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Sample records for condition ratio

  1. Radiochlorine concentration ratios for agricultural plants in various soil conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Strasse 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN/DEI/SECRE), Cadarache bat 159, BP 3, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: claude.colle@irsn.fr; Levchuk, S. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Strasse 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Yoschenko, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Strasse 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Zvarich, S. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Strasse 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine)

    2007-06-15

    Long-term field experiments have been carried out in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in order to determine the parameters governing radiochlorine ({sup 36}Cl) transfer to plants from four types of soil, namely, Podzoluvisol, Greyzem, Phaeozem and Chernozem. Radiochlorine concentration ratios (CR = concentration of {sup 36}Cl in the fresh plant material divided by its concentration in the dried soil in the upper 20 cm layer) were obtained in green peas (2.6 {+-} 0.4), onions (1.5 {+-} 0.5), potatoes (8 {+-} 1), clover (90 {+-} 26) and ryegrass (158 {+-} 88) hay, oat seeds (36 {+-} 23) and straw (305 {+-} 159), wheat seeds (35 {+-} 10) and straw (222 {+-} 82). These values correlate with the stable chlorine values for the same plants. It was shown that {sup 36}Cl plant/soil CR in radish roots (CR = 9.7 {+-} 1.4) does not depend on the stable chlorine content in the soil (up to 150 mg kg{sup -1}), soil type and thus, that stable chlorine CR values (9.4 {+-} 1.2) can also be used for {sup 36}Cl. Injection of additional quantities of stable chlorine into the soil (100 mg kg{sup -1} of dry soil) with fertilizer does not change the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 36}Cl. The results from a batch experiment showed that chlorine is retained in the investigated soils only by live biota and transfers quickly (in just a few hours) into the soil solution from dry vegetation even without decomposition of dead plants and is integrated in the migration processes in soil.

  2. Radiochlorine concentration ratios for agricultural plants in various soil conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashparov, V.; Colle, C.; Levchuk, S.; Yoschenko, V.; Zvarich, S.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term field experiments have been carried out in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in order to determine the parameters governing radiochlorine ( 36 Cl) transfer to plants from four types of soil, namely, Podzoluvisol, Greyzem, Phaeozem and Chernozem. Radiochlorine concentration ratios (CR = concentration of 36 Cl in the fresh plant material divided by its concentration in the dried soil in the upper 20 cm layer) were obtained in green peas (2.6 ± 0.4), onions (1.5 ± 0.5), potatoes (8 ± 1), clover (90 ± 26) and ryegrass (158 ± 88) hay, oat seeds (36 ± 23) and straw (305 ± 159), wheat seeds (35 ± 10) and straw (222 ± 82). These values correlate with the stable chlorine values for the same plants. It was shown that 36 Cl plant/soil CR in radish roots (CR = 9.7 ± 1.4) does not depend on the stable chlorine content in the soil (up to 150 mg kg -1 ), soil type and thus, that stable chlorine CR values (9.4 ± 1.2) can also be used for 36 Cl. Injection of additional quantities of stable chlorine into the soil (100 mg kg -1 of dry soil) with fertilizer does not change the soil-to-plant transfer of 36 Cl. The results from a batch experiment showed that chlorine is retained in the investigated soils only by live biota and transfers quickly (in just a few hours) into the soil solution from dry vegetation even without decomposition of dead plants and is integrated in the migration processes in soil

  3. Aviation NOx-induced CH4 effect: Fixed mixing ratio boundary conditions versus flux boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari, Arezoo; Olsen, Seth C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Phoenix, Daniel B.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry-climate models are often used to calculate the effect of aviation NOx emissions on atmospheric ozone (O3) and methane (CH4). Due to the long (∼10 yr) atmospheric lifetime of methane, model simulations must be run for long time periods, typically for more than 40 simulation years, to reach steady-state if using CH4 emission fluxes. Because of the computational expense of such long runs, studies have traditionally used specified CH4 mixing ratio lower boundary conditions (BCs) and then applied a simple parameterization based on the change in CH4 lifetime between the control and NOx-perturbed simulations to estimate the change in CH4 concentration induced by NOx emissions. In this parameterization a feedback factor (typically a value of 1.4) is used to account for the feedback of CH4 concentrations on its lifetime. Modeling studies comparing simulations using CH4 surface fluxes and fixed mixing ratio BCs are used to examine the validity of this parameterization. The latest version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), with the CAM5 atmospheric model, was used for this study. Aviation NOx emissions for 2006 were obtained from the AEDT (Aviation Environmental Design Tool) global commercial aircraft emissions. Results show a 31.4 ppb change in CH4 concentration when estimated using the parameterization and a 1.4 feedback factor, and a 28.9 ppb change when the concentration was directly calculated in the CH4 flux simulations. The model calculated value for CH4 feedback on its own lifetime agrees well with the 1.4 feedback factor. Systematic comparisons between the separate runs indicated that the parameterization technique overestimates the CH4 concentration by 8.6%. Therefore, it is concluded that the estimation technique is good to within ∼10% and decreases the computational requirements in our simulations by nearly a factor of 8.

  4. Maternal condition but not corticosterone is linked to offspring sex ratio in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J Henderson

    Full Text Available There is evidence of offspring sex ratio adjustment in a range of species, but the potential mechanisms remain largely unknown. Elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT is associated with factors that can favour brood sex ratio adjustment, such as reduced maternal condition, food availability and partner attractiveness. Therefore, the steroid hormone has been suggested to play a key role in sex ratio manipulation. However, despite correlative and causal evidence CORT is linked to sex ratio manipulation in some avian species, the timing of adjustment varies between studies. Consequently, whether CORT is consistently involved in sex-ratio adjustment, and how the hormone acts as a mechanism for this adjustment remains unclear. Here we measured maternal baseline CORT and body condition in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus over three years and related these factors to brood sex ratio and nestling quality. In addition, a non-invasive technique was employed to experimentally elevate maternal CORT during egg laying, and its effects upon sex ratio and nestling quality were measured. We found that maternal CORT was not correlated with brood sex ratio, but mothers with elevated CORT fledged lighter offspring. Also, experimental elevation of maternal CORT did not influence brood sex ratio or nestling quality. In one year, mothers in superior body condition produced male biased broods, and maternal condition was positively correlated with both nestling mass and growth rate in all years. Unlike previous studies maternal condition was not correlated with maternal CORT. This study provides evidence that maternal condition is linked to brood sex ratio manipulation in blue tits. However, maternal baseline CORT may not be the mechanistic link between the maternal condition and sex ratio adjustment. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity of sex ratio adjustment in birds and the difficulties associated with identifying sex biasing mechanisms.

  5. Stress Calculation of a TRISO Coated Particle Fuel by Using a Poisson's Ratio in Creep Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon-Sung; Kim, Y. M.; Lee, Y. W.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, Y. K.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, W. K.

    2007-01-01

    KAERI, which has been carrying out the Korean VHTR (Very High Temperature modular gas cooled Reactor) project since 2004, has been developing a performance analysis code for the TRISO coated particle fuel named COPA (COated Particle fuel Analysis). COPA predicts temperatures, stresses, a fission gas release and failure probabilities of a coated particle fuel in normal operating conditions. KAERI, on the other hand, is developing an ABAQUS based finite element(FE) model to cover the non-linear behaviors of a coated particle fuel such as cracking or debonding of the TRISO coating layers. Using the ABAQUS based FE model, verification calculations were carried out for the IAEA CRP-6 benchmark problems involving creep, swelling, and pressure. However, in this model the Poisson's ratio for elastic solution was used for creep strain calculation. In this study, an improvement is made for the ABAQUS based finite element model by using the Poisson's ratio in creep condition for the calculation of the creep strain rate. As a direct input of the coefficient in a creep condition is impossible, a user subroutine for the ABAQUS solution is prepared in FORTRAN for use in the calculations of the creep strain of the coating layers in the radial and hoop directions of the spherical fuel. This paper shows the calculation results of a TRISO coated particle fuel subject to an irradiation condition assumed as in the Miller's publication in comparison with the results obtained from the old FE model used in the CRP-6 benchmark calculations

  6. Effect of Processing Delay and Storage Conditions on Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, William; Illingworth, Nicola; Staplin, Natalie; Kumar, Aishwarya; Storey, Ben; Hrusecka, Renata; Judge, Parminder; Mahmood, Maria; Parish, Sarah; Landray, Martin; Haynes, Richard; Baigent, Colin; Hill, Michael; Clark, Sarah

    2016-10-07

    Because there is substantial biologic intraindividual variation in albumin excretion, randomized trials of albuminuria-reducing therapies may need multiple urine samples to estimate daily urinary albumin excretion. Mailing spot urine samples could offer a convenient and cost-effective method to collect multiple samples, but urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio stability in samples stored at ambient temperatures for several days is unknown. Patients with kidney disease provided fresh urine samples in two tubes (with and without boric acid preservative). Reference aliquots from each participant were analyzed immediately, whereas remaining aliquots were subject to different handling/storage conditions before analysis, including delayed processing for up to 7 days at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 18°C, and 30°C), multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and long-term frozen storage at -80°C, -40°C, and -20°C. We calculated the mean percentage change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio for each condition, and we considered samples stable if the 95% confidence interval was within a ±5% threshold. Ninety-three patients provided samples with detectable albuminuria in the reference aliquot. Median (interquartile range) urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 87 (20-499) mg/g. The inclusion of preservative had minimal effect on fresh urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio measurements but reduced the changes in albumin and creatinine in samples subject to processing delay and storage conditions. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was stable for 7 days in samples containing preservative at 4°C and 18°C and 2 days when stored at 30°C. It was also stable in samples with preservative after three freeze-thaw cycles and in frozen storage for 6 months at -80°C or -40°C but not at -20°C. Mailed urine samples collected with preservative and received within 7 days if ambient temperature is ≤18°C, or within 2 days if the temperature is higher but does not exceed 30°C, are

  7. Effect of Processing Delay and Storage Conditions on Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Nicola; Staplin, Natalie; Kumar, Aishwarya; Storey, Ben; Hrusecka, Renata; Judge, Parminder; Mahmood, Maria; Parish, Sarah; Landray, Martin; Haynes, Richard; Baigent, Colin; Hill, Michael; Clark, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Because there is substantial biologic intraindividual variation in albumin excretion, randomized trials of albuminuria-reducing therapies may need multiple urine samples to estimate daily urinary albumin excretion. Mailing spot urine samples could offer a convenient and cost-effective method to collect multiple samples, but urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio stability in samples stored at ambient temperatures for several days is unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Patients with kidney disease provided fresh urine samples in two tubes (with and without boric acid preservative). Reference aliquots from each participant were analyzed immediately, whereas remaining aliquots were subject to different handling/storage conditions before analysis, including delayed processing for up to 7 days at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 18°C, and 30°C), multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and long–term frozen storage at −80°C, −40°C, and −20°C. We calculated the mean percentage change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio for each condition, and we considered samples stable if the 95% confidence interval was within a ±5% threshold. Results Ninety-three patients provided samples with detectable albuminuria in the reference aliquot. Median (interquartile range) urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 87 (20–499) mg/g. The inclusion of preservative had minimal effect on fresh urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio measurements but reduced the changes in albumin and creatinine in samples subject to processing delay and storage conditions. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was stable for 7 days in samples containing preservative at 4°C and 18°C and 2 days when stored at 30°C. It was also stable in samples with preservative after three freeze-thaw cycles and in frozen storage for 6 months at −80°C or −40°C but not at −20°C. Conclusions Mailed urine samples collected with preservative and received within 7 days if

  8. Radiometric ratio characterization for low-to-mid CPV modules operating in variable irradiance conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan; Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Kostuk, Raymond

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) design methodology is proposed which aims to maximize system efficiency for a given irradiance condition. In this technique, the acceptance angle of the system is radiometrically matched to the angular spread of the site's average irradiance conditions using a simple geometric ratio. The optical efficiency of CPV systems from flat-plate to high-concentration is plotted at all irradiance conditions. Concentrator systems are measured outdoors in various irradiance conditions to test the methodology. This modeling technique is valuable at the design stage to determine the ideal level of concentration for a CPV module. It requires only two inputs: the acceptance angle profile of the system and the site's average direct and diffuse irradiance fractions. Acceptance angle can be determined by raytracing or testing a fabricated prototype in the lab with a solar simulator. The average irradiance conditions can be found in the Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) database. Additionally, the information gained from this technique can be used to determine tracking tolerance, quantify power loss during an isolated weather event, and do more sophisticated analysis such as I-V curve simulation.

  9. Crop Condition Assessment with Adjusted NDVI Using the Uncropped Arable Land Ratio

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    Miao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crop condition assessment in the early growing stage is essential for crop monitoring and crop yield prediction. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI-based method is employed to evaluate crop condition by inter-annual comparisons of both spatial variability (using NDVI images and seasonal dynamics (based on crop condition profiles. Since this type of method will generate false information if there are changes in crop rotation, cropping area or crop phenology, information on cropped/uncropped arable land is integrated to improve the accuracy of crop condition monitoring. The study proposes a new method to retrieve adjusted NDVI for cropped arable land during the growing season of winter crops by integrating 16-day composite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS reflectance data at 250-m resolution with a cropped and uncropped arable land map derived from the multi-temporal China Environmental Satellite (Huan Jing Satellite charge-coupled device (HJ-1 CCD images at 30-m resolution. Using the land map’s data on cropped and uncropped arable land, a pixel-based uncropped arable land ratio (UALR at 250-m resolution was generated. Next, the UALR-adjusted NDVI was produced by assuming that the MODIS reflectance value for each pixel is a linear mixed signal composed of the proportional reflectance of cropped and uncropped arable land. When UALR-adjusted NDVI data are used for crop condition assessment, results are expected to be more accurate, because: (i pixels with only uncropped arable land are not included in the assessment; and (ii the adjusted NDVI corrects for interannual variation in cropping area. On the provincial level, crop growing profiles based on the two kinds of NDVI data illustrate the difference between the regular and the adjusted NDVI, with the difference depending on the total area of uncropped arable land in the region. The results suggested that the proposed method can be used to improve the assessment of

  10. Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

  11. A Novel Frequency Measurement Method Suitable for a Large Frequency Ratio Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei; XUAN Zong-Qiang; YU Jian-Guo; WANG Hai; ZHOU Hui; LI Zhi-Qi

    2004-01-01

    @@ As for the obstacles to direct comparison between superhigh and lower frequencies, we accomplish the accurate comparison between low and microwave frequencies with the 105 ratios of the operating frequencies on the basis of phase comparison between the signals whose frequencies are related by an arbitrary integer. This method is simple and accurate, and will be widely used as a special frequency comparison approach.

  12. Microcontroller Based Proportional Derivative Plus Conditional Integral Controller for Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, A; Tawi, K B; Hussein, M; Supriyo, B; Kob, M S Che; Zulkifli, Mohd Ezlamy; Khairuldean A K; Daraoh, Aishah; Ariyono, S

    2012-01-01

    Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley (EMDAP) Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is a transmission utilized by electro-mechanical actuated system. It has a potential to reduce energy consumption because it only needs power during changing CVT ratio and no power is needed to maintain CVT ratio due to self lock mechanism design. This paper proposed simple proportional derivative plus conditional integral (PDCI) controller to control EMDAP CVT ratio which can be simply implemented on a microcontroller. This proposed controller used Astrom-Hagglund method and Ziegler-Nichols formula to tune PDCI gain. The Proportional Derivative controller is directly activated from the start but Integral controller is only activated when the error value reaches error value setting point. Simulation using Matlab/Simulink software was conducted to evaluate PDCI system performance. The simulation results showed PDCI controller has ability to perform maximum overshoot 0.1%, 0.001 steady state error and 0.5s settling time. For clamping condition, settling time is about 11.46s during changing ratio from 2.0 to 0.7, while for release condition, settling time is about 8.33s during changing ratio from 0.7 to 2.0.

  13. Effects of Preparation Conditions on the Yield and Embedding Ratio of Vinyl Silicone Oil Microcapsules

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    Aijie MA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-healing materials could repair themselves without external influences when they are damaged. In this paper, microcapsules are prepared by in-situ polymerization method with vinyl silicone oil as core material, polyurea formaldehyde (PUF as wall material and polyvinyl alcohol as dispersants. The morphology and structure of the microcapsules are tested with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, polarizing microscope(PM)and laser particle analyzer(LPA. Effect of the reaction temperature, stirring speed and PVA concentration on the yield, embedding ratio, particle size and distribution of the microcapsules are studied. Results show that the microcapsules can be successfully prepared by in situ polymerization method. When the reaction temperature was 60℃, the stirring speed 1000 r/min, dispersant concentration 0.1%, the yield and embedding ratio of the microcapsule are 52.5% and 50.1%. The microcapsules prepared have smooth surface, well dispersibility, narrow particle size distribution and the average particle size is 13 μm.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.13026

  14. Sediment delivery ratio in a small semi-arid watershed under conditions of low connectivity

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    Julio Cesar Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The semi-arid region in the northeast of Brazil is characterised by rains of high intensity and short duration, with the processes of erosion being aggravated by an inappropriate land-use model. In this region, the lack of measured data for runoff and sediment yield increases the need to apply hydro-sedimentological models in estimating erosion, requiring knowledge of the actual sediment delivery ratio for the region. The aim of this study therefore, was to map soil erosion, making use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, in the Iguatu Experimental Watershed (IEW. The mean annual sediment delivery ratio (SDR, and the SDR for individual events, was calculated from hydro-sedimentological measurements, contributing to an understanding of the processes of sediment propagation in the Brazilian semi-arid region, allowing identification of areas susceptible to water erosion. The IEW has an area of 16.74 km2 and is equipped with sensors for the continuous measurement of rainfall, flow and sediment yield. The mean annual SDR for the IEW was 0.37%. The SDR for individual rainfall events ranged from 0.08 to 1.67%, with an average of 0.68%. Among the main variables that influence the SDR for individual events is the magnitude of rainfall depth and antecedent soil moisture that can be better represented by the total antecedent precipitation of the previous 15 days. According to maps of soil loss, only 6.27% of the watershed presented losses beyond tolerable limits.

  15. FORMATION CONDITIONS OF ICY MATERIALS IN COMET C/2004 Q2 (MACHHOLZ). I. MIXING RATIOS OF ORGANIC VOLATILES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hitomi; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2009-01-01

    We observed comet C/2004 Q2 (Machholz) with the Keck II telescope in late 2005 January and we obtained the spectra of C/2004 Q2 including many emission lines of volatile species such as H 2 O, HCN, C 2 H 2 , NH 3 , CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , CH 3 OH, and H 2 CO with high-signal-to-noise ratios. Based on our observations, we determined the mixing ratios of the molecules relative to H 2 O in C/2004 Q2. Since C/2004 Q2 is one of Oort Cloud comets, it is interesting to compare our results with other Oort Cloud comets. The mixing ratios of C 2 H 2 /H 2 O and C 2 H 6 /H 2 O in C/2004 Q2 are lower than typical Oort Cloud comets. Especially, C 2 H 2 /H 2 O ratio in C/2004 Q2 is as lower as Jupiter Family comets. However, mixing ratios of other molecules in C/2004 Q2 are similar to typical Oort Cloud comets. C/2004 Q2 might be the intermediate type between Oort Cloud and Jupiter Family comets. To investigate the formation conditions of such intermediate type comet, we focused on the (C 2 H 2 +C 2 H 6 )/H 2 O ratios and C 2 H 6 /(C 2 H 6 +C 2 H 2 ) ratios in comets from the viewpoint of conversion from C 2 H 2 to C 2 H 6 in the precometary ices. We found that (C 2 H 2 +C 2 H 6 )/H 2 O ratio in C/2004 Q2 is lower than the ratio in typical Oort Cloud comets while C 2 H 6 /(C 2 H 6 +C 2 H 2 ) ratio in C/2004 Q2 is consistent with the ratio of the typical Oort Cloud comets and Jupiter family comets. If we assume that the cometary volatiles such as H 2 O, CH 4 , and C 2 H 2 formed similar environment, the C 2 H 6 /(C 2 H 6 +C 2 H 2 ) ratio might not be sensitive in the temperature range where hydrogen-addition reactions occurred and cometesimals formed (∼30 K). We employed the dynamical-evolutional model and the chemical-evolutional model to determine the formation region of C/2004 Q2 more precisely. We found that comet C/2004 Q2 might have formed in relatively inner region of the solar nebula than the typical Oort Cloud comet (but slightly further than 5 AU from the proto-Sun).

  16. Genetic parameters for energy balance, fat /protein ratio, body condition score and disease traits in German Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttchereit, N; Stamer, E; Junge, W; Thaller, G

    2012-08-01

    Various health problems in dairy cows have been related to the magnitude and duration of the energy deficit post partum. Energy balance indicator traits like fat/protein ratio in milk and body condition score could be used in selection programmes to help predicting breeding values for health traits, but currently there is a lack of appropriate genetic parameters. Therefore, genetic correlations among energy balance, fat/protein ratio, and body condition score, and mastitis, claw and leg diseases, and metabolic disorders were estimated using linear and threshold models on data from 1693 primiparous cows recorded within the first 180 days in milk. Average daily energy balance, milk fat/protein ratio and body condition score were 8 MJ NEL, 1.13 and 2.94, respectively. Disease frequencies (% cows with at least one case) were 24.6% for mastitis, 9.7% for metabolic disorders and 28.2% for claw and leg diseases. Heritability estimates were 0.06, 0.30 and 0.34 for energy balance, fat/protein ratio and body condition score, respectively. For the disease traits, heritabilities ranged between 0.04 and 0.15. The genetic correlations were, in general, associated with large standard errors, but, although not significant, the results suggest that an improvement of overall health can be expected if energy balance traits are included into future breeding programmes. A low fat/protein ratio might serve as an indicator for metabolic stability and health of claw and legs. Between body condition and mastitis, a significant negative correlation of -0.40 was estimated. The study provides a new insight into the role energy balance traits can play as auxiliary traits for robustness of dairy cows. It was concluded that both, fat/protein ratio and body condition score, are potential variables to describe how well cows can adapt to the challenge of early lactation. However, the genetic parameters should be re-estimated on a more comprehensive data set. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The Likelihood Ratio Test of Common Factors under Non-Ideal Conditions

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    Ana M. Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo espacial de Durbin ocupa una posición interesante en econometría espacial. Es la forma reducida de un modelo de corte transversal con dependencia en los errores y puede ser utilizado como ecuación de anidación en un enfoque más general de selección de modelos. En concreto, a partir de esta ecuación puede obtenerse el Ratio de Verosimilitudes conocido como test de Factores Comunes (LRCOM. Como se muestra en Mur y Angulo (2006, este test tiene buenas propiedades si el modelo está correctamente especificado. Sin embargo, por lo que sabemos, no hay referencias en la literatura sobre el comportamiento de este test bajo condiciones no ideales. En concreto, estudiamos el comportamiento del test en los casos de heterocedasticidad, no normalidad, endogeneidad, matrices de contactos densas y no-linealidad. Nuestros resultados ofrecen una visión positiva del test de Factores Comunes que parece una técnica útil en el instrumental propio de la econometría espacial contemporánea.

  18. Nursery Culture Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with Probiotics Addition and Different C/N Ratio Under Laboratory Condition

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    WIDANARNI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bioflocs technology and probiotics has improved water quality and production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture. This experiment was to verify the effect of probiotic bacteria addition and different carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio on water quality and performance of Pacific white shrimp nursery culture. Nursery culture was carried out for 25 days in an aquarium under laboratory condition with stock density of one Post-Larvae (PL (poslarval per liter (24 PL/aquarium of PL16 shrimp. Different C:N ratio resulted a significant difference on shrimp production performance. Treatment of 10 C:N ratio demonstrated the best shrimp growth (20.37 + 0.48% per day in weight and 6.05 + 0.41% per day in length, harvesting yield (1180 + 62 g/m3 and feed efficiency (121 + 6%. There was however no significant difference observed between treatments in water quality.

  19. Nursery Culture Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with Probiotics Addition and Different C/N Ratio Under Laboratory Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDANARNI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bioflocs technology and probiotics has improved water quality and production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture. This experiment was to verify the effect of probiotic bacteria addition and different carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio on water quality and performance of Pacific white shrimp nursery culture. Nursery culture was carried out for 25 days in an aquarium under laboratory condition with stock density of one Post-Larvae (PL (poslarval per liter (24 PL/aquarium of PL16 shrimp. Different C:N ratio resulted a significant difference on shrimp production performance. Treatment of 10 C:N ratio demonstrated the best shrimp growth (20.37 ± 0.48% per day in weight and 6.05 ± 0.41% per day in length, harvesting yield (1180 ± 62 g/m3 and feed efficiency (121 ± 6%. There was however no significant difference observed between treatments in water quality.

  20. Physical Conditions Regulate the Fungal to Bacterial Ratios of a Tropical Suspended Soil

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    Julian Donald

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a source of ‘suspended soils’, epiphytes contribute large amounts of organic matter to the canopy of tropical rain forests. Microbes associated with epiphytes are responsible for much of the nutrient cycling taking place in rain forest canopies. However, soils suspended far above the ground in living organisms differ from soil on the forest floor, and traditional predictors of soil microbial community composition and functioning (nutrient availability and the activity of soil organisms are likely to be less important. We conducted an experiment in the rain forest biome at the Eden Project in the U.K. to explore how biotic and abiotic conditions determine microbial community composition and functioning in a suspended soil. To simulate their natural epiphytic lifestyle, bird’s nest ferns (Asplenium nidus were placed on a custom-built canopy platform suspended 8 m above the ground. Ammonium nitrate and earthworm treatments were applied to ferns in a factorial design. Extracellular enzyme activity and Phospholipid Fatty Acid (PLFA profiles were determined at zero, three and six months. We observed no significant differences in either enzyme activity or PLFA profiles between any of the treatments. Instead, we observed decreases in β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activity, and an increase in phenol oxidase activity across all treatments and controls over time. An increase in the relative abundance of fungi during the experiment meant that the microbial communities in the Eden Project ferns after six months were comparable with ferns sampled from primary tropical rain forest in Borneo.

  1. Comparison of CT-Determined Pulmonary Artery Diameter, Aortic Diameter, and Their Ratio in Healthy and Diverse Clinical Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available The main pulmonary artery diameter (mPA, aortic diameter (Ao, and the mPA/Ao ratio, easily measured using chest computed tomography (CT, provide information that enables the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiopulmonary diseases. Here, we used CT to determine the sex- and age-specific distribution of normal reference values for mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio in an adult Korean population.Data from non-contrast, ECG-gated, coronary-calcium-scoring CT images of 2,547 individuals who visited the Health Screening Center of the Severance Hospital were analyzed. Healthy individuals (n = 813 included those who do not have hypertension, diabetes, asthma, obstructive lung disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, smoking, obesity, and abnormal CT findings. Both mPA and Ao were measured at the level of bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery.The mean mPA and Ao were 25.9 mm and 30.0 mm in healthy participants, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. Medical conditions associated with a larger mPA were male, obesity, smoking history, hypertension, and diabetes. A larger mPA/Ao ratio was associated with female, the obese, non-smoker, normotensive, and normal serum level of lipids, while a smaller mPA/Ao ratio was associated with older age. In healthy individuals, the 90th percentile sex-specific mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio were, 31.3 mm (95% CI 29.9-32.2, 36.8 mm (95% CI 35.7-37.5, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.99-1.07 in males, and 29.6 mm (95% CI 29.1-30.2, 34.5 mm (95% CI 34.1-34.9, and 1.03 (95% CI 1.02-1.06 in females, respectively.In the Korean population, the mean mPA reference values in male and female were 26.5 mm and 25.8 mm, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. These values were influenced by a variety of underlying medical conditions.

  2. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, J Thomas; Verstegen, Martin Wa; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2017-06-01

    Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the subsequent rate of repletion. The rate of Na depletion and subsequent rate of Na repletion with two levels of dietary Na to lactating dairy cows housed under tropical conditions were investigated using the salivary Na/K. The 12 lactating cows (salivary Na/K ratio 14.6) rapidly developed clinical signs of Na deficiency, including pica, polyuria and polydipsia, reduced body weight and reduced milk yield when fed a low-Na ration (0.33 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)) for 3 weeks. Deficiency symptoms were associated with a rapid decrease in salivary Na/K ratio to cows with NaCl to a ration concentration of 1.1 or 1.6 g Na kg -1 DM for 5 weeks did not restore salivary Na/K ratio to values of >6. A daily Na intake of heat-stressed lactating cows to a ration intake of 1.6 g Na kg -1 DM was insufficient to restore Na deficiency. One week was sufficient to deplete heat-stressed lactating cows of Na, allowing for rapid dose-response studies utilizing the salivary Na/K ratio as a parameter for Na status of cows under tropical conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Development of a method for calculating steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio of direct expansion air conditioning units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liang; Chan, M.Y.; Deng Shiming

    2008-01-01

    A complete set of calculation method for steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio (SHR) for a direct expansion (DX) cooling coil has been developed and reported. The method was based on the fundamentals of energy conservation and heat and mass transfer taking place in the DX cooling coil, and was experimentally validated using an experimental DX A/C rig. With the method developed, the effect of refrigerant evaporating temperature at fixed inlet air conditions on equipment SHR has been theoretically analyzed. The validated method can be useful in further studying the inherent operating characteristics of a DX air conditioning (A/C) unit and in developing suitable control strategies for achieving higher energy efficiency and better indoor thermal environment

  4. The effects of air stoichiometry and air excess ratio on the transient response of a PEMFC under load change conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bosung; Cha, Dowon; Kim, Yongchan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of controlling parameters on the transient response of a PEMFC are studied. • The transient response is measured by varying air stoichiometry and air excess ratio. • Voltage drop, undershoot, and voltage fluctuation are analyzed under the load change. • Optimal air stoichiometry and air excess ratio are suggested for stable operation. - Abstract: The transient response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an important issue for transportation applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of operating and controlling parameters on the transient response of a PEMFC for achieving more stable cell performance under load change conditions. The transient response of a PEMFC was measured and analyzed by varying air stoichiometry, air humidity, and air excess ratio (AER). The optimal air stoichiometry and AER were determined to minimize the voltage drop, undershoot, and voltage fluctuation under the load change, while maintaining high cell performance. Based on the present data, the optimal air stoichiometry was determined to be between 2.0 and 2.5, and the optimal AER was suggested to be between 1.65 and 2.0

  5. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  6. A case study on optimum tip speed ratio and pitch angle laws for wind turbine rotors operating in yawed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva-Tejero, A; Lopez-Garcia, O; González-Meruelo, F; Marangoni, D

    2014-01-01

    The values of the tip speed ratio and blade pitch angle that yield maximum power coefficient are calculated for a rotor operating in yawed conditions. In a first step, the power coefficient is determined using a model based on the blade element momentum theory (BEMT) which includes a Prandtl-Glauert root-tip losses correction, a non-uniform model for the axial and tangential induction factors, and a model of the rotational augmentation effects. The BEMT model is validated with the experimental data from the NREL-UAE. The maximum values of the power coefficient are determined for different yaw angles and the corresponding values of the tip speed ratio and blade control angle are obtained. The maximum power coefficient using these optimum laws is compared to the maximum power coefficient using the optimum laws of the non-yawed case and it is shown that there is a gain in the power coefficient. For the case study presented in this paper it has been found that for yaw angles of 30° about 10% of the power coefficient can be recovered

  7. A case study on optimum tip speed ratio and pitch angle laws for wind turbine rotors operating in yawed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerva-Tejero, A.; Lopez-Garcia, O.; Marangoni, D.; González-Meruelo, F.

    2014-12-01

    The values of the tip speed ratio and blade pitch angle that yield maximum power coefficient are calculated for a rotor operating in yawed conditions. In a first step, the power coefficient is determined using a model based on the blade element momentum theory (BEMT) which includes a Prandtl-Glauert root-tip losses correction, a non-uniform model for the axial and tangential induction factors, and a model of the rotational augmentation effects. The BEMT model is validated with the experimental data from the NREL-UAE. The maximum values of the power coefficient are determined for different yaw angles and the corresponding values of the tip speed ratio and blade control angle are obtained. The maximum power coefficient using these optimum laws is compared to the maximum power coefficient using the optimum laws of the non-yawed case and it is shown that there is a gain in the power coefficient. For the case study presented in this paper it has been found that for yaw angles of 30° about 10% of the power coefficient can be recovered.

  8. Seasonal changes in the gonadossomatic index, allometric condition factor and sex ratio of an auchenipterid catfish from eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonal pattern of the gonadosomatic index (GSI, condition factor (K, and sex ratio in the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae as an approach to identify its reproductive period. A total of 589 A. longimanus specimens (251 males and 338 females were captured in the rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest, in the Brazilian state of Pará, between July, 2008 and July, 2009. Among the male specimens, 171 were classified as adults and 80 as juveniles, while there were 249 adults and 89 juvenile females. Using a sinusoidal equation, analysis of the GSI revealed a reproductive asynchrony between the genders, with males attaining their highest GSI values in January, while females peaked in March. For males, the sinusoidal regression for GSI values was significant only when used the complete data set (P=0.001, wears no trend was identified for bimonthly means (P=0.136. For females, by contrast, significant values were obtained for both the complete data set (P=0.012 and bimonthly GSI means (P=0.026. For the condition factor, the sinusoidal equation returned significant seasonal variation in both raw data (P=0.02 and with mean values (P=0.00 for males, but only with raw data for females (P=0.04, which appears to reflect variation in the energy budget between genders. With regard to the sex ratio, more reproductive females were captured than males in January and March, 2009, which suggests a pattern of segregation related to the reproductive process. These parameters are fundamental to the assessment, protection, and management of natural fish stocks, as well as providing guidelines for the development of conservation strategies.

  9. Effects of the Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Ratio on Gut Microbiomes in Dogs of Different Body Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghong; Lauber, Christian L; Czarnecki-Maulden, Gail; Pan, Yuanlong; Hannah, Steven S

    2017-01-24

    metabolic problems in humans. HPLC diets have been promoted as an effective weight loss strategy for many years, and potential effects were reported for both humans and dogs. In this study, we explored the influence of the protein and carbohydrate ratio on the gut microbiome in dogs with different body conditions. We demonstrated significant dietary effects on the gut microbiome, with greater changes in obese dogs than in lean dogs. The HPLC diet-fed dogs showed greater abundances of Firmicutes but fewer numbers of Bacteroidetes than other dogs. This knowledge will enable us to use prebiotics, probiotics, and other nutritional interventions to modulate the gut microbiota and to provide an alternative therapy for canine obesity. Copyright © 2017 Li et al.

  10. Optimal sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio for post weaning piglets reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn Kahindi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two 14-day experiments, each with 90 (Duroc × [Yorkshire × Landrace]; 7.3 ± 0.6 kg piglets, were conducted to determine the optimum sulfur amino acid (SAA to lysine (Lys ratio (SAA:Lys for piglets when reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions using performance and non-performance response criteria. Piglets were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments. The basal diet contained 1.18% standardized ileal digestible (SID Lys, and the SAA:Lys was 52%. In diets 2 to 5, the basal diet was supplemented with 4 graded levels of dl-Met to make SAA:Lys of 56%, 60%, 64% and 68%. In Exp. 1, piglets were housed in disinfected clean room. In Exp. 2, piglets were housed in a room previously occupied by other pigs and was not disinfected. On the last day, blood was collected to measure plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and one pig per pen was euthanized to collect jejunal tissue to measure villus height (VH, crypt depth (CD, and VH:CD. In Exp. 1, increasing SAA:Lys linearly and quadratically increased VH and VH:CD (P < 0.05. In Exp. 2, increasing SAA:Lys linearly increased (P < 0.05 VH and VH:CD and linearly and quadratically decreased PUN (P < 0.05. Estimated PUN and VH-based optimum SAA:Lys requirements for clean and unclean sanitary condition were 60%, 63% and 66%, respectively.

  11. (Re)evaluating the Implications of the Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Model Through Likelihood Ratio Tests of Its Initial Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Lu; Chow, Sy-Miin; Ji, Linying; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-01-01

    The autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) model synthesizes the autoregressive model and the latent growth curve model. The ALT model is flexible enough to produce a variety of discrepant model-implied change trajectories. While some researchers consider this a virtue, others have cautioned that this may confound interpretations of the model's parameters. In this article, we show that some-but not all-of these interpretational difficulties may be clarified mathematically and tested explicitly via likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) imposed on the initial conditions of the model. We show analytically the nested relations among three variants of the ALT model and the constraints needed to establish equivalences. A Monte Carlo simulation study indicated that LRTs, particularly when used in combination with information criterion measures, can allow researchers to test targeted hypotheses about the functional forms of the change process under study. We further demonstrate when and how such tests may justifiably be used to facilitate our understanding of the underlying process of change using a subsample (N = 3,995) of longitudinal family income data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

  12. Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel,n-Heptane, andiso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon; Naser, Nimal; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Junepyo

    2015-01-01

    -octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior. A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel

  13. Alkalinity to calcium flux ratios for corals and coral reef communities: variances between isolated and community conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana J.A. Murillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcification in reef corals and coral reefs is widely measured using the alkalinity depletion method which is based on the fact that two protons are produced for every mole of CaCO3 precipitated. This assumption was tested by measuring the total alkalinity (TA flux and Ca2+ flux of isolated components (corals, alga, sediment and plankton in reference to that of a mixed-community. Experiments were conducted in a flume under natural conditions of sunlight, nutrients, plankton and organic matter. A realistic hydrodynamic regime was provided. Groups of corals were run separately and in conjunction with the other reef components in a mixed-community. The TA flux to Ca2+ flux ratio (ΔTA: ΔCa2+ was consistently higher in the coral-only run (2.06 ± 0.19 than in the mixed-community run (1.60 ± 0.14, p-value = 0.011. The pH was higher and more stable in the mixed-community run (7.94 ± 0.03 vs. 7.52 ± 0.07, p-value = 3 × 10−5. Aragonite saturation state (Ωarag was also higher in the mixed-community run (2.51 ± 0.2 vs. 1.12 ± 0.14, p-value = 2 × 10−6. The sediment-only run revealed that sediment is the source of TA that can account for the lower ΔTA: ΔCa2+ ratio in the mixed-community run. The macroalgae-only run showed that algae were responsible for the increased pH in the mixed-community run. Corals growing in a mixed-community will experience an environment that is more favorable to calcification (higher daytime pH due to algae photosynthesis, additional TA and inorganic carbon from sediments, higher Ωarag. A paradox is that the alkalinity depletion method will yield a lower net calcification for a mixed-community versus a coral-only community due to TA recycling, even though the corals may be calcifying at a higher rate due to a more optimal environment.

  14. Effect of feed to microbe ratios on anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions: biogas potential and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Bhattarai, Sujala; Kim, Sang Hun; Chen, Lide

    2014-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the feed-to-microbe (F/M) ratios on anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste (CCW) generated from a kimchi factory. The batch test was conducted for 96 days under mesophilic (36.5 °C) (Experiment I) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions (Experiment II) at F/M ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The first-order kinetic model was evaluated for methane yield. The biogas yield in terms of volatile solids (VS) added increased from 591 to 677 mL/g VS under mesophilic conditions and 434 to 639 mL/g VS under thermophilic conditions when the F/M ratio increased from 0.5 to 2.0. Similarly, the volumetric biogas production increased from 1.479 to 6.771 L/L under mesophilic conditions and from 1.086 to 6.384 L/L under thermophilic conditions when F/M ratio increased from 0.5 to 2.0. The VS removal increased from 59.4 to 75.6% under mesophilic conditions and from 63.5 to 78.3% under thermophilic conditions when the F/M ratio increased from 0.5 to 2.0. The first-order kinetic constant (k, 1/day) decreased under the mesophilic temperature conditions and increased under thermophilic conditions when the F/M ratio increased from 0.5 to 2.0. The difference between the experimental and predicted methane yield was in the range of 3.4-14.5% under mesophilic conditions and in the range of 1.1-3.0% under thermophilic conditions. The predicted methane yield derived from the first-order kinetic model was in good agreement with the experimental results. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Processes influencing migration of bioavailable organic compounds from polymers - investigated during biotic and abiotic testing under static and non-static conditions with varying S/V-ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    . The bioavailable migration from the polymer surface was influence by diffusion over the solid-liquid boundary layer under sterile conditions, which resulted in an inversely proportionally relationship between bioavailable migration expressed per unit surface area of material and the surface to volume ratio (S/V-ratio...... the effect of the boundary layer, since bioavailable migration was continuously consumed by the bacteria. Thus the driving force for the diffusion process was maintained at a maximum, thereby enhancing the bioavailable migration from the material surfaces. Thus neither non-static conditions nor varying S/V-ratios...

  16. Effects of different drying conditions on the rehydration ratio and water holding capacity properties in three different species of algae Ulva lactuca, Codium vermilara and Codium tomentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marques Nunes

    2014-06-01

    In this work, it was concluded that higher drying temperature conditions originate lower rehydration ratio and consequent lower water holding capacity possibly due to a higher physical damage in the algae tissues. It was also observed that both Codium species have higher values for these two parameters than Ulva lactuca, under the same rehydration conditions.

  17. Seasonal changes in the gonadossomatic index, allometric condition factor and sex ratio of an auchenipterid catfish from eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonal pattern of the gonadosomatic index (GSI, condition factor (K, and sex ratio in the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae as an approach to identify its reproductive period. A total of 589 A. longimanus specimens (251 males and 338 females were captured in the rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest, in the Brazilian state of Pará, between July, 2008 and July, 2009. Among the male specimens, 171 were classified as adults and 80 as juveniles, while there were 249 adults and 89 juvenile females. Using a sinusoidal equation, analysis of the GSI revealed a reproductive asynchrony between the genders, with males attaining their highest GSI values in January, while females peaked in March. For males, the sinusoidal regression for GSI values was significant only when used the complete data set (P=0.001, wears no trend was identified for bimonthly means (P=0.136. For females, by contrast, significant values were obtained for both the complete data set (P=0.012 and bimonthly GSI means (P=0.026. For the condition factor, the sinusoidal equation returned significant seasonal variation in both raw data (P=0.02 and with mean values (P=0.00 for males, but only with raw data for females (P=0.04, which appears to reflect variation in the energy budget between genders. With regard to the sex ratio, more reproductive females were captured than males in January and March, 2009, which suggests a pattern of segregation related to the reproductive process. These parameters are fundamental to the assessment, protection, and management of natural fish stocks, as well as providing guidelines for the development of conservation strategies.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar alterações sazonais no índice gonadossomático (IGS%, fator de condição (K e proporção sexual, a fim de determinar o período de atividade reprodutiva do bagre Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes

  18. Bottom trawling affects fish condition through changes in the ratio of prey availability to density of competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiddink, Jan Geert; Moranta, Joan; Balestrini, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    pressure. 2. We assessed the impact of bottom trawling on the food availability, condition and stomach contents of three flatfishes and the Norway lobster in an area in the Kattegat hat is characterized by a steep commercial bottom-trawling gradient due to the establishment of an area closed to all....... This pattern was mirrored in both the condition and stomach contents of plaice and for long-rough dab. 4. No effect of trawling on dab prey and condition was found. Conversely, the condition of the main target species – Norway lobster – increased as its biomass decreased with increased trawling intensities. 5...

  19. Effects of the Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Ratio on Gut Microbiomes in Dogs of Different Body Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a health epidemic in both humans and pets. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. High-protein, low-carbohydrate (HPLC diets have been recommended for body weight loss, but little is known about their effects on the canine gut microbiome. Sixty-three obese and lean Labrador retrievers and Beagles (mean age, 5.72 years were fed a common baseline diet for 4 weeks in phase 1, followed by 4 weeks of a treatment diet, specifically, the HPLC diet (49.4% protein, 10.9% carbohydrate or a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC diet (25.5% protein, 38.8% carbohydrate in phase 2. 16S rRNA gene profiling revealed that dietary protein and carbohydrate ratios have significant impacts on gut microbial compositions. This effect appeared to be more evident in obese dogs than in lean dogs but was independent of breed. Consumption of either diet increased the bacterial evenness, but not the richness, of the gut compared to that after consumption of the baseline diet. Macronutrient composition affected taxon abundances, mainly within the predominant phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The LPHC diet appeared to favor the growth of Bacteroides uniformis and Clostridium butyricum, while the HPLC diet increased the abundances of Clostridium hiranonis, Clostridium perfringens, and Ruminococcus gnavus and enriched microbial gene networks associated with weight maintenance. In addition, we observed a decrease in the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and an increase in the Bacteroides to Prevotella ratio in the HPLC diet-fed dogs compared to these ratios in dogs fed other diets. Finally, analysis of the effect of diet on the predicted microbial gene network was performed using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt.

  20. Wingtip Vortices and Free Shear Layer Interaction in the Vicinity of Maximum Lift to Drag Ratio Lift Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Muhammad Omar

    between the lift induced drag (wingtip vortices) and parasite drag (free shear layer) can have a significant impact. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiments were performed at a) a water tunnel at ILR Aachen, Germany, and b) at the University of Dayton Low Speed Wind Tunnel in the near wake of an AR 6 wing with a Clark-Y airfoil to investigate the characteristics of the wingtip vortex and free shear layer at angles of attack in the vicinity of maximum aerodynamic efficiency for the wing. The data was taken 1.5 and 3 chord lengths downstream of the wing at varying free-stream velocities. A unique exergy-based technique was introduced to quantify distinct changes in the wingtip vortex axial core flow. The existence of wingtip vortex axial core flow transformation from wake-like (velocity less-than the freestream) to jet-like (velocity greater-than the freestream) behavior in the vicinity of the maximum (L/D) angles was observed. The exergy-based technique was able to identify the change in the out of plane profile and corresponding changes in the L/D performance. The resulting velocity components in and around the free shear layer in the wing wake showed counter flow in the cross-flow plane presumably corresponding to behavior associated with the flow over the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. Even though the velocity magnitudes in the free shear layer in cross-flow plane are a small fraction of the freestream velocity ( 10%), significant directional flow was observed. An indication of the possibility of the transfer of momentum (from inboard to outboard of the wing) was identified through spanwise flow corresponding to the upper and lower surfaces through the free shear layer in the wake. A transition from minimal cross flow in the free shear layer to a well-established shear flow in the spanwise direction occurs in the vicinity of maximum lift-to-drag ratio (max L/D) angle of attack. A distinctive balance between the lift induced drag and parasite drag was

  1. Determination of the in vivo NAD:NADH ratio in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under anaerobic conditions, using alcohol dehydrogenase as sensor reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekers, K M; Heijnen, J J; van Gulik, W M

    2015-08-01

    With the current quantitative metabolomics techniques, only whole-cell concentrations of NAD and NADH can be quantified. These measurements cannot provide information on the in vivo redox state of the cells, which is determined by the ratio of the free forms only. In this work we quantified free NAD:NADH ratios in yeast under anaerobic conditions, using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the lumped reaction of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase as sensor reactions. We showed that, with an alternative accurate acetaldehyde determination method, based on rapid sampling, instantaneous derivatization with 2,4 diaminophenol hydrazine (DNPH) and quantification with HPLC, the ADH-catalysed oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde can be applied as a relatively fast and simple sensor reaction to quantify the free NAD:NADH ratio under anaerobic conditions. We evaluated the applicability of ADH as a sensor reaction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, grown in anaerobic glucose-limited chemostats under steady-state and dynamic conditions. The results found in this study showed that the cytosolic redox status (NAD:NADH ratio) of yeast is at least one order of magnitude lower, and is thus much more reduced, under anaerobic conditions compared to aerobic glucose-limited steady-state conditions. The more reduced state of the cytosol under anaerobic conditions has major implications for (central) metabolism. Accurate determination of the free NAD:NADH ratio is therefore of importance for the unravelling of in vivo enzyme kinetics and to judge accurately the thermodynamic reversibility of each redox reaction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Research on the dynamic response of high-contact-ratio spur gears influenced by surface roughness under EHL condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huang; Xiong, Yangshou; Wang, Tao; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Employing high-contact-ratio (HCR) gear is an effective method of decreasing the load on a single tooth, as well as reducing vibration and noise. While the spindlier tooth leads to greater relative sliding, having more teeth participate in contact at the same time makes the HCR gear more sensitive to the surface quality. Available literature regarding HCR gear primarily investigates the geometrical optimization, load distribution, or efficiency calculation. Limited work has been conducted on the effect of rough surfaces on the dynamic performance of HCR gear. For this reason, a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) model is presented mathematically to characterize the static transmission error based on fractal theory, investigate the relative sliding friction using an EHL-based friction coefficient formula, and detail the time-varying friction coefficient suitable for HCR gear. Based on numerical results, the surface roughness has little influence on system response in terms of the dynamic transmission error but has a large effect on the motion in off-line-of-action (OLOA) direction and friction force. The impact of shaft-bearing stiffness and damping ratio is also explored with results revealing that a greater shaft-bearing stiffness is beneficial in obtaining a more stable motion in OLOA direction, and a larger damping ratio results in a smaller effective friction force. The theory presented in this report outlines a new method of analyzing the dynamics of HCR gear in respect of introducing surface roughness into MDOF model directly, as well as establishing an indirect relationship between dynamic responses and surface roughness. This method is expected to guide surface roughness design and manufacturing in the future.

  3. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  4. The physical conditions, metallicity and metal abundance ratios in a highly magnified galaxy at z = 3.6252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, Matthew B. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Observational Cosmology Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Traci [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wuyts, Eva [Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Gießenbachstrae, D-85741 Garching bei München (Germany); Florian, Michael; Gladders, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Oguri, Masamune, E-mail: mbayliss@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We present optical and near-IR imaging and spectroscopy of SGAS J105039.6+001730, a strongly lensed galaxy at z = 3.6252 magnified by >30×, and derive its physical properties. We measure a stellar mass of log(M{sub *}/M{sub ☉}) = 9.5 ± 0.35, star formation rates from [O II] λλ3727 and Hβ of 55 ± 25 and 84 ± 24 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, respectively, an electron density of n{sub e} ≤ 10{sup 3} cm{sup –2}, an electron temperature of T{sub e} ≤ 14,000 K, and a metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.3 ± 0.1. The strong C III] λλ1907,1909 emission and abundance ratios of C, N, O, and Si are consistent with well-studied starbursts at z ∼ 0 with similar metallicities. Strong P Cygni lines and He II λ1640 emission indicate a significant population of Wolf-Rayet stars, but synthetic spectra of individual populations of young, hot stars do not reproduce the observed integrated P Cygni absorption features. The rest-frame UV spectral features are indicative of a young starburst with high ionization, implying either (1) an ionization parameter significantly higher than suggested by rest-frame optical nebular lines, or (2) differences in one or both of the initial mass function and the properties of ionizing spectra of massive stars. We argue that the observed features are likely the result of a superposition of star forming regions with different physical properties. These results demonstrate the complexity of star formation on scales smaller than individual galaxies, and highlight the importance of systematic effects that result from smearing together the signatures of individual star forming regions within galaxies.

  5. The effect of different component ratios in block polymers and processing conditions on electrodeposition efficiency onto titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuhara, Yusuke; Kyuzo, Megumi [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Yusuke [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Nagai, Akiko [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Chen, Peng [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Hanawa, Takao, E-mail: hanawa.met@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MPC polymers with an ability of electrodeposition were synthesized. • MPC polymers were immobilized on titanium substrates by electrodeposition. • Immobilization by electrodeposition of MPC polymer decreased water contact angle and protein adsorption. • Length of MPC unit and electrodeposition time did not influence water contact angle and protein adsorption. - Abstract: 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers for electrodeposition to titanium surfaces were synthesized. The polymers were block-type copolymers composed of a poly(MPC) segment and a poly(2-aminoethylmethacrylate (AEMA)) segment, which could electronically adsorb to a titanium oxide film on the titanium surface. The polymer was synthesized as expected by nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. In a 0.26 mmol L{sup −1} PMbA solution adjusted to pH 11, −3.0 V (vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode) was applied to a titanium substrate for 300 s. We evaluated the effects of the molecular structure of poly(MPC-block-AEMA) (PMbA) with a different polymerization degree of MPC unit, whereas the polymerization degree of the AEMA units was fixed. The 15-min electrodeposition of PMbA100 was the most efficient condition in this study. On the other hand, the results of the water contact angle and the amount of adsorbed protein did not change, even when altering the MPC unit number and electrodeposition time. This indicates that the immobilization by electrodeposition of PMbA is important for the inhibition of protein adsorption, while the polymerization degree of the MPC unit and the electrodeposition time do not influence them. This study will enhance the understanding of effective polymer structures for electrodeposition and electrodeposition conditions.

  6. Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel,n-Heptane, andiso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2015-11-02

    Effects of temperature, pressure and global equivalence ratio on total ignition delay time in a constant volume spray combustion chamber were investigated for diesel fuel along with the primary reference fuels (PRFs) of n-heptane and iso-octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior. A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel pump. A gradient method was adopted in determining the start of ignition in order to compensate pressure increase induced by low temperature heat release. Comparison of this method with other existing methods was discussed. Ignition delay times were measured at various equivalence ratios (0.5-1.7) with the temperatures of initial charge air in the range from 698 to 860 K and the pressures in the range of 1.5 to 2.1 MPa, pertinent to low temperature combustion (LTC) conditions. An attempt to scale the effect of pressure on total ignition delay was undertaken and the equivalence ratio exponent and activation energy in the Arrhenius expression of total ignition delay were determined. Ignition delay results indicated that there were strong correlations of pressure, temperature, and equivalence ratio under most conditions studied except at relatively low pressures. Diesel (DCN 52.5) and n-heptane (DCN 54) fuels exhibited reasonably similar ignition delay characteristics, while iso-octane showed a distinct behavior under low temperature regime having a two-stage ignition, which substantiate the adoption of the gradient method in determining ignition delay.

  7. Failure Characteristics of Granite Influenced by Sample Height-to-Width Ratios and Intermediate Principal Stress Under True-Triaxial Unloading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibing; Feng, Fan; Li, Diyuan; Du, Kun; Ranjith, P. G.; Rostami, Jamal

    2018-05-01

    The failure modes and peak unloading strength of a typical hard rock, Miluo granite, with particular attention to the sample height-to-width ratio (between 2 and 0.5), and the intermediate principal stress was investigated using a true-triaxial test system. The experimental results indicate that both sample height-to-width ratios and intermediate principal stress have an impact on the failure modes, peak strength and severity of rockburst in hard rock under true-triaxial unloading conditions. For longer rectangular specimens, the transition of failure mode from shear to slabbing requires higher intermediate principal stress. With the decrease in sample height-to-width ratios, slabbing failure is more likely to occur under the condition of lower intermediate principal stress. For same intermediate principal stress, the peak unloading strength monotonically increases with the decrease in sample height-to-width. However, the peak unloading strength as functions of intermediate principal stress for different types of rock samples (with sample height-to-width ratio of 2, 1 and 0.5) all present the pattern of initial increase, followed by a subsequent decrease. The curves fitted to octahedral shear stress as a function of mean effective stress also validate the applicability of the Mogi-Coulomb failure criterion for all considered rock sizes under true-triaxial unloading conditions, and the corresponding cohesion C and internal friction angle φ are calculated. The severity of strainburst of granite depends on the sample height-to-width ratios and intermediate principal stress. Therefore, different supporting strategies are recommended in deep tunneling projects and mining activities. Moreover, the comparison of test results of different σ 2/ σ 3 also reveals the little influence of minimum principal stress on failure characteristics of granite during the true-triaxial unloading process.

  8. EasyPCC: Benchmark Datasets and Tools for High-Throughput Measurement of the Plant Canopy Coverage Ratio under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding interactions of genotype, environment, and management under field conditions is vital for selecting new cultivars and farming systems. Image analysis is considered a robust technique in high-throughput phenotyping with non-destructive sampling. However, analysis of digital field-derived images remains challenging because of the variety of light intensities, growth environments, and developmental stages. The plant canopy coverage (PCC ratio is an important index of crop growth and development. Here, we present a tool, EasyPCC, for effective and accurate evaluation of the ground coverage ratio from a large number of images under variable field conditions. The core algorithm of EasyPCC is based on a pixel-based segmentation method using a decision-tree-based segmentation model (DTSM. EasyPCC was developed under the MATLAB® and R languages; thus, it could be implemented in high-performance computing to handle large numbers of images following just a single model training process. This study used an experimental set of images from a paddy field to demonstrate EasyPCC, and to show the accuracy improvement possible by adjusting key points (e.g., outlier deletion and model retraining. The accuracy (R2 = 0.99 of the calculated coverage ratio was validated against a corresponding benchmark dataset. The EasyPCC source code is released under GPL license with benchmark datasets of several different crop types for algorithm development and for evaluating ground coverage ratios.

  9. Determination of transmission factors of concretes with different water/cement ratio, curing condition, and dosage of cement and air entraining agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Remzi; Polat, Recep; Icelli, Orhan; Celik, Cafer

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We determined transmission factors of parameters affecting properties of concrete. → The most important parameter is W/C ratio for attenuation of radiation of concrete. → Taguchi Method provides an appropriate methodology for parameter reduction. - Abstract: This study focuses on determination of transmission factors of main parameters affecting the properties of both normal- and heavy-weight concrete in order to increase knowledge and understanding of radiation attenuation in concrete at a later age. Water/cement (W/C) ratio, curing condition, cement quantity and air entraining agent (AEA) were selected as the main parameters. Eight energy values have been selected within the energy interval of 30.85-383.85 keV to be used in the radiation source. The Taguchi Method was used as the method of optimization. It was determined in the study that the most important parameter affecting the attenuation of the radiation of the concrete is the W/C ratio and the concretes produced with the lowest level of W/C ratio absorb more radiation. However, it was also determined that there was a combined effect between the W/C ratio and the cement dosage.

  10. Fingermark evidence evaluation based on automated fingerprint identification system matching scores: the effect of different types of conditioning on likelihood ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberink, Ivo; de Jongh, Arent; Rodriguez, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    In recent studies, the evidential value of the similarity of minutiae configurations of fingermarks and fingerprints, for example expressed by automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS), is determined by likelihood ratios (LRs). The paper explores whether there is an effect on LRs if conditioning takes place on specified fingers, fingerprints, or fingermarks under competing hypotheses: In addition, an approach is explored where conditioning is asymmetric. Comparisons between fingerprints and simulated fingermarks with eight minutiae are performed to produce similarity score distributions for each type of conditioning, given a fixed AFIS matching algorithm. Both similarity scores and LRs are significantly different if the conditioning changes. Given a common-source scenario, "LRs" resulting from asymmetric conditioning are on average higher. The difference may reach a factor of 2000. As conditioning on a suspect's finger(print) is labor-intensive and requires a cooperating suspect, it is recommended to just condition on the number of minutiae in the fingermark. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Influence of the growth conditions on the optical and structural properties of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots for low As/In ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Samet; Suyolcu, Y. Eren [Advanced Technologies Research Unit: Nanotechnology, Graduate School of Sciences, Anadolu University, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey); Turan, Servet [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Anadolu University, Iki Eylul Campus, 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey); Aslan, Bulent, E-mail: bulentaslan@anadolu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Effects of systematically changed growth conditions on InAs/GaAs QDs were studied. • Growths were optimized for low As/In flux ratio to obtain well-resolved PL spectra. • XRD rocking curve signal fitting was used to analyze the samples. • XRD analysis reflects the overall tendency of the QD density and WL behavior. - Abstract: We report on the growth and characterization of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The influence of the systematically changed growth conditions on the opto-electronic and structural properties of the QDs were investigated. Combination of the amount of the deposited InAs, growth temperature and growth rate were optimized for low As/In flux ratio to obtain well-resolved ground and excited states in the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra. SEM and TEM techniques were also used for the characterization of QDs. The results were evaluated simply through the conservation of mass approximation and the x-ray diffraction measurements with fitted curves. The extracted InAs and wetting layer thicknesses were brought out that the XRD analysis reflects the overall tendency of the QD density change and WL behaviors in response to the changes in growth conditions.

  12. Effects of methionine source, arginine: lysine ratio and sodium chloride level in the diets of grower broilers reared under high-temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Montanhini Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of methionine sources (DL-methionine 99% powder (DLM or methionine hydroxy analog liquid 88% (HMTBA, arginine:lysine (Arg:Lys ratio and sodium chloride (NaCl content in the diet of broilers on their performance, carcass yield, serum biochemistry, duodenal mucosal morphology, and immune response. Birds were kept under high temperature conditions during the grower phase and were inoculated or not with an antigen. The use of HMTBA promoted better live performance and carcass yield than the use of DLM. Diets with 1.05 Arg:Lys ratio resulted in better live performance, higher carcass and breast meat yields, longer villi, shallower crypts, and stronger immune response when broilers were challenged than the 1.40 ratio. The dietary supplementation of 6.0 g NaCl/kg promoted better growth performance and carcass weight than 2.0 g NaCl/kg. There was no influence of the different methionine sources or NaCl concentrations on any evaluated intestinal morphology parameter or immune response, nor of any interactions between these sources of variation.

  13. Tfficacy to efficacy of thyroid/parotid ratio in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in different environmental conditions: a multi-centric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Pradhan, P.K.; Senthilnathan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Thyroid to parotid ratio (TPR) as a simple and cost effective diagnostic test in the evaluation of thyroid disorders was first reported by the author in 1997. Since then several centers have used this procedure for the diagnosis of high uptake thyroid disorders. The purpose of this multi centric study is to prove the validity of this simple technique in different environmental conditions and ethnic populations. Materials and Method: Prospective study which includes following patients: 578 hyperthyroid patients (212 males and 366 females) from northern part of India (endemic goiter region) between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2002, 43 consecutive hyperthyroid patients (26 males and 17 females) from eastern Malaysia (high dietary iodine) sent for radio iodine therapy between May 2005 and Dec. 2006, 19 consecutive patients (8 males and 11 females) from south India (non-endemic goiter region) clinically and bio chemically hyperthyroid referred between June 2005 and Dec. 2006 and 56 consecutive hyperthyroid patients (16 males and 40 females) from eastern part of India (non-endemic goiter region) between Nov. 2008 and Feb. 2010. All patients were subjected to a standard 99m Tc thyroid scan. Thyroid to Parotid Ratio (TPR) was calculated after drawing ROIs over the thyroid and parotid glands in anterior projection. Blood samples were taken on the same day for estimation of T3, T4 and TSH. The TPR values were compared with the biochemical parameters. Results: The individual comparison of clinical and biochemical parameters with TPR in hyperthyroid patients showed concordance in over 90% in all the four centers (Lucknow 93.7%, Kelantan 91%, Madurai 96.5% and Bhubaneswar 93.6%). Conclusions: Calculation of TPR is extremely simple without the requirement of syringe counts or adhering to any specific time period after injection. It is highly sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. TPR appears to hold good irrespective of different environmental conditions

  14. A method comparison of total and HMW adiponectin: HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies versus total adiponectin, independent of clinical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Merel; Drent, Madeleine L; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2017-02-01

    Total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin have been associated with endocrine and cardiovascular pathology. As no gold standard is available, the discussion about biological relevance of isoforms is complicated. In our study we perform a method comparison between two commercially available assays measuring HMW and total adiponectin, in various patient groups, thus contributing further to this discussion. We determined levels of HMW and total adiponectin using assays by Lumipulse® and Millipore® respectively, in 126 patients with different clinical characteristics (n=29 healthy volunteers, n=22 dialysis patients, n=25 elderly with body mass index (BMI) LUMIPULSE ∗0.5-0.9=total adiponectin MILLIPORE , albeit with significant deviation from linearity (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation was R=0.987 (p=0.000). No significant differences between patient groups were observed (p=0.190). The HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies with total adiponectin concentration independent of clinical conditions studied. Our results imply that total and HMW adiponectin have similar utility when assessing adiponectin levels in blood, as the ratio is independent of clinical condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of swirl ratio on fuel distribution and cyclic variation under flash boiling conditions in a spark ignition direct injection gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Xu, Min; Hung, David L.S.; Wu, Qiang; Dong, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of swirl on fuel distribution studied using laser induced fluorescence. • Gradient is sufficient for fuel spatial distribution variation analysis. • Close relation between fuel distribution and flame initiation/development. • Quantitative analysis shows high swirl suppresses variation of fuel distribution. • High order modes capable of identifying the distribution fluctuation patterns. - Abstract: One effective way of suppressing the cycle-to-cycle variation in engine is to design a combustion system that is robust to the root causes of engine variation over the entire engine working process. Flash boiling has been demonstrated as an ideal technique to produce stable fuel spray. But the generation of stable intake flow and fuel mixture remains challenging. In this study, to evaluate the capability of enhanced swirl flow to produce repeatable fuel mixture formation, the fuel distribution inside a single cylinder optical engine under two swirl ratios were measured using laser induced fluorescence technique. The swirl ratio was regulated by a swirl control valve installed in one of the intake ports. A 266 nm wavelength laser sheet from a frequency-quadrupled laser was directed into the optical engine through the quartz liner 15 mm below the tip of the spark plug. The fluorescence signal from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in gasoline was collected by applying a 320–420 nm band pass filter mounted in front of an intensified charge coupled device camera. Test results show that the in-cylinder fuel distribution is strongly influenced by the swirl ratio. Specifically, under high swirl condition, the fuel is mainly concentrated on the left side of the combustion chamber. While under the low swirl flow, fuel is distributed more randomly over the observing plane. This agrees well with the measurements of the stable flame location. Additionally, the cycle-to-cycle variation of the fuel distribution were analyzed. Results show that well

  16. Effect of genotype and transport on tonic immobility and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in two local Italian breeds and Isa Brown hens kept under free-range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele De Marco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of transport and genotype on the welfare and fear response of laying hens through a comparison of three breeds reared in free-range conditions: a commercial strain, the Isa Brown (IBh, and two local chicken breeds, the Bionda Piemontese (BPh and the Bianca di Saluzzo (BSh. After a journey of 67 km (75 min from the farmhouse of origin to the experimental station, ninety hens, divided according to breed, were free-range reared for two months. Body weight (BW, tonic immobility (TI, red and white blood cells, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratio and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP were assessed at four different sampling times: at the farmhouse of origin (T1, at 1 day (T2, 15 days (T3 and at 2 months (T4 after arrival at the experimental station. No statistical differences were found between the four sampling times for BW, total red and white blood parameters. cells or for AGP. An increase in the H/L ratio (P<0.05 was recorded at time T2 for IBh and BSh, compared to BPh (P<0.05. TI was significantly higher (P<0.05 for the local breeds, BPh and BSh, than for the commercial strain IBh. The results of this study suggest that genetic and adaptive differences can affect both, physiological and ethological parameters.

  17. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  18. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  19. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  20. Graft-to-recipient weight ratio lower to 0.7% is safe without portal pressure modulation in right-lobe living donor liver transplantation with favorable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young-Kyu; Lee, Soon-Ae; Park, Sang-Jae

    2014-02-01

    The low graft-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is one of the major risk factors affecting graft survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the lower limit of the GRWR can be safely reduced without portal pressure modulation in right-lobe LDLT. From 2005 to 2011, 317 consecutive patients from a single institute underwent LDLT with right-lobe grafts without portal pressure modulation. Of these, 23 had a GRWR of less than 0.7% (group A), 27 had a GRWR of ≥0.7%, recipient, donor, operation factors, laboratory findings and complications were reviewed retrospectively. The baseline demographics showed low model for end-stage liver disease score (mean 16.3+/-8.9) and high percentage of hepatocellular carcinoma (231 patients, 72.9%). Three groups by GRWR demonstrated similar characteristics except recipient body mass index and donor gender. For small-for-size syndrome, there were 3 (13.0%) in group A, 1 (3.7%) in group B, and 2 patients (0.7%) in group C (Pneed to modulate portal pressure in adult-to-adult LDLT using the right-lobe in favorable conditions including low model for end-stage liver disease score.

  1. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  2. The Effect of Si and Al Concentration Ratios on the Removal of U(VI) under Hanford Site 200 Area Conditions-12115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsenovich, Yelena; Gonzalez, Nathan; Moreno-Pastor, Carol; Lagos, Leonel [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Injection of reactive gases, such as NH{sub 3}, is an innovative technique to mitigate uranium contamination in soil for a vadose zone (VZ) contaminated with radionuclides. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of the concentration ratio of silicon to aluminum in the presence of various bicarbonate concentrations on the coprecipitation process of U(VI). The concentration of Al in all tests remained unchanged at 2.8 mM. Experiments showed that the removal efficiency of uranium was not significantly affected by the different bicarbonate and U(VI) concentrations tested. For the lower Si:Al molar ratios of 2:1 and 18:1, the removal efficiency of uranium was relatively low (≤ 8%). For the Si:Al molar ratio of 35:1, the removal efficiency of uranium was increased to an average of ∼82% for all bicarbonate concentrations tested. At higher Si:Al molar ratios (53:1 and above), a relatively high removal efficiency of U(VI), approximately 85% and higher, was observed. These results demonstrate that the U(VI) removal efficiency is more affected by the Si:Al molar ratio than by the bicarbonate concentration in solution. The results of this experiment are promising for the potential implementation of NH{sub 3} gas injection for the remediation of U(VI) -contaminated VZ. (authors)

  3. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  4. Three-ring stable oxygen isotope ratios indicating cooler and wetter climate conditions and high flood frequency periods in the Red River Basin, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhay, W.M.; Harms, P.; Marcino, D.; Mayer, B.; St. George, S.; Nielsen, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the Red River region of southern Manitoba, Canada, the frequency of flood events tends to increase during cooler and wetter climate conditions. Predictably, recorded Red River flood stages are primarily a result of meteorological conditions which produce an increase runoff due to excess snowmelt and heavy spring precipitation. Winter skewed precipitation periods corresponding to cooler and wetter conditions in the Red River Basin may provide traceable oxygen isotope signals in hydrologically sensitive trees occupying the basin. To test this hypothesis, three overlapping oak tree-ring chronologies (KPO1: 1990 to 1795; STVO1: 1985 to 1797; STVO2: 1990 to 1845) were annually sampled and processed for their cellulose

  5. Evaluation of I/Ca ratios in benthic foraminifera from the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone as proxy for redox conditions in the ambient water masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, N.; Liebetrau, V.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are most important areas of oxygen depletion in today´s oceans and nutrient cycling in these regions has a large socio-economic impact because they account for about 17% of the global commercial fish catches(1). Possibly increasing magnitude and area of oxygen depletion in these regions, might endanger rich pelagic fish habitats in the future threatening the global marine food supply. By the use of a quantitative redox proxy in OMZs, reconstruction of the temporal variation in OMZ extension eventually providing information about past and future changes in oxygenation and the anthropogenic role in the recent trend of expanding OMZs(2). Recent work has shown that iodine/calcium (I/Ca) ratios in marine carbonates are a promising proxy for ambient oxygen concentration(3). Our study explores the correlation of I/Ca ratios in four benthic foraminiferal species (three calcitic, one aragonitic) from the Peruvian OMZ to bottom water oxygen concentrations ([O2]BW) and evaluates foraminiferal I/Ca ratios as a possible redox proxy for the ambient water masses. Our results show that all species have a positive trend in the I/Ca ratios as a function of [O2]BW. Only for the aragonitic species Hoeglundina elegans this trend is not significant. The highest significance has been found for Uvigerina striata (I/Ca = 0.032(±0.004).[O2]BW + 0.29(±0.03), R² = 0.61, F = 75, P solutions, (ii) a species dependency of the I/Ca-[O2]BW relationship which is either related to a strong vital effect or toa species dependency on the calcification depth within sediment, and (iii) the inter-test variability of I/Ca between different specimens from the same species and habitat. (1): FAO FishStat: Fisheries and aquaculture software. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department[online]. Rome. Updated 28 Nov. 2013. (2): Stramma et al.: Expanding Oxygen-Minimum Zones in the Tropical Oceans, Science, 320, 655-658, 2008. (3): Lu et al.: Iodine to calcium ratios in

  6. Effects of Euglena (Euglena gracilis) supplemented to diet (forage: concentrate ratios of 60:40) on the basic ruminal fermentation and methane emissions in in vitro condition

    OpenAIRE

    Aemiro, Ashagrie; Watanabe, Shota; Suzuki, Kengo; Hanada, Masaaki; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Euglena (Euglena gracilis) on CH4 production, dry matter (DM) digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and ammonia N(NH3-N) concentration as well as on the protozoa population. The treatments considered were Euglena at concentrations of 0.0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the substrate (60:40 forage: concentrate ratio) incubated for 24 and 96 h using an in vitro continuous gas producti...

  7. Maximizing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in 3-D large bandgap semiconductor pixelated detectors in optimal and non-optimal filtering conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Miesher L.; Serra, Andre da S.; He, Zhong; Zhu, Yuefeng

    2009-01-01

    3-D pixelated semiconductor detectors are used in radiation detection applications requiring spectroscopic and imaging information from radiation sources. Reconstruction algorithms used to determine direction and energy of incoming gamma rays can be improved by reducing electronic noise and using optimum filtering techniques. Position information can be improved by achieving sub-pixel resolution. Electronic noise is the limiting factor. Achieving sub-pixel resolution - position of the interaction better than one pixel pitch - in 3-D pixelated semiconductor detectors is a challenging task due to the fast transient characteristics of these signals. This work addresses two fundamental questions: the first is to determine the optimum filter, while the second is to estimate the achievable sub-pixel resolution using this filter. It is shown that the matched filter is the optimum filter when applying the signal-to-noise ratio criteria. Also, non-optimum filters are studied. The framework of 3-D waveform simulation using the Shockley-Ramo Theorem and the Hecht Equation for electron and hole trapping is presented in this work. This waveform simulator can be used to analyze current detectors as well as explore new ideas and concepts in future work. Numerical simulations show that assuming an electronic noise of 3.3 keV it is possible to subdivide the pixel region into 5x5 sub-pixels. After analyzing these results, it is suggested that sub-pixel information can also improve energy resolution. Current noise levels present the major drawback to both achieve sub-pixel resolution as well as improve energy resolution below the current limits. (author)

  8. Effect of long-term mineral fertilization with different nutrition elements norms and ratios on humic condition of the slightly leached chernozem in Dobroudja

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Djendova, R.; Kirchev, H.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    As a result from a 30 year dressing with mineral fertilizers, a considerable differences were established in the soil nitrogen and humic content both along the soil profile and according to the combination of applied nutrition elements. The fertilization variant N 180 P 180 K 180 had the highest humus content - 3.51 % in the 0-20 cm layer, and 3.35 % in the 20-40 cm layer. This consecutively lead to accumulation of highest humus reserves in soil - 168 t/ha for the root-deep layer (0-40 cm) in total. Total nitrogen content in soil varied from 0.184 to 0.220 % according to the fertilization norms and the profile depth. Highest reserves of total nitrogen were formed in the variants with N 60 P 0 K 0 , N 60 P 60 K 0 and N 120 P 60 K 0 . The degree of nitrogen concentration in humus within the limits of the trial was determined as moderate for the whole root-deep layer. In the 20-40 cm layer, however, it tended to be high in the variants with independent nitrogen fertilization, regardless of the fertilization norm. The long-term application of high nitrogen norms lead to an increase in the humus mobility. It was also established that fertilization with moderate and high nitrogen norms increased the C ha : C pa , ratio, as well as the humic acid content linked with Ca, especially in the 0-20 cm layer. The amount of non-hydrolyzable residue (humine) also increased with the increase mainly of the nitrogen fertilization norm. In the variants dressed with moderate and high nitrogen norms the humus type was markedly humatic. Refs. 9 (author)

  9. Study of the experimental conditions of measurement of the μ capture ratio in liquid hydrogen by mean of the lifetime method. Application to a total capture in lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    The method comparing μ+ and μ - lifetimes is shown to be a possible interesting method for measuring the capture rate of μ - in liquid hydrogen. The first part of the report is dealing with a study of the initial state of the μp system and a calculation of the capture rate, then with the μp system interaction with impurities, and the interest lying in a comparative study of neutron capture. The second part is dealing with the experimental unit: target, electron counters and neutron detectors. The total capture rates in two lithium isotopes were obtained by the method. The values obtained are 4678 +- 104 s -1 with 6 Li and 2260 +- 104s -1 for 7 Li. The interest of the method envisaged lies in the fact that it involves only time measurements on the nuon decay electrons and positrons. No precise knowledge of the neutron detector efficiency is required (an essential limitation to previous measurements). The 3% accuracy obtained for the capture rate is an important improvement. The initial condition investigation allowed the permissible impurity contaminations in liquid hydrogen to be determined, in the event of a measurement beginning 1.5 μs after the end of the beam pulse. Nitrogen and rare gases must not, overcome 8.10 -9 concentration (Pd filter). The deuterium concentration must be lower than 3.10 -6 (use of very pure hydrogen 'protium'). The system measured is the pμp molecule the event of an ortho-para transition of this molecule being badly known, a measurement of the time distribution of the capture neutrons makes the phenomenon clearer, without the neutron detector efficiency being accurately known [fr

  10. Efficiency for solar energy conversion in rice population estimated from crop photosynthesis and respiration under field conditions (Part 1). Ratio of respiration to photosynthesis during the ripening stage. [Effect of planting data, heading time, variety, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaki, Tadashi; Ishizuka, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Junji

    1987-12-21

    According to the results of measuring crop photosynthesis and respiration of rice population, a comparative experiment on the variations of the ratio of respiration to photosynthesis (R/P ratio) due to the difference of the rice planting time or the heading time was carried out using extremely early-maturing and early or medium-maturing varieties. On the measured data of photosynthesis and respiration which were observed with change of the growth, the R/P ratio were obtained twenty days before to thirty days after the heading time. As the results, it was found that the R/P ratio of the group with the heading time at the end of July was about 10 to 20 % higher than that of another group with the heading time after middle of August. This means that the apparent energy conversion efficiency may be affected by the differences of the planting time, the heading time and the temperature condition. Hitherto, in determination of the rice-planting time, quantity of solar radiation in the growth and ripening stages was apt to be regarded as important. However, in consideration of true suitable planting time, the study from the aspect of the energy conversion efficiency is also required. (7 figs, 9 tabs, 8 refs)

  11. Genetic analysis of milk β-hydroxybutyrate and its association with fat-to-protein ratio, body condition score, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, A; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S; Moore, R K; Lefebvre, D M; Kelton, D F; Miglior, F

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in early first lactation of Canadian Holstein cows and to examine its genetic association with indicators of energy balance (fat-to-protein ratio and body condition score) and metabolic diseases (clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum). Data for milk BHBA recorded between 5 and 100 d in milk was obtained from Valacta (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada), the Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement organization responsible for Québec and Atlantic provinces. Test-day milk samples were analyzed by mid-infrared spectrometry using previously developed calibration equations for milk BHBA. Test-day records of fat-to-protein ratio were obtained from the routine milk recording scheme. Body condition score records were available from the routine type classification system. Data on clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Data were analyzed using linear animal models. Heritability estimates for milk BHBA at different stages of early lactation were between 0.14 and 0.29. Genetic correlations between milk BHBA were higher between adjacent lactation intervals and decreased as intervals were further apart. Correlations between breeding values for milk BHBA and routinely evaluated traits revealed that selection for lower milk BHBA in early lactation would lead to an improvement of several health and fertility traits, including SCS, calving to first service, number of services, first service to conception, and days open. Also, lower milk BHBA was associated with a longer herd life, better conformation, and better feet and legs. A higher genetic merit for milk yield was associated with higher milk BHBA, and, therefore, a greater susceptibility to hyperketonemia. Milk BHBA at the first test-day was moderately genetically correlated with fat-to-protein ratio (0.49), body condition score (-0.35), and

  12. Fluctuation of Dof1/Dof2 expression ratio under the influence of varying nitrogen and light conditions: involvement in differential regulation of nitrogen metabolism in two genotypes of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Supriya; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Kumar, Anil

    2014-08-10

    In order to gain insights into the mechanism of high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of finger millet (FM) the role of Dof2 transcription factor (TF), which is a repressor of genes involved in C/N metabolism was investigated. The partial cDNA fragment of EcDof2 (912-bp; GenBank acc. no. KF261117) was isolated and characterized from finger millet (FM) that showed 63% and 58% homology with Dof2 of Zea mays at nucleotide and protein level, respectively. Its expression studies were carried out along with the activator EcDof1 in two genotypes (GE3885, high protein genotype (HPG); GE1437, low protein genotype (LPG)) of FM differing in grain protein contents (13.8% and 6.2%) showed that EcDof2 is expressed in both shoot and root tissues with significantly (p≤0.05) higher expression in the roots. The diurnal expression of both EcDof1 and EcDof2 in shoots was differential having different time of peak expression indicating a differential response to diurnal condition. Under continuous dark conditions, expression of EcDof1 and EcDof2 oscillated in both the genotypes whereas on illumination, the fold expression of EcDof1 was higher as compared to EcDof2. Under increasing nitrate concentration, EcDof2 expression increases in roots and shoots of LPG while it remains unchanged in HPG. However, the EcDof1 expression was found to increase in both genotypes. Further, time kinetics studies under single nitrate concentration revealed that EcDof2 was repressed in the roots of both genotypes whereas EcDof1 oscillated with time. The EcDof1/EcDof2 ratio measured showed differential response under different light and nitrogen conditions. It was higher in the roots of HPG indicating higher activation of genes involved in N uptake and assimilation resulting in high grain protein accumulation. The results indicate that both light and nitrogen concentration influence Dof1 and Dof2 expression and suggests a complex pattern of regulation of genes influenced by these plant specific TFs. In

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF CONDITIONS OF THE STOCK MARKET AND MONETARY POLICY ON THE BEHAVIOROF RISK INDICATORS SIZE, BOOK-TO-MARKET RATIO AND MOMENTUM, ON THE BRAZILIAN STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mussa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Last years, empirical tests of APT (Arbitrage Pricing Theory models have been intensified on the national and international literature, mainly using firm´s characteristics to construct risk factors in addition to the market beta. The Fama-French 3-factors model and the Carhart 4-factors model are two samples intensively tested of this type of models, with evidences of relative success. On this scenario, it is important to deepen the studies of the factor´s behavior that compose these models. Following the way of international researches, the purpose of this article is to investigate the behavior of the factors: size, book-to-market ratio and momentum, on the Brazilian stock market, in conditions of i up and down markets ii expansive and restrictive monetary policy. The sample was composed by all stocks listed on BOVESPA, from June of 1995 to June of 2007. The methodology was the same used by Fama & French (1993 to construct the portfolios and risk factors. The results indicated that the stock market and monetary environment influence the regularities in the factor´s behavior, on the Brazilian Stock markets.

  14. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  15. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  16. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  17. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  19. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  20. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  1. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  2. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and

  3. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet

  4. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  5. Reproducibility of isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an accelerator as part of a mass spectrometer has improved the sensitivity for measuring low levels of long-lived radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. However, the complexity of a large tandem accelerator and beam transport system has made it difficult to match the precision of low energy mass spectrometry. Although uncertainties for accelerator measured isotope ratios as low as 1% have been obtained under favorable conditions, most errors quoted in the literature for natural samples are in the 5 to 20% range. These errors are dominated by statistics and generally the reproducibility is unknown since the samples are only measured once

  6. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  7. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  8. Linking the distribution of carbon isotope ratios in soil carbonates and speleothems to climate conditions in the past: A model for the dependence of respiration rate on soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Ibarra, D. E.; Winnick, M.; Caves Rugenstein, J. K.; Oster, J. L.; Druhan, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    framework for quantifying past hydrologic conditions. [1] Cerling (1984). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.[2] Fan et al. (2015). Agr. Forest. Meteorol.[3] Cerling & Quade (1993). Climate change in continental isotopic records

  9. Coagulation function of stored whole blood is preserved for 14 days in austere conditions: A ROTEM feasibility study during a Norwegian antipiracy mission and comparison to equal ratio reconstituted blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandenes, Geir; Austlid, Ivar; Apelseth, Torunn O; Hervig, Tor A; Sommerfelt-Pettersen, Jan; Herzig, Maryanne C; Cap, Andrew P; Pidcoke, Heather F; Kristoffersen, Einar K

    2015-06-01

    2 weeks, respectively. The frequency of ROTEM tests were as follows: EXTEM (n = 88), INTEM (n = 85), FIBTEM (n = 82), and APTEM (n = 12). CWB results were grouped. Compared with Days 0 to 2, EXTEM maximum clot firmness was significantly reduced, beginning on Days 10 to 14; however, results through that date remained within reference ranges and were comparable with the EXTEM maximum clot firmness for the reconstituted whole blood samples containing Day 5 room temperature-stored platelets. A "walking blood bank" can provide a balanced transfusion product to support damage-control resuscitation/remote damage-control resuscitation aboard a frigate in the absence of conventional blood bank products. ROTEM analysis is feasible to monitor damage-control resuscitation and blood product quality. ROTEM analysis was possible in challenging operational conditions. Therapeutic study, level V.

  10. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  11. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  12. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  13. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  14. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  15. effect of effect of blend ratio on blend ratio on characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    properties, cassava-soybean composite, wheat, bread, blend ratio ... dily growing population, an in eating and ... thermodynamic variables can produce an effect on .... these conditions. ..... Ragaee, S. et al., Pasting properties of starch and.

  16. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  17. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  18. Inverter ratio failure detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  19. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  20. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  1. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  2. Odor concentration invariance by chemical ratio coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoshige Uchida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system.

  3. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  4. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  5. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  6. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  7. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  8. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  9. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  10. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  11. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  12. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Radivoje B Pešić; Saša T Milojević; Stevan P Veinović

    2010-01-01

    The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minim...

  13. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  14. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  15. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  16. Temperature and air-fuel ratio dependent specific heat ratio functions for lean burned and unburned mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceviz, M.A.; Kaymaz, I.

    2005-01-01

    The most important thermodynamic property used in heat release calculations for engines is the specific heat ratio. The functions proposed in the literature for the specific heat ratio are temperature dependent and apply at or near stoichiometric air-fuel ratios. However, the specific heat ratio is also influenced by the gas composition in the engine cylinder and especially becomes important for lean combustion engines. In this study, temperature and air-fuel ratio dependent specific heat ratio functions were derived to minimize the error by using an equilibrium combustion model for burned and unburned mixtures separately. After the error analysis between the equilibrium combustion model and the derived functions is presented, the results of the global specific heat ratio function, as varying with mass fraction burned, were compared with the proposed functions in the literature. The results of the study showed that the derived functions are more feasible at lean operating conditions of a spark ignition engine

  17. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  18. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  19. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  20. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass 2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  3. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  4. Chromosomal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Chromosomal conditions Chromosomal conditions ... Disorders See also: Genetic counseling , Your family health history Last reviewed: February, 2013 ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & ...

  5. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  6. Stopping-power ratios for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of the absorbed dose at a specified location in a medium irradiated with an electron or photon beam normally consists of two steps: (1) the determination of the mean absorbed dose to a detector by using a calibration factor or performing an absolute measurement, (2) the determination of the absorbed dose to the medium at the point of interest by calculations based on the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the detector and the different stopping and scattering properties of the medium and the detector material. When the influence of the detector is so small that the electron fluence in the medium is not modified, the ratio of the mass collision stopping power of the two materials accounts for the differences in energy deposition, and provides a conversion factor to relate the absorbed dose in both materials. Today, all national and international dosimetry protocols and codes of practice are based on such procedures, and the user easily can carry out these steps using tabulated data to convert a measured quantity to absorbed dose in the irradiated medium at the location of interest. Effects due to the spatial extension of the detector are taken into account using perturbation correction factors. The Monte Carlo method has become the most common and powerful calculational technique for determining the electron fluence (energy spectra) under different irradiation conditions. Cavity theory is then used to calculate stopping-power ratios. In this chapter, the different steps needed to evaluate s-ratios will be considered, emphasizing the different types of cavity-theory integrals and the Monte Carlo techniques used to derive the necessary electron spectra in the range of energies commonly used in radiation dosimetry, i.e., photon and electron beams with energies up to 50 MeV

  7. Equivalence ratio and constriction effects on RBCC thrust augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupriyanov, M.; Etele, J.

    2011-06-01

    A theoretical analysis of a variable area rocket based combined cycle engine with and without simultaneous mixing and combustion is presented. The flowfield is solved using a steady, quasi-one-dimensional, inviscid control volume formulation with combustion effects included via a generalized equilibrium calculation. Compression augmentation is shown to be sensitive to the equivalence ratio within the primary rocket chamber, where ejector section performance is greatest at both low and high equivalence ratios but near a minimum at stoichiometric conditions. The thrust generated by the RBCC engine compared to that generated by the same rocket in isolation can be increased by as much as 12% at constriction ratios of between 45% and 50%. Thrust augmentation is also shown to vary with equivalence ratio, where for a fixed geometry the maximum thrust is generated at equivalence ratios slightly below unity.

  8. Oxygen enhancement ratio for negative pi mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Astor, M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were performed at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) to determine the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) for the clinically used beam of negative pi mesons. V79 Chinese hamster cells, cultured in vitro, were used as the biological test system; hypoxia was produced by metabolic depletion as a result of sealing 2 million cells in 1 ml glass ampules. The Bragg peak of the pion depth dose curve was spread out to cover 10 cm by using a dynamic range shifter. Cells were irradiated at the center of the spead out Bragg peak, where the dose/rate was 0.1 Gy/min over a 6 x 6 cm field. The OER obtained was 2.2, compared with 3.8 obtained for γ rays under the same conditions

  9. Miscellaneous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Hoffman, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on numerous conditions (systemic diseases, metabolic diseases, etc.) that may also affect the foot and ankle. In many cases, imaging of the foot and ankle is not performed for primary diagnostic purposes. However, radiographic changes do occur with these conditions. Therefore, it is important to be aware of radiographic abnormalities that these diseases may cause in the foot and ankle

  10. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  11. Effect of the Th-232/U-238 ratio on the conversion ratio of PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, F.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion ratio, the consumption of natural uranium and separative work for current PWR lattice designs are studied as function of: the initial fraction of thorium in the fuel, the type of fuel recycling employed, and the growth rate of the system of reactors. The incentive to utilize thorium is maximum when: thorium is used together with fully enriched uranium (93%); if only uranium can be recycled; and the system of reactors is at equilibrium. Under these conditions, the comsumption of natural uranium and separative work are lower than the all-uranium-fuel case by 41% and 18%,respectively [pt

  12. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje B Pešić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minimal value must be chosen that can achieve a reliable self-ignition when starting the engine in cold start conditions. In diesel engines, variable compression ratio provides control of peak cylinder pressure, improves cold start ability and low load operation, enabling the multi-fuel capability, increase of fuel economy and reduction of emissions. This paper contains both theoretical and experimental investigation of the impact that automatic variable compression ratios has on working process parameters in experimental diesel engine. Alternative methods of implementing variable compression ratio are illustrated and critically examined.

  13. Scales of guide field reconnection at the hydrogen mass ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.; Divin, A.; Goldman, M.; Newman, D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the signatures of component reconnection for a Harris current sheet with a guide field using the physical mass ratio of hydrogen. The study uses the fully kinetic particle in cell code IPIC3D to investigate the scaling with mass ratio of the following three main component reconnection features: electron density cavities along the separatrices, channels of fast electron flow within the cavities, and electron phase space holes due to the Buneman instability in the electron high speed channels. The width and strength of the electron holes and of the electron cavities are studied up the mass ratio proper of hydrogen, considering the effect of the simulation box size, and of the boundary conditions. The results compare favorably with the existing data from the Cluster and Themis missions and provide quantitative predictions for realistic conditions to be encountered by the planned magnetospheric multiscale mission.

  14. Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…

  15. Generalized financial ratios to predict the equity premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algaba, Andres; Boudt, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Empirical evidence for the price-dividend ratio to be a predictor of the equity premium is weak. We argue that changes in the economic conditions and market composition lead to a time-varying relationship between prices, dividends and the equity premium. Exploiting the information in the rolling

  16. Dynamic Responses of Flexible Cylinders with Low Mass Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaoye, Abiodun; Wang, Zhicheng; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Flexible cylinders with low mass ratios such as composite risers are attractive in the offshore industry because they require lower top tension and are less likely to buckle under self-weight compared to steel risers. However, their relatively low stiffness characteristics make them more vulnerable to vortex induced vibrations. Additionally, numerical investigation of the dynamic responses of such structures based on realistic conditions is limited by high Reynolds number, complex sheared flow profile, large aspect ratio and low mass ratio challenges. In the framework of Fourier spectral/hp element method, the current technique employs entropy-viscosity method (EVM) based large-eddy simulation approach for flow solver and fictitious added mass method for structure solver. The combination of both methods can handle fluid-structure interaction problems at high Reynolds number with low mass ratio. A validation of the numerical approach is provided by comparison with experiments.

  17. Could changes in reported sex ratios at birth during China's 1958-1961 famine support the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Reimondos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis suggests that when mothers are in poor conditions the sex ratio of their offspring will be biased towards females. Major famines provide opportunities for testing this hypothesis because they lead to the widespread deterioration of living conditions in the affected population. Objective: This study examines changes in sex ratio at birth before, during, and after China's 1958-1961 famine, to see whether they provide any support for the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis. Methods: We use descriptive statistics to analyse data collected by both China's 1982 and 1988 fertility sample surveys and examine changes in sex ratio at birth in recent history. In addition, we examine the effectiveness of using different methods to model changes in sex ratio at birth and compare their differences. Results: During China's 1958-1961 famine, reported sex ratio at birth remained notably higher than that observed in most countries in the world. The timing of the decline in sex ratio at birth did not coincide with the timing of the famine. After the famine, although living conditions were considerably improved, the sex ratio at birth was not higher but lower than that recorded during the famine. Conclusions: The analysis of the data collected by the two fertility surveys has found no evidence that changes in sex ratio at birth during China's 1958-1961 famine and the post-famine period supported the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis.

  18. A Librarian's Primer on Financial Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1982-01-01

    Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial ratios. An annotated list of five basic sources for ratios is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)

  19. Aquatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  20. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-01-01

    The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  1. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  2. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  3. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.

  4. Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansson, Henrik; Helsing, Johan

    1996-05-01

    Poisson's ratio flow diagrams, that is, the Poisson's ratio versus the fiber fraction, are obtained numerically for hexagonal arrays of elastic circular fibers in an elastic matrix. High numerical accuracy is achieved through the use of an interface integral equation method. Questions concerning fixed point theorems and the validity of existing asymptotic relations are investigated and partially resolved. Our findings for the transverse effective Poisson's ratio, together with earlier results for random systems by other authors, make it possible to formulate a general statement for Poisson's ratio flow diagrams: For composites with circular fibers and where the phase Poisson's ratios are equal to 1/3, the system with the lowest stiffness ratio has the highest Poisson's ratio. For other choices of the elastic moduli for the phases, no simple statement can be made.

  5. Jump conditions in transonic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guazzotto, L.; Betti, R.; Jardin, S. C.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, the numerical calculation of transonic equilibria, first introduced with the FLOW code in Guazzotto et al.[Phys. Plasmas 11, 604 (2004)], is critically reviewed. In particular, the necessity and effect of imposing explicit jump conditions at the transonic discontinuity are investigated. It is found that “standard” (low-β, large aspect ratio) transonic equilibria satisfy the correct jump condition with very good approximation even if the jump condition is not explicitly imposed. On the other hand, it is also found that high-β, low aspect ratio equilibria require the correct jump condition to be explicitly imposed. Various numerical approaches are described to modify FLOW to include the jump condition. It is proved that the new methods converge to the correct solution even in extreme cases of very large β, while they agree with the results obtained with the old implementation of FLOW in lower-β equilibria.

  6. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN RETURN ON ASSETS, PERUBAHAN DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO DAN PERUBAHAN CASH RATIO TERHADAP PERUBAHAN DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Soesetio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test,  The Change of Return on Asset (X1, The Change of Debt to Equity Ratio (X2,  were able to explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio, and The Change of CashRatio can’t explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio

  7. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA 9 ) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg -1 volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg -1 VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Increasing the transformer ratio at the Argonne wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J.G.; Conde, M.; Liu, W.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.

    2011-01-01

    The transformer ratio is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss experienced by the drive bunch (or a bunch within a multidrive bunch train). This plays an important role in the collinear wakefield acceleration scheme. A high transformer ratio is desirable since it leads to a higher overall efficiency under similar conditions (e.g. the same beam loading, the same structure, etc.). One technique to enhance the transformer ratio beyond the ordinary limit of 2 is to use a ramped bunch train. The first experimental demonstration observed a transformer ratio only marginally above 2 due to the mismatch between the drive microbunch length and the frequency of the accelerating structure (C. Jing, A. Kanareykin, J. Power, M. Conde, Z. Yusof, P. Schoessow, and W. Gai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 144801 (2007)). Recently, we revisited this experiment with an optimized microbunch length using a UV laser stacking technique at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and measured a transformer ratio of 3.4. Measurements and data analysis from these experiments are presented in detail.

  9. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  10. CO line ratios in molecular clouds: the impact of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Camilo H.; Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2018-04-01

    Line emission is strongly dependent on the local environmental conditions in which the emitting tracers reside. In this work, we focus on modelling the CO emission from simulated giant molecular clouds (GMCs), and study the variations in the resulting line ratios arising from the emission from the J = 1-0, J = 2-1, and J = 3-2 transitions. We perform a set of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with time-dependent chemistry, in which environmental conditions - including total cloud mass, density, size, velocity dispersion, metallicity, interstellar radiation field (ISRF), and the cosmic ray ionization rate (CRIR) - were systematically varied. The simulations were then post-processed using radiative transfer to produce synthetic emission maps in the three transitions quoted above. We find that the cloud-averaged values of the line ratios can vary by up to ±0.3 dex, triggered by changes in the environmental conditions. Changes in the ISRF and/or in the CRIR have the largest impact on line ratios since they directly affect the abundance, temperature, and distribution of CO-rich gas within the clouds. We show that the standard methods used to convert CO emission to H2 column density can underestimate the total H2 molecular gas in GMCs by factors of 2 or 3, depending on the environmental conditions in the clouds.

  11. Hubungan Analisis Ratio Keuangan dengan Kesehatan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekarso Soekarso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the business world, companies develop a vision and mission to improve welfare in the future. The work program the company is to achieve productivity and profitability. Finance in the company is one of the strategic functions that includes wealth management and transformation of added value (added value and also the control of corporate health. The financial statements such as balance sheet (balance sheet, profit and loss statement (income statement, and financial ratio (financial ratios, reflects the company's performance and health. Financial ratio analysis relates to the health of the company through a ratio of effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, liquidity, and solvability. Analysis shows that whenever actual value of financial ratios is above standard it means the company is healthy, and when the actual value of financial ratios is below the standard, it reversely means that companies are not healthy.

  12. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith Edward [Kobe, JP; Moser, William Elliott [Peoria, IL; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald [Washington, IL; Knox, Kevin Jay [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  13. Posterior distributions for likelihood ratios in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Ardo; Alberink, Ivo

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of evidence in forensic science is discussed using posterior distributions for likelihood ratios. Instead of eliminating the uncertainty by integrating (Bayes factor) or by conditioning on parameter values, uncertainty in the likelihood ratio is retained by parameter uncertainty derived from posterior distributions. A posterior distribution for a likelihood ratio can be summarised by the median and credible intervals. Using the posterior mean of the distribution is not recommended. An analysis of forensic data for body height estimation is undertaken. The posterior likelihood approach has been criticised both theoretically and with respect to applicability. This paper addresses the latter and illustrates an interesting application area. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plutonium isotope ratios in polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to recent reports that suggest that terrestrial and aquatic organisms may preferentially take up 238 Pu compared with sup(239+240)Pu. It is stated that although kinetic isotope effects are known to occur in biological systems for low mass number elements, such as H, C and N, such effects are generally discounted with higher mass numbers, and differences in the biological 'uptake' of isotopes of high mass number elements, such as those of Pu, are normally attributable to differences in the chemical or physical forms of the isotopes or to different quantities of isotopes available to organisms. This has been applied to explain differential Pu isotope behaviour in animals under controlled laboratory conditions, but it is not certain that it can be applied to explain anomalies of Pu isotope behaviour in organisms contaminated by nuclear test debris or by wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Geochemical weathering may also have an effect. Described here are experiments in which it was found that deposit feeding marine worms living in sediments contaminated in different ways with Pu isotopes did not show preferential accumulation of 238 Pu. The worms had been exposed to different chemical and physical forms of the isotopes, including exposure to laboratory-labelled sediment, sediment collected from a former weapons test site, and sediment contaminated by wastes from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The worms were allowed to accumulate Pu for times of 5 to 40 days. Isotope ratios were determined by α-spectrometric techniques. It is considered that the results are important for environmental samples where Pu activity levels are low. (U.K.)

  15. Inter-Annual Variability of Fledgling Sex Ratio in King Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Célia; Saraux, Claire; Viblanc, Vincent A; Gachot-Neveu, Hélène; Beaugey, Magali; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-01-01

    As the number of breeding pairs depends on the adult sex ratio in a monogamous species with biparental care, investigating sex-ratio variability in natural populations is essential to understand population dynamics. Using 10 years of data (2000-2009) in a seasonally monogamous seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), we investigated the annual sex ratio at fledging, and the potential environmental causes for its variation. Over more than 4000 birds, the annual sex ratio at fledging was highly variable (ranging from 44.4% to 58.3% of males), and on average slightly biased towards males (51.6%). Yearly variation in sex-ratio bias was neither related to density within the colony, nor to global or local oceanographic conditions known to affect both the productivity and accessibility of penguin foraging areas. However, rising sea surface temperature coincided with an increase in fledging sex-ratio variability. Fledging sex ratio was also correlated with difference in body condition between male and female fledglings. When more males were produced in a given year, their body condition was higher (and reciprocally), suggesting that parents might adopt a sex-biased allocation strategy depending on yearly environmental conditions and/or that the effect of environmental parameters on chick condition and survival may be sex-dependent. The initial bias in sex ratio observed at the juvenile stage tended to return to 1∶1 equilibrium upon first breeding attempts, as would be expected from Fisher's classic theory of offspring sex-ratio variation.

  16. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  17. The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Clement

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting…

  18. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  19. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  20. Charge ratio of muons from atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, Todor

    2003-05-22

    We calculate the intensities and angular distributions of positive and negative muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos. We comment on some sources of uncertainty in the charge ratio. We also draw attention to a potentially interesting signature of neutrino oscillations in the muon charge ratio, and we discuss the prospects for its observation (which are not quite within the reach of currently planned magnetized detectors)

  1. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  2. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  3. Digit ratio predicts sense of direction in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian J Chai

    Full Text Available The relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D has been linked with prenatal androgen in humans. The 2D:4D is sexually dimorphic, with lower values in males than females, and appears to correlate with diverse measures of behavior. However, the relationship between digit ratio and cognition, and spatial cognition in particular, has produced mixed results. In the present study, we hypothesized that spatial tasks separating cue conditions that either favored female or male strategies would examine this structure-function correlation with greater precision. Previous work suggests that males are better in the use of directional cues than females. In the present study, participants learned a target location in a virtual landscape environment, in conditions that contained either all directional (i.e., distant or compass bearing cues, or all positional (i.e., local, small objects cues. After a short delay, participants navigated back to the target location from a novel starting location. Males had higher accuracy in initial search direction than females in environments with all directional cues. Lower digit ratio was correlated with higher accuracy of initial search direction in females in environments with all directional cues. Mental rotation scores did not correlate with digit ratio in either males or females. These results demonstrate for the first time that a sex difference in the use of directional cues, i.e., the sense of direction, is associated with more male-like digit ratio.

  4. Digit ratio predicts sense of direction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2012-01-01

    The relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D) has been linked with prenatal androgen in humans. The 2D:4D is sexually dimorphic, with lower values in males than females, and appears to correlate with diverse measures of behavior. However, the relationship between digit ratio and cognition, and spatial cognition in particular, has produced mixed results. In the present study, we hypothesized that spatial tasks separating cue conditions that either favored female or male strategies would examine this structure-function correlation with greater precision. Previous work suggests that males are better in the use of directional cues than females. In the present study, participants learned a target location in a virtual landscape environment, in conditions that contained either all directional (i.e., distant or compass bearing) cues, or all positional (i.e., local, small objects) cues. After a short delay, participants navigated back to the target location from a novel starting location. Males had higher accuracy in initial search direction than females in environments with all directional cues. Lower digit ratio was correlated with higher accuracy of initial search direction in females in environments with all directional cues. Mental rotation scores did not correlate with digit ratio in either males or females. These results demonstrate for the first time that a sex difference in the use of directional cues, i.e., the sense of direction, is associated with more male-like digit ratio.

  5. Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.

    2014-01-01

    By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio R c =F L cc ¯ /F 2 cc ¯ , which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio R c at high Q 2 . Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models

  6. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  7. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  8. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  9. Effects of finite aspect ratio on wind turbine airfoil measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiefer, Janik; Miller, Mark A.; Hultmark, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbines partly operate in stalled conditions within their operational cycle. To simulate these conditions, it is also necessary to obtain 2-D airfoil data in terms of lift and drag coefficients at high angles of attack. Such data has been obtained previously, but often at low aspect ratios...... and only barely past the stall point, where strong wall boundary layer influence is expected. In this study, the influence of the wall boundary layer on 2D airfoil data, especially in the post stall domain, is investigated. Here, a wind turbine airfoil is tested at different angles of attack and with two...

  10. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  11. The HNC/HCN ratio in star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graninger, Dawn M.; Öberg, Karin I.; Herbst, Eric; Vasyunin, Anton I.

    2014-01-01

    HNC and HCN, typically used as dense gas tracers in molecular clouds, are a pair of isomers that have great potential as a temperature probe because of temperature dependent, isomer-specific formation and destruction pathways. Previous observations of the HNC/HCN abundance ratio show that the ratio decreases with increasing temperature, something that standard astrochemical models cannot reproduce. We have undertaken a detailed parameter study on which environmental characteristics and chemical reactions affect the HNC/HCN ratio and can thus contribute to the observed dependence. Using existing gas and gas-grain models updated with new reactions and reaction barriers, we find that in static models the H + HNC gas-phase reaction regulates the HNC/HCN ratio under all conditions, except for very early times. We quantitatively constrain the combinations of H abundance and H + HNC reaction barrier that can explain the observed HNC/HCN temperature dependence and discuss the implications in light of new quantum chemical calculations. In warm-up models, gas-grain chemistry contributes significantly to the predicted HNC/HCN ratio and understanding the dynamics of star formation is therefore key to model the HNC/HCN system.

  12. Skewed sex ratios in India: "physician, heal thyself".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana B; Badhoniya, Neetu; Mamtani, Manju; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2013-06-01

    Sex selection, a gender discrimination of the worst kind, is highly prevalent across all strata of Indian society. Physicians have a crucial role in this practice and implementation of the Indian Government's Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act in 1996 to prevent the misuse of ultrasound techniques for the purpose of prenatal sex determination. Little is known about family preferences, let alone preferences among families of physicians. We investigated the sex ratios in 946 nuclear families with 1,624 children, for which either one or both parents were physicians. The overall child sex ratio was more skewed than the national average of 914. The conditional sex ratios decreased with increasing number of previous female births, and a previous birth of a daughter in the family was associated with a 38 % reduced likelihood of a subsequent female birth. The heavily skewed sex ratios in the families of physicians are indicative of a deeply rooted social malady that could pose a critical challenge in correcting the sex ratios in India.

  13. Isotopic ratios in outbursting comet C/2015 ER61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Hutsemékers, Damien; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Opitom, Cyrielle; Manfroid, Jean; Jehin, Emmanuël; Meech, Karen J.; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Gillon, Michaël

    2018-02-01

    Isotopic ratios in comets are critical to understanding the origin of cometary material and the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar nebula. Comet C/2015 ER61 (PANSTARRS) underwent an outburst with a total brightness increase of 2 magnitudes on the night of 2017 April 4. The sharp increase in brightness offered a rare opportunity to measure the isotopic ratios of the light elements in the coma of this comet. We obtained two high-resolution spectra of C/2015 ER61 with UVES/VLT on the nights of 2017 April 13 and 17. At the time of our observations, the comet was fading gradually following the outburst. We measured the nitrogen and carbon isotopic ratios from the CN violet (0, 0) band and found that 12C/13C = 100 ± 15, 14N/15N = 130 ± 15. In addition, we determined the 14N/15N ratio from four pairs of NH2 isotopolog lines and measured 14N/15N = 140 ± 28. The measured isotopic ratios of C/2015 ER61 do not deviate significantly from those of other comets.

  14. Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables

  15. The Benefits of Financial Ratios' as the Indocators of Future Bankruptcy on the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia Mulyawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that financial ratios can predict future bankruptcy even on high uncertainty conditions such as an economic crisis. The research indicates that the accuracy of prediction is more increasing in line with a coming bankruptcy.The result of the research shows that four years before a corporate becomes bankrupt there have been significant differences of financial ratios between bankrupt company and sustained one. The ratios of liquidity, profitability, activity, and return on investment of sustained company are higher; while the leverage ratio is lower.The dominant influencing financial ratios toward a bankruptcy are liquidity and leverage ratios. The research finds that from ten tested ratios, Current Asset to current liabilities and total liabilities to total asset are the dominant financial ratios

  16. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  17. Transcription and the aspect ratio of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    analysis of transcription. It is shown that under certain reasonable assumptions transcription is only possible if the aspect ratio is in the regime corresponding to further twisting. We find this constraint to be in agreement with long-established crystallographic studies of DNA.......Two separate regimes exist for the aspect ratio of DNA. A low aspect regime where DNA will twist further under strain and a high aspect regime where DNA will untwist under strain. The question of the overall geometry, i.e. the aspect ratio, of DNA is revisited from the perspective of a geometrical...

  18. Financial Ratios and Perceived Household Financial Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Garrett

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the relative strength of three objective measures of financial health (using the solvency, liquidity, and investment asset ratio in predicting a household’s subjective feeling of current financial satisfaction. Using a sample of 6,923 respondents in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study this paper presents evidence of two main findings: 1 the solvency ratio is most strongly associated with financial satisfaction levels based on a cross-sectional design and 2 changes in the investment asset ratio are most strongly associated with changes in financial satisfaction over time.

  19. THE EFFECT OF COMPRESSION RATIO VARIATIONS ON THE ENGINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETRES IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup SEKMEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of the spark ignition engines may be increased by changing the geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging in cylinders. The designed geometrical compression ratio can be realized as an effective compression ratio under the full load and full open throttle conditions since the effective compression ratio changes with the amount of charging into the cylinder in spark ignition engines. So, this condition of the spark ignition engines forces designers to change their geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging into the cylinder for improvement of performance and fuel economy. In order to improve the combustion efficiency, fuel economy, power output, exhaust emissions at partial loads, compression ratio must be increased; but, under high load and low speed conditions to prevent probable knock and hard running the compression ratio must be decreased gradually. In this paper, relation of the performance parameters to compression ratio such as power, torque, specific fuel consumption, cylindir pressure, exhaust gas temperature, combustion chamber surface area/volume ratio, thermal efficiency, spark timing etc. in spark ignition engines have been investigated and using of engines with variable compression ratio is suggested to fuel economy and more clear environment.

  20. Sex-ratio biasing towards daughters among lower-ranking co-wives in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Nettle, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable debate as to whether human females bias the sex ratio of their offspring as a function of their own condition. We apply the Trivers-Willard prediction-that mothers in poor condition will overproduce daughters-to a novel measure of condition, namely wife rank within a polygynous

  1. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.

  2. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  3. Anomalous Enantiomer Ratios in Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G.; Sant, M.; Asiyo, C.

    2009-03-01

    The enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of sugar acids in carbonaceous meteorites have been measured. D-enantiomer excesses are found in all acids measured thus far. This includes rare as well as common compounds.

  4. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  5. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... between preoperatively measured neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an inflammation ... analgesic (tenoxicam – as the first drug of choice, paracetamol, tramadol, or pethidine) usage ... fracture fixation). Age, sex, type of ...

  6. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references

  7. Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)

  8. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr

  9. From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.

  10. Determining sex ratios of turtle hatchlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Previous status assessments of marine turtles have assumed that the natural sex ratio of a marine turtle population is 1:1 (e.g. Conant et al. 2009). However, this...

  11. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  12. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-11-25

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  13. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coates

    Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  14. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  15. INFLUENCE OF SCALE RATIO, ASPECT RATIO, AND PLANFORM ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUPERCAVITATING HYDROFOILS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. No appreciable scale effect was found for scale ratios up to 3 in the fully-cavitating flow region. The...overall performance of the hydrofoil by increasing the aspect ratio above 3, and (2) moderate taper ratio seems to be advantageous in view of the overall performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. (Author)

  16. Extraordinary sex ratios: cultural effects on ecological consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    Full Text Available We model sex-structured population dynamics to analyze pairwise competition between groups differing both genetically and culturally. A sex-ratio allele is expressed in the heterogametic sex only, so that assumptions of Fisher's analysis do not apply. Sex-ratio evolution drives cultural evolution of a group-associated trait governing mortality in the homogametic sex. The two-sex dynamics under resource limitation induces a strong Allee effect that depends on both sex ratio and cultural trait values. We describe the resulting threshold, separating extinction from positive growth, as a function of female and male densities. When initial conditions avoid extinction due to the Allee effect, different sex ratios cannot coexist; in our model, greater female allocation always invades and excludes a lesser allocation. But the culturally transmitted trait interacts with the sex ratio to determine the ecological consequences of successful invasion. The invading female allocation may permit population persistence at self-regulated equilibrium. For this case, the resident culture may be excluded, or may coexist with the invader culture. That is, a single sex-ratio allele in females and a cultural dimorphism in male mortality can persist; a low-mortality resident trait is maintained by father-to-son cultural transmission. Otherwise, the successfully invading female allocation excludes the resident allele and culture and then drives the population to extinction via a shortage of males. Finally, we show that the results obtained under homogeneous mixing hold, with caveats, in a spatially explicit model with local mating and diffusive dispersal in both sexes.

  17. Elliptic nozzle aspect ratio effect on controlled jet propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S M Aravindh; Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan, E-mail: aravinds@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: erath@iitk.ac.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)

    2017-04-15

    The present study deals with the control of a Mach 2 elliptic jet from a convergent–divergent elliptic nozzle of aspect ratio 4 using tabs at the nozzle exit. The experiments were carried out for rectangular and triangular tabs of the same blockage, placed along the major and minor axes of the nozzle exit, at different levels of nozzle expansion. The triangular tabs along the minor axis promoted superior mixing compared to the other controlled jets and caused substantial core length reduction at all the nozzle pressure ratios studied. The rectangular tabs along the minor axis caused core length reduction at all pressure ratios, but the values were minimal compared to that of triangular tabs along the minor axis. For all the test conditions, the mixing promotion caused by tabs along the major axis was inferior to that of tabs along the minor axis. The waves present in the core of controlled jets were visualized using a shadowgraph. Comparison of the present results with the results of a controlled Mach 2 elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2 (Aravindh Kumar and Sathakrishnan 2016 J. Propulsion Power 32 121–33, Aravindh Kumar and Rathakrishnan 2016 J. Aerospace Eng. at press (doi:10.1177/0954410016652921)) show that for all levels of expansion, the mixing effectiveness of triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 4 nozzle is better than rectangular or triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 2 nozzle. (paper)

  18. Elliptic nozzle aspect ratio effect on controlled jet propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S M Aravindh; Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2017-01-01

    The present study deals with the control of a Mach 2 elliptic jet from a convergent–divergent elliptic nozzle of aspect ratio 4 using tabs at the nozzle exit. The experiments were carried out for rectangular and triangular tabs of the same blockage, placed along the major and minor axes of the nozzle exit, at different levels of nozzle expansion. The triangular tabs along the minor axis promoted superior mixing compared to the other controlled jets and caused substantial core length reduction at all the nozzle pressure ratios studied. The rectangular tabs along the minor axis caused core length reduction at all pressure ratios, but the values were minimal compared to that of triangular tabs along the minor axis. For all the test conditions, the mixing promotion caused by tabs along the major axis was inferior to that of tabs along the minor axis. The waves present in the core of controlled jets were visualized using a shadowgraph. Comparison of the present results with the results of a controlled Mach 2 elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2 (Aravindh Kumar and Sathakrishnan 2016 J. Propulsion Power 32 121–33, Aravindh Kumar and Rathakrishnan 2016 J. Aerospace Eng. at press (doi:10.1177/0954410016652921)) show that for all levels of expansion, the mixing effectiveness of triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 4 nozzle is better than rectangular or triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 2 nozzle. (paper)

  19. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  20. Stress ratio determination from the core-disking phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnhoff, T.F.; Stefansson, B.; Thirumalai, K.

    1982-08-01

    The ability to predict in situ stress conditions from standard core samples offers planning and site-selection advantages for most underground facilities. This paper presents an empirical relation for estimating the horizontal to vertical stress ratio in basalt. The resulting estimates can then be used to help assess the extent to which measurement of in situ stress is required. The core disking phenomenon has long been used as an indicator of high in situ stress. It is concluded that disks form as the result of tensile failure initiation rather than shear failure initiation of the core. It is deduced that the tensile failure begins at the edge of the core and propagates toward the center in shear rather than beginning at the center and propagating outward. An empirical relation for horizontal to vertical stress ratio variation with depth has been developed and is shown to agree substantially with previous measured horizontal to vertical stress ratios for locations in several areas of the world. The stress-ratio predictions are justified based on finite-element studies using linear elastic analysis and also nonlinear (tension cut-off) analysis. Indications of fracture propagation paths were determined from the analyses. The shape of the predicted propagation path agrees well with physical observations

  1. Lead isotope ratios in Japanese galena ores and archaeological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Kazuo; Murozumi, Masayo; Nakamura, Seiji; Hinata, Makoto; Yuasa, Mitsuaki.

    1978-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb in Japanese galena ores and archaeological bronze objects were determined by a Hitachi RMU-6 mass spectrometer using a rhenium single filament as a surface ionization device. Basic experimental conditions including detection limit, fractionation effect, memory effect, etc. were examined, and the accuracy of determination was checked using the CIT shelf standard No. 1. Archaeological bronze objects were dissolved in nitric acid and lead was extracted by the dithizone method using specially purified reagents in a so-called clean laboratory. When 0.5 μg lead was loaded on the rhenium filament with phosphoric acid and silica gel as stabilizers, an ion current of 10 -13 -- 10 -15 A due to Pb + was obtained and maintained stable for several hours. Coefficients of variation found for the isotope ratios 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb were 0.1 -- 0.5%. Lead isotope ratios are given for 17 Japanese galena ores and for archaeological bronze objects such as bronze bells, halberds (Yayoi period), Horyuji pagoda spire (7th century), and Northern Sung coins (11th century). A close resemblance of the isotope ratios was found between Japanese galena ores and some Japanese bronze objects of the 7th century, suggesting the use of the former as raw materials of the latter. (auth.)

  2. Hyperbolically Patterned 3D Graphene Metamaterial with Negative Poisson's Ratio and Superelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Xu, Xiang; Lin, Dong; Chen, Wenli; Xiong, Guoping; Yu, Yikang; Fisher, Timothy S; Li, Hui

    2016-03-16

    A hyperbolically patterned 3D graphene metamaterial (GM) with negative Poisson's ratio and superelasticity is highlighted. It is synthesized by a modified hydrothermal approach and subsequent oriented freeze-casting strategy. GM presents a tunable Poisson's ratio by adjusting the structural porosity, macroscopic aspect ratio (L/D), and freeze-casting conditions. Such a GM suggests promising applications as soft actuators, sensors, robust shock absorbers, and environmental remediation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  4. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  5. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  6. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  7. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  8. Golden ratio beauty as scientific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.

  9. Poisson's Ratio and Young's Modulus of Lipid Bilayers in Different Phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jadidi, T.; Seyyed-Allaei, H.; Reza Tahimi Tabar, M.; Mashaghi, A.

    2014-01-01

    A general computational method is introduced to estimate the Poisson’s ratio for membranes with small thickness. In this method, the Poisson’s ratio is calculated by utilizing a rescaling of inter-particle distances in one lateral direction under periodic boundary conditions. As an example for the

  10. Statistical analysis of the ratio of electric and magnetic fields in random fields generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, R.; Nijenhuis, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present statistical models of the ratio of random electric and magnetic fields in mode-stirred reverberation chambers. This ratio is based on the electric and magnetic field statistics derived for ideal reverberation conditions. It provides a further performance indicator for

  11. Effects of Instructional Ratios on Students' Reading Performance in a Regular Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Maura L.; Shapiro, Edward S.

    1996-01-01

    Used 4 experimental conditions to examine the effectiveness of different instructional ratios of known to unknown vocabulary words on the reading progress of 46 students. Results suggest that students acquired new information as instructional ratios expanded. An inverse relationship was established between instructional material presented and…

  12. An unstable social environment affects sex ratio in guinea pigs : an adaptive maternal effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemme, Kristina; Kaiser, Sylvia; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Wewers, Dirk; Groothuis, Ton; Sachser, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary theory suggests that offspring sex should be adjusted to environmental conditions in order to maximize future reproductive success. In several animal taxa environmental factors indeed affect the secondary sex ratio. In humans, changes in the sex ratio at birth have been associated with

  13. D/H ratio for Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Schempp, W.V.; Baines, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's spectrum near the R5(0) HD line at 6063.88 A are reported. A feature with an equivalent width of 0.065 + or - 0.021 mA is coincident with the expected line. This feature is compared with HD profiles computed for inhomogeneous scattering models for Jupiter to yield a range for the Jovian D/H ratio of 1.0-2.9 x 10 to the -5th. This D/H ratio is in the lower range of previously reported D/H values for Jupiter and corresponds to an essentially solar D/H ratio for Jupiter. The detection of HD features in the presence of probable blends with spectral features of minor atmospheric hydrocarbon molecules is discussed. Such blends may make unambiguous identification of HD features difficult. 26 references

  14. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuy, B.L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt

  15. Transport in a small aspect ratio torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)

  16. The complex dynamics of wishful thinking: the critical positivity ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas J L; Sokal, Alan D; Friedman, Harris L

    2013-12-01

    We examine critically the claims made by Fredrickson and Losada (2005) concerning the construct known as the "positivity ratio." We find no theoretical or empirical justification for the use of differential equations drawn from fluid dynamics, a subfield of physics, to describe changes in human emotions over time; furthermore, we demonstrate that the purported application of these equations contains numerous fundamental conceptual and mathematical errors. The lack of relevance of these equations and their incorrect application lead us to conclude that Fredrickson and Losada's claim to have demonstrated the existence of a critical minimum positivity ratio of 2.9013 is entirely unfounded. More generally, we urge future researchers to exercise caution in the use of advanced mathematical tools, such as nonlinear dynamics, and in particular to verify that the elementary conditions for their valid application have been met. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. The reaction index and positivity ratio revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Andersen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value of these st......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value...

  18. Uranium isotope ratio measurements in field settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a technique for uranium isotope ratio measurements of powder samples in field settings. Such a method will be invaluable for environmental studies, radioactive waste operations, and decommissioning and decontamination operations. Immediate field data can help guide an ongoing sampling campaign. The measurement encompasses glow discharge sputtering from pressed sample hollow cathodes, high resolution laser spectroscopy using conveniently tunable diode lasers, and optogalvanic detection. At 10% 235 U enrichment and above, the measurement precision for 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios was ±3%; it declined to ±15% for 0.3% (i.e., depleted) samples. A prototype instrument was constructed and is described

  19. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  20. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  1. Boiling Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Earth and Low Gravity: Boundary Condition and Heater Aspect Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho

    2004-01-01

    Boiling is a complex phenomenon where hydrodynamics, heat transfer, mass transfer, and interfacial phenomena are tightly interwoven. An understanding of boiling and critical heat flux in microgravity environments is of importance to space based hardware and processes such as heat exchange, cryogenic fuel storage and transportation, electronic cooling, and material processing due to the large amounts of heat that can be removed with relatively little increase in temperature. Although research in this area has been performed in the past four decades, the mechanisms by which heat is removed from surfaces in microgravity are still unclear. Recently, time and space resolved heat transfer data were obtained in both earth and low gravity environments using an array of microheaters varying in size between 100 microns to 700 microns. These heaters were operated in both constant temperature as well as constant heat flux mode. Heat transfer under nucleating bubbles in earth gravity were directly measured using a microheater array with 100 m resolution operated in constant temperature mode with low and high subcooled bulk liquid along with images from below and from the side. The individual bubble departure diameter and energy transfer were larger with low subcooling but the departure frequency increased at high subcooling, resulting in higher overall heat transfer. The bubble growth for both subcoolings was primarily due to energy transfer from the superheated liquid layer relatively little was due to wall heat transfer during the bubble growth process. Oscillating bubbles and sliding bubbles were also observed in highly subcooled boiling. Transient conduction and/or microconvection was the dominant heat transfer mechanism in the above cases. A transient conduction model was developed and compared with the experimental data with good agreement. Data was also obtained with the heater array operated in a constant heat flux mode and measuring the temperature distribution across the array during boiling. The instantaneous heat transfer into the substrate was numerically determined and subtracted from the supplied heat to obtain the wall to liquid heat flux.

  2. Stable isotope ratios of marijuana. I. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes describe growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jason B; Hurley, Janet M; Ehleringer, James R

    2009-01-01

    There remains significant uncertainty in illicit marijuana cultivation. We analyzed the delta(13)C and delta(15)N of 508 domestic samples from known U.S.A. counties, 31 seized from a single location, 5 samples grown in Mexico and Colombia, and 10 northwest border seizures. For a subset, inflorescences and leaves were analyzed separately. These data revealed a strong correspondence, with inflorescences having slightly higher delta(13)C and delta(15)N values than leaves. A framework for interpreting these results is introduced and evaluated. Samples identified as outdoor-grown by delta(13)C were generally recorded as such by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). DEA-classified indoor-grown samples had the most negative delta(13)C values, consistent with indoor cultivation, although many were also in the outdoor-grown domain. Delta(15)N indicated a wide range of fertilizers across the dataset. Samples seized at the single location suggested multiple sources. Northwest border delta(13)C values suggested indoor growth, whereas for the Mexican and Colombian samples they indicated outdoor growth.

  3. The impact of tissue Doppler index E/e' ratio on instantaneous wave-free ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arashi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ri, Tonre; Otsuki, Hisao; Nakao, Masashi; Kamishima, Kazuho; Jujo, Kentaro; Minami, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2018-03-01

    The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is a vasodilator-free, invasive pressure wire index of the functional severity of coronary stenosis and is calculated under resting conditions. In a recent study, iFR was found to be more closely linked to coronary flow reserve (CFR) than fractional flow reserve (FFR). E/e' is a surrogate marker of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and LV diastolic dysfunction. Coronary resting flow was found to be increased in patients with elevated E/e', and higher coronary resting flow was associated with lower CFR. Higher baseline coronary flow induces a greater loss of translesional pressure and may affect iFR. However, no reports have examined the impact of E/e' on iFR. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between iFR and E/e' compared with FFR. We retrospectively examined 103 consecutive patients (142 with stenosis) whose iFR, FFR, and E/e' were measured simultaneously. The mean age, LV mass index, and systolic blood pressure of patients with elevated E/e' were higher than those of patients with normal E/e'. Although no significant differences were observed in mean FFR values and % diameter stenosis, the mean iFR value in patients with elevated E/e' was significantly lower than that in patients with normal E/e'. The iFR was negatively correlated with E/e', while there was no correlation between FFR and E/e'. Multivariate analysis showed that E/e' and % diameter stenosis were independent determinants of iFR. E/e' ratio affects iFR values. Our results suggest that FFR mainly reflects the functional severity of the epicardial stenosis whereas iFR could potentially be influenced by not only epicardial stenosis but also other factors related to LV filling pressure or LV diastolic dysfunction. Further research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms that influence the evaluation of iFR in patients with elevated E/e'. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Chemiluminescence-based multivariate sensing of local equivalence ratios in premixed atmospheric methane-air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2011-09-07

    Chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, C2, and CO2 formed within the reaction zone of premixed flames depend upon the fuel-air equivalence ratio in the burning mixture. In the present paper, a new partial least square regression (PLS-R) based multivariate sensing methodology is investigated and compared with an OH*/CH* intensity ratio-based calibration model for sensing equivalence ratio in atmospheric methane-air premixed flames. Five replications of spectral data at nine different equivalence ratios ranging from 0.73 to 1.48 were used in the calibration of both models. During model development, the PLS-R model was initially validated with the calibration data set using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. Since the PLS-R model used the entire raw spectral intensities, it did not need the nonlinear background subtraction of CO2 emission that is required for typical OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibrations. An unbiased spectral data set (not used in the PLS-R model development), for 28 different equivalence ratio conditions ranging from 0.71 to 1.67, was used to predict equivalence ratios using the PLS-R and the intensity ratio calibration models. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R based multivariate calibration model matched the experimentally measured equivalence ratios within 7%; whereas, the OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibration grossly underpredicted equivalence ratios in comparison to measured equivalence ratios, especially under rich conditions ( > 1.2). The practical implications of the chemiluminescence-based multivariate equivalence ratio sensing methodology are also discussed.

  5. Asymmetric Lévy flight in financial ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Valentinčič, Aljoša; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-11-01

    Because financial crises are characterized by dangerous rare events that occur more frequently than those predicted by models with finite variances, we investigate the underlying stochastic process generating these events. In the 1960s Mandelbrot [Mandelbrot B (1963) J Bus 36:394-419] and Fama [Fama EF (1965) J Bus 38:34-105] proposed a symmetric Lévy probability distribution function (PDF) to describe the stochastic properties of commodity changes and price changes. We find that an asymmetric Lévy PDF, L, characterized by infinite variance, models several multiple credit ratios used in financial accounting to quantify a firm's financial health, such as the Altman [Altman EI (1968) J Financ 23:589-609] Z score and the Zmijewski [Zmijewski ME (1984) J Accounting Res 22:59-82] score, and models changes of individual financial ratios, ΔX(i). We thus find that Lévy PDFs describe both the static and dynamics of credit ratings. We find that for the majority of ratios, ΔX(i) scales with the Lévy parameter α ≈ 1, even though only a few of the individual ratios are characterized by a PDF with power-law tails X(i)(-1-α) with infinite variance. We also find that α exhibits a striking stability over time. A key element in estimating credit losses is the distribution of credit rating changes, the functional form of which is unknown for alphabetical ratings. For continuous credit ratings, the Altman Z score, we find that P(ΔZ) follows a Lévy PDF with power-law exponent α ≈ 1, consistent with changes of individual financial ratios. Estimating the conditional P(ΔZ|Z) versus Z, we demonstrate how this continuous credit rating approach and its dynamics can be used to evaluate credit risk.

  6. Dilution Ratios for HB Line Phase I Eductor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    HB Line Phase I product transfer includes an eductor which transfers liquid from Product Hold Tank (PHT) RT-33 or RT-34 to Tank 11.1. The eductor also dilutes the liquid from the PHT with eductant. Dilution must be reliably controlled because of criticality concerns with H Canyon Tanks. The eductor system, which contains a 1 inch Model 264 Schutte and Koerting eductor, was previously modeled [1] in 1998 and dilution ratios were calculated for different flow restrictors, eductant pressures and densities for the eductant and the contents of the PHT. The previous calculation was performed using spreadsheet software no longer supported at SRS. For the previous work dilution ratio was defined as the volume of eductant consumed divided by volume of PHT contents transferred. Since 1998 HB Line Engineering has changed the definition of dilution ratio to the total volume of liquid, eductant consumed plus the volume of PHT liquid transferred, divided by the volume of PHT liquid transferred. The 1998 base case calculation was for a restrictor diameter of 0.334 inches, an eductant supply pressure of 15 psig, full PHT, an eductant specific gravity of 1.385 and a PHT density of 1.015. The base case dilution ratio calculated in 1998 using the current definition was 3.52. After accounting for uncertainty the minimum dilution ratio decreased to 3.23. In 2001 HB Line Engineering requested that the calculation be repeated for a manganous nitrate solution eductant and also a process water eductant. The other conditions were the same as for the 1998 calculation. The objective of this report is to document the calculations and the results

  7. Ratio method of measuring W boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting MW from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (MW/MZ). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb-1 DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives MW = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.

  8. Decay ratio for third order Brownian oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, H.; Kanemoto, S.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained the analytical expressions of the decay ratios for two types of third order Brownian oscillators which are generalizations of the second order Brownian oscillator driven by the Gaussian-white noise. The resulting expressions will provide us useful baseline information for more complicated practical problems and their applications

  9. Bowen ratio over the Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taufarová, Klára; Dvořáková, Marcela; Czerný, Radek; Pokorný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), s. 131-136 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD526/03/H036; GA MŽP SM/640/18/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Bowen ratio * evapotranspiration * transpiration * eddy covariance technique Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  10. Crown ratio influences allometric scaling in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2006-01-01

    Allometric theories suggest that the size and shape of organisms follow universal rules, with a tendency toward quarter-power scaling. In woody plants, however, structure is influenced by branch death and shedding, which leads to decreasing crown ratios, accumulation of heartwood, and stem and branch tapering. This paper examines the impacts on allometric scaling of...

  11. Measuring Poisson Ratios at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozon, R. S.; Shepic, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Simple extensometer ring measures bulges of specimens in compression. New method of measuring Poisson's ratio used on brittle ceramic materials at cryogenic temperatures. Extensometer ring encircles cylindrical specimen. Four strain gauges connected in fully active Wheatstone bridge self-temperature-compensating. Used at temperatures as low as liquid helium.

  12. Multipole mixing ratios in /sup 154/Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Mo; Song, Choong Sik; Joo, Koan Sik

    1985-06-01

    We have measured gamma-gamma angular correlations to determine the mixing ratios of several gamma transitions in /sup 154/Gd. The results are compared with those derived from the pairing-plus-quadrupole model and from the interacting boson model.

  13. 34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effect of changes in accounting principles, and the effect of changes in accounting estimates; (2) May... intangible assets defined as intangible in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles; and (5... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial ratios. 668.172 Section 668.172 Education...

  14. Abundance Ratios in Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Seyda; Peletier, Reynier F.; Toloba, Elisa; Mentz, Jaco J.

    The aim of this study is to determine abundance ratios and star formation histories (SFH) of dwarf ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster. We perform a stellar population analysis of 39 dEs and study them using index-index and scaling relations. We find an unusual behaviour where [Na/Fe] is

  15. Asymptotics for ratios with applications to reinsurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladoucette, S.A.; Teugels, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of results pertaining to moment convergence for certain ratios of random variables involving sums, order statistics and extreme terms in the sense of modulus. Most of the literature on this matter originates from Darling (1952) who gave a criterion for the convergence

  16. Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...

  17. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anticipating or experiencing significant growth and have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure, excellent asset quality, high liquidity, and good earnings. (b) For all savings... capital ratios may be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of an...

  18. Likelihood-ratio-based biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that for single-user verification the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  19. Likelihood Ratio-Based Biometric Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    The paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that, for single-user verification, the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  20. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an ...

  1. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koho, Karoliina A.; de Nooijer, Lennart J.; Fontanier, Christophe; Toyofuku, Takashi; Oguri, Kazumasa; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2017-06-01

    The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata) were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn) concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific). The local bottom water oxygen (BWO) gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.

  2. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Koho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific. The local bottom water oxygen (BWO gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS, allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.

  3. Second-order schedules of token reinforcement with pigeons: effects of fixed- and variable-ratio exchange schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T A; Hackenberg, T D; Vaidya, M

    2001-09-01

    Pigeons' key pecks produced food under second-order schedules of token reinforcement, with light-emitting diodes serving as token reinforcers. In Experiment 1, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and were exchanged for food according to either fixed-ratio or variable-ratio exchange schedules, with schedule type varied across conditions. In Experiment 2, schedule type was varied within sessions using a multiple schedule. In one component, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a variable-ratio schedule. In the other component, tokens were earned according to a variable-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a fixed-ratio schedule. In both experiments, the number of responses per exchange was varied parametrically across conditions, ranging from 50 to 400 responses. Response rates decreased systematically with increases in the fixed-ratio exchange schedules, but were much less affected by changes in the variable-ratio exchange schedules. Response rates were consistently higher under variable-ratio exchange schedules than tinder comparable fixed-ratio exchange schedules, especially at higher exchange ratios. These response-rate differences were due both to greater pre-ratio pausing and to lower local rates tinder the fixed-ratio exchange schedules. Local response rates increased with proximity to food under the higher fixed-ratio exchange schedules, indicative of discriminative control by the tokens.

  4. Isotope ratios as pollutant source and behaviour indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed significant advances in isotope techniques for identifying origins and for studying the behaviour of trace contaminants and pollutants of the environment under actual existing environmental conditions. Improvements in the supply of stable isotopes and their labelled compounds, instrumental analysis and information on stable or radioactive isotopic ratios of existing environmental contaminants as a function of origin or behaviour have provided relatively new tools for the environmental scientist. While variations in natural or existing environmental stable and radioactive nuclides could be regarded as 'background noise' in conventional tracer experiments they promised unique information about sources and behaviour to those who listened carefully. (author)

  5. Convective mixing length and the galactic carbon to oxygen ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, A; Peimbert, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    We have studied chemical evolution models, assuming instantaneous recycling, and considering: a) the effects of mass loss both in massive stars and in intermediate mass stars, and b) the initial mass function of the solar neighbourhood (Serrano 1978). From these models we have derived the yields of carbon and oxygen. It is concluded that the condition C/O approximately 0.58 in the solar neighbourhood can only be satisfied if, during advanced stages of stellar evolution of intermediate mass stars, the ratio of the convective mixing length to the pressure scale height is > approximately 2.

  6. Similar tests and the standardized log likelihood ratio statistic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ledet

    1986-01-01

    When testing an affine hypothesis in an exponential family the 'ideal' procedure is to calculate the exact similar test, or an approximation to this, based on the conditional distribution given the minimal sufficient statistic under the null hypothesis. By contrast to this there is a 'primitive......' approach in which the marginal distribution of a test statistic considered and any nuisance parameter appearing in the test statistic is replaced by an estimate. We show here that when using standardized likelihood ratio statistics the 'primitive' procedure is in fact an 'ideal' procedure to order O(n -3...

  7. The Methane to Carbon Dioxide Ratio Produced during Peatland Decomposition and a Simple Approach for Distinguishing This Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanton, J.; Hodgkins, S. B.; Cooper, W. T.; Glaser, P. H.; Corbett, J. E.; Crill, P. M.; Saleska, S. R.; Rich, V. I.; Holmes, B.; Hines, M. E.; Tfaily, M.; Kostka, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Peatland organic matter is cellulose-like with an oxidation state of approximately zero. When this material decomposes by fermentation, stoichiometry dictates that CH4 and CO2 should be produced in a ratio approaching one. While this is generally the case in temperate zones, this production ratio is often departed from in boreal peatlands, where the ratio of belowground CH4/CO2 production varies between 0.1 and 1, indicating CO2 production by a mechanism in addition to fermentation. The in situ CO2/CH4 production ratio may be ascertained by analysis of the 13C isotopic composition of these products, because CO2 production unaccompanied by methane production produces CO2 with an isotopic composition similar to the parent organic matter while methanogenesis produces 13C depleted methane and 13C enriched CO2. The 13C enrichment in the subsurface CO2 pool is directly related to the amount of if formed from methane production and the isotopic composition of the methane itself. Excess CO2 production is associated with more acidic conditions, Sphagnum vegetation, high and low latitudes, methane production dominated by hydrogenotrophic methane production, 13C depleted methane, and generally, more nutrient depleted conditions. Three theories have been offered to explain these observations— 1) inhibition of acetate utilization, acetate build-up and diffusion to the surface and eventual aerobic oxidation, 2) the use of humic acids as electron acceptors, and the 3) utilization of organic oxygen to produce CO2. In support of #3, we find that 13C-NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FT IR) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) clearly show the evolution of polysaccharides and cellulose towards more decomposed humified alkyl compounds stripped of organic oxygen utilized to form CO2. Such decomposition results in more negative carbon oxidation states varying from -1 to -2. Coincident with this reduction in oxidation state, is the

  8. Characterizing gamma fields using isomeric activation ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Fleming, Ronald F.

    1994-12-01

    Isomeric activities were induced in indium by gamma irradiation in three different gamma fields, through the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn. The irradiation fields were (i) the 15 kCi 60Co source available in the University, (ii) the spent fuel gamma irradiator in the pool of the University's Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) and (iii) south face of the core of the FNR during routine shut downs. Isomeric activation ratios can serve to characterize gamma fields, provided the response functions of the two (γ, γ') reactions sample different energy regimes of the gamma spectrum present in the irradiation fields. The response of an isomeric activation detector, in turn, depends on the number of activation energy levels of the nuclide and the probabilities with which the activation levels de-populate to the isomeric level. The reaction rate ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m was measured in the three gamma fields. The measured ratios were (i) 1.210 ± 0.011 in the 60Co source, (ii) 1.314 ± 0.060 in the spent fuel gamma irradiator and (iii) 1.298 ± 0.039 in a location alongside the FNR core during routine shut downs. The measured reaction rate ratios are not only close to each other, but close to unity as well. This indicates that the excitation functions for the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn have similar shapes and that for the nuclides 115In and 113In, the number of activation energy levels and the probabilities with which they populate the isomeric levels are very similar to each other. Thus, the ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m will not yield any information regarding the shape of gamma spectrum in the field of measurement. However by choosing (γ, γ') reactions with different shapes for the excitation functions one can measure a set of isomeric activation ratios that characterize a given gamma field.

  9. Plutonium multi-recycling in increased moderating ratio reactors (IMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbrault, P.; Larderet, P.

    1998-01-01

    The large core of the future jointly defined European PWR (EPR), would be compatible with an increased Moderating Ratio (MR) enabling better plutonium burnout. The purpose of current work on the subject is to assess plutonium multi-recycling possibilities in IMR reactors. What additional operating constraints would be involved under normal and accidental conditions and are they acceptable? The conclusion is that Plutonium multi-recycling in a PWR of the type envisaged for the EPR raises no major problems under the following conditions: use of an IMR MOX core, enhancing both plutonium burnout and absorber efficiency; use of enriched boron in both the primary coolant soluble boron and the B4C boron carbide in the control rods. Deeper investigation should be performed concerning the partial or total core drain-out, in view of the high total Pu concentrations involved (13%) and the types of core considered (100% MOX). (author)

  10. Compressible gas flow through idealized cracks of large aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, T.C.; Skinner, J.; Williams, M.E.

    1975-07-01

    Gas flow through large aspect ratio idealized cracks is considered, where isothermal conditions with choking at exit are assumed in the theoretical analysis. For smooth wall cracks, comparisons are made between experimentally determined flowrates and those predicted, and good agreement is shown. This is followed by consideration of flow through a notional crack to examine the influence of width and surface roughness. By considering flow as simply proportional to Wsup(n), the treatment shows 'n' to reduce with W increasing, but surface roughness increases 'n' over the value appropriate to smooth conditions. From these observations it is concluded that further work is required to determine:- (i) real crack geometry and its influence on any leak-before-break philosophy, and (ii) the influence of real surface roughness on flowrate. (author)

  11. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  12. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  13. Convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio in patients with intermittent exotropia and decompensated exophoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Fumitaka; Hasebe, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio in strabismic patients and to clarify its clinical implications. Seventy-eight consecutive patients (mean age: 12.9 +/- 6.0 years) with intermittent exotropia and decompensated exophoria who showed binocular fusion at least at near viewing were recruited. The CA/C ratio was estimated by measuring accommodative responses induced by horizontal prisms with different magnitudes under accommodation feedback open-loop conditions. The CA/C ratios were compared with accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios and other clinical parameters. A linear regression analysis indicated that the mean (+/-SD) CA/C ratio was 0.080 +/- 0.043 D/prism diopter or 0.48 +/- 0.26 D/meter angle. There was no inverse or reciprocal relationship between CA/C and AC/A ratios. The patients with lower CA/C ratios tended to have smaller tonic accommodation under binocular viewing conditions and larger exodeviation at near viewing. The CA/C ratio, like the AC/A ratio, is an independent parameter that characterizes clinical features. A lower CA/C may be beneficial for the vergence control system to compensate for ocular misalignment with minimum degradation of accommodation accuracy.

  14. Adjusted Money's Worth Ratios in Life Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Casassus; Eduardo Walker

    2013-01-01

    The Money's Worth Ratio (MWR) measures an annuity's actuarial fairness. It is calculated as the discounted present value of expected future payments divided by its cost. We argue that from the perspective of annuitants, this measure may overestimate the value-for-money obtained, since it does not adjust for liquidity or risk factors. Measuring these factors is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of assets, liabilities, and of the stochastic processes followed by them. Using a multi-fact...

  15. Modelling the liquidity ratio as macroprudential instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Willem van den End; Mark Kruidhof

    2012-01-01

    The Basel III Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) is a microprudential instrument to strengthen the liquidity position of banks. However, if in extreme scenarios the LCR becomes a binding constraint, the interaction of bank behaviour with the regulatory rule can have negative externalities. We simulate the systemic implications of the LCR by a liquidity stress-testing model, which takes into account the impact of bank reactions on second round feedback effects. We show that a flexible approach of ...

  16. Realisation Ratios in the Capital Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Berkelmans; Gareth Spence

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Bureau of Statistics capital expenditure survey is one of the inputs into the Reserve Bank’s forecasts for private business investment. This article considers several methods for interpreting the expectations data from this survey and evaluates these methods using out-of-sample forecasts. Forecasts based on long-run average realisation ratios are found to be the most accurate of the options considered, although the use of these forecasts for predicting investment in the nationa...

  17. Production ratio of pseudoscalar to vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chliapnikov, P.V.; Uvarov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The P/V ratio of directly produced pseudoscalar (P) to vector (V) mesons is analysed using the data on the K S 0 and K * (892) total inclusive cross sections in pp, π + p and K ± p reactions. The indication for a change of P/V from a value of about 1 at low energies, where the fragmentation processes dominate, to a value of 1/3, suggested by spin-statistics, at high energies is discussed. (orig.)

  18. MARKETING MIX BY BED OCCUPANCY RATIO (BOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR in RSI Arafah Mojosari during the last three years are at under ideal rate and the lowest of the three existing hospitals in the area of Mojosari. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship marketing mix with Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Methods: This research uses analytic methods with crossectional approach. Variables in the study is marketing mix and Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR. The population in this study were all patients hospitalized in the RSI Arafah Mojosari. Samples amounted 44 respondents taken by the Stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using the questionnaire and analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Result: The results obtained more than 50% of respondents (59.1% rate well against the marketing mix is developed by the hospital management and the majority of respondents (79.5% are in the treatment room that has a number BOR is not ideal. Fisher Exact test test results obtained probabililty value=0.02<0.05 so that H0 is rejected, which means there is a relationship marketing mix with the Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Discussion: Hospitals which able to develop the marketing mix very well, can attract consumers to use inpatient services at the hospital, with that BOR value will increase as the increased use of inpatient services. Hospital management must be able to formulate a good marketing mix strategy that hospital marketing objectives can be achieved. Conformity between service quality and service rates must be addressed, otherwise it extent of media promotions can attract patients to inpatient services.

  19. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Hoffman, Edward A.; Bays, Samuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 ('burners') do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 ('breeders') have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is 'attractive' for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR 1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

  20. The effect of climate fluctuation on chimpanzee birth sex ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar S Kühl

    Full Text Available Climate and weather conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, precipitation and temperature influence the birth sex ratio (BSR of various higher latitude species, including deer, elephant seals or northern human populations. Although, tropical regions show only little variation in temperature, climate and weather conditions can fluctuate with consequences for phenology and food resource availability. Here, we evaluate, whether the BSR of chimpanzees, inhabiting African tropical forests, is affected by climate fluctuations as well. Additionally, we evaluate, if variation in consumption of a key food resource with high nutritional value, Coula edulis nuts, is linked to both climate fluctuations and variation in BSR. We use long-term data from two study groups located in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire to assess the influence of local weather conditions and the global climate driver El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO on offspring sex. Côte d'Ivoire has experienced considerable climate variation over the last decades, with increasing temperature and declining precipitation. For both groups we find very similar time windows around the month of conception, in which offspring sex is well predicted by ENSO, with more males following low ENSO values, corresponding to periods of high rainfall. Furthermore, we find that the time spent cracking and feeding on Coula nuts is strongly influenced by climate conditions. Although, some of our analysis suggest that a higher proportion of males is born after periods with higher nut consumption frequency, we cannot conclude decisively at this point that nut consumption may influence shifts in BSR. All results combined suggest that also chimpanzees may experience climate related shifts in offspring sex ratios as response to climate fluctuation.

  1. Critical thickness ratio for buckled and wrinkled fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hui-Hui; Liu, Yang

    2014-11-01

    This work aims at establishing the geometrical constraint for buckled and wrinkled shapes by modeling a fruit/vegetable with exocarp and sarcocarp as a hyperelastic layer-substrate structure subjected to uniaxial compression. A careful analysis on the derived bifurcation condition leads to the finding of a critical thickness ratio which separates the buckling and wrinkling modes, and remarkably, which is independent of the material stiffnesses. More specifically, it is found that if the thickness ratio is smaller than this critical value a fruit/vegetable should be in a buckled shape (under a sufficient stress); if a fruit/vegetable is in a wrinkled shape the thickness ratio is always larger than this critical value. To verify the theoretical prediction, we consider four types of buckled fruits/vegetables and four types of wrinkled fruits/vegetables with three samples in each type. The geometrical parameters for the 24 samples are measured and it is found that indeed all the data fall into the theoretically predicted buckling or wrinkling domains.

  2. Oscillatory convection in low aspect ratio Czochralski melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, A.; Prasad, V.; Koziol, J.; Gupta, K. P.

    1993-11-01

    Modeling of the crucible in bulk crystal growth simulations as a right circular cylinder may be adequate for high aspect ratio melts but this may be unrealistic when the melt height is low. Low melt height is a unique feature of a solid feed continuous Czochralski growth process for silicon single crystals currently under investigation. At low melt heights, the crucible bottom curvature has a dampening effect on the buoyancy-induced oscillations, a source of inhomogeneities in the grown crystal. The numerical results demonstrate how the mode of convection changes from vertical wall-dominated recirculating flows to Benard convection as the aspect ratio is lowered. This phenomenon is strongly dependent on the boundary condition at the free surface of the melt, which has been generally considered to be either adiabatic or radiatively cooled. A comparison of the flow oscillations in crucibles with and without curved bottoms at aspect ratios in the range of 0.25 to 0.50, and at realistic Grashof numbers (10 7 < Gr < 10 8) illustrate that changing the shape of the crucible may be an effective means of suppressing oscillations and controlling the melt flow.

  3. Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Xing, Zhu Wei

    2006-09-05

    In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa. This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, both of which lead to higher female mortality. Differential gender mortality has been a documented problem for decades and led to reports in the early 1990s of 100 million "missing women" across the developing world. Since that time, improved health care and conditions for women have resulted in reductions in female mortality, but these advances have now been offset by a huge increase in the use of sex-selective abortion, which became available in the mid-1980s. Largely as a result of this practice, there are now an estimated 80 million missing females in India and China alone. The large cohorts of "surplus" males now reaching adulthood are predominantly of low socioeconomic class, and concerns have been expressed that their lack of marriageability, and consequent marginalization in society, may lead to antisocial behavior and violence, threatening societal stability and security. Measures to reduce sex selection must include strict enforcement of existing legislation, the ensuring of equal rights for women, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of gender imbalance.

  4. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jo, Young Suk [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lewis, Raymond [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bromberg, Leslie [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-29

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  5. Bankruptcy Prediction Based on the Autonomy Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brîndescu Olariu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory and practice of the financial ratio analysis suggest the existence of a negative correlation between the autonomy ratio and the bankruptcy risk. Previous studies conducted on a sample of companies from Timis County (largest county in Romania confirm this hypothesis and recommend the autonomy ratio as a useful tool for measuring the bankruptcy risk two years in advance. The objective of the current research was to develop a methodology for measuring the bankruptcy risk that would be applicable for the companies from the Timis County (specific methodologies are considered necessary for each region. The target population consisted of all the companies from Timis County with annual sales of over 10,000 lei (aprox. 2,200 Euros. The research was performed over all the target population. The study has thus included 53,252 yearly financial statements from the period 2007 – 2010. The results of the study allow for the setting of benchmarks, as well as the configuration of a methodology of analysis. The proposed methodology cannot predict with perfect accuracy the state of the company, but it allows for a valuation of the risk level to which the company is subjected.

  6. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989's feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun

  7. Statistical moments of the Strehl ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaitskova, Natalia; Esselborn, Michael; Gladysz, Szymon

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge of the statistical characteristics of the Strehl ratio is essential for the performance assessment of the existing and future adaptive optics systems. For full assessment not only the mean value of the Strehl ratio but also higher statistical moments are important. Variance is related to the stability of an image and skewness reflects the chance to have in a set of short exposure images more or less images with the quality exceeding the mean. Skewness is a central parameter in the domain of lucky imaging. We present a rigorous theory for the calculation of the mean value, the variance and the skewness of the Strehl ratio. In our approach we represent the residual wavefront as being formed by independent cells. The level of the adaptive optics correction defines the number of the cells and the variance of the cells, which are the two main parameters of our theory. The deliverables are the values of the three moments as the functions of the correction level. We make no further assumptions except for the statistical independence of the cells.

  8. Omniclassical Diffusion in Low Aspect Ratio Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently reported numerical results for axisymmetric devices with low aspect ratio A found radial transport enhanced over the expected neoclassical value by a factor of 2 to 3. In this paper, we provide an explanation for this enhancement. Transport theory in toroidal devices usually assumes large A, and that the ratio B p /B t of the poloidal to the toroidal magnetic field is small. These assumptions result in transport which, in the low collision limit, is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device one may have B p /B t ∼ 1, and the gyroradius may be larger than the banana excursion. Here, we develop an approximate analytic transport theory valid for devices with arbitrary A. For low A, we find that the enhanced transport, referred to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly generalized classical effects, which become dominant in the low-A, B p /B t ∼ 1 regime. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained

  9. KERMA ratios in pediatric CT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Lavallee, Robert L.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.

    2012-01-01

    Patient organ doses may be estimated from CTDI values. More accurate estimates may be obtained by measuring KERMA (Kinetic Energy Released in Matter) in anthropomorphic phantoms and referencing these values to free-in-air X-ray intensity. To measure KERMA ratios (R K ) in pediatric phantoms at CT. CT scans produce an air KERMA K in a phantom and an air KERMA K CT at isocenter. KERMA ratios (R K ) are defined as (K/K CT ), measured using TLD chips in phantoms representing newborns to 10-year-olds. R K in the newborn is approximately constant. For the other phantoms, there is a peak R K value in the neck. The median R K values for the GE scanner at 120 kV were 0.92, 0.83, 0.77 and 0.76 for newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. Organ R K values were 0.91 ± 0.04, 0.84 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.09 and 0.72 ± 0.10 in newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. At 120 kV, a Siemens Sensation 16 scanner had R K values 5% higher than those of the GE LightSpeed Ultra. KERMA ratios may be combined with air KERMA measurements at the isocenter to estimate organ doses in pediatric CT patients. (orig.)

  10. Inter-Annual Variability of Fledgling Sex Ratio in King Penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Bordier

    Full Text Available As the number of breeding pairs depends on the adult sex ratio in a monogamous species with biparental care, investigating sex-ratio variability in natural populations is essential to understand population dynamics. Using 10 years of data (2000-2009 in a seasonally monogamous seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus, we investigated the annual sex ratio at fledging, and the potential environmental causes for its variation. Over more than 4000 birds, the annual sex ratio at fledging was highly variable (ranging from 44.4% to 58.3% of males, and on average slightly biased towards males (51.6%. Yearly variation in sex-ratio bias was neither related to density within the colony, nor to global or local oceanographic conditions known to affect both the productivity and accessibility of penguin foraging areas. However, rising sea surface temperature coincided with an increase in fledging sex-ratio variability. Fledging sex ratio was also correlated with difference in body condition between male and female fledglings. When more males were produced in a given year, their body condition was higher (and reciprocally, suggesting that parents might adopt a sex-biased allocation strategy depending on yearly environmental conditions and/or that the effect of environmental parameters on chick condition and survival may be sex-dependent. The initial bias in sex ratio observed at the juvenile stage tended to return to 1∶1 equilibrium upon first breeding attempts, as would be expected from Fisher's classic theory of offspring sex-ratio variation.

  11. 75 FR 79286 - Designated Reserve Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... history of the FDIC.\\19\\ The FDIC projects that, over the period 2010 through 2014, the fund could incur..., loan losses and delinquencies may have peaked. Although these short-term economic conditions can inform...

  12. Invited review: sex ratio and rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockshin, M D

    2001-11-01

    Human illnesses affect men and women differently. In some cases (diseases of sex organs, diseases resulting from X or Y chromosome mutations), reasons for sex discrepancy are obvious, but in other cases no reason is apparent. Explanations for sex discrepancy of illness occur at different biological levels: molecular (e.g., imprinting, X-inactivation), cellular (sex-specific receptor activity), organ (endocrine influences), whole organism (size, age), and environmental-behavioral, including intrauterine influences. Autoimmunity represents a prototypical class of illness that has high female-to-male (F/M) ratios. Although the F/M ratios in autoimmune diseases are usually attributed to the influence of estrogenic hormones, evidence demonstrates that the attributed ratios are imprecise and that definitions and classifications of autoimmune diseases vary, rendering at least part of the counting imprecise. In addition, many studies on sex discrepancy of human disease fail to distinguish between disease incidence and disease severity. In April 2001, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences published Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? (Wizemann T and Pardue M-L, editors). This minireview summarizes the section of that report that concerns autoimmune and infectious disease. Some thyroid, rheumatic, and hepatic autoimmune diseases have high F/M ratios, whereas others have low. Those that have high ratios occur primarily in young adulthood. Gonadal hormones, if they play a role, likely do so through a threshold or permissive mechanism. Examples of sex differences that could be caused by environmental exposure, X inactivation, imprinting, X or Y chromosome genetic modulators, and intrauterine influences are presented as alternate, theoretical, and largely unexplored explanations for sex differences of incidence. The epidemiology of autoimmune diseases (young, female) suggests that an explanation for sex discrepancy of

  13. Negative Control Outcomes and the Analysis of Standardized Mortality Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cooper, Glinda

    2015-09-01

    In occupational cohort mortality studies, epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in the cohort to the expected number obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the study cohort by the mortality rate in an external reference population. Interpretation of the result may be difficult due to noncomparability of the occupational cohort and reference population with respect to unmeasured risk factors for the outcome of interest. We describe an approach to estimate an adjusted standardized mortality ratio (aSMR) to control for such bias. The approach draws on methods developed for the use of negative control outcomes. Conditions necessary for unbiased estimation are described, as well as looser conditions necessary for bias reduction. The approach is illustrated using data on bladder cancer mortality among male Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. The SMR for bladder cancer was elevated among hourly-paid males (SMR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 2.7) but not among monthly-paid males (SMR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.67, 1.3). After indirect adjustment using the proposed approach, the mortality ratios were similar in magnitude among hourly- and monthly-paid men (aSMR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.2; and, aSMR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 2.8, respectively). The proposed adjusted SMR offers a complement to typical SMR analyses.

  14. Choice with frequently changing food rates and food ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M; Davison, Michael

    2014-03-01

    In studies of operant choice, when one schedule of a concurrent pair is varied while the other is held constant, the constancy of the constant schedule may exert discriminative control over performance. In our earlier experiments, schedules varied reciprocally across components within sessions, so that while food ratio varied food rate remained constant. In the present experiment, we held one variable-interval (VI) schedule constant while varying the concurrent VI schedule within sessions. We studied five conditions, each with a different constant left VI schedule. On the right key, seven different VI schedules were presented in seven different unsignaled components. We analyzed performances at several different time scales. At the longest time scale, across conditions, behavior ratios varied with food ratios as would be expected from the generalized matching law. At shorter time scales, effects due to holding the left VI constant became more and more apparent, the shorter the time scale. In choice relations across components, preference for the left key leveled off as the right key became leaner. Interfood choice approximated strict matching for the varied right key, whereas interfood choice hardly varied at all for the constant left key. At the shortest time scale, visit patterns differed for the left and right keys. Much evidence indicated the development of a fix-and-sample pattern. In sum, the procedural difference made a large difference to performance, except for choice at the longest time scale and the fix-and-sample pattern at the shortest time scale. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Identifying Malignant Pleural Effusion by A Cancer Ratio (Serum LDH: Pleural Fluid ADA Ratio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Abisheganaden, John; Light, R W

    2016-02-01

    We studied the diagnostic potential of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in malignant pleural effusion. Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized with exudative pleural effusion in 2013. Serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio was significantly higher in cancer patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pleural fluid ADA was negatively correlated 0.62 (0.45-0.85, p = 0.003) with malignancy, whereas serum LDH 1.02 (1.0-1.03, p = 0.004) and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio 0.94 (0.99-1.0, p = 0.04) was correlated positively with malignant pleural effusion. For serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio, a cut-off level of >20 showed sensitivity, specificity of 0.98 (95 % CI 0.92-0.99) and 0.94 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 32.6 (95 % CI 10.7-99.6), while the negative likelihood ratio at this cut-off was 0.03 (95 % CI 0.01-0.15). Higher serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio in patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion can distinguish between malignant and non-malignant effusion on the first day of hospitalization. The cut-off level for serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio of >20 is highly predictive of malignancy in patients with exudative pleural effusion (whether lymphocytic or neutrophilic) with high sensitivity and specificity.

  16. FINANCIAL RATIOS – REVEAL HOW A BUSINESS IS DOING?

    OpenAIRE

    MIRELA MONEA

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims to present the main financial ratios which provide a picture about company’s profitability, its financial position, use of its assets efficiency, its long-term debt financing. Discussion is focused on: profitability ratios, short-term financial ratios, activity ratios, long-term debt ratios or dividend policy ratios. Also, will try to answer at the following main questions: What financial ratios analysis tells us? What the users of these needs to know?

  17. Word Class Ratios and Genres in Written Japanese: Revisiting the Modifier Verb Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor HODOŠČEK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variability of genres in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese using the modifier-verb ratio proposed by Kabashima and Jukaku (1965. Using bagplots to quantifying the relation between noun and modifier-verb ratios, as well as some summary statistics obtain from them, we attempt to classify genres according to Kabashima and Jugaku (1965. Our initial analysis confirms previous research results, while at the same time uncovering some contradictions in the ratios of the genre of magazines.

  18. Sex ratio at birth and mortality rates are negatively related in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions.

  19. Colloid normalizes resuscitation ratio in pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraklas, Iris; Lam, Uyen; Cochran, Amalia; Stoddard, Gregory; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burned children is challenging because of their small size and intolerance to over- or underresuscitation. Our American Burn Association-verified regional burn center has used colloid "rescue" as part of our pediatric resuscitation protocol. With Institutional Review Board approval, the authors reviewed children with ≥15% TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2004, to May 1, 2009. Resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula, which was adjusted to maintain urine output. Patients requiring progressive increases in crystalloid were placed on a colloid protocol. Results were expressed as an hourly resuscitation ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). We reviewed 53 patients; 29 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone (lactated Ringer's solution [LR]), and 24 received colloid supplementation albumin (ALB). Groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, and time from injury to admission. ALB patients had more inhalation injuries and larger total and full-thickness burns. LR patients maintained a median I/O of 0.17 (range, 0.08-0.31), whereas ALB patients demonstrated escalating ratios until the institution of albumin produced a precipitous return of I/O comparable with that of the LR group. Hospital stay was lower for LR patients than ALB patients (0.59 vs 1.06 days/%TBSA, P = .033). Twelve patients required extremity or torso escharotomy, but this did not differ between groups. There were no decompressive laparotomies. The median resuscitation volume for ALB group was greater than LR group (9.7 vs 6.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, P = .004). Measuring hourly I/O is a helpful means of evaluating fluid demands during burn shock resuscitation. The addition of colloid restores normal I/O in pediatric patients.

  20. On the universality of knot probability ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Rechnitzer, A, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.ca, E-mail: andrewr@math.ubc.ca [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, 1984 Mathematics Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2 (Canada)

    2011-04-22

    Let p{sub n} denote the number of self-avoiding polygons of length n on a regular three-dimensional lattice, and let p{sub n}(K) be the number which have knot type K. The probability that a random polygon of length n has knot type K is p{sub n}(K)/p{sub n} and is known to decay exponentially with length (Sumners and Whittington 1988 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21 1689-94, Pippenger 1989 Discrete Appl. Math. 25 273-8). Little is known rigorously about the asymptotics of p{sub n}(K), but there is substantial numerical evidence. It is believed that the entropic exponent, {alpha}, is universal, while the exponential growth rate is independent of the knot type but varies with the lattice. The amplitude, C{sub K}, depends on both the lattice and the knot type. The above asymptotic form implies that the relative probability of a random polygon of length n having prime knot type K over prime knot type L. In the thermodynamic limit this probability ratio becomes an amplitude ratio; it should be universal and depend only on the knot types K and L. In this communication we examine the universality of these probability ratios for polygons in the simple cubic, face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic lattices. Our results support the hypothesis that these are universal quantities. For example, we estimate that a long random polygon is approximately 28 times more likely to be a trefoil than be a figure-eight, independent of the underlying lattice, giving an estimate of the intrinsic entropy associated with knot types in closed curves. (fast track communication)

  1. The transverse Poisson's ratio of composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    An expression is developed that makes possible the prediction of Poisson's ratio for unidirectional composites with reference to any pair of orthogonal axes that are normal to the direction of the reinforcing fibers. This prediction appears to be a reasonable one in that it follows the trends of the finite element analysis and the bounding estimates, and has the correct limiting value for zero fiber content. It can only be expected to apply to composites containing stiff, circular, isotropic fibers bonded to a soft matrix material.

  2. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  3. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  4. Aspect Ratio Dependence of Impact Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaoka, H.; Toyosawa, E.; Takayasu, H.; Inaoka, H.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical model of three-dimensional impact fragmentation produces a power-law cumulative fragment mass distribution followed by a flat tail. The result is consistent with an experimental result in a recent paper by Meibom and Balslev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2492 (1996)]. Our numerical simulation also implies that the fragment mass distribution changes from a power law with a flat tail to a power law with a sudden cutoff, depending on the aspect ratio of the fractured object. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Electronic branching ratio of the τ lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Morrison, R.J.; Tajima, H.; Schmidt, D.; Sperka, D.; Procario, M.; Daoudi, M.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Honscheid, K.; Jones, C.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Nandi, S.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Selen, M.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yelton, J.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Yamamoto, H.; Sadoff, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio R=Γ(τ→e bar ν e ν τ )/Γ 1 , where Γ 1 is the τ decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find R=0.2231±0.0044±0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the τ lepton to electrons, B e =0.192±0.004±0.006

  6. Decay ratio estimation in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.; Runkel, J.

    1990-11-01

    The well known decay ratio (DR) from stability analysis of boiling water reactors (BWR) is estimated from the impulse response function which was evaluated using a simplified univariate autoregression method. This simplified DR called modified DR (mDR) was applied on neutron noise measurements carried out during five fuel cycles of a 1300 MWe PWR. Results show that this fast evaluation method can be used for monitoring of the growing oscillation of the neutron flux during the fuel cycles which is a major concern of utilities in PWRs, thus it can be used for estimating safety margins. (author) 17 refs.; 10 figs

  7. Abundance ratios in dwarf elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Ş.; Peletier, R. F.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Mentz, J. J.; Paudel, S.; Salo, H.; Sybilska, A.; Toloba, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Yesilyaprak, C.

    2018-04-01

    We determine abundance ratios of 37 dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in the nearby Virgo cluster. This sample is representative of the early-type population of galaxies in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 originate from late-type dwarfs or small spirals. Na-yields appear to be very metal-dependent, in agreement with studies of giant ellipticals, probably due to the large dependence on the neutron-excess in stars. We conclude that dEs have undergone a considerable amount of chemical evolution, they are therefore not uniformly old, but have extended SFH, similar to many of the Local Group galaxies.

  8. Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort

  9. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  10. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  11. Hilar height ratio in normal Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kyung Ho; Lee, Nam Joon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1979-01-01

    Hilar displacement is one of the significant sign of pulmonary volume change. The hilar height ratio (HHR) is a value that express the normal position of hilum in its hemithorax, and it is calculated by dividing the distance from the hilum to the lung apex by the distance from the hilum to the diaphragm. Displacement of one hilum is usually easy to detect but both are displaced in the same direction especially, recognition is more difficult. Knowledge of normal HHR allows evaluation of hilar positional change even when the relative hilar position are not altered. Normal chest PA views of 275 cases taken at Korea University Hospital during the period of April 1978 to Jun 1979 were analyzed. The right hilum is positioned in lower half of the right hemithorax, while the left hilum is situated in the upper half of left hemithorax. The difference of hilar ratio according to age group is slight, but there is significant difference between right-HHR and left-HHR. The value of right-HHR is 1.28 ± 0.14, the value of left-HHR is 0.88 ± 0.09.

  12. Carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hitoshi; Kishima, Noriaki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    The delta 13 C values relative to PDB were measured for carbon dioxide in air samples collected at various parts of Japan and at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii in the periods of 1977 and 1978. The delta 13 C values of the ''clean air'' are -7.6 % at Hawaii and -8.1 per mille Oki and Hachijo-jima islands. These values are definitely lighter than the carbon isotope ratios (-6.9 per mille) obtained by Keeling for clean airs collected at Southern California in 1955 to 1956. The increase in 12 C in atmospheric carbon dioxide is attributed to the input of the anthropogenic light carbon dioxides (combustion of fossil fuels etc.) Taking -7.6 per mille to be the isotope ratio of CO 2 in the present clean air, a simple three box model predicts that the biosphere has decreased rather than increased since 1955, implying that it is acting as the doner of carbon rather than the sink. (author)

  13. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  14. Validation of the Rotation Ratios Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, O.A.; Klaksvik, J.; Benum, P.; Anda, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The rotation ratios method describes rotations between pairs of sequential pelvic radiographs. The method seems promising but has not been validated. Purpose: To validate the accuracy of the rotation ratios method. Material and Methods: Known pelvic rotations between 165 radiographs obtained from five skeletal pelvises in an experimental material were compared with the corresponding calculated rotations to describe the accuracy of the method. The results from a clinical material of 262 pelvic radiographs from 46 patients defined the ranges of rotational differences compared. Repeated analyses, both on the experimental and the clinical material, were performed using the selected reference points to describe the robustness and the repeatability of the method. Results: The reference points were easy to identify and barely influenced by pelvic rotations. The mean differences between calculated and real pelvic rotations were 0.0 deg (SD 0.6) for vertical rotations and 0.1 deg (SD 0.7) for transversal rotations in the experimental material. The intra- and interobserver repeatability of the method was good. Conclusion: The accuracy of the method was reasonably high, and the method may prove to be clinically useful

  15. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-01-01

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores treated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcome the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better thermal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor

  16. Condition Indicators for Gearbox Condition Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Večeř

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring systems for manual transmissions based on vibration diagnostics are widely applied in industry. The systems deal with various condition indicators, most of which are focused on a specific type of gearbox fault. Frequently used condition indicators (CIs are described in this paper. The ability of a selected condition indicator to describe the degree of gearing wear was tested using vibration signals acquired during durability testing of manual transmission with helical gears. 

  17. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...

  18. Online stable carbon isotope ratio measurement in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol in water by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    A suitable analysis condition was determined for high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS) while making sequential measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios of δ 13 C in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol dissolved in water. For this online column separation method, organic reagents are not applicable due to carbon contamination; thus, water and KH 2 PO 4 at low concentrations were tested as mobile phase in combination with a HyPURITY AQUASTAR TM column. Formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol were separated when 2 mM KH 2 PO 4 aqueous solution was used. Under the determined analysis condition for HPLC-IRMS, carbon concentrations could be measured quantitatively as well as carbon isotope ratio when carbon concentration was higher than 0.4 mM L for each chemical

  19. Fast fission ratio and relative conversion ratio measurements in gadolinium poisoned water moderated UO2 lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    A programme of criticality experiments has been carried out for BNFL by the Battelle reactor facility at Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Washington State, USA. A series of water moderated lattices of 4.3% enriched, 12.7 mm diameter, UO 2 fuel rods was studied, the fuel pitch was varied and the effects of gadolinium poison were measured. This report deals with the measurement of Fast Fission Ratios and Relative Conversion Ratios at the centre of five of the critical lattices. The Fast Fission Ratio (FFR) is defined here as the ratio of the fission rate per atom of U238, to the fission rate per atom of U235. The Relative Conversion Ratio (RCR) is defined as the ratio of the capture rate per ,atom of U238, to the fission rate per atom of U235, in the reactor fuel, relative to the corresponding ratio in a well thermalised neutron spectrum. A major aspect of these measurements was that the packs of foils were prepared at AEEW Winfrith, despatched to the USA for irradiation and returned to Winfrith for counting. This resulted in a considerable logistics problem but by good planning and the co-operation and diligence of all concerned this problem was overcome. However, the long distance involved inevitably meant that samples were not available for measurement until about 28 hours after the irradiation. It was therefore necessary to modify the techniques that are normally used in the Reactor Physics Division Counting Laboratory, where samples are normally available about two hours after shut-down. The techniques used and the results obtained are given below

  20. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology.......Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that may...

  1. Ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valind, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis is based on five different papers. The labelling of specific tracer compounds with positron emitting radionuclides enables a range of structural, physiological and biochemical parameters in the lung to be measured non-invasively, using positron emission tomography. This concept affords a unique opportunity for in vivo studies of different expressions of pulmonary pathophysiology at the regional level. The present thesis describes the application of positron emission tomography to the measurements of ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios using inert gas tracers, neon-19 and nitrogen-13 respectively. The validity of the methods applied was investigated with respect to the transport of inert gas tracers in the human lung. Both ventilation and the ventilation/perfusion ratio may be obtained with errors less than 10 % in the normal lung. In disease, however, errors may increase in those instances where the regional ventilation is very low or the intra-regional gas flow distribution is markedly nonuniform. A 2-3 fold increase in ventilation was demonstrated in normal nonsmoking subjects going from ventral to dorsal regions in the supine posture. These large regional differences could be well explained by the intrinsic elastic properties of lung tissue, considering the gravitational gradient in transpulmonary pressure. In asymptomatic smokers substantial regional ventilatroy abnormalities were found whilst the regional gas volume was similar in smokers and nonsmokers. The uncoupling between ventilation and gas volume probably reflects inflammatory changes in the airways. The regional differences in dV/dt/dQ/dt were relatively small and blood flow was largely matched to ventilation in the supine posture. However, small regions of lung with very low ventilation, unmatched by blood flow commonly exists in the most dependent parts of the lung in both smokers and nonsmokers. (29 illustrations, 7 tables, 113 references)

  2. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Icelandic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, K.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of hydrothermally altered basalts from depth of up to approx.3 km are reported from three localities in Iceland: International Research Drilling Project (IRDP) core at Reydarfjordur, eastern Iceland (Tertiary age); drill cuttings from Reykjavik (Plio-Pleistocene age); and Halocene drill cuttings from the active Krafla central volcano. Whole rock samples from these three localities have delta 18 O values averaging +3.9 +- 1.3, +2.4 +- 1.1, and -7.7 +- 2.4%, respectively. The observed values in the deeper samples from Krafla are as low as the values for any rocks previously reported. There seems to be a slight negative gradient in delta 18 O with depth at the former two localities and a more pronounced one at Krafla. Oxygen isotope fractionations between epidote and quartz and those between calcite and fluid suggests that the basalts were altered at temperatures of 300 0 --400 0 C. Low deltaD and delta 18 O of epidote and low delta 34 S of anhydrite indicate that the altering fluids in all three areas originated as meteoric waters and have undergone varied 'oxygen shifts'. Differences in the 18 O shift of the fluids are attributed to differences in hydrothermal systems; low water/rock ratios ( 5) at Krafla. The convective hydrothermal activity, which is probably driven by silicic magma beneath the central volcanoes, has caused strong subsolidus depletion of 18 O in the rocks. The primary-magnetic delta 18 O value of the rocks in the Tertiary IRDP core was about +3.9%, which is lower than that obtained for fresh basalt from other places. Such exceptionally low delta 18 O magmas are common in Iceland and may occur as the result of oxygen isotope exchange with or assimilation of altered rocks that form a thick sequence beneath the island due to isostatic subsidence

  3. Qubit-qutrit separability-probability ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    Paralleling our recent computationally intensive (quasi-Monte Carlo) work for the case N=4 (e-print quant-ph/0308037), we undertake the task for N=6 of computing to high numerical accuracy, the formulas of Sommers and Zyczkowski (e-print quant-ph/0304041) for the (N 2 -1)-dimensional volume and (N 2 -2)-dimensional hyperarea of the (separable and nonseparable) NxN density matrices, based on the Bures (minimal monotone) metric--and also their analogous formulas (e-print quant-ph/0302197) for the (nonmonotone) flat Hilbert-Schmidt metric. With the same seven 10 9 well-distributed ('low-discrepancy') sample points, we estimate the unknown volumes and hyperareas based on five additional (monotone) metrics of interest, including the Kubo-Mori and Wigner-Yanase. Further, we estimate all of these seven volume and seven hyperarea (unknown) quantities when restricted to the separable density matrices. The ratios of separable volumes (hyperareas) to separable plus nonseparable volumes (hyperareas) yield estimates of the separability probabilities of generically rank-6 (rank-5) density matrices. The (rank-6) separability probabilities obtained based on the 35-dimensional volumes appear to be--independently of the metric (each of the seven inducing Haar measure) employed--twice as large as those (rank-5 ones) based on the 34-dimensional hyperareas. (An additional estimate--33.9982--of the ratio of the rank-6 Hilbert-Schmidt separability probability to the rank-4 one is quite clearly close to integral too.) The doubling relationship also appears to hold for the N=4 case for the Hilbert-Schmidt metric, but not the others. We fit simple exact formulas to our estimates of the Hilbert-Schmidt separable volumes and hyperareas in both the N=4 and N=6 cases

  4. THEORETICAL PROPOSAL FOR EXPANSION OF ROE WITH NEW SUB-RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dorović

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ROE is the ratio of profitability which can be separated into three ratios in Du Pont model. The question is - can it be even more comprehensive with more than three Du Pont ratios; that is can it also include liquidity, market share, break-even point, plan vs. actual, structure of assets and liabilities, structure of fixed costs, etc.? If these can be included in calculation, the financial, management accounting and strategic analysis could be more integrated into one more rounded system. Financial ratio analysis would also integrate into one ratio the usually different areas of analysis, like structure of assets, structure of liabili-ties, liquidity, turnover, financial leverage, etc. Strategic management and management accounting ratios, developed in the literature and used in business practice, are represented. The article in front of you presents a theoretical proposal through deduction method of how mentioned measures can potentially be included in ROE, resulting in potential benefits in planning and controlling. Integrated different areas of financial ratio analysis, manage- ment accounting and strategic analysis each represented with its ratios in profitability measure ratio, provides potentially better view of conditions, profit multiplicators and risk the profitability is achieved by. Integration inside profitability measure gives a special qual-itative advantage, having in mind that achieved profit is the main goal for owners of the company`s equity.

  5. Analysis of Financial Ratio to Distinguish Indonesia Joint Venture General Insurance Company Performance using Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiakto Soekarno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry stands as a service business that plays a significant role in Indonesiaeconomical condition. The development of insurance industry in Indonesia, both of generalinsurance and life insurance, has increased very fast. The general insurance industry itselfdivided into two major players which are local private company and Joint Venture Company.Lately, the use of statistical techniques and financial ratios models to asses financial institutionsuch as insurance company have been used as one of the appropriate combination inpredicting the performance of an industry. This research aims to distinguish between JointVenture General Insurance Companies that have a good performance and those who are lessperforming well using Discriminant Analysis. Further, the findings led that DiscriminantAnalysis is able to distinguish Joint Venture General Insurance Companies that have a goodperformance and those who are not performing well. There are also six ratios which are RBC,Technical Reserve to Investment Ratio, Debt Ratio, Return on Equity, Loss Ratio, and ExpenseRatio that stand as the most influential ratios to distinguish the performance of joint venturegeneral insurance companies. In addition, the result suggest business people to be concernedtoward those six ratios, to increase their companies’ performance.Key words: general insurance, financial ratio, discriminant analysis

  6. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of the O/M ratio in MOX pellets - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This International Standard describes a method for determining the oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio in mixed uranium-plutonium oxide pellets. The (U,Pu)O 2 x sample is submitted to controlled oxidation-reduction under thermodynamic conditions designed to change the O/M ratio to a value of 2,000. The initial stoichiometric deviation, X, is determined from the sample mass difference before and after heat treatment

  7. Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of lipid bilayers in different phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh eJadidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A general computational method is introduced to estimate the Poisson's ratio for membranes with small thickness.In this method, the Poisson's ratio is calculated by utilizing a rescaling of inter-particle distancesin one lateral direction under periodic boundary conditions. As an example for the coarse grained lipid model introduced by Lenz and Schmid, we calculate the Poisson's ratio in the gel, fluid, and interdigitated phases. Having the Poisson's ratio, enable us to obtain the Young's modulus for the membranes in different phases. The approach may be applied to other membranes such as graphene and tethered membranes in orderto predict the temperature dependence of its Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus.

  8. Optimized thick-wall cylinders by virtue of Poisson's ratio selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, J.P.M.; Henderson, B.; Francis, J.; Lloyd, N.

    2011-01-01

    The principal stress distributions in thick-wall cylinders due to variation in the Poisson's ratio are predicted using analytical and finite element methods. Analyses of appropriate brittle and ductile failure criteria show that under the isochoric pressure conditions investigated that auextic (i.e. those possessing a negative Poisson's ratio) materials act as stress concentrators; hence they are predicted to fail before their conventional (i.e. possessing a positive Poisson's ratio) material counterparts. The key finding of the work presented shows that for constrained thick-wall cylinders the maximum tensile principal stress can vanish at a particular Poisson's ratio and aspect ratio. This phenomenon is exploited in order to present an optimized design criterion for thick-wall cylinders. Moreover, via the use of a cogent finite element model, this criterion is also shown to be applicable for the design of micro-porous materials.

  9. An evaluation of damping ratios for HVAC duct systems using vibration test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunyasu, K.; Horimizu, Y.; Kawakami, A.; Iokibe, H.; Yamazaki, T.

    1988-01-01

    The function of Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems must be maintained including HVAC duct systems to keep the operation of safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants during earthquake excitations. Therefore, it is important to carry out seismic design for HVAC duct systems. In the previous aseismic design for HVAC duct systems, the 0.5% damping ratio has been used in Japan. In recent years, vibration tests, held on actual duct systems in nuclear power plants and mockup duct systems were performed in order to investigate damping ratios for HVAC duct systems. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the damping ratio for HVAC duct systems, evaluated from these tests, were much greater than the 0.5% damping ratio used in the previous aseismic design of Japan. The new damping ratio in aseismic design was proposed to be 2.5%. The present paper describes the results of the above mentioned investigation

  10. Pengaruh Likuiditas, Profitabilitas, Leverage, dan Market Ratio terhadap Dividend Payout Ratio pada Perusahaan Manufaktur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Puspita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dividend policy is concerned with financial policies regarding what amount cash dividend paid to shareholders and re-invested as retained earnings. The recent research aimed to test empirically various factors is considered to affect dividend policy. The independent variables in his research included Current Ratio (CR, Return on Equity (ROE, Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, and Earning Per Share (EPS. Meanwhile, the dependent variable was Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR. Quantitative research was used as the research design and the data was secondary data. Furthermore, purposive sampling was selected to get the sample. The result was 14 companies that pay dividend continuously during this research conducted on 2012 - 2014 were selected as the sample of this research. Multiple linier regression was used to analyze the data. The results showed that ROE and EPS has a contribution to the DPR, and then CR and DER has no contribution to the DPR.

  11. Combined slope ratio analysis and linear-subtraction: An extension of the Pearce ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waal, Sybrand A.

    1996-07-01

    A new technique, called combined slope ratio analysis, has been developed by extending the Pearce element ratio or conserved-denominator method (Pearce, 1968) to its logical conclusions. If two stoichiometric substances are mixed and certain chemical components are uniquely contained in either one of the two mixing substances, then by treating these unique components as conserved, the composition of the substance not containing the relevant component can be accurately calculated within the limits allowed by analytical and geological error. The calculated composition can then be subjected to rigorous statistical testing using the linear-subtraction method recently advanced by Woronow (1994). Application of combined slope ratio analysis to the rocks of the Uwekahuna Laccolith, Hawaii, USA, and the lavas of the 1959-summit eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, USA, yields results that are consistent with field observations.

  12. Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels B

    2013-01-01

    We have explored the use of mold coatings and optimized processing conditions to injection mold high aspect ratio nanostructures (height-to-width >1) in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Optimizing the molding parameters on uncoated nickel molds resulted in slight improvements in replication quality...... as described by height, width and uniformity of the nanoscopic features. Use of a mold temperature transiently above the polymer glass transition temperature (Tg) was the most important factor in increasing the replication fidelity. Surface coating of the nickel molds with a fluorocarbon-containing thin film...... (FDTS) greatly enhanced the quality of replicated features, in particular at transient mold temperatures above Tg. Injection molding using the latter mold temperature regime resulted in a bimodal distribution of pillar heights, corresponding to either full or very poor replication of the individual...

  13. An identification method for damping ratio in rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Li, Qihang; Gao, Jinji; Yao, Jianfei; Allaire, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Centrifugal compressor testing with magnetic bearing excitations is the last step to assure the compressor rotordynamic stability in the designed operating conditions. To meet the challenges of stability evaluation, a new method combining the rational polynomials method (RPM) with the weighted instrumental variables (WIV) estimator to fit the directional frequency response function (dFRF) is presented. Numerical simulation results show that the method suggested in this paper can identify the damping ratio of the first forward and backward modes with high accuracy, even in a severe noise environment. Experimental tests were conducted to study the effect of different bearing configurations on the stability of rotor. Furthermore, two example centrifugal compressors (a nine-stage straight-through and a six-stage back-to-back) were employed to verify the feasibility of identification method in industrial configurations as well.

  14. The Scattering Outcomes of Kepler Circumbinary Planets: Planet Mass Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yan-Xiang; Ji, Jianghui, E-mail: yxgong@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: jijh@pmo.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Planetary Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies reveal that the free eccentricities of Kepler-34b and Kepler-413b are much larger than their forced eccentricities, implying that scattering events may take place in their formation. The observed orbital configuration of Kepler-34b cannot be well reproduced in disk-driven migration models, whereas a two-planet scattering scenario can play a significant role of shaping the planetary configuration. These studies indicate that circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler may have experienced scattering process. In this work, we extensively investigate the scattering outcomes of circumbinary planets focusing on the effects of planet mass ratio . We find that the planetary mass ratio and the the initial relative locations of planets act as two important parameters that affect the eccentricity distribution of the surviving planets. As an application of our model, we discuss the observed orbital configurations of Kepler-34b and Kepler-413b. We first adopt the results from the disk-driven models as the initial conditions, then simulate the scattering process that occurs in the late evolution stage of circumbinary planets. We show that the present orbital configurations of Kepler-34b and Kepler-413b can be well reproduced when considering a two unequal-mass planet ejection model. Our work further suggests that some of the currently discovered circumbinary single-planet systems may be survivors of original multiple-planet systems. The disk-driven migration and scattering events occurring in the late stage both play an irreplaceable role in sculpting the final systems.

  15. THE LARGE ASPECT RATIO LIMIT OF NEOCLASSICAL TRANSPORT THEORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WONG,SK; CHAN,VS

    2002-11-01

    OAK B202 THE LARGE ASPECT RATIO LIMIT OF NEOCLASSICAL TRANSPORT THEORY. This article presents a comprehensive description of neoclassical transport theory in the banana regime for large aspect ratio flux surfaces of arbitrary shapes. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to obtain analytical solutions for plasma distribution functions and to compute transport coefficients. The method provides justification for retaining only the part of the Fokker-Planck operator that involves the second derivative with respect to the cosine of the pitch angle for the trapped and barely circulating particles. It leads to a simple equation for the freely circulating particles with boundary conditions that embody a discontinuity separating particles moving in opposite directions. Corrections to the transport coefficients are obtained by generalizing an existing boundary layer analysis. The system of moment and field equations is consistently taken in the cylinder limit, which facilitates discussion of the treatment of dynamical constraints. it is shown that the nonlocal nature of Ohm's law in neoclassical theory renders the mathematical problem of plasma transport with changing flux surfaces nonstandard.

  16. Isotope Ratio Monitoring Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (IRM-GCMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, K.H.; Ricci, S.A.; Studley, A.; Hayes, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    On Earth, the C-13 content of organic compounds is depleted by roughly 13 to 23 permil from atmospheric carbon dioxide. This difference is largely due to isotope effects associated with the fixation of inorganic carbon by photosynthetic organisms. If life once existed on Mars, then it is reasonable to expect to observe a similar fractionation. Although the strongly oxidizing conditions on the surface of Mars make preservation of ancient organic material unlikely, carbon-isotope evidence for the existence of life on Mars may still be preserved. Carbon depleted in C-13 could be preserved either in organic compounds within buried sediments, or in carbonate minerals produced by the oxidation of organic material. A technique is introduced for rapid and precise measurement of the C-13 contents of individual organic compounds. A gas chromatograph is coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer through a combustion interface, enabling on-line isotopic analysis of isolated compounds. The isotope ratios are determined by integration of ion currents over the course of each chromatographic peak. Software incorporates automatic peak determination, corrections for background, and deconvolution of overlapped peaks. Overall performance of the instrument was evaluated by the analysis of a mixture of high purity n-alkanes of know isotopic composition. Isotopic values measured via IRM-GCMS averaged withing 0.55 permil of their conventionally measured values

  17. Numerical Analysis of Film Cooling at High Blowing Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabry, Lamyaa; Heidmann, James; Ameri, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics is used in the analysis of a film cooling jet in crossflow. Predictions of film effectiveness are compared with experimental results for a circular jet at blowing ratios ranging from 0.5 to 2.0. Film effectiveness is a surface quantity which alone is insufficient in understanding the source and finding a remedy for shortcomings of the numerical model. Therefore, in addition, comparisons are made to flow field measurements of temperature along the jet centerline. These comparisons show that the CFD model is accurately predicting the extent and trajectory of the film cooling jet; however, there is a lack of agreement in the near-wall region downstream of the film hole. The effects of main stream turbulence conditions, boundary layer thickness, turbulence modeling, and numerical artificial dissipation are evaluated and found to have an insufficient impact in the wake region of separated films (i.e. cannot account for the discrepancy between measured and predicted centerline fluid temperatures). Analyses of low and moderate blowing ratio cases are carried out and results are in good agreement with data.

  18. THE LARGE ASPECT RATIO LIMIT OF NEOCLASSICAL TRANSPORT THEORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WONG, S.K.; CHAN, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    OAK B202 THE LARGE ASPECT RATIO LIMIT OF NEOCLASSICAL TRANSPORT THEORY. This article presents a comprehensive description of neoclassical transport theory in the banana regime for large aspect ratio flux surfaces of arbitrary shapes. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to obtain analytical solutions for plasma distribution functions and to compute transport coefficients. The method provides justification for retaining only the part of the Fokker-Planck operator that involves the second derivative with respect to the cosine of the pitch angle for the trapped and barely circulating particles. It leads to a simple equation for the freely circulating particles with boundary conditions that embody a discontinuity separating particles moving in opposite directions. Corrections to the transport coefficients are obtained by generalizing an existing boundary layer analysis. The system of moment and field equations is consistently taken in the cylinder limit, which facilitates discussion of the treatment of dynamical constraints. it is shown that the nonlocal nature of Ohm's law in neoclassical theory renders the mathematical problem of plasma transport with changing flux surfaces nonstandard

  19. Determination of cesium-137 soil-to-plant concentration ratios for vegetables in Goiania City, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.; Sachett, I.A.; Pereira, J.C.; Zenaro, R.

    1994-01-01

    The radiological accident that occurred in Goiania City, Brazil, in September 1987, led to the spreading of 137 Cs in the urban area. Even after the decontamination procedure, there was a reminiscence of 137 Cs activity in the soil of residential gardens. This activity was enough to conduct preliminary experiments for determination of soil to vegetable concentration ratios. Experiments were conducted for carrots, lettuce and radishes. Two types of experimental patterns were used to determine the concentration ratios: lysimeters cultivation under greenhouse condition and soil cultivation in open field plot. The concentration ratios measured for cultivation under greenhouse and field plot conditions are considerably higher than those mentioned in the International Union of Radioecologist (IUR) data bank for the same vegetables and cultivation condition. (author) 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Liquid to gas leak ratios with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    To predict the leak rates of liquid helium and liquid nitrogen containers at operating conditions we need to know how small leaks (10 -8 to 10 -5 atm-cm 3 air/s), measured at standard conditions, behave when flooded with these cryogens. Two small leaks were measured at ambient conditions (approx.750 Torr and 295 K), at the normal boiling points of LN 2 and LHe, and at elevated pressures above the liquids. The ratios of the leak rates of the liquids at ambient pressure to the gases (G) at ambient pressure and room temperature were: GN 2 (1), LN 2 (18), GHe(1), and LHe(172). The leak rate ratio of LN 2 at elevated pressure was linear with pressure. The leak rate ratio of LHe at elevated pressure was also linear with pressure

  1. Liquid to gas leak ratios with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    To predict the leak rates of liquid helium and liquid nitrogen containers at operating conditions we need to know how small leaks (10 -8 to 10 -5 atm-cm 3 air/s), measured at standard conditions, behave when flooded with these cryogens. Two small leaks were measured at ambient conditions (about 750 Torr and 295 K), at the normal boiling points of LN 2 and LHe, and at elevated pressures above the liquids. The ratios of the leak rates of the liquids at ambient pressure to the gases at ambient pressure and room temperature are presented. The leak rate ratio of LN 2 at elevated pressure was linear with pressure. The leak rate ratio of LHe at elevated pressure was also linear with pressure

  2. Lettuce flavonoids screening and phenotyping by chlorophyll fluorescence excitation ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivcak, Marek; Brückova, Klaudia; Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Olsovska, Katarina; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2017-06-01

    Environmentally induced variation and the genotypic differences in flavonoid and phenolic content in lettuce can be reliably detected using the appropriate parameters derived from the records of rapid non-invasive fluorescence technique. The chlorophyll fluorescence excitation ratio method was designed as a rapid and non-invasive tool to estimate the content of UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in plants. Using this technique, we have assessed the dynamics of accumulation of flavonoids related to developmental changes and environmental effects. Moreover, we have tested appropriateness of the method to identify the genotypic differences and fluctuations in total phenolics and flavonoid content in lettuce. Six green and two red genotypes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in pots were exposed to two different environments for 50 days: direct sunlight (UV-exposed) and greenhouse conditions (low UV). The indices based on the measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence after red, green and UV excitation indicated increase of the content of UV-absorbing compounds and anthocyanins in the epidermis of lettuce leaves. In similar, the biochemical analyses performed at the end of the experiment confirmed significantly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content in lettuce plants exposed to direct sun compared to greenhouse conditions and in red compared to green genotypes. As the correlation between the standard fluorescence indices and the biochemical records was negatively influenced by the presence of red genotypes, we proposed the use of a new parameter named Modified Flavonoid Index (MFI) taking into an account both absorbance changes due to flavonol and anthocyanin content, for which the correlation with flavonoid and phenolic content was relatively good. Thus, our results confirmed that the fluorescence excitation ratio method is useful for identifying the major differences in phenolic and flavonoid content in lettuce plants and it can be used for high-throughput pre

  3. Analysis of signal to background ratio in synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kenji; Gohshi, Yohichi; Iida, Atsuo.

    1988-01-01

    The signal to background (S/B) ratio in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SR) was quantitatively analyzed. The S/B ratio, which has been significantly improved by taking advantage of the polarized nature of SR, was found to be strongly dependent on geometrical factors of the measurement system. From the analysis on the origin of the scattered background, the dependence of the S/B ratio on the geometry was quantitatively explained, mainly by the polarization properties of SR. Experimental conditions could be optimized by adjusting the degree of polarization of the incident beam and the detector solid angle. (author)

  4. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of malachite from the patinas of ancient bronze objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    13 C/ 12 C and 18 O/ 16 O ratios have been measured for 62 samples of the mineral malachite, taken from the patinas of ancient bronze objects (from Britain, Italy, Libya and China), in order to investigate any possible relationship which may exist between the isotope ratios and the burial conditions of the objects. The results indicate that the isotope ratios are controlled by complex factors related to the climate, vegetation and soil type at the burial site. It is suggested that the technique might be used, given favourable circumstances, in the characterization of patinas and as a possible aid in the detection of synthetic patination. (author)

  5. A distribution ratio model of strontium by crown ether extraction from simulated HLLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing; Wang Qiuping; Wang Jianchen; Song Chongli

    1995-01-01

    An experiential distribution ratio model for strontium extraction by dicyclohexano-18-crown-6-n-octanol from simulated high-level waste is established. The experimental points for the model are designed by experimental homogeneous-design method. The regression of distribution ratio model of strontium is carried out by the complex-optimization method. The model is verified with experimental distribution ratio data in different extraction conditions. The results show that the relative deviations are within +-10% and the mean relative divination is 4.4% between the calculated data and the experimental ones. The experiential model together with an iteration program can be used for the strontium extraction process calculation

  6. Concentration ratio of radon progeny in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2000-01-01

    Investigations have been made on the concentration ratio of radon progeny in air. Data have been acquired intermittently since 1988 using alpha spectroscopic method around the author's office that is located in the northeastern part of Japan. Clarifying the behavior of radon progeny is an issue of wide importance to radiation protection, predicting earthquakes, etc. Let Rabc=ECRn(RaA)/{ECRn(RaB) + ECRn(RaC)}; the concentration ratio, Rabc, is relevant to the stability of the air. Statistical and time series analyses indicated several interesting results. To examine the log-normal distribution, Lilliefors test was made for logarithm of outdoor data every one year. Rabc passed the test 6 times for 9 years, while Radon progeny passed 8 times. Outdoor data indicated that the value of Rabc was lower in the morning, in other world, the air was more stable in the morning than in the afternoon. To see the seasonal variation, one-way layout analysis was made for four groups of data, i.e., spring (March to May), summer (June to August), autumn (September to November), and winter (December to February). Rabc indicated significantly higher level in spring and winter, in other word, air was stable in summer and autumn. Time series analysis was made for various variables; power spectra were estimated with autoregressive model that is equivalent to maximum entropy method. Power spectrum for Rabc was most similar to that of wind speed. One-year period, that is always remarkable for radon progeny, was not significant for Rabc. Three- to nine-day periods were often seen for Rabc, radon progeny, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure. These several-day periods are probably attributed to the passage of air masses. Twenty-day to thirty-day peak may be attributed to meteorological phenomena corresponding to the rotation period of the sun. Temperature indicated no significant periodicity except overwhelming one-year period. Wind speed is well known to affect the radon progeny concentration

  7. A NEW MODIFIED RATIO ESTIMATOR FOR ESTIMATION OF POPULATION MEAN WHEN MEDIAN OF THE AUXILIARY VARIABLE IS KNOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambulingam Subramani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a modified ratio estimator for estimation of population mean of the study variable when the population median of the auxiliary variable is known. The bias and mean squared error of the proposed estimator are derived and are compared with that of existing modified ratio estimators for certain known populations. Further we have also derived the conditions for which the proposed estimator performs better than the existing modified ratio estimators. From the numerical study it is also observed that the proposed modified ratio estimator performs better than the existing modified ratio estimators for certain known populations.

  8. Diffusion piecewise homogenization via flux discontinuity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard; Dante, Giorgio; Zmijarevic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    We analyze piecewise homogenization with flux-weighted cross sections and preservation of averaged currents at the boundary of the homogenized domain. Introduction of a set of flux discontinuity ratios (FDR) that preserve reference interface currents leads to preservation of averaged region reaction rates and fluxes. We consider the class of numerical discretizations with one degree of freedom per volume and per surface and prove that when the homogenization and computing meshes are equal there is a unique solution for the FDRs which exactly preserve interface currents. For diffusion sub-meshing we introduce a Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov method and for all cases considered obtain an 'exact' numerical solution (eight digits for the interface currents). The homogenization is completed by extending the familiar full assembly homogenization via flux discontinuity factors to the sides of regions laying on the boundary of the piecewise homogenized domain. Finally, for the familiar nodal discretization we numerically find that the FDRs obtained with no sub-mesh (nearly at no cost) can be effectively used for whole-core diffusion calculations with sub-mesh. This is not the case, however, for cell-centered finite differences. (authors)

  9. Detection strategies for extreme mass ratio inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Neil J

    2011-01-01

    The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near-horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for tens of thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an exhaustive grid-based matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here I describe an alternative approach that employs a hybrid between genetic algorithms and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques, along with several time-saving techniques for computing the likelihood function. This approach has proven effective at the blind extraction of relatively weak EMRI signals from simulated LISA data sets.

  10. Skin Condition Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  11. A ratio scale for brightness perception derived from difference and ratio judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de H.; Sabourin, M.

    1992-01-01

    The often observed nonlinearity between magnitude estimations and category ratings has raised the question whether subjects can judge sensation differences as well as sensation ratios when instructed to do so. For brightness this will be shown to be the case; the rank order of difference judgments

  12. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for a...

  13. The adenoid-nasopharynx ratio. Its clinical value in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Mingshun

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of adenoid-nasopharynx ratio (A/N ratio) measured on nasopharyngeal lateral plain film, 106 clinical cases of secretory otitis media were selected to measure the A/N ratio before treatment. For patients with A/N ratio of 0.50-0.70, the symptoms improved distinctly after conservative treatment, but one half of patients with A/N ratio ≥ 0.71 required adenoidectomy. A/N ratio is a practical and convenient method for evaluation of the adenoid. A/N ratio ≥ 0.71 indicates pathological enlarged adenoid

  14. The effect of tip speed ratio on a vertical axis wind turbine at high Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2016-05-01

    This work visualizes the flow surrounding a scaled model vertical axis wind turbine at realistic operating conditions. The model closely matches geometric and dynamic properties—tip speed ratio and Reynolds number—of a full-size turbine. The flow is visualized using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) in the midplane upstream, around, and after (up to 4 turbine diameters downstream) the turbine, as well as a vertical plane behind the turbine. Time-averaged results show an asymmetric wake behind the turbine, regardless of tip speed ratio, with a larger velocity deficit for a higher tip speed ratio. For the higher tip speed ratio, an area of averaged flow reversal is present with a maximum reverse flow of -0.04U_∞. Phase-averaged vorticity fields—achieved by syncing the PIV system with the rotation of the turbine—show distinct structures form from each turbine blade. There were distinct differences in results by tip speed ratios of 0.9, 1.3, and 2.2 of when in the cycle structures are shed into the wake—switching from two pairs to a single pair of vortices being shed—and how they convect into the wake—the middle tip speed ratio vortices convect downstream inside the wake, while the high tip speed ratio pair is shed into the shear layer of the wake. Finally, results show that the wake structure is much more sensitive to changes in tip speed ratio than to changes in Reynolds number.

  15. Reduced oxygen enhancement ratio at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcic, B.; Skarsgard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    The oxygen depletion rate in cell suspensions was measured using a Clark electrode. It was found that under experimental conditions used in this laboratory for hypoxic irradiations, the oxygen levels before the start of irradiation are always below 0.1μm, the levels which could give any significant enhancement to radiation inactivation by x-rays. The measured O/sub 2/ depletion rates were comparable to those reported in the literature. Chinese hamster cells (CHO) were made hypoxic by gas exchange, combined with metabolic consumption of oxygen by cells at 37 0 C. Full survival curves were determined in the dose range 0 to 3Gy using the low dose survival assay. The results confirmed the authors' earlier finding that the OER decreases at low doses. The authors therefore believe that the dose-dependent OER is a true radiobiological phenomenon and not an artifact of the experimental method used in the low dose survival assay

  16. Development, optimisation, and application of ICP-SFMS methods for the measurement of isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuerup, S.

    2000-07-01

    The measurement of isotopic composition and isotope ratios in biological and environmental samples requires sensitive, precise, and accurate analytical techniques. The analytical techniques used are traditionally based on mass spectrometry, among these techniques is the ICP-SFMS technique, which became commercially available in the mid 1990s. This technique is characterised by high sensitivity, low background, and the ability to separate analyte signals from spectral interferences. These features are beneficial for the measurement of isotope ratios and enable the measurement of isotope ratios of elements, which it has not previously been possible to measure due to either spectral interferences or poor sensitivity. The overall purpose of the project was to investigate the potential of the single detector ICP-SFMS technique for the measurement of isotope ratios in biological and environmental samples. One part of the work has focused on the fundamental aspects of the ICP-SFMS technique with special emphasize on the features important to the measurement of isotope ratios, while another part has focused on the development, optimisation and application of specific methods for the measurement of isotope ratios of elements of nutritional interest and radionuclides. The fundamental aspects of the ICP-SFMS technique were investigated theoretically and experimentally by the measurement of isotope ratios applying different experimental conditions. It was demonstrated that isotope ratios could be measured reliably using ICP-SFMS by educated choice of acquisition parameters, scanning mode, mass discrimination correction, and by eliminating the influence of detector dead time. Applying the knowledge gained through the fundamental study, ICP-SFMS methods for the measurement of isotope ratios of calcium, zinc, molybdenum and iron in human samples and a method for the measurement of plutonium isotope ratios and ultratrace levels of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples

  17. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals.Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions.Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular

  18. Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the

  19. Effect of Aspect Ratio, Channel Orientation, Rib Pitch-to-Height Ratio, and Number of Ribbed Walls on Pressure Drop Characteristics in a Rotating Channel with Detached Ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves experimental investigation of the effects of aspect ratio, channel orientation angle, rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e, and number of ribbed walls on friction factor in orthogonally rotating channel with detached ribs. The ribs are separated from the base wall to provide a small region of flow between the base wall and the ribs. Experiments have been conducted at Reynolds number ranging from 10000–17000 with rotation numbers varying from 0–0.38. Pitch-to-rib height ratios (P/e of 5 and 10 at constant rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D of 0.1 and a clearance ratio (C/e of 0.38 are considered. The rib angle of attack with respect to mainstream flow is 90∘. The channel orientation at which the ribbed wall becomes trailing surface (pressure side on which the Coriolis force acts is considered as the 0∘ orientation angle. For one-wall ribbed case, channel is oriented from 0∘ to 180∘ about its axis in steps of 30∘ to change the orientation angle. For two-wall ribbed case, the orientation angle is changed from 0∘ to 90∘ in steps of 30∘. Friction factors for the detached ribbed channels are compared with the corresponding attached ribbed channel. It is found that in one-wall detached ribbed channel, increase in the friction factor ratio with the orientation angle is lower for rectangular channel compared to that of square channel for both the pitch-to-rib height ratios of 5 and 10 at a given Reynolds number and rotation number. Friction factor ratios of two-wall detached ribbed rectangular channel are comparable with corresponding two-wall detached ribbed square channel both under stationary and rotating conditions.

  20. Betting on conditionals

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer , Guy; Over , David P; Baratgin , Jean

    2010-01-01

    A study is reported testing two hypotheses about a close parallel relation between indicative conditionals, if A then B, and conditional bets, I bet you that if A then B. The first is that both the indicative conditional and the conditional bet are related to the conditional probability, P(B|A). The second is that de Finetti's three-valued truth table has psychological reality for both types of conditional – true, false, or void for indicative conditionals and win, lose or void for conditiona...

  1. Disinflation in a DSGE Perspective: Sacrifice Ratio or Welfare Gain Ratio?

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Ascari; Tiziano Ropele

    2009-01-01

    When used to examine disinflation monetary policies, the current workhorse dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of business cycle fluctuations is able to quantitatively account for the main stylized facts in terms of recessionary effects and sacrifice ratio. We complement the transitional analysis of the short-run costs with a rigorous welfare evaluation and show that, despite the long-lasting economic downturn, disinflation entails non-zero overall welfare gains.

  2. Survey of literature on dispersion ratio and collection ratio of radioisotopes in animal study using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Zenzaburo; Doi, Masahiro; Miyazawa, Eiji; Kawakami, Takeo

    1998-01-01

    A survey of literature in the title was performed to know the actual status of the dispersion from excretion and expiration studies of radioisotopes since, at present, the probable dispersion ratio is assumed to be 100% in calculation for legally permitted use of radioisotopes which conceivably being far from the real status and being incompatible with the guideline for pharmacokinetic studies requiring the recovery of >95% of dosed radioactivity in balance study. There are two interpretations for the dispersion; it is the expiration ratio and it is the fraction unrecovered. Survey was done on 11 Japanese and foreign journals in 1985-1996 publishing most of pharmacokinetic studies and on 650 compounds in 358 facilities with 1,975 experiments in total. In those experiments, the total recovery of radioactivity was 95% in average, unrecovered fraction, 5% and expiration ratio, 2%. As for unclide, 14 C, 3 H, 125 I and 35 S were surveyed since they occupied 99.4% of the experiments and their dispersion was <5%. Rats were used in 70% of the experiments and the dispersion in all animal experiments was about 5%. Administration route was regardless of the dispersion. (K.H.)

  3. Why is digit ratio correlated to sports performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Beom; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-12-01

    Second to fourth digit ratio is the ratio of second to fourth digit length. It has been known that digit ratio is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that males tend to have lower digit ratio (longer fourth digits relative to second digits) than females. Digit ratio is thought to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (FT) and fetal estrogen (FE) in a relatively narrow developmental window at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. On the contrary, the relationships between digit ratio and levels of sex steroids in adults are not clear. Most correlational studies between digit ratio and adult sex steroids have revealed that this association is statistically not significant. However, for many years, a lot of researches showed negative relationships between digit ratio and sports performance such as rugby, surfing, rowing, sprinting, endurance, and hand grip strength. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms about the relationships between digit ratio and sports performance.

  4. Effect of Corticosterone and Hen Body Mass on Primary Sex Ratio in Laying Hen (Gallusgallus), Using Unincubated Eggs1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.; Groothuis, T.G.G.; Smits, M.A.; Woelders, H.

    2014-01-01

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated

  5. Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Smits, Mari A.; Woelders, Henri

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated

  6. THE EFFECT OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO ON FUEL CONSUMPTION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup SEKMEN

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to lack of energy sources in the world, we are obliged to use our current energy sources in the most efficient way. Therefore, in the automotive industry, research works to manufacture more economic cars in terms of fuelconsumption and environmental friendly cars, at the same time satisfying the required performance have been intensively increasing. Some positive results have been obtained by the studies, aimed to change the compression ratio according to the operating conditions of engine. In spark ignition engines in order to improve the combustion efficiency, fuel economy and exhaust emission in the partial loads, the compression ratio must be increased; but, under the high load and low speed conditions to prevent probable knock and hard running compression ratio must be decreased slightly. In this paper, various research works on the variable compression ratio with spark ignition engines, the effects on fuel economy, power output and thermal efficiency have been investigated. According to the results of the experiments performed with engines having variable compression ratio under the partial and mid-load conditions, an increase in engine power, a decrease in fuel consumption, particularly in partial loads up to 30 percent of fuel economy, and also severe reductions of some exhaust emission values were determined.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of multicomponent distillation columns: identifying optimal feed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.O. Maia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the optimisation of feed conditions as well as the calculation of minimum reflux ratio of distillation columns is presented. The reversible profile approach used for saturated liquid feeds is extended to consider other feed conditions. For flashed feed, the liquid fraction of the feed stream is used to compute the column pinch conditions and the minimum reflux ratio. The modifications required for subcooled liquid and superheated vapor feed are discussed, and a procedure to estimate the minimum reflux for those conditions is proposed. The methodology presented allows the identification of the optimal feed condition, without having to resort to a full stage-by-stage procedure.

  8. Visible-near-infrared spectroscopy can predict the clay/organic carbon and mineral fines/organic carbon ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Cecilie; Knadel, Maria; Møldrup, Per

    2016-01-01

    The ratios of mineral fines (carbon (OC), consisting of the n-ratio (i.e., the clay/OC ratio) and m-ratio (i.e., the fines/OC ratio) have recently been used to analyze and predict soil functional properties such as tilth conditions, clay dispersibility, degree...... from seven Danish and one Greenlandic fields, with a large textural range (clay: 0.027–0.355 kg kg−1; OC: 0.011–0.084 kg kg−1; n-ratio: 0.49–16.80; m-ratio: 1.46–32.14), were analyzed for texture and OC and subsequently scanned with a vis-NIR spectrometer from 400 to 2500 nm. The spectral data were...

  9. Mortality, fertility, and the OY ratio in a model hunter-gatherer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew A

    2014-06-01

    An agent-based model (ABM) is used to explore how the ratio of old to young adults (the OY ratio) in a sample of dead individuals is related to aspects of mortality, fertility, and longevity experienced by the living population from which the sample was drawn. The ABM features representations of rules, behaviors, and constraints that affect person- and household-level decisions about marriage, reproduction, and infant mortality in hunter-gatherer systems. The demographic characteristics of the larger model system emerge through human-level interactions playing out in the context of "global" parameters that can be adjusted to produce a range of mortality and fertility conditions. Model data show a relationship between the OY ratios of living populations (the living OY ratio) and assemblages of dead individuals drawn from those populations (the dead OY ratio) that is consistent with that from empirically known ethnographic hunter-gatherer cases. The dead OY ratio is clearly related to the mean ages, mean adult mortality rates, and mean total fertility rates experienced by living populations in the model. Sample size exerts a strong effect on the accuracy with which the calculated dead OY ratio reflects the actual dead OY ratio of the complete assemblage. These results demonstrate that the dead OY ratio is a potentially useful metric for paleodemographic analysis of changes in mortality and mean age, and suggest that, in general, hunter-gatherer populations with higher mortality, higher fertility, and lower mean ages are characterized by lower dead OY ratios. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Comparison of IRT Likelihood Ratio Test and Logistic Regression DIF Detection Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Burcu; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    The Type I error rates and the power of IRT likelihood ratio test and cumulative logit ordinal logistic regression procedures in detecting differential item functioning (DIF) for polytomously scored items were investigated in this Monte Carlo simulation study. For this purpose, 54 simulation conditions (combinations of 3 sample sizes, 2 sample…

  11. Measurement of signal-to-noise ratio performance of TV fluoroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geluk, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed for direct measurement of Signal-to-Noise ratio performance on X-ray TV systems. To this end the TV signal resulting from a calibrated test object, is compared with the noise level in the image. The method is objective and produces instantaneous readout, which makes it very suitable for system evaluation under dynamic conditions. (author)

  12. Steroid Hormones and Female Energy Balance: Relation to Offspring Primary Sex Ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.; Woelders, H.

    2017-01-01

    Birds can manipulate the offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions. Various factors related to the avian mother, as well as her eggs, have been reported to be linked with the sex determination process. These factors appear to affect the chance of laying a male or female egg

  13. High speed forging of solid powder discs of large slenderness ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Slenderness ratio; preform; interfacial friction law. 1. ... Interfacial friction law. Friction condition between deforming tool and work piece in metal forming are of the greatest importance concerning a number of factors such as force and mode of deformation, proper- ... The velocity field for the case under consideration is.

  14. Estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated soybean land in Mississippi: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; G. Feng; J. Read; T. D. Leininger; J. N. Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    Although more on-farm storage ponds have been constructed in recent years to mitigate groundwater resources depletion in Mississippi, little effort has been devoted to estimating the ratio of on-farm water storage pond size to irrigated crop land based on pond metric and its hydrogeological conditions.  In this study, two simulation scenarios were chosen to...

  15. Reevaluation of the Pavlov ratio in patients with cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Ki-Tack; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin-Young

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to reevaluate the effectiveness of the Pavlov ratio in patients with cervical myelopathy. We studied 107 patients who underwent open door laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical myelopathy between the C3 to C7 levels. We determined the Pavlov ratio on preoperative and postoperative cervical spine lateral radiographs, the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on sagittal reconstruction CT scans, and the vertebral body-to-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) column ratio on T2-weighted sagittal MR images from C3 to C6. The severity of myelopathy was determined using the JOA score on both preoperative and postoperative images. The recovery rate was also calculated. The Pavlov ratio in plain radiographs from patients with myelopathy was compared with the ratio of the vertebral body to the spinal canal on CT and MRI. The average Pavlov ratio between C3 and C6 ranged from 0.71 to 0.76. On CT scan, the average vertebral body-to-canal ratio between C3 and C6 ranged from 0.62 to 0.66. On MRI, the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio between C3 and C6 ranged between 0.53 and 0.57. A positive correlation was noted between the Pavlov ratio and the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on sagittal-reconstruction CT (correlation coefficient = 0.497-0.627, p = 0.000) and between the Pavlov ratio and the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio on MRI (correlation coefficient = 0.511-0.649, p = 0.000). We demonstrated a good correlation between the Pavlov ratio and both the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on CT and the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio on MRI. Therefore, the Pavlov ratio can be relied upon to predict narrowing of the cervical spinal canal in the sagittal plane.

  16. Synthesis of high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires with an inexpensive handcrafted electrochemical setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Ali, E-mail: at1361@aut.ac.ir, E-mail: atahery@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science and Technology Institute (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saramad, Shahyar; Setayeshi, Saeed [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Energy Engineering and Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, high aspect ratio zinc oxide nanowires are synthesized using templated one-step electrodeposition technique. Electrodeposition of the nanowires is done using a handcrafted electronic system. Nuclear track-etched polycarbonate membrane is used as a template to form the high aspect ratio nanowires. The result of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy shows that nanowires with a good crystallinity and an aspect ratio of more than 30 can be achieved in a suitable condition. The height of electrodeposited nanowires reaches to about 11 μm. Based on the obtained results, high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires can be formed using inexpensive electrodeposition setup with an acceptable quality.

  17. A design study of high breeding ratio sodium cooled metal fuel core without blanket fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Noboru; Ogawa, Takashi; Ohki, Shigeo; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Ogata, Takanari

    2009-01-01

    The metal fuel core is superior to the mixed oxide fuel core because of its high breeding ratio and compact core size resulting from hard neutron spectrum and high heavy metal densities. Utilizing these characteristics, a conceptual design for a high breeding ratio was performed without blanket fuels. The design conditions were set so a sodium void worth of less than 8 $, a core height of less than 150 cm, the maximum cladding temperature of 650degC, and the maximum fuel pin bundle pressure drop of 0.4 MPa. The breeding ratio of the resultant core was 1.34 with 6wt% zirconium content fuel. Applying 3wt% zirconium content fuel enhanced the breeding ratio up to 1.40. (author)

  18. Mapping and defining sources of variability in bioavailable strontium isotope ratios in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Gideon; Richards, Mike

    2014-02-01

    The relative contributions of bedrock and atmospheric sources to bioavailable strontium (Sr) pools in local soils was studied in Northern Israel and the Golan regions through intensive systematic sampling of modern plants and invertebrates, to produce a map of modern bioavailable strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) for regional reconstructions of human and animal mobility patterns. The study investigates sources of variability in bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios, in particular the intra-and inter-site range of variation in plant 87Sr/86Sr ratios, the range of 87Sr/86Sr ratios of plants growing on marine sedimentary versus volcanic geologies, the differences between ligneous and non-ligneous plants with varying growth and water utilization strategies, and the relative contribution of atmospheric Sr sources from different soil and vegetation types and climatic zones. Results indicate predictable variation in 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Inter- and intra-site differences in bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios average of 0.00025, while the range of 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured regionally in plants and invertebrates is 0.7090 in Pleistocene calcareous sandstone and 0.7074 in mid-Pleistocene volcanic pyroclast. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in plants growing on volcanic bedrock show time dependent increases in atmospheric deposition relative to bedrock weathering. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in plants growing on renzina soils depends on precipitation. The spacing between bedrock 87Sr/86Sr ratios and plants is highest in wet conditions and decreases in dry conditions. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in plants growing on terra rossa soils is relatively constant (0.7085) regardless of precipitation. Ligneous plants are typically closer to bedrock 87Sr/86Sr ratios than non-ligneous plants. Since the bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios currently measured in the region reflect a mix of both exogenous and endogenous sources, changes in the relative contribution of exogenous sources can cause variation

  19. Determination of Light Water Reactor Fuel Burnup with the Isotope Ratio Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.

    2007-01-01

    For the current project to demonstrate that isotope ratio measurements can be extended to zirconium alloys used in LWR fuel assemblies we report new analyses on irradiated samples obtained from a reactor. Zirconium alloys are used for structural elements of fuel assemblies and for the fuel element cladding. This report covers new measurements done on irradiated and unirradiated zirconium alloys, Unirradiated zircaloy samples serve as reference samples and indicate starting values or natural values for the Ti isotope ratio measured. New measurements of irradiated samples include results for 3 samples provided by AREVA. New results indicate: 1. Titanium isotope ratios were measured again in unirradiated samples to obtain reference or starting values at the same time irradiated samples were analyzed. In particular, 49Ti/48Ti ratios were indistinguishably close to values determined several months earlier and to expected natural values. 2. 49Ti/48Ti ratios were measured in 3 irradiated samples thus far, and demonstrate marked departures from natural or initial ratios, well beyond analytical uncertainty, and the ratios vary with reported fluence values. The irradiated samples appear to have significant surface contamination or radiation damage which required more time for SIMS analyses. 3. Other activated impurity elements still limit the sample size for SIMS analysis of irradiated samples. The sub-samples chosen for SIMS analysis, although smaller than optimal, were still analyzed successfully without violating the conditions of the applicable Radiological Work Permit

  20. IASI-derived NH3 enhancement ratios relative to CO for the tropical biomass burning regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Simon; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-10-01

    Vegetation fires are a major source of ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere. Their emissions are mainly estimated using bottom-up approaches that rely on uncertain emission factors. In this study, we derive new biome-specific NH3 enhancement ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO), ERNH3 / CO (directly related to the emission factors), from the measurements of the IASI sounder onboard the Metop-A satellite. This is achieved for large tropical regions and for an 8-year period (2008-2015). We find substantial differences in the ERNH3 / CO ratios between the biomes studied, with calculated values ranging from 7 × 10-3 to 23 × 10-3. For evergreen broadleaf forest these are typically 50-75 % higher than for woody savanna and savanna biomes. This variability is attributed to differences in fuel types and size and is in line with previous studies. The analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the ERNH3 / CO ratio also reveals a (sometimes large) within-biome variability. On a regional level, woody savanna shows, for example, a mean ERNH3 / CO ratio for the region of Africa south of the Equator that is 40-75 % lower than in the other five regions studied, probably reflecting regional differences in fuel type and burning conditions. The same variability is also observed on a yearly basis, with a peak in the ERNH3 / CO ratio observed for the year 2010 for all biomes. These results highlight the need for the development of dynamic emission factors that take into better account local variations in fuel type and fire conditions. We also compare the IASI-derived ERNH3 / CO ratio with values reported in the literature, usually calculated from ground-based or airborne measurements. We find general good agreement in the referenced ERNH3 / CO ratio except for cropland, for which the ERNH3 / CO ratio shows an underestimation of about 2-2.5 times.

  1. Particle ratios, quarks, and Chao-Yang statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, C K; Low, G B; Lo, S Y [Nanyang Univ. (Singapore). Dept. of Physics; Phua, K K [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1980-01-01

    By introducing quarks into Chao-Yang statistics for 'violent' collisions, particle ratios are obtained which are consistent with the Chao-Yang results. The present method can also be extended to baryon-meson and baryon-antibaryon ratios.

  2. Amplitude ratios in ρ0 leptoproductions and GPDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goloskokov S.V.

    2017-01-01

    Using the model results we calculate the ratio of different helicity amplitudes for a transversely polarized proton target to the leading twist longitudinal amplitude. Our results are close to the amplitude ratios measured by HERMES.

  3. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Patrick A.; Lucas, André; Vries, de Casper G.

    1998-01-01

    We advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunctionwith standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle lineardependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial timeseries. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizonssimultaneously, and the

  4. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio in mood disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Lucchi, Sara; Tringali, Agnese Grazia Maria; Rossetti, Aurora; Botti, Eugenia Rossana; Clerici, Massimo

    2018-06-08

    The immune and inflammatory system is involved in the etiology of mood disorders. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are inexpensive and reproducible biomarkers of inflammation. This is the first meta-analysis exploring the role of NLR and PLR in mood disorder. We identified 11 studies according to our inclusion criteria from the main Electronic Databases. Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) between index and healthy controls (HC). Heterogeneity was estimated. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) had higher NLR and PLR as compared with HC (respectively SMD = 0.672; p analysis evidenced an influence of bipolar phase on the overall estimate whit studies including subjects in manic and any bipolar phase showing a significantly higher NLR and PLR as compared with HC whereas the effect was not significant among studies including only euthymic bipolar subjects. Meta-regression showed that age and sex influenced the relationship between BD and NLR but not the relationship between BD and PLR. Meta-analysis was not carried out for MLR because our search identified only one study when comparing BD to HC, and only one study when comparing MDD to HC. Subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) had higher NLR as compared with HC (SMD = 0.670; p = 0.028; I 2  = 89.931%). Heterogeneity-based sensitivity analyses and meta-regression confirmed these findings. Our meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that an inflammatory activation occurs in mood disorders and NLR and PLR may be useful to detect this activation. More researches including comparison of NLR, PLR and MLR between different bipolar phases and between BD and MDD are needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  6. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  7. Sex ratio in two species of Pegoscapus wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) that develop in figs: can wasps do mathematics, or play sex ratio games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Benavides, William; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Chavarría, Juan B

    2009-09-01

    The fig pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) have obligate arrhenotoky and a breeding structure that fits local mate competition (LMC). It has been traditionally assumed that LMC organisms adjust the sex ratio by laying a greater proportion of male eggs when there is superparasitism (several foundresses in a host). We tested the assumption with two wasp species, Pegoscapus silvestrii, pollinator of Ficus pertusa and Pegoscapus tonduzi, pollinator of Ficus eximia (= F citrifolia), in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Total number of wasps and seeds were recorded in individual isolated naturally colonized syconia. There was a constant additive effect between the number of foundresses and the number of males produced in the brood of a syconium, while the number of females decreased. Both wasp species seem to have precise sex ratios and probably lay the male eggs first in the sequence, independently of superparasitism and clutch size: consequently, they have a non-random sex allocation. Each syconium of Ficus pertusa and of F. eximia colonized by one foundress had similar mean numbers of females, males, and seeds. The two species of wasps studied do not seem to adjust the sex ratio when there is superparasitism. Pollinating fig wasp behavior is better explained by those models not assuming that females do mathematical calculations according to other females' sex ratios, size, number of foundresses, genetic constitution, clutch size or environmental conditions inside the syconium. Our results are in agreement with the constant male number hypothesis, not with sex ratio games.

  8. ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO (OPR) OF AMMONIA IN 15 COMETS: OPRs OF AMMONIA VERSUS 14N/15N RATIOS IN CN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Jehin, Emmanuel; Manfroid, Jean; Hutsemekers, Damien; Arpigny, Claude

    2011-01-01

    The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices. We present OPRs of ammonia (NH 3 ) in 15 comets based on optical high-dispersion spectroscopic observations of NH 2 , which is a photodissociation product of ammonia in the gaseous coma. The observations were mainly carried out with the VLT/UVES. The OPR of ammonia is estimated from the OPR of NH 2 based on the observations of the NH 2 (0, 9, 0) vibronic band. The absorption lines by the telluric atmosphere are corrected and the cometary C 2 emission lines blended with NH 2 lines are removed in our analysis. The ammonia OPRs show a cluster between 1.1 and 1.2 (this corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature of ∼30 K) for all comets in our sample except for 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (73P/SW3). Comet 73P/SW3 (both B- and C-fragments) shows the OPR of ammonia consistent with nuclear spin statistical weight ratio (1.0) that indicates a high-temperature limit as nuclear spin temperature. We compared the ammonia OPRs with other properties ( 14 N/ 15 N ratios in CN, D/H ratios of water, and mixing ratios of volatiles). Comet 73P/SW3 is clearly different from the other comets in the plot of ammonia OPRs versus 14 N/ 15 N ratios in CN. The ammonia OPRs of 1.0 and lower 15 N-fractionation of CN in comet 73P/SW3 imply that icy materials in this comet formed under warmer conditions than other comets. Comets may be classified into two groups in the plot of ammonia OPRs against 14 N/ 15 N ratios in CN.

  9. Modelling classroom conditions with different boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    A model that combines image source modelling and acoustical radiosity with complex boundary condition, thus including phase shifts on reflection has been developed. The model is called PARISM (Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Model). It has been developed in order to be able to model...

  10. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is the ratio of the present value savings to the present value costs of an energy or water conservation measure. The numerator of the ratio is the present value of net savings in energy or water and non... conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present value of the net increase in investment and...

  11. The Improved Estimation of Ratio of Two Population Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Ramkrishna S.; Singh, Housila P.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, first we obtained the correct mean square error expression of Gupta and Shabbir's linear weighted estimator of the ratio of two population proportions. Later we suggested the general class of ratio estimators of two population proportions. The usual ratio estimator, Wynn-type estimator, Singh, Singh, and Kaur difference-type…

  12. 7 CFR 1425.10 - Financial ratio requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial ratio requirement. 1425.10 Section 1425.10... Financial ratio requirement. To be financially able to make advances to their members and to market their commodities, CMA's shall have a current ratio of at least 1 dollar of current assets for each 1 dollar of...

  13. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turnover ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property....5002 Stores inventory turnover ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... comparison may be expressed either as a turnover ratio (dollar value of issues divided by dollar value of...

  14. DC-to-AC inverter ratio failure detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Failure detection technique is based upon input-output ratios, which is independent of inverter loading. Since inverter has fixed relationship between V-in/V-out and I-in/I-out, failure detection criteria are based on this ratio, which is simply inverter transformer turns ratio, K, equal to primary turns divided by secondary turns.

  15. Lagoa Real design. Cachoeira mine. Uranium ratio from gamma profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliao, B.

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents the satisfactory accuracy of uranium ratio from gamma profile, using an equation from simple regression. The comparative study between radiometric ratios calculated from gamma data in boreholes and uranium ratio determined by Delayed Neutron Analysis shows a good measure of correlation in Cachoeira Mines. (author)

  16. Watershed condition [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Jonathan W. Long; Malchus B. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Managers of the Prescott National Forest are obliged to evaluate the conditions of watersheds under their jurisdiction in order to guide informed decisions concerning grazing allotments, forest and woodland management, restoration treatments, and other management initiatives. Watershed condition has been delineated by contrasts between “good” and “poor” conditions (...

  17. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  18. Mean platelet volume, neutrophil to lyphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ünal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: It has been demonstrated that ratio of neutrophil and platelet count systemic inflammation and is associated with prognosis of many cardiovascular diseases, malignates and chronic inflammatory diseases.As far as it is known, there are no studies investigating neutrophil/lymphocyeratio(NLR, platelet/lymphocyte ratio(PLR and mean platelet volume(MPV values together within the context of psoriasis, a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease. Materials and Methods: 320 patients followed up in our polyclinic with psoriasis vulgaris and 200 healthy persons were evaluated in the study. Results: Leukocyte, neutrophil, platelet, MPV, NLR and PLR values in patients with psoriasis were significantly higher, and lymphocyte count, on the other hand, was significantly lower than those of the control group. No significant difference was found between MPV, NLR and PLR values of patients with or without a family history, nail and joint involvement. Conclusions: These parameters may be made use of as cheap and easily applicable methods in predicting which psoriasis patients are under the risk of cardiovascular disease. PLR is a better inflammation marker than MPV and NLR in patients with psoriasis. We did not observe a significant relationship between MPV, NLR and PLR values and such disease characteristics as severity of disease, joint involvement, nail involvement and duration of disease in patients with psoriasis. So, we believe that there is little information on the extent to which MPV,NLR and PLR might be useful regarding these characteristics.

  19. The impact of signal-to-noise ratio on contextual cueing in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingying; Merrill, Edward C

    2015-04-01

    Contextual cueing refers to a form of implicit spatial learning where participants incidentally learn to associate a target location with its repeated spatial context. Successful contextual learning produces an efficient visual search through familiar environments. Despite the fact that children exhibit the basic ability of implicit spatial learning, their general effectiveness in this form of learning can be compromised by other development-dependent factors. Learning to extract useful information (signal) in the presence of various amounts of irrelevant or distracting information (noise) characterizes one of the most important changes that occur with cognitive development. This research investigated whether signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) affects contextual cueing differently in children and adults. S/N was operationally defined as the ratio of repeated versus new displays encountered over time. Three ratio conditions were created: high (100%), medium (67%), and low (33%) conditions. Results suggested no difference in the acquisition of contextual learning effects in the high and medium conditions across three age groups (6- to 8-year-olds, 10- to 12-year-olds, and young adults). However, a significant developmental difference emerged in the low S/N condition. As predicted, adults exhibited significant contextual cueing effects, whereas older children showed marginally significant contextual cueing and younger children did not show cueing effects. Group differences in the ability to exhibit implicit contextual learning under low S/N conditions and the implications of this difference are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of the cylindrical gear pairs parameters to the transverse contact ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag S. Dobratić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of transmission and power transformation from the power engine to the working machine, gear pairs, are mostly used in mechanical engineering due to their compactness of the structure, high reliability and capacity. One way of improving the performance characteristics of gear pairs, and thus the gear transmitters, is to increase the number of simultaneously meshed pairs of teeth, or increasing the transverse contact ratio. To this end, this paper analyzes in detail the partial and simultaneous influence of the number of teeth and tooth profile shapes, moving through shifting coefficient and pressure angle, to the number of simultaneously meshed pairs of teeth. The obtained results allow us to define the optimum parameters of cylindrical gear pairs, in terms of the size of the transverse contact ratio. Introduction The kinematic indicator of the existence of the transmitting continuity of a rotary movement is the total contact ratio. In order to achieve the transmitting continuity of a rotary movement, the total contact ratio must be higher than one. Based on the total contact ratio, the information on the number of simultaneously meshed pairs of the teeth which rotate during the contact period is obtained. For example, if the  – one and two pairs of teeth alternately take turn, and if the  – two and three pairs of teeth alternately take turn, etc. It should be noted that the  is a necessary but not sufficient condition for achieving multiple meshes. The next condition to meet is the compatibility between the accuracy of teeth production, the teeth rigidity and the intensity of the total load of the teeth pair. The influence of the addendum coefficient on the transverse contact ratio is shown in the paper (Li, 2008. It is shown that changes in the addendum coefficient in conjunction with the corresponding values of the shifting coefficient and gear ratio can achieve the transverse contact ratio value higher than four. The paper

  1. Investigation of Pockels Cells Crystal Contrast Ratio Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Sinkevičius

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The BBO Pockel’s cell has been investigated. The investigation results of optimal operating area on the surface of the crystal dependent of intrinsic contrast ratio (ICR and voltage contrast ratio (VCR for Pockel’s cell are presented. The block diagram of Pockel’s cells contrast measurement stand and measurement methodology are introduced and discussed. The graphs of intrinsic contrast ratio distribution on crystal surface, contrast ratio with voltage dependency and voltage contrast ratio distribution on crystal surface with half-wave voltage are presented.

  2. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus

  3. Manipulation of primary sex ratio in birds: lessons from the homing pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C; Müller, Martina S; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2013-12-01

    Across various animal taxa not only the secondary sex ratio but also the primary sex ratio (at conception) shows significant deviations from the expected equal proportions of sons and daughters. Birds are especially intriguing to study this phenomenon as avian females are the heterogametic sex (ZW); therefore sex determination might be under direct control of the mother. Avian sex ratios vary in relation to environmental or maternal condition, which can also affect the production of maternal steroids that in turn are involved in reproduction and accumulate in the developing follicle before meiosis. As the proximate mechanisms underlying biased primary sex ratio are largely elusive, we explored how, and to what extent, maternal steroid hormones may be involved in affecting primary or secondary sex ratio in clutches of various species of pigeons. First we demonstrated a clear case of seasonal change in sex ratio in first eggs both in the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) and in a related species, the Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus), both producing clutches of two eggs. In the Homing Pigeon (Columba livia domestica), domesticated from the Rock Pigeon, testosterone treatment of breeding females induced a clear male bias, while corticosterone induced a female bias in first eggs and we argue that this is in line with sex allocation theory. We next analyzed treatment effects on follicle formation, yolk mass, and yolk hormones, the latter both pre- and post-ovulatory, in order to test a diversity of potential mechanisms related to both primary and secondary sex ratio manipulation. We conclude that maternal plasma hormone levels may affect several pre-ovulatory mechanisms affecting primary sex ratio, whereas egg hormones are probably involved in secondary sex ratio manipulation only.

  4. Determination of stable isotope ratio of lead in airborne particulate matter by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hitoshi; Ambe, Yoshinari

    1990-01-01

    ICP-MS was applied to the measurement of stable isotope ratios of lead, which are used as an indicator of the source of lead in airborne particulate matter. For the measurement of lead isotopes ratios, the influences of machine conditions, lead concentration and matrix elements to the precision and accuracy of the measurements were studied. At a scanning mode, dwell time of 40∼160 μs gave the best precision to the isotope ratio measurements; about 0.3 % of R.S.D. for 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, 0.6 % for 206 Pb/ 204 Pb. Precision of the measurement was better at a high concentration of lead in sample solution. The observed value of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio was not affected by the lead concentration, but in the cases of 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, about 1 % of the value changed in the observed ratios with the lead concentration of 100∼500 μg/l. Six matrix elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe) did not affect the observed isotope ratios up to 200 mg/l. The lead isotope ratios of reference materials {Urban Particulates (NIST) and Vehicle Exhausted Particulates (NIES)} were measured by using two kinds of sample; crude sample and lead-isolated sample from matrix elements by anodic deposition. Both cases gave the same isotope ratio values, therefore, lead isotope ratios in airborne particulate samples can be measured by ICP-MS without any separation of lead from matrix elements. (author)

  5. Liquidity Analysis Using Cash Flow Ratios as Compared to Traditional Ratios in the Pharmaceutical Sector in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Sulayman H. Atieh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the liquidity position of the Jordanian pharmaceutical sector using the traditional ratios as compared to the more recently developed cash flow ratios. The research involved the comparison between traditional ratios and cash flow ratios of the big seven companies of the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan over six years period (2007¨C2012). The companies were all from the same sector, and the data was obtained from the annual reports of these companies. T...

  6. Conditional uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Gilad; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Kłobus, Waldemar; Łodyga, Justyna; Narasimhachar, Varun

    2018-04-01

    We develop a general operational framework that formalizes the concept of conditional uncertainty in a measure-independent fashion. Our formalism is built upon a mathematical relation which we call conditional majorization. We define conditional majorization and, for the case of classical memory, we provide its thorough characterization in terms of monotones, i.e., functions that preserve the partial order under conditional majorization. We demonstrate the application of this framework by deriving two types of memory-assisted uncertainty relations, (1) a monotone-based conditional uncertainty relation and (2) a universal measure-independent conditional uncertainty relation, both of which set a lower bound on the minimal uncertainty that Bob has about Alice's pair of incompatible measurements, conditioned on arbitrary measurement that Bob makes on his own system. We next compare the obtained relations with their existing entropic counterparts and find that they are at least independent.

  7. Equilibrium gas-oil ratio measurements using a microfluidic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Shah, Mohammad Khalid; Eskin, Dmitry; Schmidt, Kurt; Singh, Anil; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2013-07-07

    A method for measuring the equilibrium GOR (gas-oil ratio) of reservoir fluids using microfluidic technology is developed. Live crude oils (crude oil with dissolved gas) are injected into a long serpentine microchannel at reservoir pressure. The fluid forms a segmented flow as it travels through the channel. Gas and liquid phases are produced from the exit port of the channel that is maintained at atmospheric conditions. The process is analogous to the production of crude oil from a formation. By using compositional analysis and thermodynamic principles of hydrocarbon fluids, we show excellent equilibrium between the produced gas and liquid phases is achieved. The GOR of a reservoir fluid is a key parameter in determining the equation of state of a crude oil. Equations of state that are commonly used in petroleum engineering and reservoir simulations describe the phase behaviour of a fluid at equilibrium state. Therefore, to accurately determine the coefficients of an equation of state, the produced gas and liquid phases have to be as close to the thermodynamic equilibrium as possible. In the examples presented here, the GORs measured with the microfluidic technique agreed with GOR values obtained from conventional methods. Furthermore, when compared to conventional methods, the microfluidic technique was simpler to perform, required less equipment, and yielded better repeatability.

  8. Velocity ratio measurement using the frequency of gyro backward wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.

    1990-10-01

    The operating diagram of a low quality factor, 8GHz TE 01 0 gyrotron exhibits oscillations between 6.8 and 7.3GHz. These oscillations are identified as the backward wave component of the TE 21 0 traveling mode. As the resonance condition of this mode depends on the average parallel velocity [ > of the beam electrons (ω BW ≅Ω C /γ - k [ [ >), the measurement of ω BW for given Ω C and γ, is used as a diagnostic for the beam electrons velocity ratio α= / [ >. The values of α, deduced from ω BW through the linear dispersion relation for the electron cyclotron instability in an infinite waveguide, are unrealistic. A non-linear simulation code gives α values which are in very good agreement with the ones predicted by a particle trajectory code (+10% to +20%). We find numerically that the particles' velocity dispersion in vperpendicular and v [ increases ω BW . This effect explains part of the discrepancy between the values of α inferred from ω BW without velocity dispersion and the expected values. (author) 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  9. Influence of impurities in Beryllium on tritium breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Ochiai, K.; Verzilov, Y.; Ito, M.; Wada, M.; Nishitani, T.

    2004-01-01

    Several neutronics experiments simulating fusion blankets have been conducted with 14 MeV neutron source to assess the reliability of nuclear analysis codes. However, the analyses have not always presented good agreements so far between calculated and measured tritium production rates. One of the reasons was considered as impurities in beryllium which has negligibly small neutron absorption cross section in low energy range. Chemical compositions of beryllium were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method, and a pulsed neutron decay experiment discovered that the macroscopic neutron absorption cross section for beryllium medium may be about 30% larger than the value calculated by the data specified by manufacturing company. The influence of the impurities on the calculations was studied on the basis of the fusion DEMO-reactor blanket design. As a result of the study, it was made clear that the impurities affect the local tritium production rates when the size of beryllium medium is more than 20-30 mean free paths (30-40 cm) in thickness. In case of some blanket designs that meet the above condition, the effect on tritium breeding ratio may become as large as about 4%. (author)

  10. Influence of impurities in Beryllium on tritium breeding ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, M; Ochiai, K; Verzilov, Y; Ito, M; Wada, M; Nishitani, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2004-03-01

    Several neutronics experiments simulating fusion blankets have been conducted with 14 MeV neutron source to assess the reliability of nuclear analysis codes. However, the analyses have not always presented good agreements so far between calculated and measured tritium production rates. One of the reasons was considered as impurities in beryllium which has negligibly small neutron absorption cross section in low energy range. Chemical compositions of beryllium were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method, and a pulsed neutron decay experiment discovered that the macroscopic neutron absorption cross section for beryllium medium may be about 30% larger than the value calculated by the data specified by manufacturing company. The influence of the impurities on the calculations was studied on the basis of the fusion DEMO-reactor blanket design. As a result of the study, it was made clear that the impurities affect the local tritium production rates when the size of beryllium medium is more than 20-30 mean free paths (30-40 cm) in thickness. In case of some blanket designs that meet the above condition, the effect on tritium breeding ratio may become as large as about 4%. (author)

  11. Large-aspect-ratio limit of neoclassical transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S K.; Chan, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description of neoclassical transport theory in the banana regime for large-aspect-ratio flux surfaces of arbitrary shapes. The method of matched-asymptotic expansions is used to obtain analytical solutions for plasma distribution functions and to compute transport coefficients. The method provides justification for retaining only the part of the Fokker-Planck operator that involves the second derivative with respect to the cosine of the pitch angle for the trapped and barely circulating particles. It leads to a simple equation for the freely circulating particles with boundary conditions that embody a discontinuity separating particles moving in opposite directions. Corrections to the transport coefficients are obtained by generalizing an existing boundary layer analysis. The system of moment and field equations is consistently taken in the cylinder limit, which facilitates the discussion of the treatment of dynamical constraints. It is shown that the nonlocal nature of Ohm's law in neoclassical theory renders the mathematical problem of plasma transport with changing flux surfaces nonstandard

  12. Large-aspect-ratio limit of neoclassical transport theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S K; Chan, V S

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description of neoclassical transport theory in the banana regime for large-aspect-ratio flux surfaces of arbitrary shapes. The method of matched-asymptotic expansions is used to obtain analytical solutions for plasma distribution functions and to compute transport coefficients. The method provides justification for retaining only the part of the Fokker-Planck operator that involves the second derivative with respect to the cosine of the pitch angle for the trapped and barely circulating particles. It leads to a simple equation for the freely circulating particles with boundary conditions that embody a discontinuity separating particles moving in opposite directions. Corrections to the transport coefficients are obtained by generalizing an existing boundary layer analysis. The system of moment and field equations is consistently taken in the cylinder limit, which facilitates the discussion of the treatment of dynamical constraints. It is shown that the nonlocal nature of Ohm's law in neoclassical theory renders the mathematical problem of plasma transport with changing flux surfaces nonstandard.

  13. Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, M. W.; Thome, K. E.; Barr, J. L.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2014-11-01

    Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ˜ 0.1 MA m-2) and low magnetic field (B ˜ 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ⩽ 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink.

  14. A Study on the Effects of Compression Ratio, Engine Speed and Equivalence Ratio on HCCI Combustion of DME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of Dimethyl Ether (DME). The study was performed as a parameter variation of engine speed and compression ratio on excess air ratios of approximately 2.5, 3 and 4. The compression ratio was...

  15. Impact of Inflation Accounting Application on Key Financial Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın KARAPINAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of inflation accounting on key financal ratios. To this end, the financial statements of 132 companies listed in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE are studied. An analyis of paired samples t test has been conducted on the financial ratios of the companies. The results show that a significant difference between adjusted cost based financial ratios and historical cost based financial ratios occurs only for current, ratios, equity ratios and noncurrent turnover ratios. The study does not cover companies operating in the financial sector. The companies reporting in accordance with IFRS for the studied periods that spans 2001-2004 are not included in the study either. The study offers valuable information as to analysing companies operating in hiper inflation economies.

  16. Condition of Public School Plants 1964-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, George J.; Stormer, William L.

    This report provides factual information on the adequacy in terms of number of schoolrooms in the nation's school facilities and the physical condition of schoolrooms. Data are presented regarding--(1) building and site deficiencies, (2) ratio of pupils to instructional rooms, and (3) new facilities needed to achieve desirable pupil-room ratios. A…

  17. Non-chondritic iron isotope ratios in planetary mantles as a result of core formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elardo, Stephen M.; Shahar, Anat

    2017-02-01

    Information about the materials and conditions involved in planetary formation and differentiation in the early Solar System is recorded in iron isotope ratios. Samples from Earth, the Moon, Mars and the asteroid Vesta reveal significant variations in iron isotope ratios, but the sources of these variations remain uncertain. Here we present experiments that demonstrate that under the conditions of planetary core formation expected for the Moon, Mars and Vesta, iron isotopes fractionate between metal and silicate due to the presence of nickel, and enrich the bodies' mantles in isotopically light iron. However, the effect of nickel diminishes at higher temperatures: under conditions expected for Earth's core formation, we infer little fractionation of iron isotopes. From our experimental results and existing conceptual models of magma ocean crystallization and mantle partial melting, we find that nickel-induced fractionation can explain iron isotope variability found in planetary samples without invoking nebular or accretionary processes. We suggest that near-chondritic iron isotope ratios of basalts from Mars and Vesta, as well as the most primitive lunar basalts, were achieved by melting of isotopically light mantles, whereas the heavy iron isotope ratios of terrestrial ocean floor basalts are the result of melting of near-chondritic Earth mantle.

  18. Elemental ratios and lipid classes in a coral reef food web under river influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón-Palau, Laura; Parrish, Christopher C.; Pérez-España, Horacio; Aguiñiga-Garcia, Sergio

    2018-05-01

    Coral reefs in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico are increasingly suffering from anthropogenic nutrient inputs principally from fertilizers as identified by their δ15N signatures. To determine if primary producers are passively affected by anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment in a coral reef community, carbon: nitrogen ratios (C:N mol mol-1) were measured. The C:N ratio was used as a proxy for nitrogen enrichment in primary producers when the ratio decreases, and for lipid plus carbohydrate in terms of C, and protein in terms of N in primary producers and consumers. Lipid classes and the triacylglycerol to sterol (TAG:ST) ratio were used to evaluate energy storage as an indication of nutritional quality in the six most abundant primary producers, and of nutritional condition in ten ubiquitous consumers in a coral reef in the Gulf of Mexico under river influence. A low C:N ratio revealed nitrogen enrichment in primary producers. Among the lipids, high TAG proportions were detected in phytoplankton and zooxanthellae suggesting that they have a higher nutritional quality in terms of energy, followed by sea grass, mangrove, and macroalgae. During the rainy season TAG:ST increased in primary consumers such as echinoderms, and top predators such as the perciform fish Bodianus rufus, Ocyurus chrysurus and Caranx hippos, suggesting an increase in energy storage. In contrast, TAG:ST decreased in the principal habitat providing coral Montastrea cavernosa, along with a decrease in the phospholipid proportion suggesting a poor nutritional condition. There were three species with no change in their TAG:ST ratio: the sponge Aplysina sp., the masked goby Coryphopterus personatus and the surgeon fish Achanturus chirurgus. The lower value of TAG, TAG:ST ratio and phospholipid proportion in the coral M. cavernosa suggests that the reported abundance of zooplankton does not satisfy the energy demand of M. cavernosa during the rainy season.

  19. A Study on the Effects of Compression Ratio, Engine Speed and Equivalence Ratio on HCCI Combustion of DME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of Dimethyl Ether (DME). The study was performed as a parameter variation of engine speed and compression ratio on excess air ratios of approximately 2.5, 3 and 4. The compression ratio...... was adjusted in steps to find suitable regions of operation, and the effect of engine speed was studied at 1000, 2000 and 3000 RPM. It was found that leaner excess air ratios require higher compression ratios to achieve satisfactory combustion. Engine speed also affects operation significantly....

  20. Effect of injection angle, density ratio, and viscosity on droplet formation in a microfluidic T-junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yaghoub Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The T-junction microchannel device makes available a sharp edge to form micro-droplets from bio-material solutions. This article investigates the effects of injection angle, flow rate ratio, density ratio, viscosity ratio, contact angle, and slip length in the process of formation of uniform droplets in microfluidic T-junctions. The governing equations were solved by the commercial software. The results show that contact angle, slip length, and injection angles near the perpendicular and parallel conditions have an increasing effect on the diameter of generated droplets, while flow rate, density and viscosity ratios, and other injection angles had a decreasing effect on the diameter. Keywords: Microfluidics, Droplet formation, Flow rate ratio, Density ratio

  1. Distribution ratios on Dowex 50W resins of metal leached in the caron nickel recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Metsa, J.C.; Mullins, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Pressurized ion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-X12 resins was investigated using elution techniques to determine distribution ratios for copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes contained in ammonium carbonate solution, a mixture which approximates the waste liquor from the Caron nickel recovery process. Results were determined for different feed concentrations, as well as for different concentrations and pH values of the ammonium carbonate eluant. Distribution ratios were compared with those previously obtained from a continuous annular chromatographic system. Separation of copper and nickel was not conclusively observed at any of the conditions examined

  2. Distribution ratios on Dowex 50W resins of metal leached in the caron nickel recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Metsa, J.C.; Mullins, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Pressurized ion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-X12 resins was investigated using elution techniques to determine distribution ratios for copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes contained in ammonium carbonate solution, a mixture which approximates the waste liquor from the Caron nickel recovery process. Results were determined for different feed concentrations, as well as for different concentrations and pH values of the ammonium carbonate eluant. Distribution ratios were compared with those previously obtained from a continuous annular chromatographic system. Separation of copper and nickel was not conclusively observed at any of the conditions examined.

  3. Ratio of tritiated water and hydrogen generated in mercury through a nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: manabe.kentaro@jaea.go.jp; Yokoyama, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    Tritium generated in a mercury target is a source of potential exposure of personnel at high-energy accelerator facilities. Knowledge of the chemical form of tritium is necessary to estimate the internal doses. We studied the tritium generation upon thermal neutron irradiation of a mercury target modified into liquid lithium amalgam to examine the ratio of tritiated water ([{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}O) and tritiated hydrogen ([{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}). The ratio between [{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}O and [{sup 3}H]H{sub 2} generated in lithium amalgam was 4:6 under these experimental conditions.

  4. The thermal history of char as disclosed by carbon isotope ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Ambus, Per; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    In laboratory experiments, biomass char was produced under controlled conditions using wood chips from French pinewood. Different char qualities were obtained by pyrolysing the biomass at similar heating rates with end-temperatures ranging from 250 to 1000 o C. The char was analysed by flash...... pyrolysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that the temperature history of the char is reflected in the fine variation of carbon isotopes. The compound classes responsible for the variation were identified. Key words: Isotope ratio, flash pyrolysis, hot gas cleaning...

  5. Analysis of syringyl and guaiacyl (S/G) ratio in lignin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spark, A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available the acidolysis products – Validate the new S/G ratio method Why are S/G ratios important? Gives a good indication of the reactivity of the lignin Experimental design Literature Review Establishing Acidolysis conditions Permanganate oxidation Lignin...-method is quick • Permanganate oxidation-method is slow but it is the standard method used at present • Nitrobenzene Oxidation, Pyrolysis, Cupric Oxidation and Thioacidolysis Lignin can be broken down to syringyl and guaiacyl subunits: OCH3 OH OCH3 OH...

  6. Effect of reinforcer magnitude on performance maintained by progressive-ratio schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, J F; Body, S; Zhang, Z; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

    2009-01-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between reinforcer magnitude and quantitative measures of performance on progressive-ratio schedules. Fifteen rats were trained under a progressive-ratio schedule in seven phases of the experiment in which the volume of a 0.6-M sucrose solution reinforcer was varied within the range 6-300 microl. Overall response rates in successive ratios conformed to a bitonic equation derived from Killeen's (1994) Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement. The "specific activation" parameter, a, which is presumed to reflect the incentive value of the reinforcer, was a monotonically increasing function of reinforcer volume; the "response time" parameter, delta, which defines the minimum response time, increased as a function of reinforcer volume; the "currency" parameter, beta, which is presumed to reflect the coupling of responses to the reinforcer, declined as a function of volume. Running response rate (response rate calculated after exclusion of the postreinforcement pause) decayed monotonically as a function of ratio size; the index of curvature of this function increased as a function of reinforcer volume. Postreinforcement pause increased as a function of ratio size. Estimates of a derived from overall response rates and postreinforcement pauses showed a modest positive correlation across conditions and between animals. Implications of the results for the quantification of reinforcer value and for the use of progressive-ratio schedules in behavioral neuroscience are discussed.

  7. Investigation of the influence of the neutron spectrum in determinations of integral cross-section ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.

    1987-11-01

    Ratio measurements are routinely employed in studies of neutron interaction processes in order to generate new differential cross-section data or to test existing differential cross-section information through examination of the corresponding response in integral neutron spectra. Interpretation of such data requires that careful attention be given to details of the neutron spectra involved in these measurements. Two specific tasks are undertaken in the present investigation: (1) Using perturbation theory, a formula is derived which permits one to relate the ratio measured in a realistic quasimonoenergetic spectrum to the desired pure monoenergetic ratio. This expression involves only the lowest-order moments of the neutron energy distribution and corresponding parameters which serve to characterize the energy dependence of the differential cross sections, quantities which can generally be estimated with reasonable precision from the uncorrected data or from auxiliary information. (2) Using covariance methods, a general formalism is developed for calculating the uncertainty of a measured integral cross-section ratio which involves an arbitrary neutron spectrum. This formalism is employed to further examine the conditions which influence the sensitivity of such measured ratios to details of the neutron spectra and to their uncertainties. Several numerical examples are presented in this report in order to illustrate these principles, and some general conclusion are drawn concerning the development and testing of neutron cross-section data by means of ratio experiments. 16 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a 'Nu Plasma HR' multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10-20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios (i.e. 10(-5)). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for (234)U/(238)U and (235)U/(238)U ratios. Experimental results obtained for (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios deviated by less than -2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U(c) (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U and (236)U/(238)U, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of the influence of the neutron spectrum in determinations of integral cross-section ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1987-11-01

    Ratio measurements are routinely employed in studies of neutron interaction processes in order to generate new differential cross-section data or to test existing differential cross-section information through examination of the corresponding response in integral neutron spectra. Interpretation of such data requires that careful attention be given to details of the neutron spectra involved in these measurements. Two specific tasks are undertaken in the present investigation: (1) Using perturbation theory, a formula is derived which permits one to relate the ratio measured in a realistic quasimonoenergetic spectrum to the desired pure monoenergetic ratio. This expression involves only the lowest-order moments of the neutron energy distribution and corresponding parameters which serve to characterize the energy dependence of the differential cross sections, quantities which can generally be estimated with reasonable precision from the uncorrected data or from auxiliary information. (2) Using covariance methods, a general formalism is developed for calculating the uncertainty of a measured integral cross-section ratio which involves an arbitrary neutron spectrum. This formalism is employed to further examine the conditions which influence the sensitivity of such measured ratios to details of the neutron spectra and to their uncertainties. Several numerical examples are presented in this report in order to illustrate these principles, and some general conclusion are drawn concerning the development and testing of neutron cross-section data by means of ratio experiments. 16 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Multiaxial Fatigue Properties of 2A12 Aluminum Alloy Under Different Stress Amplitude Ratio Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Ya-jun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The multiaxial fatigue behavior of 2A12 aluminum alloy was studied with SDN100/1000 electro-hydraulic servo tension-torsion fatigue tester under different stress amplitude ratios, the fracture morphology and the fatigue loading curve were observed to study the failure mechanism. The results show that, under the one stage loading condition, the fatigue life prolongs with the stress amplitude ratio increasing. Under pure torsion loading, smooth and even area exists in the fracture surface. As the stress amplitude ratio increases, the number of scratch reduces, the fatigue striation and some special morphology such as the fishbone pattern, scale pattern and honeycomb pattern can be observed; under cumulative paths of different stress amplitude ratios, the variation of multiaxial fatigue life changes with first stage loading cycles; under cumulative paths of high-low stress amplitude ratio, the cycle hardening occurs obviously in the axial direction for the first stage high stress amplitude ratio loading and 2A12 alloy shows training effect.

  11. PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diagnostic ratios have recently come into common use as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources. Some diagnostic ratios are based on parent PAHs, others on the proportions of alkyl-substituted to non-substituted molecules. The ratios are applicable to PAHs determined in different environmental media: air (gas + particle phase), water, sediment, soil, as well as biomonitor organisms such as leaves or coniferous needles, and mussels. These ratios distinguish PAH pollution originating from petroleum products, petroleum combustion and biomass or coal burning. The compounds involved in each ratio have the same molar mass, so it is assumed they have similar physicochemical properties. Numerous studies show that diagnostic ratios change in value to different extents during phase transfers and environmental degradation. The paper reviews applications of diagnostic ratios, comments on their use and specifies their limitations. - Highlights: ► PAH diagnostic ratios may identify pollution coming from petroleum spills, fuel combustion and coal or biomass burning. ► They are sensitive to changes during PAHs environmental fate processes. ► Some diagnostic ratios are of limited value due to fast photodegradation of one of the compounds. - The paper reviews PAH diagnostic ratios that are applied to identify pollution emission originating from petroleum products, fuel combustion or coal and biomass burning.

  12. Sex ratios of Mountain Plovers from egg production to fledging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Riordan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skewed sex ratios can have negative implications for population growth if they do not match a species' life history. A skewed tertiary sex ratio has been detected in a population of Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus, a grassland shorebird experiencing population declines. To study the cause of the observed male skew, we examined three early life stages between egg and fledgling in eastern Colorado from 2010 to 2012. This allows us to distinguish between egg production and chick survival as an explanation for the observed skew. We examined the primary sex ratio in eggs produced and the secondary sex ratio in hatched chicks to see if the sex ratio bias occurs before hatching. We also determined the sex ratio at fledging to reveal sex-specific mortality of nestlings. The primary sex ratio was 1.01 (± 0.01 males per female. The secondary sex ratio consisted of 1.10 (± 0.02 males per female. The probability of a chick surviving to fledging differed between males (0.55 ± 0.13 and females (0.47 ± 0.15, but the precision of these survival estimates was low. Sex ratios in early life stages of the Mountain Plover do not explain the skewed sex ratio observed in adults in this breeding population.

  13. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  14. Qualification of conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.

    1989-01-01

    A conditioning process is qualified by the PTB if the execution of pre-treatment and conditioning occurs so that a safe and orderly final storage of the products and waste containers produced can be assumed. All the relevant operating conditions for the plant are laid down by the producer/conditioner of the waste in a handbook. The elements of product inspection by process qualification are shown in tabular form. (DG) [de

  15. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB ( r = 0.54 to 0.57, p difference in general condition of populations.

  16. Financial Ratio and Its Influence to Profitability in Islamic Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Amelia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the influence of the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR and Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO to Return on Asset (ROA in Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mega. The data analysis method used in this research is multiple regression analysis. From the test results show that the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR and Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO simultaneously effect to Return on Asset (ROA. Based on the test results of the t statistic was concluded that the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF and the Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR partially no significant effect to Return on Asset (ROA, while Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO partially significant effect to Return on Asset (ROADOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i2.1700

  17. Rotator Cuff Strength Ratio and Injury in Glovebox Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Amelia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. Due to the high workload imposed upon the shoulder while working in an industrial glovebox, this study investigated the strength ratio of the rotator cuff muscles in glovebox workers and compared this ratio to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forces produced in the motions of shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios that were significantly different from the healthy norm. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature of glovebox workers in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development.

  18. Explorations in statistics: the analysis of ratios and normalized data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the analysis of ratios and normalized-or standardized-data. As researchers, we compute a ratio-a numerator divided by a denominator-to compute a proportion for some biological response or to derive some standardized variable. In each situation, we want to control for differences in the denominator when the thing we really care about is the numerator. But there is peril lurking in a ratio: only if the relationship between numerator and denominator is a straight line through the origin will the ratio be meaningful. If not, the ratio will misrepresent the true relationship between numerator and denominator. In contrast, regression techniques-these include analysis of covariance-are versatile: they can accommodate an analysis of the relationship between numerator and denominator when a ratio is useless.

  19. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios (i.e. 10 −5 ). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U ratios. Experimental results obtained for 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios deviated by less than −2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U c (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for 234 U/ 238 U, 235 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U, respectively. - Highlights: ► LA-MC-ICP-MS was fully validated for the direct analysis of individual particles. ► Traceability was established by using an IRMM glass particle reference material. ► Measured U isotope ratios were in agreement with the certified range. ► A comprehensive total combined uncertainty evaluation was performed. ► The analysis of 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios was improved by using a deceleration filter.

  20. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biliński Szczepan M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later.

  1. Effect of Gynosaponin on Rumen Methanogenesis under Different Forage-Concentrate Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhetgul Manatbay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of gynosaponin on in vitro methanogenesis under different forage-concentrate ratios (F:C ratios. Experiment was conducted with two kinds of F:C ratios (F:C = 7:3 and F:C = 3:7 and gynosaponin addition (0 mg and 16 mg in a 2×2 double factorial design. In the presence of gynosaponin, methane production and acetate concentration were significantly decreased, whereas concentration of propionate tended to be increased resulting in a significant reduction (p<0.05 of acetate:propionate ratio (A:P ratio, in high-forage substrate. Gynosaponin treatment increased (p<0.05 the butyrate concentration in both F:C ratios. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis showed there was no apparent shift in the composition of total bacteria, protozoa and methanogens after treated by gynosaponin under both F:C ratios. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis indicated that variable F:C ratios significantly affected the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Rumninococcus flavefaciens, total fungi and counts of protozoa (p<0.05, but did not affect the mcrA gene copies of methanogens and abundance of total bacteria. Counts of protozoa and abundance of F.succinogenes were decreased significantly (p<0.05, whereas mcrA gene copies of methanogens were decreased slightly (p<0.10 in high-forage substrate after treated by gynosaponin. However, gynosaponin treatment under high-concentrate level did not affect the methanogenesis, fermentation characteristics and tested microbes. Accordingly, overall results suggested that gynosaponin supplementation reduced the in vitro methanogenesis and improved rumen fermentation under high-forage condition by changing the abundances of related rumen microbes.

  2. A father effect explains sex-ratio bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Garde, Julián; Ballou, Jonathan D; Lacy, Robert C

    2017-08-30

    Sex ratio allocation has important fitness consequences, and theory predicts that parents should adjust offspring sex ratio in cases where the fitness returns of producing male and female offspring vary. The ability of fathers to bias offspring sex ratios has traditionally been dismissed given the expectation of an equal proportion of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (CBS) in ejaculates due to segregation of sex chromosomes at meiosis. This expectation has been recently refuted. Here we used Peromyscus leucopus to demonstrate that sex ratio is explained by an exclusive effect of the father, and suggest a likely mechanism by which male-driven sex-ratio bias is attained. We identified a male sperm morphological marker that is associated with the mechanism leading to sex ratio bias; differences among males in the sperm nucleus area (a proxy for the sex chromosome that the sperm contains) explain 22% variation in litter sex ratio. We further show the role played by the sperm nucleus area as a mediator in the relationship between individual genetic variation and sex-ratio bias. Fathers with high levels of genetic variation had ejaculates with a higher proportion of sperm with small nuclei area. This, in turn, led to siring a higher proportion of sons (25% increase in sons per 0.1 decrease in the inbreeding coefficient). Our results reveal a plausible mechanism underlying unexplored male-driven sex-ratio biases. We also discuss why this pattern of paternal bias can be adaptive. This research puts to rest the idea that father contribution to sex ratio variation should be disregarded in vertebrates, and will stimulate research on evolutionary constraints to sex ratios-for example, whether fathers and mothers have divergent, coinciding, or neutral sex allocation interests. Finally, these results offer a potential explanation for those intriguing cases in which there are sex ratio biases, such as in humans. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Method of Poisson's ratio imaging within a material part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to displayed the image.

  4. Effect of H/C ratio on coal ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1988-09-01

    The Cahn balance technique was found to be suitable for estimating ignition temperature and its dependence on the H/C ratio of the coal. This temperature decreased with increasing H/C ratio of coals. For coals a linear correlation between H/C ratio and the temperature was established. Chars derived from the coals deviated from the linear correlation established on coals. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  5. SM Higgs decay branching ratios and total Higgs width

    CERN Multimedia

    Daniel Denegri

    2001-01-01

    Upper: Higgs decay ratios as a function of Higgs mass. The largest branching ratio is not necessarily the most usefull one. The most usefull ones are gamma gamma bbar ZZ and WW as in those modes latter signal to background ratios can be achieved. Lower: Total Higgs decay width versus Higgs mass. At low masses the natural width is extremely small, thus observability depends on instrumental resolution primarily.

  6. The behavior of the likelihood ratio test for testing missingness

    OpenAIRE

    Hens, Niel; Aerts, Marc; Molenberghs, Geert; Thijs, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    To asses the sensitivity of conclusions to model choices in the context of selection models for non-random dropout, one can oppose the different missing mechanisms to each other; e.g. by the likelihood ratio tests. The finite sample behavior of the null distribution and the power of the likelihood ratio test is studied under a variety of missingness mechanisms. missing data; sensitivity analysis; likelihood ratio test; missing mechanisms

  7. Irreversibility and conditional probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.I.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mathematical entropy - unlike physical entropy - is simply a measure of uniformity for probability distributions in general. So understood, conditional entropies have the same logical structure as conditional probabilities. If, as is sometimes supposed, conditional probabilities are time-reversible, then so are conditional entropies and, paradoxically, both then share this symmetry with physical equations of motion. The paradox is, of course that probabilities yield a direction to time both in statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, while the equations of motion do not. The supposed time-reversibility of both conditionals seems also to involve a form of retrocausality that is related to, but possibly not the same as, that described by Costa de Beaurgard. The retrocausality is paradoxically at odds with the generally presumed irreversibility of the quantum mechanical measurement process. Further paradox emerges if the supposed time-reversibility of the conditionals is linked with the idea that the thermodynamic entropy is the same thing as 'missing information' since this confounds the thermodynamic and mathematical entropies. However, it is shown that irreversibility is a formal consequence of conditional entropies and, hence, of conditional probabilities also. 8 refs. (Author)

  8. Concentration ratios for BIOPATH: selection of the soil-to-plant concentration ratio database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    In Switzerland, high-level radioactive waste is planned to be deposited in deep crystalline formations. 'BIOPATH' is the computer code which has been used to simulate the movement of radionuclides in the biosphere, in order to calculate the doses to man. The key parameter used in the model on which the code is based is the concentration ratio (CR). This specifies the transfer of individual radionuclides via the various foodchains, ultimately to man. Five types of CR are required for the model, namely soil to plant, intake by cattle to milk, intake by cattle to meat, intake by poultry to eggs and from water to fish. Each of these CR are discussed in turn; it is shown that soil to plant CR exhibit a variability that greatly exceeds that observed in the other types of CR and for this reason the report goes on to consider these in much closer detail. The different methods and experimental techniques used to derive soil to plant CR are examined and assessed, to allow evaluation of a meaningful data base for use in BIOPATH. The report concludes by examining the data available for each radionuclide in turn and listing a recommended CR for it, to input into the BIOPATH model. (author)

  9. Relation between D/H ratios and 18O /16O ratios in cellulose from linen and maize - Implications for paleoclimatology and for sindonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNiro, Michael J.; Sternberg, Leonel D.; Marino, Bruno D.; Druzik, James R.

    1988-09-01

    The 18O /16O ratios of cellulose and the D/H ratios of cellulose nitrate were determined for linen, a textile produced from the fibers of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum, and for maize ( Zea mays) from a variety of geographic locations in Europe, the Middle East, and North and South America. The regression lines of δD values on δ 18O values had slopes of 5.4 and 5.8 for the two species. Statistical analysis of results reported in the only other study in which samples of a single species (the silver fir Abies pindrow) that grew under a variety of climatic conditions were analyzed yielded slopes of ~6 when δD values of cellulose nitrate were regressed on δ 18O values of cellulose. The occurrence of this previously unrecognized relationship in three species suggests it may obtain in other plants as well. Determining the basis for this relationship, which is not possible given current understanding of fractionation of the isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen by plants, should lead to increased understanding of how D/H and 18O /16O ratios in cellulose isolated from fossil plants are related to paleoclimates. The separation of most linen samples from Europe from those originating in the Middle East when δD values are plotted against δ 18O values suggests it may be possible to use the isotope ratios of cellulose prepared from the Shroud of Turin to resolve the controversy concerning its geographic origin.

  10. Regulation of the Docosapentaenoic Acid/Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio (DPA/DHA Ratio) in Schizochytrium limacinum B4D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Huidong; Chen, Wuxi; Zhao, Minli; Cui, Haiyang; Min, Qingsong; Wang, Haijun; Chen, Shulin; Li, Demao

    2017-05-01

    Docosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio (DPA/DHA ratio) in Schizochytrium was relatively stable. But ideally the ratio of DPA/DHA will vary according to the desired end use. This study reports several ways of modulating the DPA/DHA ratio. Incubation times changed the DPA/DHA ratio, and changes in this ratio were associated with the variations in the saturated fatty acid (SFAs) content. Propionic acid sharply increased the SFAs content in lipids, dramatically decreased the even-chain SFAs content, and reduced the DPA/DHA ratio. Pentanoic acid (C5:0) and heptanoic acid (C7:0) had similar effects as propionic acid, whereas butyric acid (C4:0), hexanoic acid (C6:0), and octanoic acid (C8:0) did not change the fatty acid profile and the DPA/DHA ratio. Transcription analyses show that β-oxidation might be responsible for this phenomenon. Iodoacetamide upregulated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase genes, reduced the DHA content, and improved the DPA content, causing the DPA/DHA ratio to increase. These results present new insights into the regulation of the DPA/DHA ratio.

  11. Lossless Conditional Schema Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the reco......The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples...... and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that conditionally evolving schemas, in contrast to current commercial database systems, are lossless when the schema evolves...

  12. Limiting density ratios in piston-driven compressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1985-07-01

    By using global energy and pressure balance applied to a shock model it is shown that for a piston-driven fast compression, the maximum compression ratio is not dependent on the absolute magnitude of the piston power, but rather on the power pulse shape. Specific cases are considered and a maximum density compression ratio of 27 is obtained for a square-pulse power compressing a spherical pellet with specific heat ratio of 5/3. Double pulsing enhances the density compression ratio to 1750 in the case of linearly rising compression pulses. Using this method further enhancement by multiple pulsing becomes obvious. (author)

  13. Accurate isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Some problems and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bievre, P. de

    1978-01-01

    The review includes reference to 190 papers, mainly published during the last 10 years. It covers the following: important factors in accurate isotope ratio measurements (precision and accuracy of isotope ratio measurements -exemplified by determinations of 235 U/ 238 U and of other elements including 239 Pu/ 240 Pu; isotope fractionation -exemplified by curves for Rb, U); applications (atomic weights); the Oklo natural nuclear reactor (discovered by UF 6 mass spectrometry at Pierrelatte); nuclear and other constants; isotope ratio measurements in nuclear geology and isotope cosmology - accurate age determination; isotope ratio measurements on very small samples - archaeometry; isotope dilution; miscellaneous applications; and future prospects. (U.K.)

  14. Do Workplace Sex Ratios Affect Partnership Formation and Dissolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios are not ......In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios...

  15. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorisek, A. [CERN (Switzerland)]. E-mail: andrej.gorisek@cern.ch; Cindro, V. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Dolenc, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fotec (Austria); Griesmayer, E. [Fotec (Austria); Kagan, H. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Korpar, S. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Kramberger, G. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Mandic, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Meyer, M. [CERN (Switzerland); Mikuz, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Pernegger, H. [CERN (Switzerland); Smith, S. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto (Canada); Weilhammer, P. [CERN (Switzerland); Zavrtanik, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia)

    2007-03-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm{sup 2} area and 500{mu}m thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented.

  16. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, A.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Griesmayer, E.; Kagan, H.; Korpar, S.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Meyer, M.; Mikuz, M.; Pernegger, H.; Smith, S.; Trischuk, W.; Weilhammer, P.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm 2 area and 500μm thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented

  17. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Gorišek, A; Dolenc, I; Frais-Kölbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Kagan, H; Korpar, S; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Meyer, M; Mikuz, M; Pernegger, H; Smith, S; Trischuk, W; Weilhammer, P; Zavrtanik, M

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at . Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam–beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of area and thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test bea...

  18. The measurement of mass spectrometric peak height ratio of helium isotope in trace samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Mingliang

    1989-01-01

    An experiment study on the measurement of mass spectrometric peak height ratio of helium isotope in the trace gaseous sample is discussed by using the gas purification line designed by the authors and model VG-5400 static-vacuum noble gas mass spectrometer imported and air helium as a standard. The results show that the amount of He and Ne in natural gas sample is 99% after purification. When the amount of He in Mass Spectrometer is more than 4 x 10 -7 cm 3 STP, it's sensitivity remains stable, about 10 -4 A/cm 3 STP He and the precision of 3 He/ 4 He ratio within the following 17 days is 1.32%. The 'ABA' pattern and experiment condition in the measurement of mass spectrometric peak height ratio of He isotope are presented

  19. On the stability limits of the Pinch-conductor current ratio in Extrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1987-12-01

    A first attempt is made to take the special stability features of the Extrap confinement scheme into account, thereby including kinetic large Larmor radius (LLR) effects. This approach predicts Extrap to be unstable outside a domain defined by a lower and an upper ratio a - /a x is related to the ratio J p /J v between the pinch current J p and the conductor current J v . Stability within the predicted domain seems to agree with so far performed linear and toroidal experiments, and can explain the observed increase in J p /J v and in the plasma temperature, in terms of an increased ratio a - /a x . According to present analysis, an optimum value of the conductor current J v should further exist with respect to pinch equilibrium and stability, as given by the condition a - approx = a x . (author)

  20. A prediction model for wind speed ratios at pedestrian level with simplified urban canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Hagishima, A.; Razak, A. A.; Tanimoto, J.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review and improve prediction models for wind speed ratios at pedestrian level with simplified urban canopies. We adopted an extensive database of velocity fields under various conditions for arrays consisting of cubes, slender or flattened rectangles, and rectangles with varying roughness heights. Conclusions are summarized as follows: first, a new geometric parameter is introduced as a function of the plan area index and the aspect ratio so as to express the increase in virtual density that causes wind speed reduction. Second, the estimated wind speed ratios in the range 0.05 coefficients between the wind speeds averaged over the entire region, and the front or side region values are larger than 0.8. In contrast, in areas where the influence of roughness elements is significant, such as behind a building, the wind speeds are weakly correlated.

  1. Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mathava; Ou, Y.-L.; Lin, J.-G.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture contents (45-75%) and C/N ratios (13.9-19.6). The results indicate that the optimal moisture content for co-composting of food waste and green waste is 60%, and the substrate at a C/N ratio of 19.6 can be decomposed effectively to reduce 33% of total volatile solids (TVS) in 12 days. The TVS reduction can be modeled by using a second-order equation with a good fit. In addition, the compost passes the standard germination index of white radish seed indicating that it can be used as soil amendment.

  2. Optimization of a Compton-suppression system by escape-peak ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, H.; Chao, J.H.; Wu, S.-C.

    1996-01-01

    A Compton-suppression system consisting of an HPGe central detector surrounded by eight BGO scintillators in an annular geometry was assembled. This system is dedicated to in-beam γ-ray measurements. The ratios of full-energy to single-escape peak and full-energy of double-escape peak, at γ-rays of 2754, 4443 and 6130 keV, were used to derive associated suppression factors in order to optimize detection conditions of the system. The suppression factors derived both from the escape peak ratios and the corresponding peak-to-Compton ratios of the γ-ray spectra are compared and discussed. This optimization technique may be of great significance for analyzing complicated spectra, where high-energy γ-rays are considered for analytical use. (Author)

  3. Optimal ratio of cash and non-cash payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Panova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the present condition and prospects of development of the monetary sector of the Russian economy. Quantitative parameters of aggregate turnover, including the value of cash and non-cash it. Researched issues restricting cash advance industry in Russia and other countries; the problems encountered by foreign States in imposing administrative limits on cash payments; provides specific recommendations and identified risks imposing such restrictions in Russia. The article deals with topical issues of optimization of structure of aggregate turnover. Analyzing the development of money turnover, the role and the place of cash in the economy, the author explored the basic approaches to the determination and regulation of money turnover, proposed a new approach to ensure transparency in money flows. Particularly promising cash flow optimization are: a measures aimed at improving the cash turnover (including maintaining the stability of the national currency, improving the procedures for issuing and withdrawing money from circulation, determine the optimal structure of monetary aggregates, etc. and b development of cashless money turnover. The author's position is presented on the future of the scientific basis and practical realization of the optimal ratio of cash and cashless money turnover in Russia and other countries. In particular, felt the need to increase information transparency, openness international information exchange in order to improve monetary policy by countries at the national and international level. To develop common approaches (models of the analysis and forecasting of financial markets, as well as the establishment of an international coordination centre responsible for the collection, verification and access to public information databases for the cross-country studies of banking and financial and monetary sphere.

  4. Gendered work conditions, health, and work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Meg A; Punnett, Laura; Pyle, Jean L; Cazeca, Dianne; Cooperman, Manuela

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study of nonfaculty university employees examined associations among gendered work conditions (e.g., sexism and discrimination), job demands, and employee job satisfaction and health. Organizational responsiveness and social support were examined as effect modifiers. Comparisons were made by gender and by the male-female ratio in each job category. The relationship of gendered conditions of work to outcomes differed on the basis of respondents' sex and the job sex ratio. Although the same predictors were hypothesized for job satisfaction, physical health, and psychological distress, there were some differing results. The strongest correlate of job satisfaction was social support; perceived sexism in the workplace also contributed for both men and women. Organizational factors associated with psychological distress differed between female- and male-dominated jobs.

  5. Burnout characteristics under flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Kuroyanagai, Toshiyuki

    1982-01-01

    Burnout characteristics in a uniformly heated, vertically oriented tube, under flow reduction condition, were experimentally studied. Test pressures ranged 0.5 -- 3.9 MPa and flow reduction rates 0.6 -- 35%/s. An analytical method was developed to obtain the local mass velocity during a transient condition. The local mass velocity at the burnout location with an increasing flow reduction rate was slightly different from that measured in steady state tests. The system pressure had a significant effect on the difference. An empirical correlation was presented to give the ratio between the transient and steady state burnout mass velocities at the burnout location as a function of the steam-water density ratio and the flow reduction rate. Experimental results of previous work were compared with this correlation. (author)

  6. Variations in the OM/OC ratio of urban organic aerosol next to a major roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven G; Lee, Taehyoung; Roberts, Paul T; Collett, Jeffrey L

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the organic matter/organic carbon (OM/OC) ratio in ambient particulate matter (PM) is critical to achieve mass closure in routine PM measurements, to assess the sources of and the degree of chemical processing organic aerosol particles have undergone, and to relate ambient pollutant concentrations to health effects. Of particular interest is how the OM/OC ratio varies in the urban environment, where strong spatial and temporal gradients in source emissions are common. We provide results of near-roadway high-time-resolution PM1 OM concentration and OM/OC ratio observations during January 2008 at Fyfe Elementary School in Las Vegas, NV, 18 m from the U.S. 95 freeway soundwall, measured with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The average OM/OC ratio was 1.54 (+/- 0.20 standard deviation), typical of environments with a low amount of secondary aerosol formation. The 2-min average OM/OC ratios varied between 1.17 and 2.67, and daily average OM/OC ratios varied between 1.44 and 1.73. The ratios were highest during periods of low OM concentrations and generally low during periods of high OM concentrations. OM/OC ratios were low (1.52 +/- 0.14, on average) during the morning rush hour (average OM = 2.4 microg/m3), when vehicular emissions dominate this near-road measurement site. The ratios were slightly lower (1.46 +/- 0.10) in the evening (average OM = 6.3 microg/m3), when a combination of vehicular and fresh residential biomass burning emissions was typically present during times with temperature inversions. The hourly averaged OM/OC ratio peaked at 1.66 at midday. OM concentrations were similar regardless of whether the monitoring site was downwind or upwind of the adjacent freeway throughout the day, though they were higher during stagnant conditions (wind speed < 0.5 m/sec). The OM/OC ratio generally varied more with time of day than with wind direction and speed.

  7. Sex ratios in fetuses and liveborn infants with autosomal aneuploidy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuther, C.A.; Martin, R.L.M.; Stoppelman, S.M. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-14

    Ten data sources were used substantially to increase the available data for estimating fetal and livebirth sex ratios for Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), and Down (trisomy 21) syndromes and controls. The fetal sex ratio estimate was 0.88 (N = 584) for trisomy 13, 0.90 (N = 1702) for trisomy 18, and 1.16 (N = 3154) for trisomy 21. All were significantly different from prenatal controls (1.07). The estimated ratios in prenatal controls were 1.28 (N = 1409) for CVSs and 1.06 (N = 49427) for amniocenteses, indicating a clear differential selection against males, mostly during the first half of fetal development. By contrast, there were no sex ratio differences for any of the trisomies when comparing gestational ages <16 and >16 weeks. The livebirth sex ratio estimate was 0.90 (N = 293) for trisomy 13, 0.63 (N = 497) for trisomy 18, and 1.15 (N = 6424) for trisomy 21, the latter two being statistically different than controls (1.05) (N = 3660707). These ratios for trisomies 13 and 18 were also statistically different than the ratio for trisomy 21. Only in trisomy 18 did the sex ratios in fetuses and livebirths differ, indicating a prenatal selection against males >16 weeks. No effects of maternal age or race were found on these estimates for any of the fetal or livebirth trisomies. Sex ratios for translocations and mosaics were also estimated for these aneuploids. Compared to previous estimates, these results are less extreme, most likely because of larger sample sizes and less sample bias. They support the hypothesis that these trisomy sex ratios are skewed at conception, or become so during embryonic development through differential intrauterine selection. The estimate for Down syndrome livebirths is also consistent with the hypothesis that its higher sex ratio is associated with paternal nondisjunction. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Ratio superior, ratio inferior y el agustinismo de Tomás de Aquino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Cañas, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Aquinas’ reception of the Augustinian distinction between ratio inferior and superior. Though not a central aspect of Aquinas’ thought, it is a signifi cant pointer to the presence of Augustinian patterns of thought in a non-theological part of his work. After a general survey of the presence of this distinction in the opera omnia of Aquinas, his use of this topic in some specific instances is discussed: the distinction between contemplative and active life, the division of human faculties, and the moral problem of peevish delight.El artículo discute la recepción que hace Tomás de Aquino de la distinción agustiniana entre razón superior e inferior. Si bien no se trata de uno de los tópicos centrales de la doctrina tomasiana, es un elemento significativo a la hora de considerar dentro de la obra de Tomás la presencia de patrones agustinianos de pensamiento que no sean primordialmente teológicos. Tras discutir de modo general la presencia de esta distinción en la obra del aquinate, y los estudios previos sobre este binomio, se procede a discutir su uso por parte de Tomás de Aquino ante tres problemas específicos: la distinción entre géneros de vida, la división de las facultades humanas, y el problema moral de la delectación morosa.

  9. Evaporation under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Satoshi; Shibata, Yuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear fusion reactor design, an event of water coolant ingress into its vacuum vessel is now being considered as one of the most probable accidents. In this report, the evaporation under vacuum condition is evaluated by using the evaporation model we have developed. The results show that shock-wave by the evaporation occurs whose behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions of vacuum. And in the case of lower initial pressure and temperature, the surface temp finally becomes higher than other conditions. (author)

  10. DFT based spatial multiplexing and maximum ratio transmission for mm-wawe large MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phan-Huy, D.-T.; Tölli, A.; Rajatheva, N.

    2014-01-01

    -SM-MRT). When the DFT-SM scheme alone is used, the data streams are either mapped onto different angles of departures in the case of aligned linear arrays, or mapped onto different orbital angular momentums in the case of aligned circular arrays. Maximum ratio transmission pre-equalizes the channel......By using large point-to-point multiple input multiple output (MIMO), spatial multiplexing of a large number of data streams in wireless communications using millimeter-waves (mm-waves) can be achieved. However, according to the antenna spacing and transmitter-receiver distance, the MIMO channel...... is likely to be ill-conditioned. In such conditions, highly complex schemes such as the singular value decomposition (SVD) are necessary. In this paper, we propose a new low complexity system called discrete Fourier transform based spatial multiplexing (DFT-SM) with maximum ratio transmission (DFT...

  11. Effects of particle exhaust on neutral compression ratios in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Allen, S.L.; Greenfield, C.M.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, neutral particles in DIII-D are studied via their compression in the plenum and via particle exhaust. The compression of gas in the plena is examined in terms of the magnetic field configuration and wall conditions. DIII-D compression ratios are observed in the range from 1 to ≥ 1,000. Particle control ultimately depends on the exhaust of neutrals via plenum or wall pumping. Wall pumping or outgassing is calculated by means of a detailed particle balance throughout individual discharges, and its effect on particle control is discussed. It is demonstrated that particle control through wall conditioning leads to lower normalized densities. A two-region model shows that the gas compression ratio (C div = divertor plenum neutral pressure/torus neutral pressure) can be interpreted in relation to gas flows in the torus and divertor including the pumping speed of the plenum cryopumps, plasma pumping, and the pumping or outgassing of the walls

  12. The evolution of sex ratios and sex-determining systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido; Wapstra, Erik; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Komdeur, Jan

    Sex determination is a fundamental process governed by diverse mechanisms. Sex ratio selection is commonly implicated in the evolution of sex-determining systems, although formal models are rare. Here, we argue that, although sex ratio selection can induce shifts in sex determination, genomic

  13. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied

  14. The golden ratio in Schwarzschild-Kottler black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago 2 (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we show that the golden ratio is present in the Schwarzschild-Kottler metric. For null geodesics with maximal radial acceleration, the turning points of the orbits are in the golden ratio Φ = (√(5)-1)/2. This is a general result which is independent of the value and sign of the cosmological constant Λ. (orig.)

  15. Worldwide lead-isotope ratio in bivalves and sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jacobsen, Gitte; Strand, Jakob

    The lead-isotope ratio have been used to assess and identify impact of leaded gasoline, coal combustion and  mineral activities[ref 1] due to the difference in 206Pb (~52%), 207Pb (~24%) and 208Pb (~23%) isotope ratios. The source of these differences is the decaying of the parent isotopes of 238U...

  16. Determination of Optimum Compression Ratio: A Tribological Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yüksek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are the primary energy conversion machines both in industry and transportation. Modern technologies are being implemented to engines to fulfill today's low fuel consumption demand. Friction energy consumed by the rubbing parts of the engines are becoming an important parameter for higher fuel efficiency. Rate of friction loss is primarily affected by sliding speed and the load acting upon rubbing surfaces. Compression ratio is the main parameter that increases the peak cylinder pressure and hence normal load on components. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of compression ratio on total friction loss of a diesel engine. A variable compression ratio diesel engine was operated at four different compression ratios which were "12.96", "15:59", "18:03", "20:17". Brake power and speed was kept constant at predefined value while measuring the in- cylinder pressure. Friction mean effective pressure ( FMEP data were obtained from the in cylinder pressure curves for each compression ratio. Ratio of friction power to indicated power of the engine was increased from 22.83% to 37.06% with varying compression ratio from 12.96 to 20:17. Considering the thermal efficiency , FMEP and maximum in- cylinder pressure optimum compression ratio interval of the test engine was determined as 18.8 ÷ 19.6.

  17. Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure was also recorded according to the standard method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratio were then calculated. Receiver operating curves was used to assess the ability of systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure height ratio to discriminate childhood prehypertension and hypertension.

  18. Optimal Fisher Discriminant Ratio for an Arbitrary Spatial Light Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Optimizing the Fisher ratio is well established in statistical pattern recognition as a means of discriminating between classes. I show how to optimize that ratio for optical correlation intensity by choice of filter on an arbitrary spatial light modulator (SLM). I include the case of additive noise of known power spectral density.

  19. Explorations in Statistics: The Analysis of Ratios and Normalized Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores the analysis of ratios and normalized--or standardized--data. As researchers, we compute a ratio--a numerator divided by a denominator--to compute a…

  20. Effect of sodium adsorption ratio and electric conductivity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the water and its sodium content relative to calcium and magnesium content. ... calcium and magnesium is the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). It is a measure of the ..... comparison of ANN and geo statistics methods for estimating spatial distribution of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in groundwater. Int. J. Agric. Crop Sci.

  1. Pupil – Teacher Ratio: Implication for Quality Education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly, pupil-teacher ratios are very essential to quality of education. They perhaps rank alongside professional knowledge, skill, as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. This paper discusses pupil-teacher ratio and relevance that pupils seem to have a greater impact on ...

  2. Human sex ratio at amniocentesis and at birth in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Wen Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: The results showed that sex ratio was already skewed toward male at midtrimester. Our data imply that artificial sex selection, if it were present, might have already emerged prior to the timing of amniocentesis. However, more large nationwide studies on sex ratios in Taiwan are warranted.

  3. Distribution of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, G.R.L.; Rao, M.V.; Prasad, P.H.; Reddy, K.G.

    The monthly averages of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean have been computed Three typical situations in the months of January May and September are taken for the present study Month to month differences in the Bowen ratio over the study...

  4. Inequalities in mortality: study rates, not standardised mortality ratios [Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    In their study from 1921 to 2007 Thomas and colleagues conclude on the basis of standardised mortality ratios that inequalities in mortality continue to rise and are now almost as high as in the 1930s. Relative ratios are, however, misleading when absolute rates change strongly. I calculated the

  5. Introducing errors in progress ratios determined from experience curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Progress ratios (PRs) derived from historical data in experience curves are used for forecasting development of many technologies as a means to model endogenous technical change in for instance climate–economy models. These forecasts are highly sensitive to uncertainties in the progress ratio. As a

  6. Digit ratios, the menstrual cycle and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are partially determined by biological factors. We do this by investigating whether digit ratios (2D:4D) and menstrual cycle information are correlated with choices in ultimatum, trust, public good and dictator games. Digit ratios are thought to be a proxy for

  7. On the product and ratio of Bessel random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saralees Nadarajah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of products and ratios of random variables are of interest in many areas of the sciences. In this paper, the exact distributions of the product |XY| and the ratio |X/Y| are derived when X and Y are independent Bessel function random variables. An application of the results is provided by tabulating the associated percentage points.

  8. Concept of planetary gear system to control fluid mixture ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgroarty, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Mechanical device senses and corrects for fluid flow departures from the selected flow ratio of two fluids. This system has been considered for control of rocket engine propellant mixture control but could find use wherever control of the flow ratio of any two fluids is desired.

  9. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... should have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure; excellent control... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE...

  10. Updating Financial Ratios: Seeking Greater Understanding, Precision, and Practicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Hans H.; Minter, W. John

    1993-01-01

    Modifications to current methods of calculating and reporting financial ratios are outlined for college managers. The modified ratios, felt to be more realistic, are illustrated with applications in three areas: (1) student revenues; (2) endowment and other investment income; and (3) public and private gifts, grants, and contracts revenue. (MSE)

  11. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Groenendijk (Patrick); A. Lucas (André); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunction with standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle linear dependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial time series. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizons

  12. Statistical validity of using ratio variables in human kinetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanlong; Schutz, Robert W

    2003-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the validity of the simple ratio and three alternative deflation models and examine how the variation of the numerator and denominator variables affects the reliability of a ratio variable. A simple ratio and three alternative deflation models were fitted to four empirical data sets, and common criteria were applied to determine the best model for deflation. Intraclass correlation was used to examine the component effect on the reliability of a ratio variable. The results indicate that the validity, of a deflation model depends on the statistical characteristics of the particular component variables used, and an optimal deflation model for all ratio variables may not exist. Therefore, it is recommended that different models be fitted to each empirical data set to determine the best deflation model. It was found that the reliability of a simple ratio is affected by the coefficients of variation and the within- and between-trial correlations between the numerator and denominator variables. It was recommended that researchers should compute the reliability of the derived ratio scores and not assume that strong reliabilities in the numerator and denominator measures automatically lead to high reliability in the ratio measures.

  13. Risk aversion vs. the Omega ratio : Consistency results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, Sven; Schweizer, Nikolaus

    This paper clarifies when the Omega ratio and related performance measures are consistent with second order stochastic dominance and when they are not. To avoid consistency problems, the threshold parameter in the ratio should be chosen as the expected return of some benchmark – as is commonly done

  14. Parental correlates of offspring sex ratio in Eurasian Oystercatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, D.; Dingemanse, NJ; Lessells, CM; Mateman, AC

    2000-01-01

    We investigated hatchling and fledgling sex ratios in Eurasian Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The overall hatchling (53% males, n = 374 hatchlings from 177 broods) and fledgling (49% males, n = 51) sex ratio did not differ significantly from

  15. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  16. On efficiency of some ratio estimators in double sampling design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, three sampling ratio estimators in double sampling design were proposed with the intention of finding an alternative double sampling design estimator to the conventional ratio estimator in double sampling design discussed by Cochran (1997), Okafor (2002) , Raj (1972) and Raj and Chandhok (1999).

  17. Deep Reactive Ion Etching for High Aspect Ratio Microelectromechanical Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Jacobsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    A deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) process for fabrication of high aspect ratio trenches has been developed. Trenches with aspect ratios exceeding 20 and vertical sidewalls with low roughness have been demonstrated. The process has successfully been used in the fabrication of silicon-on-insulator (SOI...

  18. Sex Dimorphism of the Heart Diameters and Cardiothoracic Ratios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine gender associated differences in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and heart diameters in a normal Nigerian population. Subject and Method: The normal heart diameters and cardiothoracic ratios were measured from posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs of healthy 510 male and 508 female ...

  19. Sex ratio, gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sex ratio, gonadosomatic index, stages of gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt, Pomadasys jubelini in the New Calabar-Bonny River were investigated. P. jubelini had a sex ratio of 1: 2.1 (male to female). Gonadosomatic index ranged from 0.33 to 7.29% with a mean of 2.89+0.08%. High gonadosomatic ...

  20. Sex ratio and Wolbachia infection in the ant Formica exsecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L; Liautard, C; Reuter, M; Brown, W D; Sundström, L; Chapuisat, M

    2001-08-01

    Sex allocation data in social Hymenoptera provide some of the best tests of kin selection, parent-offspring conflict and sex ratio theories. However, these studies critically depend on controlling for confounding ecological factors and on identifying all parties that potentially manipulate colony sex ratio. It has been suggested that maternally inherited parasites may influence sex allocation in social Hymenoptera. If the parasites can influence sex allocation, infected colonies are predicted to invest more resources in females than non-infected colonies, because the parasites are transmitted through females but not males. Prime candidates for such sex ratio manipulation are Wolbachia, because these cytoplasmically transmitted bacteria have been shown to affect the sex ratio of host arthropods by cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, male-killing and feminization. In this study, we tested whether Wolbachia infection is associated with colony sex ratio in two populations of the ant Formica exsecta that have been the subject of extensive sex ratio studies. In these populations colonies specialize in the production of one sex or the other. We found that almost all F. exsecta colonies in both populations are infected with Wolbachia. However, in neither population did we find a significant association in the predicted direction between the prevalence of Wolbachia and colony sex ratio. In particular, colonies with a higher proportion of infected workers did not produce more females. Hence, we conclude that Wolbachia does not seem to alter the sex ratio of its hosts as a means to increase transmission rate in these two populations of ants.

  1. Measurements of K/Π ratio in cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, J.R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of k/Π ratio in cosmic radiation by its half lives and its fluxes, were carried out. The kaon flux was obtained using the Cherenkov detector, and for pion flux scintillation detectors were used. The final results of K/Π ratio ∼ 0.2 was obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. The Steiner ratio for points on a triangular lattice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    design of integrated circuit boards, communication networks, power networks and pipelines of minimum cost. In such applications the Steiner ratio is an indication of how badly a minimum spanning tree performs compared to a Steiner minimal tree. In this paper a short proof is presented for the Steiner ratio for points on a ...

  3. Lead isotope ratio analysis of bullet samples by using quadrupole ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shu-ichi; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Oishi, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The measurement conditions for the precise analysis of the lead stable isotope ratio by using an ICP-MS equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer were studied in order to apply the technique to the forensic identification of bullet samples. The values of the relative standard deviation obtained for the ratio of 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 204 Pb/ 206 Pb were lower than 0.2% after optimization of the analytical conditions, including the optimum lead concentration of the sample solution to be about 70 ppb and an integration time for 1 m/s of 15 s. This method was applied to an analysis of lead in bullets for rifles and handguns; a stable isotope ratio of lead was found to be suitable for the identification of bullets. This study has demonstrated that the lead isotope ratio measured by using a quadrupole ICP-MS was useful for a practical analysis of bullet samples in forensic science. (author)

  4. Non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by Alfven waves in low aspects ratio Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of radio frequency (RF) current drive via helicity injection in low aspect ratio tokamaks was carried out. A current-carrying cylindrical plasma surrounded by a helical sheet-current antenna and situated inside a perfectly conducting shell was considered. Toroidal features of low aspect ratio tokamaks were simulated by incorporation of the following effects: (i) arbitrarily small aspect ratio, R o /a ≡ 1/ε (ii) strongly sheared equilibrium magnetic field; and (iii) relatively large poloidal component of the equilibrium magnetic field. The study concentrates on the Alfven continuum, i.e. the case in which the wave frequency satisfies the condition {ω Alf (r)} min ≤ω≥{ω Alf (r)} max , where ω Alf (r)≡ω[n(r),B o (o)] is an eigenfrequency of the shear Alfven wave (SAW). Thus, using low-p, ideal magneto-hydrodynamics, the wave equation with correct boundary (matching) conditions was solved, the RF field components were found and subsequently, current drive , power deposition and efficiency were computed. The results of our investigation clearly demonstrate the possibility of generation of RF-driven currents via helicity injection by Alfven waves in low aspect ratio tokamaks, in the SAW mode. A special algorithm was developed which enables the selection of the antenna parameters providing optimal current drive efficiency. (authors)

  5. Effects of Metal Composition and Ratio on Peptide-Templated Multimetallic PdPt Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Nicholas A.; Nitka, Tadeusz T.; McKee, Erik M.; Merino, Kyle C.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Lee, Sungsik; Reinhart, Benjamin; Ren, Yang; Munro, Catherine J.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Bedford, Nicholas M.; Knecht, Marc R.

    2017-02-22

    It can be difficult to simultaneously control the size, composition, and morphology of metal nanomaterials under benign aqueous conditions. For this, bio-inspired approaches have become increasing popular due to their ability to stabilize a wide array of metal catalysts under ambient conditions. In this regard, we used the R5 peptide as a 3D template for the formation of PdPt bimetallic nanomaterials. Monometallic Pd and Pt nanomaterials have been shown to be highly reactive towards a variety of catalytic processes, but by forming bimetallic species, increased catalytic activity may be realized. The optimal metal-to-metal ratio was determined by varying the Pd:Pt ratio to obtain the largest increase in catalytic activity. To better understand the morphology and the local atomic structure of the materials, the bimetallic PdPt nanomaterials were extensively studied using transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analysis. The resulting PdPt materials were determined to form multicomponent nanostructures where the Pt component demonstrated varying degrees of oxidation based upon the Pd:Pt ratio. To test the catalytic reactivity of the materials, olefin hydrogenation was conducted which indicated a slight catalytic enhancement for the multicomponent materials. These results suggest a strong correlation between the metal ratio and the stabilizing biotemplate in controlling the final materials morphology, composition, and the interactions between the two metal species.

  6. Effects of metal composition and ratio on peptide-templated multimetallic PdPt nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, Nicholas A.; Nitka, Tadeusz T.; McKee, Erik M.; Merino, Kyle C.; Drummy, Lawrence F.

    2017-01-01

    It can be difficult to simultaneously control the size, composition, and morphology of metal nanomaterials under benign aqueous conditions. For this, bioinspired approaches have become increasingly popular due to their ability to stabilize a wide array of metal catalysts under ambient conditions. In this regard, we used the R5 peptide as a three-dimensional template for formation of PdPt bimetallic nanomaterials. Monometallic Pd and Pt nanomaterials have been shown to be highly reactive toward a variety of catalytic processes, but by forming bimetallic species, increased catalytic activity may be realized. The optimal metal-to-metal ratio was determined by varying the Pd:Pt ratio to obtain the largest increase in catalytic activity. To better understand the morphology and the local atomic structure of the materials, the bimetallic PdPt nanomaterials were extensively studied by transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analysis. The resulting PdPt materials were determined to form multicomponent nanostructures where the Pt component demonstrated varying degrees of oxidation based upon the Pd:Pt ratio. To test the catalytic reactivity of the materials, olefin hydrogenation was conducted, which indicated a slight catalytic enhancement for the multicomponent materials. Finally, these results suggest a strong correlation between the metal ratio and the stabilizing biotemplate in controlling the final materials morphology, composition, and the interactions between the two metal species.

  7. The Intrinsic Variability in the Water Vapor Saturation Ratio due to Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. C.; Cantrell, W. H.; Chandrakar, K. K.; Kostinski, A. B.; Niedermeier, D.; Shaw, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the atmosphere, the concentration of water vapor plays an important role in Earth's weather and climate. The mean concentration of water vapor is key to its efficiency as a greenhouse gas; the fluctuations about the mean are important for heat fluxes near the surface of earth. In boundary layer clouds, fluctuations in the water vapor concentration are linked to turbulence. Conditions representative of boundary layer clouds are simulated in Michigan Tech's multiphase, turbulent reaction chamber, the ∏ chamber, where the boundary conditions are controlled and repeatable. Measurements for temperature and water vapor concentration were recorded under forced Rayleigh-Bénard convection. As expected, the distributions for temperature and water vapor concentration broaden as the turbulence becomes more vigorous. From these two measurements the saturation ratio can be calculated. The fluctuations in the water vapor concentration are more important to the variability in the saturation ratio than fluctuations in temperature. In a cloud, these fluctuations in the saturation ratio can result in some cloud droplets experiencing much higher supersaturations. Those "lucky" droplets grow by condensation at a faster rate than other cloud droplets. The difference in the droplet growth rate could contribute to a broadened droplet distribution, which leads to the onset of collision-coalescence. With more intense turbulence these effect will become more pronounced as the fluctuations about the mean saturation ratio become more pronounced.

  8. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  9. Chronic Condition Data Warehouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) provides researchers with Medicare and Medicaid beneficiary, claims, and assessment data linked by beneficiary across...

  10. Chronic Conditions PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Chronic Conditions PUFs are aggregated files in which each record is a profile or cell defined by the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries. A profile is...

  11. National Coastal Condition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's coastal waters and the Great Lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  12. Operant Conditioning and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noronha, Mario

    A case study of a learning disabled 8-year-old with behavior disturbancs is presented to highlight the use of operant conditioning in cutting down educational costs and easing the teacher's class management problems. (CL)

  13. Multidimensional HAM-conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    Heat, Air and Moisture (HAM) conditions, experimental data are needed. Tests were performed in the large climate simulator at SBi involving full-scale wall elements. The elements were exposed for steady-state conditions, and temperature cycles simulating April and September climate in Denmark....... The effect on the moisture and temperature conditions of the addition of a vapour barrier and an outer cladding on timber frame walls was studied. The report contains comprehensive appendices documenting the full-scale tests. The tests were performed as a part of the project 'Model for Multidimensional Heat......, Air and Moisture Conditions in Building Envelope Components' carried out as a co-project between DTU Byg and SBi....

  14. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ...

  15. Exploring the possibilities for stabilizing the sex ratio in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sex ratio is an important demographic indicator for a nation. A wide range of adverse social consequences have been observed because of a skewed sex ratio in India. If India as a nation is to achieve the Millennium Development Goal – 3 (which promotes gender equality and ensures the empowerment of women, the primary target should be involve all those involved, so that a collective and comprehensive approach can be developed to counter the public health menace of an asymmetrical sex ratio. In conclusion, the nation’s program managers should prioritize the issue of a skewed sex ratio and work towards developing a coordinated response.Key Words: Sex ratio, policy makers, India.

  16. A note on Youden's J and its cost ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Niels

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Youden index, the sum of sensitivity and specificity minus one, is an index used for setting optimal thresholds on medical tests. Discussion When using this index, one implicitly uses decision theory with a ratio of misclassification costs which is equal to one minus the prevalence proportion of the disease. It is doubtful whether this cost ratio truly represents the decision maker's preferences. Moreover, in populations with a different prevalence, a selected threshold is optimal with reference to a different cost ratio. Summary The Youden index is not a truly optimal decision rule for setting thresholds because its cost ratio varies with prevalence. Researchers should look into their cost ratio and employ it in a decision theoretic framework to obtain genuinely optimal thresholds.

  17. SOLVENCY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU–OLARIU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the solvency ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romania and, in particular, on Timis County. The interest for the solvency ratio was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were performed over 2 paired samples of 1176 companies in total. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the solvency ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.646 and the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (64.5% out-of-sample accuracy. The results confirm the practical utility of the solvency ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy.

  18. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  19. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  20. Achieving high aspect ratio wrinkles by modifying material network stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yan; McCarthy, Thomas J; Crosby, Alfred J

    2017-06-07

    Wrinkle aspect ratio, or the amplitude divided by the wavelength, is hindered by strain localization transitions when an increasing global compressive stress is applied to synthetic material systems. However, many examples from living organisms show extremely high aspect ratios, such as gut villi and flower petals. We use three experimental approaches to demonstrate that these high aspect ratio structures can be achieved by modifying the network stress in the wrinkle substrate. We modify the wrinkle stress and effectively delay the strain localization transition, such as folding, to larger aspect ratios by using a zero-stress initial wavy substrate, creating a secondary network with post-curing, or using chemical stress relaxation materials. A wrinkle aspect ratio as high as 0.85, almost three times higher than common values of synthetic wrinkles, is achieved, and a quantitative framework is presented to provide understanding the different strategies and predictions for future investigations.