; Mari, A.; Farace, A.; Kheirandish, F.; Giovannetti, V.; Fazio, R.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon, important in many theoretical studies and applications. Recently, this effect has been analyzed and observed in a number of physical systems close to the quantum-mechanical regime. In this work we propose mutual information as a useful order parameter which can capture the emergence of synchronization in very different contexts, ranging from semiclassical to intrinsically quantum-mechanical systems. Specifically, we first study the synchronization of two coupled Van der Pol oscillators in both classical and quantum regimes and later we consider the synchronization of two qubits inside two coupled optical cavities. In all these contexts, we find that mutual information can be used as an appropriate figure of merit for determining the synchronization phases independently of the specific details of the system.

  4. Spatially resolved detection of mutually locked Josephson junctions in arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, M.; Doderer, T.; Huebener, R.P.; Traeuble, T.; Dolata, R.; Weimann, T.; Niemeyer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Mutual locking due to the internal coupling in two-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions was investigated. The appearance of Shapiro steps in the current versus voltage curve of a coupled on-chip detector junction is used to indicate coherent oscillations in the array. A highly coherent state is observed for some range of the array bias current. By scanning the array with a low-power electron beam, mutually locked junctions remain locked while the unlocked junctions generate a beam-induced additional voltage drop at the array. This imaging technique allows the detection of the nonlocked or weakly locked Josephson junctions in a (partially) locked array state. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO₂] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David M; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Gray, Sharon B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2014-09-01

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on (1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum potential linear electron flux through photosystem II (Jmax), (2) the associated responses of leaf structural and chemical properties related to A, as well as (3) the stomatal limitation (l) imposed on A, for soybean over two growing seasons in a conventionally managed agricultural field in Illinois, USA. Acclimation to elevated [CO2] was consistent over two growing seasons with respect to Vc,max and Jmax. However, elevated temperature significantly decreased Jmax contributing to lower photosynthetic stimulation by elevated CO2. Large seasonal differences in precipitation altered soil moisture availability modulating the complex effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on biochemical and structural properties related to A. Elevated temperature also reduced the benefit of elevated [CO2] by eliminating decreases in stomatal limitation at elevated [CO2]. These results highlight the critical importance of considering multiple environmental factors (i.e. temperature, moisture, [CO2]) when trying to predict plant productivity in the context of climate change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does the third mutual friction coefficient B'' exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, P.; Placais, B.; Simon, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Precise measurements of the attenuation of a second-sound wave propagation axially in rotating He II at first sight suggest that the third mutual-friction coefficient B'' has a non-zero value (B'' = 0.021 at 1.9 K). But the observation of metastable states associated with various levels of attenuation is not reconcilable with the semi-classical model of the vortex line [fr

  7. Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The text of the Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents, which was signed on 17 October 1963 by the Director General and by representatives of the Governments of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Article IX will be notified to Members in an Addendum to this document [es

  8. Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The text of the Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents, which was signed on 17 October 1963 by the Director General and by representatives of the Governments of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Article IX will be notified to Members in an Addendum to this document

  9. The Persistence of Risk-Adjusted Mutual Fund Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Elton, Edwin J; Gruber, Martin J; Blake, Christopher R

    1996-01-01

    The authors examine predictability for stock mutual funds using risk-adjusted returns. They find that past performance is predictive of future risk-adjusted performance. Applying modern portfolio theory techniques to past data improves selection and allows the authors to construct a portfolio of funds that significantly outperforms a rule based on past rank alone. In addition, they can form a combination of actively managed portfolios with the same risk as a portfolio of index funds but with ...

  10. Resonator coupled Josephson junctions; parametric excitations and mutual locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H. Dalsgaard; Larsen, A.; Mygind, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    Self-pumped parametric excitations and mutual locking in systems of Josephson tunnel junctions coupled to multimode resonators are reported. For the very large values of the coupling parameter, obtained with small Nb-Al2O3-Nb junctions integrated in superconducting microstrip resonators, the DC I......-V characteristic shows an equidistant series of current steps generated by subharmonic pumping of the fundamental resonator mode. This is confirmed by measurement of frequency and linewidth of the emitted Josephson radiation...

  11. La Crema: A case study of mutual fire insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Cabrales; Antoni Calvó; Matthew O. Jackson

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a mutual fire insurance mechanism used in Andorra, which is called La Crema in the local language. This mechanism relies on households' announced property values to determine how much a household is reimbursed in the case of a fire and how payments are apportioned among other households. The only Pareto-efficient al- location reachable through the mechanism requires that all house- holds honestly report the true value of their property. However, such honest reporting is not an equi...

  12. Information properties of a hologram of mutually conjugate waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubanov, A.S.; Serebryakova, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical study of information properties of a correlation response to a fragment of an image of a thin referenceless hologram of mutually conjugate waves that is recorded with a phase-conjugating (PC) mirror is reported. It is shown that this hologram reconstructs a full image in reflected light and can be used as an associative storage device and as a selective PC mirror. 7 refs., 1 fig

  13. The performance of mutual funds : evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Parlak, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In academic world much controversy exists regarding the performance of pension and mutual funds. Some studies have concluded that actively managed funds on average, underperform their passively managed counterparts whereas other studies have shown just the reverse. Another important debate centers on the persistence of under- and over-performance of portfolios. Still evidence from emerging markets which are characterized by high volatility in terms of terms of stock returns is scarce. Hence t...

  14. Mandatory portfolio disclosure, stock liquidity, and mutual fund performance

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Vikas; Mullally, Kevin Andrew; Tang, Yuehua; Yang, Baozhong

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of mandatory portfolio disclosure by mutual funds on stock liquidity and fund performance. We develop a model of informed trading with disclosure and test its predictions using the SEC regulation in May 2004 requiring more frequent disclosure. Stocks with higher fund ownership, especially those held by more informed funds or subject to greater information asymmetry, experience larger increases in liquidity after the regulation change. More informed funds, especially thos...

  15. Mutually Exclusive CBC-Containing Complexes Contribute to RNA Fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacometti, Simone; Benbahouche, Nour El Houda; Domanski, Michal

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC) stimulates processing reactions of capped RNAs, including their splicing, 3′-end formation, degradation, and transport. CBC effects are particular for individual RNA families, but how such selectivity is achieved remains elusive. Here, we analyze three main CBC......-containing complexes are short lived in vivo, and we therefore suggest that RNA fate involves the transient formation of mutually exclusive CBC complexes, which may only be consequential at particular checkpoints during RNA biogenesis....

  16. Exometabolomics Assisted Design and Validation of Synthetic Obligate Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosina, Suzanne M; Danielewicz, Megan A; Mohammed, Mujahid; Ray, Jayashree; Suh, Yumi; Yilmaz, Suzan; Singh, Anup K; Arkin, Adam P; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Northen, Trent R

    2016-07-15

    Synthetic microbial ecology has the potential to enhance the productivity and resiliency of biotechnology processes compared to approaches using single isolates. Engineering microbial consortia is challenging; however, one approach that has attracted significant attention is the creation of synthetic obligate mutualism using auxotrophic mutants that depend on each other for exchange or cross-feeding of metabolites. Here, we describe the integration of mutant library fitness profiling with mass spectrometry based exometabolomics as a method for constructing synthetic mutualism based on cross-feeding. Two industrially important species lacking known ecological interactions, Zymomonas mobilis and Escherichia coli, were selected as the test species. Amino acid exometabolites identified in the spent medium of Z. mobilis were used to select three corresponding E. coli auxotrophs (proA, pheA and IlvA), as potential E. coli counterparts for the coculture. A pooled mutant fitness assay with a Z. mobilis transposon mutant library was used to identify mutants with improved growth in the presence of E. coli. An auxotroph mutant in a gene (ZMO0748) with sequence similarity to cysteine synthase A (cysK), was selected as the Z. mobilis counterpart for the coculture. Exometabolomic analysis of spent E. coli medium identified glutathione related metabolites as potentially available for rescue of the Z. mobilis cysteine synthase mutant. Three sets of cocultures between the Z. mobilis auxotroph and each of the three E. coli auxotrophs were monitored by optical density for growth and analyzed by flow cytometry to confirm high cell counts for each species. Taken together, our methods provide a technological framework for creating synthetic mutualisms combining existing screening based methods and exometabolomics for both the selection of obligate mutualism partners and elucidation of metabolites involved in auxotroph rescue.

  17. Mutual understanding: a communication model for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantho, Arne; Jensen, Lena; Malterud, Kirsti

    2002-12-01

    To present our pursuits towards development of a simple model for clinical communication intended for application by the practitioner as a tool for enhancing mutual understanding. Inspired by theories about patient-centredness and interactive modes of understanding, and supported by the perspectives of the Danish philosopher Niels Thomassen, we reviewed audiotapes from our own consultations. Recognising four dimensions assumed to be essential for mutual understanding in the transcripts, we explored these dimensions further. We present a communication model consisting of the following dimensions: The Framework, within which the communication takes place; The Subject, about which the communication takes place; The Persons, between whom the communication takes place; and The Action, verbally and non-verbally, through which communication takes place. We describe these dimensions in detail. The nature of the dimensions indicates that there is an interrelationship between them, implying that the character of the communication may change if one of the factors is changed. Analysis of an ongoing or recent consultation completed in accordance with these four dimensions allows the doctor to refocus the communication, thus leading to a more extensive mutual understanding and perhaps enhanced freedom of action.

  18. Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

  19. Mutual fund performance: A synthesis of taxonomic and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Badrinath

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive taxonomy of mutual funds and discusses the relative importance of these fund types. While most academic research focuses on US equity funds, we provide results for many more asset classes with this taxonomy—fixed income, balanced, global, International, sector, market-neutral and long-short funds. For each, we start by reporting statistics on the number of funds and their total net asset values at different intervals over the last four decades. We then identify short and long-term patterns in annual returns to mutual funds. We study the cross-sectional and time-series properties of the distribution of investor flows into different types of mutual funds, describe the relationship between flows and performance and discuss its implications for the strategic behaviour of managers and investors. We estimate and interpret fund performance alphas using both the single-factor and four-factor Fama-French models for each taxonomy type. Finally we describe the state of academic research on portfolio performance evaluation tilted towards an applied audience.

  20. Yucca aloifolia (Asparagaceae) opts out of an obligate pollination mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentsch, Jeremy D; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2014-12-01

    • According to Cope's 'law of the unspecialized' highly dependent species interactions are 'evolutionary dead ends,' prone to extinction because reversion to more generalist interactions is thought to be unlikely. Cases of extreme specialization, such as those seen between obligate mutualists, are cast as evolutionarily inescapable, inevitably leading to extinction rather than diversification of participating species. The pollination mutualism between Yucca plants and yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula) would seem to be locked into such an obligate mutualism. Yucca aloifolia populations, however, can produce large numbers of fruit lacking moth oviposition scars. Here, we investigate the pollination ecology of Y. aloifolia, in search of the non-moth pollination of a Yucca species.• We perform pollinator exclusion studies on Yucca aloifolia and a sympatric yucca species, Y. filamentosa. We then perform postvisit exclusion treatments, an analysis of dissected fruits, and a fluorescent dye transfer experiment.• As expected, Yucca filamentosa plants set fruit only when inflorescences were exposed to crepuscular and nocturnal pollinating yucca moths. In contrast, good fruit set was observed when pollinators were excluded from Y. aloifolia inflorescences from dusk to dawn, and no fruit set was observed when pollinators were excluded during the day. Follow up experiments indicated that European honeybees (Apis mellifera) were passively yet effectively pollinating Y. aloifolia flowers.• These results indicate that even highly specialized mutualisms may not be entirely obligate interactions or evolutionary dead ends. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.